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Sample records for mev isotope production

  1. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Dawson, R.; Erdman, K.L.

    1989-05-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. TRIUMF is cooperating with a local industrial company in designing and constructing such a cyclotron. It will be a four sector H - cyclotron, exploiting the newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source. This source with H - current capability in excess of 5 mA makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of up to 500 μA. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Extraction of two high-intensity beams, with energy variable from 15 to 30 MeV is planned. The use of an external ion source, provision of a good vacuum in the acceleration region, and the careful choice of materials for components in the median plane leads to a cyclotron that will have low activation and can be easily serviced in spite of the very high operating beam intensities. A design extension to 70 MeV using many of the design features of the 30 MeV cyclotron can be easily made. Such a machine with a good quality variable energy beam is a highly desirable source of protons for isotope production, injection into higher energy high intensity acceleration, injection into higher energy high intensity accelerators, and as an irradiation facility for ocular melanomas. Design of the 30 MeV cyclotron is well advanced and construction is in progress

  2. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, R.; Kleevan, W.J.; Laxdal, R.E.; Milton, B.F.; Otter, A.J.; Pearson, J.B.; Poirier, R.L.; Schmor, P.W.; Schneider, H.R.; Erdman, K.L.; Walker, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. We describe such a cyclotron currently under construction. It is a 30 MeV H - design that exploits a newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source which is capable of H - currents of up to 5 mA. This together with careful beam matching then makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of 500 μA. The cyclotron being built is a four sector radial ridge design with two 45 degree dees in opposite valleys. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Two extraction probes will allow simultaneous extraction of two beams, each with an intensity of up to 200 μA. Energy variation from 15 MeV to 30 MeV is achieved by varying the radial position of the extraction foil. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Commercial cyclotrons. Part I: Commercial cyclotrons in the energy range 10 30 MeV for isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papash, A. I.; Alenitsky, Yu. G.

    2008-07-01

    A survey of commercial cyclotrons for production of medical and industrial isotopes is presented. Compact isochronous cyclotrons which accelerate negative hydrogen ions in the energy range 10 30 MeV have been widely used over the last 25 years for production of medical isotopes and other applications. Different cyclotron models for the energy range 10 12 MeV with moderate beam intensity are used for production of 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F isotopes widely applied in positron emission tomography. Commercial cyclotrons with high beam intensity are available on the market for production of most medical and industrial isotopes. In this work, the physical and technical parameters of different models are compared. Possibilities of improving performance and increasing intensity of H- beams up to 2 3 mA are discussed.

  4. Hydrogen isotope double differential production cross sections induced by 62.7 MeV neutrons on a lead target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerveno, M.; Haddad, F.; Eudes, Ph.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C.; Slypen, I.; Meulders, J.P.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Louvel, M.; Lefebvres, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Double differential hydrogen isotope production cross sections have been extracted in 62.7 MeV neutron induced reactions on a lead target. The angular distribution was measured at eight angles from 20 deg. to 160 deg. allowing the extraction of angle-differential, energy differential, and total production cross sections. A first set of comparisons with several theoretical calculations is also presented

  5. Targetry at the LANL 100 MeV isotope production facility: lessons learned from facility commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nortier, F. M. (Francois M.); Fassbender, M. E. (Michael E.); DeJohn, M.; Hamilton, V. T. (Virginia T.); Heaton, R. C. (Richard C.); Jamriska, David J.; Kitten, J. J. (Jason J.); Lenz, J. W.; Lowe, C. E.; Moddrell, C. F.; McCurdy, L. M. (Lisa M.); Peterson, E. J. (Eugene J.); Pitt, L. R. (Lawrence R.); Phillips, D. R. (Dennis R.); Salazar, L. L. (Louie L.); Smith, P. A. (Paul A.); Valdez, Frank O.

    2004-01-01

    The new Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been commissioned during the spring of 2004. Commissioning activities focused on the establishment of a radionuclide database, the review and approval of two specific target stack designs, and four trial runs with subsequent chemical processing and data analyses. This paper highlights some aspects of the facility and the targetry of the two approved target stacks used during the commissioning process. Since one niobium encapsulated gallium target developed a blister after the extended irradiation of 4 days, a further evaluation of the gallium targets is required. Beside this gallium target, no other target showed any sign of thermal failure. Considering the uncertainties involved, the production yields obtained for targets irradiated in the same energy slot are consistent for all three 'Prototype' stacks. A careful analysis of the temperature profile in the RbCl targets shows that energy shifts occur in the RbCl and Ga targets. Energy shifts are a result of density variations in the RbCl disk under bombardment. Thickness adjustments of targets in the prototype stack are required to ensure maximum production yields of {sup 82}Sr and {sup 68}Ge in the design energy windows. The {sup 68}Ge yields obtained are still consistently lower than the predicted yield value, which requires further investigation. After recalculation of the energy windows for the RbCl and Ga targets, the measured {sup 82}Sr production yields compare rather well with values predicted on the basis of evaluated experimental excitation function data.

  6. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  7. Production of neutron-rich isotopes by cold fragmentation in the reaction 197Au + Be at 950 A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlliure, J.; Pereira, J.; Schmidt, K.H.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Enqvist, T.; Heinz, A.; Junghans, A.R.; Farget, F.; Taieb, J.

    1999-09-01

    The production cross sections and longitudinal-momentum distributions of very neutron-rich isotopes have been investigated in the fragmentation of a 950 A MeV 179 Au beam in a beryllium target. Seven new isotopes ( 193 Re, 194 Re, 191 W, 192 W, 189 Ta, 187 Hf and 188 Hf) and the five-proton-removal channel were observed for the first time. The reaction mechanism leading to the formation of these very neutron-rich isotopes is explained in terms of the cold-fragmentation process. An analytical model describing this reaction mechanism is presented. (orig.)

  8. Measurements of 14-MeV neutron cross-sections for the production of isomeric states in hafnium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, B.H.; Sowerby, M.G.; Wilkins, C.G.; Russen, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    The cross sections for the production of isomeric states in the reactions 179 Hf(n,2n) 178m2 Hf, 180 Hf(n,2n) 179m2 Hf, 179 Hf(n,n') 179m2 Hf with 14 MeV neutrons have been measured and compared with the theoretical ones. 4 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Isotopic production cross sections of fission residues in 197Au-on-proton collisions at 800 A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlliure, J.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.

    2000-02-01

    Interactions of 197 Au projectiles at 800 A MeV with protons leading to fission are investigated. We measured the production cross sections and velocities of all fission residues which are fully identified in atomic and mass number by using the in-flight separator FRS at GSI. The new data are compared with partial measurements of the characteristics of fission in similar reactions. Both the production cross sections and the recoil energies are relevant for a better understanding of spallation reactions. (orig.)

  10. Cyclotrons for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Stevenson, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope production, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Nuclear size comparison of even titanium isotopes using 140-MeV α-particle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Goldberg, D.A.; Wall, N.S.; Woo, L.W.; Chen, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Systematic variations in nuclear-matter distributions have been determined by analyzing the measured elastic scattering of 140-MeV alpha particles from /sup 46,48,50/Ti. The ''unique'' optical potentials obtained (J/sub R//4A approx. = 300 MeV fm 3 , J/sub I//4A approx. = 100 MeV fm 3 ) indicate that isotopic differences occur primarily in the strength of the imaginary potential. The rms matter radii increase with A, in contrast to those of the charge distributions. The matter-radius results are in agreement with Hartree-Fock calculations

  12. Medical Isotope Production at TRIUMF - from Imaging to Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehr, C.; Bénard, F.; Buckley, K.; Crawford, J.; Gottberg, A.; Hanemaayer, V.; Kunz, P.; Ladouceur, K.; Radchenko, V.; Ramogida, C.; Robertson, A.; Ruth, T.; Zacchia, N.; Zeisler, S.; Schaffer, P.

    TRIUMF has a long history of medical isotope production. For more than 40 years, the Life Sciences Division at TRIUMF has produced isotopes for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for the local hospitals. Recently, the division has taken on the challenge to expand the facility's isotope repertoire to isotopes for imaging to treatment. At the smallest cyclotron at TRIUMF with energy of 13 MeV, radiometals are being produced in a liquid target which is typically used for PET isotope production. This effort makes radiometals available for early stage research and preclinical trials. At beam energy of 24 MeV, we produce 99mTc from 100Mo with a cyclotron, the most common isotope for Single-Photon-Emission-Computed-Tomography (SPECT) and the most common isotope for nuclear imaging. The use of a cyclotron bypasses the common production route via a nuclear reactor as well as enriched uranium. And finally, at our 500 MeV cyclotron we have demonstrated the production of α emitters useful for targeted alpha therapy. Herein, these efforts are summarized.

  13. Neutron-induced fission of uranium isotopes up to 100 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestone, J.P.; Gavron, A.

    1994-01-01

    The statistical-model description of the neutron-induced fission of U isotopes has been developed using densities of intrinsic states and spin cutoff parameters obtained directly from appropriate Nilsson model single-particle levels. The first-chance fission cross sections are reproduced well when the rotational contributions to the nuclear level densities are taken into account. In order to fit the U(n,f) cross sections above the threshold of second-chance fission, we must: (1) assume that the triaxial level-density enhancement is washed out at an excitation energy of approximately 7 MeV above the triaxial barriers with a width of approximately 1 MeV, implying a γ deformation for the first barriers where 10<γ<20 degree, and (2) include preequilibrium particle emission in the calculations. Above an incoming-neutron kinetic energy of approximately 17 MeV, our statistical model U(n,f) of cross sections increasingly overestimates the experimental data. This is not surprising since, at these high energies, little data exist on the scattering of neutrons to help guide the choice of optical-model parameters. A satisfactory reproduction of all of the available U(n,f) cross sections above 17 MeV is obtained by scaling our calculated compound-nucleus formation cross sections. This scaling factor falls from 1.0 at 17 MeV to 0.82 at 100 MeV

  14. Recoil properties of antimony isotopes produced by the reaction of 570 MeV and 18.2 GeV protons with uranium

    CERN Document Server

    Hagebø, E

    1969-01-01

    Using the method of thick target and thick catchers, the ranges and other recoil properties of 13 (12) antimony isotopes between A = 115 and A = 131 (130) have been measured for the reaction of 570 MeV (18·2 GeV) protons with uranium. The kinetic energies T are almost independent of product mass number at 570 MeV but show a strong dependence at 18·2 GeV, the lightest isotopes having only about half the kinetic energy of the heavy ones. \\\\ \\\\The cascade deposition energies for production of antimony isotopes are almost equal at 570 MeV and 18·2 GeV and fit well to straight lines of the form E$^{∗}$ (A, Z) = E$^{∗}$ (A$_{0}$, Z) + b(A − A$_{0}$). Exceptions are the cascade deposition energies for $^{115}$Sb and $^{116}$Sb which seem to be somewhat too high at 18·2 GeV. By comparison with other work it seems that the slope $b$ of these lines is independent of product element, target and of proton irradiation energy above 450 MeV. \\\\ \\\\If we assume at 570 MeV, that the fissioning nucleus is a uranium ...

  15. Coherent pion production induced by 300 MeV and 600 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, E.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bing, O.; Fassnacht, P.; Hibou, F.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data on (d,π - ) reactions at 300 and 600 MeV incident energy are presented. Inclusive spectra on 6 Li, 9 Be and 10 B targets near the kinematical limit do not show the usual scaling behaviour. For the two-body reaction 6 Li (d,π - ) 8 B the lowest-energy discrete states of the final nucleus were clearly resolved and the cross sections for pion production leading to those states have been determined. (orig.)

  16. Experience utilizing a 3.7 MeV tandem cascade accelerator (TCA) for PET radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.; Gaehle, G.; Dence, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    A 3.7 MeV TCA was installed at Washington University in the Spring of 1993 for evaluation as a PET isotope production accelerator. The accelerator was installed in a specially designed suite consisting of the accelerator room, a open-quotes hot labclose quotes and a open-quotes cold labclose quotes. The accelerator has been utilized routinely for PET isotope production since it's installation. Although the major radionuclide produced utilizing the TCA is oxygen-15, techniques for the production of fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 have been developed. The novel techniques used to produce usable quantities of these latter two isotopes will be discussed

  17. Isotope Production Facility (IPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced radioactive isotopes for medicine and research since the mid 1970s, when targets were first irradiated using the 800...

  18. Linacs for medical isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews efforts on using high energy (25-30 MeV) and high power (10-20 kW) electron linacs and lower energy (7 MeV) proton linacs for medical radioisotope production. Using high energy x-rays from the electron linacs, PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes are produced through photonuclear reactions such as 19 F(γ,n) 18 F, which also allow production of other PET radionuclides 11 C, 13 N, and 15 O. Other mostly used medical radionuclides 99m Tc can also be obtained by using the electron linacs, through photofission or photonuclear reactions. Proton linacs for PET have also been recently developed and the product has been available in the market since 2005. The linacs have been tested for 18 F production. As a proton accelerator, the target systems and nuclear reactions are similar to the ones used in PET cyclotrons. (author)

  19. Production of Medical Isotopes with Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotsch, D A; Alford, K.; Bailey, J. L.; Bowers, D. L.; Brossard, T.; Brown, M. A.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Ehst, D.; Greene, J.; Gromov, R. G.; Grudzinski, J.J.; Hafenrichter, L.; Hebden, A. S.; Henning, W.; Heltemes, T. A.; Jerden, J.; Jonah, C. D.; Kalensky, M.; Krebs, J. F.; Makarashvili, V.; Micklich, B.; Nolen, J.; Quigley, K. J.; Schneider, J. F.; Smith, N. A.; Stepinski, D. C.; Sun, Z.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Virgo, M J; Wesolowski, K. A.; Youker, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Radioisotopes play important roles in numerous areas ranging from medical treatments to national security and basic research. Radionuclide production technology for medical applications has been pursued since the early 1900s both commercially and in nuclear science centers. Many medical isotopes are now in routine production and are used in day-to-day medical procedures. Despite these advancements, research is accelerating around the world to improve the existing production methodologies as well as to develop novel radionuclides for new medical appli-cations. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) represent a unique method for the production of radioisotopes. Even though the basic technology has been around for decades, only recently have electron linacs capable of producing photons with sufficient energy and flux for radioisotope production become available. Housed in Argonne Nation-al Laboratory’s Low Energy Accelerator Facility (LEAF) is a newly upgraded 55 MeV/25-kW electron linear ac-celerator, capable of producing a wide range of radioiso-topes. This talk will focus on the work being performed for the production of the medical isotopes 99Mo (99Mo/99mTc generator), 67Cu, and 47Sc.

  20. Neutron induced fission of U isotopes up to 100 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestone, J.P.; Gavron, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a statistical model description of the neutron induced fission of U isotopes using densities of intrinsic states and spin cut off parameters obtained directly from appropriate Nilsson model single particle levels. The first chance fission cross sections are well reproduced when the rotational contributions to the nuclear level densities are taken into account. In order to fit the U(n,f) cross sections above the threshold of second chance fission, we need to: (1) assume that the triaxial level density enhancement is washed out at an excitation energy of ∼7 MeV above the triaxial barriers with a width of ∼1 MeV, implying a γ deformation for the first barriers of 10 degree < γ < 20 degree; and (2) include pre-equilibrium particle emission in the calculations. Above an incoming neutron kinetic energy of ∼17 MeV our statistical model U(n,f) cross sections increasingly overestimate the experimental data when so called ''good'' optical model potentials are used to calculate the compound nucleus formation cross sections. This is not surprising since at these high energies little data exists on the scattering of neutrons to help guide the choice of optical model parameters. A satisfactory reproduction of all the available U(n,f) cross sections above 17 MeV is obtained by a simple scaling of our calculated compound nucleus formation cross sections. This scaling factor falls from 1.0 at 17 MeV to 0.82 at 100 MeV

  1. Tritium production in thorium by 135 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.; Simonoff, G.; Tarrago, X.; Bibron, R.

    1960-01-01

    We have measured the cross-section of tritium production by bombardment of thorium by 135 MeV protons in the Orsay synchro-cyclotron. The tritium was separated from the targets by heating in a graphite crucible with a high-frequency generator, under hydrogen gas pressure. Tritiated water was synthesised and the tritium was measured with liquid scintillator. A value of 19.5 ± 0.05 mbarns was obtained for the tritium-cross section and ten percent of tritons have energies higher than 35 MeV. This large cross-section is attributed to a double pick-up process. Reprint of a paper published in Le Journal de Physique et le Radium, t. 20, p. 959, dec 1959 [fr

  2. Helium production by 10 MeV neutrons in iron, nickel and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Kneff, D.W.; Oliver, B.M.; Greenwood, L.R.; Vonach, H.

