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Sample records for mev proton linear

  1. The JHP 200-MeV proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takao [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    A 200-MeV proton linear accelerator for the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP) has been designed. It consists of a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ), a 50-MeV drift tube linac (DTL) and a 200-MeV separated-type drift tube linac (SDTL). A frequency of 324 MHz has been chosen for all of the rf structures. A peak current of 30 mA (H{sup -} ions) of 400 {mu}sec pulse duration will be accelerated at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. A future upgrade plan up to 400 MeV is also presented, in which annular-coupled structures (ACS) of 972 MHz are used in an energy range of above 150 or 200 MeV. One of the design features is its high performance for a beam-loss problem during acceleration. It can be achieved by separating the transition point in the transverse motion from that of the longitudinal motion. The transverse transition at a rather low-energy range decreases the effects of space-charge, while the longitudinal transition at a rather high-energy range decreases the effects of nonlinear problems related to acceleration in the ACS. Coupled envelope equations and equipartitioning theory are used for the focusing design. The adoption of the SDTL structure improves both the effective shunt impedance and difficulties in fabricating drift tubes with focusing magnets. An accurate beam-simulation code on a parallel supercomputer was used for confirming any beam-loss problem during acceleration. (author)

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF 27 MEV PROTON BEAM GENERATED BY TOP-IMPLART LINEAR ACCELERATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, C; Ampollini, A; Basile, E; Cisbani, E; Della Monaca, S; Ghio, F; Montereali, R M; Picardi, L; Piccinini, M; Placido, C; Ronsivalle, C; Soriani, A; Strigari, L; Trinca, E; Vadrucci, M

    2018-01-29

    The first proton linear accelerator for tumor therapy based on an actively scanned beam up to the energy of 150 MeV, is under development and construction by ENEA-Frascati, ISS and IFO, under the Italian TOP-IMPLART project. Protons up to the energy of 7 MeV are generated by a customized commercial injector operating at 425 MHz; currently three accelerating modules allow proton delivery with energy up to 27 MeV. Beam homogeneity and reproducibility were studied using a 2D ionizing chamber, EBT3 films, a silicon diode, MOSFETs, LiF crystals and alanine dosimetry systems. Measurements were taken in air with the detectors at ~1 m from the beam line exit window. The maximum energy impinging on the detectors surface was 24.1 MeV, an energy suitable for radiobiological studies. Results showed beam reproducibility within 5% and homogeneity within 4%, on a circular surface of 16 mm in diameter. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Proton polarization in the photodisintegration of the deuteron by linearly polarized 400- and 500-MeV γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratashevskii, A.S.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Gushchin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The polarization of the recoil protons at the angle theta(/sub p/ = 90 0 has been measured in the photodisintegration of the deuteron by linearly polarized 400- and 500-MeV γ rays. For the first time, all of the following observables have been determined under identical experimental conditions: Σ, the asymmetry of the cross sections; P/sub y/, the polarization of the recoil proton; and T 1 , the asymmetry of the nucleon polarization for the case of linearly polarized γ rays

  4. Design and rf tuning of the KEK 40 MeV proton linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takao.

    1986-09-01

    An Alvarez linac was designed and constructed on the basis of a model linac study to increase the output energy from 20 to 40 MeV. The linac was tuned by frequency tuners and post couplers. Stabilization of the field was achieved and a variation within ± 0.7 % of the accelerating field was obtained. An equivalent circuit analysis which can numerically solve loop equations, including stem and post currents in addition to tank current, can explain the rf characteristics of a postcoupled structure. (author)

  5. Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, William P; Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; Rinckel, Thomas; Solberg, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A beam transport system has been designed to carry a high-intensity low-emittance proton beam from the exit of the RFQ-DTL acceleration system of the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron System (LENS)* to the neutron production target. The goal of the design was to provide a beam of uniform density over a 3cm by 3cm area at the target. Two octupole magnets** are employed in the beam line to provide the necessary beam phase space manipulations to achieve this goal. First order calculations were done using TRANSPORT and second order calculations have been performed using TURTLE. Second order simulations have been done using both a Gaussian beam distribution and a particle set generated by calculations of beam transport through the RFQ-DTL using PARMILA. Comparison of the design characteristics with initial measurements from the LENS commissioning process will be made.

  6. Production of positive pions from polarized protons by linearly polarized photons in the energy region 300--420 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Grushin, V.F.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Luchanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.

    1980-10-01

    A technique for measurement of the polarization observables ..sigma.., P, and T for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..n..pi../sup +/ in a doubly polarized experiment (polarized proton target + linearly polarized photon beam) is described. Measurements of the angular distributions of these observables in the range of pion emission angles 30--150/sup 0/ are presented for four photon energies from 300 to 420 MeV. Inclusion of the new experimental data in an energy-independent multipole analysis of photoproduction from protons permits a more reliable selection of solutions to be made.

  7. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  8. 14 MeV proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Ivanov, E.; Plostinaru, D.; Popa-Nemoiu, A.; Pascovichi, G.

    1985-01-01

    A fast nuclear nondestructive method for protein analysis using the 14 MeV proton activation has been developed. The total nitrogen content was measured through the reaction: 14 N (p,n) 14 O, (Tsub(1/2)=71 s). The 14 O activity was detected by means of its characteristic 2.312 MeV gamma-ray line with a NaI(Tl) detector. For a fast determination of a large number of samples a mechanized sistem reacting a rate of one sample per minute has been developed. The laboratory electronics comprises a multichannel analyser, a PDP computer and an electronic module comtroller. Comparison of the results obtained by the method described and the classical Kjeldal technique for samples of various cereal grains (soya bean seads, wheat, barley and corn) showed good correlation. A problem of the analysis of the whole protein region on corn and soya-bean seads, where this region is thicker (0,2 - 2 mm), is mentioned. In this case flour was proposed to be used to obtain a protein homogeneous sample and the irradiaton dose for a sample was about 33,000 Gy, mainly (99%) from protons (27 s x 100 nA x 14 MeV)

  9. Study on the Effects of the Modulator Output Ripple on the RF System of the KOMAC 100-MeV Proton Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Jeong, Hae Sung; Kim, Sung Gu; Cho, Yong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The high power system of the proton linear accelerator consists of accelerating cavities such as Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and Drift Tube Linac (DTL), high power radio frequency (RF) systems such as klystrons, RF transmission lines and modulators as a klystron power supply. The modulator used at KOMAC adopted a high frequency switching technology using a 3-phase full bridge converter topology to produce 5.8 MW peak power at -105 kV with 9 % duty and produces a current ripple corresponding to the harmonics of the switching frequency. In this paper, the output ripple from the modulator is analyzed and its effects on the high power RF system are presented. The ripple current of the modulator was measured and analyzed. The higher harmonics of the switching frequency were measured and the dominant one was the third harmonic. And this ripple had an effect on the RF signal which was amplified through the klystron and delivered to the DTL. The dominant ripple component of the RF signal was also the third harmonics of the IGBT switching frequency of the modulator.

  10. Computer codes for designing proton linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takao

    1992-01-01

    Computer codes for designing proton linear accelerators are discussed from the viewpoint of not only designing but also construction and operation of the linac. The codes are divided into three categories according to their purposes: 1) design code, 2) generation and simulation code, and 3) electric and magnetic fields calculation code. The role of each category is discussed on the basis of experience at KEK (the design of the 40-MeV proton linac and its construction and operation, and the design of the 1-GeV proton linac). We introduce our recent work relevant to three-dimensional calculation and supercomputer calculation: 1) tuning of MAFIA (three-dimensional electric and magnetic fields calculation code) for supercomputer, 2) examples of three-dimensional calculation of accelerating structures by MAFIA, 3) development of a beam transport code including space charge effects. (author)

  11. YAP(Ce) crystal characterization with proton beam up to 60 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randazzo, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania (I), Via S. Sofia, 64-I-95123 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: nunzio.randazzo@ct.infn.it; Sipala, V.; Aiello, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania (I), Via S. Sofia, 64-I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania (I), Via S. Sofia, 64-I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy)

    2008-02-21

    A YAP(Ce) crystal was characterized with a proton beam up to 60 MeV. Tests were performed to investigate the possibility of using this detector as a proton calorimeter. The size of the crystal was chosen so that the proton energy is totally lost inside the medium. The authors propose to use the YAP(Ce) crystal in medical applications for proton therapy. In particular, in proton computed tomography (pCT) project it is necessary as a calorimeter in order to measure the proton residual energy after the phantom. Energy resolution, linearity, and light yield were measured in the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud with the CATANA proton beam [ (http://www.lns.infn.it/CATANA/CATANA)] and the results are shown in this paper. The crystal shows a good resolution (3% at 60 MeV proton beam) and it shows good linearity for different proton beam energies (1% at 30-60 MeV energy range). The crystal performances confirm that the YAP(Ce) crystal represents a good solution for these kinds of application.

  12. YAP(Ce) crystal characterization with proton beam up to 60 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Aiello, S.; Lo Presti, D.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.

    2008-01-01

    A YAP(Ce) crystal was characterized with a proton beam up to 60 MeV. Tests were performed to investigate the possibility of using this detector as a proton calorimeter. The size of the crystal was chosen so that the proton energy is totally lost inside the medium. The authors propose to use the YAP(Ce) crystal in medical applications for proton therapy. In particular, in proton computed tomography (pCT) project it is necessary as a calorimeter in order to measure the proton residual energy after the phantom. Energy resolution, linearity, and light yield were measured in the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud with the CATANA proton beam [ (http://www.lns.infn.it/CATANA/CATANA)] and the results are shown in this paper. The crystal shows a good resolution (3% at 60 MeV proton beam) and it shows good linearity for different proton beam energies (1% at 30-60 MeV energy range). The crystal performances confirm that the YAP(Ce) crystal represents a good solution for these kinds of application

  13. YAP(Ce) crystal characterization with proton beam up to 60 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Aiello, S.; Lo Presti, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.

    2008-02-01

    A YAP(Ce) crystal was characterized with a proton beam up to 60 MeV. Tests were performed to investigate the possibility of using this detector as a proton calorimeter. The size of the crystal was chosen so that the proton energy is totally lost inside the medium. The authors propose to use the YAP(Ce) crystal in medical applications for proton therapy. In particular, in proton computed tomography (pCT) project it is necessary as a calorimeter in order to measure the proton residual energy after the phantom. Energy resolution, linearity, and light yield were measured in the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud with the CATANA proton beam [ http://www.lns.infn.it/CATANA/CATANA] and the results are shown in this paper. The crystal shows a good resolution (3% at 60 MeV proton beam) and it shows good linearity for different proton beam energies (1% at 30-60 MeV energy range). The crystal performances confirm that the YAP(Ce) crystal represents a good solution for these kinds of application.

  14. A P + DEUTERON PROTON POLARIMETER AT 200 MEV.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG,H.; ROSER,T.; ZELENSKI,A.; KURITA,K.; STEPHENSON,E.; TOOLE,R.

    2002-06-02

    There has been concern about the analyzing power of the p-Carbon polarimeter at the end of 200 MeV LINAC of BNL. A new polarimeter based on proton-deuteron scattering was installed and we have repeated the calibration of proton-Carbon scattering at 12 degrees and 200 MeV against proton-deuteron scattering. The result is consistent with the value of A=0.62 now used to measure the beam polarization at the end of the LINAC.

  15. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Campos, E.; Espinoza, C.; Hogan, G.; Hollander, B.; Lopez, J.; Mariam, F. G.; Morley, D.; Morris, C. L.; Murray, M.; Saunders, A.; Schwartz, C.; Thompson, T. N.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  16. Parity violation in proton-proton scattering at 230 MEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, J.; Bowman, J.D.; Davis, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Below /similar to/300 MeV six meson-nucleon coupling strengths are required to describe the weak interaction of nucleons. Many experiments have found parity-violating effects in nuclear systems, but only four significant, independent constraints exist. A new measurement is proposed where measurable effects are predicted with minimal dependence on nuclear interaction models, yielding information complementary to previous results. This is a measurement of the parity-violating analyzing power. A/sub z/ in p-p scattering at 230 MeV, which is shown to be sensitive to the weak rho-nucleon coupling. This measurement, at a precision of +- 2 x 10/sup -8/, together with a proposed measurement by the University of Washington group at I.L.L. of the parity-violating neutron spin rotation, will provide the fifth and sixth independent constraints needed to determine the weak meson-nucleon coupling constants

  17. Measurement of the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdoz, A.; Favier, B.; Foroughi, F.; Weddigen, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV for 14 angles from 20 to 80 0 CM. The angular range was limited to >20 0 by the energy loss of the recoil protons. The experiment was performed at the PM1 beam line at SIN. A beam intensity of about 10 8 particles s -1 was used. (Auth.)

  18. Shielding measurements for a 230 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Energetic secondary neutrons produced as protons interact with accelerator components and patients dominate the radiation shielding environment for proton radiotherapy facilities. Due to the scarcity of data describing neutron production, attenuation, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent values, these parameters were measured for 230 MeV proton bombardment of stopping length Al, Fe, and Pb targets at emission angles of 0 degree, 22 degree, 45 degree, and 90 degree in a thick concrete shield. Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters with volumes ranging from 1 cm 3 to 1000 cm 3 were used to obtain microdosimetric spectra from which absorbed dose and radiation quality are deduced. Does equivalent values and attenuation lengths determined at depth in the shield were found to vary sharply with angle, but were found to be independent of target material. Neutron dose and radiation length values are compared with Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations performed using the Los Alamos High Energy Transport Code (LAHET). Calculations used 230 MeV protons incident upon an Fe target in a shielding geometry similar to that used in the experiment. LAHET calculations overestimated measured attenuation values at 0 degree, 22 degree, and 45 degree, yet correctly predicted the attenuation length at 90 degree. Comparison of the mean radiation quality estimated with the Monte Carlo calculations with measurements suggest that neutron quality factors should be increased by a factor of 1.4. These results are useful for the shielding design of new facilities as well as for testing neutron production and transport calculations

  19. Proton-nucleus interactions at 640 MeV accompanied by backward emission of energetic protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.I.; Kosarev, E.G.; Mueller, H.; Netzband, D.; Toneev, V.D.; Stiehler, T.; Tesch, S.; Gudima, K.K.; Mashnik, S.G.

    1979-03-01

    Spectra of protons of energies between 50 and 145 MeV emitted from carbon have been measured at angles from 105 0 to 160 0 with respect to the 640 MeV proton beam. The measurements have been carried out both inclusively and in coincidence with protons emitted at forward angles up to +- 40 0 with energies from 255 to 330 MeV. This energy interval has been chosen in accordance with the kinematics of quasifree scattering on two-nucleon groups. Inclusive differential cross sections at 140 0 and coincidence cross sections at the angle pair (-12 0 , 122 0 ) have also been measured with Be, Al, Cu and Pb targets. The data have been compared with the predictions of several models. (author)

  20. Software of the System Protection for the PEFP 20MeV Proton Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young-Gi; Hong, In-Seok; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2007-01-01

    A 20 MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) has been developed at Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP). A 20 MeV linac consists of 50 keV proton injector, 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). PEFP control system is developed with several sub-systems (e.g. machine control, diagnostic control, timing control, and interlock systems). These systems have each EPICS based control system which provides a network-based real time distributed control. For stable and harmonic operation, we had developed sequential logic by using state notation language (SNL) and database records with alarm fields for warning signal. The various control system can drop a transmission rate of the control network traffic. We need to manage control signals by a control network gateway and protect values of control servers by security management. In this paper, the stabilization methods of the control signals are described and the results of the stabilized signals are presented

  1. Tritium production in thorium by 135 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.; Simonoff, G.; Tarrago, X.; Bibron, R.

    1960-01-01

    We have measured the cross-section of tritium production by bombardment of thorium by 135 MeV protons in the Orsay synchro-cyclotron. The tritium was separated from the targets by heating in a graphite crucible with a high-frequency generator, under hydrogen gas pressure. Tritiated water was synthesised and the tritium was measured with liquid scintillator. A value of 19.5 ± 0.05 mbarns was obtained for the tritium-cross section and ten percent of tritons have energies higher than 35 MeV. This large cross-section is attributed to a double pick-up process. Reprint of a paper published in Le Journal de Physique et le Radium, t. 20, p. 959, dec 1959 [fr

  2. MeV proton flux predictions near Saturn's D ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, P; Roussos, E; Kotova, A; Cooper, J F; Mitchell, D G; Krupp, N; Paranicas, C

    2015-10-01

    Radiation belts of MeV protons have been observed just outward of Saturn's main rings. During the final stages of the mission, the Cassini spacecraft will pass through the gap between the main rings and the planet. Based on how the known radiation belts of Saturn are formed, it is expected that MeV protons will be present in this gap and also bounce through the tenuous D ring right outside the gap. At least one model has suggested that the intensity of MeV protons near the planet could be much larger than in the known belts. We model this inner radiation belt using a technique developed earlier to understand Saturn's known radiation belts. We find that the inner belt is very different from the outer belts in the sense that its intensity is limited by the densities of the D ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere, not by radial diffusion and satellite absorption. The atmospheric density is relatively well constrained by EUV occultations. Based on that we predict an intensity in the gap region that is well below that of the known belts. It is more difficult to do the same for the region magnetically connected to the D ring since its density is poorly constrained. We find that the intensity in this region can be comparable to the known belts. Such intensities pose no hazard to the mission since Cassini would only experience these fluxes on timescales of minutes but might affect scientific measurements by decreasing the signal-to-contamination ratio of instruments.

  3. Dose determination of 600 MeV proton irradiated specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavillet, D.

    1991-01-01

    The calculation method for the experimental determination of the atomic production cross section from the γ activity measurements are presented. This method is used for the determination of some isotope production cross sections for 600 MeV proton irradition in MANET steel, copper, tungsten, gold and titanium. The results are compared with some calculation. These values are used to determine the dose of specimens irradiated in the PIREX II facility. The results are discussed in terms of the irradiation parameters. A guide for the use of the production cross section determined in the dosimetry experiment are given. (author) tabs., refs

  4. Forecasting E > 50-MeV Proton Events with the Proton Prediction System (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; White, S. M.; Ling, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events is an important element of space weather. While several models have been developed for use in forecasting such events, satellite operations are particularly vulnerable to higher-energy (> 50 MeV) SEP events. Here we validate one model, the proton prediction system (PPS), which extends to that energy range. We first develop a data base of E > 50-MeV proton events > 1.0 proton flux units (pfu) events observed on the GOES satellite over the period 1986 to 2016. We modify the PPS to forecast proton events at the reduced level of 1 pfu and run PPS for four different solar input parameters: (1) all > M5 solar X-ray flares; (2) all > 200 sfu 8800-MHz bursts with associated > M5 flares; (3) all > 500 sfu 8800-MHz bursts; and (4) all > 5000 sfu 8800-MHz bursts. For X-ray flare inputs the forecasted event peak intensities and fluences are compared with observed values. The validation contingency tables and skill scores are calculated for all groups and used as a guide to use of the PPS. We plot the false alarms and missed events as functions of solar source longitude.

  5. Forecasting E > 50-MeV proton events with the proton prediction system (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Stephen W.; White, Stephen M.; Ling, Alan G.

    2017-11-01

    Forecasting solar energetic (E > 10-MeV) particle (SEP) events is an important element of space weather. While several models have been developed for use in forecasting such events, satellite operations are particularly vulnerable to higher-energy (≥50-MeV) SEP events. Here we validate one model, the proton prediction system (PPS), which extends to that energy range. We first develop a data base of E ≥ 50-MeV proton events >1.0 proton flux units (pfu) events observed on the GOES satellite over the period 1986-2016. We modify the PPS to forecast proton events at the reduced level of 1 pfu and run PPS for four different solar input parameters: (1) all ≥M5 solar X-ray flares; (2) all ≥200 sfu 8800-MHz bursts with associated ≥M5 flares; (3) all ≥500 sfu 8800-MHz bursts; and (4) all ≥5000 sfu 8800-MHz bursts. The validation contingency tables and skill scores are calculated for all groups and used as a guide to use of the PPS. We plot the false alarms and missed events as functions of solar source longitude, and argue that the longitude-dependence employed by PPS does not match modern observations. Use of the radio fluxes as the PPS driver tends to result in too many false alarms at the 500 sfu threshold, and misses more events than the soft X-ray predictor at the 5000 sfu threshold.

  6. Recoil proton polarization of neutral pion photoproduction from proton in the energy range between 400 MeV and 1142 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Miyachi, T.; Sugano, K.; Toshioka, K.; Ukai, K.

    1979-08-01

    The recoil proton polarization of the reaction γp → π 0 p were measured at a C.M. angle of 100 0 for incident photon energies between 451 and 1106 MeV, and at an angle of 130 0 for energies from 400 MeV to 1142 MeV. One photon decayed from a π 0 -meson and a recoil proton were detected in coincidence. Two kinds of polarization scatterers were employed. In the range of proton kinetic energy less than 420 MeV and higher than 346 MeV, carbon plates and liquid hydrogen were used for determining the polarization. Results are compared with recent phenomenological analyses. From the Comparison between the present data and the asymmetry data given by the polarized target, the contribution of the invariant amplitudes A 3 can be estimated to be small at 100 0 . (author)

  7. Suitability of some common polymer films for MeV proton beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkonen-Craig, S.; Paronen, M.; Arstila, K.; Helariutta, K.; Rauhala, E.; Tikkanen, P.

    2005-01-01

    We have been evaluating the efficacy of polymer films for proton beam dosimetry. PE, PS, PVF, PVDF, PFA and FEP films were irradiated with 4.1 and 9.4 MeV protons at a flux of 2.5 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 and a fluence of 2.5 x 10 13 cm -2 . The perfluorinated films were relatively insensitive to the proton irradiation. The UV absorption of PS displayed significant radiation-induced red shift, but no quantifiable absorption peaks. The strongly absorbing chromophore at 225 nm of irradiated PVDF is too unstable for practical dosimetry. PE has a stable and moderately absorbing radiolytic chromophore at 235 nm, but is transparent in the visible wavelength region. Irradiated PVF absorbs strongly in both UV and visible regions, and its UV absorbance is linearly proportional to the dose over the range of 10-1000 kGy when irradiated with 4.1 MeV protons at a dose rate of 840 Gy s -1 . PVF shows the most potential as multipurpose dosimeter for high resolution profiling of ion beams. Pertinent applications include irradiations that require verification of lateral beam homogeneity

  8. Shielding calculations for a 30 MeV proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, Maitreyee; Sarkar, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The thickness of the shield, made of ordinary concrete, required to reduce the equivalent dose rate below the maximum permissible limit and to ensure safe operation of a 30 MeV proton accelerator has been estimated using the Moyer model. Required double differential neutron yield from thick stopping targets has been calculated for several reactions to be used for production of 67 Ga, 111 In, 123 I and 201 Tl radioisotopes. The neutron emission at 0 deg and 90 deg angles with respect to the incident beam direction is estimated using the hybrid model code ALICE91 which considers preequilibrium and equilibrium emissions from the target+projectile composite system. From this neutron yield the equivalent neutron dose rate at unit distance is determined using the ICRP recommended flux-to-dose conversion factors

  9. Quasifree knockout of proton pairs from carbon with 640 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.I.; Kosarev, G.I.; Netzband, D.; Mueller, H.; Stiehler, T.; Tesch, S.

    1980-10-01

    The direct nuclear reaction C(p,3p) at 640 MeV has been investigated in an exclusive type of experiment using scintillation counter technique. The measuring conditions have been selected according to the kinematics of quasi-free two-nucleon knockout at large momentum transfer. A phenomenological model is discussed, which is capable of describing qualitatively the dependence of the differential cross section on the opening angle of the forward emitted proton pair as well as on the energy of backward going protons. (author)

  10. 200 MeV proton scattering on nuclei. Energetic proton analysis at large angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigne, G.

    1983-01-01

    By means of a magnetic spectrometer for which has been realized an acceptance's programme, cross-sections for backward emission have been measured (100 MeV till the cinematic limit) (102 0 to 106 0 ) in the interaction proton-nucleus at 200 MeV from light, medium and heavy target. Our experimental set-up used from a polyethylene target (CH2) allowed to obtain, for the elastic cross-section (p,p), values in agreement with those ones determined by an analyse in phase-shift at 200 MeV. A comparison of our experimental spectra with the theory based on the Q.T.B.S. model (Quasi Two Body Scaling) and on a more conventional one of intranuclear cascades showed that the knock out mechanisms inside the nucleus are always unknown [fr

  11. Si exfoliation by MeV proton implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braley, Carole; Mazen, Frédéric; Tauzin, Aurélie; Rieutord, François; Deguet, Chrystel; Ntsoenzok, Esidor

    2012-01-01

    Proton implantation in silicon and subsequent annealing are widely used in the Smart Cut™ technology to transfer thin layers from a substrate to another. The low implantation energy range involved in this process is usually from a few ten to a few hundred of keV, which enables the separation of up to 2 μm thick layers. New applications in the fields of 3D integration and photovoltaic wafer manufacturing raise the demand for extending this technology to higher energy in order to separate thicker layer from a substrate. In this work, we propose to investigate the effect of proton implantation in single crystalline silicon in the 1–3 MeV range which corresponds to a 15–100 μm range for the hydrogen maximum concentration depth. We show that despites a considerably lower hydrogen concentration at R p , the layer separation is obtained with fluence close to the minimum fluence required for low energy implantation. It appears that the fracture propagation in Si and the resulting surface morphology is affected by the substrate orientation. Defects evolution is investigated with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The two orientations reveal similar type of defects but their evolution under annealing appears to be different.

  12. Formation of Cavities at and Away from Grain Boundaries during 600 MeV Proton Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben; Green, W. V.

    1982-01-01

    High-purity aluminium (99.9999%) was irradiated with 600 MeV protons at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN) with a damage rate of 3,5 x 10^-6 dpa/s. Irradiation with 600 MeV protons produces helium, hydrogen, and other impurities through mutational reactions. The irradiation experiment...

  13. Activation of 45-MeV proton irradiation and proton-induced neutron irradiation in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ra, Se-Jin; Kim, Kye-Ryung; Jung, Myung-Hwan; Yang, Tae-Keon

    2010-01-01

    During beam irradiation experiments with more than a few MeV energetic protons, the sample activation problem can be very severe because it causes many kinds of additional problems for the post-processing of the samples, such as time loss, inconvenience of sample handling, personal radiation safety, etc. The most serious problem is that immediate treatment of the sample is impossible in some experiments, such as nano-particle synthesizing. To solve these problems, we studied why the samples are activated and how the level of the activation can be reduced. It is known that the main reasons of activation are nuclear reactions with elements of the target material by primary protons and secondary produced neutrons. Even though the irradiation conditions are same, the level of the activation can be different depending on the target materials. For the nanoparticle synthesizing experiments, the target materials can be defined as the container and the sample itself. The reduction of the activation from the container is easier than the reduction from the sample. Therefore, we tried to reduce the activation level by changing the container materials. In this paper, the results are displayed for some candidate container materials, such as polymethyl methacrylate, polystyrene, Glass, etc., with 45-MeV and 10-nA proton beams. As a result, PS is the most suitable material for the container because of its relatively low level of the activation by protons. Also the contribution of secondary produced neutrons to the activation is negligible.

  14. Hospital-based proton linear accelerator for particle therapy and radioisotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    1991-05-01

    Taking advantage of recent advances in linear accelerator technology, it is possible for a hospital to use a 70 MeV proton linac for fast neutron therapy, boron neutron capture therapy, proton therapy for ocular melanomas, and production of radiopharmaceuticals. The linac can also inject protons into a synchrotron for proton therapy of deep-seated tumors. With 180 μA average current, a single linac can support all these applications. This paper presents a conceptual design for a medical proton linac, switchyard, treatment rooms, and isotope production rooms. Special requirements for each application are outlined and a layout for sharing beam among the applications is suggested.

  15. Energy dissipation process for 100-MeV protons and the nucleon-nucleon interactions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, A.A.; Chang, C.C.; Holmgren, H.D.; Silk, J.D.; Hendrie, D.L.; Koontz, R.W.; Roos, P.G.; Samanta, C.; Wu, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Coincidence studies of two protons emitted from p+ 58 Ni at 100 MeV have been carried out. The proton spectra in coincidence with scattered protons suffering an average energy loss of 60 MeV are similar to those resulting from 60-MeV incident protons. This suggests that the initial interaction of the incident proton is with a bound nucleon and that one or both of these nucleons are emitted or initiates a cascade leading to more complex states

  16. Development of the integrated control system for the microwave ion source of the PEFP 100-MeV proton accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 20-MeV proton linear accelerator is currently operating at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ion source of the 100-MeV proton linac needs at least a 100-hour operation time. To meet the goal, we have developed a microwave ion source that uses no filament. For the ion source, a remote control system has been developed by using experimental physics and the industrial control system (EPICS) software framework. The control system consists of a versa module europa (VME) and EPICS-based embedded applications running on a VxWorks real-time operating system. The main purpose of the control system is to control and monitor the operational variables of the components remotely and to protect operators from radiation exposure and the components from critical problems during beam extraction. We successfully performed the operation test of the control system to confirm the degree of safety during the hardware performance.

  17. Radiation shielding technology development for proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ouk; Lee, Y. O.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. H.; Sin, M. W.; Park, B. I. [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2005-09-01

    This report was presented as an output of 2-year project of the first phase Proton Engineering Frontier Project(PEFP) on 'Radiation Shielding Technology Development for Proton Linear Accelerator' for 20/100 MeV accelerator beam line and facility. It describes a general design concept, provision and update of basic design data, and establishment of computer code system. It also includes results of conceptual and preliminary designs of beam line, beam dump and beam facilities as well as an analysis of air-activation inside the accelerator equipment. This report will guides the detailed shielding design and production of radiation safety analysis report scheduled in the second phase project.

  18. Klystron High Power Operation for KOMAC 100-MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Seong-Gu; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) accelerator facility has a 100-MeV proton linac, five beam lines for 20-MeV beam utilization, and another five beam lines for 100-MeV beam utilization. The 100-MeV linac consists of a 50-keV proton injector based on a microwave ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ with a four-vane structure, and a 100-MeV DTL. Nine sets of 1MW klystrons have been operated for the 100-MeV proton linac. The klystron filament heating time was approximately 5700 hours in 2014, and RF operation time was 2863.4 hours. During the high power operation of the klystron, unstable RF waveforms appeared at the klystron output, and we have checked and performed cavity frequency adjustments, magnet and heater current, reflection from a circulator, klystron test without a circulator, and the frequency spectrum measurement. Nine sets of the klystrons have been operated for the KOMAC 100-MeV proton linac. The klystron filament heating time was 5700 hours and RF operation time was 2863.4 hours during the operation in 2014. Some klystrons have unstable RF waveforms at specific power level. We have checked and tested the cavity frequency adjustment, reflection from a circulator, high power test without a circulator, and frequency spectrum at the unstable RF.

  19. A brief history of high power RF proton linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The first mention of linear acceleration was in a paper by G. Ising in 1924 in which he postulated the acceleration of positive ions induced by spark discharges which produced electric fields in gaps between a series of open-quotes drift tubesclose quotes. Ising apparently was not able to demonstrate his concept, most likely due to the limited state of electronic devices. Ising's work was followed by a seminal paper by R. Wideroe in 1928 in which he demonstrated the first linear accelerator. Wideroe was able to accelerate sodium or potassium ions to 50 keV of energy using drift tubes connected alternately to high frequency waves and to ground. Nuclear physics during this period was interested in accelerating protons, deuterons, electrons and alpha particles and not heavy ions like sodium or potassium. To accelerate the light ions required much higher frequencies than available at that time. So linear accelerators were not pursued heavily at that time. Research continued during the 1930s but the development of high frequency RF tubes for radar applications in World War 2 opened the potential for RF linear accelerators after the war. The Berkeley laboratory of E. 0. Lawrence under the leadership of Luis Alvarez developed a new linear proton accelerator concept that utilized drift tubes that required a full RF period to pass through as compared to the earlier concepts. This development resulted in the historic Berkeley 32 MeV proton linear accelerator which incorporated the open-quotes Alvarez drift tubeclose quotes as the basic acceleration scheme using surplus 200 MHz radar components

  20. Hydrogen Release From 800-MeV Proton-Irradiated Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Brian M.; Venhaus, Thomas J.; Causey, Rion A.; Garner, Francis A.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2002-01-01

    Tungsten irradiated in spallation neutron sources such as those proposed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, or in proposed fusion reactors, will contain large quantities of generated helium and hydrogen gas. In the APT, spallation neutrons would be generated by the interaction of high energy (∼1 GeV) protons with solid tungsten rods or cylinders. In fusion reactors, tungsten used in a tokamak diverter will contain hydrogen, as well as deuterium and tritium diffusing in from the plasma-facing surface. The release kinetics of these gases during various off-normal scenarios involving loss of coolant and afterheat-induced rises in temperature is of particular interest for both applications. To determine the release kinetics of hydrogen from tungsten, tungsten rods irradiated with 800 MeV protons in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANCE) to high exposures as part of the APT project have been examined. Hydrogen evolution from the tungsten was measured using a dedicated mass spectrometer system by subjecting the specimens to an essentially linear temperature ramp from ∼323 K to ∼1473 K. Release profiles are compared with predictions obtained using the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP4). Input parameters for the modeling, consisting of diffusivity, recombination rate coefficient, and trapping, are discussed. The measurements show that for high proton doses, the majority of the hydrogen is released gradually, starting at about 900 K and reaching a maximum at about 1400 K, where it drops fairly rapidly. Comparisons with TMAP show reasonable agreement at high proton dose using a trap value of 1.4 eV and a trap density of 3%. There is also a small release fraction occurring at ∼600 K which predominates at lower proton doses, and which is relatively independent of dose. This lower-temperature release is predicted by TMAP if no traps are assumed, suggesting that this release may represent an adsorbed surface component

  1. The mechanical design of a proton microscope for radiography at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdiviez, R.; Sigler, F.E.; Barlow, D.B.; Blind, B.; Jason, A.J.; Mottershead, C.T.; Gomez, J.J.; Espinoza, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    A proton microscope has been developed for radiography applications using the 800-MeV linear accelerator at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The microscope provides a magnified image of a static device, or of a dynamic event such as a high-speed projectile impacting a target. The microscope assembly consists primarily of four Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQ's) that are supported on movable platforms. The platform supports, along with the rest of the support structure, are designed to withstand the residual dynamic loads that are expected from the dynamic tests. This paper covers the mechanical design of the microscope assembly, including the remote positioning system that allows for fine-tuning the focus of an object being imaged.

  2. Studies of scintillator response to 60 MeV protons in a proton beam imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydygier Marzena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Proton Beam Imaging System (ProBImS is under development at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN. The ProBImS will be used to optimize beam delivery at IFJ PAN proton therapy facilities, delivering two-dimensional distributions of beam profiles. The system consists of a scintillator, optical tract and a sensitive CCD camera which digitally records the light emitted from the proton-irradiated scintillator. The optical system, imaging data transfer and control software have already been developed. Here, we report preliminary results of an evaluation of the DuPont Hi-speed thick back screen EJ 000128 scintillator to determine its applicability in our imaging system. In order to optimize the light conversion with respect to the dose locally deposited by the proton beam in the scintillation detector, we have studied the response of the DuPont scintillator in terms of linearity of dose response, uniformity of light emission and decay rate of background light after deposition of a high dose in the scintillator. We found a linear dependence of scintillator light output vs. beam intensity by showing the intensity of the recorded images to be proportional to the dose deposited in the scintillator volume.

  3. Parity violation in proton-proton scattering at 221 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.; Bland, J.B.; Campbell, J.R.; Green, A.A.; Hamian, A.A.; Lee, L.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Reitzner, S.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; Sum, V.; Oers, W.T.H. van; Woo, R.J.; Bowman, J.D.; Mischke, R.E.; Coombes, G.H.; Helmer, R.; Kadantsev, S.; Levy, C.D.P.

    2003-01-01

    TRIUMF experiment 497 has measured the parity-violating longitudinal analyzing power A z in p(vector sign)p elastic scattering at 221.3 MeV incident proton energy. This comprehensive paper includes details of the corrections, some of magnitude comparable to A z itself, required to arrive at the final result. The largest correction was for the effects of first moments of transverse polarization. The addition of the result, A z =[0.84±0.29 (stat.)±0.17 (syst.)]x10 -7 , to the p(vector sign)p parity-violation experimental data base greatly improves the experimental constraints on the weak meson-nucleon coupling constants h ρ pp and h ω pp , and also has implications for the interpretation of electron parity-violation experiments

  4. Low temperature irradiation of iron, zirconium and copper by 10 to 16 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, A M

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of scattering and radiation damage parameters is carried out for 14 MeV neutrons and 10-17 MeV protons on Fe, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, and Au. Damage energies are computed for the interactions using both elastic and non-elastic data. The results show that proton encounters deposit a greater damage energy than 14 MeV neutrons. To examine the theoretical results, electrical resistivity measurements are undertaken for Fe, Zr and Cu irradiated at 12 to 17.5K with 10 to 16 MeV protons. Post-irradiation annealing is carried out in situ using a closed-cycle helium-cooled cryostat. Values of the resistivity damage rate are compared with values estimated from the theoretical damage-energy results. Also, the observed stage I recovery is analysed in terms of the corresponding recovery reported for electron and fast-neutron irradiations. The relation between the 16 MeV proton data and published data estimated from a fusion reactor spectrum is discussed. It is also shown that protons create a damage structure similar to a superposition of the damage structures generated by electrons and fast neutrons. The sample state of imperfection is shown to influence the induced damage state in proton irradiation.

  5. The longitudinal space charge problem in the high current linear proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a linear proton accelerator peak currents of 200 mA lead to high space charge densities and the resultant space charge forces reduce the effective focussing considerably. In particular the longitudinal focussing is affected. A new concept based on linear theory is proposed that restricts the influence of the space charge forces on the longitudinal focussing by increasing a, the mean transverse bunch radius, as a proportional(βγ)sup(3/8). This concept is compared with other concepts for the Alvarez (1 MeV - 100 MeV) and for the high energy part (100 MeV - 1100 MeV) of the SNQ linear accelerator. (orig.)

  6. Interaction of 14 MeV neutrons with hydrogenated target proton emission calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Perez, N.; Desdin.

    1996-01-01

    Using neutron emission data of a 14 MeV neutron generator, a paraffin target, and based on the n + H 1 → n '+ p reaction, have been obtained the characteristics of the proton emission in a proton-neutron mixed field. It was used Monte Carlo simulation and it was obtained the proton output as function of the converter width and the energy spectrum of protons corresponding to different converter thickness. Among 0.07 and 0.2 cm there is a maximum zone for the proton emission. The energy spectrum agrees with obtained on previous papers. Figures showing these results are provided

  7. Multipurpose 5-MeV linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.; Hawkins, S.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Smith, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Although linear induction accelerators (LIAs) are quite reliable by most standards, they are limited in repeating rate, average power, and reliability because the final stage of energy delivery is based on spark gap performance. In addition, they have a low duty factor of operation. To provide a higher burst rate and greater reliability, the researchers used new technology to develop a magnetic pulse compression scheme that eliminates all spark gaps and exceeds requirements. The paper describes the scheme. The magnetic drive system can be tailored to drive induction cells from a few kA to over 10 kA at 500 kV, with average beam power levels in the megawatts. This new 5-MeV, 2.5-kA LIA under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be used for the development of high brightness sources and will provide a test bed for the new technology, which should lead to LIAs that surpass the radio frequency linacs for efficiency and reliability, as well as fit other industrial applications, such as sewage sterilization

  8. Proton spectra from 800 MeV protons on selected nuclei. Progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, R.L.

    1979-09-01

    The emission of protons from targets of 6 Li, Li, 12 C, 27 Al, 40 Ca, 51 V, 90 Zr, and Pb under bombardment from 800 MeV protons was studied using the high resolution proton spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Laboratory scattering angles of 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 20, 25, and 30 0 were measured, with special emphasis on the quasi-free region. Outgoing momenta corresponding to the region of pion production were examined at 11 and 15 0 . Absolute cross sections derived by reference to known (p,p) scattering data at 800 MeV. The quasi-free scattering has been fit with a DWIA analysis by summing over the unobserved (struck) nucleon. The systematics of proton production and the applicability of the DWIA analyses are discussed. 26 references

  9. Observation of correlation between two fast protons in proton-nucleus interactions at 640 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.I.; Kosarev, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The measurements have been performed to observe correlations between backward emitted protons (BEP) and forward outgoing protons from quasi-free scattering of the incident proton of 640 MeV on a nucleons pair [pN] within Be, C, Al, Cu and Pb nucleus at the angles 12 deg and 122 deg: p 0 + pN → p 1 + N + p 3 . Here p 1 is a proton detected in coincidence with BEP p 3 and N is a nucleon unobserved under the conditions of this experiment. The differential cross sections for the BEP of energies from 50 to 145 MeV have been measured in coincidence with forward outgoing protons (255 to 330 MeV) by scintillation counter method. The inclusive BEP spectra have been explained by the quasi-elastic backscattering on clusters which do not break up during the interaction. The calculated distribution are remarkably narrower than the experimental anes. The measurements point out that the discussed production of two fast protons is observable with all the targets and the cross section per target nucleon decreases with increasing the target mass number

  10. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 2 to 10 MeV protons by lithium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurat, M.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the experimental set-up which has been devised for carrying out spectrometric and absolute cross-section measurements on the reactions induced by protons accelerated in a 12 MeV Van de Graaff Tandem. The particles are detected by silicon junctions; the weight of the targets (about ten μg/cm 2 ) is determined by the quartz method. The experimental equipment has been controlled by a study of proton scattering by lithium-6, and has made it possible to evaluate the elastic and inelastic scattering (1. level excitation) by lithium 7 of 2 to 9 MeV protons. The most probable spin and parity values for the six levels of 8 Be between 19 and 25 MeV excitation energy have been determined from a knowledge of the observed structure. (author) [fr

  11. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick beryllium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipenko, M., E-mail: osipenko@ge.infn.it [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Ripani, M. [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Alba, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Ricco, G. [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Schillaci, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Barbagallo, M. [INFN, sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Boccaccio, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Celentano, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Colonna, N. [INFN, sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Esposito, J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Kostyukov, A. [Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Viberti, C.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-09-21

    The design of a low-power prototype of neutron amplifier recently proposed within the INFN-E project indicated the need for more accurate data on the neutron yield produced by a proton beam with energy of about 70 MeV impinging on a thick beryllium target. Such measurement was performed at the LNS superconducting cyclotron, covering a wide angular range from 0° to 150° and a complete neutron energy interval from thermal to beam energy. Neutrons with energy above 0.5 MeV were measured by liquid scintillators exploiting their time of flight to determine the kinetic energy. For lower energy neutrons, down to thermal energy, a {sup 3}He detector was used. The obtained data are in good agreement with previous measurements at 0° using 66 MeV proton beam, covering neutron energies >10MeV, as well as with measurements at few selected angles using protons of 46, 55 and 113 MeV energy. The present results extend the neutron yield data in the 60–70 MeV beam energy range. A comparison of measured yields to MCNP, FLUKA and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations was performed.

  12. Facility for the measurement of proton polarization in the range 50-70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Sakaguchi, H; Sakamoto, H; Ogawa, H; Cynshi, O; Kobayashi, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kato, S [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Studies; Matsuoka, N; Hatanaka, K; Noro, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1983-07-01

    A proton polarimetry facility based on silicon analyzers combined with high-purity germanium detectors is described. The scattering efficiency is 1.5 x 10/sup -5/ at 60 MeV with an effective analyzing power of 0.71 and the energy resolution is about 300 keV fwhm. The facility has succeeded in measuring the depolarization in p-/sup 13/C elastic scattering separated clearly from inelastic events. In order to use a silicon detector as an analyzer target, measurements of cross sections and analyzing powers have been performed at proton energies of 65, 60, 55, 50 and 45 MeV.

  13. Radiation hardness of a single crystal CVD diamond detector for MeV energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuki, E-mail: y.sato@riken.jp [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Murakami, Hiroyuki [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Isobe, Mitsutaka; Osakabe, Masaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho Toki-city, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsubota, Masakatsu [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    We have fabricated a particle detector using single crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition. The irradiation dose dependence of the output pulse height from the diamond detector was measured using 3 MeV protons. The pulse height of the output signals from the diamond detector decreases as the amount of irradiation increases at count rates of 1.6–8.9 kcps because of polarization effects inside the diamond crystal. The polarization effect can be cancelled by applying a reverse bias voltage, which restores the pulse heights. Additionally, the radiation hardness performance for MeV energy protons was compared with that of a silicon surface barrier detector.

  14. Tokamak ion temperature and poloidal field diagnostics using 3 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Strachan, J.D.

    1984-10-01

    The 3 MeV protons created by d(d,p)t fusion reactions in a moderately sized tokamak leave the plasma on trajectories determined by the position of their birth and by the poloidal magnetic field. Pitch-angle resolution of the escaping 3 MeV protons can separately resolve the spatial distribution of the d(d,p)t fusion reactions and the poloidal field distribution inside the tokamak. These diagnostic techniques have been demonstrated on PLT with an array of collimated surface barrier detectors

  15. Radiation shielding for 250 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awschalom, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is targetted at personnel who have the responsibility of designing the radiation shielding against neutron fluences created when protons interact with matter. Shielding of walls and roofs are discussed, as well as neutron dose leakage through labyrinths. Experimental data on neutron flux attenuation are considered, as well as some calculations using the intranuclear cascade calculations and parameterizations

  16. Secondary electron emission from 0.5--2.5-MeV protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, T.A.; Anno, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    Measurement of the secondary electron currents leaving Al, V, Fe, 316 stainless steel, Nb, and Mo foils undergoing 0.5--2.5-MeV proton and deuteron bombardment were made to determine the secondary electron emission ratios for these ions. The measured secondary electron yields were of the order of 1.0, with the deuterons producing generally higher yields than the protons

  17. The Single Event Upset (SEU) response to 590 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of high-energy protons in cosmic rays, solar flares, and trapped radiation belts around Jupiter poses a threat to the Galileo project. Results of a test of 10 device types (including 1K RAM, 4-bit microP sequencer, 4-bit slice, 9-bit data register, 4-bit shift register, octal flip-flop, and 4-bit counter) exposed to 590 MeV protons at the Swiss Institute of Nuclear Research are presented to clarify the picture of SEU response to the high-energy proton environment of Jupiter. It is concluded that the data obtained should remove the concern that nuclear reaction products generated by protons external to the device can cause significant alteration in the device SEU response. The data also show only modest increases in SEU cross section as proton energies are increased up to the upper limits of energy for both the terrestrial and Jovian trapped proton belts.

  18. Non-Rutherford backscattering microscopy using 25 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeper, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.peeper@unibw.de [Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Moser, Marcus; Reichart, Patrick; Dollinger, Guenther [Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Protons at energies between 10 and 25 MeV are a very sensitive probe for hydrogen using coincident proton-proton scattering with the possibility for depth profiling samples up to several 100 {mu}m thickness. At the Munich microprobe SNAKE we have developed this method for sensitive 3D hydrogen microscopy . In parallel to sensitive 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering we introduce a non-Rutherford backscattering analysis utilizing 25 MeV protons in order to obtain 3D depth profiles of all major elements. We present energy spectra of backscattered protons at various thin and thick film samples of pure elements which we use as fingerprints to analyse more complex materials like minerals or metals. It is due to the low stopping power of the high energy protons that the depth profiles of several elements do not or do only partially overlap when analysing freestanding samples with thicknesses in the 100 {mu}m range. The merit of our method is that signals of the light elements may not be affected by heavier matrix elements. Analysing thin films smaller than 5 {mu}m we have achieved a mass resolution of {Delta}A/A{<=}1/28 for non-overlapping mass signals utilizing a 5 mm thick Si(Li)-detector.

  19. η-meson production in proton-proton collisions at excess energies of 40 and 72 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrén, H.; Bargholtz, Chr.; Bashkanov, M.; Bogoslavsky, D.; Calén, H.; Clement, H.; Demirörs, L.; Ekström, C.; Fransson, K.; Fäldt, G.; Gerén, L.; Höistad, B.; Ivanov, G.; Jacewicz, M.; Jiganov, E.; Johansson, T.; Keleta, S.; Khakimova, O.; Koch, I.; Kren, F.; Kullander, S.; Kupść, A.; Lindberg, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Morosov, B.; Pauly, C.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Schönning, K.; Scobel, W.; Skorodko, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Tegnér, P.-E.; Thörngren Engblom, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Wilkin, C.; Wolke, M.; Zabierowski, J.; Zartova, I.; Złomańczuk, J.

    2010-11-01

    The production of η mesons in proton-proton collisions has been studied using the WASA detector at the CELSIUS storage ring at excess energies of Q=40 MeV and Q=72 MeV. The η was detected through its 2γ decay in a near-4π electromagnetic calorimeter, whereas the protons were measured by a combination of straw chambers and plastic scintillator planes in the forward hemisphere. About 6.9×104 and 9.3×104 events were found at Q=40 MeV and Q=72 MeV, respectively, with background contributions of less than 5%. A simple parametrization of the production cross section in terms of low partial waves was used to evaluate the acceptance corrections. Strong evidence was found for the influence of higher partial waves. The Dalitz plots show the presence of p waves in both the pp and the η{pp} systems and the angular distributions of the η in the center-of-mass frame suggest the influence of d-wave η mesons.

  20. Neutron-proton elastic scattering between 200 and 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, A.S.; Gibson, D.R.; Axen, D.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements over an extensive angular range of the Dsub(t) and P parameters in free neutron-proton elastic scattering at laboratory energies of 220, 325, 425 and 495 MeV are reported. Experimental and analytical details are given. (author)

  1. Study of inclusive proton spectra from 20 MeV deuteron breakup by bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiger, N.M.; Hallur, B.R.; Madhusoodhanan, T.; Sathyavathiamma, M.P.; Puttaswamy, N.G.; Darshan, V.P.; Sharma, H.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    The breakup of deuteron into proton and neutron has been studied earlier to understand the breakup mechanism. Inclusive measurements show the expected broad bumps near the beam velocity. In the present experiment, the breakup of 20 MeV deuterons by bismuth target has been investigated

  2. Positronium formation in helium bubbles in 600 MeV proton-irradiated aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. O.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, Bachu Narain

    1985-01-01

    Aluminium samples containing helium bubbles produced by 600 MeV proton irradiation at 430°C were investigated by positron annihilation; both lifetime and angular correlation measurements were made. The angular correlation curves contain an unusually narrow component. This component is associated...

  3. Postirradiation tensile properties of Mo and Mo alloys irradiated with 600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.V.; Gavillet, D.; Victoria, M.; Martin, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Tensile specimens of pure Mo and Mo-5 Re, Mo-41 Re and TZM alloys have been irradiated with 600 MeV protons in the PIREX facility at 300 and 660 K to 0.5 dpa. Results of the postirradiation tensile testing show a strong radiation hardening and a severe loss of ductility for all the materials tested at room temperature. ((orig.))

  4. A study on the proton beam energy(50 MeV) measurement and diagnosis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Suh; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Yoo Suk; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Lee, Ji Sub; Hah, Hang Hoh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is the precise ion measurement of proton beam energy extracted at RF 25.89 MHz from the MC-50 cyclotron of SF type. There are several method for particle energy measurement. We measured the 50 MeV proton energy by using the E-{Delta}E method in 1993. And also in our experiment used range, reapproval of energy of extracted proton beam at RF 25.89 MHz was performed, which attained the same energy with the result used elastic scattering within the error range. 10 figs, 2 pix, 3 tabs, 3 refs. (Author).

  5. The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector to 1-9 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinenian, N.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Manuel, M.; McDuffee, S. C.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    The response of CR-39 nuclear track detector (TasTrak) to protons in the energy range of 0.92-9.28 MeV has been studied. Previous studies of the CR-39 response to protons have been extended by examining the piece-to-piece variability in addition to the effects of etch time and etchant temperature; it is shown that the shape of the CR-39 response curve to protons can vary from piece-to-piece. Effects due to the age of CR-39 have also been studied using 5.5 MeV alpha particles over a 5-year period. Track diameters were found to degrade with the age of the CR-39 itself rather than the age of the tracks, consistent with previous studies utilizing different CR-39 over shorter time periods.

  6. Microscopic analysis of proton elastic scattering in the range 80-200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, F.S.; Petrovich, F.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic comparison is made of differential cross-section and analyzing-power data on 12 C, 28 Si, 40 Ca, 90 Zr, and 208 Pb at 80-200 MeV with calculations based on the single-step folding-model approach to the optical potential. In these calculations, proton densities have been inferred from electron scattering results, with neutron densities either the same as for protons ( 12 C, 28 Si, 40 Ca) or with a small neutron skin consistent with 800-MeV proton scattering results ( 80 Zr, 208 Pb). The effective two-body interactions that have been used are the Love-Franey t-matrix, a density-dependent interaction based on the Paris potential (calculated by von Geramb), and finally the Brieva-Rook density-dependent central interaction used with the spin-orbit part of the Love-Franey interaction

  7. The design of a proton recoil telescope for 14 MeV neutron spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N.P.; Bond, D.S.; Croft, S.; Jarvis, O.N. E-mail: onj@jet.uk; Sherwood, A.C

    2002-01-01

    As part of the design effort for a 14 MeV neutron spectrometer for the Joint European Torus (JET), computer codes were developed to calculate the response of a proton recoil telescope comprising a proton radiator film mounted in front of a proton detector. The codes were used to optimise the geometrical configuration in terms of efficiency and resolution, bearing in mind the constraints imposed by the proposed application as a JET neutron diagnostic for the Deuterium-Tritium phase. A prototype instrument was built according to the optimised design, and tested with monoenergetic 14 MeV neutrons from the Harwell 500 keV Van de Graaff accelerator. The measured energy resolution and absolute efficiency were found to be in acceptable agreement with the calculations. Based on this work, a multi-radiator production version of the spectrometer has now been constructed and successfully deployed at JET.

  8. The design of a proton recoil telescope for 14 MeV neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, N.P.; Bond, D.S.; Croft, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sherwood, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the design effort for a 14 MeV neutron spectrometer for the Joint European Torus (JET), computer codes were developed to calculate the response of a proton recoil telescope comprising a proton radiator film mounted in front of a proton detector. The codes were used to optimise the geometrical configuration in terms of efficiency and resolution, bearing in mind the constraints imposed by the proposed application as a JET neutron diagnostic for the Deuterium-Tritium phase. A prototype instrument was built according to the optimised design, and tested with monoenergetic 14 MeV neutrons from the Harwell 500 keV Van de Graaff accelerator. The measured energy resolution and absolute efficiency were found to be in acceptable agreement with the calculations. Based on this work, a multi-radiator production version of the spectrometer has now been constructed and successfully deployed at JET

  9. Efficient production and diagnostics of MeV proton beams from a cryogenic hydrogen ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velyhan, A.; Giuffrida, L.; Scuderi, V.; Lastovicka, T.; Margarone, D.; Perin, J.P.; Chatain, D.; Garcia, S.; Bonnay, P.; Dostal, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.; Krousky, E.; Cykhardt, J.; Prokupek, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Rosinski, M.; Krasa, J.; Brabcova, K.; Napoli, M. De

    2017-01-01

    A solid hydrogen thin ribbon, produced by the cryogenic system ELISE (Experiments on Laser Interaction with Solid hydrogEn) target delivery system, was experimentally used at the PALS kJ-laser facility to generate intense proton beams with energies in the MeV range. This sophisticated target system operating at cryogenic temperature (∼ 10 K) continuously producing a 62 μm thick target was combined with a 600 J sub-nanosecond laser pulse to generate a collimated proton stream. The accelerated proton beams were fully characterized by a number of diagnostics. High conversion efficiency of laser to energetic protons is of great interest for future potential applications in non-conventional proton therapy and fast ignition for inertial confinement fusion.

  10. Emission of light charged particles from fragments produced on fission of uranium nuclei by 153 MeV protons and 1700 MeV negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belovitzky, G.E.; Shteingrad, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the emission of light charged particles (LCP) with Z = 1, 2 from fragments produced in fission of uranium nuclei by 153 MeV protons and 1700 MeV negative pions was studied. It was found that LCP accompanying the fission by pions are emitted from non-accelerated fragments immediately after the fission, whereas in the case of 153 MeV protons, the LCP are emitted from the accelerated heavy fragments. The number of LCP emitted in the course of pion-induced fission is 0.7 per fission event, which exceeds by a factor of 30 the corresponding number for 153 MeV protons [ru

  11. Hydrogen release from 800 MeV proton-irradiated tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, B. M.; Venhaus, T. J.; Causey, R. A.; Garner, F. A.; Maloy, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    Tungsten irradiated in spallation neutron sources, such as those proposed for the accelerator production of tritium (APT) project, will contain large quantities of generated helium and hydrogen gas. Tungsten used in proposed fusion reactors will also be exposed to neutrons, and the generated protium will be accompanied by deuterium and tritium diffusing in from the plasma-facing surface. The release kinetics of these gases during various off-normal scenarios involving loss of coolant and after heat-induced rises in temperature are of particular interest for both applications. To determine the release kinetics of hydrogen from tungsten, tungsten rods irradiated with 800 MeV protons in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to high exposures as part of the APT project have been examined. Hydrogen evolution from the tungsten has been measured using a dedicated mass-spectrometer system by subjecting the specimens to an essentially linear temperature ramp from ˜300 to ˜1500 K. Release profiles are compared with predictions obtained using the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP4). The measurements show that for high proton doses, the majority of the hydrogen is released gradually, starting at about 900 K and reaching a maximum at about 1400 K, where it drops fairly rapidly. Comparisons with TMAP show quite reasonable agreement using a trap energy of 1.4 eV and a trap density of ˜7%. There is a small additional release fraction occurring at ˜550 K, which is believed to be associated with low-energy trapping at or near the surface, and, therefore, was not included in the bulk TMAP model.