    1994-01-01

    Helium production cross sections for the elements Fe, Ni, and Cu and for the isotopes 56 Fe, 58 Ni and 60 Ni have been measured for 10-MeV neutrons. Samples were irradiated with an intense neutron source from the 1 H(t,n) reaction using a rotating gas cell. The generated helium was determined by isotope dilution gas mass spectrometry. Induced radioactivities and known cross sections were used together with calculations based on the source reaction to deduce the neutron fluence at each sample position. The results are in fair agreement with literature values for (n,α) cross sections measured by α-particle detection and integrated over the α-particle energies and angular distributions

  3. 44gSc production using a water target on a 13 MeV cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehr, Cornelia; Oehlke, Elisabeth; Benard, Francois; Lee, Chris Jaeil; Hou, Xinchi; Badesso, Brian; Ferguson, Simon; Miao, Qing; Yang, Hua; Buckley, Ken; Hanemaayer, Victoire; Zeisler, Stefan; Ruth, Thomas; Celler, Anna; Schaffer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Access to promising radiometals as isotopes for novel molecular imaging agents requires that they are routinely available and inexpensive to obtain. Proximity to a cyclotron center outfitted with solid target hardware, or to an isotope generator for the metal of interest is necessary, both of which can introduce significant hurdles in development of less common isotopes. Herein, we describe the production of 44 Sc (t 1/2 = 3.97 h, E avg,β + = 1.47 MeV, branching ratio = 94.27%) in a solution target and an automated loading system which allows a quick turn-around between different radiometallic isotopes and therefore greatly improves their availability for tracer development. Experimental yields are compared to theoretical calculations. Methods: Solutions containing a high concentration (1.44–1.55 g/mL) of natural-abundance calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 · 4 H 2 O) were irradiated on a 13 MeV proton-beam cyclotron using a standard liquid target. 44g Sc was produced via the 44 Ca(p,n) 44g Sc reaction. Results: 44g Sc was produced for the first time in a solution target with yields sufficient for early radiochemical studies. Saturation yields of up to 4.6 ± 0.3 MBq/μA were achieved using 7.6 ± 0.3 μA proton beams for 60.0 ± 0.2 minutes (number of runs n = 3). Experimental data and calculation results are in fair agreement. Scandium was isolated from the target mixture via solid-phase extraction with 88 ± 6% (n = 5) efficiency and successfully used for radiolabelling experiments. The demonstration of the production of 44 Sc in a liquid target greatly improves its availability for tracer development

  4. Radioactive nuclide production and isomeric state branching ratios in P + W reactions to 200 mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    Calculations of nuclide yields from spallation reactions usually assume that the products are formed in their ground states. We are performing calculations of product yields from proton reactions on tungsten isotopes that explicitly account for formation of the residual nuclei in excited states. The Hauser-Feshbach statistical/preequilibrium code GNASH, with full accounting for angular momentum conservation and electromagnetic transitions, is utilized in the calculations. We present preliminary results for isomer branching ratios for proton reactions to 200 MeV for several products including the 31-y, 16+ state in l78 Hf and the 25-d, 25/2- state in 179 Hf. Knowledge of such branching ratios, might be important for concepts such as accelerator production of tritium that utilize intermediate-energy proton reactions on tungsten

  5. Production of platinum radioisotopes at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Suzanne V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accelerator production of platinum isotopes was investigated at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP. In this study high purity natural platinum foils were irradiated at 53.2, 65.7, 105.2, 151.9, 162.9 and 173.3.MeV. The irradiated foils were digested in aqua regia and then converted to their hydrochloride salt with concentrated hydrochloric acid before analyzing by gamma spectrometry periodically for at least 10 days post end of bombardment. A wide range of platinum (Pt, gold (Au and iridium (Ir isotopes were identified. Effective cross sections at BLIP for Pt-188, Pt-189, Pt-191 and Pt-195m were compared to literature and theoretical cross sections determined using Empire-3.2. The majority of the effective cross sections (<70 MeV confirm those reported in the literature. While the absolute values of the theoretical cross sections were up to a factor of 3 lower, Empire 3.2 modeled thresholds and maxima correlated well with experimental values. Preliminary evaluation into a rapid separation of Pt isotopes from high levels of Ir and Au isotopes proved to be a promising approach for large scale production. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that with the use of isotopically enriched target material accelerator production of selected platinum isotopes is feasible over a wide proton energy range.

  6. Measurement of isotopic cross sections of spallation residues in 800 A MeV {sup 197}Au + p collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejmund, F.; Mustapha, B.; Bernas, M.; Stephan, C.; Taieb, J.; Tassan-Got, L. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS) 91 - Orsay (France); Armbruster, P.; Benlliure, J.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.H.; Taieb, J. [GSI, Planckstrasse, Darmstadt (Germany); Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Volant, C. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dufour, J.P. [CENBG, IN2P3, 33 - Gradignan (France)

    2000-07-01

    The spallation of {sup 197}Au by 800 MeV protons was investigated in inverse kinematics at GSI, Darmstadt, by use of a {sup 197}Au beam bombarding a liquid-hydrogen target. The fragment separator (FRS) was used to select and identify the reaction products prior to {beta} decay. The individual production cross sections and the kinematical properties of 396 isotopes for all elements between mercury (Z=80) and neodymium (Z=60) have been measured. A comparison with Monte Carlo calculations based on different two-step models of the spallation reaction is given. The shape of the isotopic distributions close to the projectile is found to differ strongly from that resulting from aluminium-induced fragmentation of {sup 197}Au. The mean kinetic energies of the fragments are deduced from the experimental data. The importance of the new data to improve our understanding of the spallation mechanism and the relevance for the design of accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors is discussed. (authors)

  7. Radio-isotope production using laser Wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.; Rodgers, D.; Catravas, P.E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Fubiani, G.; Toth, C.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Donahue, R.; Smith, A.; Reitsma, A.

    2001-01-01

    A 10 Hz, 10 TW solid state laser system has been used to produce electron beams suitable for radio-isotope production. The laser beam was focused using a 30 cm focal length f/6 off-axis parabola on a gas plume produced by a high pressure pulsed gas jet. Electrons were trapped and accelerated by high gradient wakefields excited in the ionized gas through the self-modulated laser wakefield instability. The electron beam was measured to contain excesses of 5 nC/bunch. A composite Pb/Cu target was used to convert the electron beam into gamma rays which subsequently produced radio-isotopes through (gamma, n) reactions. Isotope identification through gamma-ray spectroscopy and half-life time measurements demonstrated that Cu 61 was produced which indicates that 20-25 MeV gamma rays were produced, and hence electrons with energies greater than 25-30 MeV. The production of high energy electrons was independently confirmed using a bending magnet spectrometer. The measured spectra had an exponential distribution with a 3 MeV width. The amount of activation was on the order of 2.5 uCi after 3 hours of operation at 1 Hz. Future experiments will aim at increasing this yield by post-accelerating the electron beam using a channel guided laser wakefield accelerator

  8. Light charged particle production induced by fast neutrons (En=25-65 MeV) on 209Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeymackers, Erwin; Slypen, Isabelle; Benck, Sylvie; Meulders, Jean-Pierre; Nica, Ninel; Corcalciuc, Valentin

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental set-up and data reduction procedures regarding the measurement of double-differential cross sections for light charged particle production in fast neutron induced reactions (n, px), (n, dx), (n, tx) and (n, αx) on bismuth in the incident neutron energy range 25-65 MeV and at laboratory angles from 20deg to 160deg. preliminary double-differential and energy-differential cross sections for hydrogen isotopes are presented. (author)

  9. High resolution γ spectra of 40-44 MeV γ photon activation products: Part 3 - a summary of γ rays, radionuclides and nuclear interferences observed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.R.; Hislop, J.S.

    1980-09-01

    A table of γ rays observed in the high resolution γ ray spectra of 40 to 44 MeV γ photon activation products is presented. This table is arranged in order of increasing γ ray energy and the parent isotopes, their half-lives and their inactive precursors are identified. Nuclear interferences caused by production of an active isotope from different parent elements have been identified and evaluated quantitatively. These are also tabulated. (author)

  10. Commercialization of DOE isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the business structure and operations of MAC Isotopes (MACI) L.L.C., a newly created business resulting from the commercialization of a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). MACI began its commercial operations on October 1, 1996, and is the first U.S. commercial isotope production business to result from the commercialization of DOE facilities or programs. The commercialization was the culmination of an -2-yr competitive procurement process by the DOE and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). MACI was selected from this competitive process as the commercial business of choice on the basis of providing the best value to the DOE/LMITCO and having the greatest potential for commercial success

  11. Neutron cross section evaluations of europium isotopes in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range. Format - validation - comparison; Evaluation de sections efficaces pour des neutrons incidents sur des isotopes d'europium aux energies 1 keV - 30 MeV. Format - validation - comparaison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Le Luel, C.; Bauge, E. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents neutron cross section evaluations of Europium isotopes. The cross sections are evaluated in 1 keV - 30 MeV energy range for the isotopes {sup 146}Eu, {sup 147}Eu, {sup 148}Eu, {sup 149}Eu, {sup 150}Eu, {sup 151}Eu, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 153}Eu, {sup 154}Eu in their ground state. This evaluation includes cross section productions of the long life isomeric states. Special attention is put on the options used for the description of the files written in ENDF-6 format. The final issue is a proposal of a new breed of ENDF-6 formatted neutron activation file. (authors)

  12. Study on strontium isotope abundance-ratio measurements by using a 13-MeV proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ki; Jang, Han; Lee, Goung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The Rb-Sr dating method is used in dating Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks. This method measures the 87Rb and the 87Sr concentrations by using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) [J. Hefne et al., Inter. J. Phys. Sci. 3(1), 28 (2008)]. In addition, it calculates the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio to increase the reliability of Rb-Sr dating. In this study, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was measured by using a 13-MeV proton accelerator. Proton kinetic energies are in the range of tens of megaelectronvolts, and protons have large absorption cross-sections for ( p, n) reactions with most substances. After absorbing a proton with such a high kinetic energy, an element is converted into a nuclide with its atomic number increased by one via nuclear transmutation. These nuclides usually have short half-lives and return to the original state through radioactive decay. When a strontium sample is irradiated with protons, nuclear transmutation occurs; thus, the strontium isotope present in the sample changes to a yttrium isotope, which is an activated radioisotope. Based on this, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was calculated by analyzing the gamma-rays emitted by each yttrium isotope. The KIRAMS-13 cyclotron at the Cyclotron Center of Chosun University, where 13-MeV protons can be extracted, was utilized in our experiment. The 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio was computed for samples irradiated with these protons, and the result was similar to the isotope ratio for the Standard Reference Material, i.e., 98.2 ± 3.4%. As part of the analysis, proton activation analyses were performed using 13-MeV protons, and the experimental results of this research suggest a possible approach for measuring the strontium-isotope abundance ratio of samples.

  13. Calculations of (n,2n) reaction cross sections for Barium isotopes from 5 to 20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahan, Halide; Sahan, Muhittin; Tel, Eyyup

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the excitation functions of (n,2n) reactions for 30,32,34,35,37,38Ba isotopes are calculated using TALYS 1.6, EMPIRE-3.2.2, and ALICE-GDH codes based on statistical model up to 20 MeV. Moreover, the cross section for each isotope have also been estimated at 14.2 MeV using semi empirical formula developed by four different authors. The calculated and estimated cross-sections are compared with experimental cross-sections from EXFOR and compared with the evaluation data in ENDF/B-VII.1 library. Results are close agreement with the experimental data from literature.

  14. Evaluation of the Shielding Performance for the Hot-cell built in 100-MeV Isotope Beam-line of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Min; Park, Sung Kyun; Min, Yi Sub; Cho, Yong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study describes the structure of the hot-cell constructed in KOMAC for radioisotope production and evaluates the shielding performance for the hot-cell via the radiation shielding ability test. Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) is currently operating 20-MeV and 100-MeV beam-line one by on. Additional 100-MeV beam-line and target room (TR101) are planned for the purpose of the radioisotope production in this year. The initial goal of the radioisotope production is to produce the radioactive isotopes, Sr-82 or Cu-67, used widely for the diagnosis and treatment of the cancer. In order to produce these radioisotopes mentioned, the proton beam with the energy between 70-MeV and 100- MeV at a beam current of 300 μA is irradiated into a solid target made of ZnO or RbCl. After the irradiation of the proton beam during approximately 100 hours, the radioisotope Sr-82 with the radioactivity amount of about 3.8 Ci or the Cu-67 with the amount of about 2.7 Ci will be produced. Radioisotopes produced though this process should be conveyed from the TR101 target room to the PR101 processing room and then in order to be delivered into the place for the next process step, a hot-cell is necessary. Result of the shielding performance evaluation of the hot-cell for producing radioisotopes shows the necessity of the shield reinforcement using lead material at side of the lead glass window.

  15. A 20MeV (p,d) study of nuclear structure in the even and odd tin isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.G.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay

    1978-01-01

    The even and odd tin isotopes have been studied by 20 MeV (p,d) reactions. States strongly populated in the odd isotopes are due to the valence neutron shells and extend up to only 2 MeV of excitation energy; 'deep hole' states were not identified. The occupation probabilities extracted from finite-range distorted-wave-Born-approximation calculations generally agree well with the predictions of the BCS theory of superconducting nuclei, particularly with the calculations of Clement and Baranger. In the even tin isotopes, strongly populated states are characterized predominantly by L=2 transfers extending up to 4 MeV excitation energy. The experimental spectroscopic factors are compared with the BCS calculated values of Clement and Baranger, Alzetta and Sawicki, and Van Gunsteren; relatively good agreement is obtained for L=2 transitions, but not for L=0 transitions. A considerable fraction of the sum rule L=2 strength in 118 Sn is missing in the 119 Sn(p,d) 118 Sn experimental spectrum; in like manner, no 4 + strength could be identified in either 114 Sn or 118 Sn

  16. Production of radionuclides by 14 MeV neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfassi, Z.B.

    1983-01-01

    Due to the short half-lives of these nuclides they have to be produced in situ or at least not far from the place of use. The cost of 14 MeV neutron generators have been compared with the typical middle-sized cyclotrons and it was found that the capital costs are much lower in the case of neutron generators. This is the main reason for the availability of 14 MeV neutron generators in many scientific institutes compared to the scarcity of cyclotrons. Lately, the use of 14 MeV neutrons for cancer therapy was studied in several medical centers. A number of hospitals and cancer research centers have high intensity 14 MeV neutron generators for this purpose. The advantages of using short-lived in-house produced radionuclides suggest the use of the available 14 MeV neutron generators for biological studies and in medical diagnosis. 14 MeV neutron generators can be used to produce some of the medically useful radionuclides, such as /sup 18/F, /sup 80/Br, /sup 199m/Hg, and others. However, the amount required for medicine can only be prepared by the new high intensity neutron generators, used for neutron therapy and not by the smaller ones, commonly used in university laboratories (--10/sup 11/ n/sec). On the other hand, these relatively small neutron generators can be used for the preparation of radionuclides for biological studies. They facilitate the study of metabolism of elements for which radionuclides cannot be usually purchased due to short half-lives or the high price of the long-lived ones, such as /sup 34m/Cl, /sup 18/F, /sup 28,29/Al, /sup 27/Mg, and others. An example is the work done on the fate of Al and Mg in rats using /sup 28/Al and /sup 27/Mg./sup 13/

  17. Excitation functions and isotopic effects in (n, p) reactions for stable nickel isotopes from reaction threshold to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalremruata, B. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: marema@physics.unipune.ernet.in; Ganesan, S. [Reactor Physics Design Division, BARC, Mumbai 58 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: vnb@physics.unipune.ernet; Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2009-05-01

    The excitation function for (n, p) reactions from reaction threshold to 20 MeV on five nickel isotopes viz; {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 61}Ni, {sup 62}Ni and {sup 64}Ni were calculated using Talys-1.0 nuclear model code involving the fixed set of global parameters. A good agreement between the calculated and measured data is obtained with minimum effort on parameter fitting and only one free parameter called 'Shell damping factor'. This is of importance to the validation of nuclear model approaches with increased predictive power. The systematic decrease in (n, p) cross-sections with increasing neutron number in reactions induced by neutrons on isotopes of nickel is explained in terms of the proton separation energy and the pre-equilibrium model. The compound nucleus and pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism as well as the isotopic effects were also studied.

  18. Production of 14 MeV neutrons from D-D neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, F.E.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The production of 14 MeV neutrons from a D-D neutron generator resulting from tritium buildup from the d(d,p)t reaction in the target is discussed. The effect of the 14 MeV neutrons on fast neutron activation analysis with D-D neutron generators is evaluated. (orig.)

  19. High-precision gamma-ray spectroscopy for enhancing production and application of medical isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Smith, S. V.; Muench, L.; Nino, M.; Greene, J. P.; Carpenter, M. P.; Zhu, S.; Chillery, T.; Chowdhury, P.; Harding, R.; Lister, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear medicine is a field which requires precise decay data for use in planning radionuclide production and in imaging and therapeutic applications. To address deficiencies in decay data, sources of medical isotopes were produced and purified at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory where high-precision, gamma-ray measurements were performed using Gammasphere. New decay schemes for a number of PET isotopes and the impact on dose calculations will be presented. To investigate the production of next-generation theranostic or radiotherapeutic isotopes, cross section measurements with high energy protons have also been explored at BLIP. The 100-200 MeV proton energy regime is relatively unexplored for isotope production, thus offering high discovery potential but at the same time a challenging analysis due to the large number of open channels at these energies. Results of cross sections deduced from Compton-suppressed, coincidence gamma-ray spectroscopy performed at Lowell will be presented, focusing on the production of platinum isotopes by irradiating natural platinum foils with 100 to 200 MeV protons. DOE Isotope Program is acknowledged for funding ST5001030. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  20. Beneficial uses and production of isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Isotopes, radioactive and stable, are used worldwide in various applications related to medical diagnosis or care, industry and scientific research. More than fifty countries have isotope production or separation facilities operated for domestic supply, and sometimes for international markets. This publication provides up-to-date information on the current status of, and trends in, isotope uses and production. It also presents key issues, conclusions and recommendations, which will be of interest to policy makers in governmental bodies, scientists and industrial actors in the field.