  12. Hydrogen release from 800 MeV proton-irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, B.M.; Venhaus, T.J.; Causey, R.A.; Garner, F.A.; Maloy, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Tungsten irradiated in spallation neutron sources, such as those proposed for the accelerator production of tritium (APT) project, will contain large quantities of generated helium and hydrogen gas. Tungsten used in proposed fusion reactors will also be exposed to neutrons, and the generated protium will be accompanied by deuterium and tritium diffusing in from the plasma-facing surface. The release kinetics of these gases during various off-normal scenarios involving loss of coolant and after heat-induced rises in temperature are of particular interest for both applications. To determine the release kinetics of hydrogen from tungsten, tungsten rods irradiated with 800 MeV protons in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to high exposures as part of the APT project have been examined. Hydrogen evolution from the tungsten has been measured using a dedicated mass-spectrometer system by subjecting the specimens to an essentially linear temperature ramp from ∼300 to ∼1500 K. Release profiles are compared with predictions obtained using the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP4). The measurements show that for high proton doses, the majority of the hydrogen is released gradually, starting at about 900 K and reaching a maximum at about 1400 K, where it drops fairly rapidly. Comparisons with TMAP show quite reasonable agreement using a trap energy of 1.4 eV and a trap density of ∼7%. There is a small additional release fraction occurring at ∼550 K, which is believed to be associated with low-energy trapping at or near the surface, and, therefore, was not included in the bulk TMAP model

  13. Hydrogen release from 800 MeV proton-irradiated tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, B.M. E-mail: brian.oliver@pnl.gov; Venhaus, T.J.; Causey, R.A.; Garner, F.A.; Maloy, S.A

    2002-12-01

    Tungsten irradiated in spallation neutron sources, such as those proposed for the accelerator production of tritium (APT) project, will contain large quantities of generated helium and hydrogen gas. Tungsten used in proposed fusion reactors will also be exposed to neutrons, and the generated protium will be accompanied by deuterium and tritium diffusing in from the plasma-facing surface. The release kinetics of these gases during various off-normal scenarios involving loss of coolant and after heat-induced rises in temperature are of particular interest for both applications. To determine the release kinetics of hydrogen from tungsten, tungsten rods irradiated with 800 MeV protons in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to high exposures as part of the APT project have been examined. Hydrogen evolution from the tungsten has been measured using a dedicated mass-spectrometer system by subjecting the specimens to an essentially linear temperature ramp from {approx}300 to {approx}1500 K. Release profiles are compared with predictions obtained using the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP4). The measurements show that for high proton doses, the majority of the hydrogen is released gradually, starting at about 900 K and reaching a maximum at about 1400 K, where it drops fairly rapidly. Comparisons with TMAP show quite reasonable agreement using a trap energy of 1.4 eV and a trap density of {approx}7%. There is a small additional release fraction occurring at {approx}550 K, which is believed to be associated with low-energy trapping at or near the surface, and, therefore, was not included in the bulk TMAP model.

  14. Measurement of parity nonconservation in the proton-proton total cross section at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    A report is made of a measurement of parity nonconservation in the transmission of 800-MeV longitudinally polarized protons through an unpolarized, 1-m liquid-hydrogen target. The dependence of transmission on beam properties was studied to measure and to correct for systematic errors. The measured longitudinal asymmetry in the total cross section is A/sub L/ = [+2.4 +- 1.1 (statistical) +- 0.1 (systematic)] x 10 -7 . 25 refs., 2 figs

  15. Prompt radiation, shielding and induced radioactivity in a high-power 160 MeV proton linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magistris, Matteo [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: matteo.magistris@cern.ch; Silari, Marco [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2006-06-23

    CERN is designing a 160 MeV proton linear accelerator, both for a future intensity upgrade of the LHC and as a possible first stage of a 2.2 GeV superconducting proton linac. A first estimate of the required shielding was obtained by means of a simple analytical model. The source terms and the attenuation lengths used in the present study were calculated with the Monte Carlo cascade code FLUKA. Detailed FLUKA simulations were performed to investigate the contribution of neutron skyshine and backscattering to the expected dose rate in the areas around the linac tunnel. An estimate of the induced radioactivity in the magnets, vacuum chamber, the cooling system and the concrete shield was performed. A preliminary thermal study of the beam dump is also discussed.

  16. High energy proton simulation of 14-MeV neutron damage in Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.; Bunch, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-energy protons are a potentially useful tool for simulating the radiation damage produced by 14-MeV neutrons in CTR materials. A comparison is given of calculations and measurements of the relative damage effectiveness of these two types of radiation in single-crystal Al 2 O 3 . The experiments make use of the prominent absorption band at 206 nm as an index to lattice damage, on the assumption that peak absorption is proportional to the concentration of lattice vacancies. The induced absorption is measured for incident proton energies ranging from 5 to 15 MeV and for 14-MeV neutrons. Recoil-energy spectra are calculated for elastic and inelastic scattering using published angular distributions. Recoil-energy spectra also are calculated for the secondary alpha particles and 12 C nuclei produced by (p,p'α) reactions on 16 O. The recoil spectra are converted to damage-energy spectra and then integrated to yield the damage-energy cross section at each proton energy and for 14 MeV neutrons. A comparison of the calculations with experimental results suggests that damage energy, at least at high energies, is a reasonable criterion for estimating this type of radiation damage. (auth)

  17. Study of two photon production process in proton-proton collisions at 216 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrykin, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The energy spectrum for high energy γ-rays (Eγ ≥ 10 MeV) from the process pp → γγX emitted at 90 deg. in the laboratory frame has been measured at 216 MeV. The resulting photon energy spectrum extracted from γ - γ coincidence events consists of a narrow peak (5.3σ) at a photon energy of about 24 MeV and a relatively broad peak (3.5σ) in the energy range of (50 - 70) MeV. This behavior of the photon energy spectrum is interpreted as a signature of the exotic dibaryon resonance d 1 * with a mass of about 1956 MeV which is assumed to be formed in the radiative process pp → γd 1 * followed by its electromagnetic decay via the d 1 * → ppγ mode. The experimental spectrum is compared with those obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulations

  18. The gas bubbles distribution in 600 MeV protons irradiated aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavillet, D.; Martin, J.L.; Victoria, M.; Green, W.

    1984-01-01

    In order to simulate the damage produced by 14 MeV fusion neutrons, thin foils of high purity Al have been irradiated by a proton beam of 580 MeV (120μA). After irradiation at temperatures higher than 0.5 Tm transmission electron microscope observations of gas bubbles distribution were performed. At 200 0 C a uniform distribution of bubbles has been observed inside the grain. The average distance between bubbles and their density have been determined. The gas pressure inside the bubbles has been estimated [fr

  19. Intensity maps of MeV electrons and protons below the radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, T.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakamoto, A.; Hasebe, N.; Kikuchi, J.; Doke, T.

    1988-01-01

    The global distributions of energetic electrons (0.19 - 3.2 MeV) and protons (0.64 - 35 MeV) are shown in the form of contour maps. The data were obtained by two sets of energetic particle telescopes on board the satellite OHZORA. The observed altitude range is 350 - 850 Km. Ten degress meshes in longitude and latitude were used to obtain the intensity contours. A pitch angle distribution of J(α) = J(90). sin n α with n = 5 A is assumed to get the average intensity in each mesh. (author) [pt

  20. Elastic scattering of polarized protons by 20Ne between 4.5 Mev and 5.5 Mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila A, O.L.

    1979-01-01

    Starting with the study of 20 Ne(p,p) 20 nuclear reaction, we obtained information about the nuclear structure of 21 Na. The experiment was made at Notre Dame University; a target of 20 Ne was bombarded with polarized protons, changing the incident energy of them between 4.5 Mev and 5.5 Mev at intervals of 10 keV. Fourteen detectors were set covering angles from 35 degrees until 165 degrees, with intervals of 10 degrees each. In this form measurements for computing polarization and differential sections were obtained, with them an analysis of runnings of phase was made, and the parameters associated with two of the excited levels of the composed formed nucleous 21 Na, that are viewed as resonances in the section were settled; those resonances correspond to a level Psub(3/2) of energy excitation 6.877, a total width of 36 keV, and a level Fsub(7/2) of energy excitation 6.992 and total width of 48 keV. I hope that these results will be part of a set of values that will be utilized in order to confront them with the existent nuclear models. (author)

  1. Measurement of neutron spectra generated from bombardment of 4 to 24 MeV protons on a thick 9Be target and estimation of neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sabyasachi; Sahoo, G. S.; Tripathy, S. P.; Sunil, C.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Sharma, S. C.; Ramjilal,; Ninawe, N. G.; Gupta, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the measurement of neutron spectra emitted from the interaction of protons of various energies with a thick beryllium target has been carried out. The measurements were carried out in the forward direction (at 0° with respect to the direction of protons) using CR-39 detectors. The doses were estimated using the in-house image analyzing program autoTRAK-n, which works on the principle of luminosity variation in and around the track boundaries. A total of six different proton energies starting from 4 MeV to 24 MeV with an energy gap of 4 MeV were chosen for the study of the neutron yields and the estimation of doses. Nearly, 92% of the recoil tracks developed after chemical etching were circular in nature, but the size distributions of the recoil tracks were not found to be linearly dependent on the projectile energy. The neutron yield and dose values were found to be increasing linearly with increasing projectile energies. The response of CR-39 detector was also investigated at different beam currents at two different proton energies. A linear increase of neutron yield with beam current was observed

  2. The linear proton accelerator for the MYRRHA-ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandeplassche, D.; Medeiros Ramao, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the development of a linear proton accelerator for the MYRRHA Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The linear proton accelerator provides a high energy and high intensity proton beam that is directed to a spallation target, which will deliver neutrons to a subcritical nuclear reactor core. The article describes the MYRRHA linear accelerator, which mainly consists of a sequence of superconducting accelerating radiofrequent cavities that are positioned in a linear configuration. The beam requirements for MYRRHA are discussed involving, amongst others, a continuous wave beam delivery mode with a high reliability goal. The key concepts to increase the reliability of the accelerator are described.

  3. Elastic neutron-proton differential cross section at 647 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.L.

    1979-04-01

    The differential cross section for n-p elastic scattering in the angular range 51 0 was measured with high statistical accuracy using the 647 MeV monoenergetic neutron beam of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. A proton recoil magnetic spectrometer was used for momentum analysis of the charge exchange protons from the reaction n+p→p+n. Absolute normalization of the cross section was established to within 7% using existing cross section data for the reaction p+p→π + +d. The results differ significantly from previous Dubna and PPA cross sections but agree well with recent Saclay data except at extreme backward angles. 41 references

  4. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick Beryllium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, R; Cosentino, G; Zoppo, A Del; Pietro, A Di; Figuera, P; Finocchiaro, P; Maiolino, C; Santonocito, D; Schillaci, M; Barbagallo, M; Colonna, N; Boccaccio, P; Esposito, J; Celentano, A; Osipenko, M; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Viberti, C M; Kostyukov, A

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of research on IVth generation reactors and high intensity neutron sources a low-power prototype neutron amplifier was recently proposed by INFN. It is based on a low-energy, high current proton cyclotron, whose beam, impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, produces a fast neutron spectrum. The world database on the neutron yield from thick Beryllium target in the 70 MeV proton energy domain is rather scarce. The new measurement was performed at LNS, covering a wide angular range from 0 to 150 degrees and an almost complete neutron energy interval. In this contribution the preliminary data are discussed together with the proposed ADS facility.

  5. Measurement of the angular distribution of neutron-proton scattering at 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Grimes, S.M.; Brient, C.E.; Massey, T.N.; Wasson, O.A.; Carlson, A.D.; Zhou, H.

    1995-01-01

    The relative angular distribution of neutrons scattered from protons was measured at an incident neutron energy of 10 MeV at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory. An array of 11 detector telescopes at laboratory angles of 0 to 60 degrees was used to detect recoil protons from neutron interactions with a CH 2 (polypropylene) target. Data for 7 of these telescopes were obtained with one set of electronics and are presented here. These data, from 108 to 180 degrees for the center-of-mass scattering angles, have a small slope which agrees better with angular distributions predicted by the Arndt phase shifts than with the ENDF/B-VI angular distribution

  6. The analysis of air particulate deposits using 2 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfoot, K.M.; Mitchell, I.V.; Eschbach, H.L.; Mason, P.I.; Gilboy, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of the lighter elements in time-resolved air particulate deposits has been carried out. Minimum detection limits have been determined for 1.0, 2.0 and 3.5 MeV protons. Quantitative PIXE analysis results, obtained with 2 MeV protons, are given for temporal variations in the elemental concentrations of Na, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca and Fe. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectra were taken simultaneously with the PIXE spectra to provide information on lead concentrations and deposit thicknesses. The experimental problems associated with the quantitative analysis of light elements on cellulose acetate filters are described. The relationship between these results and meteorological data is discussed. (author)

  7. The Digital Feedback RF Control System of the RFQ and DTL1 for 100 MeV Proton Linac of PEFP

    CERN Document Server

    Yu In Ha; Cho, Yong-Sub; Han, Yeung-Jin; Kang Heung Sik; Kim, Sung-Chul; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, In-Soo; Tae Kim, Do; Tae Seol, Kyung

    2005-01-01

    The 100 MeV Proton linear accelerator (Linac) for the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) will include 1 RFQ and 1 DTL1 at 350 MHz as well as 7 DTL2 cavities at 700 MHz. The low level RF system with the digital feedback RF control provides the field control to accelerate a 20mA proton beam from 50 keV to 20 MeV with a RFQ and a DTL1 at 350M Hz. The FPGA-based digital feedback RF control system has been built and is used to control cavity field amplitude within ± 1% and relative phase within ± 1°. The fast digital processing is networked to the EPICS-based control system with an embedded processor (Blackfin). In this paper, the detailed description of the digital feedback RF control system will be described with the performance test results.

  8. Design of the proposed 250 MeV superconducting cyclotron magnet for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.; Ahmed, M.; Murali, S.; Duttagupta, A.; Chaudhuri, J.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe the design calculations for the superconducting magnet of a 250 MeV proton cyclotron to be used for therapeutic purpose. Hard-edge approximation method has been adopted for finding the poletip geometry to meet the basic focusing requirements of the beam. Then the uniform-magnetization method has been applied to calculate the 3D magnetic field distribution due to saturated iron poletips, to verify the beam dynamical issues. (author)

  9. Theoretical detection limit of PIXE analysis using 20 MeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keizo; Hitomi, Keitaro

    2018-02-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is usually performed using proton beams with energies in the range 2∼3 MeV because at these energies, the detection limit is low. The detection limit of PIXE analysis depends on the X-ray production cross-section, the continuous background of the PIXE spectrum and the experimental parameters such as the beam currents and the solid angle and detector efficiency of X-ray detector. Though the continuous background increases as the projectile energy increases, the cross-section of the X-ray increases as well. Therefore, the detection limit of high energy proton PIXE is not expected to increase significantly. We calculated the cross sections of continuous X-rays produced in several bremsstrahlung processes and estimated the detection limit of a 20 MeV proton PIXE analysis by modelling the Compton tail of the γ-rays produced in the nuclear reactions, and the escape effect on the secondary electron bremsstrahlung. We found that the Compton tail does not affect the detection limit when a thin X-ray detector is used, but the secondary electron bremsstrahlung escape effect does have an impact. We also confirmed that the detection limit of the PIXE analysis, when used with 4 μm polyethylene backing film and an integrated beam current of 1 μC, is 0.4∼2.0 ppm for proton energies in the range 10∼30 MeV and elements with Z = 16-90. This result demonstrates the usefulness of several 10 MeV cyclotrons for performing PIXE analysis. Cyclotrons with these properties are currently installed in positron emission tomography (PET) centers.

  10. Calculated neutron spectrum from 800-MeV protons incident on a copper beam stop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.G.

    1975-10-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation was performed to obtain the neutron spectrum generated by 800-MeV protons incident on the LAMPF main copper beam stop. The total flux is calculated to be of the order of 10 13 n/cm 2 -sec-mA at full-beam intensity of 1 mA, with flux spectra calculated for angles of 20 0 , 30 0 , 60 0 , 90 0 , 120 0 , and 150 0 . (auth)

  11. Irradiation effects of 11 MeV protons on ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Kuwano, Hisashi; Misawa, Toshihei

    1985-01-01

    It is considered that ferritic/martensitic steels are the candidate of the first wall materials for future fusion reactors. The most serious problem in the candidate materials is the loss of ductility due to the elevation of ductile-brittle transition temperature by the high dpa irradiation of neutrons. 14 MeV neutrons produced by D-T reaction cause high dpa damage and also produce large quantity of helium and hydrogen atoms in first wall materials. Those gas atoms also play an important role in the embrittlement of steels. The main purpose of this work was to simulate the behavior of hydrogen produced by the transmutation in the mechanical properties of ferritic steels when they were irradiated with 11 MeV protons. The experimental procedure and the results of hardness, the broadening of x-ray diffraction lines, Moessbauer spectroscopy and small punch test are reported. High energy protons of 10 - 20 MeV are suitable to the simulation experiment of 14 MeV neutron radiation damage. But the production of the active nuclei emitting high energy gamma ray and having long life, Co-56, is the most serious problem. Another difficulty is the control of irradiation temperature. A small irradiation chamber must be developed. (Kako, I.)

  12. RF source for proton linear accelerator in Kyoto University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashita, Yoshihisa

    1987-01-01

    Construction of a 433 MHz, 7 MeV proton linear accelerator is currently underway in Kyoto University under a three-year plan starting in 1986. The ion source, power source for it, RFQ main unit, WR2100 waveguide and a set of klystrons for RFQ were installed last year, or the first year of the plan, and the power source for the klystrons for RFQ, a set of klystrons for STL, DTL main unit, etc., are planned to be installed this year. Operation has not started yet because of the absence of the power source for the klystrons. Thus this report is focused on the considerations made in selecting the acceleration frequency of 433 MHz, specifications of the klystrons and the structure of the power sources for them. Based on considerations of the efficiency and cost of the accelerating tubes and RF sources to be used, the acceleration frequencies of 433.33 MHz and 1,300 MHz were adopted. The klystron selected is Litton L5773, which has a peak power output of 1.25 Mw, average power output of 75 kW, maximum pulse width of 2,000 μS and duty of 6 percent, and it consists of four cavities. The structure and characteristics of a klystron are also described. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Determination of the light response of BC-404 plastic scintillator for protons and deuterons with energies between 1 and 11 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraf, S.K.; Brient, C.E.; Egun, P.M.; Grimes, S.M.; Mishra, V.; Pedroni, R.S.

    1988-05-10

    The response of BC-404 plastic scintillator is measured up to 11 MeV for protons and up to 8 MeV for deuterons using a time-of-flight spectrometer. It is shown that the response is nonlinear in this energy range and can be described very well using a four-term polynomial in energy. Earlier response curves which were extrapolated from high energy data and from interpolation of low energy data at widely separated energies are nearly linear in the low energy region. A comparison has been made between our new measured data and the existing curves.

  14. Sustained >100 MeV Gamma-Ray Emission: A Monitor for >300 MeV SEP Protons at the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, G. H.; Murphy, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Solar γ radiation is the product of proton and ion interactions in the solar atmosphere. The spectrum and temporal characteristics of the emission provides fundamental information on the ions at the Sun. Until the launch of the Fermi satellite, with its Large Area Telescope (LAT) sensitive to radiation above 100 MeV, most of the γ-ray observations were made in the nuclear energy range with radiation arising from interaction of one to tens of MeV ions produced in solar flares. Since 2008 the LAT has detected 30 high-energy γ-ray events with temporal and spectral characteristics that are distinct from the associated solar flare. We call this radiation Sustained Gamma-Ray Emission (SGRE) and briefly summarize its characteristics reported in a recent paper. The γ-ray spectra are consistent with pion decay radiation produced by protons above 300 MeV. The onset of the radiation most often occurs after the impulsive flare and the emission can last several hours. We find that the number of protons responsible for the SGRE is typically more than 10 times the number of flare-accelerated protons. These characteristics require that there be an additional source of energy to accelerate the protons to hundreds of MeV to produce the SGRE. As 28 of the 30 SGRE events are accompanied by fast CMEs, it is likely that these protons are accelerated by the same shock that produces gradual SEPs. We find that the number of protons >500 MeV in the accompanying SEPs is typically about 50-100 times the number of protons that return to the Sun to produce the SGRE. There also appear to be correlations between the numbers of SEP and SGRE protons and durations of >100 MeV SEP proton and SGRE events. We find that for all SGRE events where there were flare observations, the accompanying impulsive X-radiation reached energies >100 keV. In a limited study of 18 solar events with CME speeds >800 km/s we also find that the median SEP proton flux is 25 times higher when flare hard X-rays exceed 100

  15. Single event upsets calculated from new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron data up to 150 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data that extend up to 150 MeV, for incident protons and neutrons. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data

  16. Design and performance of a 3.3-MeV linear induction accelerator (LIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Nianan; Zhang Shouyun; Tao Zucong

    1992-01-01

    A 3.3-MeV linear induction accelerator (LIA) has been designed and constructed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics. The parameters of 3.4 MeV, 2 kA, 80 ns and 1 x 10 4 A/(rad.cm) 2 have been achieved. It has been used for SG-1 FEL experiments. The accelerator is mounted on a movable frame so that , after moving 3 m transversely, it can be assembled with more modules into a 10-MeV LIA. The authors summarize the physics and engineering aspects of the LIA facility and describe the measuring means of characters for the beam

  17. Variations in the Processing of DNA Double-Strand Breaks Along 60-MeV Therapeutic Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Marshall, Thomas I. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Currell, Frederick J. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Kacperek, Andrzej [Douglas Cyclotron, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Bebbington, Wirral (United Kingdom); Schettino, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.schettino@npl.co.uk [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the variations in induction and repair of DNA damage along the proton path, after a previous report on the increasing biological effectiveness along clinically modulated 60-MeV proton beams. Methods and Materials: Human skin fibroblast (AG01522) cells were irradiated along a monoenergetic and a modulated spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) proton beam used for treating ocular melanoma at the Douglas Cyclotron, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Wirral, Liverpool, United Kingdom. The DNA damage response was studied using the 53BP1 foci formation assay. The linear energy transfer (LET) dependence was studied by irradiating the cells at depths corresponding to entrance, proximal, middle, and distal positions of SOBP and the entrance and peak position for the pristine beam. Results: A significant amount of persistent foci was observed at the distal end of the SOBP, suggesting complex residual DNA double-strand break damage induction corresponding to the highest LET values achievable by modulated proton beams. Unlike the directly irradiated, medium-sharing bystander cells did not show any significant increase in residual foci. Conclusions: The DNA damage response along the proton beam path was similar to the response of X rays, confirming the low-LET quality of the proton exposure. However, at the distal end of SOBP our data indicate an increased complexity of DNA lesions and slower repair kinetics. A lack of significant induction of 53BP1 foci in the bystander cells suggests a minor role of cell signaling for DNA damage under these conditions.

  18. Splash albedo protons between 4 and 315 MeV at high and low geomagnetic latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, K.; Stone, E.C.; Vogt, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The differential energy spectrum of splash albedo protons has been measured at high geomagnetic latitude near Fort Churchill, Manitoba, at three periods of the solar cycle in 1966, and 1969 and at low latitude near Palestine, Texas, in 1967 by using a balloon-borne solid state detector telescope. We observed splash albedo proton fluxes between 4 and 315 MeV of 81plus-or-minus11, 70plus-or-minus11, and 48plus-or-minus8 protons/(m 2 s sr) at high latitude in 1966, 1967, and 1969 and of 37plus-or-minus9 protons/(m 2 s sr) at low latitude in 1967. The decreases from 1966 to 1969 are due to solar modulation of the cosmic ray parent nuclei. The albedo spectrum shows a similar shape for both latitudes. The difference in intensity can be explained by different local geomagnetic cutoffs; i.e., a significant contribution to the splash albedo flux arises from primary particles with rigidity below 4.5 GV. The splash albedo flux near Fort Churchill is consistent with corresponding fluxes previously reported near 53degree--55degreeN. The flux below 100 MeV near Palestine is significantly lower than that reported by Verma (1967)

  19. The drive system of 100 MeV electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuzhen; Su Guoping; Wang Xiulong; Tianlu

    1988-06-01

    The principle, structure, measurement results and technical performances of microwave drive system for 100MeV electron linear accelerator are presented. In this system the peak power of 15 kW is produced by the S bank middle power klystron. The output power of the klystron is divided into six subdrive lines that drive six high power klystrons respectively. The results show the system with simple structure and good characteristics completely meets the requirements of 100 MeV Linac

  20. Impurity induced neutralization of MeV energy protons in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondhalekar, A [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Korotkov, A A [AF Ioffe Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    A model elucidating the role of carbon and beryllium, the main impurities in JET plasmas, in neutralizing MeV energy protons, which arise during ICRF heating of deuterium plasmas in the hydrogen minority heating mode D(H), and from D-D fusion reactions, is presented. The model establishes charge transfer from hydrogen-like impurity ions to protons as the main process for neutralization. Calculations for deducing the proton energy distribution function from measured hydrogen flux are described. The validity of the model is tested by using it to described the measured flux in different conditions of plasma heating and fueling. Further, it is used to deduce the background thermal deuterium atom density at the plasma center. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Anomalous effects in silicon solar cell irradiated by 1-MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    Several silicon solar cells having thicknesses of approximately 63 microns, with and without back-surface fields (BSF), were irradiated with 1-MeV protons having fluences between 10 to the 10th and 10 to the 12th sq cm. The irradiations were performed using both normal and isotropic incidence on the rear surfaces of the cells. It was observed that after irradiation with fluences greater than 10 to the 11th protons/sq cm, all BSF cells degraded at a faster rate than cells without BSF. The irradiation results are analyzed using a model in which irradiation-induced defects in the BSF region are taken into account. Tentatively, it is concluded that an increase in defect density due to the formation of aluminum and proton complexes in BSF cells is responsible for the higher-power loss in the BSF cells compared to the non-BSF cells.

  2. Basic Research and Feasibility Study of Radioisotope Production using 100 MeV Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, K. H.; Yoon, K. S.; Cho, W. J.; Park, S. I.; Han, H. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jeon, K. S.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, T. K.

    2010-04-01

    Results of the project are various nuclei, such as 82 Rb, 68 Ga, 67 Cu, 22 Na and so on, can be produced by irradiating 100 MeV proton beam, by irradiating proton beam to the nat Ga target, the 68 Ge, mother nucleus of positron emitting 68 Ga, is produced based on the nat Ga(p,x) 68 Ge reaction, the target system for the high-energy of proton beam can produce more than 2 species of radioisotope at the same time by employing tandem targets, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator, 82 Sr(25.34d)/ 82 Rb generator - 67 Cu production method, 70 Zn electroplating technology based on the electrochemistry, the container, whose weight is about 3 ton, is made by depleted uranium and because of the unstable situation for the supply and demand of reactor produced radioisotope, the need for the cyclotron produced radioisotopes is dramatically increased all over the world.

  3. EB dose calibration for 10 MeV linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.; Stachowicz, W.

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaitherburg USA has done in co-operation with INCT Warsaw the EPR dose measurements for two INCT 60 Co irradiators using l-alanine standard pellets as dosimeter medium. In the study the comparative EPR measurements of doses up to 40 kGy have been done using l-alanine powder with 60 Co source (reference to NIST standard) and EB linear accelerator, respectively. On the basis of this comparative study 5% correction factor for EB dose measurements has been adapted in the INCT Experimental Plant for Food Irradiation traceable to the dose estimations done with the Risoe calorimetric system

  4. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSES OF SPALLATION NEUTRONS GENERATED BY 100 MEV PROTONS AT THE KYOTO UNIVERSITY CRITICAL ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEOL HO PYEON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutron spectrum analyses of spallation neutrons are conducted in the accelerator-driven system (ADS facility at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA. High-energy protons (100 MeV obtained from the fixed field alternating gradient accelerator are injected onto a tungsten target, whereby the spallation neutrons are generated. For neutronic characteristics of spallation neutrons, the reaction rates and the continuous energy distribution of spallation neutrons are measured by the foil activation method and by an organic liquid scintillator, respectively. Numerical calculations are executed by MCNPX with JENDL/HE-2007 and ENDF/B-VI libraries to evaluate the reaction rates of activation foils (bismuth and indium set at the target and the continuous energy distribution of spallation neutrons set in front of the target. For the reaction rates by the foil activation method, the C/E values between the experiments and the calculations are found around a relative difference of 10%, except for some reactions. For continuous energy distribution by the organic liquid scintillator, the spallation neutrons are observed up to 45 MeV. From these results, the neutron spectrum information on the spallation neutrons generated at the target are attained successfully in injecting 100 MeV protons onto the tungsten target.

  5. Comprehensive Measurement of Neutron Yield Produced by 62 MeV Protons on Beryllium Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, M.; Ripani, M.; Ricco, G.; Alba, R.; Schillaci, M.; Cosentino, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V.; Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Boccaccio, P.; Esposito, J.; Celentano, A.; Viberti, C.M.; Kostyukov, A.

    2013-06-01

    A low-power prototype of neutron amplifier, based on a 70 MeV, high current proton cyclotron being installed at LNL for the SPES RIB facility, was recently proposed within INFN-E project. This prototype uses a thick Beryllium converter to produce a fast neutron spectrum feeding a sub-critical reactor core. To complete the design of such facility the new measurement of neutron yield from a thick Beryllium target was performed at LNS. This measurement used liquid scintillator detectors to identify produced neutrons by Pulse Shape Discrimination and Time of Flight technique to measure neutron energy in the range 0.5-62 MeV. To extend the covered neutron energy range 3 He detector was used to measure neutrons below 0.5 MeV. The obtained yields were normalized to the charge deposited by the proton beam on the metallic Beryllium target. These techniques allowed to achieve a wide angular coverage from 0 to 150 degrees and to explore almost complete neutron energy interval. (authors)

  6. Differential production cross sections for charged particles produced by 590 MeV proton bombardment of thin metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Cierjacks, S.; Hino, Y.; Raupp, F.; Rainbow, M.T.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Buth, L.

    1981-01-01

    Differential production cross sections have been measured for the reactions (p,p), (p,d), (p,t) and (p,π+-) using the 590 MeV proton beam at SIN. Here we report measurements made on thin targets of aluminium, niobium, lead, and uranium at laboratory angles of 90 0 and 157 0 . The data were taken over a proton energy range of about 50 MeV to 590 MeV. Differential cross sections are reported along with predictions by the intranuclear-cascade/evaporation model as computed by HETC. (orig.)

  7. Radiation protection studies for a high-power 160 MeV proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Egidio

    2009-01-01

    CERN is presently designing a new chain of accelerators to replace the present Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex: a 160 MeV room-temperature H− linac (Linac4) to replace the present 50 MeV proton linac injector, a 3.5 GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to replace the 1.4 GeV PS Booster (PSB) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (named PS2) to replace the 26 GeV PS. Linac4 has been funded and the civil engineering work started in October 2008, whilst the SPL is in an advanced stage of design. Beyond injecting into the future 50 GeV PS, the ultimate goal of the SPL is to generate a 4 MW beam for the production of intense neutrino beams. The radiation protection design is driven by the latter requirement. This work summarizes the radiation protection studies conducted for Linac4. FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, complemented by analytical estimates, were performed to evaluate the propagation of neutrons through the waveguide, ventilation and cable ducts placed along the accelerator, to estimate the radiological impact of ...

  8. Prototype Digital Beam Position and Phase Monitor for the 100-MeV Proton Linac of PEFP

    CERN Document Server

    Yu In Ha; Kim, Sung-Chul; Park, In-Soo; Park, Sung-Ju; Tae Kim, Do

    2005-01-01

    The PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is building a high-power proton linear accelerator aiming to generate 100-MeV proton beams with 20-mA peak current (pulse width and max. repetition rate of 1 ms and 120 Hz respectively). We are developing a prototype digital BPPM (Beam Position and Phase Monitor) for the PEFP linac utilizing the digital technology with field programmable gate array (FPGA). The RF input signals are down converted to 10 MHz and sampled at 40 MHz with 14-bit ADC to produce I and Q data streams. The system is designed to provide a position and phase resolution of 0.1% and 0.1? RMS respectively. The fast digital processing is networked to the EPICS-based control system with an embedded processor (Blackfin). In this paper, the detailed description of the prototype digital beam position and phase monitor will be described with the performance test results.

  9. Microscopic model analyses of proton elastic scattering from diverse targets in the energy range 65 to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1997-01-01

    Two nucleon (NN) effective interactions based upon two-nucleon g matrices have been used in fully microscopic calculations of nonlocal proton-nucleus optical potentials for protons with energies between 65 and 400 MeV. Excellent predictions of the differential cross sections, analysing powers and spin rotations for scattering angles to 60 deg result. (authors)

  10. Cross sections from 800 MeV proton irradiation of terbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, J.W., E-mail: jwengle@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mashnik, S.G.; Bach, H.; Couture, A.; Jackman, K.; Gritzo, R.; Ballard, B.D.; Fassbender, M.; Smith, D.M.; Bitteker, L.J.; Ullmann, J.L.; Gulley, M.S.; Pillai, C.; John, K.D.; Birnbaum, E.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Nortier, F.M., E-mail: meiring@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-11-02

    Terbium foils were irradiated with 800 MeV protons to ascertain the potential for production of lanthanide isotopes of interest in medical, astrophysical, and basic science research and to contribute to nuclear data repositories. Isotopes produced in the foil were quantified by gamma spectroscopy. Cross sections for 35 isotopes produced in the irradiation are reported and compared with predictions by the MCNP6 transport code using the CEM03.03, Bertini and INCL + ABLA event generators. Our results indicate the need to accurately consider fission and fragmentation of relatively light target nuclei like terbium in the modeling of nuclear reactions at 800 MeV. The predictive power of the code was found to be different for each event generator tested but was satisfactory for most of the product yields in the mass region where spallation reactions dominate. However, none of the event generators' results are in complete agreement with measured data.

  11. Proton-proton elastic scattering from 150 to 515 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, D.V.; Edginton, J.A.; Amsler, C.

    1977-12-01

    The parameters D, R, R' and P for pp elastic scattering have been measured in the centre of mass angular range 13 to 58 0 with an accuracy of about +- 0.02 at 209, 324, 379, 425 and 515 MeV. These results are incorporated with earlier data into a phase shift analysis. Phase shifts are generally in agreement with theoretical predictions of the Paris group, although the F wave spin-orbit combination is rather stronger than predicted. The fitted value for the π 0 p anti p coupling constant is g 0 2 = 14.06 +- 0.65. (author)

  12. Parity Nonconservation in Proton-water Scattering at 800 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, D. E.; Bowman, J. D.; Carlini, R.; Mischke, R. E.; Frauenfelder, H.; Harper, R. W.; Yuan, V.; McDonald, A. B.; Talaga, R.

    1982-01-01

    A search has been made for parity nonconservation in the scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from an unpolarized water target. The result is for the longitudinal asymmetry, A{sub L} = +(6.6 +- 3.2) x 10{sup -7}. Control runs with Pb, using a thickness which gave equivalent beam broadening from Coulomb multiple scattering, but a factor of ten less nuclear interactions than the water target, gave A{sub L} = -(0.5 +- 6.0) x 10{sup -7}.

  13. Optical model analysis for 30MeV polarized proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, D.-L.; Swiniarski, R. de.

    1977-05-01

    The proton elastic scattering cross sections and analyzing powers at 30MeV have been used to derive optical model parameters for ten elements from 10 B to 32 S. A set of average geometrical parameters (rsub(o)=1.10fm, rsub(LS)=1.0fm and asub(I)=0.60fm) is found to give good fits to the entire data, the other geometrical parameters being rsub(I)=(1.35+-0.15)fm, asub(o)=(0.75+-0.10)fm and asub(LS)=(0.35+-0.07)fm. The dynamical parameters with fixed geometry are presented

  14. Defect microstructure in copper alloys irradiated with 750 MeV protons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Horsewell, A.; Singh, B.N.

    1994-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks of pure copper and solid solution copper alloys containing 5 at% of Al, Mn, or Ni were irradiated with 750 MeV protons to damage levels between 0.4 and 2 displacements per atom (dpa) at irradiation temperatures between 60 and 200 degrees C. The defect...... significant effect on the total density of small defect clusters, but they did cause a significant decrease in the fraction of defect clusters resolvable as SFT to similar to 20 to 25%. In addition, the dislocation loop density (> 5 nm diameter) was more than an order of magnitude higher in the alloys...

  15. The investigation of deuteron production double differential cross section induced by 392 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kin, Tadahiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Imamura, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the deuteron productions from 392 MeV proton induced reaction for target nuclei of 12 C, 27 Al, 93 Nb. Deuteron production double differential cross sections were determined over a broad energy range and scattered angles from 20 to 105 degrees in laboratory system. Those spectra were compared with two theoretical models; Quantum Molecular Dynamics model and Intranuclear Cascade model. We developed the code of Intra Nuclear Cascade model and we've got good results to reproduce the experimental data. (author)

  16. Proton induced nuclear reactions on cadmium up 17 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Abyad, M.

    2012-01-01

    The cross-sections of proton induced reactions on nat Cd targets was studied in the energy range from threshold up to 17 MeV, using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and classical gamma-spectroscopy. We measured the formation cross-sections of the radioisotopes 109g,110m,110,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m In The obtained excitation functions were compared with the earlier published data and the theoretical model calculations by the codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS .

  17. Proton nucleus elastic scattering at 800 MeV: the role of intermediate isobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.P.; Maillet, J.P.; Lazard, C.; Lombard, R.J.

    1984-10-01

    Proton nucleus elastic scattering at 800 MeV has been calculated in the Glauber model for 16 O, 40 Ca, 48 Ca and 208 Pb. Nuclear densities are taken from Hartree-Fock-BCS calculations. For the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes, use is made of two recent phase shift analysis. The effects of intermediate isobars are included by means of a simple model. The results show that the experimental data are qualitatively understood. The polarization turns out to be quite sensitive to the intermediate isobar effects, which consequently need to be calculated more carefully

  18. Proton continuum spectra from deuteron break-up at 56 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, N.; Kondo, M.; Shimizu, A.; Saito, T.; Nagamachi, S. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Sakaguchi, H.; Ohtani, F.; Goto, A.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M [eds.

    1980-01-01

    Proton continuum spectra from deuteron break-up have been measured for 14 elements at 56 MeV. Each spectrum shows a prominent bump at forward angles. Projectile break-up calculations reproduce well the spectral shapes and the angular dependence of the bump spectra. The break-up cross section is nearly proportional to (A sup(1/3) + 0.8)/sup 2/. The total break-up cross section amounts to 24 - 35% of the deuteron total reaction cross section.

  19. Neutron shielding verification measurements and simulations for a 235-MeV proton therapy center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newhauser, W.D.; Titt, U.; Dexheimer, D.; Yan, X.; Nill, S.

    2002-01-01

    The neutron shielding at the Massachusetts General Hospital's 235-MeV proton therapy facility was investigated with measurements, analytical calculations, and realistic three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations. In 37 of 40 cases studied, the analytical calculations predicted higher neutron dose equivalent rates outside the shielding than the measured, typically by more than a factor of 10, and in some cases more than 100. Monte Carlo predictions of dose equivalent at three locations are, on average, 1.1 times the measured values. Except at one location, all of the analytical model predictions and Monte Carlo simulations overestimate neutron dose equivalent

  20. Residual Nuclides Induced in Cu Target by a 250 MeV Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bin; Zhang Xue-Ying; Ma Fei; Ju Yong-Qin; Ge Hong-Lin; Chen Liang; Zhang Yan-Bin; Li Yan-Yan; Luo Peng; Wang Jian-Guo; Wan Bo; Xu Xiao-Wei; Wei Ji-Fang; Zhou Bin

    2015-01-01

    Residual nuclide production is studied experimentally by bombarding a Cu target with a 250 MeV proton beam. The data are measured by the off-line γ-spectroscopy method. Six nuclides are identified and their cross sections are determined. The corresponding calculated results by the MCNPX and GEANT4 codes are compared with the experimental data to check the validity of the codes. A comparison shows that the MCNPX simulation has a better agreement with the experiment. The energy dependence of residual nuclide production is studied with the aid of MCNPX simulation, and it is found that the mass yields for the nuclides in the light mass region increase significantly with the proton energy. (paper)

  1. Double excitation of helium by 3 MeV proton impact: experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Gleizes, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benoit-Cattin, P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre de Physique Atomique); Andriamonje, S. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 -Gradignan (France)); Martin, F. (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica); Salin, A. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France))

    1992-08-14

    Doubly differential cross sections for the double excitation of helium by high velocity protons are measured and compared with the predictions of the first-order Born approximation. Preliminary experimental data for the shapes and intensities of the resonances 2s[sup 2] [sup 1]S, 2p[sup 2] [sup 1]D and 2s2p [sup 1]P have been obtained from high resolution electron spectra at 20[sup o], 90[sup o] and 150[sup o] for a proton energy of 3 MeV. Both experiment and theory show that the excitation of the [sup 1]P resonance largely exceeds the [sup 1]D and [sup 1]S ones at this collision velocity. The shape and emission yield of the [sup 1]P line is well described by theory over the whole angular range. The agreement for the other two resonances is not always satisfactory. (author).

  2. 12 MeV, 4.3 kW electron linear accelerator irradiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang Desheng; Lai Qiji

    2000-01-01

    Characteristics of an electron linear accelerator, which has 6-12 MeV energy, 4.2 kW average beam power is introduced. Results show that it has advantages on improving the characteristics of semiconductor devices such as diodes, triodes, SCR, preventing garlic from sprout, preservation of food, and so on

  3. Studying the destruction of various fluoropolymers caused by gamma - irradiation and MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allayarov, S.R.; Ol'khov, Yu.A.; Gordon, D.A.; Muntele, C.I.; Muntele, I.C.; Ila, D.; Dixon, D.A.; Kispert, L.D.; Nikolskij, V.G.

    2007-01-01

    While fluoropolymers are normally used as anti-adherent coating, they are intensely investigated for potential use in various radiation dosimeter applications as well as space technology. In order to understand the discrepancy between high chemical and thermal stability and low radiation stability of various fluoropolymers, we are bombarding them with 1 MeV protons to fluences up to 2·10 15 protons/cm 2 as well as subjected some of them to gamma-irradiation by dose of 10 kGy. During bombardment we are monitoring the emission of chemical species with a residual gas analyzer. Gamma-irradiated samples were tested by radio thermoluminescence method. The results we present here are a good indicator that material damage happens much earlier than 2·10 15 protons/cm 2 and that further work should be addressed at much smaller exposures. Radio thermoluminescence also can be used at small doses of irradiation (10-30 kGy). The thermomechanical curve of radiation-free polyvinyledenefluoride (PVDF) is characteristic for topologically di-block amorphous polymer of quasi-crossing structure. In the temperature range of from 173 K up to 228 K polymer is vitrified. The vitrification temperature of PVDF is 228 K. All molecular-relaxation and quantitative characteristics of PVDF were determined before and after its irradiation by protons. Protons caused significant changes in PVDF. From di-block amorphous it transformed in to amorphous-crystalline structure. An appreciable influence of dose at proton irradiation of polymer was revealed both on topological level and on molecular-relaxation one. (authors)

  4. Proton--proton analyzing power measurements at 16 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovoi, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to measure accurately the proton--proton analyzing powers at low energies. With the advent of polarized particle beams the measurement can now be made with high accuracy. Analyzing powers were measured at nine scattering angles from 10 0 to 35 0 in the laboratory system. As a check on systematic errors, analyzing power measurements were also made by scattering protons from 4 He. In the p vector-p case the measured values are in very good agreement with the phase shift predictions. The p vector- 4 He measurements, while giving the same form and sign as the phase shift predictions, differ from the predictions by as much as 11 standard deviations. The p vector-p analyzing powers had a maximum value of -0.0043 +- 0.0004 at 10 0 (laboratory) and decreased to zero near 25 0 . A new technique to measure analyzing powers without symmetric detectors is explained. This technique preserves the advantages of the symmetric arm method in that current integration, target density, detector efficiencies, and geometry are cancelled from the final expressions. A new scattering chamber, named the Supercube, is described. The Supercube was designed primarily to perform scattering experiments with a polarized beam. It contains both left-right and up-down detectors for use with both spin- 1 / 2 and spin-1 measurements. The Supercube was designed to make analyzing power measurements to an accuracy of 0.001 routine. The Supercube has proved to have low systematic errors and to perform as expected. The systematic errors were found to be equal to or less than 0.0002

  5. Proton--proton analyzing power measurements at 16 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovoi, P.A.

    1975-07-01

    Few attempts have been made to measure accurately the proton-proton analyzing powers at low energies. With the advent of polarized particle beams the measurement can now be made with high accuracy. Analyzing powers were measured at nine scattering angles from 10 0 to 35 0 in the laboratory system. As a check on systematic errors, analyzing power measurements were also made by scattering protons from 4 He. In the p Vector-p case the measured values are in very good agreement with the phase shift predictions. The p Vector- 4 He measurements, while giving the same form and sign as the phase shift predictions, differ from the predictions by as much as 11 standard deviations. The p Vector-p analyzing powers had a maximum value of -0.0043 +- 0.0004 at 10 0 (laboratory) and decreased to zero near 25 0 . A new technique to measure analyzing powers without symmetric detectors is explained. This technique preserves the advantages of the symmetric arm method in that current integration, target density, detector efficiencies, and geometry are cancelled from the final expressions. A new scattering chamber, named the Supercube, is described. The Supercube was designed primarily to perform scattering experiments with a polarized beam. It contains both left-right and up-down detectors for use with both spin-1/2 and spin-1 measurements. The Supercube was designed to make analyzing power measurements to an accuracy of 0.001 routine. The Supercube has proved to have low systematic errors and to perform as expected. The systematic errors were found to be equal to or less than 0.0002. (23 figures, 14 tables) (auth)

  6. Color centers of a borosilicate glass induced by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jishi; Wu, Jiehua; Zhao, Lili; Song, Lixin

    2013-05-01

    Optical absorption spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, Raman spectra of a borosilicate glass after irradiation by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray were studied. The process of irradiation inducing color centers in the glass was discussed. The band gap of the glass before and after 60Co-γ ray irradiation was studied using Mott and Davis's theory, and it was found that calculated change of the band gap introduced a paradox, because Mott and Davis's theory on the band gap cannot be adopted in the study on the irradiated glass.

  7. Target irradiation facility and targetry development at 160 MeV proton beam of Moscow linac

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuikov, B L; Konyakhin, N A; Vincent, J

    1999-01-01

    A facility has been built and successfully operated with the 160 MeV proton beam of Moscow Meson factory LINAC, Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk. The facility was created for various isotope production goals as well as for fundamental nuclear investigations at high intensity beam (100 mu A and more). An important part of the facility targetry system is a high-intensity beam monitoring collimator device. Measurements of the temperature distribution between collimator sectors, cooling water flow and temperature, and the beam current, provide an opportunity to compute beam losses and beam position. The target holder design allows easy insertion by manipulator and simultaneous bombardment of several different targets of various types and forms, and variation of proton energy on each target over a wide range below 160 MeV. The main target utilized for commercial sup 8 sup 2 Sr isotope production is metallic rubidium in a stainless-steel container. A regular wet chemistry ...

  8. Analysing power for neutron-proton scattering at 14.1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, J.E.; Chisholm, A.; Duder, J.C.; Garrett, R.; Poletti, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The analysing power Asub(y)(theta) for neutron-proton scattering has been measured at 14.1 MeV for c.m. angles between 50 0 and 157 0 . A polarized neutron beam was produced by the reaction 3 H(d,n) 4 He at 110 keV, using polarized deuterons from an atomic beam polarized ion source. Liquid and plastic scintillators were used for proton targets and the scattered particles were detected in an array of platic scintillators. Use of the associated alpha technique, multi-parameter recording of events and off-line computer treatment led to very low backgrounds. The results differ significantly from the predictions of the phase-shift analyses of Yale IV, Livermore X and Arndt et al. We find, however, excellent agreement with the predictions of the Paris potential of Lacombe et al. Existing n-p analysing power results up to 30 MeV are surveyed and found to be consistent. An attempt was made to look for an isospin splitting of the triplet P-wave phase shifts. (orig.)

  9. Compact superconducting 250 MeV proton cyclotron for the PSI PROSCAN proton therapy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillo, M.; Geisler, A.; Hobl, A.; Klein, H.U.; Krischel, D.; Meyer-Reumers, M.; Piel, C.; Blosser, H.; Kim, J.-W.; Marti, F.; Vincent, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Beijers, J.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    A cyclotron for proton therapy has to fulfill many requirements set by the specific operational and safety needs of a medical facility and the medical environment. These are for instance high extraction efficiency, high availability and reliability, simple and robust operation. ACCEL Instruments GmbH has refined the design concept of a medical cyclotron for the PSI PROSCAN project with the objective to use this cyclotron as the standard accelerator in complete proton therapy facilities, which ACCEL intends to market. Starting from the design, we have carried out further detail clarifications, optimizations and adaptations to the needs of PSI. The work was performed in a collaboration between ACCEL, NSCL and KVI in view of the requirements from the PSI PROSCAN project. An overview on the design will be given touching on subjects such as the 3D structural analysis of the coil, detailed magnetic modeling for optimization of the inner region and the spiral, optimization of the RF power, optimization of the cryogenic design based on available cryocoolers instead of a liquefaction plant and Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the heat balance produced by neutrons at 4K components

  10. A novel source of MeV positron bunches driven by energetic protons for PAS application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zongquan, E-mail: tqq1123@mail.ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xu, Wenzhen; Liu, Yanfen; Xiao, Ran; Kong, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ye, Bangjiao, E-mail: bjye@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel methodology of MeV positrons generation for PAS application. Feasibility of this proposal analyzed by G4Beamline and Transport have shown reasonable success. Using 2 Hz, 1.6 GeV, 100 ns and 1.5 μC/bunch proton bunches for bombarding a graphite target, about 100 ns e{sup +} bunches are generated. Quasi-monochromatic positrons in the range of 1–10 MeV included in these bunches have a flux of >10{sup 7}/s, peak brightness of 10{sup 14}/s. A magnetic-confinement beamline is utilized to transport the positrons and a “Fast Beam Chopper” is unprecedentedly extended to chop those relativistic bunches. The positron beam can be finally characterized by the energy range of 1–10 MeV and bunch width from one hundred ps up to 1 ns. Such ultrashort bunches can be useful in tomography-type positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) as well as other applications.

  11. A novel source of MeV positron bunches driven by energetic protons for PAS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zongquan; Xu, Wenzhen; Liu, Yanfen; Xiao, Ran; Kong, Wei; Ye, Bangjiao

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel methodology of MeV positrons generation for PAS application. Feasibility of this proposal analyzed by G4Beamline and Transport have shown reasonable success. Using 2 Hz, 1.6 GeV, 100 ns and 1.5 μC/bunch proton bunches for bombarding a graphite target, about 100 ns e+ bunches are generated. Quasi-monochromatic positrons in the range of 1-10 MeV included in these bunches have a flux of >107/s, peak brightness of 1014/s. A magnetic-confinement beamline is utilized to transport the positrons and a "Fast Beam Chopper" is unprecedentedly extended to chop those relativistic bunches. The positron beam can be finally characterized by the energy range of 1-10 MeV and bunch width from one hundred ps up to 1 ns. Such ultrashort bunches can be useful in tomography-type positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) as well as other applications.

  12. Ultrafast laser driven micro-lens to focus and energy select MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncian, Toma

    2008-05-01

    A technique for simultaneous focusing and energy selection of high-current, MeV proton beams using radial, transient electric fields (10 7 -10 10 V/m) triggered on the inner wall of a hollow micro-cylinder by an intense, sub-picosecond laser-pulse is presented. Due to the transient nature of the radial focusing field, the proposed method allows selection of a desired range out of the spectrum of the poly-energetic proton beam. This technique addresses current drawbacks of laser-accelerated proton beams, i.e. their broad spectrum and divergence at the source. This thesis presents both experimental and computational studies that led to the understanding of the physical processes driving the micro-lens. After an one side irradiation of a hollow metallic cylinder a radial electric field develops inside the cylinder. Hot electrons generated by the interaction between laser pulse and cylinder wall spread inside the cylinder generating a plasma at the wall. This plasma expands into vacuum and sustains an electric field that acts as a collecting lens on a proton beam propagating axially through the cylinder. Both focusing and the reduction of the intrinsic beam divergence from 20 deg to.3 deg for a narrow spectral range was demonstrated. By sub-aperturing the beam a narrow spectral range (δε/ε < 3%) was selected from the poly-energetic beam. The micro-lens properties are tunable allowing for optimization towards applications. Optical probing techniques and proton imaging were employed to study the spacial and temporal evolution of the field and revealed a complex physical scenario of the rise and decay of the radial electric field. Each aspect studied experimentally is interpreted using 2D PIC and ray tracing simulations. A very good agreement between the experimental and computational data is found. The PIC simulations are used to upscale the demonstrated micro-lens capabilities to the focusing of a 270 MeV proton beam, an energy relevant for medical applications such

  13. Ultrafast laser driven micro-lens to focus and energy select MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toncian, Toma

    2008-05-15

    A technique for simultaneous focusing and energy selection of high-current, MeV proton beams using radial, transient electric fields (10{sup 7}-10{sup 10} V/m) triggered on the inner wall of a hollow micro-cylinder by an intense, sub-picosecond laser-pulse is presented. Due to the transient nature of the radial focusing field, the proposed method allows selection of a desired range out of the spectrum of the poly-energetic proton beam. This technique addresses current drawbacks of laser-accelerated proton beams, i.e. their broad spectrum and divergence at the source. This thesis presents both experimental and computational studies that led to the understanding of the physical processes driving the micro-lens. After an one side irradiation of a hollow metallic cylinder a radial electric field develops inside the cylinder. Hot electrons generated by the interaction between laser pulse and cylinder wall spread inside the cylinder generating a plasma at the wall. This plasma expands into vacuum and sustains an electric field that acts as a collecting lens on a proton beam propagating axially through the cylinder. Both focusing and the reduction of the intrinsic beam divergence from 20 deg to.3 deg for a narrow spectral range was demonstrated. By sub-aperturing the beam a narrow spectral range ({delta}{epsilon}/{epsilon} < 3%) was selected from the poly-energetic beam. The micro-lens properties are tunable allowing for optimization towards applications. Optical probing techniques and proton imaging were employed to study the spacial and temporal evolution of the field and revealed a complex physical scenario of the rise and decay of the radial electric field. Each aspect studied experimentally is interpreted using 2D PIC and ray tracing simulations. A very good agreement between the experimental and computational data is found. The PIC simulations are used to upscale the demonstrated micro-lens capabilities to the focusing of a 270 MeV proton beam, an energy relevant

  14. Tensile properties of several 800 MeV proton-irradiated bcc metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Wechsler, M.S.; Tschalar, C.

    1987-01-01

    A spallation neutron source for the 600-MeV proton accelerator facility at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN) consists of a vertical cylinder filled with molten Pb-Bi. The proton beam enters the cylinder, passing upward through a window in contact with the Pb-Bi eutectic liquid that must retain reasonable strength and ductility upon irradiation at about 673 K to fluence of about 1 x 10/sup 25/ protons/m/sup 2/. Investigations are underway at the 800-MeV proton accelerator at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) to test the performance of candidate SIN window materials under appropriate conditions of temperature, irradiation, and environment. Based on considerations of chemical compatibility with molten Pb-Bi, as well as interest in identifying fundamental radiation damage mechanisms, Fe, Ta, Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo, and Fe-12Cr-1Mo(HT-9) were chosen as candidate materials. Sheet tensile samples, 0.5-mm thick, of the four materials were fabricated and heat treated. The samples were sealed inside capsules containing Pb-Bi and were proton-irradiated at LAMPF to two fluences, 4.8 and 54 x 10/sup 23/ p/m/sup 2/. The beam current was approximately equal to the 1 mA anticipated for the upgraded SIN accelerator. The power deposited by the proton beam in the capsules was sufficient to maintain sample temperatures of about 673 K. Post-irradiation tensile tests were conducted at room temperature at a strain rate of 9 x 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/. The yield and ultimate strengths increased upon irradiation in all materials, while the ductility decreased, as indicated by the uniform strain. The pure metals, Ta and Fe, exhibited the greatest radiation hardening and embrittlement. The HT-9 alloy showed the smallest changes in strength and ductility. The increase in strength following irradiation is discussed in terms of a dispersed-barrier hardening model, for which the barrier sizes and formation cross sections are calculated

  15. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 2 to 10 MeV protons by lithium isotopes; Diffusion elastique et inelastique des protons de 2 a 10 MeV par les isotopes du lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurat, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the experimental set-up which has been devised for carrying out spectrometric and absolute cross-section measurements on the reactions induced by protons accelerated in a 12 MeV Van de Graaff Tandem. The particles are detected by silicon junctions; the weight of the targets (about ten {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) is determined by the quartz method. The experimental equipment has been controlled by a study of proton scattering by lithium-6, and has made it possible to evaluate the elastic and inelastic scattering (1. level excitation) by lithium 7 of 2 to 9 MeV protons. The most probable spin and parity values for the six levels of {sup 8}Be between 19 and 25 MeV excitation energy have been determined from a knowledge of the observed structure. (author) [French] Nous decrivons le dispositif experimental mis au point pour effectuer les mesures de spectrometrie et de section efficace absolue pour les reactions induites par des protons acceleres par un Van de Graaff Tandem 12 MeV. Les particules sont detectees par des jonctions au silicium, le poids des cibles (de l'ordre d'une dizaine de {mu}g/cm{sup 2}), mesure par la methode du quartz. L'ensemble de l'appareillage a ete controle par l'etude de la diffusion des protons par le lithium 6, et nous a permis de preciser les diffusions elastiques et inelastiques (excitation du 1er niveau) des protons de 2 a 9 MeV par le lithium 7. La structure observee a permis de determiner les spin et parite les plus probables de six niveaux du {sup 8}Be entre 19 et 25 MeV d'energie d'excitation. (auteur)

  16. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 2 to 10 MeV protons by lithium isotopes; Diffusion elastique et inelastique des protons de 2 a 10 MeV par les isotopes du lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurat, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the experimental set-up which has been devised for carrying out spectrometric and absolute cross-section measurements on the reactions induced by protons accelerated in a 12 MeV Van de Graaff Tandem. The particles are detected by silicon junctions; the weight of the targets (about ten {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) is determined by the quartz method. The experimental equipment has been controlled by a study of proton scattering by lithium-6, and has made it possible to evaluate the elastic and inelastic scattering (1. level excitation) by lithium 7 of 2 to 9 MeV protons. The most probable spin and parity values for the six levels of {sup 8}Be between 19 and 25 MeV excitation energy have been determined from a knowledge of the observed structure. (author) [French] Nous decrivons le dispositif experimental mis au point pour effectuer les mesures de spectrometrie et de section efficace absolue pour les reactions induites par des protons acceleres par un Van de Graaff Tandem 12 MeV. Les particules sont detectees par des jonctions au silicium, le poids des cibles (de l'ordre d'une dizaine de {mu}g/cm{sup 2}), mesure par la methode du quartz. L'ensemble de l'appareillage a ete controle par l'etude de la diffusion des protons par le lithium 6, et nous a permis de preciser les diffusions elastiques et inelastiques (excitation du 1er niveau) des protons de 2 a 9 MeV par le lithium 7. La structure observee a permis de determiner les spin et parite les plus probables de six niveaux du {sup 8}Be entre 19 et 25 MeV d'energie d'excitation. (auteur)

  17. Beam dynamics simulation of a double pass proton linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilean Hwang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A recirculating superconducting linear accelerator with the advantage of both straight and circular accelerator has been demonstrated with relativistic electron beams. The acceleration concept of a recirculating proton beam was recently proposed [J. Qiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 795, 77 (2015NIMAER0168-900210.1016/j.nima.2015.05.056] and is currently under study. In order to further support the concept, the beam dynamics study on a recirculating proton linear accelerator has to be carried out. In this paper, we study the feasibility of a two-pass recirculating proton linear accelerator through the direct numerical beam dynamics design optimization and the start-to-end simulation. This study shows that the two-pass simultaneous focusing without particle losses is attainable including fully 3D space-charge effects through the entire accelerator system.