  1. Beneficial uses and production of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive and stable isotopes are widely used in many sectors including medicine, industry and research. Practically all countries in the world are using isotopes in one way or another. In many cases, isotopes have no substitute and in most of their applications they are more effective and cheaper than alternative techniques or processes. The production of isotopes is less widespread, but more than fifty countries have isotope production or separation facilities operated for domestic supply, and sometimes for international markets. In spite of the importance of isotopes in economic and social terms, comprehensive statistical data on volumes or values of isotope production and uses are not readily available. This lack of information led the NEA to include the topic in its programme of work. The study carried out by the NEA, in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), aimed at collecting and analysing information on various aspects of isotope production and uses in order to highlight key issues and provide findings and recommendations of relevance, in particular, for governmental bodies involved. This report provides data collected in 1999, reviewed and analysed by a group of experts nominated by Member countries. The participating experts and the NEA and IAEA Secretariats endeavored to present consistent and comprehensive information on isotope uses and production in the world. It is recognised, however, that the data and analyses included in the report are by no means exhaustive. The views expressed in the document are those of the participating experts and do not necessarily represent those of the countries concerned. The report is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. (author)

  2. Routine production of copper-64 using 11.7MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, C. M.; Smith, S. V.; Asad, A. H.; Chan, S.; Price, R. I. [Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Centre for Forensic Science, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia) and ARC Centre of Excellence in A (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Antimatter-Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia) and Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Antimatter-Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia) and Imaging and Applied (Australia); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia) and School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia)

    2012-12-19

    Reliable production of copper-64 ({sup 64}Cu) was achieved by irradiating enriched nickel-64 ({sup 64}Ni, >94.8%) in an IBA 18/9 cyclotron. Nickel-64 (19.1 {+-} 3.0 mg) was electroplated onto an Au disc (125{mu}m Multiplication-Sign 15mm). Targets were irradiated with 11.7 MeV protons for 2 hours at 40{mu}A. Copper isotopes ({sup 60,61,62,64}Cu) were separated from target nickel and cobalt isotopes ({sup 55,57,61}Co) using a single ion exchange column, eluted with varying concentration of low HCl alcohol solutions. The {sup 64}Ni target material was recovered and reused. The {sup 64}Cu production rate was 1.46{+-}0.3MBq/{mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni(n = 10) (with a maximum of 2.6GBq of {sup 64}Cu isolated after 2hr irradiation at 40uA. Radionuclidic purity of the {sup 64}Cu was 98.7 {+-} 1.6 % at end of separation. Cu content was < 6mg/L (n = 21). The specific activity of {sup 64}Cu was determined by ICP-MS and by titration with Diamsar to be 28.9{+-}13.0GBq/{mu}mol[0.70{+-}0.35Ci/{mu}mol]/({mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni)(n = 10) and 13.1{+-}12.0GBq/{mu}mol[0.35{+-}0.32Ci/{mu}mol]/({mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni)(n 9), respectively; which are in agreement, however, further work is required.

  3. A 600 MeV cyclotron for radioactive beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic field design for a 600 MeV proton cyclotron is described. The cyclotron has a single stage, a normal conducting magnet coil and a 9.8 m outside yoke diameter. It has 8 sectors, with a transition to 4 sectors in the center region. The magnetic field design was done using 1958 Harwell rectangular ridge system measurements and was compared with recent 3-dimensional field calculations with the program TOSCA at NSCL. The center region 4--8 sector transition focussing was also checked with TOSCA

  4. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 2 to 10 MeV protons by lithium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurat, M.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the experimental set-up which has been devised for carrying out spectrometric and absolute cross-section measurements on the reactions induced by protons accelerated in a 12 MeV Van de Graaff Tandem. The particles are detected by silicon junctions; the weight of the targets (about ten μg/cm 2 ) is determined by the quartz method. The experimental equipment has been controlled by a study of proton scattering by lithium-6, and has made it possible to evaluate the elastic and inelastic scattering (1. level excitation) by lithium 7 of 2 to 9 MeV protons. The most probable spin and parity values for the six levels of 8 Be between 19 and 25 MeV excitation energy have been determined from a knowledge of the observed structure. (author) [fr

  5. Thick-target neutron, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production for protons below 12 MeV on nickel and carbon beam-stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear model calculations using the GNASH code are described for protons below 12 MeV incident on nickel and carbon isotopes, for beam stop design in the Los Alamos Accelerator Production of Tritium Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project. The GNASH calculations apply Hauser-Feshbach and preequilibrium reaction theories and can make use of pre-calculated direct reaction cross sections to low-lying residual nucleus states. From calculated thin target cross sections, thick target 6.7 MeV and 12 MeV proton-induced production of neutrons, gamma rays, and radionuclides are determined. Emission spectra of the secondary neutrons and gamma rays are also determined. The model calculations are validated through comparisons with experimental thin- and thick-target measurements. The results of this work are being utilized as source terms in MCNP analyses for LEDA

  6. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgel, M; Iglesias, J; Casas, J; Saviron, J M; Quintanilla, M

    1965-07-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  7. [sup 205]Bi/[sup 206]Bi cyclotron production from Pb-isotopes for absorption studies in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, R.; Dresow, B.; Heinrich, H.C. (Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Medizinische Biochemie); Wendel, J.; Bechtold, V. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik)

    1993-12-01

    Pb(p,xn) thick target excitation functions were measured in the energy range 10-38 MeV in order to optimize the production of isotopically pure radiobismuth from [sup nat]Pb, [sup 206]Pb, and [sup 207]Pb. Additionally, the decay of Po-isotopes from deuteron irradiation of natural bismuth ([sup 209]Bi) was exploited for radiobismuth production. [sup 205]Bi was produced from [sup 206]Pb at 20 MeV with only 2% of [sup 206]Bi at 4 weeks post irradiation. Bismuth compounds as used in the treatment of peptic ulcer were labeled with [sup 205]Bi for absorption studies in animals and subjects. (Author).

  8. Production of exotic beams by separation of online isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosni, Faouzi; Farah, K.

    2013-01-01

    The studies in physics, concerned until now, approximately two thousand five hundred radioactive nuclide. These nuclides with 263 stable nucleus constitute the current nuclear field. This field is far from being complete because there are more than three thousand radioactive isotopes to be discovered. Materials and Methods: To reach these radio-isotopes there are two complementary methods which are the on-line separation (ISOL) and the fragmentation in times of flight. The latter has the advantage to allow the study of the elements of very short period (lower than 10-3 s). It supplies beams having a big dispersal in energy and in angle. In the case of the separation of on-line isotope, a target is run to produce the radioactive atoms. This allows producing beams much more intense than the fragmentation in times of flight. To obtain radioactive beams in the required intensities or for the research or medical applications, it is essential to end in thick targets or the products of reaction can go out as fast as possible. That is to realize targets which can maintain a porous and sluggish structure counterpart in the produced elements. This is one of the main technological challenges to be solved. The works concerning this domain will be presented as well as the got advantage if the nuclear reactions are led by protons reaching 30 MeV of energy. (Author)

  9. Accelerator Production of Isotopes for Medical Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Suzanne

    2014-03-01

    The increase in use of radioisotopes for medical imaging and therapy has led to the development of novel routes of isotope production. For example, the production and purification of longer-lived position emitting radiometals has been explored to allow for nuclear imaging agents based on peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles. These isotopes (64Cu, 89Zr, 86Y) are typically produced via irradiation of solid targets on smaller medical cyclotrons at dedicated facilities. Recently, isotope harvesting from heavy ion accelerator facilities has also been suggested. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a new national user facility for nuclear science to be completed in 2020. Radioisotopes could be produced by dedicated runs by primary users or may be collected synergistically from the water in cooling-loops for the primary beam dump that cycle the water at flow rates in excess of hundreds of gallons per minute. A liquid water target system for harvesting radioisotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) was designed and constructed as the initial step in proof-of-principle experiments to harvest useful radioisotopes in this manner. This talk will provide an overview of isotope production using both dedicated machines and harvesting from larger accelerators typically used for nuclear physics. Funding from Department of Energy under DESC0007352 and DESC0006862.

  10. Short-lived radionuclide production capability at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Richards, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Linac Isotope Producer is the first facility to demonstrate the capability of a large linear accelerator for efficient and economical production of difficult-to-make, medically useful radionuclides. The linac provides a beam of 200-MeV protons at an integrated beam current of up to 60 μA. The 200-MeV proton energy is very suitable for isotope production because the spallation process can create radionuclides unavailable at lower energy accelerators or reactors. Several medically important short-lived radionuclides are presently being prepared for on-site and off-site collaborative research programs. These are iodine-123, iron-52, manganese-52m, ruthenium-97, and the rubidium-81-krypton-81m system. The production parameters for these are summarized

  11. Design features of isotope production facility at Inshas cyclotron complex. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsan, M N [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Aurhority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The nuclear research center, AEA, Egypt is erecting at its Inshas campus cyclotron complex for multidisciplinary use for research and application. The complex is to utilize a russian made AVF cyclotron accelerator of the type MGC-20 with MeV protons. Among its applications, the accelerator will be used for the production of short lived cyclotron isotopes. This article presents a concise description of the design features of isotope production facility to be annexed to the complex layout, schemes for radio waste, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Production of high purity iodine-123 from xenon-124 at energies between 15 and 34 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firouzbakht, M.L.; Teng Renrui; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The production of I-123 from the proton bombardment of isotopically enriched Xe-124 is reported over the energy range of 15 to 34 MeV via the 124 Xe (p,pn) 123 Xe (β + , 2.1 hr) → 123 I and 124 Xe (p,2n) 123 Cs (β + , 6 min) → 123 Xe (β + , 2.1 hr) → 123 I pathways. The thick target yields for this target are tabulated and compared to theoretical cross-section calculations of the nuclear reactions leading to the production of Xe-123. The radiochemical purity of the I-123 is greater than 99.9% and the contamination of I-125 is below detectable limits (< 0.1%) at 6.6 hrs after the end of bombardment. (orig.)

  13. H-superconducting cyclotron for PET isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Vincent, J.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific design of a 14-MeV H - compact superconducting cyclotron for producing of the 18 F and 13 N isotopes has been developed. Main requirements to the facility as a medical accelerator are met in the design. In particular, the main requirement for the cyclotron was the smallest possible size due to the superconducting magnet. The calculations show that the proposed cyclotron allows extracted beam intensity over 500 μA. To increase system reliability and production rates, an external H - ion source is applied. The choice of the cyclotron concept, design of the structure elements, calculation of the electromagnetic fields and beam dynamics from the ion source to the extraction system were performed.

  14. Symposium on isotope production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the symposium on isotope production and applications, held at Pelindaba, Pretoria, South Africa. The following topics were discussed: facilities for the production of radioisotopes at Pelindaba; the role of the chemist in the development and production of radioisotopic preparations; quality control of radioisotopic products; applications of radioisotopes in medicine; concepts and current status of nuclear imaging; industrial and research applications of radioisotopic tracers and radioisotopic radiation sources; radiation processing using intense radioisotopic radiation sources; a review of current and future radioisotope production activities at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research

  15. The reactor and the production of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesy, G. de

    1962-01-01

    The construction of the cyclotron immensely advanced the availability of radioactive tracers, a few of which even today can be produced only with the aid of this device. But even this great advance was overshadowed by the fabulous production of isotopes by the reactors. Isotopes of almost any element and of almost unlimited activity became available. It now became possible to apply H 3 - discovered already in the 'thirties by Rutherford and Oliphant - and C 14 , and these were used in thousands of investigations

  16. Loss of alpha-like MeV fusion products from TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Boivin, R.L.; Diesso, M.; Hayes, S.E.; Hendel, H.W.; Park, H.; Strachan, J.D.

    1990-03-01

    A detailed comparison between the observed and expected loss of alpha-like MeV fusion products in TFTR is presented. The D-D fusion products (mainly the 1 MeV triton) were measured with an 2-D imaging scintillation detector. The expected first-orbit loss was calculated with a simple Lorentz orbit code. In almost all cases the measured loss was consistent with the expected first-orbit loss model. Exceptions are noted for small major radius plasmas and during strong MHD activity. 37 refs., 28 figs

  17. Comparative study of the elastic scattering of 178.4 MeV antiprotons by the 16O and 18O isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruge, G.; Chaumeaux, A.; Birien, P.; Drake, D.M.; Garreta, D.; Janouin, S.; Legrand, D.; Lemaire, M.C.; Mayer, B.; Pain, J.; Peng, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Elastic scattering of 178.4 MeV anti p has been measured on 16 O and 18 O isotopes. Both macroscopic and microscopic analyses of the data show differences which can be related to the neutron excess in 18 O. (orig.)

  18. Routes for the production of isotopes for PET with high intensity deuteron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Saavedra, F.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in accelerator science are opening new possibilities in different fields of physics. In particular, the development of compact linear accelerators that can provide charged particles of low-medium energy (few MeV) with high current (above mA) allows for the study of new possibilities in neutron production and for new routes for the production of radioisotopes. Keeping in mind how radioisotopes are actually produced in dedicated facilities, we have performed a study of alternative reactions to produce PET isotopes induced by low-energy deuterons. We have fitted the EXFOR cross sections data, used the fitted values of the stopping power by Andersen and Ziegler and calculated by numerical integration the production rate of isotopes for charged particles up to 20 MeV. The results for deuterons up to 3 MeV are compared with the ones from cyclotrons, which are able to provide higher energies to the charged projectiles but with lower intensities. Our results indicate that using linear accelerators may be a good alternative for producing PET isotopes, reducing the problem of neutron activation.

  19. Neutron induced alpha production from carbon between 18 and 22 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.P.

    1976-10-01

    Cross sections for neutron induced alpha production in carbon were measured at seventeen energies between 18 and 22 MeV, using a deuterated anthracene crystal as both target and detector. Pulse shape discrimination was employed to separate the alphas and elastically scattered deuterons from the other reaction products. Published (n,d) elastic scattering data were used as a standard to obtain the alpha production cross sections. Comparison with available measurements shows good agreement

  20. Isotope production technologies from a regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, K. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Committee, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses isotope production technologies from a regulatory perspective. The regulator is the CNSC which has the mandate to protect the health, safety and security of persons and the environment and to implement Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Nuclear facilities regulated by CNSC include linear accelerator (medical), pool irradiator (industrial) and Pelletron (research) as well as cyclotrons.

  1. Production of neutron-rich nuclei in fission induced by neutrons generated by the p+ sup 1 sup 3 C reaction at 55 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Stroe, L; Andrighetto, A; Tecchio, L B; Dendooven, P; Huikari, J; Pentillä, H; Peraejaervi, K; Wang, Y

    2003-01-01

    Cross-sections for the production of neutron-rich nuclei obtained by neutron-induced fission of natural uranium have been measured. The neutrons were generated by bombarding a sup 1 sup 3 C target with 55 MeV protons. The results, position of the maximum in the (Z, A)-plane, width and magnitude, are very comparable with those where the neutrons are generated by bombardment of natural sup 1 sup 2 C graphite with 50 MeV deuterons. Depending on the geometry of the converter/target assembly the isotope yields, however, are a factor of 2-3 lower due to less efficient production of neutrons per primary projectile, especially at small forward angles. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of pair production cross sections in Ge for the 1. 238-3. 548 MeV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R K; Singh, K; Sahota, H S

    1985-02-28

    Pair production cross sections have been determined for the 1.238-3.548 MeV energy range in germanium (Z = 32) using a Ge(Li) gamma ray detector. The experimental results have been compared with the theoretical cross sections of previous workers. The results of the present measurements agree with the Bethe-Heitler results down to 1.771 MeV. However, at 1.238 MeV the experimental results are higher than all the theories.

  3. Production Situation and Technology Prospect of Medical Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Feng;LIN Li;LIU Yu-hao;MA Xing-jun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The isotope production technology was overviewed, including traditional and newest technology. The current situation of medical isotope production was introduced. The problems faced by isotope supply and demand were analyzed. The future development trend of medical isotopes and technology prospect were put forward. As the most populous country, nuclear medicine develops rapidly, however, domestic isotope mainly relies on imports. The highly productive and relatively safe MIPR is expected to be an effective way to breakthrough the bottleneck of the development of nuclear medicine. Traditional isotope production technologies with reactor can be improved. It's urgent to research and promote new isotope production technologies with reactor. Those technologies which do not depend on reactor will have a bright market prospects.

  4. Decommissioning and dismantling of the Rossendorf Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahnert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    After just over 40 years of production operation 2000, the operation of the Rossendorf Isotope Production was finally stopped. In the last few years of production already sections of the Rossendorf Isotope Production have been decommissioned. With the end of the isotope production the decommissioning of the entire complex started. In the two-part report, the decommissioning and dismantling of the Rossendorf Isotope production is presented. In part 1 (atw 5/2016) mainly the authorisation procedures and the realised decommissioning concept are presented. Part 2 (atw 6/2016) deals with special selected aspects of the implementation of the decommissioning programme.

  5. Optimization of $^{178m2}$/Hf isomer production in spallation reactions at projectile energies up to 100 MeV using STAPRE and ALICE code simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kirischuk, V I; Khomenkov, V P; Strilchuk, N V; Zheltonozhskij, V A

    2004-01-01

    /sup 178m2/Hf isomer production in different spallation reactions with protons, alpha particles and neutrons at projectile energies up to 100 MeV has been analyzed using both STAPRE and ALICE code simulations. The STAPRE code was used to calculate the isomeric ratios, while the ALICE code was used to simulate the excitation functions of the respective ground states. A number of spallation reactions have been compared taking into account not only /sup 178m2 /Hf isomer productivity but also, first, the isomeric ratios calculated by the STAPRE code; second, the accumulation of the most undesirable Hf isotopes and isomers, such as /sup 172/Hf, /sup 175 /Hf, and /sup 179m/Hf; and, third, the production of other admixtures and by-products that could degrade the quality of the produced /sup 178m2/Hf isomer sources, including all stable Hf isotopes as well. Possibilities and ways of optimizing /sup 178m2/Hf isomer production in spallation reactions at projectile energies up to 100 MeV are discussed. This can be consi...

  6. Isotope products manufacture in Russia and its prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, S.V.; Okhotina, I.A.; Kalelin, E.A.; Krasnov, N.N.; Kuzin, V.V.; Malykh, J.A.; Makarovsky, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    At the present stage of the world economy development, stable and radioactive isotopes,preparations and products on their base are widely used in many fields of the national economy, medicine and scientific researches. The Russian Federation is one of the largest worldwide producers of a variety of nuclide products on the base of more than 350 isotopes, as follows: stable isotopes reactor, cyclotron, fission product radioactive isotopes, ion-radiation sources compounds, labelled with stable and radioactive isotopes, radionuclide short-lived isotope generators, radiopharmaceuticals, radionuclide light and heat sources; luminous paints on base of isotopes. The Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy coordinates activity for development and organization of manufacture and isotope products supply in Russia as well as for export. Within many years of isotope industry development, there have appeared some manufacturing centres in Russia, dealing with a variety of isotope products. The report presents the production potentialities of these centres and also an outlook on isotope production development in Russia in the next years

  7. Cross sections for production of 70 discrete-energy gamma rays created by neutron interactions with 56Fe for En to 40 MeV: Tabulated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; Todd, J.H.; Larson, D.C.

    1990-09-01

    Inelastic and nonelastic neutron interactions with 56 Fe have been studied for incident neutron energies between 0.8 and 41 MeV. An iron sample isotopically enriched in the mass 56 isotope was used. Gamma rays representing 70 transitions among levels in residual nuclei were identified, and production cross sections were deduced. The reactions studied were 56 Fe(n,n') 56 Fe, 56 Fe(n,p) 56 Mn, 56 Fe(n,2n) 55 Fe, 56 Fe(n,d + n,np) 55 Mn, 56 Fe(n,t + n,nd + n,2np) 54 Mn, 56 Fe(n,α) 53 Cr, 56 Fe(n,nα) 52 Cr, and 56 Fe(n,3n) 54 Fe. Values obtained for production cross sections as functions of incident neutron energy are presented in tabular form. 38 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Activation of air and concrete in medical isotope production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Adam C.; Shackelton, R. J.; Carr, D. A.; Ismail, A.

    2017-05-01

    Medical isotope facilities operating in the 10 to 25 MeV proton energy range have long been used to generate radioisotopes for medical diagnostic imaging. In the last few years the beam currents available in commercially available cyclotrons have increased dramatically, and so the activation of the materials within cyclotron vaults may now pose more serious radiological hazards. This will impact the regulatory oversight of cyclotron operations, cyclotron servicing and future decommissioning activities. Air activation could pose a hazard to cyclotron staff. With the increased cyclotron beam currents it was necessary to examine the issue more carefully. Therefore the ways in which radioactivity may be induced in air by neutron reactions and neutron captures were considered and it was found that the dominant mechanism is neutron capture on Ar-40. A study of the activation of the air by neutron capture on Ar-40 within a cyclotron vault was performed using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The neutron source energy spectrum used was from the production of the widely used F-18 PET isotope. The results showed that the activation of the air within a cyclotron vault does not pose a significant radiological hazard at the beam intensities currently in use and shows how ventilation affects the results. A second MCNP study on the activation of ordinary concrete in cyclotron vaults by neutron capture was made with a view to determining the optimum thickness of borated polyethylene to reduce neutron activation on both the inner surfaces of the vault and around production targets. This is of importance in decommissioning cyclotrons and therefore in the design of new cyclotron vaults. The distribution of activation on the walls as a function of the source position was also studied. Results are presented for both borated and regular polyethylene, and F-18 and Tc-99 neutron spectra.

  9. Production of iodine-123 radiobiological specimen on 25 MeV electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Starodub, G.Ya.; Buklanov, G.V.; Korotkin, Yu.S.; Belov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The technique is described and experimental results are presented for production of radioactive specimen-iodine-123 for medical biological investigations. It is shown that in ten hour irradiation of 124 Xe enriched target of 10 g weight by the 25 MeV electron beam at MT-25 microtron short lived 123 I with activity of about 200 mCl can be accumulated. The procedure was developed for extraction of radioactive atoms and preparing the solution that permits to obtain during 1-1.5 h after the end of irradiation the specimen which satisfies all pharmacopeia requirements. It follows from the results that using small-size electron accelerators with the beam energy up to 25 MeV permits to organize economical and large-scale production of high quality radioactive specimen of 123 I for servicing a large region of this country. 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Calculated differential secondary-particle production cross sections after nonelastic neutron interactions with carbon and oxygen between 15 and 60 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Prael, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Calculated values are given for double-differential (energy/angle) cross sections for the nonelastic production of hydrogen and helium isotopes and heavier-mass recoils, after the interaction of 15- to 60-MeV neutrons with carbon and oxygen. The data are calculated with an intranuclear cascade code, including alpha clustering and particle pickup, followed by a Fermi-breakup mechanism, incorporating decay via intermediate particle-unstable states. The predictions have been extensively tested against available experimental data in this energy/mass range. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  11. Production of americium isotopes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Nguyen, T.H.; Lecomte, M.

    1984-12-01

    The program of productions of americium 241 and 243 isotopes is based respectively on the retreatment of aged plutonium alloys or plutonium dioxide and on the treatment of plutonium targets irradiated either in CELESTIN reactors for Pu-Al alloys or OSIRIS reactor for plutonium 242 dioxide. All the operations, including americium final purifications, are carried out in hot cells equipped with remote manipulators. The chemical processes are based on the use of extraction chromatography with hydrophobic SiO 2 impregnated with extracting agents. Plutonium targets and aged plutonium alloys are dissolved in nitric acid using conventional techniques while plutonium dioxide dissolutions are performed routine at 300 grams scale with electrogenerated silver II in 4M HNO 3 at room temperature. The separation between plutonium and americium is performed by extraction of Pu(IV) either on TBP/SiO 2 or TOAHNO 3 /SiO 2 column. Americium recovery from waste streams rid of plutonium is realized by chromatographic extraction of Am(III) using mainly TBP and episodically DHDECMP as extractant. The final purification of both americium isotopes uses the selective extraction of Am(VI) on HDDiBMP/SiO 2 column at 60 grams scale. Using the overall process a total amount of 1000 grams of americium 241 and 100 grams of americium 243 has been produced nowadays and the AmO 2 final product indicates a purity better than 98.5%

  12. Reactor calculations in aid of isotope production at SAFARI-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, G.

    2003-01-01

    Varying levels of reactor physics support is given to the isotope production industry. As the pressures on both the safety limits and economical production of reactor produced isotopes mount, reactor physics calculational support is playing an ever increasing role. Detailed modelling of the reactor, irradiation rigs and target material enables isotope production in reactors to be maximised with respect to yields and quality. NECSA's methodology in this field is described and some examples are given. (author)

  13. Production of krypton isotopes by (p,xn) reactions on bromine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiengmai, S.N.; Hans, L.; Petter, M.

    1976-06-01

    Radioactive isotopes of the halogens are of great importance when preparing radiopharmaceuticals. 77 Br has mainly been produced by a direct reaction 75 As(α,2n) 77 Br. Recently an indirect way, producing 77 Kr which then decays to 77 Br, has been suggested. Since this provides a convenient method of separation this work develops this idea further making use of high energy protons on bromine Br(p,xn) 77 Kr→ 77 Br. The production cross-section for this reaction has been studied in the proton-energy interval of 20-80 MeV and the optimal production procedures considered. (Auth.)

  14. Beam dynamics studies of a 30 MeV RF linac for neutron production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B.; Krishnagopal, S.; Acharya, S.

    2018-02-01

    Design of a 30 MeV, 10 Amp RF linac as neutron source has been carried out by means of ASTRA simulation code. Here we discuss details of design simulations for three different cases i.e Thermionic , DC and RF photocathode guns and compare them as injectors to a 30 MeV RF linac for n-ToF production. A detailed study on choice of input parameters of the beam from point of view of transmission efficiency and beam quality at the output have been described. We found that thermionic gun isn't suitable for this application. Both DC and RF photocathode gun can be used. RF photocathode gun would be of better performance.

  15. Plasma production for the 50 MeV plasma lens experiment at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.; van der Geer, B.; de Loos, M.; Conde, M.; Govil, R.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1994-06-01

    The Center for Beam Physics at LBL has constructed a Beam Test Facility (BTF) housing a 50 MeV electron beam transport line, which uses the linac injector from the Advanced Light Source, and a terawatt Ti:Al 2 O 3 laser system. The linac operates at 50 MeV and generates 15 ps long electron bunches containing a charge of up to 2 nC. The measured unnormalized beam emittance is 0.33 mm-mrad. These parameters allow for a comprehensive study of focusing of relativistic electron beams with plasma columns, in both the overdense and underdense regime (adiabatic and tapered lenses). A study of adiabatic and/or tapered lenses requires careful control of plasma density and scale lengths of the plasma. We present experimental results on the production of plasmas through resonant two-photon ionization, with parameters relevant to an upcoming plasma lens experiment

  16. The investigation of deuteron production double differential cross section induced by 392 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kin, Tadahiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Imamura, Minoru

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the deuteron productions from 392 MeV proton induced reaction for target nuclei of 12 C, 27 Al, 93 Nb. Deuteron production double differential cross sections were determined over a broad energy range and scattered angles from 20 to 105 degrees in laboratory system. Those spectra were compared with two theoretical models; Quantum Molecular Dynamics model and Intranuclear Cascade model. We developed the code of Intra Nuclear Cascade model and we've got good results to reproduce the experimental data. (author)

  17. Calculation of nucleon production cross sections for 200 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Mittig, W.

    1997-01-01

    The differential neutron and proton production cross sections have been investigated for 200 MeV incident deuterons on thin and thick 9 Be, 56 Fe and 238 U targets using the LAHET code system. The examples of the deuteron beam on different target materials are analysed to determine the differences of converting the energy of the beam into the nucleons produced. Both double differential, energy and angle integrated nuclear production cross sections are presented together with the average nucleon multiplicities per incident deuteron. (K.A.)

  18. Calculation of nucleon production cross sections for 200 MeV deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridikas, D.; Mittig, W.

    1997-12-31

    The differential neutron and proton production cross sections have been investigated for 200 MeV incident deuterons on thin and thick {sup 9}Be, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 238}U targets using the LAHET code system. The examples of the deuteron beam on different target materials are analysed to determine the differences of converting the energy of the beam into the nucleons produced. Both double differential, energy and angle integrated nuclear production cross sections are presented together with the average nucleon multiplicities per incident deuteron. (K.A.). 31 refs.

  19. Theoretical estimation of "6"4Cu production with neutrons emitted during "1"8F production with a 30 MeV medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auditore, Lucrezia; Amato, Ernesto; Baldari, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This work presents the theoretical estimation of a combined production of "1"8F and "6"4Cu isotopes for PET applications. "6"4Cu production is induced in a secondary target by neutrons emitted during a routine "1"8F production with a 30 MeV cyclotron: protons are used to produce "1"8F by means of the "1"8O(p,n)"1"8F reaction on a ["1"8O]-H_2O target (primary target) and the emitted neutrons are used to produce "6"4Cu by means of the "6"4Zn(n,p)"6"4Cu reaction on enriched zinc target (secondary target). Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using Monte Carlo N Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code to evaluate flux and energy spectra of neutrons produced in the primary (Be+["1"8O]-H_2O) target by protons and the attenuation of neutron flux in the secondary target. "6"4Cu yield was estimated using an analytical approach based on both TENDL-2015 data library and experimental data selected from EXFOR database. Results: Theoretical evaluations indicate that about 3.8 MBq/μA of "6"4Cu can be obtained as a secondary, ‘side’ production with a 30 MeV cyclotron, for 2 h of irradiation of a proper designed zinc target. Irradiating for 2 h with a proton current of 120 μA, a yield of about 457 MBq is expected. Moreover, the most relevant contaminants result to be "6"3","6"5Zn, which can be chemically separated from "6"4Cu contrarily to what happens with proton irradiation of an enriched "6"4Ni target, which provides "6"4Cu mixed to other copper isotopes as contaminants. Conclusions: The theoretical study discussed in this paper evaluates the potential of the combined production of "1"8F and "6"4Cu for medical purposes, irradiating a properly designed target with 30 MeV protons. Interesting yields of "6"4Cu are obtainable and the estimation of contaminants in the irradiated zinc target is discussed. - Highlights: • "6"4Cu production with secondary neutrons from "1"8F production with protons was investigated. • Neutron reactions induced in enriched "6"4Zn

  20. Doubly coherent production of π- by 3He ions of 910 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, E.; Fassnacht, P.; Hibou, F.; Chiavassa, E.; Dellacasa, G.; Gallio, M.; Musso, A.; Bressani, T.; Puddu, G.

    1979-01-01

    The inclusive pion spectrum from the reaction 3 He+ 6 Li → π - +X at 910 MeV was measured at 0 0 with moderate resolution up to the kinematic limit of the two-body final-state reaction. A first analysis shows that the production of high-energy pions cannot be explained by the NN → NNπ process using conventional nucleon momentum distributions. At the end of the spectrum a clear deviation from the general falloff slope is observed and attributed to the doubly coherent reaction 3 He+ 6 Li → 9 C+π -

  1. Total K-vacancy production in Ne (10 MeV) traversing Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, K.O.; Kolb, B.; Schader, J.; Sevier, K.D.

    1976-01-01

    Deexcitation of projectile inner shell vacancies created while traversing a solid foil may take place via competing processes: a) vacancy sharing with foil atoms in close impacts, b) radiative and non-radiative electron capture, and c) such X-ray and Auger electron transitions are possible in the heavy ion projectile. The change in K-vacancy creation with foil thickness can be investigated by measuring either projectile or target X-rays where the vacancies are created by Coulomb excitation and process a. In the system Ne (10 MeV) on Al, detecting Al K X-rays, the Ne K-vacancy production probability has been determined. (orig.) [de

  2. Differential production cross sections for charged particles produced by 590 MeV proton bombardment of thin metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Cierjacks, S.; Hino, Y.; Raupp, F.; Rainbow, M.T.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Buth, L.

    1981-01-01

    Differential production cross sections have been measured for the reactions (p,p), (p,d), (p,t) and (p,π+-) using the 590 MeV proton beam at SIN. Here we report measurements made on thin targets of aluminium, niobium, lead, and uranium at laboratory angles of 90 0 and 157 0 . The data were taken over a proton energy range of about 50 MeV to 590 MeV. Differential cross sections are reported along with predictions by the intranuclear-cascade/evaporation model as computed by HETC. (orig.)

  3. Isotopes for the improvement of industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze-Kraft, P.

    1978-01-01

    Full text: For many years the International Atomic Energy Agency has been giving technical assistance to developing countries on the application of radioisotopes in medicine, agriculture and hydrology. With increasing industrialization, these countries feel a growing need for the use of isotopic methods as a means of improving the control of production processes and the quality of industrial products. In response to the demand for training in this field, the IAEA recently held its first Regional Training Course in the Practical Use of Radioisotope Techniques in Industry for Process and Quality Control. The course was given from 27 March to 28 April 1978 at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) in Caracas, Venezuela, in co-operation with the Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear (CONAN) and the Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena. It was financed jointly by the IAEA and CONAN, and in addition received a special contribution by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. Participants were 18 engineers and physicists from Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, and the lecturers came from Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland and the host country. Course directors were Dr. J.J. Henriquez (IVIC) and Dr. L. Wiesner (IAEA expert). The idea of the course was to demonstrate that radioisotope techniques can considerably reduce production costs by optimizing industrial processes and making more efficient use of raw materials. It is estimated that the paper industry in the USA, for example, is saving about 100 million dollars per year through the application of radioisotopes. During the training course, the participants gained practical experience in applying isotopic techniques in several fields: in a paper mill at Moron they measured the weight per surface area, and in the cement factory of Ocumare del Tuy the residence time of clinker, at the new international airport of Maiquetia they determined the

  4. A proposed standard on medical isotope production in fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenter, R. E.; Brown, G. J.; Holden, C. S.

    2006-01-01

    Authors Robert E. Sehenter, Garry Brown and Charles S. Holden argue that a Standard for 'Medical Isotope Production' is needed. Medical isotopes are becoming major components of application for the diagnosis and treatment of all the major diseases including all forms of cancer, heart disease, arthritis, Alzheimer's, among others. Current nuclear data to perform calculations is incomplete, dated or imprecise or otherwise flawed for many isotopes that could have significant applications in medicine. Improved data files will assist computational analyses to design means and methods for improved isotope production techniques in the fission reactor systems. Initial focus of the Standard is expected to be on neutron cross section and branching data for both fast and thermal reactor systems. Evaluated and reviewed tables giving thermal capture cross sections and resonance integrals for the major target and product medical isotopes would be the expected 'first start' for the 'Standard Working Group'. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of the (n,p) cross sections of natural Ti and its isotopes from thresholds to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersillon, O.; Philis, C.; Smith, D.; Smith, A.