  18. Inclusive proton spectra and total reaction cross sections for proton-nucleus scattering at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Current applications of multiple scattering theory to describe the elastic scattering of medium energy protons from nuclei have been shown to be quite successful in reproducing the experimental cross sections. These calculations use the impulse approximation, wherein the scattering from individual nucleons in the nucleus is described by the scattering amplitude for a free nucleon. Such an approximation restricts the inelastic channels to those initiated by nucleon-nucleon scattering. As a first step in determining the nature of p + nucleus scattering at 800 MeV, both total reaction cross sections and (p,p') inclusive cross sections were measured and compared to the free p + p cross sections for hydrogen, deuterium, calcium 40, carbon 12, and lead 208. It is concluded that as much as 85% of all reactions in a nucleus proceed from interactions with a single nucleon in the nucleus, and that the impulse approximation is a good starting point for a microscopic description of p + nucleus interactions at 800 MeV

  19. Comparison between calculation and measurement of energy deposited by 800 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewe, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The High Energy Transport Code, HETC, was obtained from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and altered as necessary to run on a CDC 7600 using the LTSS software in use at LLNL. HETC was then used to obtain calculated estimates of energy deposited, for comparison with a series of benchmark experiments done by LLNL. These experiments used proton beams of various energies incident on well-defined composite targets in good geometry. In this report, two aspects of the comparison between calculated and experimental energy depositions from an 800 MeV proton beam are discussed. Both aspects involve the fact that workers at SAI had previously used their version of HETC to calculate this experiment and reported their comparison with the measured data. The first aspect addressed is that their calculated data and LLNL calculations do not agree, suggesting an error in the conversion process from the RSIC code. The second aspect is not independent of the first, but is of sufficient importance to merit separate emphasis. It is that the SAI calculations agree well with experiments at the detector plate located some distance from the shower plate, whereas the LLNL calculations show a clearcut discrepancy there in comparison with the experiment. A contract was let in January 1980 by LLNL with SAI in order to obtain full details on the two cited aspects of the comparison between calculated and experimental energy depositions from an 800 MeV proton beam. The ensuing discussion is based on the final report of that contracted work

  20. Water calorimetry and ionization chamber dosimetry in an 85-MeV clinical proton beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmans, H; Seuntjens, J; Verhaegen, F; Denis, J M; Vynckier, S; Thierens, H

    1996-05-01

    In recent years, the increased use of proton beams for clinical purposes has enhanced the demand for accurate absolute dosimetry for protons. As calorimetry is the most direct way to establish the absorbed dose and because water has recently been accepted as standard material for this type of beam, the importance of water calorimetry is obvious. In this work we report water calorimeter operation in an 85-MeV proton beam and a comparison of the absorbed dose to water measured by ionometry with the dose resulting from water calorimetric measurements. To ensure a proper understanding of the heat defect for defined impurities in water for this type of radiation, a relative response study was first done in comparison with theoretical calculations of the heat defect. The results showed that pure hypoxic water and hydrogen-saturated water yielded the same response with practically zero heat defect, in agreement with the model calculations. The absorbed dose inferred from these measurements was then compared with the dose derived from ionometry by applying the European Charged Heavy Particle Dosimetry (ECHED) protocol. Restricting the comparison to chambers recommended in the protocol, the calorimeter dose was found to be 2.6% +/- 0.9% lower than the average ionometry dose. In order to estimate the significance of chamber-dependent effects in this deviation, measurements were performed using a set of ten ionization chambers of five different types. The maximum internal deviation in the ionometry results amounted to 1.1%. We detected no systematic chamber volume dependence, but observed a small but systematic effect of the chamber wall thickness. The observed deviation between calorimetry and ionometry can be attributed to a combination of the value of (Wair/e)p for protons, adopted in the ECHED protocol, the mass stopping power ratios of water to air for protons, and possibly small ionization chamber wall effects.

  1. Spin excitations in 48Ca and 90Zr with 319 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, S.K.

    1985-05-01

    Cross sections, analyzing powers, and spin-flip probabilities have been measured in the low momentum transfer region in the 90 Zr(p vector, p' vector) 90 Zr* reaction at 319 MeV. A rich fine structure is observed for the first time in inelastic proton scattering in the previously proposed M1 giant resonance region. Angular distribution of most of these states are consistent with M1 excitation. The excitation energies of the fine structure states are in good agreement with similar structure seen in electron scattering; however, discrepancies in spin assignments remain. The measured cross section for the entire bump is about 37 +- 10% of the Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation (DWIA) prediction for the M1 strength in 90 Zr with simple wave functions. However, an analysis of the fine structure states reveals about 15% of the strength in the M1 region to be due to narrow El states; another 8% is attributed to M2 strength. The spin-flip measurements for 90 Zr reveal a large spin-flip probability value for the M1 region; good agreement is obtained with DWIA calculations. However, a large cross section for spin excitations distributed uniformly over the excitation energy region from about 7 to 25 MeV is observed for the first time. The spin excitation strength in this giant resonance continuum is found to about 0.80 mb/sr/MeV. Angular distributions for the spin-flip cross sections from 7 to 18 MeV in steps of 2 MeV have been analyzed with low multipole spin excitation calculations in the DWIA framework; the observed spin-flip strength in this region is found to be consistent with spin excitation involving angular momentum transfer of up to two. Finally, cross section, analyzing power, and spin-flip probability data have also been obtained for the 10.23 MeV M1 transition in the 48 Ca(p vector, p' vector) 48 Ca* reaction at 319 MeV. The quenching of M1 strength in 48 Ca relative to theoretical predictions is found to be consistent with previous work

  2. 7.5 MeV High Average Power Linear Accelerator System for Food Irradiation Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenberger, Carl; Palmer, Dennis; Wong, Sik-Lam; Robison, Greg; Miller, Bruce; Shimer, Daniel

    2005-09-01

    In December 2004 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of 7.5 MeV X-rays for irradiation of food products. The increased efficiency for treatment at 7.5 MeV (versus the previous maximum allowable X-ray energy of 5 MeV) will have a significant impact on processing rates and, therefore, reduce the per-package cost of irradiation using X-rays. Titan Pulse Sciences Division is developing a new food irradiation system based on this ruling. The irradiation system incorporates a 7.5 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) that is capable of 100 kW average power. A tantalum converter is positioned close to the exit window of the scan horn. The linac is an RF standing waveguide structure based on a 5 MeV accelerator that is used for X-ray processing of food products. The linac is powered by a 1300 MHz (L-Band) klystron tube. The electrical drive for the klystron is a solid state modulator that uses inductive energy store and solid-state opening switches. The system is designed to operate 7000 hours per year. Keywords: Rf Accelerator, Solid state modulator, X-ray processing

  3. Tensor analyzing powers in deuteron--proton elastic scattering and the breakup reaction at 45.4 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzett, H.E.

    1978-08-01

    Recently the tensor analyzing powers in vector d + p elastic scattering and in the breakup reaction at E/sub d/ = 45.4 MeV were measured. The elastic results now establish a rather complete set of polarization data in nucleon--deuteron scattering at E/sub N/ = 22.7 MeV, which consists of the proton analyzing power, the deuteron vector and tensor analyzing powers, and vector polarization transfer measurements, as well. 8 references

  4. Optimum design for 12 MeV linear induction accelerator diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haijun; Shi Jinshui; Li Qin; He Guorong; Ma Bing; Wang Jingsheng; Wang Liping

    2001-01-01

    A series of optimization designs of electron diode in 12 Mev linear induction accelerator are studied by using numerical simulation code MAGIC and experiment method in order to improve the electron beam quality. MAGIC code solves the Maxwell equations in the presence of charged particle, electron field distribution on cathode surface which influences electron emission is given, the optimum diode is obtained by comparing the results of experiment in 12 MeV linear induction accelerator. The author also gives SEM analysis and experiment comparison of velvet emission. Finally, emitted current I e = 8.52 kA, beam current I 8 ≥ 3.0 kA, targeted current I 0 ≥ 2.30 kA with optimum diode are obtained

  5. Contribution of giant resonances in elastic and inelastic scattering of polarized protons on 12C between 19 and 23MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, Y.R.

    1975-01-01

    Angular distributions of analyzing power and differential cross section have been measured for the elastic and inelastic scattering of polarized protons on 12 C, up to 12.7MeV excitation energy. Incident energy varied from 19 to 23MeV by steps of about 200keV, the cyclotron beam energy, varying by steps of about 1MeV, was measured using crossover techniques. Fine steps of energy were obtained by use of carbon absorbers. Elastic scattering data were analyzed using a linear energy-dependent optical model. Data for the level at 4.4MeV excitation energy were analyzed using coupled channel calculations. Preliminary results for the level (1 - , Esub(x)=12.7MeV) were analyzed including giant resonances as doorways states in inelastic scattering, according to Geramb-Amos formalism. This analysis shows that it should be possible to study high-lying giant resonances through their contribution to low-lying state excitation [fr

  6. Depolarization in the elastic scattering of 17 MeV polarized protons from 9Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    The Wolfenstein depolarization parameter D(theta) was measured for the elastic scattering of 17-MeV protons from 9 Be at laboratory scattering angles between 70 0 and 120 0 in 10 0 steps with uncertainties ranging from 0.05 to 0.07. The reaction was initiated by polarized protons and the polarization of those protons elastically scattered by the 9 Be analyzed using a high-resolution, silicon polarimeter. Several of the measured values of D(theta) differed significantly from unity, indicating non-zero probability for proton spin-flip in the elastic scattering process. Theoretical estimates of the depolarization-parameter angular distribution have been made using a multipole expansion of the elastic-scattering amplitude in terms of the amount of angular momentum transferred to the target nucleus during the scattering process. Here the J = 0, 1 and 2 contributions to the scattering amplitude have been explicitly treated for the scattering from 9 Be(I = 3 / 2 ). The J = 0 terms are calculated using the standard, spherical optical-model. The J = 1 and 2 terms can be calculated using DWBA. Both spherical and tensor forms are considered for the J = 1 interaction. The spin-flip probabilities predicted assuming reasonable strengths for the J = 1 potentials are much smaller than those observed experimentally. The J = 2 contribution to the spin-flip probability is calculated assuming a rotational model for 9 Be. Predictions of the J = 2, elastic spin-flip probability are substantially larger than the predictions for the J = 1 contribution and are in rough agreement with the present data. The results of recent coupled-channels calculations also support the conclusion that large elastic spin-flip probabilities can be produced by the J = 2 term in the elastic scattering amplitude

  7. DoPET: an in-treatment monitoring system for proton therapy at 62 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, V.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M. G.; Camarlinghi, N.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Collini, F.; Cuttone, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Milluzzo, G.; Morrocchi, M.; Raffaele, L.; Romano, F.; Sportelli, G.; Zaccaro, E.

    2016-12-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy is highly effective in treating cancer thanks to its conformal dose deposition. This superior capability in dose deposition has led to a massive growth of the treated patients around the world, raising the need of treatment monitoring systems. An in-treatment PET system, DoPET, was constructed and tested at CATANA beam-line, LNS-INFN in Catania, where 62 MeV protons are used to treat ocular melanoma. The PET technique profits from the beta+ emitters generated by the proton beam in the irradiated body, mainly 15-O and 11-C. The current DoPET prototype consists of two planar 15 cm × 15 cm LYSO-based detector heads. With respect to the previous versions, the system was enlarged and the DAQ up-graded during the years so now also anthropomorphic phantoms, can be fitted within the field of view of the system. To demonstrate the capability of DoPET to detect changes in the delivered treatment plan with respect to the planned one, various treatment plans were used delivering a standard 15 Gy fraction to an anthropomorphic phantom. Data were acquired during and after the treatment delivery up to 10 minutes. When the in-treatment phase was long enough (more than 1 minute), the corresponding activated volume was visible just after the treatment delivery, even if in presence of a noisy background. The after-treatment data, acquired for about 9 minutes, were segmented finding that few minutes are enough to be able to detect changes. These experiments will be presented together with the studies performed with PMMA phantoms where the DoPET response was characterized in terms of different dose rates and in presence of range shifters: the system response is linear up to 16.9 Gy/min and has the ability to see a 1 millimeter range shifter.

  8. DoPET: an in-treatment monitoring system for proton therapy at 62 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, V.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Camarlinghi, N.; Guerra, A. Del; Morrocchi, M.; Sportelli, G.; Zaccaro, E.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Milluzzo, G.; Raffaele, L.; Romano, F.; Collini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy is highly effective in treating cancer thanks to its conformal dose deposition. This superior capability in dose deposition has led to a massive growth of the treated patients around the world, raising the need of treatment monitoring systems. An in-treatment PET system, DoPET, was constructed and tested at CATANA beam-line, LNS-INFN in Catania, where 62 MeV protons are used to treat ocular melanoma. The PET technique profits from the beta+ emitters generated by the proton beam in the irradiated body, mainly 15-O and 11-C. The current DoPET prototype consists of two planar 15 cm × 15 cm LYSO-based detector heads. With respect to the previous versions, the system was enlarged and the DAQ up-graded during the years so now also anthropomorphic phantoms, can be fitted within the field of view of the system. To demonstrate the capability of DoPET to detect changes in the delivered treatment plan with respect to the planned one, various treatment plans were used delivering a standard 15 Gy fraction to an anthropomorphic phantom. Data were acquired during and after the treatment delivery up to 10 minutes. When the in-treatment phase was long enough (more than 1 minute), the corresponding activated volume was visible just after the treatment delivery, even if in presence of a noisy background. The after-treatment data, acquired for about 9 minutes, were segmented finding that few minutes are enough to be able to detect changes. These experiments will be presented together with the studies performed with PMMA phantoms where the DoPET response was characterized in terms of different dose rates and in presence of range shifters: the system response is linear up to 16.9 Gy/min and has the ability to see a 1 millimeter range shifter.

  9. High intensity proton linear accelerator for Neutron Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP) which will be composed of a high intensity proton accelerator and various research facilities. With an energy of 1.5 GeV and a beam power of 8 MW, the accelerator is required for basic research fields and nuclear waste transmutation studies. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the accelerator. In the low energy accelerator part, a beam test with an ion source and an RFQ has been performed with a current of 80 mA and a duty factor of 10% at an energy of 2 MeV. A 1 m long high power test model of DTL has been fabricated and tested with a duty factor of 20%. In the high energy accelerator part, a superconducting (SC) linac has been selected as a main option from 100 MeV to 1.5 GeV. A test stand for SC linac cavity with equipment of cryogenics, vacuum, RF source and cavity processing and cleaning system has been prepared to test the fabrication process and physics issues. The vertical tests of β = 0.5 (145 MeV) and β = 0.89 (1.1 GeV) single cell SC cavities have been made resulting in a maximum electric field strength of 44 MV/m and 47 MV/m at 2 K, respectively. (author)

  10. Research Programme for the 660 Mev Proton Accelerator Driven MOX-Plutonium Subcritical Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Buttseva, G L; Dudarev, S Yu; Polanski, A; Puzynin, I V; Sissakian, A N

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a research programme of the Experimental Acclerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton acceletator operating at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of the JINR, Dubna. MOX fuel (25% PuO_2 + 75% UO_2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core of a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient k_eff = 0.945, energetic gain G = 30 and the accelerator beam power 0.5 kW.

  11. Mutation effect of MeV protons on bioflocculant bacteria Bacillus cereus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.N.; Ren, N.; Xue, J.M.; Yang, J.; Rong, B.L.

    2007-01-01

    A 3.2 MeV proton beam was used to irradiate bioflocculant bacteria (Bacillus cereus) to achieve mutation. The ion fluence ranged from 10 11 to 10 14 /cm 2 . Most of the bacteria were killed when the ion fluence reached 10 12 ions/cm 2 . The survival ratio drops in an exponential way on further increasing the ion fluence. The flocculating activity of 7 samples out of 51 showed a positive change, and a perfect mutant C7-23 with a stable high capacity of bioflocculant production was found. RAPD measurements showed that a new lane appears in this sample. The flocculating activity of the C7-23 bacteria increased by factors of 22%, 54% and 217% under pH values of 4, 7 or 10, respectively

  12. Research programme for the 660 MeV proton accelerator driven MOX-plutonium subcritical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Buttsev, V.S.; Buttseva, G.L.; Dudarev, S.Yu.; Polanski, A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Sissakyan, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a research programme of the Experimental Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of the JINR, Dubna. MOX fuel (25% PuO 2 + 75% UO 2 ) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core of a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient k eff = 0.945, energetic gain G=30 and the accelerator beam power 0.5 kW

  13. 800-MeV proton irradiation of thorium and depleted uranium targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, G.J.; Brun, T.O.; Pitcher, E.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    As part of the Los Alamos Fertile-to-Fissile-Conversion (FERFICON) program in the late 1980`s, thick targets of the fertile materials thorium and depleted uranium were bombarded by 800-MeV protons to produce the fissile materials {sup 233}U and {sup 239}Pu, respectively. The amount of {sup 233}U made was determined by measuring the {sup 233}Pa activity, and the yield of {sup 239}Pu was deduced by measuring the activity of {sup 239}Np. For the thorium target, 4 spallation products and 34 fission products were also measured. For the depleted uranium target, 3 spallation products and 16 fission products were also measured. The number of fissions in each target was deduced from fission product mass-yield curves. In actuality, axial distributions of the products were measured, and the distributions were then integrated over the target volume to obtain the total number of products for each reaction.

  14. Parity nonconservation in the proton-deuteron total cross section at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischke, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    A measurement of parity nonconservation in the transmission of 800-MeV longitudinally-polarized protons through an unpolarized, one- meter liquid-deuterium target is discussed. The apparatus was essentially that same as for a previous measurement of the effect in p-p scattering. The longitudinal asymmetry is measured from the change in transmission of the beam through the target as the helicity of the beam is reversed. The preliminary result is A/sub L/ = (1.7 +- 0.8(stat) +- 1.0(sys)) /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/. Further study of the dependence of transmission on beam properties should allow the estimate of systematic errors to be reduced and may alter the central value of the result. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Proton-proton correlations at small relative momentum in neon-nucleus collisions at E/A=400 and 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupieux, P.; Alard, J.P.; Augerat, J.; Bastid, N.; Charmensat, P.; Fraysse, L.; Marroncle, J.; Montarou, G.; Parizet, M.J.; Qassoud, D.; Rahmani, A.; Fodor, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Proton-proton small angle correlations have been measured in neon-nucleus collisions, using the 4π detector Diogene, at 400 and 800 MeV per nucleon incident energies. Values of the size of the emitting region are obtained by comparison with the Koonin formula, taking into account the biases of the apparatus. The dependence of the density of target mass and incident energy is also analysed. (orig.)

  16. Utilization of new 150-MeV neutron and proton evaluations in MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.C.; Frankle, S.C.; Hughes, H.G. III; Prael, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    MCNP trademark and LAHET trademark are two of the codes included in the LARAMIE (Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment) code system. Both MCNP and LAHET are three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. The capabilities of MCNP and LAHET are currently being merged into one code for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Concurrently, a significant effort is underway to improve the accuracy of the physics in the merged code. In particular, full nuclear-data evaluations (in ENDF6 format) for many materials of importance to APT are being produced for incident neutrons and protons up to an energy of 150-MeV. After processing, cross-section tables based on these new evaluations will be available for use fin the merged code. In order to utilize these new cross-section tables, significant enhancements are required for the merged code. Neutron cross-section tables for MCNP currently specify emission data for neutrons and photons only; the new evaluations also include complete neutron-induced data for protons, deuterons, tritons, and alphas. In addition, no provision in either MCNP or LAHET currently exists for the use of incident charged-particle tables other than for electrons. To accommodate the new neutron-induced data, it was first necessary to expand the format definition of an MCNP neutron cross-section table. The authors have prepared a 150-MeV neutron cross-section library in this expanded format for 15 nuclides. Modifications to MCNP have been implemented so that this expanded neutron library can be utilized

  17. A fully microscopic model of 200 MeV proton-12C elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karataglidis, S.; Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.; de Swiniarski, R.

    1996-01-01

    An effective two nucleon (NN) interaction in the nuclear medium is defined from an accurate mapping of the NN g matrices obtained by solving the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations for infinite nuclear matter. That effective interaction is used in a fully microscopic calculation of the nonlocal effective proton- 12 C interaction from which are obtained predictions of the differential cross section and analysing power for 200 MeV elastic scattering. The relative motion wave functions so found are used as the distorted waves in a distorted wave approximation (DWA) study of select inelastic scattering events. The effective NN interaction is used as the transition operator in those calculations. The relevant nuclear spectroscopy for the elastic and DWA (p, p') calculations is found from a full (0 + 2) ℎω shell model evaluation of the positive parity states while a restricted (1 + 3)ℎω has been used to give the negative parity states. Results are compared with those of the 0p-shell model of Cohen and Kurath or with those based upon axially symmetric, projected Hartree-Fock calculations. The diverse structure model wave functions are assessed by using them in calculations to compare with measured longitudinal, transverse electric and transverse magnetic form factors from electron scattering to many of the excited states of 12 C. Using those models of the structure of 12 C in the completely microscopic model of the elastic and inelastic scattering of 200 MeV protons, good fits have been found to the cross section and analysing power data. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs

  18. Dose distribution outside the target volume for 170-MeV proton beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Ambrožová, Iva; Kubančák, Ján; Puchalska, M.; Vondráček, V.; Molokanov, A. G.; Sihver, L.; Davídková, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 161, 1-4 (2014), s. 410-416 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : linear energy transfer * proton beams * particles Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.913, year: 2014

  19. Energetic proton analysis at large angle by 200 MeV proton scattering on nuclei: inclusive spectra; proton-gamma coincidence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zoubidi, M.

    1984-01-01

    With a large acceptance magnet, both in momentum (300-700 MeV/c) and angle (10 0 ), backward energetic proton inclusive cross sections were measured for 200 MeV protons hitting 6 Li, 27 Al, 28 Si, 58 Ni and 197 Au targets. The data are analysed using the ''Quasi Two Body Scaling'' (QTBS) picture and also compared with the predictions at a standard cascade code. This QTBS approch assumes the dominance of the single scattering mechanism. It is shown that a scaling regime is reached for several data taken at incident energies at about 200 MeV/A. These data are remarkably well reproduced using a universal one nucleon momentum density distribution for A > approximately 20. A (p-γ) coincidence experiment was performed on 28 Si target, at 80 0 . Preliminary results indicates also single nucleon-nucleon collision, but the other low energy nucleon interacts with the residuel nucleus. Excitation energy transferred to the system is about 50 MeV [fr

  20. Proton damage in linear and digital opto-couplers; Effets des protons sur des optocoupleurs lineaires et numeriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, A.; Rax, B.G. [California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses proton degradation of linear and digital opto-couplers. One obvious way to harden opto-coupler technologies is to select LEDs (light emitting diodes) that are more resistant to displacement damage. A direct comparison is made of degradation of a commercial linear opto-coupler from one manufactured with a modified version of the same device with a different LED technology. Other factors, including degradation of optical photoresponse and transistor gain are also discussed, along with basic comparisons of digital and analog opto-couplers. The experimental work has been made with 50 MeV protons. 3 underlying factors contribute to opto-coupler degradation. The most important factor is LED degradation, it is possible to select opto-coupler with double-heterojunction LEDs that are inherently more resistant to displacement damage. The second factor is gain degradation that is particularly important for opto-couplers with sensitive LEDs because the light output decreases so much at low radiation levels. The third factor, optical photoresponse is the largest contribution to CTR (current transfer ratio) degradation for opto-couplers with improved LED hardness. Photoresponse degradation depends on wavelength because the absorption coefficient is wavelength dependent. (A.C.)

  1. Study on strontium isotope abundance-ratio measurements by using a 13-MeV proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ki; Jang, Han; Lee, Goung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The Rb-Sr dating method is used in dating Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks. This method measures the 87Rb and the 87Sr concentrations by using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) [J. Hefne et al., Inter. J. Phys. Sci. 3(1), 28 (2008)]. In addition, it calculates the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio to increase the reliability of Rb-Sr dating. In this study, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was measured by using a 13-MeV proton accelerator. Proton kinetic energies are in the range of tens of megaelectronvolts, and protons have large absorption cross-sections for ( p, n) reactions with most substances. After absorbing a proton with such a high kinetic energy, an element is converted into a nuclide with its atomic number increased by one via nuclear transmutation. These nuclides usually have short half-lives and return to the original state through radioactive decay. When a strontium sample is irradiated with protons, nuclear transmutation occurs; thus, the strontium isotope present in the sample changes to a yttrium isotope, which is an activated radioisotope. Based on this, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was calculated by analyzing the gamma-rays emitted by each yttrium isotope. The KIRAMS-13 cyclotron at the Cyclotron Center of Chosun University, where 13-MeV protons can be extracted, was utilized in our experiment. The 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio was computed for samples irradiated with these protons, and the result was similar to the isotope ratio for the Standard Reference Material, i.e., 98.2 ± 3.4%. As part of the analysis, proton activation analyses were performed using 13-MeV protons, and the experimental results of this research suggest a possible approach for measuring the strontium-isotope abundance ratio of samples.

  2. Dynamic Pressure of Liquid Mercury Target During 800-MeV Proton Thermal Shock Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.; Andriulli, J.B.; Cates, M.R.; Earl, D.D.; Haines, J.R.; Morrissey, F.X.; Tsai, C.C.; Wender, S.

    2000-01-01

    Described here are efforts to diagnose transient pressures generated by a short-pulse (about 0.5 microseconds) high intensity proton (∼ 2 * 10 14 per pulse) beam. Proton energy is 800-MeV. The tests were performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE-WNR). Such capability is required for understanding target interaction for the Spallation Neutron Source project as described previously at this conference.1-4 The main approach to effect the pressure measurements utilized the deflection of a diaphragm in intimate contact with the mercury. There are a wide variety of diaphragm-deflection methods used in scientific and industrial applications. Many deflection-sensing approaches are typically used, including, for instance, capacitive and optical fiber techniques. It was found, however, that conventional pressure measurement using commercial pressure gages with electrical leads was not possible due to the intense nuclear radiation environment. Earlier work with a fiber optic strain gauge demonstrated the viability of using fiber optics for this environment

  3. 600 MeV Simulation of the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Meteorites by Galactic Protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A large variety of stable and radioactive nuclides is produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays with extraterrestrial matter. Measurements of such cosmogenic nuclides provide information about the constancy of cosmic ray fluxes in space and time and about the irradiation history of individual extraterrestrial objects provided that there exist reliable models describing the production process. For the calculation of the depth dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites no satisfactory Therefore, the irradiation of small stony meteorites (radii~$<$~40~cm) by galactic protons is simulated in a series of thick target irradiation experiments at the 600~MeV proton beam of the SC. \\\\ \\\\ The thick targets are spheres (R = 5, 15, 25 cm) and are made out of diorite because of its low water content, its high density (3.0~g/cm|3) and because it provides a good approximation of the chemical composition of some common meteorite clas These spheres will also contain a wide variety of pure...

  4. High current proton linear accelerators and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnicliffe, P.R.; Chidley, B.G.; Fraser, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible role that high-current proton linear accelerators might play as ''electrical breeders'' in the forthcoming nuclear-power economy. A high-power beam of intermediate energy protons delivered to an actinide-element target surrounded by a blanket of fertile material may produce fissile material at a competitive cost. Criteria for technical performance and, in a Canadian context, for costs are given and the major problem areas outlined not only for the accelerator and its associated rf power source but also for the target assembly. (author)

  5. Measurement and calculation of cross section for (p,x) reactions on natural Fe for 650 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Pohorecki, W.; Domanska, G.; Loska, L.; Taczanowski, S.; Shvetsov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Cross sections for production of radionuclides in (p,x) reactions on natural iron were measured for protons of 650 ± 4 MeV with the use of HPGe gamma spectrometry and calculated with the MCNPX code. The determined cross section values were compared with the computed and other experimental ones

  6. Preliminary physical design of 7 MeV proton RFQ for the accelerator driven-energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zihua

    2000-01-01

    The preliminary physical design of 7 MeV proton RFQ for the ADS (Accelerator Driven-energy System) is briefly described. The design features and the basic parameters and the design version of the RFQ are discussed. The matches between IS and RFQ and between RFQ and CCDTL/DTL are also discussed. The ideas of research for the RFQ are presented

  7. Quasi elastic scattering of 600 MeV protons by alpha clusters in light and medium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landaud, G.; Devaux, A.; Delpierre, P.; Kahane, J.; Sene, R.; Yonnet, J.; Anne, R.

    1977-06-01

    Knockout of α-clusters from light and medium weight nuclei by 600 MeV protons has been investigated. The outgoing protons and α-particles were detected in coincidence; their momenta were measured with two large magnetic spectrometers with proportional wire chambers. Experimental methods used to work with a high beam rate and an efficient proton rejection in the α-arm are described. Separation energy spectra are given for 6 Li, 7 Li, 12 C, 24 Mg, 27 Al and 40 Ca nuclei. A peak is observed at an excited energy equal to zero, except for the 27 Al target

  8. Relative biological effectiveness of 160 MeV protons. II. Biological data and their interpretation in terms of microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Kellerer, A.M.; Rossi, H.H.; Lam, Y.M.P.

    1978-01-01

    The radiobiological effectiveness of 160 MeV protons was measured relative to 60 Co γ rays using Chinese hamster cells cultured in vitro. Separate experiments were performed with cells irradiated in suspension, or attached to plastic tissue culture flasks. Proton irradiations were performed in the incident plateau of the depth dose profile and with the Bragg peak spread out to cover 10 cm. In all cases the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for protons relative to gamma rays was 1.2 for doses in excess of about 200 rad. The attached cell experiments indicate an increasing RBE at low doses, which is consistent with the microdosimetric measurements

  9. Mechanical design of beam extractor system for cyclotron proton 13 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihwanul Aziz; Widdi Usada

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical design of beam extractor system for 13 MeV proton cyclotron has been carried out. In cyclotron there are two extractor systems, the first is electrostatic deflector system, and the second is stripper system. This stripper serves to change negative charged of hydrogen ions to become positive charged hydrogen ions (protons). In proton cyclotron, the carbon foil is used as a stripper. Mechanical extractor system consists of a carbon foil holder and a driver system to control the position of foil holder and to change the foil. The driver system consists of a stepper motor extractor, a feed-through, a gear, a shaft, and a buffer. After some calculation the obtained component data as the foil follow holder is made of aluminum has total length of 12.25 mm, total width of 10 mm and the total thickness of 2.5 mm, while the length of each extractor arm is made of aluminum 90 mm, width is 30 mm, its height is 10 mm , the total volume is 7,392 x 10-5 and a mass of 0.1995 kg. Extractor drive system includes a stepper motor having a maximum of 4 lb-ft of torque, feed through, gear, shaft, and a buffer. Required torque is 0.16 Nm or 0.12 lb-ft diameter shaft to support the extractor arm is 29 mm. Bolt fastener for the buffer is a type of metric M6 bolt, so that the used seals viton O-ring with seal diameter of 6 mm and DN 40 CF flange. (author)

  10. Pion production from deuterium by the bombardment with polarized protons of 277 and 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolos, G.J.; Auld, E.G.; Giles, G.; Jones, G.; McParland, B.; Ottewell, D.; Walden, P.L.; Zeigler, W.

    1982-11-01

    Analyzing power measurements of the (anti) pd → tπ + reaction are reported at incident proton energies of 277 and 500 MeV. The 277 MeV results span the angular range from 70 0 to 130 0 in the centre of mass while the two 500 MeV measurements at large angles were taken as a check of published results. With the angular distribution of the analyzing power at 277 MeV being now available, an examination of the energy dependence of the analyzing power shows that it exhibits characteristics closely resembling the shape and magnitude of the distribution observed for nuclei in the 9-12 mass range

  11. Production of residual nuclides by proton-induced reactions on target W at the energy of 72 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Moazzem Hossain [Univ. of Chittagong, Dept. of Physics, Chittagong (Bangladesh); Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Herpers, Ulrich [Univ. of Cologne, Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, Cologne (Germany); Michel, Rolf [University of Hannover, Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (Germany); Kubik, Peter [Paul Scherrer Inst., c/o Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Investigations of cross-sections for residual nuclide production on the target element W by proton-induced reactions were performed by irradiating the target with 72 MeV protons using the cyclotron facilities at Paul-Scherrer Institute, Zurich, Switzerland. Residual nuclides were measured by gamma-spectrometry of HpGe detectors calibrated with standard gamma sources. The measured data contains 104 individual cross-sections for 20 identified nuclides in the proton energies between 52.5 - 68.9 MeV. These nuclear data is important in the study of spallation neutron source and in accelerator driven technologies such as waste transmutation and energy amplification. The present data are compared with the shape of the excitation functions of earlier only one measurement at higher energies and they are in good agreement to each other. (author)

  12. Color centers of a borosilicate glass induced by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60Co-γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jishi; Wu, Jiehua; Zhao, Lili; Song, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, Raman spectra of a borosilicate glass after irradiation by 10 MeV proton, 1.85 MeV electron and 60 Co-γ ray were studied. The process of irradiation inducing color centers in the glass was discussed. The band gap of the glass before and after 60 Co-γ ray irradiation was studied using Mott and Davis's theory, and it was found that calculated change of the band gap introduced a paradox, because Mott and Davis's theory on the band gap cannot be adopted in the study on the irradiated glass. - Highlights: ► All the three types of irradiation induce the same types of color centers. ► Calculated change of the band gap introduced a paradox. ► Mott and Davis's theory on band gap cannot be adopted in the irradiated glass

  13. Mechanical properties and microstructures of copper, gold and palladium single crystals irradiated with 600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Yong.

    1995-01-01

    In the present work, the defect microstructures and hardening effects produced by 600 MeV proton irradiation in Cu, Pd and Au single crystals have been studied at room temperature. The defect microstructures in the irradiated Cu have been investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a dose range from 9.7x10 -4 to 4.6x10 -2 dpa. It has been observed that about 90% of the total defect clusters are stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT's). This fraction is independent of the thickness of the foil up to about 130 nm. The irradiation defect cluster densities obtained are in agreement with previous published results of high energy proton irradiation. With the present data at medium doses, the dose dependence of the defect cluster density, in high energy proton irradiated Cu, has been well established. A comparison between the results of Cu irradiated with high energy protons, fusion neutrons and fission neutrons indicates that there is no difference in defect cluster densities produced by these particle irradiations when the results are compared on the basis of dpa. The data compiled can be fitted within a band which shows that the defect cluster density starts to saturate at a value of about 4x10 23 m -3 . A large transition dose range between the linear dependence to the saturation is located between 3x10 -3 and 1x10 -1 dpa. The defect cluster size distribution measured under weak beam dark field (WBDF) imaging conditions with (g,6g) (WBDF(g,6g)), g=200, shows that the most probable size is between 1.5 and 2 nm and the mean size is about 2 nm independent of the dose. This result is also in agreement with published results. The defect structure in Au at dose of 1.1x10 -1 dpa has been observed. It shows that about 85% of the total defect clusters are SFT's. There are no grouped defect clusters, which may probably be due to the fact that the defect cluster density (5.1x10 23 ) has already saturated at this high dose. The most probable defect cluster size is

  14. Superpower proton linear accelerators for neutron generators and electronuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, N.V.; Kozodaev, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The report is a review of projects on the superpower proton linear accelerators (SPLA) for neutron generators (NG) and electronuclear facilities, proposed in the recent years. The beam average output capacity in these projects reaches 100 MW. The basic parameters of certain operating NGs, as well as some projected NGs will the SPLA drivers are presented. The problems on application of superconducting resonators in the SPLA as well as the issues of the SPLA reliability and costs are discussed [ru

  15. High intensity proton linear accelerator development for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Oguri, H.; Ito, N.; Kusano, J.; Okumura, Y.; Murata, H.; Sakogawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA has been proposed for various engineering tests for the transmutation system of nuclear waste by JAERI. The conceptual and optimization studies for this accelerator performed for a proper choice of operating frequency, high b structure, mechanical engineering considerations and RF source aspects are briefly described

  16. Optimization design of the main switch in 12 MeV linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Wang Jinsheng; Ding Hensong; Ye Yi

    2004-01-01

    A method for optimization design of the main switch (using in 12 MeV linear induction accelerator) was introduced. The switch's inductance was decreased from 63.7 nH to 35 nH by optimizing the configuration of the main switch and the size of the electric poles so that the accelerating cavity can get a better rising time of 27 ns. The accelerator's performance can be effectively improved through this method, the feasibility of the method is also proved by testing

  17. A miniature small size 3 MeV deuteron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, L.N.; Bryzgalov, G.A.; Verbovskij, V.V.; Kovpak, N.E.; Onoprienko, V.T.; Papkovich, V.G.; Khizhnyak, N.A.; Shulika, N.G.; Yashin, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Basic characteristics are presented of the small-size linear deuteron accelerator for 3 MeV, the accelerating system of which operates at H-wave. It is shown that the usage of such accelerating systems makes it possible to reduce the resonator volume by more than 30 times, whereas the capacity of the evacuating devices as well as the total HF supply power are decreased. Owing to a relatively large wave length, particle injection energy may be reduced to 100-150 keV

  18. 3 MeV proton irradiation effects on surface, structural, field emission and electrical properties of brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mian Ahsan; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Faizan-ul-Haq; Hayat, Asma; Mutaza, G.; Chishti, Naveed Ahmed; Khan, M. Asad; Ahmad, Shahbaz

    2018-05-01

    Ion-induced modifications of brass in terms of surface morphology, elemental composition, phase changes, field emission properties and electrical conductivity have been investigated. Brass targets were irradiated by proton beam at constant energy of 3 MeV for various doses ranges from 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 to 1.5 × 1014 ions/cm2 using Pelletron Linear Accelerator. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analysis reveals the formation of randomly distributed clusters, particulates, droplets and agglomers for lower ion doses which are explainable on the basis of cascade collisional process and thermal spike model. Whereas, at moderate ion doses, fiber like structures are formed due to incomplete melting. The formation of cellular like structure is observed at the maximum ion dose and is attributed to intense heating, melting and re-solidification. SRIM software analysis reveals that the penetration depth of 3 MeV protons in brass comes out to be 38 μm, whereas electronic and nuclear energy losses come out to be 5 × 10-1 and 3.1 × 10-4 eV/Å respectively. The evaluated values of energy deposited per atom vary from 0.01 to 1.5 eV with the variation of ion doses from 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 to 1.5 × 1014 ions/cm2. Both elemental analysis i.e. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) supports each other and no new element or phase is identified. However, slight change in peak intensity and angle shifting is observed. Field emission properties of ion-structured brass are explored by measuring I-V characteristics of targets under UHV condition in diode-configuration using self designed and fabricated setup. Improvement in field enhancement factor (β) is estimated from the slope of Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots and it shows significant increase from 5 to 1911, whereas a reduction in turn on field (Eo) from 65 V/μm to 30 V/μm and increment in maximum current density (Jmax) from 12 μA/cm2 to 3821 μA/cm2 is observed. These enhancements

  19. Study of properties of the plastic scintillator EJ-260 under irradiation with 150 MeV protons and 1.2MeV gamma-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormenev, V.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Korjik, M.; Novotny, R. W.

    2017-11-01

    One of the most critical aspects for the application of a scintillation material in high energy physics is the degradation of properties of the material in an environment of highly ionizing particles in particular due to hadrons. There are presently several detector concepts in consideration being based on organic scintillator material for fast timing of charged particles or sampling calorimeters. We have tested different samples of the organic plastic scintillator EJ-260 produced by the company Eljen Technology (Sweetwater, TX, USA). The ongoing activity has characterized the relevant parameters such as light output, kinetics and temperature dependence. The study has focused on the change of performance after irradiation with 150 MeV protons up to an integral fluence of 5·1013 protons/cm2 as well as with a strong 60Co γ-source accumulating an integral dose of 100 Gy. The paper will report on the obtained results.

  20. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  1. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu, E-mail: emmazhang103@gmail.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir [BEST Cyclotron Inc (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN–LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  2. Human machine interface based on labview for vacuum system operation of cyclotron proton DECY-13 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajar Sidik Permana; Saminto; Kurnia Wibowo; Vika Arwida Fanita Sari

    2016-01-01

    Center of Accelerator Science and Technology (CAST), BATAN is designing DECY-13 MeV Proton Cyclotron. So far, this operation system has been conducted conventionally. In this research, an Human Machine Interface system has been successfully built for simplifying operation and monitoring pressure inside vacuum chamber of cyclotron DECY-13 MeV. HMI system is built with LabVIEW software and integrated with Programmable Logic Controller FX-2424 series and NI cRIO (NI-9025 and NI-9870) module. HMI system consist of turning on/of pumps (rotary and diffusion), opening/ closing valve automatically, and retrieving of data from sensor in real time. (author)

  3. The proton-induced collinear deuteron breakup at 7.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekkas, P.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to study the proton-induced deuteron breakup at an incident energy of 7.5 MeV in collinear geometry. In kinematically complete experiments in which two of the three particles of the exit channel are detected in coincidence we determined in equal kinematics the breakup cross section of the three-particle reactions 2 H(p,pp)n and 2 H(p,np)p. In both cases we observed in the region of the collinearity point an - indeed only weak - increasement of the cross section. The collinearity occurs in the neighbourhood of the QFS. Faddeev calculations with two different nucleon-nucleon interactions describe in the collinearity point the shape of the spectra well. Also the absolute quantity of the measured data in this point is well confirmed for the reaction 2 H(p,pp)n, less well however for the reaction 2 H(p,np)p. If in the theory three-nucleon forces are implemented their influence in the collinearity point is proved to be quantitatively weak. The collinear region is from the results of the present thesis especially because of the closely adjacent QFS little significant for three-body forces. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Positron probing of phosphorus-vacancy complexes in silicon irradiated with 15 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, N.; Emtsev, V.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Elsayed, M.; Kessler, C.; Kozlovski, V.; Oganesyan, G.

    2015-06-01

    Defects in phosphorus-doped silicon samples of floating-zone material, n-FZ-Si(P), produced under irradiation with 15 MeV protons at room temperature are studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy over the temperature range of ∼ 30 K - 300 K and by low- temperature Hall effect measurements. After annealing of E-centersand divacancies, we detected for the first time high concentrations of positron traps which had not been observed earlier. These defects are isochronally annealed over the temperature interval of ∼ 320 °C - 700 °C they manifest themselves as electrically neutral deep donor centersin the material of n-type. A long-lived component of the positron lifetime, τ2(I2 enthalpy and entropy of annealing of these centersare Ea ∼ 1.05(0.21) eV and ΔSm ≈ 3.1(0.6)kB, respectively. It is argued that the microstructure of the defect consists of two vacancies, VV, and one atom of phosphorus, P. The split configuration of the VPV complex is shortly discussed.

  5. Characteristics of a normoxic polymethacrylic acid gel dosimeter for a 72-MeV proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bong, Jihye [Department of Medical Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon 443-760 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soo-Il, E-mail: sikwon@kyonggi.ac.kr [Department of Medical Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon 443-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-21

    The characteristics of a normoxic polymethacrylic acid gel dosimeter for a 72-MeV proton beam were evaluated. A polymer gel dosimeter was synthesized using gelatin, methacrylic acid, hydroquinone, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride, and highly purified distilled water. The dosimeter was manufactured by placement in a polyethylene (PE) container. Irradiated dosimeters were analyzed to determine the transverse relaxation time (T2) using a 1.5-T MRI. A calibration curve was obtained as a function of the absorbed dose. A Bragg curve made by irradiating the gel with mono-energy was compared with the results for a parallel plate ionization chamber. The spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) range and distal dose fall-off (DDF) were comparatively analyzed by comparing the irradiated gel with a spread-out Bragg peak against with the ion chamber. Lastly, the gel's usefulness as a dosimeter for therapeutic radiation quality assurance was evaluated by obtaining its practical field size, flatness, and symmetry, through comparison of the profiles of the gel and ion chamber.

  6. Characteristics of a normoxic polymethacrylic acid gel dosimeter for a 72-MeV proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Jihye; Shin, Dongho; Kwon, Soo-Il

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of a normoxic polymethacrylic acid gel dosimeter for a 72-MeV proton beam were evaluated. A polymer gel dosimeter was synthesized using gelatin, methacrylic acid, hydroquinone, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride, and highly purified distilled water. The dosimeter was manufactured by placement in a polyethylene (PE) container. Irradiated dosimeters were analyzed to determine the transverse relaxation time (T2) using a 1.5-T MRI. A calibration curve was obtained as a function of the absorbed dose. A Bragg curve made by irradiating the gel with mono-energy was compared with the results for a parallel plate ionization chamber. The spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) range and distal dose fall-off (DDF) were comparatively analyzed by comparing the irradiated gel with a spread-out Bragg peak against with the ion chamber. Lastly, the gel's usefulness as a dosimeter for therapeutic radiation quality assurance was evaluated by obtaining its practical field size, flatness, and symmetry, through comparison of the profiles of the gel and ion chamber.

  7. Radiation safety aspects of a 30 MeV proton cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, Maitreyee; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Sarkar, P.K.; Maiti, Moumita

    2005-01-01

    High current accelerators are increasingly used in nuclear medicine, power industry, material properties, material damage and astrophysical studies, etc. In the present work we have assessed the direct and transmitted neutron dose, build up and decay of air activity in the vault and soil activity for a 30 MeV 350 μA proton cyclotron. The transmitted dose equivalent H through ordinary concrete shield of different thickness has been estimated using the two different sets of values of the attenuation coefficient T eff . It is observed that while the two sets of H values differ by 25-26%, the required shield thickness is around 2.1 m. in both the cases to bring down the dose to the ICRP specified limit of 1 μSv/hr. Activity induced in the air due to 13 N and 15 O has been estimated. It has been found that for a target vault of 4m.x4m.x4m. dimension the activity concentration goes above the DAC value within a few seconds of commencement of operation even with 12 air changes per hour. A theoretical study of the radioactivity that may be induced in the soil indicates formation of 40 K, 24 Na, 56 Mn, 59 Fe, 27 Mg, 60 Co, 59,63,65 Ni, 64,66 Cu, 65,69 Zn radioisotopes. (author)

  8. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae-ik [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sungkoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong, E-mail: sblee@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hyun [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sook [Department of refinement education, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jung Keun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Incerti, Sebastien [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université Bordeaux 1, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-04-15

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  9. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion

  10. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  11. Simulation study of neutron production in thick beryllium targets by 35 MeV and 50.5 MeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun

    2017-09-01

    A data-driven nuclear model dedicated to an accurate description of neutron productions in beryllium targets bombarded by proton beams is developed as a custom development that can be used as an add-on to GEANT4 code. The developed model, G4Data(Endf7.1), takes as inputs the total and differential cross section data of ENDF/B-VII.1 for not only the charge-exchange 9Be(p,n)9B reaction which produces discrete neutrons but also the nuclear reactions relevant for the production of continuum neutrons such as 9Be(p,pn)8Be and 9Be(p,n α) 5Li . In our benchmarking simulations for two experiments with 35 MeV and 50.5 MeV proton beams impinged on 1.16 and 1.05 cm thick beryllium targets, respectively, we find that the G4Data(Endf7.1) model can reproduce both the total amounts and the spectral shapes of the measured neutron yield data in a satisfactory manner, while all the considered hadronic models of GEANT4 cannot.

  12. Calibration of GafChromic EBT3 for absorbed dose measurements in 5 MeV proton beam and 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadrucci, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Marracino, F.; Montereali, R. M.; Picardi, L.; Piccinini, M.; Vincenti, M. A.; Esposito, G.; De Angelis, C.; Cherubini, R.; Pimpinella, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study EBT3 GafChromic film in low-energy protons, and for comparison purposes, in a reference 60 Co beam in order to use it as a calibrated dosimetry system in the proton irradiation facility under construction within the framework of the Oncological Therapy with Protons (TOP)-Intensity Modulated Proton Linear Accelerator for RadioTherapy (IMPLART) Project at ENEA-Frascati, Italy. Methods: EBT3 film samples were irradiated at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, with a 5 MeV proton beam generated by a 7 MV Van de Graaff CN accelerator. The nominal dose rates used were 2.1 Gy/min and 40 Gy/min. The delivered dose was determined by measuring the particle fluence and the energy spectrum in air with silicon surface barrier detector monitors. A preliminary study of the EBT3 film beam quality dependence in low-energy protons was conducted by passively degrading the beam energy. EBT3 films were also irradiated at ENEA-National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology with gamma radiation produced by a 60 Co source characterized by an absorbed dose to water rate of 0.26 Gy/min as measured by a calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber. EBT3 film calibration curves were determined by means of a set of 40 film pieces irradiated to various doses ranging from 0.5 Gy to 30 Gy absorbed dose to water. An EPSON Expression 11000XL color scanner in transmission mode was used for film analysis. Scanner response stability, intrafilm uniformity, and interfilm reproducibility were verified. Optical absorption spectra measurements were performed on unirradiated and irradiated EBT3 films to choose the most sensitive color channel to the dose range used. Results: EBT3 GafChromic films show an under response up to about 33% for low-energy protons with respect to 60 Co gamma radiation, which is consistent with the linear energy transfer dependence already observed with higher energy protons, and a negligible dose-rate dependence in

  13. An integral test of FLUKA nuclear models with 160 MeV proton beams in multi-layer Faraday cups

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, I; Parodi, K; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Mairani, A

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are useful tools to simulate the complex processes of proton beam interactions with matter. In proton therapy, nuclear reactions influence the dose distribution. Therefore, the validation of nuclear models adopted in MC codes is a critical requisite for their use in this field. A simple integral test can be performed using a multi-layer Faraday cup (MLFC). This method allows separation of the nuclear and atomic interaction processes, which are responsible for secondary particle emission and the finite primary proton range, respectively. In this work, the propagation of 160 MeV protons stopping in two MLFCs made of polyethylene and copper has been simulated by the FLUKA MC code. The calculations have been performed with and without secondary electron emission and transport, as well as charge sharing in the dielectric layers. Previous results with other codes neglected those two effects. The impact of this approximation has been investigated and found to be relevant only in the proximity ...

  14. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10Â MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Blažević, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Roth, M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 109 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90 deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  15. Microscopic description of isobaric-analog-state transitions induced by 25-, 35-, and 45-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, R.R.; Patterson, D.M.; Galonsky, A.

    1975-01-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for (p, n) reactions to the isobaric analogs of the targets 48 Ca, 90 Zr, 120 Sn, and 208 Pb at proton bombarding energies of 25, 35, and 45 MeV. The isospin-flip strength of a phenomenological nucleon-nucleon force has been determined with microscopic distorted-wave calculations including the ''knockon'' exchange amplitude. A realistic G-matrix effective interaction also provides a reasonable account of the observed cross sections, particularly at the higher proton energies

  16. Measured and calculated neutron yields for 100 MeV protons on thick targets of Pb and Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.T.; Lone, M.A.; Okazaki, A.

    1983-01-01

    The neutron yield per proton from thick targets of lead and lithium irradiated with 100 MeV protons has been measured and calculated. The water bath method was used to measure the neutron production, and a Faraday cup for the beam current determination. Measured yields are 0.343 +- 0.021 for lead and 0.123 +- 0.007 for lithium. Corresponding yields calculated with the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC are 0.363 +- 0.002 and 0.160 +- 0.001. Measured and calculated thermal neutron distributions in the water bath are also compared

  17. Search for characteristics of preequilibrium protons emitted in Ar + Ag collisions at E/A = 27 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, D.; Rivet, M.F.; Borderie, B.; Gauvin, H.; Cabot, C.; Fuchs, H.; Gardes, D.; Jacquet, D.; Monnet, F.; Montoya, M.

    1987-12-01

    Protons emitted in coincidence with heavy residues have been measured, for the reaction 27 MeV per nucleon 40 Ar + nat Ag. From the proton velocity spectra, an anisotropic component was extracted, which shows a broad angular distribution, and a mean velocity larger than the beam velocity. Multiplicities for this component are low, about 0.8, independent of the violence of the collision. For central collisions, selected via the higher heavy residue velocities, the velocity characteristics of the anisotropic component, seen in this case as a pure preequilibrium component, were compared to semi-classical calculations (Landau-Vlasov)

  18. Calculation of proton and neutron emission spectra from proton reactions with 90Zr and 208Pb to 160 MeV with the GNASH code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    A number of modifications have been made to the reaction theory code GNASH in order the accuracy of calculations at incident particle energies up to 200 MeV. Direct reaction a level density models appropriate for higher energy calculations are now used in the code, and most importantly, improved preequilibrium models have been incorporated into the code system. The code has been used to calculate proton-induced reactions on 90 Zr and 208 Pb for the International Code and Model Intercomparison for Intermediate Energy Reactions organized by the NEA. Calculations were performed with GNASH at incident proton energies of 25, 45, 80, and 160 mev using both the exciton model and Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin theory for the preequilibrium component. The models and procedures used in the GNASH calculations with the exciton model are described here. The results are compared to experimental data and to results from the GNASH calculations with Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin preequilibrium theory

  19. Study of {sup 24}Na activity in concrete using 20-MeV proton beam on Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtanri; Jung, Nam Suk; Lee, Arim; Heo, Tae Min; Bakhtian, Mahdi; Lee, Hee Seock [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The number of medical cyclotrons capable of accelerating protons to about 20 MeV is increasing in Korea. In such facilities, various radionuclides could be induced in shielding materials like concrete from secondary neutrons which Causes problems from the view point of radiation safety. Among these radionuclides, gamma-ray from {sup 24}Na (Tz1/2 = 15 h) is the most important origin of radiation exposure. {sup 24}Na could be produced from secondary neutrons on Na, Al and Mg component which exist in the concrete. {sup 24} Na Could be produced from thermal neutrons on Na and fast neutron with energy lower than 20 MeV on Al and Mg. Due to interaction of 20 MeV protons on Cu target, secondary neutrons with the energy of less than 20 MeV were produced. therefore, among the concrete components, Na, Al and Mg are only corespondent to produce {sup 24}Na. In this work, {sup 24}Na activity induced in concrete and chemical reagents of concrete (NaHCO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO) were measured. To produce neutrons, Cu target was irradiated by 20 MeV protons. Measured data were compared with results of simulations by FLUKA and MARS as well as earlier works and theocratical data. In the case of Mg and Al chemical reagents, FLUKA code overestimates our measurements by approximately four times, while, for Na sample, FLUKA underestimates the experimental data by almost 0.5. Data from FLUKA and measurement for the concrete are consistent. Calculation from TALYS for Mg overestimates the measured data by a factor of 2.5.

  20. Quantal inversion of cross-section for the elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.; Dortmans, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed energy quantal inverse scattering theory has been used to analyse the differential cross-section from the elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from 12 C. Ambiguities in obtaining the scattering function from the differential cross-section are discussed and by means of example it is illustrated that not all scattering functions lead to physically reasonable potentials. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  1. A high-energy (35-500 MeV) proton monitor for the Gravity Probe-B Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. E-mail: stil@may.ie; Rusznyak, Peter; Buchman, Sasha; Shestople, Paul; Thatcher, John

    2003-02-11

    An innovative fault tolerant, high-energy particle monitor designed to record protons in the range 35-500 MeV when in polar orbit aboard NASA's Gravity Probe B spacecraft, is described. This device, which is configured to provide continuous, reliable operation in the hostile particle environment traversed by the spacecraft, can potentially be used either as an onboard monitor or as a scientific experiment.

  2. Analyzing powers and proton spin transfer coefficients in the elastic scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from an L-type polarized deuteron target at small momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.L.