    1977-01-01

    The titanium isotopes (n,p) cross sections are based upon renormalized experimental data or deduced from statistical model calculations where measurements were not available. Some of these cross sections, notably the 46 Ti (n,p), 47 Ti (n,p) and 48 Ti (n,p), which find wide use as dosimetry indicators, are compared here with the corresponding ENDF/BIV dosimetry file data. The (n,p) elemental cross section is constructed from the weighted isotopic components. Our evaluation and the corresponding ENDF/BIV data are compared showing the great difference between both results, especially below 10 MeV. Moreover the new data exhibit some structure characteristics of the 47 Ti (n,p) cross section. The present Ti (n,p) data are intended to be included in the ENDF/BV evaluation

  6. Analyzing powers and isotope ratios for the natAg(rvec p, intermediate-mass fragment) reaction at 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renshaw, E.; Yennello, S.J.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Planeta, R.; Woo, L.W.; Viola, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzing powers and isotope ratios have been measured for ejectiles with Z≤7 emitted at forward angles in the 200-MeV rvec p+ nat Ag reaction. The observed analyzing powers are consistent with zero, and thus do not provide evidence for a significant contribution from cluster knockout, or similar direct formation mechanisms. Fragment kinetic-energy spectra above the Coulomb peak are compared with a coalescence calculation. The isotopic composition of the elemental kinetic-energy spectra is found to favor N/Z≥1 nuclei for fragment energies near the exit-channel Coulomb energy, whereas species with N/Z≤1 are more abundant in the high-energy spectral tails. This behavior is consistent with the predictions of an accreting source calculation

  7. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 2 to 10 MeV protons by lithium isotopes; Diffusion elastique et inelastique des protons de 2 a 10 MeV par les isotopes du lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurat, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the experimental set-up which has been devised for carrying out spectrometric and absolute cross-section measurements on the reactions induced by protons accelerated in a 12 MeV Van de Graaff Tandem. The particles are detected by silicon junctions; the weight of the targets (about ten {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) is determined by the quartz method. The experimental equipment has been controlled by a study of proton scattering by lithium-6, and has made it possible to evaluate the elastic and inelastic scattering (1. level excitation) by lithium 7 of 2 to 9 MeV protons. The most probable spin and parity values for the six levels of {sup 8}Be between 19 and 25 MeV excitation energy have been determined from a knowledge of the observed structure. (author) [French] Nous decrivons le dispositif experimental mis au point pour effectuer les mesures de spectrometrie et de section efficace absolue pour les reactions induites par des protons acceleres par un Van de Graaff Tandem 12 MeV. Les particules sont detectees par des jonctions au silicium, le poids des cibles (de l'ordre d'une dizaine de {mu}g/cm{sup 2}), mesure par la methode du quartz. L'ensemble de l'appareillage a ete controle par l'etude de la diffusion des protons par le lithium 6, et nous a permis de preciser les diffusions elastiques et inelastiques (excitation du 1er niveau) des protons de 2 a 9 MeV par le lithium 7. La structure observee a permis de determiner les spin et parite les plus probables de six niveaux du {sup 8}Be entre 19 et 25 MeV d'energie d'excitation. (auteur)

  8. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 2 to 10 MeV protons by lithium isotopes; Diffusion elastique et inelastique des protons de 2 a 10 MeV par les isotopes du lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurat, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the experimental set-up which has been devised for carrying out spectrometric and absolute cross-section measurements on the reactions induced by protons accelerated in a 12 MeV Van de Graaff Tandem. The particles are detected by silicon junctions; the weight of the targets (about ten {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) is determined by the quartz method. The experimental equipment has been controlled by a study of proton scattering by lithium-6, and has made it possible to evaluate the elastic and inelastic scattering (1. level excitation) by lithium 7 of 2 to 9 MeV protons. The most probable spin and parity values for the six levels of {sup 8}Be between 19 and 25 MeV excitation energy have been determined from a knowledge of the observed structure. (author) [French] Nous decrivons le dispositif experimental mis au point pour effectuer les mesures de spectrometrie et de section efficace absolue pour les reactions induites par des protons acceleres par un Van de Graaff Tandem 12 MeV. Les particules sont detectees par des jonctions au silicium, le poids des cibles (de l'ordre d'une dizaine de {mu}g/cm{sup 2}), mesure par la methode du quartz. L'ensemble de l'appareillage a ete controle par l'etude de la diffusion des protons par le lithium 6, et nous a permis de preciser les diffusions elastiques et inelastiques (excitation du 1er niveau) des protons de 2 a 9 MeV par le lithium 7. La structure observee a permis de determiner les spin et parite les plus probables de six niveaux du {sup 8}Be entre 19 et 25 MeV d'energie d'excitation. (auteur)

  9. Design study of an ultra-compact superconducting cyclotron for isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.; Vincent, J.

    2014-11-01

    A 12.5 MeV, 25 μA, proton compact superconducting cyclotron for medical isotope production has been designed and is currently in fabrication. The machine is initially aimed at producing 13N ammonia for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) cardiology applications. With an ultra-compact size and cost-effective price point, this system will offer clinicians unprecedented access to the preferred radiopharmaceutical isotope for cardiac PET imaging. A systems approach that carefully balanced the subsystem requirements coupled to precise beam dynamics calculations was followed. The system is designed to irradiate a liquid target internal to the cyclotron and to minimize the need for radiation shielding. The main parameters of the cyclotron, its design, and principal steps of the development work are presented here.

  10. Determination of the optimal conditions for simultaneous production of 73SE and 75SE radioisotopes in a 30 MeV cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejman Rowshanfazad; Amirreza Jalilian; Mahsheed Sabet

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: 73 Se and 75 Se radioisotopes are widely used in medicine, industry and agriculture. 75 Se is used in high activity brachytherapy (1), assessment of pancreatic exocrine function (2, 3), study of bile acids and evaluation of illeal function (4, 5, 6), industrial radiography (7, 8) and as a tracer in the assessment of chemical, biochemical, biophysical processes, metabolic research and agricultural studies. 73 Se is used in pancreas scanning (9), hyperthyroidism diagnosis(10), adrenal scanning (11), tumor detection (12, 13, 14), detection of brain dopamine receptors (15), parathyroid tumor detection (10) and detection of brain blood flow (16). These radioisotopes were selected to be produced in the country according to their wide range of applications. The idea of simultaneous production of 73 Se and 75 Se arouse after the completion of primary studies. Important physical characteristics of these radioisotopes are shown in table l. Methods: 1 Selection of the Best Reaction. Various nuclear reactions which may be used for the production of 73 Se and 75 Se are shown in table 2 (17, 18, 19). Among the above reactions, those which use α and 3 He as the projectile particles were discarded since high energy and high intensity beams of α and 3 He are not available in the country at present. Those reactions which used 74 Se and 76 Se as the target material could not be used, since these isotopes have low isotopic values (0.87% and 9.02% respectively), and their chemical separation processes are difficult, expensive and time-taking, due to the equal chemical properties of the product and the target material (20). Thus 75 As(p, n) 75 Se seemed to be the most appropriate reaction for the production of 75 Se. The 75 As(d, 4n) 73 Se reaction is not as suitable as 75 As(p, 3n) 73 Se, because of the lower radionuclidic purity of the product (18). Thus the best reaction for the production of 73 Se was determined to be 75 As(p, 3n) 73 Se. There was no need for an isotopic

  11. Isotope methods for the control of food products and beverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillou, C; Reniero, F [Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    The measurement of the stable isotope contents provides useful information for the detection of many frauds in food products. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isotopic ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS) are the two main analytical techniques used for the determination of stable isotope contents in food products. These analytical techniques have been considerably improved in the last years offering wider possibilities of applications for food analysis. A review of the applications for the control of food products and beverages is presented. The need for new reference materials is discussed. (author)

  12. Isotope methods for the control of food products and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, C.; Reniero, F.

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of the stable isotope contents provides useful information for the detection of many frauds in food products. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isotopic ratio mass spectroscopy (IRMS) are the two main analytical techniques used for the determination of stable isotope contents in food products. These analytical techniques have been considerably improved in the last years offering wider possibilities of applications for food analysis. A review of the applications for the control of food products and beverages is presented. The need for new reference materials is discussed. (author)

  13. Simulation study of neutron production in thick beryllium targets by 35 MeV and 50.5 MeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun

    2017-09-01

    A data-driven nuclear model dedicated to an accurate description of neutron productions in beryllium targets bombarded by proton beams is developed as a custom development that can be used as an add-on to GEANT4 code. The developed model, G4Data(Endf7.1), takes as inputs the total and differential cross section data of ENDF/B-VII.1 for not only the charge-exchange 9Be(p,n)9B reaction which produces discrete neutrons but also the nuclear reactions relevant for the production of continuum neutrons such as 9Be(p,pn)8Be and 9Be(p,n α) 5Li . In our benchmarking simulations for two experiments with 35 MeV and 50.5 MeV proton beams impinged on 1.16 and 1.05 cm thick beryllium targets, respectively, we find that the G4Data(Endf7.1) model can reproduce both the total amounts and the spectral shapes of the measured neutron yield data in a satisfactory manner, while all the considered hadronic models of GEANT4 cannot.

  14. Measurements of hydrogen and helium isotopes emission spectra from neutrons induced reaction at ten's of MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauchi, Yasushi; Baba, Mamoru; Hirasawa, Yoshitaka

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range spectrometer for the measurements of (n, xZ) double differential cross sections (DDXs) for ten's of MeV neutrons at TIARA. The spectrometer consists of a 40-cm diameter vacuum reaction chamber and three counter telescopes. Each telescope consists of a gas proportional counter, an SSD and a BaF 2 scintillator. By using the spectrometer, we achieved simultaneous measurements from ∼MeV α particles to 75 MeV protons with an acceptable counting rate. (author)

  15. Basic Research and Feasibility Study of Radioisotope Production using 100 MeV Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, K. H.; Yoon, K. S.; Cho, W. J.; Park, S. I.; Han, H. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jeon, K. S.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, T. K.

    2010-04-01

    Results of the project are various nuclei, such as 82 Rb, 68 Ga, 67 Cu, 22 Na and so on, can be produced by irradiating 100 MeV proton beam, by irradiating proton beam to the nat Ga target, the 68 Ge, mother nucleus of positron emitting 68 Ga, is produced based on the nat Ga(p,x) 68 Ge reaction, the target system for the high-energy of proton beam can produce more than 2 species of radioisotope at the same time by employing tandem targets, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator, 82 Sr(25.34d)/ 82 Rb generator - 67 Cu production method, 70 Zn electroplating technology based on the electrochemistry, the container, whose weight is about 3 ton, is made by depleted uranium and because of the unstable situation for the supply and demand of reactor produced radioisotope, the need for the cyclotron produced radioisotopes is dramatically increased all over the world.

  16. Production of noble gas isotopes by proton-induced reactions on bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leya, I.; David, J.-C.; Leray, S.; Wieler, R.; Michel, R.

    2008-01-01

    We measured integral thin target cross sections for the proton-induced production of He-, Ne-, Ar-, Kr- and Xe-isotopes from bismuth (Bi) from the respective reaction thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. Here we present 275 cross sections for 23 nuclear reactions. The production of noble gas isotopes from Bi is of special importance for design studies of accelerator driven systems (EA/ADS) and nuclear spallation sources. For experiments with proton energies above 200 MeV the mini-stack approach was used instead of the stacked-foil technique in order to minimise the influences of secondary particles on the residual nuclide production. Comparing the cross sections for Bi to the data published recently for Pb indicates that for 4 He the cross sections for Bi below 200 MeV are up to a factor of 2-3 higher than the Pb data, which can be explained by the production of α-decaying Po-isotopes from Bi but not from Pb. Some of the cross sections for the production of 21 Ne from Bi are affected by recoil effects from neighboured Al-foils, which compromises a study of a possible lowering of the effective Coulomb-barrier. The differences in the excitation functions between Pb and Bi for Kr- and Xe-isotopes can be explained by energy-dependent higher fission cross sections for Bi compared to Pb. The experimental data are compared to results from the theoretical nuclear model codes INCL4/ABLA and TALYS. The INCL4/ABLA system describes the cross sections for the production of 4 He-, Kr- and Xe-isotopes reasonably well, i.e. mostly within a factor of a few. In contrast, the model completely fails describing 21 Ne, 22 Ne, 36 Ar and 38 Ar, which are produced via spallation and/or multifragmentation. The TALYS code is only able to accurately predict reaction thresholds. The absolute values are either significantly over- or underestimated. Consequently, the comparison of measured and modelled thin target cross sections clearly indicates that experimental data are still needed because the

  17. Gamma-ray production cross sections for MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Hideo; Harima, Yoshiko; Yamakoshi, Hisao; Sano, Yuji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross section and spectra for 1- to 20-MeV neutrons were theoretically obtained, which were requested for heating calculations, for shielding design calculations, and for material damage estimates. Calculations were carried out for Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Nb, Ta, Au, and Pb, using a spin-dependent evaporation model without the parity conservation and including the dipole and quardupole gamma-ray transitions. The results were compared with the experimental data measured in ORNL to confirm the availability of this model in applications. In addition, the effects on the gamma-ray production cross section of the optical potential, level density, yrast level, and radiation width were investigated in detail. The conclusions are: 1) the use of the optical potential which gives the correct total reaction cross section is essential to gamma-ray production calculations, 2) the gamma-ray production cross section is not so sensitive to the choice of level density parameters, 3) the inclusion of yrast levels is necessary in dealing with the competition of the neutron and gamma-ray emissions from highly excited states, and 4) the Brink-Axel type's radiation width is unsuitable to be applied to radiative capture processes. (author)

  18. Isotope Production at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammoniums

    1999-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request from the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) subcommittee on ''Long-Term Isotope Research and Production Plans.'' The NERAC subcommittee has asked for a reply to a number of questions regarding (1) ''How well does the Department of Energy (DOE) infrastructure sme the need for commercial and medical isotopes?'' and (2) ''What should be the long-term role of the federal government in providing commercial and medical isotopes?' Our report addresses the questions raised by the NERAC subcommittee, and especially the 10 issues that were raised under the first of the above questions (see Appendix). These issues are related to the isotope products offered by the DOE Isotope Production Sites, the capabilities and condition of the facilities used to produce these products, the management of the isotope production programs at DOE laboratories, and the customer service record of the DOE Isotope Production sites. An important component of our report is a description of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor at the Hbford Site and the future plans for its utilization as a source of radioisotopes needed by nuclear medicine physicians, by researchers, and by customers in the commercial sector. In response to the second question raised by the NERAC subcommittee, it is our firm belief that the supply of isotopes provided by DOE for medical, industrial, and research applications must be strengthened in the near future. Many of the radioisotopes currently used for medical diagnosis and therapy of cancer and other diseases are imported from Canada, Europe, and Asia. This situation places the control of isotope availability, quality, and pricing in the hands of non-U.S. suppliers. It is our opinion that the needs of the U.S. customers for isotopes and isotope products are not being adequately served, and that the DOE infrastructure and facilities devoted to the

  19. Possibilities for the production of non-stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlliure, J.; Enqvist, T.; Junghans, A.R.; Ricciardi, V.; Schmidt, K.H.; Farget, F.

    1999-04-01

    The production of neutron-rich isotopes is discussed in terms of the two main reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of these nuclei, projectile fragmentation and fission. Production cross sections are calculated for cold-fragmentation and fission. The expected yields are estimated taking into account different technical approaches actually discussed for the production of radioactive beams. (orig.)

  20. Determination of photooxygenation products of rotenone with isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubachi, Mitsuo; Hamada, Masayuki

    1975-01-01

    When rotenone dissolved in certain solvent was photochemically oxidized, rotenolones, dehydrorotenone and rotenonone were obtained as main products. In order to determine the quantitative yields of these compounds in photooxygenation products, four compounds mentioned above were labeled with carbon-14 and the isotope dilution method by these labeled compounds was applied to the product analysis. (auth.)

  1. Production and investigation of tungsten α emitters including the new isotopes, 165W and 166W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.; Schmidt-Ott, W.; Bingham, C.R.; Ijaz, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron-deficient tungsten isotopes were produced by bombarding an enriched 156 Dy target with 16 O ions accelerated in the Oak Ridge isochronous cyclotron. A gas-jet-capillary system was used to transport product nuclei to an area where their α-decay properties could be investigated. The data of Eastham and Grant concerning 162 , 163 , 164 W were confirmed. In addition, two new weak α groups were observed. On the basis of excitation functions, 14 N + 156 Dy cross bombardments, and α-decay energy systematics they were assigned to the new isotopes 165 W and 166 W. Their decay properties are as follows: (1) 165 W, E/sub alpha/ = 4.909 plus-or-minus 0.005 MeV, T 1 / 2 = 5.1 plus-or-minus 0.5 sec, and (2) 166 W, E/sub alpha/ = 4.739 plus-or-minus 0.005 MeV, T 1 / 2 = 16 plus-or-minus 3 sec

  2. Thick target spallation product yields from 800 MeV protons on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, J.L.; Staples, P.; Butler, G.

    1994-01-01

    A number of newly-conceived accelerator based technologies will employ medium-energy particles stopping in thick targets to produce large numbers of neutrons. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides in the target because one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects of accidental dispersion during operation. Because stopping-length targets are considered, radionuclide production must be known as a function of energy. Moreover, secondary particle production, mostly neutrons, implies a need to be able to calculate particle transport. To test the overall ability to calculate radionuclide yields, a thick-target measurement was carried out and the results compared to detailed calculations. Although numerous measurements of thin-target spallation yields have been made, there have been only a few measurements on thick systems. The most complete study showed results for Pb and U systems. In this contribution, the authors report on measurements made for a stopping-length W target. Special efforts were made to measure short-lived isotopes, and reliable data on isotopes with two or three minute half-lives were obtained

  3. Study of two photon production process in proton-proton collisions at 216 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrykin, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The energy spectrum for high energy γ-rays (Eγ ≥ 10 MeV) from the process pp → γγX emitted at 90 deg. in the laboratory frame has been measured at 216 MeV. The resulting photon energy spectrum extracted from γ - γ coincidence events consists of a narrow peak (5.3σ) at a photon energy of about 24 MeV and a relatively broad peak (3.5σ) in the energy range of (50 - 70) MeV. This behavior of the photon energy spectrum is interpreted as a signature of the exotic dibaryon resonance d 1 * with a mass of about 1956 MeV which is assumed to be formed in the radiative process pp → γd 1 * followed by its electromagnetic decay via the d 1 * → ppγ mode. The experimental spectrum is compared with those obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulations

  4. Spectroscopic study of {sup 206,207,208}Pb isotopes by high resolution analysis of 24.5 MeV proton scattering; Etude spectroscopique des isotopes 206, 207 et 208 du plomb par analyse a haute resolution de la diffusion de protons de 24,5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    {sup 206,207,208}pb have been studied by 24.5 MeV proton inelastic scattering with a resolution of 20 keV. The angular distributions of the differential cross-sections corresponding to the different excited levels have been measured in a large angular region and analysed with the DWBA.This work shows that it exists between 4 and 5 MeV of excitation energy some strongly excited levels corresponding to transfer momenta l = 2, 4, 6 and 8. The single particle-hole models do not explain these states; so it will probably be necessary to introduce some several particle - hole configurations. (author) [French] Les isotopes 206, 207 et 208 du plomb ont ete etudies par diffusion inelastique de protons de 24,5 MeV avec une resolution de 20 keV. Les distributions angulaires des sections efficaces differentielles correspondant aux differents niveaux excites ont ete mesurees sur un large domaine angulaire et analysees a l'aide de la DWBA. Ce travail met en evidence l'existence, entre 4 et 5 MeV d'excitation, de niveaux fortement excites correspondant a des moments de transfert de 2, 4, 6 et 8. Les modeles a simple particule-trou ne rendant pas compte de ces niveaux, il faudra sans doute recourir a des configurations a plusieurs particules-trous pour les expliquer. (auteur)

  5. Light-Ion Production in the Interaction of 96 MeV Neutrons with Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippawan, U.; Dangtip, S.; Pomp, S.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Oesterlund, M.; Nilsson, L.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Corcalciuc, V.; Watanabe, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation effects induced by terrestrial cosmic rays in microelectronics, on board aircrafts as well as at sea level, have recently attracted much attention. The most important particle radiation is due to spallation neutrons, created in the atmosphere by cosmic-ray protons. When, e.g., an electronic memory circuit is exposed to neutron radiation, charged particles can be produced in a nuclear reaction. The charge released by ionization can cause a flip of the memory content in a bit, which is called a single-event upset (SEU). This induces no hardware damage to the circuit, but unwanted re-programming of memories, CPUs, etc., can have consequences for the reliability, and ultimately also for the safety of the system.Data on energy and angular distributions of the secondary particles produced by neutrons in silicon nuclei are essential input for analyses and calculation of SEU rate. In this work, double-differential cross sections of inclusive light-ion (p, d, t, 3He and α) production in silicon, induced by 96 MeV neutrons, are presented. Energy distributions are measured at eight laboratory angles from 20 deg. to 160 deg. in steps of 20 deg. Deduced energy-differential and production cross sections are reported as well. Experimental cross sections are compared to theoretical reaction model calculations and existing experimental data in the literature

  6. 600 MeV Simulation of the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Meteorites by Galactic Protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A large variety of stable and radioactive nuclides is produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays with extraterrestrial matter. Measurements of such cosmogenic nuclides provide information about the constancy of cosmic ray fluxes in space and time and about the irradiation history of individual extraterrestrial objects provided that there exist reliable models describing the production process. For the calculation of the depth dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites no satisfactory Therefore, the irradiation of small stony meteorites (radii~$<$~40~cm) by galactic protons is simulated in a series of thick target irradiation experiments at the 600~MeV proton beam of the SC. \\\\ \\\\ The thick targets are spheres (R = 5, 15, 25 cm) and are made out of diorite because of its low water content, its high density (3.0~g/cm|3) and because it provides a good approximation of the chemical composition of some common meteorite clas These spheres will also contain a wide variety of pure...

  7. Charged pion production from neutron--proton collisions at 790 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.

    1977-09-01

    The two reactions np → nnπ + and np → ppπ - were studied at 790 MeV (incident neutron energy). Pion spectra were measured at 10 different angles with a multiwire proportional chamber spectrometer. Approximately 100,000 events were analyzed. The angular distribution of pions in the np center of momentum system (d sigma/dΩ*) was given by [(123.1 +- 2.7) + (88.3 +- 4.9)cos 2 (theta*)](μb/sr). The cross section sigma(np → NNπ/sup +-/) was determined to be 1.92 +- .20 mb by integrating (d sigma/dΩ*) over all angles. The partial cross section for pion production from T = 0 np interactions (sigma 01 ) was found to be .1/sub -.1//sup +.5/ mb by using the relation sigma 01 = 2sigma(np → NNπ/sup +-)--sigma(pp → ppπ 0 ). Stronger indications of nonresonant pion production were given by the presence of asymmetries between the positive and negative pion spectra and a comparison of the data with an isobar model calculation

  8. Product conveying system for 10 MeV electron beam accelerator for electron beam centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.; Lavale, D.S.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Khader, S.A.; Assadullah, M.; Sabharwal, S.

    2003-01-01

    In industrial radiation processing applications using accelerators, product conveying system plays a vital role in exposing the product to high energy electron beam for imparting specified dose to the product and delivering required through puts. The speed of the conveyor corresponds to a definite time of exposure of the product in the radiation zone. Design of suitable conveyor system for a variety of products with differing dose requirements call for a conveyor with wide speed range. This paper discusses the design features of a suitable under beam conveyor system for 10 MeV, 10 kW accelerator for processing a range of products including medical and food products

  9. The fission cross section ratios and error analysis for ten thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium isotopes at 14. 74 MeV neutron energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, J.W.

    1987-03-01

    The error information from the recent measurements of the fission cross section ratios of nine isotopes, /sup 230/Th, /sup 232/Th, /sup 233/U, /sup 234/U, /sup 236/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu, relative to /sup 235/U at 14.74 MeV neutron energy was used to calculate their correlations. The remaining 36 non-trivial and non-reciprocal cross section ratios and their errors were determined and compared to evaluated (ENDF/B-V) values. There are serious differences but it was concluded that the reduction of three of the evaluated cross sections would remove most of them. The cross sections to be reduced are /sup 230/Th - 13%, /sup 237/Np - 9.6% and /sup 239/Pu - 7.6%. 5 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. The fission cross section ratios and error analysis for ten thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium isotopes at 14.74 MeV neutron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.

    1987-03-01

    The error information from the recent measurements of the fission cross section ratios of nine isotopes, 230 Th, 232 Th, 233 U, 234 U, 236 U, 238 U, 237 Np, 239 Pu, and 242 Pu, relative to 235 U at 14.74 MeV neutron energy was used to calculate their correlations. The remaining 36 non-trivial and non-reciprocal cross section ratios and their errors were determined and compared to evaluated (ENDF/B-V) values. There are serious differences but it was concluded that the reduction of three of the evaluated cross sections would remove most of them. The cross sections to be reduced are 230 Th - 13%, 237 Np - 9.6% and 239 Pu - 7.6%. 5 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Exploratory study of fission product yield determination from photofission of 239Pu at 11 MeV with monoenergetic photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Tornow, W.; Krishichayan, Tonchev, A. P.

    2017-02-01

    Measurements of fission product yields play an important role for the understanding of fundamental aspects of the fission process. Recently, neutron-induced fission product-yield data of 239Pu at energies below 4 MeV revealed an unexpected energy dependence of certain fission fragments. In order to investigate whether this observation is prerogative to neutron-induced fission, a program has been initiated to measure fission product yields in photoinduced fission. Here we report on the first ever photofission product yield measurement with monoenergetic photons produced by Compton back-scattering of FEL photons. The experiment was performed at the High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory on 239Pu at Eγ=11 MeV. In this exploratory study the yield of eight fission products ranging from 91Sr to 143Ce has been obtained.

  12. On the problem of formation of demand for isotope products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuev, G.F.

    1975-01-01

    A methodological approach to the study of the process of shaping the market for isotope production is considered. The hypothesis was made that 13 main factors affect the demand for isotopic products. To confirm this hypothesis, a priori information was collected by the questionnaire mathod, and it was formalized by a ranking correlation method. By using these methods it is possible to evaluate the factors that affect the demand for isotopic products. The results of the questionnaire were placed in a table which contains the ''combining rank''. The ranks were then re-formed (recalculated), and the results were placed in a matrix table. After verification, the factors were distributed according to the degree of their effect on isotopic product demand. The study is significant only if the average degree of agreement of the opinions of the experts queried is not fortuitous. Therefore the significance of the coefficient of agreement, W, was checked. Based on the coefficients of agreement obtained, it was concluded that the average degree of agreement of all experts questioned on the effect of the individual factors on the demand for isotopic products is high

  13. Measurement of neutron production by 500 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Ban, Shuichi

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of high energy neutrons is difficult, because the cross section data are scarce, the cross section at high energy is usually small, and the monoenergetic neutrons are hardly obtained. At the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), various threshold detectors have been used for high energy neutron measurement. A carbon detector is a standard detector for high energy neutrons, since the cross section of the C 12 (n, 2n) C 11 reaction is almost constant at higher energy than 20 MeV, and the data have been well known. The half-life of the product (C 11 ) is about 20 min, and other activities with longer half-life than 1 min are restricted to Be 7 and C 11 . As a carbon detector, a plastic scintillator is used, and the neutron spectra observed at the Booster Beam Dump Room of KEK are presented. The results of measurements were compared with the calculated results using a Monte Carlo code made at KEK. Agreement between both results was good. (Kato, T.)

  14. Slow positron beam production by a 14 MeV C.W. electron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begemann, M.; Gräff, G.; Herminghaus, H.; Kalinowsky, H.; Ley, R.

    1982-10-01

    A 14 MeV c.w. electron accelerator is used for pair production in a tungsten target of 0.7 radiation lengths thickness. A small fraction of the positrons is thermalized and diffuses out of the surface ofsurface of a well annealed tungsten foil coated with MgO which is positioned immediately behind the target. The slow positrons are extracted from the target region and magnetically guided over a distance of 10 m onto a channelplate multiplier at the end of an S-shaped solenoid. The positrons are identified by their annihilation radiation using two NaI-detectors. The intensity of the slow positrons is proportional to the accelerator electron beam current. The maximum intensity of 2.2 × 10 5 slow positrons per second reaching thedetector at an accelerator current of 15 μA was limited by the power deposited in the uncooled target. The energy of the positrons is concentrated in a small region at about 1 eV and clearly demonstrates the emission of thermal positrons.

  15. Slow positron beam production by a 14 MeV c.w. electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann, M.; Graeff, G.; Herminghaus, H.; Kalinowsky, H.; Ley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A 14 MeV c.w. electron accelerator is used for pair production in a tungsten target of 0.7 radiation lengths thickness. A small fraction of the positrons is thermalized and diffuses out of the surface of a well annealed tungsten foil coated with MgO which is positioned immediately behind the target. The slow positrons are extracted from the target region and magnetically guided over a distance of 10 m onto a channelplate multiplier at the end of an S-shaped solenoid. The positrons are identified by their annihilation radiation using two Nal-detectors. The intensity of the slow positrons is proportional to the accelerator electron beam current. The maximum intensity of 2.2 x 10 5 slow positrons per second reaching the detector at an accelerator current of 15 μA was limited by the power deposited in the uncooled target. The energy of the positrons is concentrated in a small region at about 1 eV and clearly demonstrates the emission of thermal positrons. (orig.)

  16. Reactor production of 252Cf and transcurium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.W.; Halperin, J.; Walker, R.L.; Bigelow, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium are currently produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and recovered in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). All the isotopes are used for research. In addition, 252 Cf, 253 Es, and 255 Fm have been considered or are used for industrial or medical applications. ORNL is the sole producer of these transcurium isotopes in the western world. A wide range of actinide samples were irradiated in special test assemblies at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate the usefulness of the two-group flux model for transmutations in the special assemblies with an eventual goal of determining the feasibility of producing macro amounts of transcurium isotopes in the FFTF. Preliminary results from the production of 254g Es from 252 Cf will be discussed. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Study of the production of neutron-rich isotope beams issuing from fissions induced by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the PARRNe project (production of radioactive neutron-rich isotopes). This project is based on the fission fragments coming from the fission of 238-uranium induced by fast neutrons. The fast neutron flux is produced by the collisions of deutons in a converter. Thick targets of uranium carbide and liquid uranium targets have been designed in order to allow a quick release of fission fragments. A device, able to trap on a cryogenic thimble rare gas released by the target, has allowed the production of radioactive nuclei whose half-life is about 1 second. This installation has been settled to different deuton accelerators in the framework of the European collaboration SPIRAL-2. A calibration experiment has proved the feasibility of fixing an ISOL-type isotope separator to a 15 MV tandem accelerator, this installation can provide 500 nA deutons beams whose energy is 26 MeV and be a valuable tool for studying fast-neutron induced fission. Zinc, krypton, rubidium, cadmium, iodine, xenon and cesium beams have been produced in this installation. The most intense beams reach 10000 nuclei by micro-coulomb for 26 MeV deutons. An extra gain of 2 magnitude orders can be obtained by using a more specific ion source and by increasing the thickness of the target. Another extra gain of 2 magnitude orders involves 100 MeV deutons

  18. The effective management of medical isotope production in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    During the 50-yr history of the use of radioisotopes for medical applications, research reactors have played a pivotal role in the production of many if not most of the key products. The marriage between research reactors and production operations is subject to significant challenges on two fronts. The medical applications of the radioisotope products impose some unique constraints and requirements on the production process. In addition, the mandates and priorities of a research reactor are not always congruent with the demands of a production environment. This paper briefly reviews the historical development of medical isotope production, identifies the unique challenges facing this endeavor, and discusses the management of the relationship between the isotope producer and the research reactor operator. Finally, the key elements of a successful relationship are identified

  19. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes: Environmental Impact Statement, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133 and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition to the preferred alternative, three other reasonable alternatives and a no action alternative are analyzed in detail. The sites for the three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities, of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity

  20. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U, and 239Pu with monoenergetic neutrons between thermal and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Matthew; Arnold, Charles; Bhike, Megha; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Krishichayan; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner; Stoyer, Mark; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements has been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY) have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ionization chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of two months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, 5.5, 7.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV. Preliminary results from thermal irradiations at the MIT research reactor will also be presented and compared to present data and evaluations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory through NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance grant No. DE-FG52-09NA29465, DE-FG52-09NA29448 and Office of Nuclear Physics Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  1. η-meson production in proton-proton collisions at excess energies of 40 and 72 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrén, H.; Bargholtz, Chr.; Bashkanov, M.; Bogoslavsky, D.; Calén, H.; Clement, H.; Demirörs, L.; Ekström, C.; Fransson, K.; Fäldt, G.; Gerén, L.; Höistad, B.; Ivanov, G.; Jacewicz, M.; Jiganov, E.; Johansson, T.; Keleta, S.; Khakimova, O.; Koch, I.; Kren, F.; Kullander, S.; Kupść, A.; Lindberg, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Morosov, B.; Pauly, C.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Schönning, K.; Scobel, W.; Skorodko, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Tegnér, P.-E.; Thörngren Engblom, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Wilkin, C.; Wolke, M.; Zabierowski, J.; Zartova, I.; Złomańczuk, J.

    2010-11-01

    The production of η mesons in proton-proton collisions has been studied using the WASA detector at the CELSIUS storage ring at excess energies of Q=40 MeV and Q=72 MeV. The η was detected through its 2γ decay in a near-4π electromagnetic calorimeter, whereas the protons were measured by a combination of straw chambers and plastic scintillator planes in the forward hemisphere. About 6.9×104 and 9.3×104 events were found at Q=40 MeV and Q=72 MeV, respectively, with background contributions of less than 5%. A simple parametrization of the production cross section in terms of low partial waves was used to evaluate the acceptance corrections. Strong evidence was found for the influence of higher partial waves. The Dalitz plots show the presence of p waves in both the pp and the η{pp} systems and the angular distributions of the η in the center-of-mass frame suggest the influence of d-wave η mesons.

  2. Production of stable isotopes utilizing the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Tarallo, F. J.; Stevenson, N. R.

    2005-12-01

    A plasma separation process (PSP) is being operated at Theragenics Corporation's®, Oak Ridge, TN, facility for the enrichment of stable isotopes. The PSP utilizes ion cyclotron mass discrimination to separate isotopes on a relatively large scale. With a few exceptions, nearly any metallic element could be processed with PSP. Output isotope enrichment factor depends on natural abundance and mass separation and can be fairly high in some cases. The Theragenics™ PSP facility is believed to be the only such process currently in operation. This system was developed and formerly operated under the US Department of Energy Advanced Isotope Separation program. Theragenics™ also has a laboratory at the PSP site capable of harvesting the isotopes from the process and a mass spectrometer system for analyzing enrichment and product purity. Since becoming operational in 2002, Theragenics™ has utilized the PSP to separate isotopes of several elements including: dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, molybdenum and nickel. Currently, Theragenics™ is using the PSP for the separation of 102Pd, which is used as precursor for the production of 103Pd. The 103Pd radioisotope is the active ingredient in TheraSeed®, which is used in the treatment of early stage prostate cancer and being investigated for other medical applications. New industrial, medical and research applications are being investigated for isotopes that can be enriched on the PSP. Pre-enrichment of accelerator or reactor targets offers improved radioisotope production. Theragenics operates 14 cyclotrons for proton activation and has access to HFIR at ORNL for neutron activation of radioisotopes.