    1986-10-01

    Analyzing powers and spin transfer coefficients which describe the elastic scattering of polarized protons from a polarized deuteron target have been measured. The energy of the proton beam was 800 MeV and data were taken at laboratory scattering angles of 7, 11, 14, and 16.5 degrees. One analyzing power was also measured at 180 degrees. Three linearly independent orientations of the beam polarization were used and the target was polarized parallel and antiparallel to the direction of the beam momentum. The data were taken with the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (experiment 685). The results are compared with multiple scattering predictions based on Dirac representations of the nucleon-nucleon scattering matrices. 27 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Backward emission mechanism of energetic protons studied from two-particle correlations in 800 MeV proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miake, Yasuo

    1982-07-01

    The production mechanism of backward energetic protons was studied in 800 MeV proton-nucleus collision from the measurement of two-particle correlation over a wide range of kinematic regions. The backward energetic protons at 118 deg were measured in coincidence with the particles emitted in the angular range from 15 deg to 100 deg. Both in-plane and out-of-plane coincidences were measured. The backward energetic protons were detected with a delta E-E counter in a momentum region from 350 to 750 MeV/c, whereas the coincident particles were detected with a magnetic spectrometer in the momentum region from 450 to 2000 MeV/c. The reaction process of the backward protons were decomposed into six categories by the measurement of the associated particles, p or d. The momentum spectra, angular distribution and the target mass dependence of these components were studied. The component of p-p QES was well reproduced by the PW1A model, but the backward energetic protons were not from this process. The momenta of two nucleons inside the quasi-deuteron are highly correlated. The components of p-p non-QES and p-p out-of-plane are the main components of the backward energetic proton production. (Kako, I.)

  4. Correlation of near-Earth proton enhancements >100 MeV with parameters of solar microwave bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, Victor; Kiselev, Valentin; Meshalkina, Nataliya; Chertok, Ilya

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the relations between various combinations of peak fluxes and fluences of solar microwave bursts at 35 GHz recorded with the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters during 1990–2015, and corresponding parameters of proton enhancements with E>100 MeV exceeding 0.1 pfu registered by GOES monitors in near-Earth environment. The highest correlation has been found between the microwave and proton fluences. This fact reflects a dependence of the total number of protons on the total duration of the acceleration process. In the events with strong flares, the correlation coefficients of proton fluences with microwave and soft X-ray fluences are higher than those with speeds of coronal mass ejections. The results indicate a statistically larger contribution of flare processes to acceleration of high-energy protons. Acceleration by shock waves seems to be less important at high energies in events associated with strong flares, although its contribution probably prevails in weaker events. The probability of a detectable proton enhancement was found to directly depend on the peak flux and duration of a microwave burst. This can be used for diagnostics of proton enhancements based on microwave observations.

  5. Proton linear accelerators: A theoretical and historical introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapostolle, P.M.

    1989-07-01

    From the beginning, the development of linear accelerators has followed a number of different directions. This report surveys the basic ideas and general principles of such machines, pointing out the problems that have led to the various improvements, with the hope that it may also aid further progress. After a brief historical survey, the principal aspects of accelerator theory are covered in some detail: phase stability, focusing, radio-frequency accelerating structures, the detailed calculation of particle dynamics, and space-charge effects at high intensities. These developments apply essentially to proton and ion accelerators, and only the last chapter deals with a few aspects relative to electrons. 134 refs

  6. Energy loss of MeV protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaristi, J.I.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Echenique, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A parameter-free model is presented to study the energy loss of fast protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces. The contributions to the energy loss from excitation of valence-band electrons and ionization of localized target-atom electronic states are calculated separately. The former is calculated from the induced surface wake potential using linear response theory and the specular-reflection model, while the latter is calculated in the first Born approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, the experimental qualitative trend of the energy loss as a function of the angle of incidence is obtained when the valence-band electron model is replaced by localized target atom electron states, though with a worse quantitative agreement. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Routine production of copper-64 using 11.7MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, C. M.; Smith, S. V.; Asad, A. H.; Chan, S.; Price, R. I. [Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Centre for Forensic Science, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia) and ARC Centre of Excellence in A (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Antimatter-Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia) and Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Antimatter-Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia) and Imaging and Applied (Australia); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia) and School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia)

    2012-12-19

    Reliable production of copper-64 ({sup 64}Cu) was achieved by irradiating enriched nickel-64 ({sup 64}Ni, >94.8%) in an IBA 18/9 cyclotron. Nickel-64 (19.1 {+-} 3.0 mg) was electroplated onto an Au disc (125{mu}m Multiplication-Sign 15mm). Targets were irradiated with 11.7 MeV protons for 2 hours at 40{mu}A. Copper isotopes ({sup 60,61,62,64}Cu) were separated from target nickel and cobalt isotopes ({sup 55,57,61}Co) using a single ion exchange column, eluted with varying concentration of low HCl alcohol solutions. The {sup 64}Ni target material was recovered and reused. The {sup 64}Cu production rate was 1.46{+-}0.3MBq/{mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni(n = 10) (with a maximum of 2.6GBq of {sup 64}Cu isolated after 2hr irradiation at 40uA. Radionuclidic purity of the {sup 64}Cu was 98.7 {+-} 1.6 % at end of separation. Cu content was < 6mg/L (n = 21). The specific activity of {sup 64}Cu was determined by ICP-MS and by titration with Diamsar to be 28.9{+-}13.0GBq/{mu}mol[0.70{+-}0.35Ci/{mu}mol]/({mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni)(n = 10) and 13.1{+-}12.0GBq/{mu}mol[0.35{+-}0.32Ci/{mu}mol]/({mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni)(n 9), respectively; which are in agreement, however, further work is required.

  8. Trimming algorithm of frequency modulation for CIAE-230 MeV proton superconducting synchrocyclotron model cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pengzhan, E-mail: lipengzhan@ciae.ac.cn; Zhang, Tianjue; Ji, Bin; Hou, Shigang; Guo, Juanjuan; Yin, Meng; Xing, Jiansheng; Lv, Yinlong; Guan, Fengping; Lin, Jun

    2017-01-21

    A new project, the 230 MeV proton superconducting synchrocyclotron for cancer therapy, was proposed at CIAE in 2013. A model cavity is designed to verify the frequency modulation trimming algorithm featuring a half-wave structure and eight sets of rotating blades for 1 kHz frequency modulation. Based on the electromagnetic (EM) field distribution analysis of the model cavity, the variable capacitor works as a function of time and the frequency can be written in Maclaurin series. Curve fitting is applied for theoretical frequency and original simulation frequency. The second-order fitting excels at the approximation given its minimum variance. Constant equivalent inductance is considered as an important condition in the calculation. The equivalent parameters of theoretical frequency can be achieved through this conversion. Then the trimming formula for rotor blade outer radius is found by discretization in time domain. Simulation verification has been performed and the results show that the calculation radius with minus 0.012 m yields an acceptable result. The trimming amendment in the time range of 0.328–0.4 ms helps to reduce the frequency error to 0.69% in Simulation C with an increment of 0.075 mm/0.001 ms, which is half of the error in Simulation A (constant radius in 0.328–0.4 ms). The verification confirms the feasibility of the trimming algorithm for synchrocyclotron frequency modulation. - Highlights: • A model cavity is designed to verify the trimming algorithm of frequency modulation. • The RF frequency is expressed by fitting approximation and Maclaurin series. • The variable capacitor of the cavity works as a function of time. • The trimming formula for blade radius is found by discretization in time domain. • The amendment solution helps to reduce the frequency error.

  9. Confirm calculation of 12 MeV non-destructive testing electron linear accelerator target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shudong; Zhang Rutong; Guo Yanbin; Zhou Yuan; Li Xuexian; Chen Yan

    2012-01-01

    The confirm calculation of 12 MeV non-destructive testing (NDT) electron linear accelerator (LINAC) target was studied. Firstly, the most optimal target thickness and related photon dose yield, distributions of dose rate, and related photon conversion efficiencies were got by calculation with specific analysis of the physical mechanism of the interactions between the beam and target; Secondly, the photon dose rate distribution, converter efficiencies, and thickness of various kinds of targets, such as W, Au, Ta, etc. were verified by MCNP simulation and the most optimal target was got using the MCNP code; Lastly, the calculation results of theory and MCNP were compared to confirm the validity of target calculation. (authors)

  10. Non-linear sputtering effects induced by MeV energy gold clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussofiane-Baudin, K.; Brunelle, A.; Chaurand, P.; Della-Negra, S.; Depauw, J.; Le Beyec, Y.; Hakansson, P.

    1993-09-01

    Gold clusters Au n + with 1 < n ≤ 4, accelerated to MeV energies at the Orsay tandem accelerator, have been used to induce secondary ion emission from the surface of thin organic and inorganic films. A non-linear enhancement of the secondary ion yields is observed when cluster impacts are compared to single atom impacts at the same velocity. It has been shown that the collective effects propagate in the solid over a depth larger than 2000 A. The equilibrium charge state of cluster constituents after their passage through a thin carbon foil (1000 A) has been measured. The mean value for the cluster constituents is the same as for single atoms at the same velocity. (authors). 41 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Measurement of omega, the energy required to create an ion pair, for 150-MeV protons in nitrogen and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide a 1% measurement of omega, the energy required to produce an ion pair, for 150 MeV protons in various gases. Such a measurement should improve the accuracy of proton ionization chamber dosimetry at the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory. Currently, no measurements of omega exist in the energy range of 30 to 150 MeV, and present ionization chamber dosimetry at the Cyclotron relies on average values of measurements at lower and higher energies (i.e. for E < 3 MeV and E = 340 MeV). Contrary to theoretical expectations, these low and high energy data differ by as much as 9% in some gases. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the existing high energy data is probably in error, and current proton ionization chamber dosimetry underestimates omega, and hence the proton dose, by 5%

  12. A 62-MeV Proton Beam for the Treatment of Ocular Melanoma at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Lojacono, P. A.; Lo Nigro, S.; Mongelli, V.; Patti, I. V.; Privitera, G.; Raffaele, L.; Rifuggiato, D.; Sabini, M. G.; Salamone, V.; Spatola, C.; Valastro, L. M.

    2004-06-01

    At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) in Catania, Italy, the first Italian protontherapy facility, named Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) has been built in collaboration with the University of Catania. It is based on the use of the 62-MeV proton beam delivered by the K=800 Superconducting Cyclotron installed and working at INFN-LNS since 1995. The facility is mainly devoted to the treatment of ocular diseases like uveal melanoma. A beam treatment line in air has been assembled together with a dedicated positioning patient system. The facility has been in operation since the beginning of 2002 and 66 patients have been successfully treated up to now. The main features of CATANA together with the clinical and dosimetric features will be extensively described; particularly, the proton beam line, that has been entirely built at LNS, with all its elements, the experimental transversal and depth dose distributions of the 62-MeV proton beam obtained for a final collimator of 25-mm diameter and the experimental depth dose distributions of a modulated proton beam obtained for the same final collimator. Finally, the clinical results over 1 yr of treatments, describing the features of the treated diseases will be reported.

  13. Cross sections for pion, proton, and heavy-ion production from 800 MeV protons incident upon aluminum and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicello, J.F. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (USA)); Schillaci, M.E.; Liu Lonchang (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    When high-energy cosmic rays interact with electronics or other materials in a spacecraft, including the occupants themselves, pions are produced as secondary particles. These secondary pions interact further in the materials producing nuclear secondaries, including nuclear recoils and heavy-ion tertiaries. The secondary pions and the the tertiary particles are capable of producing single-event upsets and other damage in integrated circuits and damage in biological systems. Negative pions stopping in materials are particularly effective because of their unique ability to produce short-range heavy particles from pion stars. With the Los Alamos National Laboratory's version of the intranuclear cascade evaporation code, VEGAS, we have calculated the number of pions produced per energy interval per incident proton from 800 MeV protons on aluminum-27 and silicon-28 along with corresponding results for neutrons, protons, and heavier ions. (orig.).

  14. Qualitative comparison of bremsstrahlung X-rays and 800 MeV protons for tomography of urania fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C. L.; Bourke, M.; Byler, D. D.; Chen, C. F.; Hogan, G.; Hunter, J. F.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Mariam, F. G.; McClellan, K. J.; Merrill, F.; Morley, D. J.; Saunders, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present an assessment of x-rays and proton tomography as tools for studying the time dependence of the development of damage in fuel rods. We also show data taken with existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that support this assessment. Data on surrogate fuel rods have been taken using the 800 MeV proton radiography (pRad) facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and with a 450 keV bremsstrahlung X-ray tomography facility. The proton radiography pRad facility at LANSCE can provide good position resolution (<70 {mu}m has been demonstrate, 20 {mu}m seems feasible with minor changes) for tomography on activated fuel rods. Bremsstrahlung x-rays may be able to provide better than 100 {mu}m resolution but further development of sources, collimation, and detectors is necessary for x-rays to deal with the background radiation for tomography of activated fuel rods.

  15. Qualitative comparison of bremsstrahlung X-rays and 800 MeV protons for tomography of urania fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C. L.; Bourke, M.; Byler, D. D.; Chen, C. F.; Hogan, G.; Hunter, J. F.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Mariam, F. G.; McClellan, K. J.; Merrill, F.; Morley, D. J.; Saunders, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an assessment of x-rays and proton tomography as tools for studying the time dependence of the development of damage in fuel rods. We also show data taken with existing facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that support this assessment. Data on surrogate fuel rods have been taken using the 800 MeV proton radiography (pRad) facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), and with a 450 keV bremsstrahlung X-ray tomography facility. The proton radiography pRad facility at LANSCE can provide good position resolution (<70 μm has been demonstrate, 20 μm seems feasible with minor changes) for tomography on activated fuel rods. Bremsstrahlung x-rays may be able to provide better than 100 μm resolution but further development of sources, collimation, and detectors is necessary for x-rays to deal with the background radiation for tomography of activated fuel rods.

  16. Reaction cross sections for protons on {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb at energies between 80 and 180 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auce, A.; Ingemarsson, A.; Johansson, R. [and others

    2005-04-01

    Results of reaction cross section measurements on {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb at incident proton energies between 80 and 180 MeV and for {sup 58}Ni at 81 MeV are presented. The experimental procedure is described and the results are compared with earlier measurements and predictions using macroscopic and microscopic models.

  17. Reaction cross sections for protons on 12C, 40Ca, 90Zr and 208Pb at energies between 80 and 180 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auce, A.; Ingemarsson, A.; Johansson, R.

    2005-04-01

    Results of reaction cross section measurements on 12 C, 40 Ca, 90 Zr and 208 Pb at incident proton energies between 80 and 180 MeV and for 58 Ni at 81 MeV are presented. The experimental procedure is described and the results are compared with earlier measurements and predictions using macroscopic and microscopic models

  18. Measurement of the free neutron-proton analyzing power and spin transfer parameters in the charge exchange region at 790 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransome, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    The free neutron-proton analyzing power and the spin transfer parameters (K/sub NN/, K/sub SS/, K/sub SL/, and K/sub LL/) were measured at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility at 790 MeV between 165 0 and 180 0 center of mass. A 40% polarized neutron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target was used. The recoil protons were momentum analyzed with a magnetic spectrometer to isolate elastic scatters. A large solid angle carbon polarimeter was used to measure the proton polarization. The measurements are the first at this energy and are in basic agreement with pre-existing phase shift solutions. The proton-carbon analyzing power was measured between 500 and 750 MeV. An empirical fit to the proton-carbon analyzing power between 100 and 750 MeV was done

  19. Scalability of the LEU-Modified Cintichem Process: 3-MeV Van de Graaff and 35-MeV Electron Linear Accelerator Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Brossard, Tom [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Roussin, Ethan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Jonah, Charles [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hafenrichter, Lohman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Krebs, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-10-31

    Molybdenum-99, the mother of Tc-99m, can be produced from fission of U-235 in nuclear reactors and purified from fission products by the Cintichem process, later modified for low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. The key step in this process is the precipitation of Mo with α-benzoin oxime (ABO). The stability of this complex to radiation has been examined. Molybdenum-ABO was irradiated with 3 MeV electrons produced by a Van de Graaff generator and 35 MeV electrons produced by a 50 MeV/25 kW electron linear accelerator. Dose equivalents of 1.7–31.2 kCi of Mo-99 were administered to freshly prepared Mo-ABO. Irradiated samples of Mo-ABO were processed according to the LEU Modified-Cintichem process. The Van de Graaff data indicated good radiation stability of the Mo-ABO complex up to ~15 kCi dose equivalents of Mo-99 and nearly complete destruction at doses >24 kCi Mo-99. The linear accelerator data indicate that even at 6.2 kCi of Mo-99 equivalence of dose, the sample lost ~20% of Mo-99. The 20% loss of Mo-99 at this low dose may be attributed to thermal decomposition of the product from the heat deposited in the sample during irradiation.

  20. {pi}{sup -}-p proton scattering at 516, 616, 710, 887 and 1085 MeV (1961); Diffusion de protons {pi}{sup -}-p aux energies de 516, 616, 710, 887 et 1085 MeV (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R; Choquet, C; Gaillard, J M; Heughebaert, J; Leveque, A; Lehmann, P; Meyer, J; Revel, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Grard, F; Heughebaert, J [I.I.S.N., Lab. des Hautes Energies, Bruxelles (Belgium); Grard, F; Macleod, G; Montanet, L [Conseil Europeen pour la recherche nucleaire, Lab. europeen pour la physique des particules, Geneve (Switzerland)

    1961-07-01

    {pi}{sup -}-p collisions at energies of 516, 616, 710, 887 and 1085 MeV were observed by means of the 20 cm Saclay bubble chamber. Angular distributions for elastic scattering were obtained and analyzed. Total cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering for {pi}{sup -}-p collisions and for the T = 1/2 state were determined. (authors) [French] Nous avons etudie des collisions entre pions negatifs et protons aux energies de 516, 616, 710, 887 et 1085 MeV, au moyen de la chambre A bulles de 20 cm de Saclay. Les distributions angulaires de diffusion elastique ont ete obtenues et analysees. Nous avons determine les sections efficaces totales pour les diffusions elastiques et inelastiques {pi}{sup -}-p et pour ces processus dans l'etat T = 1/2. (auteurs)

  1. Fission of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 197}Au nuclei induced by 30 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshad, Houshyar; Soheyli, Saeed [Amir-Kabir University of Technology, Physics and Nuclear Science Department, Tehran (Iran); Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Nuclear Research Center, Van de Graaff Laboratory, Tehran (Iran)

    2001-10-01

    Thin targets of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 197}Au were bombarded with 30 MeV protons at the Cyclotron Department of Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine (NRCAM). Correlated measurements of kinetic energies of fission fragment pairs, and their time-of-flights were made using pair spectrometry. The fission cross sections, fragment mass distributions, and total kinetic energy distributions of the fragments were measured in our experiment. The accurate values of cross sections for fission of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 197}Au nuclei with 30 MeV protons were obtained to be 1,100{+-}100 and 62{+-}5.6 {mu}b, respectively. The cross section of {sup 209}Bi fission with its associated error, through using this method, has not been reported previously. The interpretation in terms of liquid-drop model of fissioning nucleus {sup 210}Po at the excitation energy of 35 MeV was confirmed by the dispersion of the distribution in fragment mass for bismuth fission. (author)

  2. Diffusion proton-proton à petits angles (2° lab 8°) entre 290 et 570 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aebischer, D; Heer, E; Hess, R; Junod, A; Lechanom, C; Nikles, J C; Serre, C; Werren, D W

    1972-01-01

    Abstract only given. Measurements of the differential cross section for elastic proton-proton scattering in the Coulomb interference region have been made using the CERN synchrocyclotron. The experimental device, consisting essentially of an ensemble of multiwire proportional counters, is described and preliminary results presented.

  3. Spin decomposition of the responses of 44Ca and 48Ca to 300 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.T.; Bimbot, L.; Fergerson, R.W.; Glashausser, C.; Green, A.; Haeusser, O.; Hicks, K.; Jones, K.; Miller, C.A.; Vetterli, M.; Abegg, R.; Beatty, D.; Bonin, B.; Castel, B.; Chen, X.Y.; Cupps, V.; Djalali, C.; Henderson, R.; Jackson, K.P.; Jeppesen, R.; Nakayama, K.; Nanda, S.K.; Sawafta, R.; Yen, S.; Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay, France; Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854; Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada V5A1S6; TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T2A3; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544; Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, CEDEX, France; Queen's University, Kingston, Canada K7L3N6; University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309; University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208; Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, Virginia 23606; University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G2J1)

    1991-01-01

    Angular distributions of the double-differential cross section d 2 σ/dΩ dE(σ) and the spin-flip probability S nn have been measured for inclusive proton inelastic scattering from 44 Ca at 290 MeV and from 48 Ca at 318 MeV. Excitation energies up to about 50 MeV for 44 Ca and 40 MeV for 48 Ca have been investigated over the laboratory angular ranges of 3 degree to 12 degree for 44 Ca and 3 degree to 9 degree for 48 Ca. Multipole decompositions of angular distributions of both the spin-flip cross section σS nn and the estimated cross section for ΔS=0 transitions have been performed. Distributions of strengths were deduced for ΔL=1, ΔS=0 (the giant dipole), ΔL=2, ΔS=0 (the giant quadrupole), ΔL=0, ΔS=1 (the magnetic dipole), ΔL=1, ΔS=1 (the spin dipole), and ΔL=2, ΔS=1 (the spin quadrupole). The ΔS=0 summed strengths for 44 Ca are lower than for 40 Ca and 48 Ca. The spin-dipole summed strengths are found to be approximately independent of A. For 48 Ca, essentially all M1 strength observed was in the 10.23 MeV 1 + state; for 44 Ca, M1 strength was observed to be fragmented over a range of 7 to 18 Mev

  4. Depletion voltage studies on n-in-n MCz silicon diodes after irradiation with 70 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Holmkvist, William

    2014-01-01

    Silicon detectors is the main component in the pixel detectors in the ATLAS experiment at CERN in order to detect the particles and recreate their tracks after a proton-proton collision. One criteria on these detectors is to be able to operate in the high radiation field close to the particle collision. The usual behavior of the silicon detectors is that they get type inverted and an increase in the depletion voltage can be seen after exposed to significant amounts of radiation. In contrast n-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon doesn’t follow FZ silicons pattern of getting type inverted when it comes to high energy particle irradiation, in the range of GeV. However it was observed that MCz silicon diodes that had been irradiated with 23 MeV protons followed the FZ silicon behavior and did type invert. The aim of the project is to find out how the depletion voltage of MCz silicon changes after being irradiated by 70 MeV at fluencies of 1E13, 1E14 and 5E14 neq/cm2, to give a further insight of at what en...

  5. Test of GEANT3 and GEANT4 nuclear models for 160 MeV protons stopping in CH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganetti, H.; Gottschalk, B.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used for many problems in proton radiation therapy, some of which are sensitive to the nuclear interaction model. The available models have been little tested in the regime of interest, namely in their ability to predict the secondary particle yield, including their angle and energy, when 70-250 MeV protons stop in various materials. The present study provides one such test in carbon, complementing a previous one in copper. Using a multilayer Faraday cup we have measured the projected range distribution of charged nuclear secondaries from 160 MeV protons stopping in polyethylene (CH 2 ). To test the popular GEANT Monte Carlo we have simulated the experiment with GEANT3 using the 'Gheisha' (default) and 'Fluka' models and with GEANT4.5 using the 'low-energy' and 'precompound' models. The GEANT3/Fluka and GEANT4/precompound simulations agree moderately well with the observed range distribution. The data are given in a convenient form for testing other Monte Carlo programs

  6. Relative Biological Effectiveness Variation Along Monoenergetic and Modulated Bragg Peaks of a 62-MeV Therapeutic Proton Beam: A Preclinical Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Marshall, Thomas I.; Perozziello, Francesca M.; Manti, Lorenzo; Currell, Frederick J.; Hanton, Fiona; McMahon, Stephen J.; Kavanagh, Joy N.; Cirrone, Giuseppe Antonio Pablo; Romano, Francesco; Prise, Kevin M.; Schettino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The biological optimization of proton therapy can be achieved only through a detailed evaluation of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) variations along the full range of the Bragg curve. The clinically used RBE value of 1.1 represents a broad average, which disregards the steep rise of linear energy transfer (LET) at the distal end of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). With particular attention to the key endpoint of cell survival, our work presents a comparative investigation of cell killing RBE variations along monoenergetic (pristine) and modulated (SOBP) beams using human normal and radioresistant cells with the aim to investigate the RBE dependence on LET and intrinsic radiosensitvity. Methods and Materials: Human fibroblasts (AG01522) and glioma (U87) cells were irradiated at 6 depth positions along pristine and modulated 62-MeV proton beams at the INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy). Cell killing RBE variations were measured using standard clonogenic assays and were further validated using Monte Carlo simulations and the local effect model (LEM). Results: We observed significant cell killing RBE variations along the proton beam path, particularly in the distal region showing strong dose dependence. Experimental RBE values were in excellent agreement with the LEM predicted values, indicating dose-averaged LET as a suitable predictor of proton biological effectiveness. Data were also used to validate a parameterized RBE model. Conclusions: The predicted biological dose delivered to a tumor region, based on the variable RBE inferred from the data, varies significantly with respect to the clinically used constant RBE of 1.1. The significant RBE increase at the distal end suggests also a potential to enhance optimization of treatment modalities such as LET painting of hypoxic tumors. The study highlights the limitation of adoption of a constant RBE for proton therapy and suggests approaches for fast implementation of RBE models in treatment planning

  7. Design study of the ESS-Bilbao 50 MeV proton beam line for radiobiological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta-Parajon, M., E-mail: mhuerta@essbilbao.org; Martinez-Ballarin, R., E-mail: rmartinez@essbilbao.org; Abad, E., E-mail: eabad@essbilbao.org

    2015-02-01

    The ESS-Bilbao proton accelerator facility has been designed fulfilling the European Spallation Source (ESS) specifications to serve as the Spanish contribution to the ESS construction. Furthermore, several applications of the ESS-Bilbao proton beam are being considered in order to contribute to the knowledge in the field of radiobiology, materials and aerospace components. Understanding of the interaction of radiation with biological systems is of vital importance as it affects important applications such as cancer treatment with ion beam therapy among others. ESS-Bilbao plans to house a facility exclusively dedicated to radiobiological experiments with protons up to 50 MeV. Beam line design, optimisation and initial calculations of flux densities and absorbed doses were undertaken using the Monte Carlo simulation package FLUKA. A proton beam with a flux density of about 10{sup 6} protons/cm{sup 2} s reaches the water sample with a flat lateral distribution of the dose. The absorbed dose at the pristine Bragg peak calculated with FLUKA is 2.4 ± 0.1 Gy in 1 min of irradiation time. This value agrees with the clinically meaningful dose rates, i.e. around 2 Gy/min, used in hadrontherapy. Optimisation and validation studies in the ESS-Bilbao line for radiobiological experiments are detailed in this article.

  8. Microscopic model analyses of the elastic scattering of 25, 30, and 40 MeV protons from targets of diverse mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, P.K.; Amos, K.; Karataglidis, S.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive survey and analysis of cross section and analysing power data from proton elastic scattering at energies 25 to 40 MeV is presented. The data are compared with predictions obtained from a full folding specification of the proton-nucleus optical potentials. Isotope and energy variation of the data is explained

  9. Excitation function for the population of the 4.51 MeV state of 27Al inelastic proton scattering. Evidence for 6- strength?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.; Koutsoliotas, S.

    1995-01-01

    The excitation function for emission of 2.30 MeV gamma rays from the 4.51 MeV state of 27 Al formed in inelastic proton scattering has been measured for proton energies from 5.6 to 7.3 MeV. A resonance previously seen in both inelastic electron and proton scattering from 28 Si at 17.35 MeV has been observed as a resonance in the excitation function, as well as seven other resonances, all of which are narrow (i.e., less than 100 keV wide). It is suggested that these may represent fragments of 6 - strength in 28 Si. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  10. Spallation Neutron Emission Spectra in Some Amphoter Target Nuclei by Proton Beam Up to 140 MeV Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, G.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the (p,xn) reaction neutron-emission spectra for some amphoter target nuclei as 27 A l, 64 Z n, 120 S n, and 208 P b were investigated up to 140 MeV incident proton energy. The pre-equilibrium calculations were calculated by using the hybrid model, the geometry dependent hybrid model, the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The reaction equilibrium component was calculated with a traditional compound nucleus model developed by Weisskopf Ewing. Calculation results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data in literature

  11. Neutron-proton analyzing power data at 7. 6, 12. 0, 14. 1, 16. 0, 18. 5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisel, G.J.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Felsher, P.D.; Alohali, M.; Chen, Z.P.; Walter, R.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (US) Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (US)); Lambert, J.M.; Treado, P.A. (Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC, (US))

    1990-11-15

    Neutron-Proton A{sub y} ({theta}) measurements have been made at 7.6, 12.0, 14.1, 16.0, and 18.5 MeV. A sensitivity study establishes the importance of A{sub y} ({theta}) in determining the {sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2} phase shifts in n-p scattering. The data are compared to the predictions of two phase-shift studies (one of which incorporates CIB effects), and the Paris and Bonn NN potentials.

  12. Neutron-proton analyzing power at 12 MeV and inconsistencies in parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon data

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, R. T.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C. R.; Trotter, D. E. Gonzalez; Roper, C. D.; Salinas, F.; Setze, H. R.; Walter, R. L.; Weisel, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the most accurate and complete data set for the analyzing power Ay(theta) in neutron-proton scattering. The experimental data were corrected for the effects of multiple scattering, both in the center detector and in the neutron detectors. The final data at En = 12.0 MeV deviate considerably from the predictions of nucleon-nucleon phase-shift analyses and potential models. The impact of the new data on the value of the charged pion-nucleon coupling constant is discussed in a model s...

  13. Neutron-proton analyzing power at 12 MeV and inconsistencies in parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.T. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)], E-mail: tornow@tunl.duke.edu; Howell, C.R.; Gonzalez Trotter, D.E.; Roper, C.D.; Salinas, F.; Setze, H.R.; Walter, R.L. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Weisel, G.J. [Department of Physics, Penn State Altoona, Altoona, PA 16601 (United States)

    2008-02-21

    We present the most accurate and complete data set for the analyzing power A{sub y}({theta}) in neutron-proton scattering. The experimental data were corrected for the effects of multiple scattering, both in the center detector and in the neutron detectors. The final data at E{sub n}=12.0 MeV deviate considerably from the predictions of nucleon-nucleon phase-shift analyses and potential models. The impact of the new data on the value of the charged pion-nucleon coupling constant is discussed in a model study.

  14. Neutron-proton analyzing power at 12 MeV and inconsistencies in parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.T.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Gonzalez Trotter, D.E.; Roper, C.D.; Salinas, F.; Setze, H.R.; Walter, R.L.; Weisel, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the most accurate and complete data set for the analyzing power A y (θ) in neutron-proton scattering. The experimental data were corrected for the effects of multiple scattering, both in the center detector and in the neutron detectors. The final data at E n =12.0 MeV deviate considerably from the predictions of nucleon-nucleon phase-shift analyses and potential models. The impact of the new data on the value of the charged pion-nucleon coupling constant is discussed in a model study

  15. Evaluation of neutron and proton nuclear data of {sup 28}Si for energies up to 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weili [Kyushu Univ., Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Sukhovitskii, E. Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute, Minsk-Sosny (Belarus); Iwamoto, O.; Chiba, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The neutron and proton nuclear data of {sup 28}Si up to 200 MeV are evaluated for various nuclear engineering applications. The soft rotator model and the coupled-channel method are used to perform a consistent analysis of the collective band structure of {sup 28}Si and nucleon scattering from {sup 28}Si. The GNASH nuclear model code is used for compound and preequilibrium particle emission calculations, where the emission of {sup 3}He is also included. Comparisons show overall good agreement with various experimental data. (author)

  16. Isotopic production cross sections of fission residues in 197Au-on-proton collisions at 800 A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlliure, J.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.

    2000-02-01

    Interactions of 197 Au projectiles at 800 A MeV with protons leading to fission are investigated. We measured the production cross sections and velocities of all fission residues which are fully identified in atomic and mass number by using the in-flight separator FRS at GSI. The new data are compared with partial measurements of the characteristics of fission in similar reactions. Both the production cross sections and the recoil energies are relevant for a better understanding of spallation reactions. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of neutron and proton nuclear data of 28Si for energies up to 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Weili; Watanabe, Y.; Sukhovitskii, E. Sh.; Iwamoto, O.; Chiba, S.

    2001-01-01

    The neutron and proton nuclear data of 28 Si up to 200 MeV are evaluated for various nuclear engineering applications. The soft rotator model and the coupled-channel method are used to perform a consistent analysis of the collective band structure of 28 Si and nucleon scattering from 28 Si. The GNASH nuclear model code is used for compound and preequilibrium particle emission calculations, where the emission of 3 He is also included. Comparisons show overall good agreement with various experimental data. (author)

  18. Theoretical study of intermediate-mass fragments in proton-nucleus reactions at 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabra, Mohammad S. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, USRA Space Science Department, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2017-03-15

    We have analyzed energy spectra, angular distributions, and mass and charge distributions of intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs) from the interaction of {sup 27}Al, {sup 59}Co, and {sup 197}Au with 200 MeV protons. Calculations within the modified statistical model with final-state interaction were performed using SAPTON code. Within the experimental uncertainty and constraint, SAPTON shows good agreement with the data, and suggests that the IMFs are produced after the intra-nuclear cascade stage, and during the surface coalescence, as well as the evaporation/fission stages. (orig.)

  19. Comments on Moessbauer-effect studies on 2-MeV proton-irradiated Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.E.; Sweedler, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    In a recent paper, Herber and Kalish have presented 119 Sn Moessbauer data for Nb 3 Sn irradiated by 2-MeV protons which they interpret in terms of a statistical distribution of site defects rather than interchange of Nb and Sn atoms. Further analysis of these data leads to the conclusion that they are in fact quite consistent with the presence of a substantial amount of radiation-induced site-exchange disorder. This is in agreement with the findings of a number of recent diffraction studies

  20. Fission cross sections of {sup 235,238}U and {sup 209}Bi at incident proton energies above 70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obukhov, A I; Rimskij-Korsakov, A A; Eismont, V P [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-06-01

    The proton fission cross-section data of {sup 235,238}U and Bi were measured in the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute over a wide proton energy range. The experimental and calculated data were also compared with experimental neutron values. The proton cross-section of {sup 235,238}U increased up to 60-70 MeV and then decreased. The bismuth proton fission cross-section increased in line with the rise in proton energy up to 1 GeV. (author). 21 refs, 6 figs.

  1. Fission properties of actinide nuclei from proton-induced fission at 26.5 and 62.9 MeV incident proton energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriou, P.; Keutgen, Th.; Prieels, R.; El Masri, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Fission properties of proton-induced fission on 232 Th, 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am targets, measured at the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility at proton energies of 26.5 and 62.9 MeV, are compared with the predictions of the state-of-the-art nuclear reaction code talys. The code couples the multimodal random neck-rupture model with the pre-equilibrium exciton and statistical models to predict fission fragment mass yields, pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities, and total fission cross sections in a consistent approach. The sensitivity of the calculations to the input parameters of the code and possible improvements are discussed in detail.

  2. Design of a MeV, 4kA linear induction accelerator for flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, B.; Brier, R.; Chapin, W.

    1981-01-01

    For verifying the hydrodynamics of nuclear weapons design it is useful to have flash x-ray machines that can deliver a maximum dose in a minimum pulse length and with very high reliability. At LLNL, such a requirement was identified some years ago as 500 roentgens at one meter, in a 60 nsec pulse length. In response to this requirement, a linear induction accelerator was proposed to and funded by DOE in 1977. The design of this machine, called FXR, has now been completed and construction has begun. The FXR design extends the parameters of a similar machine that had been built and operated at LBL, Berkeley, some ten years ago. Using a cold cathode injector followed by 48 accelerator modules rated at 400 kV each, the FXR machine will accelerate a 4 kA electron beam pulse to 20 MeV final energy. Key design features are the generation and the stable transport of a low emittance (100 mr-cm) beam from a field emitter diode, the design of reliable, compact energy storage components such as Blumleins, feedlines and accelerator modules, and a computer-assisted control system

  3. Design of 6 Mev linear accelerator based pulsed thermal neutron source: FLUKA simulation and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, B.J., E-mail: bjp@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Chavan, S.T.; Pethe, S.N.; Krishnan, R. [SAMEER, IIT Powai Campus, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    The 6 MeV LINAC based pulsed thermal neutron source has been designed for bulk materials analysis. The design was optimized by varying different parameters of the target and materials for each region using FLUKA code. The optimized design of thermal neutron source gives flux of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} with more than 80% of thermal neutrons and neutron to gamma ratio was 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4}ncm{sup -2}mR{sup -1}. The results of prototype experiment and simulation are found to be in good agreement with each other. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimized 6 eV linear accelerator based thermal neutron source using FLUKA simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Beryllium as a photonuclear target and reflector, polyethylene as a filter and shield, graphite as a moderator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimized pulsed thermal neutron source gives neutron flux of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of the prototype experiment were compared with simulations and are found to be in good agreement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This source can effectively be used for the study of bulk material analysis and activation products.

  4. Differential cross sections of proton Compton scattering at photon laboratory energies between 700 and 1000 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, M.; Kattein, J.; Kueck, H.; Leu, P.; Marne, K.D. de; Wedemeyer, R.; Wermes, N.

    1981-05-01

    Differential cross sections of proton Compton scattering have been measured at the Bonn 2.5 GeV synchrotron. 78 data points are presented as angular distributions at photon lab energies of 700, 750, 800, 850, 900, and 950 MeV. The c.m. scattering angle ranges from 40 0 to 130 0 , corresponding to a variation of the four momentum transfer squared between t = -0.10 to t = -0.96 GeV 2 at 700 and 950 MeV, respectively. Two additional differential cross sections have been measured at 1000 MeV, 35.6 0 and 47.4 0 . The angular distributions show forward peaks whose extrapolations to 0 0 are consistent with calculated forward cross sections taken from literature. The small angle data ( vertical stroke t vertical stroke approx. 2 ) together with the calculated cross sections at 0 0 are also consistent with the assumption of a slope parameter B of 5 GeV -2 . For the first time a re-rise of the angular distributions towards backward angles has been observed. It becomes less steep with increasing energy. The most interesting feature of the angular distributions is a sharp structure which appears between t = -0.55 GeV 2 at 700 MeV and t = -0.72 GeV 2 at 950 MeV. Such a rapid variation of the differential cross section with t has never been observed in elastic hadron-hadron scattering or photoproduction processes. It indicates the existence of a dynamical mechanism which could be a peculiarity of Compton scattering. (orig.)

  5. The first SEPServer event catalogue ~68-MeV solar proton events observed at 1 AU in 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Gasén Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SEPServer is a three-year collaborative project funded by the seventh framework programme (FP7-SPACE of the European Union. The objective of the project is to provide access to state-of-the-art observations and analysis tools for the scientific community on solar energetic particle (SEP events and related electromagnetic (EM emissions. The project will eventually lead to better understanding of the particle acceleration and transport processes at the Sun and in the inner heliosphere. These processes lead to SEP events that form one of the key elements of space weather. In this paper we present the first results from the systematic analysis work performed on the following datasets: SOHO/ERNE, SOHO/EPHIN, ACE/EPAM, Wind/WAVES and GOES X-rays. A catalogue of SEP events at 1 AU, with complete coverage over solar cycle 23, based on high-energy (~68-MeV protons from SOHO/ERNE and electron recordings of the events by SOHO/EPHIN and ACE/EPAM are presented. A total of 115 energetic particle events have been identified and analysed using velocity dispersion analysis (VDA for protons and time-shifting analysis (TSA for electrons and protons in order to infer the SEP release times at the Sun. EM observations during the times of the SEP event onset have been gathered and compared to the release time estimates of particles. Data from those events that occurred during the European day-time, i.e., those that also have observations from ground-based observatories included in SEPServer, are listed and a preliminary analysis of their associations is presented. We find that VDA results for protons can be a useful tool for the analysis of proton release times, but if the derived proton path length is out of a range of 1 AU < s ≲ 3 AU, the result of the analysis may be compromised, as indicated by the anti-correlation of the derived path length and release time delay from the associated X-ray flare. The average path length derived from VDA is about 1.9 times

  6. An integral test of FLUKA nuclear models with 160 MeV proton beams in multi-layer Faraday cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, I; Ferrari, A; Mairani, A; Parodi, K; Paganetti, H; Sala, P

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are useful tools to simulate the complex processes of proton beam interactions with matter. In proton therapy, nuclear reactions influence the dose distribution. Therefore, the validation of nuclear models adopted in MC codes is a critical requisite for their use in this field. A simple integral test can be performed using a multi-layer Faraday cup (MLFC). This method allows separation of the nuclear and atomic interaction processes, which are responsible for secondary particle emission and the finite primary proton range, respectively. In this work, the propagation of 160 MeV protons stopping in two MLFCs made of polyethylene and copper has been simulated by the FLUKA MC code. The calculations have been performed with and without secondary electron emission and transport, as well as charge sharing in the dielectric layers. Previous results with other codes neglected those two effects. The impact of this approximation has been investigated and found to be relevant only in the proximity of the Bragg peak. Longitudinal charge distributions computed with FLUKA with both approaches have been compared with experimental data from the literature. Moreover, the contribution of different processes to the measurable signal has been addressed. A thorough analysis of the results has demonstrated that the nuclear and electromagnetic models of FLUKA reproduce the two sets of experimental data reasonably well.

  7. Linear energy transfer incorporated intensity modulated proton therapy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Khabazian, Azin; Yepes, Pablo P.; Lim, Gino; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David R.; Mohan, Radhe

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating linear energy transfer (LET) into the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. Because increased LET correlates with increased biological effectiveness of protons, high LETs in target volumes and low LETs in critical structures and normal tissues are preferred in an IMPT plan. However, if not explicitly incorporated into the optimization criteria, different IMPT plans may yield similar physical dose distributions but greatly different LET, specifically dose-averaged LET, distributions. Conventionally, the IMPT optimization criteria (or cost function) only includes dose-based objectives in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In this study, we added LET-based objectives for maximizing LET in target volumes and minimizing LET in critical structures and normal tissues. Due to the fractional programming nature of the resulting model, we used a variable reformulation approach so that the optimization process is computationally equivalent to conventional IMPT optimization. In this study, five brain tumor patients who had been treated with proton therapy at our institution were selected. Two plans were created for each patient based on the proposed LET-incorporated optimization (LETOpt) and the conventional dose-based optimization (DoseOpt). The optimized plans were compared in terms of both dose (assuming a constant RBE of 1.1 as adopted in clinical practice) and LET. Both optimization approaches were able to generate comparable dose distributions. The LET-incorporated optimization achieved not only pronounced reduction of LET values in critical organs, such as brainstem and optic chiasm, but also increased LET in target volumes, compared to the conventional dose-based optimization. However, on occasion, there was a need to tradeoff the acceptability of dose and LET distributions. Our conclusion is that the

  8. Unified 1.9...4.0 MeV linear accelerators with interchangeable accelerating structures for customs inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budtov, A.A.; Klinov, A.P.; Krestianinov, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    A series of compact linear electron accelerators for 1.9, 2.5 and 4.0 MeV equipped with a local radiation shielding has been designed and constructed in the NPK LUTS, the D.V.Efremov Institute (NIIEFA). The accelerators are intended for mobile facilities used for customs inspection of large-scale containers. Results of optimizing calculations of irradiator parameters and electron dynamics, verified under accelerators testing, are presented in the report. The main design approaches allowing the construction of unified accelerators with interchangeable accelerating structures for energies in the range of 1.9...4.0 MeV are also given

  9. Investigation of the neutron-proton-interaction in the energy range from 20 to 50 MEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczynski, J.

    1984-07-01

    In the framework of the investigation of the isospin singlet part of the nucleon-nucleon-interaction in the energy range below 100 MeV two experiments were conducted, which were selected by sensitivity calculations. At the Karlsruhe polarized neutron facility POLKA the analyzing powers Asub(y) and Asub(yy) of the elastic n vector-p- and n vector-p vector-scattering were measured in the energy range from 20 to 50 MeV. The results of this epxeriment are compared to older data. In the energy range from 20 to 50 MeV the new data were analyzed together with other selected data of the nucleon-nucleon-system in phase shift analyses. The knowledge of the isospin singlet phase shifts 1 P 1 and 3 D 3 was improved by the new data. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Design, performance, and calculated error of a Faraday cup for absolute beam current measurements of 600-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, S.M.

    1975-04-01

    A mobile self-contained Faraday cup system for beam current measurments of nominal 600-MeV protons was designed, constructed, and used at the NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The cup is of reentrant design with a length of 106.7 cm and an outside diameter of 20.32 cm. The inner diameter is 15.24 cm and the base thickness is 30.48 cm. The primary absorber is commercially available lead hermetically sealed in a 0.32-cm-thick copper jacket. Several possible systematic errors in using the cup are evaluated. The largest source of error arises from high-energy electrons which are ejected from the entrance window and enter the cup. A total systematic error of -0.83 percent is calculated to be the decrease from the true current value. From data obtained in calibrating helium-filled ion chambers with the Faraday cup, the mean energy required to produce one ion pair in helium is found to be 30.76 +- 0.95 eV for nominal 600-MeV protons. This value agrees well, within experimental error, with reported values of 29.9 eV and 30.2 eV

  11. Design, performance, and calculated error of a Faraday cup for absolute beam current measurements of 600-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, S.M.

    1975-04-01

    A mobile self-contained Faraday cup system for beam current measurements of nominal 600 MeV protons was designed, constructed, and used at the NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The cup is of reentrant design with a length of 106.7 cm and an outside diameter of 20.32 cm. The inner diameter is 15.24 cm and the base thickness is 30.48 cm. The primary absorber is commercially available lead hermetically sealed in a 0.32-cm-thick copper jacket. Several possible systematic errors in using the cup are evaluated. The largest source of error arises from high-energy electrons which are ejected from the entrance window and enter the cup. A total systematic error of -0.83 percent is calculated to be the decrease from the true current value. From data obtained in calibrating helium-filled ion chambers with the Faraday cup, the mean energy required to produce one ion pair in helium is found to be 30.76 +- 0.95 eV for nominal 600 MeV protons. This value agrees well, within experimental error, with reported values of 29.9 eV and 30.2 eV. (auth)

  12. A Faraday Cup with high frequency response for a 200 MeV LINAC proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Bittner, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this device, composed essentially of coaxial line elements, is monitoring, on a per micropulse basis, the beam intensity of a 200 MeV LINAC at the BNL Radiation Effects Facility. The center conductor of the coaxial line acts as a beam stop. The output pulses are suitable for fast timing. 2 refs., 5 figs

  13. Microwave system of the 7-10 MeV electron linear accelerator ALIN for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Iliescu, E.; Stirbet, M.; Oproiu, C.; Vintan, I.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed description of the Central Institute of Physics 10 MeV linear microwave system and its associated subsystems are presented. Methods of impedance matching to obtain maximum power transfer are described along with broadband design methods for transmission-line impedance transformers. Experimental results for such microwave devices are included. With respect to microwave device performances, simultaneous high efficiency and high power capability with reliability and long life at relatively low unit cost have only recently been achieved as typical device characteristics. Industrial, medical and scientific application of microwave electron accelerators have markedly influenced microwave research progress. Radiographic linear accelerators have grown substantially mainly during the past few years. Following this, the improvements of microwave device performances solicit our attention. The first electron therapy Linear Accelerator ALIN 10 marks a new stage in the development of such instrumentation. Its subsequent ALIN 15 is designed to produce a maximum energy of 18 MeV to widen its applicability in radiotherapy. In addition, a new electron linear accelerator of 8 MeV for nondestructive testing has been started. (author)

  14. First measurement of the VESUVIO neutron spectrum in the 30–80 MeV energy range using a Proton Recoil Telescope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzaniga, C; Tardocchi, M; Croci, G; Grosso, G; Rebai, M; Gorini, G; Frost, C; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Giacomelli, L; Hjalmarsson, A

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the fast neutron energy spectrum at the ISIS spallation source are reported. The measurements were performed with a Proton Recoil Telescope consisting of a thin plastic foil placed in the neutron beam and two scintillator detectors. Results in the neutron energy range 30 MeV n < 80 MeV are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron spectrum

  15. First measurement of the VESUVIO neutron spectrum in the 30-80 MeV energy range using a Proton Recoil Telescope technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Frost, C.; Giacomelli, L.; Grosso, G.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Rebai, M.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Gorini, G.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of the fast neutron energy spectrum at the ISIS spallation source are reported. The measurements were performed with a Proton Recoil Telescope consisting of a thin plastic foil placed in the neutron beam and two scintillator detectors. Results in the neutron energy range 30 MeV < En < 80 MeV are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron spectrum.

  16. X-ray diffraction studies of 145MeV proton-irradiated AlBeMet 162

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elbakhshwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AlBeMet 162 (Materion Co., formerly Brush Wellman has been irradiated with 145MeV protons up to 1.2×1020cm−2 fluence, with irradiation temperatures in the range of 100–220°C. Macroscopic post-irradiation evaluation on the evolution of mechanical and thermal properties was integrated with a comprehensive X-ray- diffraction study using high-energy monochromatic and polychromatic X-ray beams, which offered a microscopic view of the irradiation damage effects on AlBeMet. The study confirmed the stability of the metal–matrix composite, its resistance to proton damage, and the continuing separation of the two distinct phases, fcc aluminum and hcp beryllium, following irradiation. Furthermore, based on the absence of inter-planar distance change during proton irradiation, it was confirmed that the stacking faults and clusters on the Al (111 planes are stable, and thus can migrate from the cascade region and be absorbed at various sinks. XRD analysis of the unirradiated AlBeMet 162 showed clear change in the texture of the fcc phase with orientation especially in the Al (111 reflection which exhibits a “non-perfect” six-fold symmetry, implying lack of isotropy in the composite.

  17. Neutron yield and induced radioactivity: a study of 235-MeV proton and 3-GeV electron accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Lai, Bo-Lun; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the magnitude of potential neutron yield and induced radioactivity of two new accelerators in Taiwan: a 235-MeV proton cyclotron for radiation therapy and a 3-GeV electron synchrotron serving as the injector for the Taiwan Photon Source. From a nuclear interaction point of view, neutron production from targets bombarded with high-energy particles is intrinsically related to the resulting target activation. Two multi-particle interaction and transport codes, FLUKA and MCNPX, were used in this study. To ensure prediction quality, much effort was devoted to the associated benchmark calculations. Comparisons of the accelerators' results for three target materials (copper, stainless steel and tissue) are presented. Although the proton-induced neutron yields were higher than those induced by electrons, the maximal neutron production rates of both accelerators were comparable according to their respective beam outputs during typical operation. Activation products in the targets of the two accelerators were unexpectedly similar because the primary reaction channels for proton- and electron-induced activation are (p,pn) and (γ,n), respectively. The resulting residual activities and remnant dose rates as a function of time were examined and discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Neutron yield and induced radioactivity: a study of 235-MeV proton and 3-GeV electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Lai, Bo-Lun; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the magnitude of potential neutron yield and induced radioactivity of two new accelerators in Taiwan: a 235-MeV proton cyclotron for radiation therapy and a 3-GeV electron synchrotron serving as the injector for the Taiwan Photon Source. From a nuclear interaction point of view, neutron production from targets bombarded with high-energy particles is intrinsically related to the resulting target activation. Two multi-particle interaction and transport codes, FLUKA and MCNPX, were used in this study. To ensure prediction quality, much effort was devoted to the associated benchmark calculations. Comparisons of the accelerators' results for three target materials (copper, stainless steel and tissue) are presented. Although the proton-induced neutron yields were higher than those induced by electrons, the maximal neutron production rates of both accelerators were comparable according to their respective beam outputs during typical operation. Activation products in the targets of the two accelerators were unexpectedly similar because the primary reaction channels for proton- and electron-induced activation are (p,pn) and (γ,n), respectively. The resulting residual activities and remnant dose rates as a function of time were examined and discussed. (authors)

  19. Validation of nuclear models in Geant4 using the dose distribution of a 177 MeV proton pencil beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, David C; Paganetti, Harald; Makarova, Anastasia; Gottschalk, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    A proton pencil beam is associated with a surrounding low-dose envelope, originating from nuclear interactions. It is important for treatment planning systems to accurately model this envelope when performing dose calculations for pencil beam scanning treatments, and Monte Carlo (MC) codes are commonly used for this purpose. This work aims to validate the nuclear models employed by the Geant4 MC code, by comparing the simulated absolute dose distribution to a recent experiment of a 177 MeV proton pencil beam stopping in water. Striking agreement is observed over five orders of magnitude, with both the shape and normalisation well modelled. The normalisations of two depth dose curves are lower than experiment, though this could be explained by an experimental positioning error. The Geant4 neutron production model is also verified in the distal region. The entrance dose is poorly modelled, suggesting an unaccounted upstream source of low-energy protons. Recommendations are given for a follow-up experiment which could resolve these issues. (note)

  20. Design of cavities of a standing wave accelerating tube for a 6 MeV electron linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zarei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Side-coupled standing wave tubes in  mode are widely used in the low-energy electron linear accelerator, due to high accelerating gradient and low sensitivity to construction tolerances. The use of various simulation software for designing these kinds of tubes is very common nowadays. In this paper, SUPERFISH code and COMSOL are used for designing the accelerating and coupling cavities for a 6 MeV electron linear accelerator. Finite difference method in SUPERFISH code and Finite element method in COMSOL are used to solve the equations. Besides, dimension of accelerating and coupling cavities and also coupling iris dimension are optimized to achieve resonance frequency of 2.9985 MHz and coupling constant of 0.0112. Considering the results of this study and designing of the RF energy injection port subsequently, the construction of 6 MeV electron tube will be provided

  1. 15-MeV proton emission from ICRF-heated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O N; Conroy, S W; Hone, M; Sadler, G J; Van Belle, P [Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    1994-07-01

    {sup 3} He-d fusion reaction protons emitted from ICRF-heated discharges were recorded with a silicon diode detector installed in the JET tokamak. The detection rates demonstrated that sawtooth crashes eject fast particles from the inner region of the plasma. The energy spectra of the fusion product protons using H minority provided evidence for the second harmonic acceleration of deuterons at sub-MW levels of RF power and those with {sup 3} He minority did not possess the expected twin-lobed shape predicted by kinematics calculations. (authors). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. 15-MeV proton emission from ICRF-heated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Conroy, S.W.; Hone, M.; Sadler, G.J.; Belle, P. van [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-12-31

    {sup 3}He-d fusion reaction protons emitted from ICRF-heated discharges were recorded with a silicon diode detector installed in the Joint European Torus (JET). The detection rates demonstrated that sawtooth crashes eject fast particles from the inner region of the plasma. The energy spectra of the fusion product protons using H minority provided evidence for the second harmonic acceleration of deuterons at sub-MW levels of RF power and those with {sup 3}He minority did not possess the expected twin-lobed shape predicted by kinematics calculations. (author) 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Acceleration of protons to above 6 MeV using H2O 'snow' nanowire targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantz, I.; Schleifer, E.; Nahum, E.; Eisenmann, S.; Botton, M.; Gordon, D.; Sprangel, P.; Zigler, A.

    2012-01-01

    A scheme is presented for using H 2 O 'snow' nanowire targets for the generation of fast protons. This novel method may relax the requirements for very high laser intensities, thus reducing the size and cost of laser based ion acceleration system.

  4. Mechanisms of mutagenesis in human cells exposed to 55 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauny, S.; Wiese, C.; Kronenberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Protons represent the major type of charged particle radiation in spaceflight environments. The purpose of this study was to assess mutations arising in human lymphoid cells exposed to protons. Mutations were quantitated at the thymidine kinase (TK1) locus in cell lines derived from the same donor: TK6 cells (wt TP53) and WTK1 cells (mutant TP53). WTK1 cells were much more susceptible to mutagenesis following proton exposure than TK6 cells. Intragenic deletions were observed among early-arising TK1 mutants in TK6 cells, but not in WTK1 cells where all of the mutants arose by LOH. Deletion was the predominant mode of LOH in TK6 cells, while allelic recombination was the major mode of LOH in WTK1 cells. Deletions were of variable lengths, from <1 cM to 64 cM, while mutations that arose by allelic recombination often extended to the telomere. In summary, proton exposures elicited many types of mutations at an autosomal locus in human cells. Most involved large scale loss of genetic information, either through deletion or by recombination.

  5. Calculation of A (x) for the Proton-Deuteron Breakup Reaction at 135 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Mehmandoost-Khajeh-Dad, A. A.; Shafaei, M. A.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Biegun, A.; Gasparic, I.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kistryn, St.; Kozela, A.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.; Ramazani Moghaddam Arani, Ahmad; Shende, S. V.; Stephan, E.; Sworst, R.

    Observables in proton-deuteron scattering are sensitive probes of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and three-nucleon force effects (3NF). Several facilities in the world, including Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), allow a detailed study a few-nucleon interaction below the pion-production

  6. Neutron-proton analyzing power data between 7.6 and 18.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisel, G.J.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Felsher, P.D.; AlOhali, M.; Chen, Z.P.; Walter, R.L.; Lambert, J.M.; Treado, P.A.; Slaus, I.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the analyzing power A y (θ) for neutron-proton scattering have been performed at 7.6, 12.0, 14.1, 16.0, and 18.5 MeV. The experimental setup is described as are the finite-geometry corrections applied to the data. One of these corrections, due to the presence of carbon in the scintillators used for neutron detection, is discussed in detail. The A y (θ) data are compared to the predictions of the Paris and Bonn nucleon-nucleon potentials and the predictions of two phase-shift analyses, one of which incorporates charge-independence breaking effects in the 3 P waves

  7. An experimental accelerator driven system based on plutonium subcritical assembly and 660 MeV protons accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Puzynin, I.V.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Polanski, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a Plutonium Based Energy Amplifier Testing Concept, which employs a plutonium subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating in the JINR Laboratory of Nuclear Problems. Fuel designed for the pulsed neutron source IREN (Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR) will be adopted for the core of the assembly. To make the present conceptual design of the Plutonium Energy Amplifier we have chosen a nominal unit capacity of 20 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient K eff ranging between 0.94 and 0.95 and the energetic gain about 20. Accelerated current is in the range of 1-1.6μA

  8. Void formation in cold-worked type 316 stainless steel irradiated with 1-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, D.W.; Pard, A.G.