  3. A 3He++ RFQ accelerator for the production of PET isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    Project status of the 3He ++ 10.5 MeV RFQ Linear Accelerator for the production of PET isotopes will be presented. The accelerator design was begun in September of 1995 with a goal of completion and delivery of the accelerator to BRF in Shreveport, Louisiana by the summer of 1997. The design effort and construction is concentrated in Lab G on the Fermilab campus. Some of the high lights include a 25 mA peak current 3He' ion source, four RFQ accelerating stages that are powered by surplus Fermilab linac RF stations, a gas jet charge doubler, and a novel 540 degree bending Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT). The machine is designed to operate at 360 Hz repetition rate with a 2.5% duty cycle. The average beam current is expected to be 150-300 micro amperes electrical, 75- 150 micro amperes particle current

  4. Production of a narrow band of 0.511-MeV radiation by use of the PHERMEX bremsstrahlung spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroscio, M.A.

    1976-06-01

    The pair production cross section is numerically integrated over a typical PHERMEX bremsstrahlung spectrum to obtain the probability of pair production in a target of nuclear charge Z, and density rho. The pair production cross section used herein is only approximate in that it neglects screening, neglects the Coulomb field for the emerging pair (first Born approximation), and neglects pair production by atomic electrons. In spite of these approximations, an order-of-magnitude estimate of the amount of 0.511-MeV radiation produced by a typical pulse is still given

  5. Stable Isotope Systematics of Coalbed Gas during Desorption and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Niemann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The stable carbon isotope ratios of coalbed methane (CBM demonstrate diagnostic changes that systematically vary with production and desorption times. These shifts can provide decisive, predictive information on the behaviour and potential performance of CBM operations. Samples from producing CBM wells show a general depletion in 13C-methane with increasing production times and corresponding shifts in δ13C-CH4 up to 35.8‰. Samples from canister desorption experiments show mostly enrichment in 13C for methane with increasing desorption time and isotope shifts of up to 43.4‰. Also, 13C-depletion was observed in some samples with isotope shifts of up to 32.1‰. Overall, the magnitudes of the observed isotope shifts vary considerably between different sample sets, but also within samples from the same source. The δ13C-CH4 values do not have the anticipated signature of methane generated from coal. This indicates that secondary processes, including desorption and diffusion, can influence the values. It is also challenging to deconvolute these various secondary processes because their molecular and isotope effects can have similar directions and/or magnitudes. In some instances, significant alteration of CBM gases has to be considered as a combination of secondary alteration effects.

  6. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99 Mo is the parent isotope of 99m Tc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  7. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99Mo is the parent isotope of 99mTc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  8. Medical-isotope supply hit by production problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Paula

    2008-10-01

    A shortfall in the production of medical isotopes in Europe has forced hospitals to delay patient scans or offer alternative diagnostic tests. The problems began in August when all three nuclear reactors used to generate molybdenum-99, which then decays to form the key nuclear-imaging agent technetium-99, had to be unexpectedly shut down at the same time.

  9. Systematics of new isotopic production cross sections from neon projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.X.; Guzik, T.G.; McMahon, M.; Wefel, J.P.; Flores, I.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Tull, C.E.; Mitchell, J.W.; Cronqvist, M.; Crawford, H.J.

    1996-02-01

    New isotopic production cross sections from 22 Ne projectiles at 377,581 and 891 MeV/nucleon in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured. These data allow to investigate the projectile energy and nuclear composition dependence of the cross sections. The comparisons between data and predictions can have important consequences in source abundance investigations. (K.A.)

  10. Systematics of new isotopic production cross sections from neon projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C X; Guzik, T G; McMahon, M; Wefel, J P [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Flores, I; Lindstrom, P J; Tull, C E [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mitchell, J W [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Cronqvist, M; Crawford, H J [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.; and others

    1996-02-01

    New isotopic production cross sections from {sup 22}Ne projectiles at 377,581 and 891 MeV/nucleon in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured. These data allow to investigate the projectile energy and nuclear composition dependence of the cross sections. The comparisons between data and predictions can have important consequences in source abundance investigations. (K.A.). 9 refs.

  11. Production and use of stable isotopes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Letolle, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper can not cover the field of production and use of stable isotopes in France exhaustively within six pages. We have chosen to concentrate on highlights of the subject and on recent work, and to give references for further reading. 26 refs

  12. Helium production cross section Measurement of Pb and Sn for 14.9 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Yoshiyuki; Fujimoto, Toshihiro; Ozaki, Shuji; Muramasu, Masatomo; Nakashima, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kanda, Yukinori; Ikeda, Yujiro

    1998-03-01

    Helium production cross sections of lead and tin for 14.9 MeV neutrons were measured by helium accumulation method. Lead and tin samples were irradiated with FNS, an intense d-T neutron source of JAERI. The amount of helium produced in the samples by the neutron irradiation was measured with the Helium Atoms Measurement System (HAMS) at Kyushu University. As the samples contained a small amount of helium because of their small helium production cross sections at 14.9 MeV, the samples were evaporated by radiation from a tungsten filament to decrease background gases at helium measurement. Uncertainties of the present results were less than {+-}4.4%. The results were compared with other experimental data in the literature and also compared with the evaluated values in JENDL-3.2. (author)

  13. Evaluation of isotope utilizations in consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products are generally divided into three groups, according to the state of radioactive material or radiation used. First, there are those intentionally added with radioactive materials, such as self-luminous paints and ionization type smoke detectors, utilizing the ionization and excitation by radiation. Second, there are those utilizing natural radioactive materials like glaze. Third, there are those materials containing intrinsically natural radioactive materials. In the first group, the safety evaluation of self-luminous watches and clocks and the risk-benefit evaluation of ionization type smoke detectors are described, and the approval standards for the consumer products and the R/B evaluation method are explained. There are variety of consumer products utilizing radiation, by the exposure dose caused by them is extremely insignificant, far lower than that due to natural radiation. (J.P.N.)

  14. Overview on recent developments: alternative isotope production methods in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Government of Canada's programs in alternative isotope production methods for securing supply of technetium 99m for Canadians. The supply disruptions of isotopes in 2007 and 2009/2010 caused by unplanned outages at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) reactor highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers medical isotopes, specifically Technetium 99m (Tc99m) to patients in Canada and globally. Tc99m, which is derived from its parent, molybdenum99 (Mo99) is the most widely used medical isotope for imaging, and accounts for 80 percent of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. Prior to the outage, nearly all the Mo99 produced for the world market came from five aging government owned research reactors in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and South Africa. The NRU, the largest of these, produced about 30 to 40 percent of the world supply of isotopes prior to 2009 - since its return to service in 2010, its world market share is estimated at 15 to 20%.

  15. Differential production cross sections of multiply charged fragments in 800 MeV proton-induced spallation of carbon, aluminum, and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckstead, S.C.

    1978-09-01

    Differential production cross sections for multiply charged fragments from 800-MeV proton-induced spallation of 12 C, 27 Al, and natural Ni were measured at 30 and 90 degrees. The ion fragments were identified by use of time-of-flight, ΔE--E detector telescope capable of complete particle identification for energies as low as .25 MeV/nucleon. The very short ranges of the particles of interest required the construction of very thin detectors with minimal deadlayer material. The time-pick-off detectors and gas ionization chamber developed are unique, and represent the state-of-the-art in fast timing for time-of-flight measurements and in construction of thin detectors. The resolutions achieved allowed the cross sections of 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 7 Be, 9 Be, 10 Be, 10 B, 11 B, 11 C, 12 C, and 13 C to be determined, along with those of nitrogen and oxygen without isotope separation. The cross sections were found to have weak angular dependence. Consequently, pseudo cross sections were calculated from the 90 0 data by integrating the differential cross sections from 0 to 25 MeV for each product and multiplying by 4π. Pseudo theoretical cross sections were similarly calculated from theoretical differential cross sections. These differential cross sections were calculated by use of a Monte Carlo computer code which incorporated the cascade-evaporation model of high-energy nuclear reactions. Implications are drawn for modifications of the model. The results suggest reducing the transparency of the struck nucleus to pions produced in the cascade stage of the reaction model in order that a higher excitation energy be left for the evaporation stage. Also, there is some evidence that evaporations of nuclear aggregates more massive than 4 He occur. Inclusion of such evaporations should improve the model. 82 figures, 1 table

  16. New Production Routes for Medical Isotopes 64Cu and 67Cu Using Accelerator Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Tadahiro; Nagai, Yasuki; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Segawa, Mariko; Harada, Hideo; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke

    2013-03-01

    We have measured the activation cross sections producing 64Cu and 67Cu, promising medical radioisotopes for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy, by bombarding a natural zinc sample with 14 MeV neutrons. We estimated the production yields of 64Cu and 67Cu by fast neutrons from \\text{natC(d,n) with 40 MeV 5 mA deuterons. We used the present result together with the evaluated cross section of Zn isotopes. The calculated 64Cu yield is 1.8 TBq (175 g 64Zn) for 12 h of irradiation; the yields of 67Cu by 67Zn(n,p)67Cu and 68Zn(n,x)67Cu were 249 GBq (184 g 67Zn) and 287 GBq (186 g 68Zn) at the end of 2 days of irradiation, respectively. From the results, we proposed a new route to produce 67Cu with very little radionuclide impurity via the 68Zn(n,x)67Cu reaction, and showed the 64Zn(n,p)64Cu reaction to be a promising route to produce 64Cu. Both 67Cu and 64Cu are noted to be produced using fast neutrons.

  17. Production of He-, Ne-, Ar-, Kr-, and Xe-isotopes by proton-induced reactions on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leya, I.; Michel, R.

    2003-01-01

    We measured integral thin target cross sections for the proton-induced production of He-, Ne-, Ar-, Kr-, and Xe-isotopes from lead from the respective reaction thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. The production of noble gas isotopes in lead by proton-induced reactions is of special importance for design studies of accelerator driven systems and energy amplifiers. In order to minimise the influences of secondary particles on the production of residual nuclides a new Mini-Stack approach was used instead of the well-known stacked-foil techniques for all experiments with proton energies above 200 MeV. With some exceptions our database for the proton-induced production of noble gas isotopes from lead is consistent and nearly complete. In contradistinction to the production of He from Al and Fe, where the cross sections obtained by thin-target irradiation experiments are up to a factor of 2 higher than the NESSI data, both datasets agree for the He production from lead. (orig.)

  18. Fast-neutron gamma-ray production from elemental iron: E/sub n/ approx. < 2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1976-05-01

    A Ge(Li) detector and a fission detector were used to measure elemental differential cross section excitation functions for fast neutron gamma-ray production from iron relative to fast neutron fission of 235 U. Data were acquired at approximately 50 keV intervals with approximately 50 keV neutron-energy resolution from near threshold to approximately 2 MeV. Angular distributions for the 0.847 MeV gamma ray were measured at 0.93, 0.98, 1.08, 1.18, 1.28, 1.38, 1.59, 1.68, 1.79, 1.85 and 2.03 MeV. Significant fourth-order terms were required for the Legendre polynomial expansions used in fitting several of these angular distributions. This casts doubt on the accuracy of the commonly used approximation that the integrated gamma-ray production cross section is essentially equal to 4π times the 55 0 (or 125 0 ) differential cross section. The method employed in processing these data is described. Comparison is made between results from the present work and some previously reported data sets. The uncertainties associated with energy scales, neutron-energy resolution and other experimental factors for these various measurements make it difficult to draw conclusions concerning the observed differences in the values reported for these fluctuating cross sections. 6 tables, 7 figures

  19. Fast-neutron gamma-ray production from elemental iron: E/sub n/ < or approx. = 2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1976-05-01

    A Ge(Li) detector and a fission detector were used to measure elemental differential cross section excitation functions for fast-neutron gamma-ray production from iron relative to fast-neutron fission of 235 U. Data were acquired at approximately 50 keV intervals with approximately 50 keV neutron-energy resolution from near threshold to approximately 2 MeV. Angular distributions for the 0.847-MeV gamma ray were measured at 0.93, 0.98, 1.08, 1.18, 1.28, 1.38, 1.59, 1.68, 1.79, 1.85 and 2.03 MeV. Significant fourth-order terms were required for the Legendre polynomial expansions used in fitting several of these angular distributions. This casts doubt on the accuracy of the commonly used approximation that the integrated gamma-ray production cross section is essentially equal to 4π times the 55-degree (or 125-degree) differential cross section. The method employed in processing these data is described. Comparison is made between results from the present work and some previously reported data sets. The uncertainties associated with energy scales, neutron-energy resolution and other experimental factors for these various measurements make it difficult to draw conclusions concerning the observed differences in the values reported for these fluctuating cross sections

  20. Production of residual nuclides by proton-induced reactions on target W at the energy of 72 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Moazzem Hossain [Univ. of Chittagong, Dept. of Physics, Chittagong (Bangladesh); Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Herpers, Ulrich [Univ. of Cologne, Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, Cologne (Germany); Michel, Rolf [University of Hannover, Centre for Radiation Protection and Radioecology (Germany); Kubik, Peter [Paul Scherrer Inst., c/o Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-08-01

    Investigations of cross-sections for residual nuclide production on the target element W by proton-induced reactions were performed by irradiating the target with 72 MeV protons using the cyclotron facilities at Paul-Scherrer Institute, Zurich, Switzerland. Residual nuclides were measured by gamma-spectrometry of HpGe detectors calibrated with standard gamma sources. The measured data contains 104 individual cross-sections for 20 identified nuclides in the proton energies between 52.5 - 68.9 MeV. These nuclear data is important in the study of spallation neutron source and in accelerator driven technologies such as waste transmutation and energy amplification. The present data are compared with the shape of the excitation functions of earlier only one measurement at higher energies and they are in good agreement to each other. (author)

  1. Scoping assessment on medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Scoping Assessment addresses the need for medical isotope production and the capability of the Fast Flux Test Facility to provide such isotopes. Included in the discussion are types of isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals, which types of cancers are targets, and in what way isotopes provide treatment and/or pain relief for patients

  2. Scoping assessment on medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.W.

    1997-08-29

    The Scoping Assessment addresses the need for medical isotope production and the capability of the Fast Flux Test Facility to provide such isotopes. Included in the discussion are types of isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals, which types of cancers are targets, and in what way isotopes provide treatment and/or pain relief for patients.

  3. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Matthew; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry; Tonchev, Anton; Stoyer, Mark; Bhike, Megha; Finch, Sean; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2017-09-01

    The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY) have been measured using quasi- monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combi- nation of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and -ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ioniza- tion chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin de- posits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activa- tion target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of 2 months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6 and 14.8 MeV. New data in the second chance fission region of 5.5 - 9 MeV are included. Work performed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  4. Pion production in 3He-nucleus interactions at 910 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, E.; Baumann, P.; Bergdolt, G.; Engelstein, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Hibou, F.; Bressani, T.; Puddu, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The ( 3 He, πsup(+-)X) reaction has been studied at 910 MeV using the 3 He ++ beam of the CERN SC, Complete π - spectra on CH 2 , CD 2 , 9 Be, 12 C, 27 Al, Cd and Pb, and π + spectra on CH 2 , CD 2 and 12 C targets have been measured at 0 0 , up or close to the kinematic limit xsub(F)=1. The results are compared to various theoretical calculations. (orig.)

  5. Production of high-purity isotopes by electromagnetic separation; Production electromagnetique d'isotope tres purs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassignol, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Improvement in isotopic purity of nuclides prepared by electromagnetic separation is searched into the principle of cascades of monochromators. The principal drawback of which is to allow the separation of only one isotope at a time. The electromagnetic separator of Saclay is equipped with an electrostatic post-analyzer, which is described. Significant results are obtained, concerning isotopic enhancements of uranium-235 and mercury-204. A schema of isotopic contagion is then proposed, the basis of it is the scattering of the primary ions in the residual atmosphere of the separator chamber. The most frequent type of collisions being accompanied by neutralisation of the ions, the schema explains the efficiency of the second stage. As a matter of conclusion, some particularities concerning the routine work at a high enhancement, small output machine, are given. (author) [French] L'accroissement de la purete isotopique des especes nucleaires preparees par separation electromagnetique est recherche dans l'emploi du principe des cascades de monochromateurs, moyennant la servitude de ne collecter qu'un isotope a la fois. Le separateur electromagnetique de Saclay est equipe dans ce but d'un post-analyseur electrostatique, qui est decrit. Des resultats significatifs sont donnes, portant sur les enrichissements obtenus dans les separations d'uranium-235 et de mercure-204. Un schema de contagion isotopique est propose. Il est fonde sur la diffusion a petit angle accompagnant la neutralisation des faisceaux primaires par collision avec le gaz residuel. Ce schema permet d'expliquer l'efficacite de l'etage electrostatique. En matiere de conclusion, la methode d'exploitation d'une machine a faible debit et a haut enrichissement est donnee. (auteur)

  6. Target-fueled nuclear reactor for medical isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Richard L.; Parma, Edward J.

    2017-06-27

    A small, low-enriched, passively safe, low-power nuclear reactor comprises a core of target and fuel pins that can be processed to produce the medical isotope .sup.99Mo and other fission product isotopes. The fuel for the reactor and the targets for the .sup.99Mo production are the same. The fuel can be low enriched uranium oxide, enriched to less than 20% .sup.235U. The reactor power level can be 1 to 2 MW. The reactor is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days.