    1974-01-01

    Cold-worked Type 316 stainless steel was irradiated at 500 and 600 0 C with 1-MeV protons. The dependence of void formation on displacement damage, irradiation temperature, and microstructure was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Cold working delays the onset of swelling and reduces it, via a reduction in void size, at both irradiation temperatures. Inhomogeneity in the cold-worked microstructure leads to inhomogeneity in the disposition of voids. Swelling at 600 is greater than at 500 0 C; the voids are less numerous but larger at the higher temperature. No change in the cold-worked microstructure can be detected by transmission electron microscopy after 500 0 C irradiation to 23 displacements per atom. Irradiation to a comparable damage level at 600 0 C results in almost complete elimination of the cold-worked microstructure. Comparison of the results is made with data from reactor irradiation experiments

  9. Computing the cross sections of nuclear reactions with nuclear clusters emission for proton energies between 30 MeV and 2.6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korovin, Yu. A.; Maksimushkina, A. V., E-mail: AVMaksimushkina@mephi.ru; Frolova, T. A. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The cross sections of nuclear reactions involving emission of clusters of light nuclei in proton collisions with a heavy-metal target are computed for incident-proton energies between 30 MeV and 2.6 GeV. The calculation relies on the ALICE/ASH and CASCADE/INPE computer codes. The parameters determining the pre-equilibrium cluster emission are varied in the computation.

  10. In situ variations of the scintillation characteristics in GaN and CdS layers under irradiation by 1.6 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubas, E., E-mail: eugenijus.gaubas@ff.vu.lt; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Tekorius, A.

    2015-12-15

    Evolution of the non-radiative and radiative recombination in GaN and CdS 2.5–20 μm thick layers has been examined by the in situ measurements of the 1.6 MeV proton induced luminescence and laser excited photoconductivity characteristics. The introduction rate of radiation defects has been evaluated by the comparative analysis of the laser and proton beam induced luminescence for the examined GaN and CdS layers.

  11. New excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper up to 70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, E. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Duchemin, C., E-mail: Charlotte.Duchemin@subatech.in2p3.fr [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Guertin, A. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Haddad, F.; Michel, N. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); GIP Arronax, 1 rue Aronnax, 44817 Saint-Herblain (France); Métivier, V. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Natural titanium, nickel and copper targets. • 70 MeV ARRONAX cyclotron proton beam. • Stacked-foil technique and monitor reactions. • Experimental cross section values. • TALYS code version 1.6. - Abstract: New excitation functions for proton induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper were measured, using the stacked-foil technique and gamma spectrometry, up to 70 MeV. The experimental cross sections were measured using the Ti-nat(p,x) V-48, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-57 and Cu-nat(p,x) Zn-62,Co-56 monitor reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), depending on the investigated energy range. Data have been extracted for the Ti-nat(p,x) Sc-43,44m,46,47,48, V-48, K-42,43, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-56,57, Co-55,56,57,58, Mn-52,54, Cu-nat(p,x) Cu-61,64, Ni-57, Co-56,57,58,60, Zn-62,65, Mn-54 reactions. Our results are discussed and compared to the existing ones as well as with the TALYS code version 1.6 calculations using default models. Our experimental data are in overall good agreement with the literature. TALYS is able to reproduce, in most cases, the experimental trend. Our new experimental results allow to expand our knowledge on these excitation functions, to confirm the existing trends and to give additional values on a large energy range. This work is in line with the new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) launched by the IAEA to expand the database of monitor reactions.

  12. A fully microscopic model of 200 MeV proton-{sup 12}C elastic and inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karataglidis, S; Dortmans, P J; Amos, K; de Swiniarski, R

    1996-03-01

    An effective two nucleon (NN) interaction in the nuclear medium is defined from an accurate mapping of the NN g matrices obtained by solving the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations for infinite nuclear matter. That effective interaction is used in a fully microscopic calculation of the nonlocal effective proton-{sup 12}C interaction from which are obtained predictions of the differential cross section and analysing power for 200 MeV elastic scattering. The relative motion wave functions so found are used as the distorted waves in a distorted wave approximation (DWA) study of select inelastic scattering events. The effective NN interaction is used as the transition operator in those calculations. The relevant nuclear spectroscopy for the elastic and DWA (p, p`) calculations is found from a full (0 + 2) {Dirac_h}{omega} shell model evaluation of the positive parity states while a restricted (1 + 3){Dirac_h}{omega} has been used to give the negative parity states. Results are compared with those of the 0p-shell model of Cohen and Kurath or with those based upon axially symmetric, projected Hartree-Fock calculations. The diverse structure model wave functions are assessed by using them in calculations to compare with measured longitudinal, transverse electric and transverse magnetic form factors from electron scattering to many of the excited states of {sup 12}C. Using those models of the structure of {sup 12}C in the completely microscopic model of the elastic and inelastic scattering of 200 MeV protons, good fits have been found to the cross section and analysing power data. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs.

  13. Measurement of activation reaction rate distributions in a lead assembly bombarded with 500-MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Takada, H; Sasa, T; Tsujimoto, K; Yasuda, H

    2000-01-01

    Reaction rate distributions of various activation detectors such as the /sup nat/Ni(n, x)/sup 58/Co, /sup 197/Au(n,2n)/sup 196/Au, and /sup 197/Au(n,4n)/sup 194/Au reactions were measured to study the production and the transport of spallation neutrons in a lead assembly bombarded with protons of 500 MeV. The measured data were analyzed with the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC/JAERI combined with the MCNP4A code using the nuclide production cross sections based on the JENDL Dosimetry File and those calculated with the ALICE-F code. It was found that the NMTC/JAERI-MCNP4A calculations agreed well with the experiments for the low-energy-threshold reaction of /sup nat/Ni(n, x)/sup 58/Co. With the increase of threshold energy, however, the calculation underestimated the experiments, especially above 20 MeV. The reason for the disagreement can be attributed to the underestimation of the neutron yield in the tens of mega-electron-volt regions by the NMTC/JAERI code. (32 refs).

  14. Combined proton-recoil and neutron time-of-flight spectrometer for 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosshoeg, G.; Aronsson, D.; Arvidsson, E.; Beimer, K.-H.; Pekkari, L.-O.; Rydz, R.; Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1983-05-01

    The main effort put into this work is the foundation of a reliable physical basis for a 12-16 MeV neutron-spectrometer at JET. The essential problem is the amount of scatterer that can be incorporated without losing resolution. We have found two possible methods, the use of a pure hydrogen scatterer and the use of a polyethylene foil scatterer. The pure hydrogen solution gives a very complicated spectrometer with large detectors. The polyethylene solution is limited by the thickness and the width of the foil. We judge the solution with the polyethylene foil to be the most promising one for a reliable spectrometer. However, a large foil area is needed. This gives a spectrometer design with an annular foil, an annular neutron detection system, and a central proton-detector. An efficiency of 10 - 6 counts/s per n/cm 2 ,s at the foil can be obtained with a resolution in the order of 100 keV for 14 MeV neutrons. Following the General Requirements given in the contract of this work, we concluded that an instrument with the desired properties can be made. The instruments is able to give useful information about the plasma from plasma temperatures of about 5 keV. (Authors)

  15. Fabrication of miniature magnetic magnet pole for validate simulation of magnetic cyclotron proton 13 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subroto; Sukiya; Tony R

    2013-01-01

    A fabrication of miniature magnetic pole field has been made to validate the simulation system 13 MeV magnet of proton cyclotron using mild steel material. This electromagnet of magnetic pole at the end of the magnetic pole is divided into 8 parts of the valley and the hill interval to produce different magnetic field. Pole magnetic field fabrication is meet to match the design of the system simulation results 13 MeV cyclotron magnet. This requires strong cyclotron magnetic field average at 1.275 T magnetic field strength of each piece was different. So that the ion beam passing through a magnetic field. Will be focused before mashing target. The surface of magnetic pole is circular with a diameter of 100 mm and 32 mm pole spacing. Miniature of electrical pole diameter is only one-tenth the diameter of 960 mm designed this requires current 10 A with voltage 30 V to produce field strength of 0.3 T. To measure the magnetic field strength tesla meter is used and to measure the relationship curve in pole position with a magnetic field strength magnets cylinder directions X and Y the used mini lathe. Field strength measurement results with a straight, oblique and circular position show nearly equal to curve simulation results using a 3D module TOSCA opera program. (author)

  16. Probability of spin flipping of proton with energy 6.9 MeV at inelastic scattering with sup(54,56)Fe nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopenko, V.S.; Sklyarenko, V.; Chernievskij, V.K.; Shustov, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    Spin-orbital effects of inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei with mean atomic weight are investigated along with the mechanisms of the reaction course by measuring proton spin flip. The experiment consists in measuring proton-gamma coincidences in mutually perpendicular planes by the technique of quick-slow coincidences. The excitation function of the 56 Fe(P,P 1 ) reaction is measured in the 3.5-6.2 MeV energy range. Angular dependences of probability of proton spin flip (a level of 2 + , 0.847 MeV) are measured at energies of incident protons of 4.96; 5.58 and 5.88 MeV. Measurements of probabilities of proton spin flipping at inelastic scattering by sup(54,56)Fe nuclei are performed in the process of studying spin-orbital effects and mechanisms of the reaction course. A conclusion is made that the inelastic scattering process in the energy range under investigation is mainly realized by two equivalent mechanisms: direct interaction and formation of a compound nucleus. Angular dependences for 54 Fe and 56 Fe noticeably differ in the values of probability of spin flip in the angular range of 50-150 deg

  17. Elastic scattering of polarized protons on helium three at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizi, A.

    1985-07-01

    A set of spin dependent parameters and cross sections has been measured for polarized p- 3 He elastic scattering over the range of q .7 to 4.2 fm -1 . The experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) with a polarized proton beam at .8 GeV. The focal plane polarimeter of the HRS was used to determine the spin direction of the scattered proton. Since 3 He is one of the simplest nuclei, polarized p- 3 He scattering provides a very sensitive test of multiple scattering theories. The theoretical analysis was done by using two different wave functions for 3 He as input to the multiple scattering theory. The theoretical calculations and experimental data together will give us useful information about nucleon-nucleon amplitudes and also help us to obtain a better understanding of the scattering process. 68 refs., 55 figs., 9 tabs

  18. Neutron-proton elastic diffusion study at low transfer between 400-1000 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellers, F.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents the first complete results of forward differential cross-section, over the entire range of the intermediate energies, in the neutron-proton system. The neutron beam is produced with the synchrotron Saturne II, using the reaction of deuteron break-up, which gives it a relatively high intensity and a small energy dispersion. The experimental apparatus is a drift ionization chamber, IKAR, filled with high pressure gas which plays the double role of target and detector of the recoil proton. The use of a neutral beam requires new procedures in the analysis, more elaborate than in the case of charged projectiles, where scattered particles were detected in coincidence in wire chambers. The results are then normalized and discussed, using a phenomenological parametrization, and integrated in a continuously energy-dependent phase-shifts analysis. An entirely analytic Glauber calculation allows us to estimate the validity of the normalization method [fr

  19. A system for monitoring the radiation effects of a proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorkin, V. M., E-mail: skorkin@inr.ru; Belyanski, K. L.; Skorkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The system for real-time monitoring of radioactivity of a high-current proton linear accelerator detects secondary neutron emission from proton beam losses in transport channels and measures the activity of radionuclides in gas and aerosol emissions and the radiation background in the environment affected by a linear accelerator. The data provided by gamma, beta, and neutron detectors are transferred over a computer network to the central server. The system allows one to monitor proton beam losses, the activity of gas and aerosol emissions, and the radiation emission level of a linear accelerator in operation.

  20. Proton induced nuclear reactions on natural antimony up to 17 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbinawi, Alaa; Al-abyad, Mogahed; Hassan, Khaled F. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Cyclotron Facility; Abd-Elmageed, Karima E. [Benha Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Ditroi, Ferenc [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI)

    2016-08-01

    The activation cross sections of proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Sb target leading to the formation of the radioisotopes {sup 121m,g,123m}Te were measured. The experimental excitation functions were compared with the theoretical model calculations using the codes EMPIRE-3.1 and TALYS-1.4. The integral yields of the three radionuclides were calculated and the possibility of their production is discussed.

  1. Cross-field diffusion of energetic (100 keV to 2 MeV) protons in interplanetary space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Jr, Edio da [Instituto Federal de Minas Gerais-IFMG, Ouro Preto, MG, 35400-000 (Brazil); Tsurutani, Bruce T. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alves, Maria Virgínia; Echer, Ezequiel [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, São José dos Campos, SP, 12227-010 (Brazil); Lakhina, Gurbax S., E-mail: edio.junior@ifmg.edu.br, E-mail: costajr.e@gmail.com [Indian Institute for Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai 410 218 (India)

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic field magnitude decreases (MDs) are observed in several regions of the interplanetary medium. In this paper, we characterize MDs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft instrumentation over the solar south pole by using magnetic field data to obtain the empirical size, magnetic field MD, and frequency of occurrence distribution functions. The interaction of energetic (100 keV to 2 MeV) protons with these MDs is investigated. Charged particle and MD interactions can be described by a geometrical model allowing the calculation of the guiding center shift after each interaction. Using the distribution functions for the MD characteristics, Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain the cross-field diffusion coefficients as a function of particle kinetic energy. It is found that the protons under consideration cross-field diffuse at a rate of up to ≈11% of the Bohm rate. The same method used in this paper can be applied to other space regions where MDs are observed, once their local features are well known.

  2. Neutron-proton analyzing power at 12 MeV and charged πNN coupling constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.T.; Tornow, W.; Gonzalez Trotter, D.E.; Howell, C.R.; Machleidt, R.; Roper, C.D.; Salinas, F.; Setze, H.R.; Walter, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent reanalysis of scattering data by the Nijmegen group has led to new values for the πNN coupling constants, g 2 πdegree /4π and g 2 π± /4π, about 6% smaller than the previously accepted values. The impact of this finding is far reaching. Since the neutron-proton A y (θ) is dominated at low energies by the one-pion-exchange mechanism, accurate np data should provide unique information as to the magnitude of g 2 π± /4π. Using a new experimental setup consisting of a shielded neutron source, a five-pair neutron detector array, a n- 4 He polarimeter, and an intense polarized source with fast spin-flipping capability, we have measured a 15 point angular distribution of the neutron-proton A y (θ) at and incident neutron energy of 12 MeV to a statistical accuracy of 5x10 -4 . We will discuss the data taking procedures, the analysis, and the corrections applied to the data. Preliminary results will be presented

  3. Relative biological efficiency of 592 MeV protons. Analysis of the biological effect of secondary radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeay, G.; Baarli, J.

    1968-01-01

    The relative biological efficiency (RBE) of high energy protons is of importance because of their effects in the field of radioprotection around large accelerators and during space-flights. The nature of the interactions between 592 MeV protons and biological tissues makes it necessary to take into consideration the contribution of secondary radiation to the biological effect. Since it is not possible to obtain from a synchrotron a beam having a sufficiently large cross-section to irradiate large animals, one has to resort to certain devices concerning the mode of exposure when small laboratory animals are used. By irradiating rats individually and in groups, and by using the lethal test as a function of time, the authors show that the value of the RBE is different for animals of the same species having the same biological parameters. Thus there appears an increase in the biological effect due to secondary radiation produced in nuclear cascades which develop in a large volume, for example that of a human being. (author) [fr

  4. Cross-sections of (p, xn) nuclear reactions on Pb and Bi by 100 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Jung, Nam Suk; Oh, Joo Hee; Lee, Arim; Kim, Dong Hyun; Bae, Oryun; Lee, Hee Seock [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The development of high-intensity and high-energy accelerator is gaining interest in Korea, in recent years. Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP), Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL), Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) facilities are being designed. In the frame of above projects, for the safety issue and shielding analysis of the accelerator facility, extensive studies including experimental and simulation on the production yields of residual nuclei induced in the accelerator materials such as Pb, Cu and Bi by protons and heavy ions are in progress. In this work, we measured cross-sections of {sup na}'tPb(p,xn){sup 206,205,204,20{sup ,202}}Bi and {sup 209}Bi(p, xn){sup 207,206,205,204},{sup 203}Po nuclear reactions by the 100-MeV protons. The present experimental data are in good agreement with the results of Titarenkoet al. and Gloris et al.. Experimental data were higher than theoretical data. In other words, results of TALYS code and data in TENDL library underestimated the measured crosss sections and library of TALYS code and TENDL need to be improved.

  5. Point defect induced degradation of electrical properties of Ga2O3 by 10 MeV proton damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Shchemerov, I. V.; Yakimov, E. B.; Yang, Jiancheng; Ren, F.; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Jihyun; Kuramata, A.; Pearton, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Deep electron and hole traps in 10 MeV proton irradiated high-quality β-Ga2O3 films grown by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on bulk β-Ga2O3 substrates were measured by deep level transient spectroscopy with electrical and optical injection, capacitance-voltage profiling in the dark and under monochromatic irradiation, and also electron beam induced current. Proton irradiation caused the diffusion length of charge carriers to decrease from 350-380 μm in unirradiated samples to 190 μm for a fluence of 1014 cm-2, and this was correlated with an increase in density of hole traps with optical ionization threshold energy near 2.3 eV. These defects most likely determine the recombination lifetime in HVPE β-Ga2O3 epilayers. Electron traps at Ec-0.75 eV and Ec-1.2 eV present in as-grown samples increase in the concentration after irradiation and suggest that these centers involve native point defects.

  6. A new way to compute charges fusion products trajectories. Application to the detection of 3 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doloc, C.M.; Martin, G.

    1995-01-01

    We report here recent results concerning the 3 MeV Fusion Proton trajectories in the Tore-Supra Tokamak. The orbit computations were made in a new and unusual manner based on a topological equation which governs these trajectories. This method eludes both the problem of computing precision and the need to follow a large number of particles along their orbit: it allows to draw a topological map of trajectories, i.e. to find all possible trajectory classes, without any numerical computation. It gives also the transitions occurring between the various classes. The confinement of the proton orbits and the optimisation of the detector location were studied under the same topological rules. The need to develop this subject comes from the necessity to explain a large quantity of experimental data recorded by a silicon detector system on Tore-Supra. Experimental analysis of the Charged Fusion Product (CFP) is ensured by this unique detection system which allows to obtain simultaneously energy and pitch-angle resolution. (authors). 9 refs., 11 figs

  7. Stopping powers of Zr, Pd, Cd, In and Pb for 6.5 MeV protons and mean excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwari, R.; Shiomi, N.; Sakamoto, N.

    1983-01-01

    Stopping powers of Zr, Pd, Cd, In and Pb have been measured for 6.5 MeV protons. Mean excitation energies have been extracted from the stopping power data by taking into account Bloch correction and Z 1 3 correction. For the shell correction the Bonderup shell correction has been used. The results agree fairly well with those of other authors

  8. Nanoparticle formation in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar mixtures under irradiation by 20 MeV protons and positive corona discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imanaka, M.; Tomita, S.; Kanda, S.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of ions to gas nucleation, we have performed experiments on the formation of water droplets in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar gas mixtures by irradiation with a 20 MeV proton beam and by positive corona discharge. The size of the formed nanoparticles was measured using...

  9. Analysis of Residual Nuclide in a ACM and ACCT of 100-MeV proton beamline By measurement X-ray Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Min; Yun, Sang-Pil; Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The proton beam is provides to users as various energy range from 20 MeV to 100 MeV. After protons generated from the ion source are accelerated to 100 MeV and irradiated to target through bending magnet and AC magnet. At this time, relatively high dose X-ray is emitted due to collision of proton and components of beamline. The generated X-ray is remaining after the accelerator is turned off and analyzing residual nuclides through the measurement of X-ray spectrum. Then identify the components that are the primary cause of residual nuclides are detected form the AC magnet(ACM) and associated components (ACCT). Analysis of the X-ray spectrum generated form the AC magnet(ACM) and AC current transformer(ACCT) of 100 MeV beamline according to the proton beam irradiation, most of the residual nuclides are identified it can be seen that emission in the stainless steel by beam loss.

  10. Oxidation of SO2 and formation of water droplets under irradiation of 20MeV protons in N2/H2O/SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomita, Shigeo; Nakai, Yoichi; Funada, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    We have performed an experiment on charged droplet formation in a humidified N2 gas with trace SO2 concentration and induced by 20MeV proton irradiation. It is thought that SO2 reacts with the chemical species, such as OH radicals, generated through the reactions triggered by N2+ production. Both...

  11. Spallation of terbium by 170 MeV protons. First part: qualitative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkowsky, J.; Le Pape, M.; Gratot, I.; Cohen, L.

    1959-01-01

    The products of the reaction Tb+p (170 MeV) have been studied by radiochemical methods. For each element, α, β, γ and X rays have been studied and results compared to literature data. The cross sections will be given in a further work. We observe a new alpha emitter of gadolinium, half-life 7 h, with the following γ-rays: X (43 keV), 220 keV, 340 keV, 550 keV, 720 keV. New γ-rays are given: 155 Tb: 480 keV; 880 keV 146 Eu (38 h): 125 keV; 570 keV 147 Eu: 570 keV 145 Eu: 180 keV. Reprint of a paper published in 'Le journal de physique et le radium', tome 20, N. 5, may 1959, p. 549-556 [fr

  12. Thick-target neutron, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production for protons below 12 MeV on nickel and carbon beam-stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear model calculations using the GNASH code are described for protons below 12 MeV incident on nickel and carbon isotopes, for beam stop design in the Los Alamos Accelerator Production of Tritium Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project. The GNASH calculations apply Hauser-Feshbach and preequilibrium reaction theories and can make use of pre-calculated direct reaction cross sections to low-lying residual nucleus states. From calculated thin target cross sections, thick target 6.7 MeV and 12 MeV proton-induced production of neutrons, gamma rays, and radionuclides are determined. Emission spectra of the secondary neutrons and gamma rays are also determined. The model calculations are validated through comparisons with experimental thin- and thick-target measurements. The results of this work are being utilized as source terms in MCNP analyses for LEDA

  13. /sup 9/Be(p,n)/sup 9/B reaction with polarized protons from 2. 4 to 2. 9 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, U [Basel Univ. (Switzerland); Brown, L [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1976-04-19

    A polarized beam was used to measure angular distributions of the proton analyzing power of the /sup 9/Be(p,n)/sup 9/B reaction at six energies from 2.4 to 2.9 MeV. The data were measured typically to an accuracy of 0.02 with a target 23 keV thick at 2.5 MeV bombarding energy. The analyzing power can be fitted with three associated Legendre polynomials, the coefficients of which show considerable variation in the vicinity of the pair of degenerate states at 2.56 MeV. The coefficients of the odd polynomials are not zero over the energy range of these states, indicating that they are of opposite parity. Comparison of these analyzing power measurements with previous data for the neutron polarization induced with unpolarized protons shows near equality at all energies, as expected from Conzett's theorem.

  14. Calculation of proton total reaction cross sections for some target nuclei in incident energy range of 10-600 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueyuekuslu, H.; Kaplan, A.; Aydin, A.; Tel, E.; Yildirim, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, proton total reaction cross sections have been investigated for some isotopes such as 12 C, 27 Al, 9 Be, 16 O, 181 Ta, 197 Au, 6 Li, and 14 N by a proton beam up to 600 MeV. Calculation of the proton total cross sections has been carried out by the analytic expression formulated by M.A. Alvi by using Coulomb-modified Glauber theory with the Helm model nuclear form factor. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found to be in agreement with each other.

  15. Confinement of a high current proton beam in a linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerslick, G.S.; Roth, I.S.; Golkowski, C.; Ivers, J.D.; Nation, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A 1 MeV, 6 kA, 50 ns annular proton beam has been generated in a two stage induction linac. Several confinement systems designed to allow propagation through multiple acceleration stages have been studied. In the first, the beam is injected through a half cusp into a 1.4 T solenoidal magnetic field. In the second system the beam is generated in a full cusp diode. The third system discussed relies on collective confinement of the protons by the space charge of the neutralizing electrons. This is in contrast to the previously described systems which rely on magnetic confinement. A comparison between the three methods of transport is made

  16. Tensile properties in zircaloy-II after 590 MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Y. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Victoria, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    In order to investigate radiation potential damage effects on the SINQ Zircaloy-rod target, four Zircaloy-II tensile specimens were irradiated at the PIREX facility in 1995 to a proton fluence about 3x10{sup 20} p/cm{sup 2}, which produced a radiation damage of about 1.35 displacements per atom (dpa). Tensile test results show that, although there is some reduction in tensile elongation, substantial ductility still exists after such irradiation dose which corresponds to the peak value obtained in the SINQ target for 23 days operation at 1 mA. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  17. Trace element studies in bioenvironmental samples using 3-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.L.; Willis, R.D.; Gutknecht, W.F.

    1974-01-01

    Trace metal compositions of a wide range of biological, environmental, medical and clinical samples were investigated using proton-induced x-ray emission analysis (PIXEA). The x-rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector and spectra from over 3000 irradiations have been recorded on magnetic tape. The chi 2 fitting code TRACE developed at our laboratory was used in a semi-automatic mode to extract abundances of elements from S to Cd. Various methods of overcoming analytical problems and specimen preparation difficulties are reported. Results from some samples for typical studies are illustrated along with the reasons for interest in the sample types

  18. A 7MeV S-Band 2998MHz Variable Pulse Length Linear Accelerator System

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Michael; Mishin, Andrey V; Saverskiy, Aleksandr J; Skowbo, Dave; Smith, Richard

    2005-01-01

    American Science and Engineering High Energy Systems Division (AS&E HESD) has designed and commissioned a variable pulse length 7 MeV electron accelerator system. The system is capable of delivering a 7 MeV electron beam with a pulse length of 10 nS FWHM and a peak current of 1 ampere. The system can also produce electron pulses with lengths of 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 nS and 3 uS FWHM with corresponding lower peak currents. The accelerator system consists of a gridded electron gun, focusing coil, an electrostatic deflector system, Helmholtz coils, a standing wave side coupled S-band linac, a 2.6 MW peak power magnetron, an RF circulator, a fast toroid, vacuum system and a PLC/PC control system. The system has been operated at repetition rates up to 250pps. The design, simulations and experimental results from the accelerator system are presented in this paper.

  19. Elastic scattering of polarized protons on helium three at 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, A.

    1985-07-01

    A set of spin dependent parameters and cross sections has been measured for polarized p-/sup 3/He elastic scattering over the range of q .7 to 4.2 fm/sup -1/. The experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) with a polarized proton beam at .8 GeV. The focal plane polarimeter of the HRS was used to determine the spin direction of the scattered proton. Since /sup 3/He is one of the simplest nuclei, polarized p-/sup 3/He scattering provides a very sensitive test of multiple scattering theories. The theoretical analysis was done by using two different wave functions for /sup 3/He as input to the multiple scattering theory. The theoretical calculations and experimental data together will give us useful information about nucleon-nucleon amplitudes and also help us to obtain a better understanding of the scattering process. 68 refs., 55 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Calculations of nuclear data for the reactions of neutrons and protons with heavy nuclei at energy from 1 MeV up to 2 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konshin, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Several nuclear model codes were applied to calculations of nuclear data in the energy region from 1 MeV to 2 GeV. At energies from 1 to 20 MeV the statistical model code STAPRE was used for calculations of the neutron cross-sections for fission, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross-sections for 71 actinide isotopes. In the energy region from 10 to 100 MeV the nuclear theory code GNASH was used to calculate the neutron fission and (n,xn) cross-sections for 238 U, 235 U, 239 Pu, 232 Th, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am, 243 Am, 245 Cm and 246 Cm. At energies from 100 MeV to 2 GeV the intranuclear cascade-exciton model including the fission process was applied to calculations of the interactions of protons and neutrons with actinides and the calculated results are compared with experimental data. (author)

  1. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of neutron production cross-sections at 180o for the 140 MeV proton incident reactions on carbon, iron, and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Satoh, Daiki; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Yashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Tamii, Atsushi; Iwase, Hiroshi; Endo, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Niita, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The neutron production cross-sections of carbon, iron, and gold targets with 140 MeV protons at 180 o were measured at the RCNP cyclotron facility. The time-of-flight technique was used to obtain the neutron energy spectra in the energy range above 1 MeV. The carbon and iron target results were compared with the experimental data from 113 MeV (p,xn) reactions at 150 o reported by Meier et al. Our data agreed well with them in spite of different incident energies and angles. Calculations were then performed using different intra-nuclear cascade models (Bertini, ISOBAR, and JQMD) implemented with PHITS code. The results calculated using the ISOBAR and JQMD models roughly agreed with the experimental iron and gold target data, but the Bertini could not reproduce the high-energy neutrons above 10 MeV.

  2. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Mazal, A; Pouzoulet, F

    2016-01-01

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec , for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec . The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm −1 . These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. (paper)

  3. Measurement of neutron production by 500 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Ban, Shuichi

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of high energy neutrons is difficult, because the cross section data are scarce, the cross section at high energy is usually small, and the monoenergetic neutrons are hardly obtained. At the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), various threshold detectors have been used for high energy neutron measurement. A carbon detector is a standard detector for high energy neutrons, since the cross section of the C 12 (n, 2n) C 11 reaction is almost constant at higher energy than 20 MeV, and the data have been well known. The half-life of the product (C 11 ) is about 20 min, and other activities with longer half-life than 1 min are restricted to Be 7 and C 11 . As a carbon detector, a plastic scintillator is used, and the neutron spectra observed at the Booster Beam Dump Room of KEK are presented. The results of measurements were compared with the calculated results using a Monte Carlo code made at KEK. Agreement between both results was good. (Kato, T.)

  4. Charged pion production from neutron--proton collisions at 790 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.

    1977-09-01

    The two reactions np → nnπ + and np → ppπ - were studied at 790 MeV (incident neutron energy). Pion spectra were measured at 10 different angles with a multiwire proportional chamber spectrometer. Approximately 100,000 events were analyzed. The angular distribution of pions in the np center of momentum system (d sigma/dΩ*) was given by [(123.1 +- 2.7) + (88.3 +- 4.9)cos 2 (theta*)](μb/sr). The cross section sigma(np → NNπ/sup +-/) was determined to be 1.92 +- .20 mb by integrating (d sigma/dΩ*) over all angles. The partial cross section for pion production from T = 0 np interactions (sigma 01 ) was found to be .1/sub -.1//sup +.5/ mb by using the relation sigma 01 = 2sigma(np → NNπ/sup +-)--sigma(pp → ppπ 0 ). Stronger indications of nonresonant pion production were given by the presence of asymmetries between the positive and negative pion spectra and a comparison of the data with an isobar model calculation

  5. Inelastic proton scattering at 800 MeV to the 12C 15.11-MeV state: A search for nuclear critical opalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, M.; Glashausser, C.; Igo, G.; Cornelius, W.; Gazzaly, M.; Irom, F.; McClelland, J.; Moss, J.M.; Pauletta, G.; Thiessen, H.A.; Whitten, C.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross section for the reaction 12 C(p,p') 12 C* (15.11 MeV, 1 + , T=1) has been measured at 800 MeV; the range of the angular distribution corresponds to momentum transfers of 0.7--2.4 fm -1 [(1-3.3)m/sub π/]. The cross section decreases almost exponentially at large angles; no maximum is observed in the region where nuclear critical opalescence might be expected

  6. Radiation safety considerations for operation of a portable 6 MeV electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonberg, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Field use of the ''MINAC'' presents some unique problems. There are some high voltage electrical safety problems, but these pale in comparison to the radiation related problems. The perimeter limits are determined by a combination of leakage and scatter. In most cases, the boundary limit is determined by scatter. Localized shielding can be applied to reduce scatter which is primarily of rest-mass energy (0.511 MeV). Careful primary beam collimating can also be used to reduce the radiation hazard

  7. Attenuation analysis of neutrons and photons generated by 52-MeV protons transmitted through shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwamino, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    1983-01-01

    Attenuation of neutrons and photons transmitted through grahite, iron, water and ordinary concrete assemblies were studied using gold foils for thermal neutron and an NE-213 organic scintillation detector with an (n-γ) discrimination technique for spectral measurements. Source neutrons and photons were produced by 52-MeV proton bombardment of a 21.4-mm-thick graphite target placed in front of the assembly. The distributions of the light output from the scintillator were unfolded by the revised FERDO code. These experimental results were used as benchmark data on neutron and photon penetration by neutrons energy above 15MeV. Multigroup Monte Carlo, one-dimensional ANISN and two-dimensional DOT-3.5 transport calculations were performed with the DLC-58/HELLO group cross sections to compare with the measurement and to evaluate the cross sections. The DOT code was also used for the estimation of room-scattered neutron and photon contribution to the measured spectra. The results of the ANISN calculation of neutrons and the three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation agreed with the experimental values except for high energy neutrons transmitted through water and graphite. The agreement of both calculations was well within the accuracy of 7% in the measured attenuation coefficients. For photons, the ANISN calculation gave >20% overestimation of the attenuation coefficients in the case of deep penetration through the medium for which the photon mean-free-path is shorter than that of neutrons, such as in iron and concrete. The result of the DOT calculation of neutrons down to thermal energy agreed well with the gold foil measurement in the absolute value. (author)

  8. Proton beam spatial distribution and Bragg peak imaging by photoluminescence of color centers in lithium fluoride crystals at the TOP-IMPLART linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ampollini, A.; Bazzano, G.; Picardi, L.; Nenzi, P.; Trinca, E.; Vadrucci, M.; Bonfigli, F.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.

    2017-11-01

    Solid-state radiation detectors based on the photoluminescence of stable point defects in lithium fluoride crystals have been used for advanced diagnostics during the commissioning of the segment up to 27 MeV of the TOP-IMPLART proton linear accelerator for proton therapy applications, under development at ENEA C.R. Frascati, Italy. The LiF detectors high intrinsic spatial resolution and wide dynamic range allow obtaining two-dimensional images of the beam transverse intensity distribution and also identifying the Bragg peak position with micrometric precision by using a conventional optical fluorescence microscope. Results of the proton beam characterization, among which, the estimation of beam energy components and dynamics, are reported and discussed for different operating conditions of the accelerator.

  9. Recoil properties of antimony isotopes produced by the reaction of 570 MeV and 18.2 GeV protons with uranium

    CERN Document Server

    Hagebø, E

    1969-01-01

    Using the method of thick target and thick catchers, the ranges and other recoil properties of 13 (12) antimony isotopes between A = 115 and A = 131 (130) have been measured for the reaction of 570 MeV (18·2 GeV) protons with uranium. The kinetic energies T are almost independent of product mass number at 570 MeV but show a strong dependence at 18·2 GeV, the lightest isotopes having only about half the kinetic energy of the heavy ones. \\\\ \\\\The cascade deposition energies for production of antimony isotopes are almost equal at 570 MeV and 18·2 GeV and fit well to straight lines of the form E$^{∗}$ (A, Z) = E$^{∗}$ (A$_{0}$, Z) + b(A − A$_{0}$). Exceptions are the cascade deposition energies for $^{115}$Sb and $^{116}$Sb which seem to be somewhat too high at 18·2 GeV. By comparison with other work it seems that the slope $b$ of these lines is independent of product element, target and of proton irradiation energy above 450 MeV. \\\\ \\\\If we assume at 570 MeV, that the fissioning nucleus is a uranium ...

  10. Corrosion of target and structural materials in water irradiated by an 800 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, D.P.; Kanner, G.S.; Lillard, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation enhanced, aqueous corrosion of solid neutron-targets such as tungsten or tantalum, or target cladding or structural materials such as superalloys and stainless steels, is a significant concern in accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. In this paper we briefly describe our current methods for control and in situ monitoring of corrosion in accelerator cooling water loops. Using floating, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we have measured the corrosion rates of aluminum 6061, copper, Inconel 718, and 304L stainless steel in the flow loop of a water target irradiated by a μamp, 800 MeV proton beam. Impedance spectroscopy allows us to model the corrosion process of a material as an equivalent electrical circuit. Thus the polarization resistance, which is inversely proportional to the corrosion rate, can be extracted from the frequency response of a metal specimen. During a three month period, without the use of corrosion mitigation techniques, we observed increases of several orders of magnitude in the water conductivity and the corrosion rates. The increase in corrosion is at least partially attributed to a build up of peroxide in our pseudo-closed loop system. In this paper we also briefly describe our second generation experiments, scheduled to begin in late 1996. In these experiments we plan to measure the corrosion rates of tungsten, tantalum, Inconel 718, 316L and 304L stainless steel, HT-9 austenitic stainless steel, and aluminum 5053. Two or three electrode probes of each material are being placed directly in the proton beam, in a high neutron flux region, or a significant distance from the high radiation area. We will be measuring corrosion rates, changes in pH and conductivity, and we will be establishing parameters for filtration and mitigation of corrosion. We will also discuss our ideas for making in situ measurements of water radiolysis using optical and laser diagnostic techniques

  11. The importance of non-linearities in modern proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1977-01-01

    The paper outlines the physics and mathematics of non-linear field errors in the quide fields of accelerators, with particular reference to large accelerators such as the SPS. These non-linearities give rise to closed orbital distortions and non-linear resonances or stopbands. Both of these effects are briefly discussed and the use of resonances for slow beam extraction is also described. Another problem considered is that of chromaticity of the particle beam. The use of sextupoles to correct chromaticity and the Landau damping of beam instabilities using octupoles are also discussed. In the final section the application of Hamiltonian mechanics to non-linearities is demonstrated. The author concludes that the effect of non-linearities on particle dynamics may place a more severe limit on intensity and storage time in large rings than any other effect in transverse phase space. (B.D.)

  12. A comparison of 4 MeV Proton and Co-60 gamma irradiation induced degradation in the electrical characteristics of N-channel MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Arshiya; Vinayakprasanna, N.H.; Pradeep, T.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006 (India); Pushpa, N. [Department of PG Studies in Physics, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysore 570025 (India); Krishna, J.B.M. [IUC-DAE CSR, Kolkota 700098 (India); Gnana Prakash, A.P., E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006 (India)

    2016-07-15

    N-channel depletion MOSFETs were irradiated with 4 MeV Proton and Co-60 gamma radiation in the dose range of 100 krad(Si) to 100 Mrad(Si). The electrical characteristics of MOSFET such as threshold voltage (V{sub th}), density of interface trapped charges (ΔN{sub it}), density of oxide trapped charges (ΔN{sub ot}), transconductance (g{sub m}), mobility (μ), leakage current (I{sub L}) and drain saturation current (I{sub D} {sub Sat}) were studied as a function of dose. A considerable increase in ΔN{sub it} and ΔN{sub ot} and decrease in V{sub th,}g{sub m}, μ, and I{sub D} {sub Sat} was observed after irradiation. The results of 4 MeV Proton irradiation were compared with that of Co-60 gamma radiation and it is found that the degradation is more for the devices irradiated with 4 MeV Protons when compared with the Co-60 gamma radiation. This indicates that Protons induce more trapped charges in the field oxide region when compared to the gamma radiation.

  13. Spectroscopic study of 206,207,208Pb isotopes by high resolution analysis of 24.5 MeV proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallois, G.

    1968-03-01

    206,207,208 pb have been studied by 24.5 MeV proton inelastic scattering with a resolution of 20 keV. The angular distributions of the differential cross-sections corresponding to the different excited levels have been measured in a large angular region and analysed with the DWBA.This work shows that it exists between 4 and 5 MeV of excitation energy some strongly excited levels corresponding to transfer momenta l = 2, 4, 6 and 8. The single particle-hole models do not explain these states; so it will probably be necessary to introduce some several particle - hole configurations. (author) [fr

  14. Solar Wind Proton Temperature Anisotropy: Linear Theory and WIND/SWE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazarus, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparison between WIND/SWE observations (Kasper et al., 2006) of beta parallel to p and T perpendicular to p/T parallel to p (where beta parallel to p is the proton parallel beta and T perpendicular to p and T parallel to p are the perpendicular and parallel proton are the perpendicular and parallel proton temperatures, respectively; here parallel and perpendicular indicate directions with respect to the ambient magnetic field) and predictions of the Vlasov linear theory. In the slow solar wind, the observed proton temperature anisotropy seems to be constrained by oblique instabilities, by the mirror one and the oblique fire hose, contrary to the results of the linear theory which predicts a dominance of the proton cyclotron instability and the parallel fire hose. The fast solar wind core protons exhibit an anticorrelation between beta parallel to c and T perpendicular to c/T parallel to c (where beta parallel to c is the core proton parallel beta and T perpendicular to c and T parallel to c are the perpendicular and parallel core proton temperatures, respectively) similar to that observed in the HELIOS data (Marsch et al., 2004).

  15. Production of 81Rb/sup 81m/Kr generators with 60-MeV protons at BLIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Richards, P.

    1983-01-01

    By bombarding natural krypton gas with approx. 63 MeV protons, 81 Rb is formed by (p,4n) reaction from high abundance 84 Kr (57%) as well as some additional contribution from 83 Kr (11.5%) and 82 Kr (11.6%) by (p,3n) and (p,2n) reactions, respectively. The production rate of 81 Rb is typically 1.5 mCi/μAh. This production rate is sufficient to create up to several hundred millicuries per run if necessary, enough for several high activity 81 Rb/sup 81m/Kr generators. Presently generators that deliver 10 to 20 mCi to the lungs are produced weekly for on-site use. The only other important activity in the solution is Rb-82m (6.4 hr). Small amounts of Br-76 (16.1 hr), Br-77 (57 hr), Br-82 (35.5 hr), Rb-83 (86.2 d), and Rb-84 (33 d) were also present. The bromine impurities pose no problem since they are not trapped on the generator. Rb-82m and Rb-84 decay to stable Kr-82 and Kr-84 in the generator and do not interfere with Kr-81m studies

  16. A correlation study of the break-up of trions induced by 45 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin, E.S.

    1974-01-01

    The 3 H(p,2p)nn, 3 H(p,pd)n, 3 He(p,2p)d and 3 He(p,2p)pn reactions were studied at an incident proton energy of 45 MeV at a variety of coplanar symmetric and asymmetric angle pairs. Momentum distributions of the d and [n,n] systems in 3 H and of the d and dsup(*) systems in 3 He have been extracted within the framework of the Plane Wave Impulse Approximation (PWIA). dsup(*) and [n,n] respectively refers to a n-p and n-n pair with low energy for their relative motion. The PWIA predicted cross sections typically a few times greater than experimental ones indicating the presence of multiple scattering effects. Shifts were observed in the positions of the quasi-free scattering peaks in the 3 H(p,pd)n reaction which might be attributable to the neutron pick-up process. Comparison of the continua for the 3 H(p,2p)nn reaction with four-body differential phase space distributions showed no evidence for a resonance in the 3 H system but revealed some hitherto unobserved pseudo two-body processes, namely the p-dsup(*) quasi free scattering process and the p+t→dsup(*) + dsup(*) reaction. (O.T.)

  17. Double excitation of helium by ion impact. 2: Experiment and theory for 2-3 MeV proton impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Gleizes, A. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France); Andriamonje, S. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Gradignan (France). Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires]|[Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et Physique des Particules, 33 - Gradignan (France); Martin, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica; Salin, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 -Talence (France). Lab. des Collisions Atomiques

    1995-02-28

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the double excitation of helium by 2-3 MeV proton impact are presented. A detailed angular dependence of the lineshapes and intensities of the first 2l2l` resonances is discussed. The resonances are characterized by the Shore parameters A and B and the Fano parameter Q. Calculations within Born-I approximation describe approximately the excitation of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S and 2s2p {sup 1}P resonances whereas they fail to reproduce the experimental findings for the 2p{sup 2} {sup 1}D one. On the other hand, close-coupling calculations improve the description of the excitation of the 2s2p{sup 1}P and explains very nicely the 2p{sup 2} {sup 1}D one. Weak discrepancies in the description of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S and 2s2p {sup 1}P excitation in the forward direction are thought to be the signature of a residual post-collisional effect. It is shown that it does not affect the observed lineshapes in our collision velocity range. The integration of the resonance parameters over the emission angle of the electron allows us to deduce total electron yields and to connect the resulting profile with photoionization data. (author).

  18. Differential neutron production cross sections and neutron yields from stopping-length targets for 113-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, M.M.; Amian, W.B.; Clark, D.A.; Goulding, C.A.; McClelland, J.B.; Morgan, G.L.; Moss, C.E.

    1989-03-01

    We have measured differential (P,ξn) cross sections, d 2 σ/dΩdE/sub n/, from thin targets and absolute neutron yields from stopping-length targets at angles of 7.5/degree/, 30/degree/, 60/degree/, and 150/degree/, for the 113--MeV proton bombardment of elemental beryllium, carbon, aluminum, iron, and depleted uranium. Additional cross-section measurements are reported for oxygen, tungsten, and lead. We used time-of-flight techniques to identify and discriminate against backgrounds and to determine the neutron energy spectrum. Comparison of the experimental data with intranuclear-cascade evaporation-model calculations with the code HETC showed discrepancies as high as a factor of 7 in the differential cross sections. These discrepancies in the differential cross sections make it possible to identify some of the good agreement seen in the stopping-length yield comparisons as fortuitous cancellation of incorrect production estimates in different energy regimes. 13 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Dislocation loops in ultra-high purity Fe(Cr) alloys after 7.2 MeV proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Duval, F.; Jung, P.; Schäublin, R.; Gao, N.; Barthe, M. F.

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-high purity Fe(Cr) alloys (from 0 wt% Cr to 14 wt% Cr) were 3D homogeneously irradiated by 0-7.2 MeV protons to 0.3 dpa at nominal temperatures from 270 °C to 500 °C. Microstructural changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that evolution of dislocation loops depends on the Cr content. Below 300 °C, large ½ a0 loops are dominating. Above 300 °C, a0 loops with a habit plane {100} appear. Loop sizes of both types are more or less the same. At temperatures from 310 °C to 400 °C, a0 loops form clusters with the same {100} habit plane as the one of the loops forming them. This indicates that loops of the same variant start gliding under mutual elastic interaction. At 500 °C, dislocation loops form disc shaped clusters about 1000 nm in diameter and sitting on {111} and/or {100} planes in the pure Fe samples. Based on these observations a quantitative analysis of the dislocation loops configurations and their temperature dependence is made, leading to an understanding of the basic mechanisms of formation of these loops.

  20. Light response of YAP:Ce and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillators to 4–30 MeV protons for applications to Telescope Proton Recoil neutron spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzaniga, C., E-mail: carlo.cazzaniga@stfc.ac.uk [ISIS Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA/CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Cremona, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA/CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Rigamonti, D. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA/CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA/CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Croci, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA/CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Ericsson, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, EURATOM-VR Association, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Fazzi, A. [Department of Energy of the Politecnico di Milano, via Lambruschini 4, I-20156 Milano (Italy); Hjalmarsson, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, EURATOM-VR Association, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Mazzocco, M.; Strano, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, and INFN, Sez. di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); and others

    2016-06-01

    The light response of two thin inorganic scintillators based on YAP:Ce and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystals has been measured with protons in the 4–8 MeV energy range at the Uppsala tandem accelerator and in the 8–26 MeV energy range at the Legnaro tandem accelerator. The crystals have been calibrated in situ with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co γ-ray sources. The relative light yields of protons with respect to gammas have been measured and are here reported to be (96±2)% and (80±2)% for YAP:Ce and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce, respectively. The results open up to the development of a Telescope Proton Recoil spectrometer based on either of the two crystals as alternative to a silicon based spectrometer for applications to high neutron fluxes.

  1. Depth profiles of production yields of natPb(p, xn206,205,204,203,202 Bi reactions using 100-MeV proton beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranj Leila Mokhtari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, results of the experimental study on the depth profiles of production yields of 206,205,204,203,202Bi radio-nuclei in the natural Pb target irradiated by a 100-MeV proton beam are presented. Irradiation was performed at proton linac facility (KOMAC in Korea. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of natural Pb, Al, Au foils and Pb plates. The proton beam intensity was determined by activation analysis method using 27Al(p, 3p1n24Na, 197Au(p, p1n196Au, and 197Au(p, p3n194Au monitor reactions and also using dosimetry method by a Gafchromic film. The production yields of produced Bi radio-nuclei in the natural Pb foils and monitor reactions were measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Monte Carlo simulations were performed by FLUKA, PHITS, and MCNPX codes and compared with the measurements in order to verify validity of physical models and nuclear data libraries in the Monte Carlo codes. A fairly good agreement was observed between the present experimental data and the simulations by FLUKA, PHITS, and MCNPX. However, physical models and the nuclear data relevant to the end of range of protons in the codes need to be improved.

  2. Measurement of recoil proton polarization in the process of. pi. /sup -/ photoproduction from neutrons in the energy range between 700 and 1200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, H; Arai, I; Fujii, T; Ikeda, H; Iwasaki, H; Kajiura, N; Kamae, T; Kawabata, S; Ogawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1980-05-01

    The recoil proton polarization for ..gamma..n ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/p was measured around the third resonance region. Both momentum vectors of the proton and the pion were determined by the magnetic spectrometers. The proton polarization was measured by means of proton-carbon scattering in the polarization analyzer located behind the proton spectrometer. Below 900 MeV incident photon energy, our data are consistent with the other existing experimental data (THETA*sub..pi.. = 90/sup 0/) and the predictions of partial-wave analyses. Above 1000 MeV, however, a large discrepancy was observed between our data and the predictions of the partial-wave analyses. This discrepancy stands out as the pion c.m. angle increases. A new partial-wave analysis was made for ..gamma..n ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/p including our polarization data, and the accuracy of the experimentally determined electromagnetic coupling constants of the third resonances were greatly improved. In particular, a finite amount of the helicity 3/2 amplitude for the ..gamma..n ..-->.. F/sub 15/(1688) resonance was obtained against the predictions of the quark models, by Copley, Karl and Obryk and by Feynman, Kislinger and Ravendal but in agreement with the relativistic quark models of Sugimoto and Toya, and Kubota and Ohta.

  3. Light yield of a CsI(Tl) crystal under irradiation by protons with the energy from 3 to 15 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorchoman, D.; Konstantin, M.; Lazarovich, D.; Muntyanu, I.; Oganesyan, K.O.; Porokhovoj, S.Yu.

    1976-01-01

    Measurement results are presented of light yield in CsI(Tl) crystals at the irradiation by protons with the energy from 3 to 15 MeV. Plates of 100x100x2 mm size are used as CsI(Tl) scintillator samples. A brief analysis of possible sistematic errors is given which allows to estimate the total error upon the light yield valve determination equal to 0,5%. Measurement results of crystal light yield show that the dependence of CsI(Tl) light yield on proton energy is described by the straight line passing through the origin

  4. Multiple ionization of noble gases by 2.0 MeV proton impact: comparison with equi-velocity electron impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, W.S.; Santos, A.C.F.; Sant'Anna, M.M.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Absolute single- and multiple-ionization cross sections of rare gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) have been measured for collisions with 2.0 MeV p + . A comparison is made with equi-velocity electron impact ionization cross sections as well as with the available proton impact data. For the light rare gases the single-ionization cross sections are essentially the same for both proton and electron impacts, but increasing differences appear for the heavier targets. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  5. Involvement of the Artemis Protein in the Relative Biological Efficiency Observed With the 76-MeV Proton Beam Used at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calugaru, Valentin [Institut Curie Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); INSERM U612, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Nauraye, Catherine [Institut Curie Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Cordelières, Fabrice P. [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Biard, Denis [Centre d' Etude Atomique, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Institut des Maladies Emergentes et des Thérapies Innovantes, Service d' Etude des Prions et des Infections Atypiques, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); De Marzi, Ludovic [Institut Curie Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Hall, Janet; Favaudon, Vincent [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); INSERM U612, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Mégnin-Chanet, Frédérique, E-mail: frederique.megnin@inserm.fr [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); INSERM U612, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Previously we showed that the relative biological efficiency for induced cell killing by the 76-MeV beam used at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay increased with depth throughout the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). To investigate the repair pathways underlying this increase, we used an isogenic human cell model in which individual DNA repair proteins have been depleted, and techniques dedicated to precise measurements of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: The 3-Gy surviving fractions of HeLa cells individually depleted of Ogg1, XRCC1, and PARP1 (the base excision repair/SSB repair pathway) or of ATM, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4, and Artemis (nonhomologous end-joining pathway) were determined at the 3 positions previously defined in the SOBP. Quantification of incident SSBs and DSBs by the alkaline elution technique and 3-dimensional (3D) immunofluorescence of γ-H2AX foci, respectively, was performed in SQ20 B cells. Results: We showed that the amount of SSBs and DSBs depends directly on the particle fluence and that the increase in relative biological efficiency observed in the distal part of the SOBP is due to a subset of lesions generated under these conditions, leading to cell death via a pathway in which the Artemis protein plays a central role. Conclusions: Because therapies like proton or carbon beams are now being used to treat cancer, it is even more important to dissect the mechanisms implicated in the repair of the lesions generated by these particles. Additionally, alteration of the expression or activity of the Artemis protein could be a novel therapeutic tool before high linear energy transfer irradiation treatment.

  6. Nuclear data evaluations of neutron and proton incidence on Zr, Nb, and W for energy up to 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Satoshi; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Ishibashi, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Neutron and proton nuclear data were evaluated on Zr, Nb, and W for energy up to 200 MeV. To execute optical model calculations, spherical optical potentials were developed to reproduce experimental data for many elements. The GNASH nuclear model code was used to evaluate light-particle production cross sections. For neutron emission, giant resonance correction came to be performed in the code system. (author)

  7. NEUTRON-PROTON ANALYZING POWER DATA AT 7.6, 12.0, 14.1, 16.0, 18.5 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Weisel , G.; Tornow , W.; Howell , C.; Felsher , P.; Alohali , M.; Chen , Z.; Walter , R.; Lambert , J.; Treado , P.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron-Proton Ay(θ) measurements have been made at 7.6, 12.0, 14.1, 16.0, and 18.5 MeV. A sensitivity study establishes the importance of Ay(θ) in determining the 3P0, 1, 2 phase shifts in n-p scattering. The data are compared to the predictions of two phase-shift studies (one of which incorporates CIB effects), and the Paris and Bonn NN potenials.

  8. Neutron-proton analyzing power data at 7.6, 12.0, 14.1, 16.0, 18.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisel, G.J.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Felsher, P.D.; Alohali, M.; Chen, Z.P.; Walter, R.L.; Lambert, J.M.; Treado, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron-Proton A y (θ) measurements have been made at 7.6, 12.0, 14.1, 16.0, and 18.5 MeV. A sensitivity study establishes the importance of A y (θ) in determining the 3 P 0,1,2 phase shifts in n-p scattering. The data are compared to the predictions of two phase-shift studies (one of which incorporates CIB effects), and the Paris and Bonn NN potentials

  9. Determination of 40Ca and 48Ca matter densities by 600 MeV and 1 GeV proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissaud, I.; Campi, X.

    1979-02-01

    The 600MeV and 1GeV data of proton elastic scattering on 40 Ca and 48 Ca have been analyzed in the framework of the Glauber model. The matter distributions are extracted from the data in an approximately model-independent form based on a Fourier series expansion. A similar method is used to deduce directly the 48 Ca- 40 Ca neutron density difference

  10. HETC-3STEP calculations of proton induced nuclide production cross sections at incident energies between 20 MeV and 5 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji

    1996-08-01

    For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of {sup 16}O, {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Fe, {sup 59}Co, {sup nat}Zr and {sup 197}Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for {sup nat}Zr and {sup 197}Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)

  11. HETC-3STEP calculations of proton induced nuclide production cross sections at incident energies between 20 MeV and 5 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji.

    1996-08-01

    For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of 16 O, 27 Al, nat Fe, 59 Co, nat Zr and 197 Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for nat Zr and 197 Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)

  12. Bunch-shape monitor for a picosecond single-bunch beam of a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Yoneichi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    1995-01-01

    A non-interactive-type bunch-shape and beam intensity monitor for a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA-type connector and an Al pipe of 50 mm inner diameter. Test measurements of the present monitor have been made under the conditions of the accelerated charges of lower than 27 nC/pulse and the pulse width ranging from 6 to 30 ps (Full Width at Half Maximum). The results show that the present monitor is applicable to bunch-shape measurement of the picosecond single-bunch beam. The monitor output is also found to be proportional to the beam intensity of more than 0.05 nC/pulse. (author)

  13. Elastic and inelastic proton-nucleus scattering at 156MeV: experimental study and analysis in impulse approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparat, Vincent.

    1975-01-01

    In this work a high spatial resolution hodoscope is described. Scattered particles are detected in the image plane of a magnetic spectrometer by a proportional chamber with 96 wires of 1mm spacing. This hodoscope has been used for elastic and inelastic scattering experiments, of 156MeV protons, on 11 targets ranging from 12 C to 209 Bi. A phenomenological optical model calculation has been carried out to analyse the experimental elastic cross sections data. The dependance of the parameters as a function of the number of mass or the incident energy has been studied. The inelastic scattering results have been interpreted within the framework of the D.W.I.A. As the final results are dependant of the nucleon model, the optical potential parameters as well as the finite range approximation, several trials have been performed. Nevertheless, the DWIA seems to give about twice the experimental values for collective excitations in light or medium nuclei. The first order optical potential derived from the impulse approximation was calculated and the results compared to the experimental elastic cross sections. Several approximations were tested as non locality, off energy shell effects and the motion of the target nucleon. The usual approximation on these quantities are justified if the momentum transfer is less than 3fm -1 . The nucleon-nucleus transition matrix is obtained by solving the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, using the moment method. The first order optical potential derived from these calculations is not realistic. The intensity of the nucleon-nucleon transition is too important, and that explained the disagreement at low momentum transfers. This study shows that the multiple scattering expansion of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, is not a good method to obtain the exact solution. It is better to do some approximations (i.e. of shell approximation) directly on the integral equation [fr

  14. Spectra of the linear energy transfer measured with a track etch spectrometer in the beam of 1 GeV protons and the contribution of secondary charged particles to the dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Vlcek, B.; Bamblevskij, V.P.; Timoshenko, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    A spectrometer of the linear energy transfer (LET) on the base of CR-39 detector was used to establish the spectra of LET in the beam of protons with the primary energy of 1 GeV. It was found out that the LET spectra of secondary charged particles between 100 and 7000 MeV cm 2 g -1 do not depend on the radiator. The average quality factors for the LET region mentioned were obtained about 11.6 with ICRP 26 quality factors and about 14.0 with ICRP 60 quality factors. The spectra obtained permitted to calculate the contributions of these secondary charged particles to the dosimetric quantities. It was observed that these contributions were about 7.0% for the total absorbed dose of protons and close 90% in the case of the equivalent doses. It is more than it was found out for few hundred MeV protons

  15. Characterization of the energy distribution of neutrons generated by 5 MeV protons on a thick beryllium target at different emission angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P., E-mail: paolo.colautti@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@tin.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Fazzi, A.; Introini, M.V.; Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Neutron energy spectra at different emission angles, between 0 Degree-Sign and 120 Degree-Sign from the Be(p,xn) reaction generated by a beryllium thick-target bombarded with 5 MeV protons, have been measured at the Legnaro Laboratories (LNL) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics research (INFN). A new and quite compact recoil-proton spectrometer, based on a monolithic silicon telescope, coupled to a polyethylene converter, was efficiently used with respect to the traditional Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique. The measured distributions of recoil-protons were processed through an iterative unfolding algorithm in order to determine the neutron energy spectra at all the angles accounted for. The neutron energy spectrum measured at 0 Degree-Sign resulted to be in good agreement with the only one so far available at the requested energy and measured years ago with TOF technique. Moreover, the results obtained at different emission angles resulted to be consistent with detailed past measurements performed at 4 MeV protons at the same angles by TOF techniques.

  16. Investigation of selenium compounds as targets for {sup 76,77}Br production using protons of energies up to 34 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, H. Ebrahim [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Centre; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; El-Azony, Khaled M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Labs. Centre; Azzam, Ahmed [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Centre; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie

    2017-07-01

    Selenium compounds of Zn, Sn and Cu were prepared using a conventional sintering method and the phase composition of each compound was investigated using X-ray diffraction. The compounds prepared were tested under variable irradiation and separation conditions for {sup 76,77}Br production. The activity of {sup 77}Br was measured as a function of proton beam current within the range 2-15 μA and the thermal stability of the irradiated compound was investigated. The results showed that the compounds ZnSe and Cu{sub 2}Se are thermally more stable in comparison to the SnSe. The effects of several factors, such as temperature, gas flow rate and separation time, were studied to obtain the maximum separation yield of radiobromine by the dry distillation method. The data showed that the compound Cu{sub 2}Se is the most suitable target for proton irradiation to produce {sup 76,77}Br at energies up to 20 MeV. A simplified method was used to prepare also CuSe, which was tested in irradiations with intermediate energy protons of beam currents up to 10 μA. The data of a typical production run using 17 MeV protons and the Cu{sub 2}Se target are reported.

  17. Valence and inner proton hole states in 207Tl via the (d,3He) reaction at 108 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin-Joliot, H.; Gerlic, E.; Guillot, J.; Van de Wiele, J.

    1983-01-01

    The excitation energy spectra of the residual nucleus 207 Tl have been investigated up to 14 MeV using the (d, 3 He) reaction at 108 MeV. New groups and high lying structures are first observed up to 8.3 MeV, in addition to the five known low lying levels. Beyond a minimum at 7.13 MeV, weaker structures are observed riding over an asymetric bump located around 9 MeV. DWBA analysis of angular distributions have allowed l attributions and the determination of valence and inner hole spectroscopic factors. It is found that the valence levels at 1.33 MeV, 1.67 MeV and 3.47 MeV exhaust respectively about 65%, 60% and 45% of the 1hsub(11/2), 2dsub(5/2) and 1gsub(7/2) sum rules. The missing strengths are found below 8.3 MeV. The 2dsub(5/2) and 1gsub(7/2) holes contribute mainly to some well concentrated groups, whereas the 1hsub(11/2) strength is distributed more smoothly. Small contributions of 1gsub(9/2) and 2p strengths are tentatively identified below 7.13 MeV. The highest lying energy region up to 14 MeV may approximately account for the 1gsub(9/2) and (1fsub(5/2)) total sum-rule and about 70% of the 2p strength. The 1gsub(9/2) strength gives the largest contribution to the asymetric bump around 9 MeV. The deduced experimental strength functions are compared with theoretical calculations

  18. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation of absorbed dose and radiolysis yields enhancement from a gold nanoparticle under MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H.N., E-mail: tranngochoang@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Karamitros, M. [Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre-Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ivanchenko, V.N. [Geant4 Associates International Ltd, Hebden Bridge (United Kingdom); Guatelli, S.; McKinnon, S. [Centre For Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong (Australia); Illawarra Health and Medical Research, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Okada, S. [Computing Research Center, High Energy Accelerator Organization, KEK, Tsukuba City (Japan); Bordage, M.C. [INSERM, UMR 1037, CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Univ. Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR 1037, CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Francis, Z. [Saint Joseph University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); El Bitar, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien/IN2P3/CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Shin, J.I. [Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, 75, Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.B. [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 323, Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Barberet, Ph. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Tran, T.T. [VNUHCM-University of Science (Viet Nam); Brown, J.M.C. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-04-15

    Gold nanoparticles have been reported as a possible radio-sensitizer agent in radiation therapy due to their ability to increase energy deposition and subsequent direct damage to cells and DNA within their local vicinity. Moreover, this increase in energy deposition also results in an increase of the radiochemical yields. In this work we present, for the first time, an in silico investigation, based on the general purpose Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4, into energy deposition and radical species production around a spherical gold nanoparticle 50 nm in diameter via proton irradiation. Simulations were preformed for incident proton energies ranging from 2 to 170 MeV, which are of interest for clinical proton therapy.

  19. Field uses of a portable 4/6 MeV electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonberg, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The portable electron linear accelerator which was developed on Electric Power Research Institute funds was targeted to provide an additional inspection tool for the nuclear power industry. The results have justified the expense in cost savings by reducing unnecessary repairs and in demonstrating integrity of some critical welds in pump bodies. The minac (miniature accelerator) has proven effective in cases where other inspection techniques have been ineffective, such as cast stainless steel pump bodies and overlay clad welds. Other applications, such as dynamic imaging of rocket motor test firings and field inspection of pressure vessels, will be reported. A description of the equipment, the method of field operation and the special safety problems related to a high intensity radiation source without containment will be discussed. (orig.)

  20. Photoneutron intensity variation with field size around radiotherapy linear accelerator 18-MeV X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, H.; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Maalej, N. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-08-15

    In X-ray radiotherapy accelerators, neutrons are produced mainly by ({gamma},n) reaction when high energy X-rays interact with high Z materials of the linear accelerator head. These materials include the lead (Pb) used as shielding in the collimator, tungsten (W) target used for the production of X-rays and iron (Fe) in the accelerator head. These unwanted neutrons contaminate the therapeutic beam and contribute to the patient dose during the treatment of a cancer patient. Knowing the neutron distribution around the radiotherapy accelerator is therefore desired. CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs) were used to study the variation of fast and thermal neutron relative intensities around an 18 MeV linear accelerator X-ray beam with the field sizes of 0, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40cm{sup 2}. For fast neutron detection, bare NTDs were used. For thermal neutron detection, NTDs were covered with lithium tetra borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) converters. The NTDs were placed at different locations in the direction perpendicular to the treatment couch (transversal) and in the direction parallel to the treatment couch (longitudinal) with respect to the isocenter of the accelerator. The fast neutron relative intensity is symmetrical about the beam axis and exhibits an exponential-like drop with distance from the isocenter of the accelerator for all the field sizes. At the primary beam (isocenter), the relative fast neutron intensity is highest for 40x40cm{sup 2} field size and decreases linearly with the decrease in the field size. However, fast neutron intensities do not change significantly with beam size for the measurements outside the primary beam. The fast neutron intensity in the longitudinal direction outside the primary beam decreases linearly with the field size. The thermal neutron intensity, at any location, was found to be almost independent of the field size.

  1. Intranuclear cascade evaporation model predictions of double differential A(p,xn) neutron cross sections and comparison with experiments at 318 MeV and 800 MeV proton energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloth, P.; Dragovitsch, P.; Filges, D.; Reul, C.

    1989-08-01

    The intranuclear-cascade evaporation model as implemented in the high energy radiation transport code HETC, subsystem of HERMES is used in the calculation of double differential cross sections of proton induced neutron production. The investigations were done on target elements C, Al, Ta, Ni, W, Pb, and U at 318 MeV incident proton energy and on C, Al, Pb, and U at 800 MeV, respectively. The predictions of the INCE model were compared with experimental data for double differential cross sections taken at 7.5 and 30 degrees scattering angles at the Los Alamos WNR facility utilizing the Time of Flight technique at LANL. The calculations performed here are part of a experimental-theoretical program within the LANL-KFA collaboration concerning medium energy cross section measurements mainly neutrons and state of the art computer code validations of these measurements. In general, the model predictions reproduce the correct neutron production for evaporation neutrons and are also in good agreement with the experimental data at high neutron energies. In the energy range dominated by preequilibrium processes an underestimation of experimental yields has to be remarked. (orig.)

  2. Contribution to the study of the diffusion {alpha}-proton for {alpha} particles of 3,1 and 5,3 MeV; Contribution a l'etude de la diffusion {alpha}-proton pour des particules {alpha} d'energie comprise entre 3,1 et 5,3 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhla, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    The diffusion of the particles has by the light cores that present a weak gate of potential, must permit the survey of the nuclear strengths. Some authors, studying the distribution in energy of the protons given out by a hydrogenated target submitted to a bombardment has variable energy, signal that this distribution has a structure of groups. We tried to reproduce experiences of diffusion {alpha}-proton, in order to verify the existence of the groups of signaled protons in the previous works. However in spite of finer experimental conditions, we had recovered any group structures in the distribution of the protons. This work permits to conclude that there is not a resonance in the {alpha}-proton diffusion for included energies between 3,1 and 5,3 MeV. The absence of resonances confirms the existence of the fundamental level of {sup 5}Li above in the neighborhood of 1,8 MeV {sup 4}He + {sup 1}H. (M.B.) [French] La diffusion des particules a par les noyaux legers qui presentent une faible barriere de potentiel, doit permettre l'etude des forces nucleaires. certains auteurs, etudiant la distribution en energie des protons emis par une cible hydrogenee soumise a un bombardement a d'energie variable, signalent que cette distribution a une structure de groupes. Nous avons essaye de reproduire les experiences du type diffusion {alpha}-proton, afin de verifier l'existence des groupes de protons signales dans les travaux anterieurs. Cependant malgre des conditions experimentales plus fines, nous n'avons retrouve aucunce structure de groupe dans la distribution des protons. Ce travail permet de conclure qu'il n'y a pas de resonance dans la diffusion {alpha}-proton pour des energies comprises entre 3,1 et 5,3 MeV. L'absence de resonances confirme l'existence du niveau fondamental de {sup 5}Li au voisinage de 1,8 MeV au-dessus de {sup 4}He + {sup 1}H. (M.B.)

  3. Transmission measurements for the photon collimator of a Saturne 20 MeV linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, J.; Rijnders, A.; Van Den Bogaert, W.

    1981-01-01

    The dose at 5 cm outside the field limit for the 18 MV X ray beam of the linear accelerator Saturne of the Academic Hospital in Leuven (Belgium) has been measured for square fields in a flat polystyrene phantom with an ionization chamber at 5 cm, 10 cm and 17 cm depth. The measurements have been referred to the field center dose at the same depth. As an indication, for a 25 x 25 cm field at 5 cm depth, the relative dose at 5 cm outside the field is equal to 5.5% and to 2.5% respectively without and with the use of an additional 5 cm thick lead block shielding the chamber outside the field. From the decrease in relative dose outside the field observed with and without the additional shielding block, an important leakage component through the Saturne collimator has been detected. For a typical mantle field set-up thermoluminescent measurements indicate that the relative midline dose (9 cm depth) outside the inferior mediastinal field limit is higher for the 18 MV X ray - than for a 60 Co γ ray beam, when no additional shielding is used for the X ray beam. The relative dose at 5 cm outside the field limit is equal to 4% and 3% for the high energy X ray - and for the 60 Co γ ray beam respectively. So, due to the leakage component through the Saturne collimator, part of the therapeutical advantages of high energy X rays in the case of mantle field treatments are lost

  4. Correlated analysis of 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals using photoluminescence and thermally stimulated current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yaxu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Jie, Wanqi, E-mail: jwq@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Rong, Caicai [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Yuhan; Xu, Lingyan; Xu, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Lv, Haoyan; Shen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Du, Guanghua [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fu, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals is investigated by PL and TSC techniques. • The influence of radiation damage on the luminescent and electrical properties of CdZnTe crystals is studied. • Intensity of PL spectrum is found to decrease significantly in irradiated regions, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. • A correlated analysis of PL and TSC spectra suggests that the density of dislocations and A-centers increase after proton irradiation. - Abstract: Radiation damage induced by 2 MeV protons in CdZnTe crystals has been studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) techniques. A notable quenching of PL intensity is observed in the regions irradiated with a fluence of 6 × 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. Moreover, the intensity of emission peak D{sub complex} centered at 1.48 eV dominates in the PL spectrum obtained from irradiated regions, ascribed to the increase of interstitial dislocation loops and A centers. The intensity of TSC spectra in irradiated regions decreases compared to the virgin regions, resulting from the charge collection inefficiency caused by proton-induced recombination centers. By comparing the intensity of identified traps obtained from numerical fitting using simultaneous multiple peak analysis (SIMPA) method, it suggests that proton irradiation under such dose can introduce high density of dislocation and A-centers in CdZnTe crystals, consistent with PL results.

  5. Estimation of exposure quantity of gamma and neutron in 13 MeV proton cyclotron for radioisotope production of 18F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunardi; Silakhuddin

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of gamma and neutron exposure in 13 MeV proton cyclotron for radioisotope of 18 F has been done. The aim of this study is to know the exposure of gamma and neutron that will be generated by 13 MeV proton cyclotron The method that was used is the determine of gamma and neutron quantity exposure that produced by proton beam collision with matter in the cyclotron chamber and cyclotron target. The analysis result showed that the reactions occur at chamber are 63 Cu(p,n) 63 Zn, 65 Cu(p,n) 65 Zn and 56 Fe(p,n) 56 Co,, while at the target is 18 O(p,n) 18 F. The calculation result of neutron flux at the chamber and the target facility are 7,34×10 7 n/cm 2 dt and 1.10×10 9 n/cm 2 dt, respectively. The gamma activity at the chamber for reaction 63 Cu(p,n) 63 Zn, 65 Cu(p,n) 65 Zn and 56 Fe(p,n) 56 Co are 3,0×10 8 Bq, 4,54×10 5 Bq and 1,13×10 9 Bq respectively, while the gamma activity at the cyclotron target is 1,84×10 8 Bq. The data can be used as a basis for designing the cyclotron radiation shielding. (author)

  6. Solid state linear dichroic infrared spectral analysis of benzimidazoles and their N 1-protonated salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, B. B.

    2005-11-01

    A stereo structural characterization of 2,5,6-thrimethylbenzimidazole (MBIZ) and 2-amino-benzimidaziole (2-NH 2-BI) and their N 1 protonation salts was carried out using a polarized solid state linear dichroic infrared spectral (IR-LD) analysis in nematic liquid crystal suspension. All experimental predicted structures were compared with the theoretical ones, obtained by ab initio calculations. The Cs to C2v* symmetry transformation as a result of protonation processes, with a view of its reflection on the infrared spectral characteristics was described.

  7. Measurements of attenuation lengths through concrete and iron for neutrons produced by 800-MeV proton on tantalum target at ISIS

    CERN Document Server

    Nunomiya, T; Wright, P; Nakamura, T; Kim, E; Kurosawa, T; Taniguchi, S; Sasaki, M; Iwase, H; Uwamino, Y; Shibata, T; Ito, S; Perry, D R

    2002-01-01

    A deep penetration experiment through a thick bulk shield was performed at an intense spallation neutron source facility, ISIS, of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), United Kingdom. ISIS is a 800 MeV-200 mu A proton accelerator facility. Neutrons are produced from a tantalum target, and are shielded with approximately 3-m thick steel and 1-m thick ordinary concrete. On top of the shield, we measured the neutron flux attenuation through concrete and iron shields, which were additionally placed up to 120-cm and 60-cm thickness, respectively, using activation detectors of graphite and bismuth. The attenuation lengths of concrete and iron for high-energy neutrons above 20 MeV were obtained from the sup 1 sup 2 C(n, 2n) sup 1 sup 1 C reaction of graphite.

  8. Detecting neutrons by forward recoil protons at the Energy & Transmutation facility: Detector development and calibration with 14.1-MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, S.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Rogachev, A.; Tyutyunnikov, S.

    2017-05-01

    As part of the Energy & Transmutation project, we are developing a detector for neutrons with energies in the 10-100 MeV range emitted from the target irradiated by a charged-particle beam. The neutron is detected by measuring the time-of-flight and total kinetic energy of the forward-going recoil proton [1] knocked out at a small angle from a thin layer of plastic scintillator, which has to be selected against an intense background created by γ quanta, scattered neutrons, and charged particles. On the other hand, neutron energy has to be measured over the full range with no extra tuning of the detector operation regime. Initial measurements with a source of 14.1-MeV neutrons are reported.

  9. Study of the X-ray emission induced by 4 to 30 MeV protons or alpha particles, with a view to analytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncet, Maryse; Engelmann, Charles.

    1977-01-01

    The K or L shell ionisation cross sections for 4 to 22 MeV protons and 10 to 30 MeV alpha particles were established on more than ten elements (Ti, Fe, Cu, Se, Y, Sn, Cs, Ce, Sm, Ho, W, Au). The experimental results are compared with the theoretical values calculated by two non-relativistic approximation methods based respectively on: BORN plane wave model (PWBA); the binary encounter model (BEA). For the K shell, the agreement between the experiment and one or other of the above calculation methods is relatively satisfactory. In the case of the L shell however, the experimental values are for certain elements frankly different than those predicted theoretically. On the basis of this fundamental study, the detection thresholds of the elements (by their Ksub(α) or Lsub(α) line according to their nature) were plotted against their atomic number

  10. High precision absolute differential cross-section measurements for proton-proton elastic scattering at 491.9, 575.5, 641.6, 728.2, and 793.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.J.

    1993-07-01

    The proton-proton absolute elastic differential cross section, σ pp (θ), has been measured at incident proton beam energies of 491.9, 575.5, 641.6, 728.2, and 793.0 MeV at laboratory scattering angles of ∼15 degree to ∼42 degree with a total uncertainty on the order of 1%. The measurements were made at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and employed a new beam counting technique which provided a better overall beam normalization compared to previous experiments of this type. The cross section was measured with CH 2 targets and a primary liquid, LH 2 , target to determine the uncertainties in some systematic corrections. Extreme care was taken to reduce individual systematic errors to less than 0.5%

  11. Systematics of proton absorption deduced from ( p,p) and ( p,n) cross sectionsfor 2.0- to 6.7-MeV protons on /sup 107,109/Ag and 115In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, R.L.; Flynn, D.S.; Gabbard, F.; Johnson, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    The ( p,p) and ( p,n) cross sections were measured to accuracies of +- 2% and +- 3%, respectively, for 2.0- to 6.7-MeV protons on /sup 107,109/Ag and 115 In. Hauser-Feshbach calculations, which included γ-ray emission channels, were used to convert the ( p,n) cross sections to proton absorption cross sections. Analysis of the ( p,p) and deduced proton absorption cross sections were made simultaneously using a conventional optical-model potential. The measured cross sections can be described using parameters extrapolated from the Sn region in a systematic way, except for a large increase required for the depth of the absorptive potential

  12. Proton pickup from /sup 27/Al via the (n,d) reaction at 56. 3 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, F P; Shepard, J R; King, N S.P.; McNaughton, M W; Wang, J C [California Univ., Davis (USA)

    1977-09-26

    Energy spectra of deuterons from the /sup 27/Al(n,d)/sup 26/Mg reaction due to 56.3 MeV neutrons incident have been measured for 10/sup 0/ <= thetasub(c.m.) <= 55 /sup 0/. The angular distributions for the excitations observed at 0.0, 1.81, and 4.33 MeV are quite well described by DWBA calculations and yield spectroscopic factors in agreement with shell model calculations; but with calculations based on the rotational model, the agreement is less satisfactory particularly for the 4.33 MeV level. For the states at 7.86 and 9.16 MeV the fits, assuming p-shell pick-up, are only fair. Comparison with /sup 27/Al(d,/sup 3/He)/sup 26/Mg measurements shows that the deduced spectroscopic factors for the two reactions agree quite well.

  13. Measurements of dose on build-up region, surface dose and outlet dose by a 10 MeV Linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.N. de; Khoury, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The dose on buildup region and the surface dose for a 10 MeV photon beam from a linear acelerator (Mevatrom-74, Siemens) is studied. The influence of the tray of polycarbonate on the surface dose is determined. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Proton and deuteron production in neutron-induced reactions on carbon at En=42.5, 62.7, and 72.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slypen, I.; Corcalciuc, V.; Meulders, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections for proton and deuteron production in fast neutron induced reactions on carbon are reported for three incident neutron energies: 42.5, 62.7, and 72.8 MeV. Angular distributions were measured at laboratory angles between 20 degree and 160 degree. Procedures for data taking and data reduction are presented. Energy-differential cross sections and total cross sections are also reported. Experimental cross sections are compared with existing data and with theoretical calculations in the frame of the intranuclear cascade model

  15. Design study of a far-infrared free electron laser with a 20 MeV RF linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, S.; Tsukishima, C.; Hifumi, T.; Okuda, S.; Sato, S.; Yosojima, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A FEL in the far-infrared region has been designed using a low energy RF linear accelerator. First we estimate a small signal gain from spontaneous emission using the Madey's theorem. In the calculation following effects are included: an actual field distribution (using a measured magnetic field), beam envelope in the phase space through the undulator, energy spread, and electron beam mis-alignment to the undulator axis. We have developed a code which can simulate three dimensional processes of the electron interaction with multi-mode laser fields in the undulator. From this code we could obtain the time dependent bunching process of electrons and amplification of the laser field. During the calculation we assume an electron beam of 20 MeV, 100 mA with a pulse length of 3 μs, and an undulator of 28 periods, 6 cm periodic length and 2.5 kG peak field. The results from these calculations show that the small-signal gain over 40 % can be obtained, but mis-alignment of the beam severely degrades the gain. The results also show that the output power of several MW can be obtained under the above conditions. Considering the simulation results, a FEL beam line was constructed and the beam size at the undulator was measured. And electrons were focused enough for the FEL experiment. (author)

  16. Measurement of proton induced γ-ray emission cross sections on Al from 2.5 to 4.1 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, M., E-mail: chiari@fi.infn.it [INFN-Florence and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence I-50019 (Italy); Melon, B.; Salvestrini, L. [INFN-Florence and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence I-50019 (Italy); Fonseca, M. [Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, E. [IST/ITN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2866-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Jesus, A.P. [Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-08-01

    Differential cross section for proton induced γ-ray emission from the reaction {sup 27}Al(p,p′γ){sup 27}Al (E{sub γ} = 844 and 1014 keV) were measured for proton energies from 2.5 to 4.1 MeV, at 90° and 45°, using a 29 μg/cm{sup 2} Al target evaporated on a self-supporting thin Ag film. The γ-rays were detected by two HPGe detectors with nominal 50% and 25% relative efficiency, respectively for the detector placed at 90° and at 45°. Absolute γ-ray differential cross sections were obtained with a method not dependent on the absolute values of the collected beam charge; the overall uncertainty was estimated to be better than 8%, at both angles and at all the beam energies.

  17. Complete determination of neutron yield from 62 MeV protons on 9Be for the design of a low – power ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillaci Maria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the European Partitioning & Transmutation research programs, infrastructures specifically dedicated to the study of fundamental reactor physics of future fast neutron-based reactors are very important. In this respect, an Accelerator Driven System low-power prototype, based on a 70 MeV proton beam impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, was recently proposed and designed within the INFN-E project. The world data on neutron yield from Be target are scarce in this proton energy range. This lack of data calls for a dedicated measurement which was performed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, covering a wide angular range, from 0 to 150 degrees, and an almost complete neutron energy interval, from thermal up to the beam energy. In this contribution the results are discussed together with the description of the proposed ADS facility.

  18. Formation of short-lived positron emitters in reactions of protons of energies up to 200 MeV with the target elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Kettern, K; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu N; Steyn, G F; Van der Walt, T N; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.02.007

    2004-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for proton induced reactions on carbon, nitrogen and oxygen leading to the formation of the short-lived positron emitters /sup 11/C (T/sub 1 /2/=20.38 min) and /sup 13/N (T/sub 1/2/=9.96 min). The energy region covered extended up to 200 MeV. The product activity was measured non-destructively via gamma -ray spectrometry. A careful decay curve analysis of the positron annihilation radiation was invariably performed. The experimental results were compared with theoretical data obtained using the modified hybrid nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE for intermediate energies. The agreement was found to be generally satisfactory. The data are of importance in proton therapy.

  19. Spectroscopic study of {sup 206,207,208}Pb isotopes by high resolution analysis of 24.5 MeV proton scattering; Etude spectroscopique des isotopes 206, 207 et 208 du plomb par analyse a haute resolution de la diffusion de protons de 24,5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    {sup 206,207,208}pb have been studied by 24.5 MeV proton inelastic scattering with a resolution of 20 keV. The angular distributions of the differential cross-sections corresponding to the different excited levels have been measured in a large angular region and analysed with the DWBA.This work shows that it exists between 4 and 5 MeV of excitation energy some strongly excited levels corresponding to transfer momenta l = 2, 4, 6 and 8. The single particle-hole models do not explain these states; so it will probably be necessary to introduce some several particle - hole configurations. (author) [French] Les isotopes 206, 207 et 208 du plomb ont ete etudies par diffusion inelastique de protons de 24,5 MeV avec une resolution de 20 keV. Les distributions angulaires des sections efficaces differentielles correspondant aux differents niveaux excites ont ete mesurees sur un large domaine angulaire et analysees a l'aide de la DWBA. Ce travail met en evidence l'existence, entre 4 et 5 MeV d'excitation, de niveaux fortement excites correspondant a des moments de transfert de 2, 4, 6 et 8. Les modeles a simple particule-trou ne rendant pas compte de ces niveaux, il faudra sans doute recourir a des configurations a plusieurs particules-trous pour les expliquer. (auteur)

  20. Response of CR-39 to 0.9–2.5 MeV protons for KOH and NaOH etching solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, F. [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mianji, F., E-mail: fmianji@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, R. [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, M. [Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ansarinejad, A. [Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-21

    In some circumstances passive detecting methods are the only or preferable measuring approaches. For instance, defining particles' energy profile inside the objects being irradiated with heavy ions and measuring fluence of neutrons or heavy particles in space missions are the cases covered by these methods. In this paper the ability of polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) track detector (commercially known as CR-39) for passive spectrometry of proton particles is studied. Furthermore, the effect of KOH and NaOH as commonly used chemical etching solutions on the response of the detector is investigated. The experiments were carried out with protons in the energy range of 0.94–2.5 MeV generated by a Van de Graaff accelerator. Then, the exposed track dosimeters were etched in the two aforementioned etchants through similar procedure with the same normality of 6.25 N and the same temperature of 85 °C. Formation of the tracks was precisely investigated and the track diameters were recorded following every etching step for each solution using a multistage etching process. The results showed that the proposed method can be efficiently used for the spectrometry of protons over a wider dynamic range and with a reasonable accuracy. Moreover, NaOH and KOH outperformed each other over different regions of the proton energy range. The detection efficiency of both etchants was approximately 100%.

  1. Response of CR-39 to 0.9-2.5 MeV protons for KOH and NaOH etching solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, F.; Mianji, F.; Faghihi, R.; Taheri, M.; Ansarinejad, A.

    2016-03-01

    In some circumstances passive detecting methods are the only or preferable measuring approaches. For instance, defining particles' energy profile inside the objects being irradiated with heavy ions and measuring fluence of neutrons or heavy particles in space missions are the cases covered by these methods. In this paper the ability of polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) track detector (commercially known as CR-39) for passive spectrometry of proton particles is studied. Furthermore, the effect of KOH and NaOH as commonly used chemical etching solutions on the response of the detector is investigated. The experiments were carried out with protons in the energy range of 0.94-2.5 MeV generated by a Van de Graaff accelerator. Then, the exposed track dosimeters were etched in the two aforementioned etchants through similar procedure with the same normality of 6.25 N and the same temperature of 85 °C. Formation of the tracks was precisely investigated and the track diameters were recorded following every etching step for each solution using a multistage etching process. The results showed that the proposed method can be efficiently used for the spectrometry of protons over a wider dynamic range and with a reasonable accuracy. Moreover, NaOH and KOH outperformed each other over different regions of the proton energy range. The detection efficiency of both etchants was approximately 100%.

  2. Experimental study of energy dependence of proton induced fission cross sections for heavy nuclei in the energy range 200-1000 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, A.A.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Vaishnene, L.A.; Vovchenko, V.G.; Poliakov, V.V.; Fedorov, O.Ya.; Chestnov, Yu.A.; Shchetkovskiy, A.I [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad district, Orlova roscha 1, 188300 (Russian Federation); Fukahori, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The results of the total fission cross sections measurements for {sup nat}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu nuclei at the energy proton range 200-1000 MeV are presented. Experiments were carried out at 1 GeV synchrocyclotron of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Gatchina). The measurement method is based on the registration in coincidence of both complementary fission fragments by two gas parallel plate avalanche counters, located at a short distance and opposite sides of investigated target. The insensitivity of parallel plate avalanche counters to neutron and light charged particles allowed us to place the counters together with target immediately in the proton beam providing a large solid angle acceptance for fission fragment registration and reliable identification of fission events. The proton flux on the target to be studied was determined by direct counting of protons by scintillation telescope. The measured energy dependence of the total fission cross sections is presented. Obtained results are compared with other experimental data as well as with calculation in the frame of the cascade evaporation model. (authors)

  3. Energy dependence of the cross section of fast deuteron knock-out from Li, Be, and C by 380 to 665 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarov, V I; Kosarev, G E; Reshetnikov, G P; Savchenko, O V; Tesh, Z

    1974-12-31

    The high energy parts of the spectra of fast deuterons, which are knocked out from Li, Be and C targets by protons at a 5.5 deg lab. angle with proton energies of 666, 578, 484 and 382 MeV were measured. The cross sections of quasi-elastic deuteron knock-out obtained are compared with the corresponding cross sections of elastic pd-scattering at energies mentioned above. The evaluations of the effective number of two-nucleon clusters are discussed, which have been obtained taking into account (in the Glauber approximation) the incident proton and knocked-out deuteron interactions with nuclear nucleons. The results show the common behavior of the scattering mechanism responsible for elastic pd- and quasi-elastic proton backward scattering with large momentum transfer to two-nucleon clusters. The energy dependence of the deuteron production cross section at the energy kinematically corresponding to the p + N yields d + pi process on tanget nucleons is close to that of the cross section for the p + p yields d + pi /sup +/ process. (auth)

  4. Experimental determination of beam quality factors, kQ, for two types of Farmer chamber in a 10 MV photon and a 175 MeV proton beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Joakim; Ross, Carl K; Klassen, Norman V; Palmans, Hugo; Grusell, Erik; Grindborg, Jan-Erik

    2006-03-21

    Absorbed doses determined with a sealed water calorimeter operated at 4 degrees C are compared with the results obtained using ionization chambers and the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice in a 10 MV photon beam (TPR(20,10) = 0.734) and a 175 MeV proton beam (at a depth corresponding to the residual range, R(res) = 14.7 cm). Three NE 2571 and two FC65-G ionization chambers were calibrated in terms of absorbed-dose-to-water in (60)Co at the Swedish secondary standard dosimetry laboratory, directly traceable to the BIPM. In the photon beam quality, calorimetry was found to agree with ionometry within 0.3%, confirming the k(Q) values tabulated in TRS-398. In contrast, a 1.8% deviation was found in the proton beam at 6 g cm(-2) depth, suggesting that the TRS-398 tabulated k(Q) values for these two ionization chamber types are too high. Assuming no perturbation effect in the proton beam for the ionization chambers, a value for (w(air)/e)(Q) of 33.6 J C(-1) +/- 1.7% (k = 1) can be derived from these measurements. An analytical evaluation of the effect from non-elastic nuclear interactions in the ionization chamber wall indicates a perturbation effect of 0.6%. Including this estimated result in the proton beam would increase the determined (w(air)/e)(Q) value by the same amount.

  5. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES AND STRESS MODELING FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Patankar, Kshitish A

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, the effect of temperature and humidity on the viscoelastic and fracture properties of proton exchange membranes (PEM) used in fuel cell applications was studied. Understanding and accurately modeling the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive properties of a PEM are important for making hygrothermal stress predictions in the cyclic temperature and humidity environment of operating fuel cells. In this study, Nafion® NRE 211, Gore-Select® 57, and Ion Power® N111...

  6. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of forward-angle secondary-neutron-production cross-sections for 137 and 200 MeV proton-induced reactions in carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Masuda, Akihiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Yashima, Hiroshi; Shima, Tatsushi; Tamii, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Secondary neutron-production double-differential cross-sections (DDXs) have been measured from interactions of 137 MeV and 200 MeV protons in a natural carbon target. The data were measured between 0° and 25° in the laboratory. DDXs were obtained with high energy resolution in the energy region from 3 MeV up to the maximum energy. The experimental data of 137 MeV protons at 10° and 25° were in good agreement with that of 113 MeV protons at 7.5° and 30° at LANSCE/WNR in the energy region below 80 MeV. Benchmark calculations were carried out with the PHITS code using the evaluated nuclear data files of JENDL/HE-2007 and ENDF/B-VII, and the theoretical models of Bertini-GEM and ISOBAR-GEM. For the 137 MeV proton incidence, calculations using JENDL/HE-2007 generally reproduced the shape and the intensity of experimental spectra well including the ground state of the 12N state produced by the 12C(p,n)12N reaction. For the 200 MeV proton incidence, all calculated results underestimated the experimental data by the factor of two except for the calculated result using ISOBAR model. ISOBAR predicts the nucleon emission to the forward angles qualitatively better than the Bertini model. These experimental data will be useful to evaluate the carbon data and as benchmark data for investigating the validity of the Monte Carlo simulation for the shielding design of accelerator facilities.

  7. Simultaneous quantification of Li, Ti and O in Lithium titanate by particle induced gamma-ray emission using 8 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, R.; Tripathi, R.; Sodaye, S.; Sudarshan, K.; Pujari, P.K.; Rout, P.C.; Mukherjee, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous quantification of Li, Ti and O in lithium titanate (Li 2 TiO 3 ) is difficult by particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) using low energy (∼4 MeV) proton beam. PIGE method using 8 MeV proton beam at BARC-TIFR pelletron facility was standardized for compositional characterization of sol-gel synthesized Li 2 TiO 3 by determining concentrations of Li, Ti and O simultaneously. Thick targets of samples, synthetic samples and standards were prepared in graphite matrix. Beam current variation was normalized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) using a thin gold foil. The gamma-rays of 478, 981 and 6129 keV were measured from 7 Li(p, p'γ) 7 Li, 48 Ti(p, p'γ) 48 Ti and 16 O(p, p'γ) 16 O nuclear reactions for quantification of Li, Ti and O, respectively. The method was validated by determining concentrations of Li, TI and O in a synthetic sample. (author)

  8. Supralinear response and efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti to 0.7, 1.5 and 3 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa-deBuen, I.; Aviles, P.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Brandan, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The thermoluminescent (TL) response, supralinearity function, and relative efficiency with respect to 60 Co γ-rays, of TLD-100 exposed to 0.7, 1.5 and 3 MeV protons have been measured. The TL response of the glow curve peaks using two different deconvolutions, separating in either 7 (3-9) or 9 peaks (3-10 and peaks 6a and 6b), was investigated. Results for the supralinearity function of peaks 5 and 7-9 and the relative response of peaks 5 and 7 are insensitive to the chosen deconvolution scheme. At all energies we observe that peak 5 is slightly supralinear and that supralinearity increases as a function of the peak temperature. The relative efficiencies, measured for the total TL signal (area under the glow curve) and peaks 5 and 7, decrease with the proton energy having values of 0.33, 0.46 and 0.70 (total TL signal), 0.22, 0.32 and 0.53 (peak 5) and 1.4, 2.6 and 3.6 (peak 7) at 0.7, 1.5 and 3 MeV, respectively. These data agree with the systematics reported in the literature. The measurements of the supralinearity function are compared with Monte Carlo track interaction model calculations. The analysis suggests that the model ion track effective radius and the saturation radius are independent of the incident ion energy

  9. Calculations of neutron and proton induced reaction cross sections for actinides in the energy region from 10 MeV to 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konshin, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Several nuclear model codes were applied to calculations of nuclear data in the energy region from 10 MeV to 1 GeV. At energies up to 100 MeV the nuclear theory code GNASH was used for nuclear data calculation for incident neutrons for 238 U, 233-236 U, 238-242 Pu, 237 Np, 232 Th, 241-243 Am and 242-247 Cm. At energies from 100 MeV to 1 GeV the intranuclear cascade exciton model including the fission process was applied to calculations of protons and neutrons with 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 232 Pa, 237 Np, 238 Np, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Am and 242-248 Cm. Determination of parameter systematics was a major effort in the present work that was aimed at improving the predictive capability of the models used. An emphasis was made on a simultaneous analysis of data for a variety of reaction channels for the nucleus considered, as well as of data that are available for nearby nuclei or other incident particles. Comparison with experimental data available on multiple reaction cross sections, isotope yields, fission cross sections, particle multiplicities, secondary particle spectra, and double differential cross sections indicates that the calculations reproduce the trends, and often the details, of the experimental data. (author)

  10. Calculations of neutron and proton induced reaction cross sections for actinides in the energy region from 10MeV to 1GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konshin, V.A.

    1995-06-01

    Several nuclear model codes were applied to calculations of nuclear data in the energy region from 10MeV to 1GeV. At energies up to 100MeV the nuclear theory code GNASH was used for nuclear data calculation for neutrons incident for on 238 U, 233-236 U, 238-242 Pu, 237 Np, 232 Th, 241-243 Am and 242-247 Cm. At energies from 100MeV to 1GeV the intranuclear cascade exciton model including the fission process was applied to calculations of protons and neutrons with 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 232 Pa, 237 Np, 238 Np, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Am and 242-248 Cm. Determination of parameter systematics was a major effort in the present work that was aimed at improving the predictive capability of the models used. An emphasis was placed upon a simultaneous analysis of data for a variety of reaction channels for the nuclei considered, as well as of data that are available for nearby nuclei or for other incident particles. Comparisons with experimental data available on multiple reaction cross sections, isotope yields, fission cross sections, particle multiplicities, secondary particle spectra, and double differential cross sections indicate that the calculations reproduce the trends, and often the details, of the measurements data. (author) 82 refs

  11. Double beta decay of Uranium-238: Proton reactions of 238U in 5--12 MeV range. Final report, April 15, 1987--March 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkevich, A.; Economou, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report is in two parts. The first part reports on the experimental work determining the half-life for double beta decay of 238 U to 238 PU to be (2.0 ± 0.6) x 10 21 years. This is the first evidence for a third mode of decay of this heaviest naturally occurring nucleus. This rate is about 10 6 times slower than spontaneous fission, which itself is about 10 6 times slower than alpha decay. The implication of this double beta decay to neutrino masses depends on uncertain theoretical calculations of the rate for such a heavy nucleus. The second part reports on yields of principal fission products from 5.6, 7.3, 9.4, and 11.5 MeV proton interactions with 238 U. The yields at 11.5 MeV are similar to those from 14 MeV neutron fission of 238 U. At the same time, the production cross sections of 238 Np at the same energies are determined. This nuclide is produced as often as fission at the lowest energy but only 3.8% as often at the highest energy

  12. Catalogue of {>} 55 MeV Wide-longitude Solar Proton Events Observed by SOHO, ACE, and the STEREOs at {≈} 1 AU During 2009 - 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paassilta, Miikka; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Dresing, Nina; Vainio, Rami; Valtonen, Eino; Heber, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    Based on energetic particle observations made at {≈} 1 AU, we present a catalogue of 46 wide-longitude ({>} 45°) solar energetic particle (SEP) events detected at multiple locations during 2009 - 2016. The particle kinetic energies of interest were chosen as {>} 55 MeV for protons and 0.18 - 0.31 MeV for electrons. We make use of proton data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron Experiment (SOHO/ERNE) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory/High Energy Telescopes (STEREO/HET), together with electron data from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (ACE/EPAM) and the STEREO/ Solar Electron and Proton Telescopes (SEPT). We consider soft X-ray data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and coronal mass ejection (CME) observations made with the SOHO/ Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and STEREO/ Coronagraphs 1 and 2 (COR1, COR2) to establish the probable associations between SEP events and the related solar phenomena. Event onset times and peak intensities are determined; velocity dispersion analysis (VDA) and time-shifting analysis (TSA) are performed for protons; TSA is performed for electrons. In our event sample, there is a tendency for the highest peak intensities to occur when the observer is magnetically connected to solar regions west of the flare. Our estimates for the mean event width, derived as the standard deviation of a Gaussian curve modelling the SEP intensities (protons {≈} 44°, electrons {≈} 50°), largely agree with previous results for lower-energy SEPs. SEP release times with respect to event flares, as well as the event rise times, show no simple dependence on the observer's connection angle, suggesting that the source region extent and dominant particle acceleration and transport mechanisms are important in defining these characteristics of an event. There is no marked difference between the speed

  13. Analysis of the proton-induced reactions at 150 MeV - 24 GeV by high energy nuclear reaction code JAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji; Nara, Yasushi; Takada, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    1999-09-01

    We are developing a nucleon-meson transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgraded version of NMTC/JAERI. NMTC/JAM implements the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the infra-nuclear cascade part. By using JAM, the upper limits of the incident energies in NMTC/JAERI, 3.5 GeV for nucleons and 2.5 GeV for mesons, are increased drastically up to several hundreds GeV. We have modified the original JAM code in order to estimate the residual nucleus and its excitation energy for nucleon or pion induced reactions by assuming a simple model for target nucleus. As a result, we have succeeded in lowering the applicable energies of JAM down to about 150 MeV. In this report, we describe the main components of JAM code, which should be implemented in NMTC/JAM, and compare the results calculated by JAM code with the experimental data and with those by LAHET2.7 code for proton induced reactions from 150 MeV to several 10 GeV. It has been found that the results of JAM can reproduce quite well the experimental double differential cross sections of neutrons and pions emitted from the proton induced reactions from 150 MeV to several 10 GeV. On the other hand, the results of LAHET2.7 show the strange behavior of the angular distribution of nucleons and pions from the reactions above 4 GeV. (author)

  14. Proton-gamma coincidence experiment on medium mass nuclei at 400MeV and study of reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldit, Alain.

    1981-01-01

    Previous γ ray production experiments produced by proton on nuclei show important cross sections for residual nuclei corresponding to a four nucleon (2p + 2n) removal. With our (p - γ) coincidence experiment the forward emitted proton reflects the primary interaction and the γ spectra characterizes the final state of the reaction. Protons are detected with a magnetic spectrometer and γ rays are selected with a Ge(Li) diode. Angular and momentum analysis of scattered protons demonstrate a primary quasi free process on nucleons. No indication of knock out reactions on clusters has been seen. The residual nuclei are mainly produced by evaporation processes. A theoretical calculation involving intranuclear cascades and evaporation processes has been performed. The nucleus model is based upon a Fermi gas and nuclear density agrees with diffusion electron experiments. Residual nuclei far from target are well described with a such model. Residual nuclei near the target are sensitive to the nuclear structure [fr

  15. Determination of intensity and energy spectrum of neutrons by bombardment of thallium-203 thick target and its copper substrate with 28.5 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiloo, N.; Raisali, Gh.; Hamidi, S.; Aslani, Gh.

    2007-01-01

    In this research we have determined neutrons spectrum and the intensity that produced from thallium target bombardment. We have applied SRIM and ALICE computer codes to thallium target and its copper substrate for 145 μA of 28.5 MeV incident proton beam from cyclotron Cyclone30. Because of the energy degradation of protons while passing through the thallium target and its copper substrate, the average energy of protons in different depths has been calculated by using SRIM computer code. Then, by applying ALICE computer code for each sub-layer, the neutron production cross sections and their energy spectrum have been calculated to determine the total neutron intensity and spectrum. Using the calculated neutron intensity of 1.22x10 13 n/s as the source, the equivalent dose rate at the distance 6 meters from the target has been calculated by MCNP computer code and the result has been compared with the measured value. The Pb 201 activity has also been calculated as 13.5 Curies. The measured Pb 201 activity by Curie meter CAPINTEC CRC-712 is 13.1 Ci which is in reasonable agreement with the calculated value, bearing in mind the uncertainties in the proposed models and the measurements

  16. Several features of the earthward and tailward streaming of energetic protons (0.29--0.5 MeV) in the earth's plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of earthward and tailward streaming of energetic protons (0.29--0.50 MeV) in the magnetotial at downstream distances of 20 to 40 R/sub E/ are examined with approx.5.5-min averaged data from the APL/JHU Charged Particle Measurements Experiment on board the IMP 7 and IMP 8 spacecraft. On the basis of observations from September 1972 to May 1978 it is found that the occurrence frequency of energetic magnetospheric protons streaming either tailward or earthward with a front-to-back flux ratio of >2 is at least 23%. Tailward streaming is found to be prevalent in the postmidnight plasma sheet, while earthward streaming is more frequent in the premidnight sector. The particle spectrum is progressively harder from the dawn flank to the dusk flank of the plasma sheet and is generally harder for tailward streaming than for earthward streaming. It is suggested that the dawn-dusk reversal in the dominant streaming direction results from an underlying circulation pattern of energetic protons in the magnetotail, tailward in the postmidnight region and earthward in the premidnight region

  17. Development plan of basic technology for a high intensity proton linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    The national program called OMEGA (Option Making Extra Gains from Actinide and Fission Products) has started with the aim of promoting the research and development of the new technologies for nuclear waste partitioning and transmutation. As a part of this program, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has laid out several R and D plans for accelerator based actinide transmutation. The present article first outlines the status of the high intensity proton linear accelerator. Then it describes the time schedule for the development of a high intensity proton linac, focusing on the first step development (basic technology accelerator), second step development (engineering test accelerator, and third step development (commercial plant). It also outlines the conceptual design study and preliminary design calculations for basic technology accelerator, focusing on general consideration, ion source, radio frequency quadrupole, drift tube linac, and high beta linac. (N.K.)

  18. Dosimetry of High-Energy Protons by Measurement of Beryllium-7 Formed in the Tissues; Dosimetrie des Protons de Haute Energie par Mesure de Beryllium-7 Forme dans les Tissus; 041e 0422 041d 041e 0421 0414 ; Dosimetria Relativa Mediante Berillo-7 Despues de Irradiar con Protones de Altas Energias (600 Mev Y 3 Gev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legeay, G. [Service Biologique et Veterinaire des Armees, Detache au D.P.S. (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Court, L.; Prat, L [Service de Sante des Armees, Detaches au D.P.S. (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Jeanmaire, L.; Daburon, M. L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France); Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Centre d' Etudes [France; De Kerviler, H.; Tardy-Joubert, P. [Service de Protection Contre les Radiations, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1965-06-15

    In the course of biological experiments at the CERN cyclotron at Geneva (using 600 MeV protons) and the Saturne synchrotron at the Saclay Nuclear Studies Centre, the radioactivity induced in living beings was investigated by gamma-spectrography. Whereas most of the induced radioisotopes (gamma emitters) are short-lived, the beryllium-7 produced by spallation reactions on, in particular, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen atoms, has an activity peak which stands out abruptly from the spectrum as a whole at the 479-keV level. As its half-life is 54. 5 d, it can be recorded for a sufficiently long time. An experiment carried out with Whitsar rats given whole-body exposures of between 400 and 800 rad with 600-MeV protons and of 200 to 1000 rad with 3-GeV protons, disclosed a linear response of the Be{sup 7} activity in relation to the dose absorbed per gram of tissue. The authors compare their experimental results with the activities calculated in terms of energy on the basis of published cross-sections. The accidental exposure of human beings to proton beams can only be local. Exposure of the heads of Fauve de Bourgogne rabbits weighing approximately 2 kg show that the activity measured on the head, in relation to the rest of the body, is of the order of 1.8 {+-} 5. Be{sup 7} can be detected during the first days in spite of some diffusion. Relative dosimetry, indicating the scale of the accidental exposure received, is therefore possible. (author) [French] Dans le cadre d'experimentations biologiques conduites au synchrocyclotron du CERN a Geneve avec des protons de 600 MeV et au synchrotron Saturne du Centre d*etudes nucleaires de Saclay, une exploration de la radioactivite induite chez des etres vivants a ete faite par spectrographie gamma. Si la plupart des radioelements, emetteurs gamma, induits presentent une periode tres courte, le beryllium-7 resultant de reactions de spoliation sur les atomes d'oxygene, de carbone et d'azote notamment, donne un pic d'activite qui se

  19. Determination of the 20 MeV linear accelerator, new injector for the synchrotron Saturne. Choice of the electrical and dynamical particle parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prome, M.

    1968-12-01

    This report takes place in the general determination of the 20 MeV linear accelerator which will be the new Saturne injector; it deals with particle dynamics. Starting from beam requirements at the output of the linac, cells lengths with variable synchronous phase angle, buncher and de-buncher parameters, beam emittances at the output in several phase spaces are successively determined. (author) [fr

  20. Small-sized linear accelerator of 2.5 MeV electrons with a local radiation shield for custom examination of freight transported by motor transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, A.V.; Gavrish, Yu.N.; Klinov, A.P.; Krest'yaninov, A.S.; Nikolaev, V.M.; Fomin, L.P.; Linkenbach, H.A.; Geus, G.; Knospel, W.

    2001-01-01

    A new development of a small-sized linear accelerator of 2.5 MeV electrons with a local radiation protection is described. The accelerator is intended for movable facilities of radiation custom of the freight transported by motor transport. Main constructive solutions, mass and dimension characteristics and results of preliminary tests of the accelerator parameters and characteristics of radiation protection are presented [ru

  1. Cross measurements of linear momentum transfer and energy dissipation in collisions between 290 MeV 20Ne and 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galin, J.; Ingold, G.; Jahnke, U.; Hilscher, D.; Lehmann, M.; Rossner, H.; Schwinn, E.

    1988-01-01

    The 20 Ne+U reactions are investigated at 290 MeV bombarding energy. The linear momentum transfer and excitation energy are deduced eventwise from the respective measurements of the folding angle between correlated fission fragments and the neutron multiplicity. A simple incomplete fusion picture is shown to essentially account for the data. The sensitivity of the two measurements in order to infer the violence of a collision is discussed in details. (orig.)

  2. Elastic and inelastic scattering of polarized protons from carbon-12 at 400, 600, and 700 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.

    1984-04-01

    Good resolution cross section and analyzing power (p vector, p') data for many states in 12 C up to an excitation energy of 21 MeV and spanning a momentum transfer range of 0.3 to 2.1 fm -1 were obtained using the High Resolution Spectrometer at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility at incident beam energies of 398, 597, and 698 MeV. Optical model potentials were obtained from the elastic scattering data. Inelastic data were analyzed in the Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation using the Love-Franey effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. The energy dependent isoscalar natural parity cross sections were underestimated, while phase difficulties were encountered in fitting analyzing powers. The energy independent isovector natural parity cross sections were reasonably reproduced, but analyzing powers were not, the calculations yielding positive trends whereas the data are of opposite sign. The energy independent isoscalar and isovector unnatural parity cross sections were quite well reproduced up to moderate momentum transfers, and striking successes were observed for some analyzing power data. Systematics of energy dependence together with the results of the DWIA calculations permitted the assignment of spin, parity and isospin quantum numbers to states in the 18-21 MeV excitation region. 64 references

  3. Positron probing of open vacancy volume of phosphorus-vacancy complexes in float-zone n-type silicon irradiated by 0.9-MeV electrons and by 15-MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, Nikolay [Department of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies (Institute of Electronics), Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Emtsev, Vadim; Oganesyan, Gagik [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Elsayed, Mohamed [Department of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle (Germany); Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Minia University (Egypt); Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard [Department of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle (Germany); Abrosimov, Nikolay [Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth, Berlin (Germany); Kozlovski, Vitalii [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    For the first time the samples, cut from the same wafer of crystals of float-zone silicon, n-FZ-Si(P) and n-FZ-Si(Bi), were subjected to irradiation with 0.9-MeV electrons and 15-MeV protons at RT for studying them by low-temperature positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Measurements of Hall effect have been used for the materials characterization. The discussion is focused on the open vacancy volume (V{sub op}) of the thermally stable group-V-impurity-vacancy complexes comprising the phosphorus atoms; the bismuth-related vacancy complexes are briefly considered. The data of positron probing of PV pairs (E-centers), divacancies, and the thermally stable defects in the irradiated n-FZ-Si(P) materials are compared. Beyond a reliable detecting of the defect-related positron annihilation lifetime in the course of isochronal annealing at ∝ 500 C, the recovery of concentration of phosphorus-related shallow donor states continues up to ∝650-700 C. The open vacancy volumes V{sub op} to be characterized by long positron lifetimes Δτ{sub 2} ∝271-289 ps in (gr.-V-atom)-V{sub op} complexes are compared with theoretical data available for the vacancies, τ(V{sub 1}), and divacancies, τ(V{sub 2}). The extended semi-vacancies, 2V{sub s-ext}, and relaxed vacancies, 2V{sub inw}, are proposed as the open volume V{sub op} in (gr.-V-atom)-V{sub op} complexes. It is argued that at high annealing temperature the defect P{sub s}-V{sub op}-P{sub s} is decomposed. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Thin layer activation (TLA) experiment of piston ring F.J product by using nuclear facility proton beam 12.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarmono; Silakhuddin

    2002-01-01

    The experiment of thin layer activation of piston ring F.J product, was done. The purpose of this experiment are to measure material wearing level by using concentration method. The experiment was carried out by activated piston ring proton beam with energy 12,5 MeV and beam current 1 μA for 30 minutes then was continued by wearing process. The measurement of the wear result activity was carried out by pouring the total of volume of lubricant oil for radioactivity measurement. Measurement of the activity level used the gamma spectroscopy. The minimum wearing duration that can detects a wear was 5 hours. The activity count was 1.230 pulse per 30 seconds which is in accordance with a wear in order of 8 mg of Fe material on 1 liter oil lubricant, this result is same with the result of T. Delvigne namely is less than 10 mgr

  5. Neutron-proton scattering experiments and phase analyses for the n-p system in the energy range from 17 to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the study of the nucleon-nucleon interaction neutron-proton scattering experiments were performed at the neutron collimator POLKA of the Karlsruhe cyclotron. Neutrons were produced by the source reaction D(d,n)X in the energy range between 17 and 50 MeV. Measured were the differential cross section, the analyzing power, and the spin correlation coefficient of the elastic n-p scattering. By means of the new data the knowledge of the isospin T=0 scattering phases could be improved. It is for the first time possible to determine the scattering phases for T=1 independently from n-p and p-p data with comparable accuracy. (orig./HSI) [de

  6. Measurement of 58Fe (p , n)58Co reaction cross-section within the proton energy range of 3.38 to 19.63 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Reetuparna; Badwar, Sylvia; Lawriniang, Bioletty; Jyrwa, Betylda; Naik, Haldhara; Naik, Yeshwant; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula Venkata; Ganesan, Srinivasan

    2017-08-01

    The 58Fe (p , n)58Co reaction cross-section within Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) region i.e. from 3.38 to 19.63 MeV was measured by stacked-foil activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the BARC-TIFR Pelletron facility at Mumbai. The present data were compared with the existing literature data and found to be in good agreement. The 58Fe (p , n)58Co reaction cross-section as a function of proton energy was also theoretically calculated by using the computer code TALYS-1.8 and found to be in good agreement, which shows the validity of the TALYS-1.8 program.

  7. In vitro evaluation of relative biological effectiveness of 3MeV protons using γH2AX immuno-fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurasia, Rajesh K.; Desai, Utkarsha; Sirsath, K.B.; Bhat, N.N.; Sapra, B.K.; Gaur, Neeraj

    2018-01-01

    Use of charged particles for treating complicated tumors is gaining momentum. Their defined dose profile, near zero dose to normal tissue beyond tumour, skin sparing, more lethal effect than mutations, ability to focus beam with complex geometries are some of the advantages. Lack of scientific information on radiobiological efficacy, complexity and cost/maintenance of such facilities are hindering their use at present. Though a huge amount of time and resources are invested cancer treatment still primarily depends on chemotherapy and radiotherapy (γ-ray). Through this study we aim to demonstrate relative biological effectiveness of 3MeV proton beam with estimated LET of 13 keV/μm on cancerous mammalian cell line using highly reliable DNA double strand break γH2AX marker as a damage quantification tool

  8. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock [Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the {sup nat}Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction.

  9. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the nat Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction

  10. Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on {sup nat}Fe up to 16 MeV, with emphasis on radiochemical determination of low cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md. Shuza [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5); Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumer [Chittagong Univ. of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Spellerberg, Stefan; Spahn, Ingo; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5); Shariff, Md. Asad [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Rashid, Md. Abdur [Chittagong Univ. of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics

    2017-07-01

    Excitation functions for the formation of the radionuclides {sup 56}Co, {sup 57}Co, {sup 58m+g}Co and {sup 54}Mn via proton induced reactions on natural iron target were measured from their respective thresholds up to 16 MeV using the stacked-foil activation technique and HPGe detector γ-ray spectroscopy. In the threshold energy range, the low cross sections for {sup 54}Mn were measured radiochemically. All the measured values were compared with available experimental data and with theoretical calculations reproduced in TENDL-2015 nuclear data library. New data for the formation of {sup 57}Co, {sup 58}Co and {sup 54}Mn were obtained near their reaction thresholds. Other data obtained strengthen the database. Polynomial fittings of the data measured in this work as well as of all data sets (including the present data) were performed. The present data appear to be closer to theoretical calculations than the literature data.

  11. Response of metallic glasses Fe40Ni40P14B6 and Fe80B20 to irradiation with 800-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost, J.R.; Sommer, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Metallic glasses with compositions of Fe 40 Ni 40 P 14 B 6 and Fe 80 B 20 were irradiated in the 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility while the electrical resistance and length changes were monitored. The resistance and the length of the first alloy were both found to increase and saturate with dose to ΔR/R approx. = 5 x 10 -3 and ΔL/L approx. = 2 x 10 -3 . For the second alloy the total dose of 1.1 x 10 19 p/cm 2 , which was calculated to give roughly 0.12 dpa, was slightly less than that required for saturation. No annealing of these increases was observed for anneals from room temperature to 250 0 C. These results are interpreted in terms of a model in which collision cascades create small regions of increased atomic disorder which fully overlap each other at saturation

  12. Beam dynamics study of a 30 MeV electron linear accelerator to drive a neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Yang, Haeryong; Kang, Heung-Sik

    2014-02-01

    An experimental neutron facility based on 32 MeV/18.47 kW electron linac has been studied by means of PARMELA simulation code. Beam dynamics study for a traveling wave constant gradient electron accelerator is carried out to reach the preferential operation parameters (E = 30 MeV, P = 18 kW, dE/E E-gun, pre-buncher, buncher, and 2 accelerating columns. A disk-loaded, on-axis-coupled, 2π/3-mode type accelerating rf cavity is considered for this linac. After numerous optimizations of linac parameters, 32 MeV beam energy is obtained at the end of the linac. As high electron energy is required to produce acceptable neutron flux. The final neutron flux is estimated to be 5 × 1011 n/cm2/s/mA. Future development will be the real design of a 30 MeV electron linac based on S band traveling wave.

  13. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  14. Application of International Linear Collider superconducting cavities for acceleration of protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Beam acceleration in the International Linear Collider (ILC will be provided by 9-cell 1300 MHz superconducting (SC cavities. The cavities are designed for effective acceleration of charged particles moving with the speed of light and are operated on π-mode to provide a maximum accelerating gradient. A significant research and development effort has been devoted to develop ILC SC technology and its rf system which resulted in excellent performance of ILC cavities. Therefore, the proposed 8-GeV proton driver in Fermilab is based on ILC cavities above ∼1.2  GeV. The efficiency of proton beam acceleration by ILC cavities drops fast for lower velocities and it was proposed to develop squeezed ILC-type (S-ILC cavities operating at 1300 MHz and designed for β_{G}=0.81, geometrical beta, to accelerate protons or H^{-} from ∼420  MeV to 1.2 GeV. This paper discusses the possibility of avoiding the development of new β_{G}=0.81 cavities by operating ILC cavities on 8/9π-mode of standing wave oscillations.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results on neutron production in the spallation target QUINTA irradiated with 660 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushvaktov, J.H.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Adam, J.; Vrzalova, J.; Baldin, A.A.; Furman, W.I.; Gustov, S.A.; Kish, Yu.V.; Solnyshkin, A.A.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tichy, P.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.; Zavorka, L.; Svoboda, J.; Zeman, M.; Vespalec, R.; Wagner, V.

    2017-01-01

    The activation experiment was performed using the accelerated beam of the Phasotron accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). The natural uranium spallation target QUINTA was irradiated with protons of energy 660 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the FLUKA and Geant4 codes. The number of leakage neutrons from the sections of the uranium target surrounded by the lead shielding and the number of leakage neutrons from the lead shield were determined. The total number of fissions in the setup QUINTA were determined. Experimental values of reaction rates for the produced nuclei in the "1"2"7I sample were obtained, and several values of the reaction rates were compared with the results of simulations by the FLUKA and Geant4 codes. The experimentally determined fluence of neutrons in the energy range of 10-200 MeV using the (n, xn) reactions in the "1"2"7I(NaI) sample was compared with the results of simulations. Possibility of transmutation of the long-lived radionuclide "1"2"9I in the QUINTA setup was estimated. [ru

  16. Use of 70 MeV Proton Beam for Medical Applications at INFN-LNS: CATANA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabini, M.G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Barone Tonghi, L.; Bartolotta, A.; Brai, M.; Cuttone, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Marano, F.; Nicoletti, G.A.; Privitera, G.; Raffaele, L.; Reibaldi, A.; Romeo, N.; Rovelli, A.; Salamone, V.; Teri, G.

    2000-01-01

    The project CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) is a collaboration between the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Physics Department, Ophthalmology Institute and Radiology Institute of the Catania University and CSFNSM Catania. The main goal of CATANA is the study and the application of proton therapy for the treatment of shallow tumors (4 cm max) like uveal melanomas and subfoveal macular degenerations

  17. Development of linear proton accelerators with the high average beam power

    CERN Document Server

    Bomko, V A; Egorov, A M

    2001-01-01

    Review of the current situation in the development of powerful linear proton accelerators carried out in many countries is given. The purpose of their creation is solving problems of safe and efficient nuclear energetics on a basis of the accelerator-reactor complex. In this case a proton beam with the energy up to 1 GeV, the average current of 30 mA is required. At the same time there is a needed in more powerful beams,for example, for production of tritium and transmutation of nuclear waste products. The creation of accelerators of such a power will be followed by the construction of linear accelerators of 1 GeV but with a more moderate beam current. They are intended for investigation of many aspects of neutron physics and neutron engineering. Problems in the creation of efficient constructions for the basic and auxiliary equipment, the reliability of the systems, and minimization of the beam losses in the process of acceleration will be solved.

  18. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amgarou, K. [Grup de Recerca en Radiacions Ionitzants, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Domingo, C. [Grup de Recerca en Radiacions Ionitzants, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G. [INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Russo, S. [INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2011-10-21

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to E<20 MeV if only polyethylene spheres are used, but can be extended to hundreds of MeV by including metal-loaded spheres (extended range BSS, indicated with ERBSS). With the aim of providing useful data to the scientific community involved in neutron measurements at hadron therapy facilities, an ERBSS experiment was carried out at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud), where a proton beam routinely used for ophthalmic cancer treatments is available. The 62 MeV beam was directed towards a PMMA phantom, simulating the patient, and two neutron measurement points were established at 0{sup o} and 90{sup o} with respect to the beam-line. Here the ERBSS of UAB (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona-Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the 'forward' and 'sideward' proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and

  19. A phenomenological biological dose model for proton therapy based on linear energy transfer spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørvik, Eivind; Thörnqvist, Sara; Stokkevåg, Camilla H; Dahle, Tordis J; Fjaera, Lars Fredrik; Ytre-Hauge, Kristian S

    2017-06-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons varies with the radiation quality, quantified by the linear energy transfer (LET). Most phenomenological models employ a linear dependency of the dose-averaged LET (LET d ) to calculate the biological dose. However, several experiments have indicated a possible non-linear trend. Our aim was to investigate if biological dose models including non-linear LET dependencies should be considered, by introducing a LET spectrum based dose model. The RBE-LET relationship was investigated by fitting of polynomials from 1st to 5th degree to a database of 85 data points from aerobic in vitro experiments. We included both unweighted and weighted regression, the latter taking into account experimental uncertainties. Statistical testing was performed to decide whether higher degree polynomials provided better fits to the data as compared to lower degrees. The newly developed models were compared to three published LET d based models for a simulated spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) scenario. The statistical analysis of the weighted regression analysis favored a non-linear RBE-LET relationship, with the quartic polynomial found to best represent the experimental data (P = 0.010). The results of the unweighted regression analysis were on the borderline of statistical significance for non-linear functions (P = 0.053), and with the current database a linear dependency could not be rejected. For the SOBP scenario, the weighted non-linear model estimated a similar mean RBE value (1.14) compared to the three established models (1.13-1.17). The unweighted model calculated a considerably higher RBE value (1.22). The analysis indicated that non-linear models could give a better representation of the RBE-LET relationship. However, this is not decisive, as inclusion of the experimental uncertainties in the regression analysis had a significant impact on the determination and ranking of the models. As differences between the models were

  20. Physical aspects of an electronuclear set-up on the basis of the subcritical zone of the IBR-30 reactor and the 660 MeV proton phasotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Pogodaev, G.N.; Polanski, A.; Popov, Yu.P.; Puzynin, I.V.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sosnin, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and thermal flux estimations show that a combination of installations available at present at JINR - the plutonium reactor IBR-30 and the 660 MeV proton phasotron with the current of the extracted beam 0.25 mkA, i.e. 10% of its average value, - allows one to construct an air-cooled electronuclear set-up with the multiplication coefficient K eff ≅ 0.94, the neutron yield N tot ≅ 10 14 - 10 15 and the heat generation about to 10 kW. This set-up will demonstrate a possibility to construct subcritical transmutation-power generating electronuclear systems safe and stable in operation and applicable for utilization of weapon grade and technical plutonium. Kinetics of the electronuclear system will be investigated, in particular, fluctuations of the value of K eff for various parameters of the proton beam. Cross sections of nuclear reactions which are important for the estimations of an efficiency of various conditions of the nuclear waste transmutation and the neutron fluxes together with the heat distributions inside and outside the plutonium core will be measured. A comparison of these data with theoretical calculations allows one to check up and to develop significantly the methods of mathematical modeling of electronuclear systems. We suppose also to estimate the possibilities of ARC-method for the burning of radioactive wastes and to study the influence of various reflectors and multipartitioning of the core which increases the neutron yield. (author)

  1. Near-real time forecasts of MeV protons based on sub-relativistic electrons: communicating the outputs to the end users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlanis, Christos; Heber, Bernd; Labrenz, Johannes; Kühl, Patrick; Marquardt, Johannes; Dimitroulakos, John; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Posner, Arik

    2017-04-01

    Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events are one of the most important elements of space weather. Given that the complexity of the underlying physical processes of the acceleration and propagation of SEP events is still a very active research area, the prognosis of SEP event occurrence and their corresponding characteristics remains challenging. In order to provide up to an hour warning time before these particles arrive at Earth, relativistic electron and below 50 MeV proton data from the Electron Proton Helium Instrument (EPHIN) on SOHO were used to implement the 'Relativistic Electron Alert System for Exploration (REleASE)'. The REleASE forecasting scheme was recently rewritten in the open access programming language PYTHON and will be made publicly available. As a next step, along with relativistic electrons (v > 0.9 c) provided by SOHO, near-relativistic (v work, we demonstrate the real-time outputs derived by the end user from the REleASE using both SOHO/EPHIN and ACE/EPAM. We further, show a user friendly illustration of the outputs that make use of a "traffic light" to monitor the different warning stages: quiet, warning, alert offering a simple guidance to the end users. Finally, the capabilities offered by this new system, accessing both the pictorial and textural outputs REleASE are being presented. This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.

  2. Comparison of physics model for 600 MeV protons 290 MeV·{sup n-}1 oxygen ions on carbon in MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Arim; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jung, Nam Suk; Oh, Joo Hee [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Oranj, Leila Mokhtari [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    With the increase in the number of particle accelerator facilities under either operation or construction, the accurate calculation using Monte Carlo codes become more important in the shielding design and radiation safety evaluation of accelerator facilities. The calculations with different physics models were applied in both of cases: using only physics model and using the mix and match method of MCNPX code. The issued conditions were the interactions of 600 MeV proton and 290 MeV·{sup n-}1 oxygen with a carbon target. Both of cross-section libraries, JENDL High Energy File 2007 (JENDL/HE-2007) and LA150, were tested in this calculation. In the case of oxygen ion interactions, the calculation results using LAQGSM physics model and JENDL/HE-2007 library were compared with D. Satoh's experimental data. Other Monte Carlo calculations using PHITS and FLUKA codes were also carried out for further benchmarking study. It was clearly found that the physics models, especially intra-nuclear cascade model, gave a great effect to determine proton-induced secondary neutron spectrum in MCNPX code. The variety of physics models related to heavy ion interactions did not make big difference on the secondary particle productions. The variations of secondary neutron spectra and particle transports depending on various physics models in MCNPX code were studied and the result of this study can be used for the shielding design and radiation safety evaluation.

  3. Neutron double differential distributions, dose rates and specific activities from accelerator components irradiated by 50-400 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerutti, F.; Charitonidis, N.; Silari, M.; Charitonidis, N.

    2010-01-01

    Systematic Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed to estimate the induced radioactivity in five materials commonly used in particle accelerator structures: boron nitride and carbon (dumps and collimators), copper (RF cavities, coils and vacuum chambers), iron and stainless steel (magnets and vacuum chambers). Using a simplified geometry set-up, the five materials were bombarded with protons in the energy range from 50 to 400 MeV. This energy range is typical of intermediate-energy proton accelerators used as injectors to higher-energy machines, as research accelerators for nuclear physics, and in hadron therapy. Ambient dose equivalent rates were calculated at distances up to one meter around the target, for seven cooling times up to six months. A complete inventory of the radionuclides present in the target was calculated for all combinations of target, beam energy and cooling time. The influence of the target size and of self-absorption was investigated. The energy and angular distributions of neutrons escaping from the target were also scored for all materials and beam energies. The influence on the neutron spectra of the presence of concrete walls (the accelerator tunnel) around the target was also estimated. The results of the present study provide a simple database to be used for a first, approximate estimate of the radiological risk to be expected when intervening on activated accelerator components. (authors)

  4. Mass-yield distributions of fission products from 20, 32, and 45 MeV proton-induced fission of 232Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, H.; Goswami, A.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K.; Suryanarayana, S. V.

    2013-10-01

    The yields of various fission products in the 19.6, 32.2, and 44.8 MeV proton-induced fission of 232Th have been determined by recoil catcher and an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the BARC-TIFR Pelletron in India and MC-50 cyclotron in Korea. The mass-yield distributions were obtained from the fission product yield using the charge distribution corrections. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratio of the present work and that of literature data for 232Th(p,f) and 238U(p,f) were obtained from the mass yield distribution. The present and the existing literature data for 232Th(p,f), 232Th(n,f), and 232Th( γ,f) at various energies were compared with those for 238U(p,f), 238U(n,f), and 238U( γ,f) to examine the probable nuclear structure effect. The role of Th-anomaly on the peak-to-valley ratio in proton-, neutron-, and photon-induced fission of 232Th was discussed with the similar data in 238U. On the other hand, the fine structure in the mass yield distributions of the fissioning systems at various excitation energies has been explained from the point of standard I and II asymmetric mode of fission besides the probable role of even-odd effect, A/ Z ratio, and fissility parameter.

  5. Polarity-dependence of the defect formation in c-axis oriented ZnO by the irradiation of an 8 MeV proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kazuto; Yano, Mitsuaki; Gonda, Shun-ichi; Uedono, Akira; Ishibashi, Shoji; Kojima, Kazunobu; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2018-04-01

    The polarity dependence of the radiation hardness of single-crystalline ZnO bulk crystals is studied by irradiating the Zn-polar and O-polar c-planes with an 8 MeV proton beam up to the fluence of 4.2 × 1016 p/cm2. To analyze the hardness, radiation-induced defects were evaluated using positron annihilation (PA) analysis, and the recovery by post-annealing was examined using continuous-wave photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements. It was suggested by the PA and PL analyses that the major defects in both polarities were VZnVO divacancies. While the PA data did not show the clear dependence on the polarity, the PL and TRPL results showed that the Zn-polar c-plane had a little higher radiation tolerance than that of the O-polar c-plane, which was consistent with the result that the increase in the electrical resistance by proton beam irradiation was smaller for the former one. Considering these results in total, the polarity dependence is considered to be not so large, but the Zn-polar c-plane has a little higher tolerance than that of the O-polar one.

  6. Systematics of the excitation of M1 resonances in medium heavy nuclei by 200 MeV proton inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djalali, C.; Marty, N.; Morlet, M.

    1982-01-01

    In a series of seventeen nuclei ranging from 51 V to 140 Ca, broad resonance structures are observed at energies between 8 and 10 MeV, nearly mass independent. These resonances have very forward peaked angular distributions which imply that they are populated by an angular momentum transfer of zero. This together with the observed excitation energies suggests an M1 character for these resonances. In 51 V, 58 Ni, 60 Ni, 62 Ni, a sharp peak located at an excitation energy above the threshold for neutron emission is interpreted as a part of the T 0+1 component of the M1 resonances. Cross-sections are given for all the M1 resonances. For 58 Ni, 90 Zr, 92 Mo, 120 Sn and 140 Ca, an ''attenuation'' factor for the cross-sections is extracted in a OWIA calculation assuming simple shell model structures for these resonances

  7. Determination of proton-nucleon analyzing powers and spin-rotation-depolarization parameters at 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.A.; Barlett, M.L.; Fergerson, R.W.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Milner, E.C.; Ray, L.; Amann, J.F.; Bonner, B.E.; McClelland, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    500 MeV p-arrow-right+p elastic and quasielastic, and p-arrow-right+n quasielastic, analyzing powers (A/sub y/) and spin-rotation-depolarization parameters (D/sub S//sub S/, D/sub S//sub L/, D/sub L//sub S/, D/sub L//sub L/, D/sub N//sub N/) were determined for center-of-momentum angular ranges 6.8 0 -55.4 0 (elastic) and 22.4 0 -55.4 0 (quasielastic); liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets were used. The p-arrow-right+p elastic and quasielastic results are in good agreement; both the p-arrow-right+p and p-arrow-right+n parameters are well described by current phase shift solutions

  8. Monte Carlo modelling and comparison with experiment of the nuclide production in thick stony targets isotropically irradiated with 600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylmer, D.; Herzog, G.F.; Kruse, T.H.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Moniot, R.K.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.; Tuniz, C.

    1987-05-01

    Depth profiles for the production of stable and radioactive nuclides have been measured for a large variety of target elements in three thick spherical stony targets with radii of 5, 15 and 26 cm isotropically irradiated with 600 MeV protons at the CERN synchrocyclotron. These irradiation experiments (CERN SC96) were intended to simulate the irradiation of meteoroids by galactic cosmic ray protons. In order to combine this experimental approach with a theoretical one the intra- and internuclear cascades were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques via the high energy transport code HET/KFA 1. Together with transport calculations for low energy neutrons by the MORSE-CG code the depth dependent spectra of primary and secondary protons and of secondary neutrons were derived. On the basis of these spectra and a set of evaluated experimental excitation functions for p-induced reactions and of theoretical ones for n-induced reactions, calculated by the code ALICE LIVERMORE 82, theoretical depth profiles for the production of stable and radioactive nuclides in the three thick targets were calculated. This report is a comprehensive survey on all those target/product combination for which both experimental and theoretical data are available. It provides the basis for a detailed discussion of the various production modes of residual nuclides and on the depth and size dependence of their production rates in thick stony targets, serving as a simulation of the galactic cosmic ray irradiation of meteoroids in space. On the other hand the comparison of the experimental and theoretical depth profiles validates the high energy transport calculations, making them a promissing tool for further model calculations of the interactions of cosmic rays with matter. (orig.)

  9. Signatures of fission dynamics in highly excited nuclei produced in 197AU(800 A MeV) on proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlliure, J.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.

    2001-09-01

    197 Au(800 A MeV)-on-proton collisions are used to investigate the fission dynamics at high excitation energy. The kinematic properties together with the isotopic identification of the fission fragments allow to determine the mass, charge and excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus at saddle. The comparison of these observables and the measured total fission cross section with model calculations evidences a clear hindrance of fission at high excitation energy that can be explained in terms of nuclear dissipation. Assuming a statistical evaporation for other de-excitation channels than fission, an estimated value of the transient time of fission of (3 ± 1) . 10 -21 s is obtained. (orig.)

  10. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of neutron production cross-sections at 180{sup o} for the 140 MeV proton incident reactions on carbon, iron, and gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto.yosuke@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Satoh, Daiki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hagiwara, Masayuki [KEK (Japan); Yashima, Hiroshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Nakane, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tamii, Atsushi [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Iwase, Hiroshi [KEK (Japan); Endo, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hatanaka, Kichiji [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Niita, Koji [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology (Japan)

    2010-08-21

    The neutron production cross-sections of carbon, iron, and gold targets with 140 MeV protons at 180{sup o} were measured at the RCNP cyclotron facility. The time-of-flight technique was used to obtain the neutron energy spectra in the energy range above 1 MeV. The carbon and iron target results were compared with the experimental data from 113 MeV (p,xn) reactions at 150{sup o} reported by Meier et al. Our data agreed well with them in spite of different incident energies and angles. Calculations were then performed using different intra-nuclear cascade models (Bertini, ISOBAR, and JQMD) implemented with PHITS code. The results calculated using the ISOBAR and JQMD models roughly agreed with the experimental iron and gold target data, but the Bertini could not reproduce the high-energy neutrons above 10 MeV.

  11. Design status and future research programme for a sub-critical assembly driven by a proton accelerator with proton energy 660 MeV for experiments on long-lived fission products and minor actinides transmutation (Sad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustov, S.A.; Mirokhin, I.V.; Morozov, N.A.; Onischenko, L.M.; Savchenko, O.V.; Sissakian, A.N.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Tretyakov, I.T.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Vorontsov, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Report presents project for the construction of a low power integral system on the basis of the proton accelerator of energy 660 MeV and sub-critical MOX blanket with uranium-plutonium fuel. Installation includes sub-critical core with a nominal thermal power of 15-20 kW. Multiplication coefficient k eff = 0,95 and the accelerator beam power of 0.75-1 kW. The experimental programme for SAD will be focused on solving different aspects of reactor physics, reaction rates measurements and benchmarking. The first conceptual design of the SAD experiment is completed in the form of the ISTC Project Proposal 2267. Realisation of the SAD facility may be expected in about 3-4 years. (author)

  12. Optics Studies for the CERN Proton Synchrotron Machine Linear and Nonlinear Modelling using Beam Based Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Cappi, R; Martini, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Steerenberg, R; Müller, A S

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Proton Synchrotron machine is built using combined function magnets. The control of the linear tune as well as the chromaticity in both planes is achieved by means of special coils added to the main magnets, namely two pole-face-windings and one figure-of-eight loop. As a result, the overall magnetic field configuration is rather complex not to mention the saturation effects induced at top-energy. For these reasons a linear model of the PS main magnet does not provide sufficient precision to model particle dynamics. On the other hand, a sophisticated optical model is the key element for the foreseen intensity upgrade and, in particular, for the novel extraction mode based on adiabatic capture of beam particles inside stable islands in transverse phase space. A solution was found by performing accurate measurement of the nonlinear tune as a function of both amplitude and momentum offset so to extract both linear and nonlinear properties of the lattice. In this paper the measurement results are present...

  13. The electron beam characteristics of energies up to 20 MeV and comparison of electron parameters of linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awada, M.; Elleithy, M.A.; ElWihady, G.F.; Mostafa, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    The electron beams characteristics studded for the energies 4-20 MeV of Varian 23 EX ,experimental results are presented and compared with the published data. The CADD curves are measured for all energies and carried out the PDD of different applicator sizes ,that compared with the PDD of in the BJR. The quality beam parameters are determined from the CADD curves and calculated the yielded parameters of the corresponding electron energies which compared with the published data of other accelerators and theoretical Monte-Carlo calculation. The beam profiles are measured at different depths to construct the isodose distribution

  14. Differential production cross sections of multiply charged fragments in 800 MeV proton-induced spallation of carbon, aluminum, and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckstead, S.C.

    1978-09-01

    Differential production cross sections for multiply charged fragments from 800-MeV proton-induced spallation of 12 C, 27 Al, and natural Ni were measured at 30 and 90 degrees. The ion fragments were identified by use of time-of-flight, ΔE--E detector telescope capable of complete particle identification for energies as low as .25 MeV/nucleon. The very short ranges of the particles of interest required the construction of very thin detectors with minimal deadlayer material. The time-pick-off detectors and gas ionization chamber developed are unique, and represent the state-of-the-art in fast timing for time-of-flight measurements and in construction of thin detectors. The resolutions achieved allowed the cross sections of 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 7 Be, 9 Be, 10 Be, 10 B, 11 B, 11 C, 12 C, and 13 C to be determined, along with those of nitrogen and oxygen without isotope separation. The cross sections were found to have weak angular dependence. Consequently, pseudo cross sections were calculated from the 90 0 data by integrating the differential cross sections from 0 to 25 MeV for each product and multiplying by 4π. Pseudo theoretical cross sections were similarly calculated from theoretical differential cross sections. These differential cross sections were calculated by use of a Monte Carlo computer code which incorporated the cascade-evaporation model of high-energy nuclear reactions. Implications are drawn for modifications of the model. The results suggest reducing the transparency of the struck nucleus to pions produced in the cascade stage of the reaction model in order that a higher excitation energy be left for the evaporation stage. Also, there is some evidence that evaporations of nuclear aggregates more massive than 4 He occur. Inclusion of such evaporations should improve the model. 82 figures, 1 table

  15. Beam generation and planar imaging at energies below 2.40 MeV with carbon and aluminum linear accelerator targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, David; Robar, James L

    2012-07-01

    Recent work has demonstrated improvement of image quality with low-Z linear accelerator targets and energies as low as 3.5 MV. In this paper, the authors lower the incident electron beam energy between 1.90 and 2.35 MeV and assess the improvement of megavoltage planar image quality with the use of carbon and aluminum linear accelerator targets. The bending magnet shunt current was adjusted in a Varian linear accelerator to allow selection of mean electron energy between 1.90 and 2.35 MeV. Linac set points were altered to increase beam current to allow experimental imaging in a practical time frame. Electron energy was determined through comparison of measured and Monte Carlo modeled depth dose curves. Planar image CNR and spatial resolution measurements were performed to quantify the improvement of image quality. Magnitudes of improvement are explained with reference to Monte Carlo generated energy spectra. After modifications to the linac, beam current was increased by a factor greater than four and incident electron energy was determined to have an adjustable range from 1.90 MeV to 2.35 MeV. CNR of cortical bone was increased by a factor ranging from 6.2 to 7.4 and 3.7 to 4.3 for thin and thick phantoms, respectively, compared to a 6 MV therapeutic beam for both aluminum and carbon targets. Spatial resolution was degraded slightly, with a relative change of 3% and 10% at 0.20 lp∕mm and 0.40 lp∕mm, respectively, when reducing energy from 2.35 to 1.90 MV. The percentage of diagnostic x-rays for the beams examined here, ranges from 46% to 54%. It is possible to produce a large fraction of diagnostic energy x-rays by lowering the beam energy below 2.35 MV. By lowering the beam energy to 1.90 MV or 2.35 MV, CNR improves by factors ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 compared to a 6 MV therapy beam, with only a slight degradation of spatial resolution when lowering the energy from 2.35 MV to 1.90 MV.

  16. Measurement of proton induced thick target γ-ray yields on B, N, Na, Al and Si from 2.5 to 4.1 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, M., E-mail: chiari@fi.infn.it [INFN-Florence and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Ferraccioli, G.; Melon, B.; Nannini, A.; Perego, A.; Salvestrini, L. [INFN-Florence and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lagoyannis, A.; Preketes-Sigalas, K. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, NCSR “Demokritos”, 153.10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2016-01-01

    Thick target yields for proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) on low-Z nuclei, namely B, N, Na, Al and Si, were measured for proton energies from 2.5 to 4.1 MeV and emission angles of 0°, 45° and 90°, at the 3 MV Tandetron laboratory of INFN-LABEC in Florence. The studied reactions were: {sup 10}B(p,α′γ){sup 7}Be (E{sub γ} = 429 keV), {sup 10}B(p,p′γ){sup 10}B (E{sub γ} = 718 keV) and {sup 11}B(p,p′γ){sup 11}B (E{sub γ} = 2125 keV) for boron; {sup 14}N(p,p′γ){sup 14}N (E{sub γ} = 2313 keV) for nitrogen; {sup 23}Na(p,p′γ){sup 23}Na (E{sub γ} = 441 and 1636 keV) and {sup 23}Na(p,α′γ){sup 20}Ne (E{sub γ} = 1634 keV) for sodium; {sup 27}Al(p,p′γ){sup 27}Al (E{sub γ} = 844 and 1014 keV) and {sup 27}Al(p,α′γ){sup 24}Mg (E{sub γ} = 1369 keV) for aluminum; {sup 28}Si(p,p′γ){sup 28}Si (E{sub γ} = 1779 keV) and {sup 29}Si(p,p′γ){sup 29}Si (E{sub γ} = 1273 keV) for silicon. The PIGE thick target yields have been measured with an overall uncertainty typically better than 10%. The use of the measured thick target yield to benchmark and validate experimental cross sections available in the literature is demonstrated.

  17. An in-beam PET system for monitoring ion-beam therapy: test on phantoms using clinical 62 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarlinghi, N.; Sportelli, G.; Battistoni, G.; Belcari, N.; Cecchetti, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Ferretti, S.; Kraan, A.; Retico, A.; Romano, F.; Sala, P.; Straub, K.; Tramontana, A.; Del Guerra, A.; Rosso, V.

    2014-04-01

    Ion therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose taking advantage of the sharp depth-dose distribution at the Bragg-peak. However, patient positioning errors and anatomical uncertainties can cause dose distortions. To exploit the full potential of ion therapy, an accurate monitoring system of the ion range is needed. Among the proposed methods to monitor the ion range, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has proven to be the most mature technique, allowing to reconstruct the β+ activity generated in the patient by the nuclear interaction of the ions, that can be acquired during or after the treatment. Taking advantages of the spatial correlation between positron emitters created along the ions path and the dose distribution, it is possible to reconstruct the ion range. Due to the high single rates generated during the beam extraction, the acquisition of the β+ activity is typically performed after the irradiation (cyclotron) or in between the synchrotron spills. Indeed the single photon rate can be one or more orders of magnitude higher than normal for cyclotron. Therefore, acquiring the activity during the beam irradiation requires a detector with a very short dead time. In this work, the DoPET detector, capable of sustaining the high event rate generated during the cyclotron irradiation, is presented. The capability of the system to acquire data during and after the irradiation will be demonstrated by showing the reconstructed activity for different PMMA irradiations performed using clinical dose rates and the 62 MeV proton beam at the CATANA-LNS-INFN. The reconstructed activity widths will be compared with the results obtained by simulating the proton beam interaction with the FLUKA Monte Carlo. The presented data are in good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo.

  18. An in-beam PET system for monitoring ion-beam therapy: test on phantoms using clinical 62 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarlinghi, N; Sportelli, G; Belcari, N; Cecchetti, M; Ferretti, S; Kraan, A; Retico, A; Straub, K; Guerra, A Del; Rosso, V; Battistoni, G; Sala, P; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Romano, F; Tramontana, A

    2014-01-01

    Ion therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose taking advantage of the sharp depth-dose distribution at the Bragg-peak. However, patient positioning errors and anatomical uncertainties can cause dose distortions. To exploit the full potential of ion therapy, an accurate monitoring system of the ion range is needed. Among the proposed methods to monitor the ion range, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has proven to be the most mature technique, allowing to reconstruct the β + activity generated in the patient by the nuclear interaction of the ions, that can be acquired during or after the treatment. Taking advantages of the spatial correlation between positron emitters created along the ions path and the dose distribution, it is possible to reconstruct the ion range. Due to the high single rates generated during the beam extraction, the acquisition of the β + activity is typically performed after the irradiation (cyclotron) or in between the synchrotron spills. Indeed the single photon rate can be one or more orders of magnitude higher than normal for cyclotron. Therefore, acquiring the activity during the beam irradiation requires a detector with a very short dead time. In this work, the DoPET detector, capable of sustaining the high event rate generated during the cyclotron irradiation, is presented. The capability of the system to acquire data during and after the irradiation will be demonstrated by showing the reconstructed activity for different PMMA irradiations performed using clinical dose rates and the 62 MeV proton beam at the CATANA-LNS-INFN. The reconstructed activity widths will be compared with the results obtained by simulating the proton beam interaction with the FLUKA Monte Carlo. The presented data are in good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo

  19. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amgarou, K.; Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G.; Russo, S.

    2011-10-01

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to ECATANA) of INFN—LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud), where a proton beam routinely used for ophthalmic cancer treatments is available. The 62 MeV beam was directed towards a PMMA phantom, simulating the patient, and two neutron measurement points were established at 0° and 90° with respect to the beam-line. Here the ERBSS of UAB (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona— Grup de Física de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the "forward" and "sideward" proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and independently established and calibrated, is important for guaranteeing the robustness of the measured spectra and estimating their overall uncertainties.

  20. Mass-yield distributions of fission products from 20, 32, and 45 MeV proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, H.; Goswami, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiochemistry Division, Mumbai (India); Kim, G.N.; Kim, K. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suryanarayana, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India)

    2013-10-15

    The yields of various fission products in the 19.6, 32.2, and 44.8 MeV proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th have been determined by recoil catcher and an off-line {gamma}-ray spectrometric technique using the BARC-TIFR Pelletron in India and MC-50 cyclotron in Korea. The mass-yield distributions were obtained from the fission product yield using the charge distribution corrections. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratio of the present work and that of literature data for {sup 232}Th(p,f) and {sup 238}U(p,f) were obtained from the mass yield distribution. The present and the existing literature data for {sup 232}Th(p,f), {sup 232}Th(n,f), and {sup 232}Th({gamma},f) at various energies were compared with those for {sup 238}U(p,f), {sup 238}U(n,f), and {sup 238}U({gamma},f) to examine the probable nuclear structure effect. The role of Th-anomaly on the peak-to-valley ratio in proton-, neutron-, and photon-induced fission of {sup 232}Th was discussed with the similar data in {sup 238}U. On the other hand, the fine structure in the mass yield distributions of the fissioning systems at various excitation energies has been explained from the point of standard I and II asymmetric mode of fission besides the probable role of even-odd effect, A/Z ratio, and fissility parameter. (orig.)

  1. Simulation Study of Using High-Z EMA to Suppress Recoil Protons Crosstalk in Scintillating Fiber Array for 14.1 MeV Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qinggang; Hu, Huasi; Zhang, Fengna; Zhang, Tiankui; Lv, Wei; Zhan, Yuanpin; Liu, Zhihua

    2013-12-01

    This paper studies the effect of a high-Z extra mural absorber (EMA) to improve the spatial resolution of a plastic (polystyrene) scintillating fiber array for 14.1 MeV fusion neutron imaging. Crosstalk induced by recoil protons was studied, and platinum (Pt) was selected as EMA material, because of its excellent ability to suppress the recoil protons penetrating the fibers. Three common fiber arrays (cylindrical scintillating fibers in square and hexagonal packing arrangements and square scintillating fibers) were simulated using the Monte Carlo method for evaluating the effect of Pt-EMA in improving spatial resolution. It is found that the resolution of the 100 μm square fiber array can be improved from 1.7 to 3.4 lp/mm by using 10- μm-thick Pt-EMA; comparatively, using an array with thinner square fibers (50 μm) only obtains a resolution of 2.1 lp/mm. The packing fraction decreases with the increase of EMA thickness. Our results recommend the use of 10 μm Pt-EMA for the square and the cylindrical (hexagonal packing) scintillating fiber arrays with fibers of 50-200 μm in the cross-sectional dimension. Besides, the dead-zone material should be replaced by high-Z material for the hexagonal packing cylindrical fiber array with fibers of 50-200 μm in diameter. Tungsten (W) and gold (Au) are also used as EMA in the three fiber arrays as a comparison. The simulation results show that W can be used at a lower cost, and Au does not have any advantages in cost and resolution improvement.

  2. Multi-MW accelerator target material properties under proton irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory linear isotope producer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, N.; Ludewig, H.; Kirk, H.; Dooryhee, E.; Ghose, S.; Zhong, Z.; Zhong, H.; Makimura, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Bennett, J. R. J.; Kotsinas, G.; Kotsina, Z.; McDonald, K. T.

    2018-05-01

    The effects of proton beams irradiating materials considered for targets in high-power accelerator experiments have been studied using the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) 200 MeV proton linac. A wide array of materials and alloys covering a wide range of the atomic number (Z) are being scoped by the high-power accelerator community prompting the BNL studies to focus on materials representing each distinct range, i.e. low-Z, mid-Z and high-Z. The low range includes materials such as beryllium and graphite, the midrange alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V, gum metal and super-Invar and finally the high-Z range pure tungsten and tantalum. Of interest in assessing proton irradiation effects are (a) changes in physiomechanical properties which are important in maintaining high-power target functionality, (b) identification of possible limits of proton flux or fluence above which certain materials cease to maintain integrity, (c) the role of material operating temperature in inducing or maintaining radiation damage reversal, and (d) phase stability and microstructural changes. The paper presents excerpt results deduced from macroscopic and microscopic post-irradiation evaluation (PIE) following several irradiation campaigns conducted at the BNL 200 MeV linac and specifically at the isotope producer beam-line/target station. The microscopic PIE relied on high energy x-ray diffraction at the BNL NSLS X17B1 and NSLS II XPD beam lines. The studies reveal the dramatic effects of irradiation on phase stability in several of the materials, changes in physical properties and ductility loss as well as thermally induced radiation damage reversal in graphite and alloys such as super-Invar.

  3. Effect of the energy of recoil atoms on conductivity compensation in moderately doped n-Si and n-SiC under irradiation with MeV electrons and protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlovski, V.V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Lebedev, A.A., E-mail: shura.lebe@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Emtsev, V.V.; Oganesyan, G.A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    Processes of radiation defect formation and conductivity compensation in silicon and silicon carbide irradiated with 0.9 MeV electrons are considered in comparison with the electron irradiation at higher energies. The experimental values of the carrier removal rate at the electron energy of 0.9 MeV are nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the similar values of the parameter for higher energy electrons (6–9 MeV). At the same time, the formation cross-section of primary radiation defects (Frenkel pairs, FPs) is nearly energy-independent in this range. It is assumed that these differences are due to the influence exerted by the energy of primary knocked-on atoms (PKAs). As the PKA energy increases, the average distance between the genetically related FPs grows and, as a consequence, the fraction of FPs unrecombined under irradiation becomes larger. The FP recombination radius is estimated (∼1.1 nm), which makes it possible to ascertain the charge state of the recombining components. Second, the increase in the PKA energy enables formation of new, more complex secondary radiation defects. At electron energies exceeding 15 MeV, the average PKA energies are closer to the values obtained under irradiation with 1 MeV protons, compared with an electron irradiation at the same energy. As for the radiation-induced defect formation, the irradiation of silicon with MeV protons can be, in principle, regarded as a superposition of the irradiation with 1 MeV electrons and that with silicon ions having energy of ∼1 keV, with the “source” of silicon ions generating these ions uniformly across the sample thickness.

  4. Systematic study of three-nucleon force effects in the cross section of the deuteron-proton breakup at 130 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Kistryn; E. Stephan; A. Biegun; K. Bodek; A. Deltuva; E. Epelbaum; K. Ermisch; W. Gloeckle; J. Golak; N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki; H. Kamada; M. Kis; B. Klos; A. Kozela; J. Kuros-Zolnierczuk; M. Mahjour-Shafiei; U.-G. Meissner; A. Micherdzinska; A. Nogga; P. U. Sauer; R. Skibinski; R. Sworst; H. Witala; J. Zejma; W. Zipper

    2005-01-01

    High precision cross-section data of the deuteron-proton breakup reaction at 130 MeV are presented for 72 kinematically complete configurations. The data cover a large region of the available phase space, divided into a systematic grid of kinematical variables. They are compared with theoretical predictions, in which the full dynamics of the three-nucleon (3N) system is obtained in three different ways: realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials are combined with model 3N forces (3NF's) or with an effective 3NF resulting from explicit treatment of the Delta-isobar excitation. Alternatively, the chiral perturbation theory approach is used at the next-to-next-to-leading order with all relevant NN and 3N contributions taken into account. The generated dynamics is then applied to calculate cross-section values by rigorous solution of the 3N Faddeev equations. The comparison of the calculated cross sections with the experimental data shows a clear preference for the predictions in which the 3NF's are included. The majority of the experimental data points is well reproduced by the theoretical predictions. The remaining discrepancies are investigated by inspecting cross sections integrated over certain kinematical variables. The procedure of global comparisons leads to establishing regularities in disagreements between the experimental data and the theoretically predicted values of the cross sections. They indicate deficiencies still present in the assumed models of the 3N system dynamics

  5. Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Fe in the energy region up to 45 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Naik, Haladhara [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    The excitation functions of various reaction products such as {sup 55,56,57}Co, {sup 52}Fe, {sup 52,54}Mn, and {sup 51}Cr in the {sup nat}Fe(p, x) reactions were measured by the stacked-foil activation technique in the energy range between their respective reaction threshold and 45 MeV at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Korea. The present experimental data were compared with the existing literature data. It was found that excitation function of {sup 56,57}Co and {sup 51}Cr from the {sup nat}Fe(p, x) reaction are in agreement with the literature data. However, the cross-sections for {sup nat}Fe(p, x){sup 52}Fe reactions are lower and those for {sup nat}Fe(p, x){sup 52}Mn and {sup nat}Fe(p, x){sup 54}Mn reactions are higher than the literature data. The reaction cross-sections of the above mentioned reaction products were also compared with those from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS-1.4 program as a function of proton energy, which was reproduced the trend of the excitation functions of the experimental {sup nat}Fe(p, x) reaction cross-section. The integral yields for thick target of the investigated radionuclides were calculated from the excitation function.

  6. Molecular effects in carbon K-shell Auger-electron production by 0.6-2.0 MeV protons and extraction of an atomic cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, F.D.; Lapicki, G.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon K-shell Auger-electron production cross sections are reported for 0.6-2.0 MeV protons incident on CH 4 (methane), C 2 H 2 (acetylene), C 2 H 4 (ethylene), C 2 H 6 (ethane), n-C 4 H 10 (normal butane), i-C 4 H 10 (isobutane), C 6 H 6 (benzene), CO (carbon monoxide), and CO 2 (carbon dioxide). A constant-energy mode 45 0 parallel-plate electrostatic analyzer was used for detection of Auger electrons. The carbon KLL Auger-electron cross sections for all molecules were found to be lower than that found for CH 4 by 9-23%. All carbon KLL Auger-electron data could be brought into agreement when corrected for the chemical shift of the carbon K-shell binding energy in molecules and for intramolecular scattering. KLL Auger-electron production cross sections are compared to first Born and ECPSSR theories and show good agreement with both after the chemical shift of the carbon K-shell binding energy in molecules and the effects of intramolecular scattering are considered. (orig.)

  7. Properties of light transition radiation of 660 MeV proton inclined incidence (γ=1.7) on a thick nickel plate. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrelov, V.P.; Pavlovic, P.; Ruzicka, J.

    1975-01-01

    The basic properties of transition radiation in the visible fraction of the spectrum have been calculated for 660 MeV protons (γ=1.7) obliquely incident on a thick nickel plate in vacuum. The angular distributions of the summary radiation (i.e. the sums of radiations of various polarizations) both 'forward' and 'backward' for different azimuthal planes are presented in tables and diagrams for different particle inclination angles to the separation boundary. The examples of angular distributions of radiation having various polarizations (at the inclination angle of 45 0 ) show that they differ considerably. The spectra of summary radiation are of a monotonous character. The calculations have shown that in a relativistic case the forward radiation is concentrated near the direction of particle motion and backward radiation moves in an opposite direction with respect to that of the particle inclination. The dependence of the total yield of forward and backward transition radiations upon the particle inclination angle is approximately cos 2 psi. (Auth.)

  8. Ac, La, and Ce radioimpurities in {sup 225}Ac produced in 40-200 MeV proton irradiations of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Jonathan W.; Ballard, Beau D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Weidner, John W. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    Accelerator production of {sup 225}Ac addresses the global supply deficiency currently inhibiting clinical trials from establishing {sup 225}Ac's therapeutic utility, provided that the accelerator product is of sufficient radionuclidic purity for patient use. Two proton activation experiments utilizing the stacked foil technique between 40 and 200 MeV were employed to study the likely co-formation of radionuclides expected to be especially challenging to separate from {sup 225}Ac. Foils were assayed by nondestructive γ-spectroscopy and by α-spectroscopy of chemically processed target material. Nuclear formation cross sections for the radionuclides {sup 226}Ac and {sup 227}Ac as well as lower lanthanide radioisotopes {sup 139}Ce, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, and {sup 140}La whose elemental ionic radii closely match that of actinium were measured and are reported. The predictions of the latest MCNP6 event generators are compared with measured data, as they permit estimation of the formation rates of other radionuclides whose decay emissions are not clearly discerned in the complex spectra collected from {sup 232}Th(p,x) fission product mixtures. (orig.)

  9. Study of the kinematically complete breakup reaction 2H(p vector, pp)n at Ep=13.0 MeV with polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauprich, G.; Lemaitre, S.; Niessen, P.; Nyga, K.R.; Reckenfelderbaeumer, R.; Sydow, L.; Paetz genannt Schieck, H.; Witala, H.; Gloeckle, W.

    1991-01-01

    The breakup reaction 2 H(p vector,pp)n at E p =13.0 MeV has been measured in a kinematically complete experiment with polarized protons in four special kinematical situations: np final-state interaction, pp quasi-free scattering, collinearity and symmetric space star. These configurations are identical to those of a corresponding 2 H(n,nn) 1 H experiment. The cross sections d 3 σ/dΩ 3 dΩ 4 dS and the vector analyzing powers A y are presented as a function of the arclength of the relevant kinematical loci. They are compared to the rigorous Faddeev calculations using realistic meson-exchange NN potentials, i.e. the Paris and Bonn potential. Comparison with the cross section data of the analog neutron experiment is made. In the quasi-free scattering and the space-star cross sections marked discrepancies with the theoretical predictions, in the latter case also with the neutron results are found. In the collinear and final-state interaction situations the agreement is rather good as well as for all analyzing powers and is even improved by taking the finite angular spread into account. (orig.)

  10. Linear Energy Transfer-Guided Optimization in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy: Feasibility Study and Clinical Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula, E-mail: dgiantsoudi@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Grassberger, Clemens; Craft, David; Niemierko, Andrzej; Trofimov, Alexei; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of linear energy transfer (LET) guided plan optimization in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Methods and Materials: A multicriteria optimization (MCO) module was used to generate a series of Pareto-optimal IMPT base plans (BPs), corresponding to defined objectives, for 5 patients with head-and-neck cancer and 2 with pancreatic cancer. A Monte Carlo platform was used to calculate dose and LET distributions for each BP. A custom-designed MCO navigation module allowed the user to interpolate between BPs to produce deliverable Pareto-optimal solutions. Differences among the BPs were evaluated for each patient, based on dose–volume and LET–volume histograms and 3-dimensional distributions. An LET-based relative biological effectiveness (RBE) model was used to evaluate the potential clinical benefit when navigating the space of Pareto-optimal BPs. Results: The mean LET values for the target varied up to 30% among the BPs for the head-and-neck patients and up to 14% for the pancreatic cancer patients. Variations were more prominent in organs at risk (OARs), where mean LET values differed by a factor of up to 2 among the BPs for the same patient. An inverse relation between dose and LET distributions for the OARs was typically observed. Accounting for LET-dependent variable RBE values, a potential improvement on RBE-weighted dose of up to 40%, averaged over several structures under study, was noticed during MCO navigation. Conclusions: We present a novel strategy for optimizing proton therapy to maximize dose-averaged LET in tumor targets while simultaneously minimizing dose-averaged LET in normal tissue structures. MCO BPs show substantial LET variations, leading to potentially significant differences in RBE-weighted doses. Pareto-surface navigation, using both dose and LET distributions for guidance, provides the means for evaluating a large variety of deliverable plans and aids in

  11. Reoptimization of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Plans Based on Linear Energy Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Botas, Pablo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Faculty of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Gorissen, Bram L.; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: We describe a treatment plan optimization method for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) that avoids high values of linear energy transfer (LET) in critical structures located within or near the target volume while limiting degradation of the best possible physical dose distribution. Methods and Materials: To allow fast optimization based on dose and LET, a GPU-based Monte Carlo code was extended to provide dose-averaged LET in addition to dose for all pencil beams. After optimizing an initial IMPT plan based on physical dose, a prioritized optimization scheme is used to modify the LET distribution while constraining the physical dose objectives to values close to the initial plan. The LET optimization step is performed based on objective functions evaluated for the product of LET and physical dose (LET×D). To first approximation, LET×D represents a measure of the additional biological dose that is caused by high LET. Results: The method is effective for treatments where serial critical structures with maximum dose constraints are located within or near the target. We report on 5 patients with intracranial tumors (high-grade meningiomas, base-of-skull chordomas, ependymomas) in whom the target volume overlaps with the brainstem and optic structures. In all cases, high LET×D in critical structures could be avoided while minimally compromising physical dose planning objectives. Conclusion: LET-based reoptimization of IMPT plans represents a pragmatic approach to bridge the gap between purely physical dose-based and relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-based planning. The method makes IMPT treatments safer by mitigating a potentially increased risk of side effects resulting from elevated RBE of proton beams near the end of range.

  12. Linear Energy Transfer-Guided Optimization in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy: Feasibility Study and Clinical Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Craft, David; Niemierko, Andrzej; Trofimov, Alexei; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of linear energy transfer (LET) guided plan optimization in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Methods and Materials: A multicriteria optimization (MCO) module was used to generate a series of Pareto-optimal IMPT base plans (BPs), corresponding to defined objectives, for 5 patients with head-and-neck cancer and 2 with pancreatic cancer. A Monte Carlo platform was used to calculate dose and LET distributions for each BP. A custom-designed MCO navigation module allowed the user to interpolate between BPs to produce deliverable Pareto-optimal solutions. Differences among the BPs were evaluated for each patient, based on dose–volume and LET–volume histograms and 3-dimensional distributions. An LET-based relative biological effectiveness (RBE) model was used to evaluate the potential clinical benefit when navigating the space of Pareto-optimal BPs. Results: The mean LET values for the target varied up to 30% among the BPs for the head-and-neck patients and up to 14% for the pancreatic cancer patients. Variations were more prominent in organs at risk (OARs), where mean LET values differed by a factor of up to 2 among the BPs for the same patient. An inverse relation between dose and LET distributions for the OARs was typically observed. Accounting for LET-dependent variable RBE values, a potential improvement on RBE-weighted dose of up to 40%, averaged over several structures under study, was noticed during MCO navigation. Conclusions: We present a novel strategy for optimizing proton therapy to maximize dose-averaged LET in tumor targets while simultaneously minimizing dose-averaged LET in normal tissue structures. MCO BPs show substantial LET variations, leading to potentially significant differences in RBE-weighted doses. Pareto-surface navigation, using both dose and LET distributions for guidance, provides the means for evaluating a large variety of deliverable plans and aids in

  13. Fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to protons from 100 MeV to 100 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the literature, no conversion coefficients are available for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to protons. This study used the Monte Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to proton fields. Monoenergetic protons ranging from 100 MeV to 100 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal brain and body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months. Proton fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. (authors)

  14. A study of the intramolecular changes in DNA exposed to gamma rays and protons with energy of 645 MeV by use of quantomechanical methods. [effect of radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskalev, Z; Minkova, M; Bancheva, E [Nauchno-Izsledovatelski Inst. po Radiologiya i Radiatsionna Khigiena, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1975-01-01

    DNA conformation changes were studied following protective pretreatment (with cysteamine or Cytriphos, Bulgarian Patent No. 21672/1973) and exposure to gamma rays or 645-MeV protons. The experiments were performed on solutions of purified DNA from Bacillus subtilis 23 prototroph. For gamma irradiations at doses ranging from 5 to 150 kR, electroconductivity changes in the 3.6 to 7 MHz band were found to diminish with the increase of the radiation dose. In the 7 to 10 MHz band, electroconductivity diminished at doses of up to 50 kR, whereas 100- and 150-kR exposures resulted in no such differences. At higher frequencies (up to 17 MHz), DNA electroconductivity changed but little with an increase electroconductivity values, as compared to cysteamine which raised them. For 645-MeV proton irradiations, a rise in dielectric constant and a fall in electrostatic free energy is observed with increase in dose within the range of n.

  15. Preliminary study on 2-dimensional distributions of 10B reaction rate in a water phantom with boron-doped CR-39 for 7Li(p, n)7Be neutrons by 1.95 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tsuruta, T.

    2000-01-01

    In an Accelerator-based neutron irradiation field using 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be neutrons by 1.95 MeV protons, the distributions of 10 B reaction rates and thermal neutron fluence in a water phantom were measured using Boron-doped CR-39 and Au activation analysis, respectively. Comparing the results of the measurements, we discussed the validity of the evaluation method of 10 B reaction rate using thermal neutron fluence. (author)

  16. High-resolution measurements of sup(58,60,62)Ni(p,p) scattering cross section in the proton energy range of 3.0 to 4.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Eiichi; Ogawa, Masao

    1976-01-01

    Differential cross sections were measured at four angles for proton scattering on sup(58,60,62)Ni at energies from 3.0 to 4.0 MeV by using a high-resolution beam from the Tokyo Institute of Technology 4 MV Van de Graaff. An overall resolution of 400 eV (FWHM) was realized using thin solid targets. (author)

  17. Two-section linear direct-current accelerator of 1.2 MeV electrons. Mean beam current of 50 mA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, A.S.; Ermakov, D.I.; Ishkhanov, B.S.; Shvedunov, V.I.; Sakharov, V.P.; Trower, W.P.

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results, obtained by simulation, creation and start-up of the two-section linear electron accelerator, are presented. The following beam parameters: beam current of 49 mA, mean energy of 1.2 MeV, of 59 kV, normalized emittance of 11 mm mrad are determined on the basis of the data on the beam dynamics simulation and the accelerating structure optimization. Special attention is paid to the choice of the version of the SHF-supply system of the two-section accelerator. The version of the SHF-supply system, based on the sections phasing, operating in the auto-oscillation model by means of the synchronizing signal from the feedback chain of the first section into the feedback chain of the second section, is considered. The electron beam parameters on the accelerator outlet (beam current - 44 mA, beam energy - 1.15 MeV, beam efficiency - 50.6 kW) proved to be close to the simulation results [ru

  18. External proton and Li beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuff, Juan A.; Burlon, Alejandro A.; Debray, Mario E.; Kesque, Jose M.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Stoliar, Pablo A.; Naab, Fabian; Ozafran, Mabel J.; Vazquez, Monica E.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Somacal, Hector; Valda, Alejandro; Canevas, S.; Ruffolo, M.; Tasat, D.R.; Muhlmann, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of a feasibility study to introduce proton therapy in Argentina in a collaborative agreement between the Physics and Radiobiology Departments of the National Atomic Energy Commission or Argentina and the Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay, France, external proton and Li beams were produced at the TANDAR accelerator in Buenos Aires. The specific aim of this work was to start radiobiology studies on cell cultures and small laboratory animals. In particular we seek to determine here the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for proton and Li beams as a function of energy for different tumor and normal cell lines. The 24 MeV proton beam was diffused using a 25 μm gold foil and extracted through a Kapton window to obtain a homogeneous field (constant to 95%) of about 7 cm in diameter. Measurements were carried out with quasi-monoenergetic beams (of 20.2 ± 0.07 MeV, 2.9 ± 0.10 MeV y 1.5 ± 0.1 MeV for protons and 21.4 ± 0.4 MeV for Lithium). Proton fluence and Bragg peaks were measured. The dose delivered in each case was monitored on-line with a calibrated transmission ionization chamber. Three cell lines PDV, PDVC 57 and V 79 (as a reference) were irradiated with γ-rays, proton and lithium beams with linear energy transfer (LET) from 2 to 100 keV/μm. RBE values in the range of 1.2-5.9 were obtained. In addition preliminary studies on chromosomal aberrations and viability of alveolar macrophages were carried out. (author)

  19. Preliminary design of high-power wave-guide/transmission system for multimegawatt CW requirements of 100 MeV proton Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Purushottam; Wanmode, Y.D.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Development of a 100 MeV CW proton Linac has been planned at CAT. This Linac will be needing CW rf power in the frequency ranges of 350 MHz and 700 MHz for its RFQ and DTL/CCDTL/SFDTL structures respectively. The power to the accelerating structures will be produced by either 1 MW CW or 250 kW CW klystron/inductive output tubes (HOM IOTs). The power needed by respective feed points in the structure is max. 250 kW which will be powered by splitting the power from 1 MW klystron/klystrode into four channels by using a wave-guide system. In case of using 250 kW tubes the power to the structures will be provided directly from each tube. Two types of wave-guide transmission system have been considered, viz WR 2300 for 350 MHz rf needs and WR 1500 for 700 MHz rf needs. The typical wave-guide system has been designed using the 1 MW CW klystron followed by wave-guide filter, dual directional coupler, high-power circulator, three 3 dB magic TEE power dividers to split the main channel into four equal channels of 250 kW each. Each individual channel has dual directional couplers, flexible wave-guide sections and high power ceramic vacuum window. The circulator and each power divider is terminated into the isolated ports by high power CW loads. Out of the four channels three channels have phase shifters. Present paper describes the technological aspects and design specifications-considerations for these stringent requirements. (author)

  20. HETC96/MORSE calculations of activations in KEK beam stop and room by 500-MeV protons and comparisons with experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.Y.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 version of HETC has a pre-equilibrium reaction model to bridge the gap between the existing intranuclear-cascade and evaporation models. This code was used to calculate proton-induced activations, to calculate neutron fluxes for neutron energies above 19.6 MeV, and to write the neutron source for lower energies to be transported further by MORSE. For MORSE, the HILO cross section library was used for neutron transport for all detectors. Additionally for the 197 Au(n, γ) detector, the BUGLE96 library was used to study the effects of the low-lying 57 Fe inelastic levels and the resonance self-shielding in iron. Neutron fluxes were obtained from the track-length estimator for detectors inside the beam stop and from the boundary-crossing estimator for detectors attached to the surfaces of the concrete walls. Activation cross sections given in JAERI-Data/Code are combined with the calculated neutron fluxes to get the saturated activities induced by neutrons. C/E values are too low (0.5) for Fe(N, χ) 54 Mn, close to unity for Cu(n, χ) 58 Co, and too high (6.0) for 197 Au (n, γ) 198 Au. It is difficult to interpret the disagreements because most of the activation cross sections are also calculated and their uncertainties are not known. However, the calculated results are in good agreement with those calculated by others using different codes. Calculated results for four of the ten activations reported here have not been done previously, and among the four, 197 Au(n, γ) is the most bothersome because its cross section is the most well known while the calculated activations for most detector locations are in largest disagreement with experiments

  1. 100-MeV proton beam intensity measurement by Au activation analysis using {sup 197}Au(p, pn){sup 196}Au and {sup 197}Au(p, p3n){sup 194}Au reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Nam-Suk; Oh, Joo-Hee [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee-Seock, E-mail: lee@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The proton beam intensity of a 100-MeV proton linac at the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) was measured by an Au activation analysis using {sup 197}Au(p, pn){sup 196}Au and {sup 197}Au(p, p3n){sup 194}Au reactions to determine the accuracy and precision of beam intensity measurement using Gafchromic film dosimetry method. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of Au, Al foils and Pb plates. The yields of produced radio-nuclei in Au foils were obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The FLUKA code was employed to calculate the energy spectrum of protons onto the front surface of Au foils located at three different depth points of the target and also to investigate the condition of incident beam on the target. A good agreement was found between the beam intensity measurements using the activation analysis method at three different depth points of the target. An excellent agreement was also observed between the beam intensity measurements using the Au activation analysis method and the dosimetry method using Gafchromic film.

  2. On the way to high-power linear proton accelerator for the long half-life radionuclides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batskikh, G.I.; Lupandin, O.S.; Murin, B.P.; Fedotov, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of continuous mode high-power linear proton accelerator with 1.5 GeV energy, 0.3 A current for the long half-life nuclides transmutation into the short ones (waste of atomic power plants (APP)) is proposed. The accelerator design main principles, scheme and parameters are presented. The accent is made on the accelerator efficiency, reliability and radiation purity. (author)

  3. Neutron and proton transmutation-activation cross section libraries to 150 MeV for application in accelerator-driven systems and radioactive ion beam target-design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Mashnik, S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    New transmutation-activation nuclear data libraries for neutrons and protons up to 150 MeV have been created. These data are important for simulation calculations of radioactivity, and transmutation, in accelerator-driven systems such as the production of tritium (APT) and the transmutation of waste (ATW). They can also be used to obtain cross section predictions for the production of proton-rich isotopes in (p,xn) reactions, for radioactive ion beam (RIB) target-design studies. The nuclear data in these libraries stem from two sources: for neutrons below 20 MeV, we use data from the European activation and transmutation file, EAF97; For neutrons above 20 MeV and for protons at all energies we have isotope production cross sections with the nuclear model code HMS-ALICE. This code applies the Monte Carlo Hybrid Simulation theory, and the Weisskopf-Ewing theory, to calculate cross sections. In a few cases, the HMS-ALICE results were replaced by those calculated using the GNASH code for the Los Alamos LA150 transport library. The resulting two libraries, AF150.N and AF150.P, consist of 766 nuclides each and are represented in the ENDF6-format. An outline is given of the new representation of the data. The libraries have been checked with ENDF6 preprocessing tools and have been processed with NJOY into libraries for the Los Alamos transmutation/radioactivity code CINDER. Numerous benchmark figures are presented for proton-induced excitation functions of various isotopes compared with measurements. Such comparisons are useful for validation purposes, and for assessing the accuracy of the evaluated data. These evaluated libraries are available on the WWW at: http://t2.lanl.gov/. 21 refs

  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS OF LINEAR PROTON ACCELERATOR STRUCTURES USING DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S; Poole, B; Caporaso, G

    2007-01-01

    Proton accelerator structures for medical applications using Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA) technology allow for the utilization of high electric field gradients on the order of 100 MV/m to accelerate the proton bunch. Medical applications involving cancer therapy treatment usually desire short bunch lengths on the order of hundreds of picoseconds in order to limit the extent of the energy deposited in the tumor site (in 3D space, time, and deposited proton charge). Electromagnetic simulations of the DWA structure, in combination with injections of proton bunches have been performed using 3D finite difference codes in combination with particle pushing codes. Electromagnetic simulations of DWA structures includes these effects and also include the details of the switch configuration and how that switch time affects the electric field pulse which accelerates the particle beam

  5. Screening Approach to the Activation of Soil and Contamination of Groundwater at Linear Proton Accelerator Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, Thomas

    The activation of soil and the contamination of groundwater at proton accelerator sites with the radionuclides 3H and 22Na are estimated with a Monte-Carlo calculation and a conservative soil- and ground water model. The obtained radionuclide concentrations show that the underground environment of future accelerators must be adequately protected against a migration of activation products. This study is of particular importance for the proton driver accelerator in the planned EURISOL facility.

  6. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Study of the neutron-proton interaction in the 300 to 700 MeV energy region. Annual progress report (1985-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Results obtained for experiments conducted at the LAMPF are reported. All of these experiments utilize the LAMPF polarized (50%) neutron beam and hydrogen targets. Measurements are reported for spin-correlation parameters (500 to 800 MeV, 13 GeV/c, 18.5 GeV/c) and the analyzing power (800 MeV) for n-p elastic scattering. The status of earlier LAMPF experiments by this group are also included

  8. Measurement of excitation yields of low energy prompt γ-ray from proton bombardment of Cr-foils with energies ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is measurement of differential cross sections for the production of 378 keV γ-rays from the reactions 52 Cr(p,γ1) 53 Mn and 53 Cr(p,nγ1) 53 Mn for proton energies ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV at the laboratory angle of 90° using foils with thickness ∼1.9×10 18 at/cm 2 (∼ 0.23 μm) of nat Cr.

  9. Sensitive detection of hydrogen in a-Si:H by coincidence measurement of elastically scattered 100 MeV /sup 3/He/sup 2 +/ ions and recoil protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Noboru; Imura, Takeshi; Hiraki, Akio [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Itahashi, Takahisa; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tanaka, Masayoshi

    1982-09-01

    We have drastically improved the sensitivity of the nuclear elastic scattering (NES) method for determining hydrogen concentrations in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films. A beam of 100 MeV /sup 3/He/sup 2 +/ ions was used in the experiment. By taking the coincidence of detection of the scattered /sup 3/He ion with that of the recoil proton, we could achieve a sensitivity of 0.1 atomic percent with a precision of about 1 percent for 1 ..mu..m films.

  10. Asymmetry of the cross section for the reaction. gamma. d. -->. pi. /sup 0/d with linearly polarized. gamma. rays at 500--700 MeV and at a c. m. angle theta(0 = 130/sup 0/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamyan, F.V.; Akopyan, G.G.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Galumyan, P.I.; Grabskii, V.O.; Karapetyan, V.V.; Karapetyan, G.V.; Oktanyan, V.K.

    1984-06-25

    The asymmetry of the cross section (..sigma..) of the reaction ..gamma..d ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/d induced by linearly polarized ..gamma.. rays has been measured at energies E..gamma.. = 500 MeV, E..gamma.. = 600, and E/sub ..gamma../ = 700 MeV at the c.m. angle theta(0 = 130/sup 0/. The results disagree with calculations in the impulse approximation. The results can be explained in a qualitative way by appealing to an /sup 3/F/sub 3/ (2.26-GeV) dibaryon resonance.

  11. Study of the neutron-proton interaction in the 300 to 700 MeV energy region. Annual progress report, 1982-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    Progress by the LAMPF user group from Texas A and M University is described. The principal activities since last year's report have included four months of data taking to complete LAMPF Experiment No. 518 (Polarized Beam and Target Experiments in the p-p System. Phase II. Measurements of A/sub zz/ and A/sub xz/ for the d/sub π/ + Channel and for the Elastic Channel from 500 to 800 MeV) which began running in mid-June 1982. There were also about six weeks of data taking on LAMPF Experiment No. 664 (The Measurement of the Polarization Transfer Coefficients A/sub t/' and D/sub t/ at 500, 650 and 800 MeV for the Reaction d(polarized p, polarized n)2p), and one week of data taking at 800 MeV on LAMPF Experiment No. 590 (Measurement of D(theta) in p-n and n-p Scattering at 800, 650 MeV and Other Energies with Associated p-p Measurements). In addition there were preparations for LAMPF Experiment No. 665 (The Measurement of np Elastic Scattering Spin Correlation Parameters with L- and S-Type Polarized Beam and Target between 500 and 800 MeV) which began running last month and will continue until the end of the year

  12. /sup 15/N(p,. cap alpha. )/sup 12/C reaction with polarized protons from 0. 34 to 1. 21 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, G H; Brown, L [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1976-03-29

    A polarized beam was used to measure angular distributions of the analyzing power of the /sup 15/N(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 12/C reaction at 0.34 MeV and at five energies from 0.92 to 1.21 MeV. The analyzing power can be fitted with associated Legendre polynomials, P/sub 1//sup 1/ and P/sub 2//sup 1/ sufficing to describe the results except near 1.2 MeV where P/sub 3//sup 1/ is also required. Polarization excitation functions were measured throughout the entire energy range at angles where the polynomials P/sub 2//sup 1/ and P/sub 3//sup 1/ are zero. A polarization contour map is given.

  13. Solar wind proton temperature anisotropy: Linear theory and WIND/SWE observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel; Kasper, J. C.; Lazarus, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 9 (2006), L09101/1-L09101/4 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3042403 Grant - others:ESA(XE) PECS 98024; NASA (US) NAG-10915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : proton temperature anisotropy * solar wind * in situ observations Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2006

  14. Double differential cross sections for (p,n) reactions of 18 and 25 MeV protons with isotopes of Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Mo, Pd and Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scobel, W.; Blann, M.; Komoto, T.; Trabandt, M.; Grimes, S.M.; Hansen, L.F.; Pohl, B.A.; Wong, C.

    1984-06-01

    Cross sections for the inclusive production of neutrons from reactions of 25 MeV protons with 50 52 53 Cr, 54 56 58 Fe, 59 Co, 60 Ni, 63 Cu, 89 Y, 90 91 92 94 Zr, 92 94 95 96 97 98 100 Mo, 110 Pd and 159 Tb and of 18 MeV protons with 90 91 92 94 Zr have been measured with time-of-flight techniques for 16 angles between 3.5 0 less than or equal to theta/sub lab/ less than or equal to 159.0 0 . After a short presentation of the motivations for these measurements, the experimental set up is discussed with emphasis on the systematic and statistical error sources pertinent to this work, in particular the question of background correction in the continuous parts of the spectra. The main purpose of this report is to make the experimental results of this work (angle integrated spectra, angular distributions) available for distribution, reducing thereby the data required in publication of the results of these experiments. 20 references

  15. Patterns of Failure After Proton Therapy in Medulloblastoma; Linear Energy Transfer Distributions and Relative Biological Effectiveness Associations for Relapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Roshan V.; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Raiford, Michael; Malhi, Imran; Niemierko, Andrzej; Rapalino, Otto; Caruso, Paul; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The pattern of failure in medulloblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy is unknown. For this increasingly used modality, it is important to ensure that outcomes are comparable to those in modern photon series. It has been suggested this pattern may differ from photons because of variations in linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). In addition, the use of matching fields for delivery of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) may influence patterns of relapse. Here we report the patterns of failure after the use of protons, compare it to that in the available photon literature, and determine the LET and RBE values in areas of recurrence. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of patients with medulloblastoma treated with proton radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) between 2002 and 2011. We documented the locations of first relapse. Discrete failures were contoured on the original planning computed tomography scan. Monte Carlo calculation methods were used to estimate the proton LET distribution. Models were used to estimate RBE values based on the LET distributions. Results: A total of 109 patients were followed for a median of 38.8 months (range, 1.4-119.2 months). Of the patients, 16 experienced relapse. Relapse involved the supratentorial compartment (n=8), spinal compartment (n=11), and posterior fossa (n=5). Eleven failures were isolated to a single compartment; 6 failures in the spine, 4 failures in the supratentorium, and 1 failure in the posterior fossa. The remaining patients had multiple sites of disease. One isolated spinal failure occurred at the spinal junction of 2 fields. None of the 70 patients treated with an involved-field-only boost failed in the posterior fossa outside of the tumor bed. We found no correlation between Monte Carlo-calculated LET distribution and regions of recurrence. Conclusions: The most common site of failure in patients treated with protons for

  16. SU-E-T-515: Investigating the Linear Energy Transfer Dependency of Different PRESAGE Formulations in a Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Alqathami, M; Blencowe, A [The University of South Australia, South Australia, SA (Australia); Ibbott, G [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Previous studies have reported an under-response of PRESAGE in a proton beam as a Result of the extremely high LET in the distal end of the spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). This work is a preliminary investigation to quantify the effect of the formulation, specifically the concentration of halocarbon radical initiator relative to leuco dye, on radical recombination resulting in LET dependence. Methods The traditional PRESAGE formulation developed by Heuris Pharma was altered to constitute radical initiator concentrations of 5, 15, and 30% (low, medium, and high) by weight with all other components balanced to maintain proportionality. Chloroform was specifically examined in this study and all dosimeters were made in-house. Cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters (3.5cm diameter and 6cm length) were made for each formulation and irradiated by a 200-MeV proton beam to 500 cGy across a 2cm SOBP. Dosimeters were read out using the DMOS optical-CT scanner. The dose distributions were analyzed and dose profiles were used to compare the relative dose response to find the stability across the high-LET region of the SOBP. LET dependence was measured by the variation to ion chamber measurements for the final 25% of the SOBP (∼0.5cm) prior to the distal-90 of each profile. Results Relative to ion chamber data, all PRESAGE dosimeters showed an under-response at the distal end of the SOBP. The medium concentration formulation matched most closely with an average 8.3% under-response closely followed by the low concentration at 12.2% and then the high concentration at 22.8%. In all three cases, the highest points of discrepancy were in the distal most regions. Conclusion The radical initiator concentration in PRESAGE can be tailored to reduce the LET dependence in a proton beam. This warrants further study to quantify comprehensively the effect of concentration of different halocarbon radical initiators on LET dependency. Grant number 5RO1CA100835.

  17. SU-E-T-515: Investigating the Linear Energy Transfer Dependency of Different PRESAGE Formulations in a Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M; Alqathami, M; Blencowe, A; Ibbott, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have reported an under-response of PRESAGE in a proton beam as a Result of the extremely high LET in the distal end of the spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). This work is a preliminary investigation to quantify the effect of the formulation, specifically the concentration of halocarbon radical initiator relative to leuco dye, on radical recombination resulting in LET dependence. Methods The traditional PRESAGE formulation developed by Heuris Pharma was altered to constitute radical initiator concentrations of 5, 15, and 30% (low, medium, and high) by weight with all other components balanced to maintain proportionality. Chloroform was specifically examined in this study and all dosimeters were made in-house. Cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters (3.5cm diameter and 6cm length) were made for each formulation and irradiated by a 200-MeV proton beam to 500 cGy across a 2cm SOBP. Dosimeters were read out using the DMOS optical-CT scanner. The dose distributions were analyzed and dose profiles were used to compare the relative dose response to find the stability across the high-LET region of the SOBP. LET dependence was measured by the variation to ion chamber measurements for the final 25% of the SOBP (∼0.5cm) prior to the distal-90 of each profile. Results Relative to ion chamber data, all PRESAGE dosimeters showed an under-response at the distal end of the SOBP. The medium concentration formulation matched most closely with an average 8.3% under-response closely followed by the low concentration at 12.2% and then the high concentration at 22.8%. In all three cases, the highest points of discrepancy were in the distal most regions. Conclusion The radical initiator concentration in PRESAGE can be tailored to reduce the LET dependence in a proton beam. This warrants further study to quantify comprehensively the effect of concentration of different halocarbon radical initiators on LET dependency. Grant number 5RO1CA100835

  18. Study of the. gamma. rho. -->. n. pi. /sup +/ reaction with polarized protons and photons at E/sub. gamma. /=340 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Grushin, V.F.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.

    1979-07-05

    A two-fold polarization experiment of the ''beam-target'' type is carried out for the first time for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..n..pi../sup +/ for E/sub ..gamma../ =340 MeV, and the three polarization parameters, ..sigma.., T, and P are determined simultaneously.

  19. Experimental determination of relative light conversion factors of TLD-100 for protons with energies from 2.0 to 9.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, P.; Fellinger, J.; Henniger, J.; Huebner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency of thermoluminescent (TL) detectors to heavy charged particles is described by the so-called light conversion factor η. Relative light conversion factors for protons, alphas and heavier recoils are needed for the calculation of the neutron sensitivity of TL detectors. Such light conversion factors can be determined experimentally. In this paper a method is presented for the experimental determination of relative light conversion factors. Using the experimental arrangement described, relative light conversion factors for LiF material (TLD-100) for protons were determined. In LiF the relative main peak (peak V) efficiency is always lower than 1. It increases with increasing proton energy whereas the relative efficiency of the high temperature peak (peak VI) shows an opposite dependence on the proton energy. Relative light conversion factors for peak VI clearly exceed 1. (orig.)

  20. Confirmatory experiments for the United States Department of Energy Accelerator Production of Tritium Program: Neutron, triton and radionuclide production by thick targets of lead and tungsten bombarded by 800 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Cappiello, M.; Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.; Laird, R.; Mayo, D.; Waters, L.; Zoeller, C.; Staples, P.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron and Triton Production by 800 MeV Protons: The experiments presented in this report were performed in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility in order to provide data to benchmark and validate physics simulations used in the APT target/blanket design. An experimental apparatus was built that incorporated many of the features of the neutron source region of the 3 He target/blanket. Those features included a tungsten neutron source, flux traps, neutron moderator, lead backstop, lead multiplying annulus, neutron absorbing blanket and a combination neutron de-coupler and tritium producing gas ( 3 He). The experiments were performed in two separate proton irradiations each with approximately 100 nA-hr of 800 MeV protons. The first irradiation was made with a small neutron moderating blanket, allowing the authors to measure tritium production in the 3 He gas by sampling, and counting the amount of tritium. The second irradiation was performed with a large neutron moderating blanket (light water with a 1% manganese sulfate solution) that allowed them to measure both the tritium production in the central region and the total neutron production. The authors did this by sampling and counting the tritium produced and by measuring the activation of the manganese solution. Results of the three tritium production measurements show large disagreements with each other and therefore with the values predicted using the LAHET-MCNP code system. The source of the discrepancies may lie with the sampling system or adsorption on the tungsten surfaces. The authors discuss tests that may resolve that issue. The data for the total neutron production measurement is much more consistent. Those results show excellent agreement between calculation and experiment

  1. Study of small partial-wave contributions in the neighbourhood of dominating resonance states of the proton by linearly polarized photons; Untersuchung kleiner Partialwellenbeitraege in der Naehe dominierender Resonanzzustaende des Protons mit linear polarisierten Photonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, D.

    2007-04-15

    The reaction p(e, e'p){pi}{sup 0} has been studied at Q{sup 2}=0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} in the region of W=1232 MeV. From measurements left and right of (vector)q cross section asymmetries {rho}{sub LT} have been obtained in forward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}{sup cm}=20 )=(-11.68{+-}2.36{sub stat}{+-}2.36{sub sys}) and backward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}}{sub {sup 0}}{sup cm}=160)=(12.18{+-}0.27{sub stat}{+-}0.82{sub sys}) {pi}{sup 0} kinematics, from which R{l_brace}S{sub 1+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} and R{l_brace}S{sub 0+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} could be determined. Using linear polarised tagged photon beams of energy up to E{sub {gamma}}{approx_equal}1.5 GeV the photon beam asymmetry {sigma} has been measured in the reaction p((vector){gamma}, {eta})p. Based on coherent bremsstrahlung off a diamond crystal a maximum polarisation of P{sub {gamma}}=49% has been achieved at E{sub {gamma}}=1305 MeV. The beam asymmetry has been extracted from the azimuthal modulation of the cross section using both decay modes of the {eta} into two photons and 3{pi}{sup 0}. Large asymmetries up to 80% are observed, in agreement with previous measurements where already available. There is also agreement with standard model calculations. However, the required partial waves to describe the measurements differ significantly. (orig.)

  2. Fast GaAs photoconductor responses to subnanosecond proton pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, T.

    1993-01-01

    GaAs photoconductors have been tailored to detect ultrafast proton pulses having energies ranging between 4 and 9 MeV. The sensitivity, the linearity and the speed of response of the devices are analyzed as a function of their neutron pre-irradiation treatment. The dependence of the sensitivity on the proton energy and the applied polarization is also studied. Finally, the experimental results are compared with a simple theoretical model

  3. Selenium-72 formation via {sup nat}Br(p,x) induced by 100 MeV Protons: Steps towards a novel {sup 72}Se/{sup 72}As generator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, B. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wycoff, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Birnbaum, E.R.; John, K.D. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lenz, J.W. [John Lenz and Associates, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Jurisson, S.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Cutler, C.S. [Missouri University Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nortier, F.M.; Taylor, W.A. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Fassbender, M.E., E-mail: mifa@lanl.gov [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Selenium-72 production by the proton bombardment of a natural NaBr target has been successfully demonstrated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Isotope Production Facility (LANL-IPF). Arsenic-72 (half life 26 h) is a medium-lived positron emitting radionuclide with the major advantage of being formed as the daughter of another 'generator' radioisotope (Se-72, 8.5 d). A {sup 72}Se/{sup 72}As generator would be the preferred mechanism for clinical utilization of {sup 72}As for positron emission tomography (PET). No portable {sup 72}Se/{sup 72}As generator system has been demonstrated for convenient, repeated {sup 72}As elution ('milking'). In this work, we describe {sup 72}Se production and recovery from irradiated NaBr targets using a 100 MeV proton beam. We also introduce an {sup 72}As generator principle based on {sup 72}Se chelation followed by liquid-liquid extraction, which will be transferred to a solid-phase sorption/elution system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A bulk production and processing method for {sup 72}Se using low-toxic NaBr in a high-energy proton beam has been developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A chelation based principle for a {sup 72}Se/{sup 72}As generator has been demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of experimental yields to theoretical predictions resulted in good agreement.

  4. Development of a semi-analytical method for calculation of the radial dose profile for proton beams in the 0.5-1.0 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Kristin

    2004-07-01

    There has been an increased interest in the application of protons for radiation therapy during the last decades. The main reason for this is the advantageous shape of the proton dose profile, which offers the possibility of improved treatment outcome. Proton beams and other light ions have because of this observed phenomenon a high efficiency to inflict lethal damage to tumor tissue while sparing normal tissue. Treatment with ions heavier than protons, have also been considered on the basis of radiological arguments. Recently scientists have discovered that not only high-energy electrons inflict severe damage to the DNA, but also low-energy electrons. Those electrons can be produced when protons with energy between 0.5-1 MeV interact with matter. High-accuracy calculations of dose distributions inside tumors and the surrounding tissue are essential for assessing the effectiveness of a given treatment in terms of probability of tumor control and of radiation-induced complications. The use of Monte Carlo methods to simulate radiation transport has become the most accurate means of predicting absorbed dose distributions and other quantities like numbers of track ends, track lengths and angular distributions. Today, there no accurate Monte-Carlo codes for proton transport, not even for low-energy electron transport. Much work is devoted to develop a Monte Carlo code for this purpose. However, for most practical cases in treatment planning, an advantageous solution has been found by combining the intrinsic accuracy of Monte Carlo methods with the swiftness of analytical techniques. In this work, a simple semi-analytical method is developed for fast dose distribution calculations for protons with energy range 0.5-1 MeV. The major part of the energy loss when protons traverse tissue, ends up in the ionizations of the target atoms. The double differential cross sections for this secondary electron production is calculated with Continuous distorted waves-eikonal initial

  5. Sudden Intensity Increases and Radial Gradient Changes of Cosmic Ray Mev Electrons and Protons Observed at Voyager 1 Beyond 111 AU in the Heliosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, W. R.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Heikkila, B.; Lal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Voyager 1 has entered regions of different propagation conditions for energetic cosmic rays in the outer heliosheathat a distance of about 111 AU from the Sun. The low energy 614 MeV galactic electron intensity increased by 20over a time period 10 days and the electron radial intensity gradient abruptly decreased from 19AU to 8AU at2009.7 at a radial distance of 111.2 AU. At about 2011.2 at a distance of 116.6 AU a second abrupt intensity increase of25 was observed for electrons. After the second sudden electron increase the radial intensity gradient increased to18AU. This large positive gradient and the 13 day periodic variations of 200 MeV particles observed near theend of 2011 indicate that V1 is still within the overall heliospheric modulating region. The implications of these resultsregarding the proximity of the heliopause are discussed.

  6. High intensity proton linac activities at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.; Campbell, B.

    1998-01-01

    High-current proton linear accelerators offer an attractive alternative for generating the intense neutron fluxes needed for transmutations technologies, tritium production and neutron science. To achieve the fluxes required for tritium production, a 100-mA, 1700-MeV cw proton accelerator is being designed that uses superconducting cavities for the high-energy portion of the linac, from 211 to 1,700 MeV. The development work supporting the linac design effort is focused on three areas: superconducting cavity performance for medium-beta cavities at 700 MHz, high power rf coupler development, and cryomodule design. An overview of the progress in these three areas is presented

  7. Linear scans of hair strands for trace elements by proton induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.K.; Pehrson, G.R.; Gupta, S.K.; Buckle, D.C.; Aceto, H. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Hair strands obtained from school children in the 10 to 12 year age group were analyzed for trace element concentration as a function of distance from the root by proton-induced x-ray emission to study the history of exposure of the donors to toxic trace metals. These samples were collected from the vicinity of a copper smelter where high levels of As, Cd, Sb, and Pb have been noted. Scans show a continual build-up of Pb as a function of distance from the root, while As shows a reproducible and distinct maximum approximately 10 cm from the root. The concentration of Zn was found to be constant in all samples (without exception) to within the uncertainties of our measurements

  8. Experimental determination of relative light conversion factors of TLD-100 for protons with energies from 2.0 to 9.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, P.; Fellinger, J.; Huebner, K.; Henniger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Relative light conversion factors (RLCF) for heavy charged particles (protons, deuterons, recoils) are needed for the calculation of the neutron sensitivity of thermoluminescent (TL) detectors. Such light conversion factors can be determined experimentally. A method is represented for the experimental determination of RLCF. The described experimental facility gives the possibility of irradiation of different luminophor samples with heavy charged particles and flux determination and particle spectrometry at the same time. For the determination of RLCF the doses are needed which are applicated at the irradiation with heavy charged particles and gamma radiation, respectively, and the according detector readings at the TL evaluation. The problems arising at the dose determination are discussed. With this experimental facility the RLCF for TLD-100 for protons were determined. The relative light conversion factors determined according to the light sum method as well as the peak height method are summarizinhly represented and discussed. Furthermore a comparison of the glow curves is made after gamma and proton irradiation

  9. External proton and Li beams; Haces externos de protones y litios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuff, Juan A; Burlon, Alejandro A; Debray, Mario E; Kesque, Jose M; Kreiner, Andres J; Stoliar, Pablo A; Naab, Fabian; Ozafran, Mabel J; Vazquez, Monica E [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Policastro, Lucia L; Duran, Hebe; Molinari, Beatriz L; O' Connor, Silvia E; Saint-Martin, Maria L.G.; Palmieri, Monica; Bernaola, Omar A; Opezzo, Oscar J [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Radiobiologia; Mazal, A; Favaudon, F; Henry, Y [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Perez de la Hoz, A.; Somacal, Hector; Valda, Alejandro; Canevas, S; Ruffolo, M; Tasat, D R [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Villa Ballester (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia; Davidson, Miguel; Davidson, Jorge [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Delacroix, S; Nauraye, C; Brune, E; Gautier, C; Habrand, J L [Centre de Protontherapie, 91 - Orsay (France); Muhlmann, M C [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    In the frame of a feasibility study to introduce proton therapy in Argentina in a collaborative agreement between the Physics and Radiobiology Departments of the National Atomic Energy Commission or Argentina and the Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay, France, external proton and Li beams were produced at the TANDAR accelerator in Buenos Aires. The specific aim of this work was to start radiobiology studies on cell cultures and small laboratory animals. In particular we seek to determine here the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for proton and Li beams as a function of energy for different tumor and normal cell lines. The 24 MeV proton beam was diffused using a 25 {mu}m gold foil and extracted through a Kapton window to obtain a homogeneous field (constant to 95%) of about 7 cm in diameter. Measurements were carried out with quasi-monoenergetic beams (of 20.2 {+-} 0.07 MeV, 2.9 {+-} 0.10 MeV y 1.5 {+-} 0.1 MeV for protons and 21.4 {+-} 0.4 MeV for Lithium). Proton fluence and Bragg peaks were measured. The dose delivered in each case was monitored on-line with a calibrated transmission ionization chamber. Three cell lines PDV, PDVC 57 and V 79 (as a reference) were irradiated with {gamma}-rays, proton and lithium beams with linear energy transfer (LET) from 2 to 100 keV/{mu}m. RBE values in the range of 1.2-5.9 were obtained. In addition preliminary studies on chromosomal aberrations and viability of alveolar macrophages were carried out. (author)

  10. A non-linear canonical formalism for the coupled synchro-betatron motion of protons with arbitrary energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Ripken, G.; Schmidt, F.

    1987-05-01

    We investigate the motion of protons of arbitrary energy (below and above transition energy) in a storage ring. The motion is described both in terms of the fully six-dimensional formalism with the canonical variables x, p x , z, p z , σ = s - v 0 . t, η = ΔE/E 0 = p σ and in terms of a dispersion formalism with new variables x, p x , z, p z , σ, p σ . Since the dispersion function is introduced into the equations of motion via a canonical transformation the symplectic structure of these equations is completely preserved. In this formulation it is then possible to define three uncoupled linear (unperturbed) oscillation modes which are described by phase ellipses. Perturbations manifest themselves as deviations from these ellipses. The equations of motion are solved within the framework of the fully six-dimensional formalism. (orig.)

  11. Investigation of the formation of residual nuclei from the radiactive .sup.237 Np and .sup.241 Am targets in the reaction with 660-MeV protons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Jindřich; Balabekyan, A. R.; Brandt, R.; Dzhelepov, V. P.; Gustov, S. A.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Mirokhin, I. V.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Odoj, R.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2002), s. 797-809 ISSN 0044-0027 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Keywords : protons * spallation * target activation * radionuclides Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  12. Prospects of warm dense matter research at HiRadMat facility at CERN using 440 MeV SPS proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Piriz, A R

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present numerical simulations of heating of a solid copper cylinder by the 440 GeV proton beam delivered by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN. The beam is made of 288 proton bunches while each bunch comprises of 1.15$1011 so that the total number of protons in the beam is about 1.3$1013. The bunch length is 0.5 ns while two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns so that the beam duration is 7.2 ms. Particle intensity distribution in the transverse direction is a Gaussian and the beam can be focused to a spot size with s 1⁄4 0.1 mme1.0 mm. In this paper we present results using two values of s, namely 0.2 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. The target length is 1.5 m with a radius 1⁄4 5 cm and is facially irradiated by the beam. The energy deposition code FLUKA and the two-dimensional hydrodynamic code BIG2 are employed using a suitable iteration time to simulate the hydrodynamic and the thermodynamic response of the target. The primary purpose of this work was to design fixed target...

  13. Improving proton conduction pathways in di- and triblock copolymer membranes: Branched versus linear side chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenbos, G.

    2017-06-01

    Phase separation within a series of polymer membranes in the presence of water is studied by dissipative particle dynamics. Each polymer contains hydrophobic A beads and hydrophilic C beads. Three parent architectures are constructed from a backbone composed of connected hydrophobic A beads to which short ([C]), long ([A3C]), or symmetrically branched A5[AC][AC] side chains spring off. Three di-block copolymer derivatives are constructed by covalently bonding an A30 block to each parent architecture. Also three tri-blocks with A15 blocks attached to both ends of each parent architecture are modeled. Monte Carlo tracer diffusion calculations through the water containing pores for 1226 morphologies reveal that water diffusion for parent architectures is slowest and diffusion through the di-blocks is fastest. Furthermore, diffusion increases with side chain length and is highest for branched side chains. This is explained by the increase of water pore size with , which is the average number of bonds that A beads are separated from a nearest C bead. Optimization of within the amphiphilic parent architecture is expected to be essential in improving proton conduction in polymer electrolyte membranes.

  14. Elastic scattering of protons by 16O, 40Ca and 208Pb at 200, 500 and 800 MeV: 2, Effects of vacuum polarization and Pauli blocking corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottenstein, N.; Wallace, S.J.; Tjon, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    Dirac impulse approximation predictions for cross sections and spin observables in elastic proton scattering by 40 Ca and 208 Pb at energies of 200, 500 and 800 MeV are presented. The analysis is based on complete sets of Lorentz invariant NN amplitudes determined from a meson exchange model of the nuclear force. Effects of relativistic nuclear densities are explored including estimates of the vacuum polarization corrections based on quantum hadrodynamics. Effects of Pauli blocking are considered using the approximations of Murdock and Horowitz. A good description of the experimental data is obtained over a broad energy range and over a wide variation of nuclear size based on the generalized impulse approximation. Vacuum polarization corrections are found to enhance the agreement between theory and experiment. 18 refs., 8 figs

  15. Cross-section activation measurement for U-238 through protons and deuterons in energy interval 10-14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Abramovich, S.N.; Zvenigorodskii, A.G. [Russia Federal Nuclear Centre, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    There were presented results of cross-section measurements for nuclear reactions {sup 238}U(p,n){sup 238}Np, {sup 238}U(d,2n){sup 238}Np, {sup 238}U(d,t){sup 237}U, {sup 238}U(d,p){sup 239}U, and {sup 238}U(d,n){sup 239}Np. Interval of projectile energy was 10-14 MeV. For measurements of cross-sections it was used the activatio methods. The registration of {beta}- and {gamma}-activity was made with using of plastic scintillation detector and Ge(Li)-detector.

  16. Linac4 crosses the 100 MeV threshold

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    The new linear accelerator, which from 2020 will be the first link in the accelerator chain, has entered a new stage of its commissioning.   Members of the team in charge of the commissioning of Linac4 in the accelerator’s control room. A few hours earlier, Linac4 accelerated a beam to 107 MeV for the first time. We couldn’t have imagined a more appropriate date: on 1 July (1.07), Linac4 reached an energy of 107 MeV. Having crossed the 100 MeV barrier, the linear accelerator is now on the home straight of its commissioning. “This stage was very quick – it took less than two weeks,” says Alessandra Lombardi, deputy project leader of Linac4, in charge of the commissioning. In 2020, Linac4 will replace the existing Linac2 as the first link in the accelerator chain. It will accelerate beams of H- ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) to 160 MeV, compared to 50 MeV with Linac2. The new machine is particularly sophisticated as it comprises...

  17. Determination of the 20 MeV linear accelerator, new injector for the synchrotron Saturne. Choice of the electrical and dynamical particle parameters; Determination de l'accelerateur lineaire de 20 MeV, nouvel injecteur du synchrotron Saturne. Choix des parametres electriques, dynamique des particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prome, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-15

    This report takes place in the general determination of the 20 MeV linear accelerator which will be the new Saturne injector; it deals with particle dynamics. Starting from beam requirements at the output of the linac, cells lengths with variable synchronous phase angle, buncher and de-buncher parameters, beam emittances at the output in several phase spaces are successively determined. (author) [French] Dans le contexte general de la determination de l'accelerateur lineaire de 20 MeV, nouvel injecteur du synchrotron Saturne, ce rapport traite de la partie relative au mecanisme de l'acceleration des particules; a partir des caracteristiques souhaitees pour le faisceau a la sortie de cet accelerateur, on determine successivement les longueurs des cellules, compte tenu du choix d'un angle de phase synchrone variable, les caracteristiques du groupeur et du degroupeur et les emittances du faisceau en sortie dans les differents plans de phase. (auteur)

  18. Experimental and theoretical study of the yields of residual product nuclei produced in thin targets irradiated by 100-2600 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Titarenko, Y E; Karpikhin, E I

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the project is measurements and computer simulations of independent and cumulative yields of residual product nuclei in thin targets relevant as target materials and structure materials for hybrid accelerator-driven systems coupled to high-energy proton accelerators. The yields of residual product nuclei are of great importance when estimating such basic radiation-technology characteristics of hybrid facility targets as the total target activity, target 'poisoning', buildup of long-lived nuclides that, in turn, are to be transmuted, product nuclide (Po) alpha-activity, content of low-pressure evaporated nuclides (Hg), content of chemically-active nuclides that spoil drastically the corrosion resistance of the facility structure materials, etc. In view of the above, radioactive product nuclide yields from targets and structure materials were determined by an experiment using the ITEP U-10 proton accelerator in 51 irradiation runs for different thin targets: sup 1 sup 8 sup 2 sup , sup 1 sup 8 ...

  19. Simulation study of proton inelastic interaction with nuclei in the 50 to 350 MeV range by Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, J.C.

    1982-11-01

    This study settles a contribution to the proton-nucleus inelastic interaction simulation. Experimental display of deuton, triton, ion 3 He and alpha clusters in nucleus led us to include them in intranuclear cascade. We use a FERMI type distribution of nucleons; knowledge of each fundamental phenomenon allowed us to follow every particle moving in the medium. Inelastic interaction simulation was performed by the use of a MONTE CARLO method [fr

  20. Measurement of target fragments produced by 160 MeV proton beam in aluminum and polyethylene with CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrožová, Iva; Yasuda, N.; Kodaira, S.; Sihver, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, MAY (2014), s. 29-34 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100480901; GA AV ČR IAA100480902; GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : target fragments * high-energy protons * Aluminium * Polyethylene * plastic nuclear track detectors * CR-39 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.213, year: 2014

  1. Elemental-composition analysis by the measurement of characteristic X-ray radiation excited by the 1-3.5 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braziewicz, E.; Braziewicz, J.; Lyu Zaj Ik; Osetinskij, G.M.; Purehv, A.

    1981-01-01

    A method is reported for the determination of elemental composition of thin and thick targets from biological, geological and semiconducting materials. The composition is investigated by measuring the characteristic X-ray radiation after the targets were excited by a beam of protons from the electrostatic accelerator (JINR, Dubna). The accuracy of determination for thin targets was within the interval 3-5x10 -9 g/g, for thick targets - 5x10 -7 g/g [ru

  2. Formation and de-excitation of hot nuclei in reactions induced by proton beams (475 MeV and 2 GeV) and {sup 3}He beam (2 GeV); Formation et desexcitation des noyaux chauds dans les reactions induites par des faisceaux de protons (475 MeV et 2 GeV) et d`{sup 3}He(2 GeV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, X.

    1995-04-01

    We are studying the formation and the de-excitation of hot nuclei created in reactions induced by light high energy projectiles. These reactions, described in a two step model: an intranuclear cascade followed by an evaporation phase, produce nuclei in which the collective modes (compression, rotation, deformation) are weakly excited. By measuring the neutron multiplicities, event by event with ORION, and the light charged particle energies and multiplicities one can evaluate the excitation energy distribution of the nuclei. At the same time, theoretical simulations are carried out using the intranuclear cascade code developed by J. Cugnon and the statistical de-excitation code GEMINI. The good agreement with experimental results indicate that 10% of the p-nucleus interactions lead to temperatures greater than 5 MeV. The observation of the fission of a nucleus with a temperature close to 5 MeV shows that the nucleus behaves as a set of bound nucleons and, that the temperature stability limit is not yet reached. The observed decline of fission probability at high excitation energies is most likely to be correlated to the appearance of an other de-excitation process (evaporation residues emission or multifragmentation) which could not be experimentally detected. Finally, in the last chapter, we briefly present the principle of transmutation for long-lived nuclear waste with a proton accelerator and underline the interest of the present work in such studies. (author). 54 refs., 80 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of radionuclide production on the electronuclear plant target and construction materials irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 130 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu.E.; Karpikhin, E.I.; Smolyakov, A.F.; Igumnov, M.M.; Stepanov, N.V.; Kazaritsky, V.D.; Batyaev, V.F.; Shvedov, O.V.; Mashnik, S.G.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and calculated results are presented for the yields of residual nuclei in 63 Cu, 65 Cu, 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb, and 209 Bi targets irradiated to 1.5 GeV and 130 MeV protons and in 59 Co target irradiated to 1.2 GeV protons extracted from the ITEP accelerator. The nuclide yields were found by gamma-spectrometry with a GC-2518 Ge detector, a 1510 module, and a S-100 plate that, as an integral part of IBM PC, emulates a multichannel analyzer. The gamma-spectrometry 60 Co 1332.5 keV line energy resolution was 1.8 keV. The gamma-spectra were processed by the ASPRO code. The SIGMA code with the GDISP radionuclide database was used to identify the gamma-lines and to calculate the respective cross sections. The monitor reactions was 27 Al(p,3pn) 24 Na. The experimental generation cross sections of end products are compared with the respective values calculated by the HETC, INUCL, and CEM95 codes that simulate hadron-nucleus interactions. 12 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Oxidation of SO{sub 2} and formation of water droplets under irradiation of 20 MeV protons in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Shigeo [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Nakai, Yoichi, E-mail: nakaiy@riken.jp [Radioactive Isotope Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Funada, Shuhei; Tanikawa, Hideomi; Harayama, Isao [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Kobara, Hitomi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Sasa, Kimikazu [Tandem Accelerator Complex, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke [National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hvelplund, Preben [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2015-12-15

    We have performed an experiment on charged droplet formation in a humidified N{sub 2} gas with trace SO{sub 2} concentration and induced by 20 MeV proton irradiation. It is thought that SO{sub 2} reacts with the chemical species, such as OH radicals, generated through the reactions triggered by N{sub 2}{sup +} production. Both droplet number and droplet size increased with SO{sub 2} consumption for the proton irradiation. The total charged droplet numbers entering the differential mobility analyzer per unit time were proportional to the 0.68 power of the SO{sub 2} consumption. These two findings suggest that coagulation among the small droplets contributes to the formation of the droplets. The charged droplet volume detected per unit time is proportional to the SO{sub 2} consumption, which indicates that a constant amount of sulfur atoms is contained in a unit volume of droplet, regardless of different droplet-size distributions depending on the SO{sub 2} consumption.

  5. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O., E-mail: gsawakuchi@mdanderson.org; Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Ferreira, Felisberto A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); McFadden, Conor H. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Hallacy, Timothy M. [Biophysics Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Granville, Dal A. [Department of Medical Physics, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6 (Canada); Akselrod, Mark S. [Crystal Growth Division, Landauer, Inc., Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared with LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments.

  6. Proton Radiography (pRad)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose more than 300 dynamic experiments in support...

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of the residual nuclide production in 40-2600 MeV proton-irradiated thin targets of ads structure materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu.E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Belonozhenko, A.A.; Borovlev, S.P.; Butko, M.A.; Florya, S.N.; Pavlov, K.V.; Rogov, V.I.; Tikhonov, R.S.; Titarenko, A.Yu.; Zhivun, V.M.

    2011-10-01

    The Project is aimed at experimental and theoretical studying the independent and cumulative yields of residual radioactive nuclei produced in high-energy proton-irradiated structure materials intended for constructing the high-power Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) with a high-current proton accelerator. The Project is an extension of the researches carried out earlier under the ISTC Projects #017, #839, and #2002 which provided more 10000 residual nuclide production cross sections mainly in materials intended to use as target materials of the ADS. This Project includes 57 measurement runs carried out using the 97 targets made only of the ADS structural materials of both monoisotopic ( 56 Fe, 93 Nb, 181 Ta) and natural ( nat Cr, nat Ni, nat W) compositions within minutely fractionated proton energy range, namely, at 0.04, 0.07, 0.1, 0.15, 0.25, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.6GeV. All the targets were irradiated using the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. The experimental nuclide yields are determined by the direct γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry methods. As a result, 3839 cumulative and independent yields of residual β-radioactive product nuclei with lifetimes range from 6 minutes to 10 years as well as 12 cumulative yields of α- radioactive 148 Gd whose lifetime is 74.6 years have been measured. Besides, the cross sections for the 27 Al(p,x) 22 Na , 27 Al(p,x) 24 Na and 27 Al(p,x) 7 Be monitor reactions have been measured at the same proton energies with the use of the current transformer technique. The γ-spectrometer resolution is 1.8 keV in the 1332 keV 60 Co γ-line. The experimental γ-spectra were processed by the GENIE2000 code. The γ-lines were identified, and the cross sections calculated, by the ITEP-developed SIGMA code using the PCNUDAT database. The proton fluence was monitored by the 27 Al(p,x) 22 Na reaction. Measurement data have been compared with the calculation results of the BERTINI and ISABEL models of MCNPX code, CEM03.02, INCL 4.2, INCL4

  8. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F

    2014-06-01

    Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it

  9. An intranuclear cascade-percolation approach for protons and light fragments production in neon-niobium reactions at 400 and 800 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montarou, G.; Marroncle, J.; Alard, J.P.; Augerat, J.; Bastid, N.; Charmensat, P.; Dupieux, P.; Fraysse, L.; Parizet, M.J.; Rahmani, A.; Brochard, F.; Gorodetzky, P.; Racca, C.; Cugnon, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of intranuclear cascade calculations (ideal gas with two body collisions and no mean-field), complemented by a simple percolation procedure, are compared with experimental data on protons and light nuclear fragments (d, t, 3 He and 4 He) measured in 400 and 800 MeV/nucleon Ne+Nb collisions using the large solid angle detector DIOGENE. The model reproduces quite well global experimental observables like nuclear fragment multiplicity distributions or production cross-sections, and nuclear fragment to proton ratios. For rapidity distributions the best agreement occurs for peripheral reactions. Transverse momentum analysis confirms once again that the cascade, although being a microscopic approach, gives too small a collective flow. For heavier nuclear fragments conclusions are not so clear. Since the cross-sections are the main ingredients of the detailed treatment of the first stage of the reaction by the intranuclear cascade, such an approach can be very fruitful in order to infer informations on effective nucleon-nucleon cross-sections. (authors). 31 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Experimental and theoretical studies of the yields of residual product nuclei produced in thin Pb and Bi targets irradiated by 40 - 2600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Karpikhin, E.I.; Zhivun, V.M.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Lunev, V.P.; Titarenko, N.N.; Shubin, Yu.N.; Barashenkov, V.S.

    2009-10-01

    The Project is aimed at experimental determining and computer-aided theoretical simulating the independent and cumulative yields of residual radioactive product nuclei in high-energy protonirradiated thin targets made of high-isotopic and natural lead ( 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 PB, natPb) and bismuth ( 209 Bi) that are the most probable choice to be the target materials in the acceleratordriven (hybrid) systems (ADS) coupled to a high-current proton accelerator. The yields of residual product nuclei are of great importance when estimating such basic radiation-technology characteristics of the hybrid facility targets as the total target activity, the target 'poisoning', the buildup of long-lived nuclides, the α-activity, the content of low-pressure evaporated nuclides (Hg), the content of the chemically-active nuclides that drastically spoil the corrosion resistance of the facility structure materials, etc. In view of the above, the radioactive product nuclide yields from targets materials were experimentally determined using the ITEP U-10 proton accelerator in 55 measurement runs using the monoisotopic and natural lead ( 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 PB, natPb) and bismuth ( 209 Bi) targets within the proton energy range fractionated minutely, namely at 0.04, 0.07, 0.10, 0.8, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 2.6 GeV to cover the entire range of the internuclear hadron cascading. As a result, 5972 cumulative and independent yields of residual radioactive product nuclei, whose lifetimes range from 8 minutes to 32 years, have been measured. Besides, the cross sections for the 27 Al(p,x) 24 Na and 27 Al(p,x)7Be monitor reactions have been measured at the same proton energies together with the 27 Al(n,p) 27 Mg reaction rate that characterizes the neutron background contributions in each experiment. The experimental nuclide yields are determined by the direct γ-spectrometry method. The γ-spectrometer resolution is 1.8 keV in the 1332 keV 60 Co γ-line. The experimental γ-spectra are processed by

  11. [Neoplastic transformation of mouse fibroblasts under the influence of high-energy protons and gamma-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanian, K Sh

    2004-01-01

    Oncoginic transformations of mouse fibroblasts C3H10T1/2 after exposure to proton energies 150 and 584 MeV were compared with fibroblast effects of gamma-radiation. Prior to exposure, cell populations (2.7 x 10(3) cells/cm2) were inoculated in plastic vials with the surface area of 75 cm2 and cultivated 11 days. Survivability was determined by comparing the number of cell colonies in irradiated and non-irradiated (control) vials. Transformation rate was calculated by dividing the total transformation focus number by the number of survived cells in a vial. Rate of oncogenic transformations after gamma- and proton (584 MeV) irradiation was essentially identical, i.e. the parameter grew rapidly at the doses 1 Gy. In the dose interval between 1 and 5 Gy, transformation rate for proton energy 150 MeV was found low compared with gamma-radiation and proton energy 584 MeV. It is hypothesized that the different transformation rate after exposure to proton energy 150 MeV is linked with the high linear energy transfer as compared with the proton energy of 584 MeV and gamma-radiation.

  12. Linear Energy Transfer Painting With Proton Therapy: A Means of Reducing Radiation Doses With Equivalent Clinical Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fager, Marcus; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana; Kirk, Maura; Dolney, Derek; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Vapiwala, Neha; Carabe, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to propose a proton treatment planning method that trades physical dose (D) for dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET d ) while keeping the radiobiologically weighted dose (D RBE ) to the target the same. Methods and Materials: The target is painted with LET d by using 2, 4, and 7 fields aimed at the proximal segment of the target (split target planning [STP]). As the LET d within the target increases with increasing number of fields, D decreases to maintain the D RBE the same as the conventional treatment planning method by using beams treating the full target (full target planning [FTP]). Results: The LET d increased 61% for 2-field STP (2STP) compared to FTP, 72% for 4STP, and 82% for 7STP inside the target. This increase in LET d led to a decrease of D with 5.3 ± 0.6 Gy for 2STP, 4.4 ± 0.7 Gy for 4STP, and 5.3 ± 1.1 Gy for 7STP, keeping the DRBE at 90% of the volume (DRBE, 90) constant to FTP. Conclusions: LET d painting offers a method to reduce prescribed dose at no cost to the biological effectiveness of the treatment

  13. Linear Energy Transfer Painting With Proton Therapy: A Means of Reducing Radiation Doses With Equivalent Clinical Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fager, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Fager@UPHS.UPenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Toma-Dasu, Iuliana [Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Kirk, Maura; Dolney, Derek; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Carabe, Alejandro, E-mail: Alejandro.Carabe-Fernandez@UPHS.UPenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to propose a proton treatment planning method that trades physical dose (D) for dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET{sub d}) while keeping the radiobiologically weighted dose (D{sub RBE}) to the target the same. Methods and Materials: The target is painted with LET{sub d} by using 2, 4, and 7 fields aimed at the proximal segment of the target (split target planning [STP]). As the LET{sub d} within the target increases with increasing number of fields, D decreases to maintain the D{sub RBE} the same as the conventional treatment planning method by using beams treating the full target (full target planning [FTP]). Results: The LET{sub d} increased 61% for 2-field STP (2STP) compared to FTP, 72% for 4STP, and 82% for 7STP inside the target. This increase in LET{sub d} led to a decrease of D with 5.3 ± 0.6 Gy for 2STP, 4.4 ± 0.7 Gy for 4STP, and 5.3 ± 1.1 Gy for 7STP, keeping the DRBE at 90% of the volume (DRBE, 90) constant to FTP. Conclusions: LET{sub d} painting offers a method to reduce prescribed dose at no cost to the biological effectiveness of the treatment.

  14. Development of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Kusano, J.; Hasegawa, K.; Ouchi, N.; Oguri, H.; Kinsho, M.; Touchi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Mukugi, K.; Ino, H.; Noda, F.; Akaoka, N.; Kaneko, H.; Chishiro, E.; Fechner, B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 5.33mA has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. the NSP is aiming at exploring nuclear technologies for nuclear waste transmutation based on a proton induced spallation neutrons. The proposed accelerators facilities will be also used in the various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a high intensity proton storage ring. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end of the proton accelerator. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting (SC) accelerator linac has been designed and developed as a major option. (Author) 7 refs

  15. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  16. Multiple linear stepwise regression of liver lipid levels: proton MR spectroscopy study in vivo at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Li; Liang Changhong; Xiao Yuanqiu; Zhang Zhonglin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the correlations between liver lipid level determined by liver 3.0 T 1 H-MRS in vivo and influencing factors using multiple linear stepwise regression. Methods: The prospective study of liver 1 H-MRS was performed with 3.0 T system and eight-channel torso phased-array coils using PRESS sequence. Forty-four volunteers were enrolled in this study. Liver spectra were collected with a TR of 1500 ms, TE of 30 ms, volume of interest of 2 cm×2 cm×2 cm, NSA of 64 times. The acquired raw proton MRS data were processed by using a software program SAGE. For each MRS measurement, using water as the internal reference, the amplitude of the lipid signal was normalized to the sum of the signal from lipid and water to obtain percentage lipid within the liver. The statistical description of height, weight, age and BMI, Line width and water suppression were recorded, and Pearson analysis was applied to test their relationships. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to set the statistical model for the prediction of Liver lipid content. Results: Age (39.1±12.6) years, body weight (64.4±10.4) kg, BMI (23.3±3.1) kg/m 2 , linewidth (18.9±4.4) and the water suppression (90.7±6.5)% had significant correlation with liver lipid content (0.00 to 0.96%, median 0.02%), r were 0.11, 0.44, 0.40, 0.52, -0.73 respectively (P<0.05). But only age, BMI, line width, and the water suppression entered into the multiple linear regression equation. Liver lipid content prediction equation was as follows: Y= 1.395 - (0.021×water suppression) + (0.022×BMI) + (0.014×line width) - (0.004×age), and the coefficient of determination was 0. 613, corrected coefficient of determination was 0.59. Conclusion: The regression model fitted well, since the variables of age, BMI, width, and water suppression can explain about 60% of liver lipid content changes. (authors)

  17. Fission coincident neutrons from the reactions p + sup(235,236,238)U with protons between 12,7 and 25.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plischke, P.

    1981-01-01

    With the proton beam of the Hamburg isochronous cyclotron (HAIZY) thin uranium targets with the mass numbers 235, 236, and 238 were bombarded. Both fragments from the fission of the Np reaction systems and the neutrons coincident with the fragments were detected in the plane perpendicular to the beam direction. Measured and stored event by event were for all particles the times of flight. The detection of the neutron succeeded in conventional time-of-flight technique with NE213 liquid scintillators. A fission detector system with plastic scintillator foils was developed. It permits high event rates over long measuring times and allows the choice of so long neutron flight paths that a neutron energy resolution between 2% and 4% could be reached. The determination of the fragment masses is in spite of the short flight paths of 15 respectively 21 cm possible to +-2 amu. The isotropic component das discussed under the assumption that it is composed of prefission and scission neutrons which were emitted befor fission respectively during the fragmentation. From the post fission results the distribution of the excitation energy to both fragments was determined in dependence of Esup(*) and the fragment mass. (orig./HSI) [de

  18. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amgarou, K.; Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G.; Russo, S.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to E o and 90 o with respect to the beam-line. Here the ERBSS of UAB (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona-Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the 'forward' and 'sideward' proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and independently established and calibrated, is important for guaranteeing the robustness of the measured spectra and estimating their overall uncertainties.

  19. Spectral calibration of EBT3 and HD-V2 radiochromic film response at high dose using 20 MeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yiwei; Tiedje, Henry F.; Gagnon, Katherine; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Radiochromic film is used extensively in many medical, industrial, and scientific applications. In particular, the film is used in analysis of proton generation and in high intensity laser-plasma experiments where very high dose levels can be obtained. The present study reports calibration of the dose response of Gafchromic EBT3 and HD-V2 radiochromic films up to high exposure densities. A 2D scanning confocal densitometer system is employed to carry out accurate optical density measurements up to optical density 5 on the exposed films at the peak spectral absorption wavelengths. Various wavelengths from 400 to 740 nm are also scanned to extend the practical dose range of such films by measuring the response at wavelengths removed from the peak response wavelengths. Calibration curves for the optical density versus exposure dose are determined and can be used for quantitative evaluation of measured doses based on the measured optical densities. It was found that blue and UV wavelengths allowed the largest dynamic range though at some trade-off with overall accuracy.

  20. Determination of integral cross sections of 3H in Al foils monitors irradiated by protons with energies ranging from 40 to 2600 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Chauzova, M. V.; Chauzova, M. V.; Kashirin, I. A.; Malinovskiy, S. V.; Pavlov, K. V.; Rogov, V. I.; Titarenko, A. Yu.; Zhivun, V. M.; Mashnik, S. G.; Stankovskiy, A. Yu.

    2016-05-01

    The results of 3H production in Al foil monitors (˜ 59 mg/cm2 thickness) are presented. These foils have been irradiated in 15×15 mm polyethylene bags of ˜ 14 mg/cm2 thickness together with foils of Cr (˜ 395 mg/cm2 thickness) and 56Fe (˜ 332 mg/cm2 thickness) by protons of different energies in a range of 0.04 - 2.6 GeV. The diameters of all the foils were 10.5 mm. The irradiations were carried out at the ITEP accelerator U-10 under the ISTC Project # 3266 in 2006-2009. 3H has been extracted from Al foils using an A307 Sample Oxidizer. An ultra low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus1220 was used to measure the 3H β-spectra and the SpectraDec software package was applied for spectra processing, deconvolution and 3H activity determination. The values of the Al (p, x)3H reaction cross sections obtained in these experiments are compared with data measured at other labs and with results of simulations by the MCNP6 radiation transport code using the CEM03.03 event generator.