  7. Development of Laser Application Technology for Stable Isotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Do Young; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kwon, Duck Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Tl-203 is used as a source material to produce Tl-201 radioisotope which is produced in a cyclotron by irradiating the enriched Tl-203 target. Tl-201 is a radiopharmaceutical for SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) to diagnose heart diseases and tumors. This Project aim to develop laser application technology to product stable isotopes such as Tl-203, Yb-168, and Yb-176. For this, photoion extraction device, atomic beam generator, dye lasers, and high power IR lasers are developed.

  8. Subsystem for control of isotope production with linear electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Karasyov, S P; Uvarov, V L

    2001-01-01

    In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels.

  9. Development of Laser Application Technology for Stable Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kwon, Duck Hee

    2007-04-01

    Tl-203 is used as a source material to produce Tl-201 radioisotope which is produced in a cyclotron by irradiating the enriched Tl-203 target. Tl-201 is a radiopharmaceutical for SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) to diagnose heart diseases and tumors. This Project aim to develop laser application technology to product stable isotopes such as Tl-203, Yb-168, and Yb-176. For this, photoion extraction device, atomic beam generator, dye lasers, and high power IR lasers are developed

  10. Subsystem for control of isotope production with linear electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasyov, S.P.; Pomatsalyuk, R.I.; Uvarov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels

  11. Fission Product Yields for 14 MeV Neutrons on 235U, 238U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Innes, M.; Chadwick, M.B.; Kawano, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report cumulative fission product yields (FPY) measured at Los Alamos for 14 MeV neutrons on 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu. The results are from historical measurements made in the 1950s–1970s, not previously available in the peer reviewed literature, although an early version of the data was reported in the Ford and Norris review. The results are compared with other measurements and with the ENDF/B-VI England and Rider evaluation. Compared to the Laurec (CEA) data and to ENDF/B-VI evaluation, good agreement is seen for 235 U and 238 U, but our FPYs are generally higher for 239 Pu. The reason for the higher plutonium FPYs compared to earlier Los Alamos assessments reported by Ford and Norris is that we update the measured values to use modern nuclear data, and in particular the 14 MeV 239 Pu fission cross section is now known to be 15–20% lower than the value assumed in the 1950s, and therefore our assessed number of fissions in the plutonium sample is correspondingly lower. Our results are in excellent agreement with absolute FPY measurements by Nethaway (1971), although Nethaway later renormalized his data down by 9% having hypothesized that he had a normalization error. The new ENDF/B-VII.1 14 MeV FPY evaluation is in good agreement with our data.

  12. This picture was taken in 1967 during the first test of the Isotope On-Line Separator (ISOLDE) installation at the 600 MeV CERN Synchro Cyclotron.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1967-01-01

    When ISOLDE began operation, it was unique in the world. It used a new technique to overcome the problem of rapidly separating interesting atoms from the rest of the nuclear target. Through a combination of chemical and electromagnetic methods the different isotopes were separated and converted into an ion beam made of just one isotope. On-line production of radioactive nuclei, in this way, offered many new opportunities for physicists as it allowed them to perform previously impossible experiments on short-lived nuclei. ISOLDE has become one of CERN's major installations and it supports a broad scientific programme by providing beams to different experiments. The techniques developed at ISOLDE have opened up a new field of radioactive ion-beam accelerators, both at CERN and worldwide.

  13. Exclusive measurements of light fragment production at forward angles in Ne-Pb and Ne-NaF collisions at E/A=400 MeV and 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastid, N.; Alard, J.P.; Arnold, J.; Augerat, J.; Biagi, F.; Crouau, M.; Charmensat, P.; Dupieux, P.; Fraysse, L.; Marroncle, J.; Montarou, G.; Parizet, M.J.; Qassoud, D.; Rahmani, A.; Schimmerling, W.

    1990-01-01

    Emission of light fragments at small angles is studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions using the Diogene plastic wall for both symmetrical and non-symmetrical target-projectile systems with 400 MeV per nucleon and 800 MeV per nucleon incident neon nuclei. Efficiency of multiplicity measurements in the small angle range for the selection of central or peripheral collisions is confirmed for asymmetric systems. Differential production cross sections of Z=1 fragments show evidence for the existence of two emitting sources. The apparent temperature of each source is obtained from comparison with a thermodynamical model. (orig.)

  14. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  15. Study of the η meson production and decay in π+ - d interactions between 600 and 900 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, E.

    1967-01-01

    The reaction π + + d → p + p + η is observed in the 35 cm and 50 cm deuterium bubble chambers of the L.P.C.H.E. in Saclay. A total of 150000 pictures has been taken at six incident energies of the π + between 600 MeV and 900 MeV in a π + separated beam at Saturne. The results of this study show that the η production cross section increases rapidly at threshold, then decreases slowly at higher energies. The η production cross section increases rapidly at threshold, then decreases slowly at higher energies. The η production angular distribution in the π + - neutron c.m.s. is isotropic. From both of these facts, we conclude that the η is produced in a S wave near threshold. As for the η decay, the values of the following branching ratios have been determined: Γ η (γγ)/Γ η (π 0 π 0 π 0 ) = 1.1 ± 0.5; Γ η (π + π - γ)/Γ η (π + π - π 0 ) = 0.73 ± 0.25; Γ η (neutrals)/Γ η (π + π - π 0 ) = 3.8 ± 1.1; Γ η (neutrals)/Γ η (charged) = 2.2 ± 0.35. Finally, we compare the η production and decay results with the different theoretical predictions. (author) [fr

  16. Determination of relative krypton fission product yields from 14 MeV neutron induced fission of 238U at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E R; Cassata, W S; Velsko, C A; Yeamans, C B; Shaughnessy, D A

    2016-11-01

    Precisely-known fission yield distributions are needed to determine a fissioning isotope and the incident neutron energy in nuclear security applications. 14 MeV neutrons from DT fusion at the National Ignition Facility induce fission in depleted uranium contained in the target assembly hohlraum. The fission yields of Kr isotopes (85m, 87, 88, and 89) are measured relative to the cumulative yield of 88 Kr and compared to previously tabulated values. The results from this experiment and England and Rider are in agreement, except for the 85m Kr/ 88 Kr ratio, which may be the result of incorrect nuclear data.

  17. MeV ion induced damage production and accumulation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoyuki; Okazaki, Makoto; Shin, Kazuo; Takagi, Ikuji; Yoshida, Koji

    1993-01-01

    Measurement and analysis were made for radiation damages in silicon induced by MeV ions. A single crystal silicon was bombarded by 800 keV O + and 700 keV Si + with the dose from 2x10 15 up to 8x10 15 cm -2 . And defects induced by the ion bombardments were observed by the channeling method. Some new modifications were made to the analysis of the channeling RBS spectrum so that the accuracy of the unfolded defect distribution may be improved. A new model of point-defect clustering and amorphous formation was proposed, which well reproduced the observed defect distribution in silicon. (author)

  18. Optimization calculations for slow neutron production with the 136 MeV Harwell electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, J.; Sinclair, R.N.

    1978-10-01

    The new 136 MeV Harwell electron linac is to be used to produce pulsed beams of slow neutrons for condensed matter research. Design details and performance of the two types of moderator which will be available have been optimised using a Monte Carlo neutronics code (TIMOC). The choice of reflector, the necessary decoupling energy to prevent pulse broadening and the influence of γ shields and moderator shape have been investigated. The predicted yield of leakage neutrons of energy 1 eV is compared to published values for comparable facilities. (author)

  19. Measurements of double differential charged-particle production cross sections for 55, 65, 75 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Yoshitaka; Baba, Mamoru; Nauchi, Yasushi

    2000-01-01

    We have performed the measurements of double differential charged-particle production cross section ((n,xz)DDXs) of iron and nickel for 55, 65, 75 MeV neutrons using the 7 Li(p,n) quasi-monoenergetic source of TIARA(Takasaki Ion Accelerator for Radiation Application). The experimental data were compared with the LA-150 data library, which agreed generally with the present data. KERMA(Kinetic Energy Released in MAtter) coefficients(of Fe) were deduced from the experimental data and compared with the integral measurement and calculations by the LA-150 data library. (author)

  20. Design study of prototype accelerator and MeV test facility for demonstration of 1 MeV, 1 A negative ion beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takashi; Hanada, Masaya; Miyamoto, Kenji; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Maeno, Shuichi.

    1994-08-01

    In fusion reactors such as ITER, a neutral beam injector of MeV class beam energy and several tens MW class power is required as one of candidates of heating and current drive systems. However, the beam energy of existing high power accelerators are one order of magnitude lower than the required value. In order to realize a neutral beam injector for the fusion reactor, 'Proof-of-Principle' of such high energy acceleration is a critical issue at a reactor relevant beam current and pulse length. An accelerator and an accelerator facility which are necessary to demonstrate the Proof-of-Principle acceleration of negative ion beams up to 1 MeV, have been designed in the present study. The accelerator is composed of a cesium-volume type ion source and a multi-stage electrostatic acceleration system [Prototype Accelerator]. A negative hydrogen ion beam with the current of about one ampere (1 A) can be accelerated up to 1 MeV at a low operating pressure. Two types of acceleration system, a multi-multi type and a multi-single type, have been studied. The test facility has sufficient capability for the test of the Prototype Accelerator [MeV Test Facility]. The dc high voltage generator for negative ion acceleration is a Cockcroft-Walton type and capable of delivering 1 A at 1 MV (=1 MW) for 60 s. High voltage components including Prototype Accelerator are installed in a SF 6 vessel pressurized at 6 kg/cm 2 to overcome high voltage gradients. The vessel and the beamline are installed in a X-ray shield. (author)

  1. Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s Fiscal Year 1997 financial statement audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-27

    The Department of Energy Isotope Production and Distribution Program mission is to serve the national need for a reliable supply of isotope products and services for medicine, industry and research. The program produces and sells hundreds of stable and radioactive isotopes that are widely utilized by domestic and international customers. Isotopes are produced only where there is no U.S. private sector capability or other production capacity is insufficient to meet U.S. needs. The Department encourages private sector investment in new isotope production ventures and will sell or lease its existing facilities and inventories for commercial purposes. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund established by the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act and maintains financial viability by earning revenues from the sale of isotopes and services and through annual appropriations. The FY 1995 Energy and Water Appropriations Act modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Although the Isotope Program functions as a business, prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research purposes may not achieve full-cost recovery. As a result, isotopes produced by the Isotope Program for research and development are priced to provide a reasonable return to the U.S. Government without discouraging their use. Commercial isotopes are sold on a cost-recovery basis. Because of its pricing structure, when selecting isotopes for production, the Isotope Program must constantly balance current isotope demand, market conditions, and societal benefits with its determination to operate at the lowest possible cost to U.S. taxpayers. Thus, this report provides a financial analysis of this situation.

  2. Photo-fission Product Yield Measurements at Eγ=13 MeV on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, W.; Bhike, M.; Finch, S. W.; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tonchev, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    We have measured Fission Product Yields (FPYs) in photo-fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu at TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS) using mono-energetic photons of Eγ = 13 MeV. Details of the experimental setup and analysis procedures will be discussed. Yields for approximately 20 fission products were determined. They are compared to neutron-induced FPYs of the same actinides at the equivalent excitation energies of the compound nuclear systems. In the future photo-fission data will be taken at Eγ = 8 . 0 and 10.5 MeV to find out whether photo-fission exhibits the same so far unexplained dependence of certain FPYs on the energy of the incident probe, as recently observed in neutron-induced fission, for example, for the important fission product 147Nd. Work supported by the U. S. Dept. of Energy, under Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033, and by the NNSA, Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program, Grant No. DE-NA0001838 and the Lawrence Livermore, National Security, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Table of nuclear reactions and subsequent radioactive dacays induced by 14-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Kineo

    1977-09-01

    Compilation of the data on nuclear reactions and subsequent radioactive decays induced by 14-MeV neutrons is presented in tabular form for most of the isotopes available in nature and for some of the artificially-produced isotopes, including the following items: Nuclide (isotopic abundance), type of nuclear reaction, reaction Q-value, reaction product, type of decay, decay Q-value, half-life of reaction product, decay product, maximum reaction cross section, neutron energy for maximum cross section, reaction cross section for 14 MeV neutrons, saturated radioactivity induced by irradiation of a neutron flux of 1 n/cm 2 sec for a mol of atoms, and reference for the cross section. The mass number dependence of (n, γ), (n, 2n), (n, p), (n, d), (n, t), (n, 3 He) and (n, α) reaction cross sections for 14-MeV neutrons is given in figures to show general trends of the cross sections

  4. Pulsed-neutron production at the Brookhaven 200-MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.E.; Alessi, J.; Brennan, J.; Grand, P.; Lankshear, R.; Montemurro, P.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Tsoupas, N.

    1988-01-01

    The new 750-kV RFQ preinjector and double chopper system capable of selecting single nanosecond micropulses with repetition rates of 0.1--20 MHz has been installed at the Brookhaven 200-MeV proton linac. The micropulse intensity is approximately 1 x 10 9 p/μpulse. Neutron time-of-flight path lengths of 30--100 meter at 0/degree/, 12/degree/, 30/degree/, 45/degree/, 90/degree/ and 135/degree/ are available, as well as a zero degree swinger capable of an angular range of 0--25/degree/. Pulsed neutron beams of monoenergetic (p 7 Li → n 7 Be) and spallation (p 238 U → nx) sources will be discussed in the present paper, as well as detailing the chopped-beam capabilities. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Efficient production and diagnostics of MeV proton beams from a cryogenic hydrogen ribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velyhan, A.; Giuffrida, L.; Scuderi, V.; Lastovicka, T.; Margarone, D.; Perin, J.P.; Chatain, D.; Garcia, S.; Bonnay, P.; Dostal, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudzak, R.; Krousky, E.; Cykhardt, J.; Prokupek, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Rosinski, M.; Krasa, J.; Brabcova, K.; Napoli, M. De

    2017-01-01

    A solid hydrogen thin ribbon, produced by the cryogenic system ELISE (Experiments on Laser Interaction with Solid hydrogEn) target delivery system, was experimentally used at the PALS kJ-laser facility to generate intense proton beams with energies in the MeV range. This sophisticated target system operating at cryogenic temperature (∼ 10 K) continuously producing a 62 μm thick target was combined with a 600 J sub-nanosecond laser pulse to generate a collimated proton stream. The accelerated proton beams were fully characterized by a number of diagnostics. High conversion efficiency of laser to energetic protons is of great interest for future potential applications in non-conventional proton therapy and fast ignition for inertial confinement fusion.

  6. Pulsed-neutron production at the Brookhaven 200-MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.E.; Alessi, J.; Brennan, J.; Grand, P.; Lankshear, R.; Montemurro, P.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Tsoupas, N.

    1989-01-01

    The new 750-kV RFQ preinjector and double chopper system capable of selecting single nanosecond micropulses with repetition rates of 0.1 to 20 MHz has been installed at the Brookhaven 200-MeV proton linac. The micropulse intensity is approximately 1 x 10 9 p/μpulse. Neutron time-of-flight path lengths of 30 to 100 meters at 0 degree, 12 degree, 30 degree, 45 degree, 90 degree and 135 degree are available as well as a zero-degree beam swinger capable of an angular range of 0 degree to 25 degree. Pulsed neutron beams of monoenergetic (p 7 Li → n 7 Be) and spallation (p 238 U → nx) sources will be discussed in the present paper as well as detailing the chopped-beam capabilities. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Sterilization of health care products by 5 MeV bremsstrahlung (X ray)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshishige; Takahashi, Thoru; Saito, Toshio; Sato, Toshio; Takehisa, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    Radiation sensitivities of B. pumilis and B. subtilis spores were examined to bremsstrahlung of 5 MeV EB and Cobalt-60 γ rays in order to confirm the effects of radiation and dose rate. Biological indicators were irradiated with the X rays in the dose rate range of 4.7-47 kGy/h. D-value of B. pumilis spores was 1.4-1.5 kGy, and that of B. subtilis was 1.1-1.3 kGy. The D-values of B. pumilus and B. subtilis have very small dose rate dependences to X ray, and the D-values are similar to those of γ rays. Dose distribution by X-ray and γ irradiation was measured for cartons containing 32 unit dialyzers. The D max. /D min. of the X-ray irradiation (1.2) was smaller than that of γ ray (1.3). (author)

  8. Differential cross sections for gamma-ray production by 14 MeV neutrons with several elements in structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Yamamoto, Junji; Takahashi, Akito

    1988-01-01

    Energy differential cross sections for the gamma-rays produced from the (n,xγ) reactions by 14 MeV neutrons were measured in the gamma-ray energy range from 700 keV to 10 MeV using an NaI spectrometer. Results were obtained for the 8 natural elements; C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Mo. For prominent discrete gamma-rays in the differential cross sections, the production cross sections were determined by measuring angular distributions with a Ge detector. The gamma-ray energy covered the range between 500 and 3000 keV. The energy distributions have been compared with the differential cross sections evaluated in the nuclear data files of JENDL-3T, ENDL and ENDF/B-IV. The evaluations in JENDL-3T agreed fairly well with the measurements concerning the continuum energy spectra for secondary photons. Discrepancies appeared, however, for Si, Cr and Ni at the energies where the discrete gamma-rays were dominant. The ENDL evaluations were largely deviated from the experimental data. The production cross sections for the discrete gamma-rays in ENDL and ENDF/B-IV were available for the comparison with some of the measured cross sections. Results are presented for C, Al and Si. (author)

  9. Measurements of fission product yield in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U with average energies of 9.35 MeV and 12.52 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerji, Sadhana; Krishnani, Pritam Das; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula Venkat; Naik, Haladhara; Goswami, Ashok [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Shivashankar, Byrapura Siddaramaiah [Manipal University, Manipal (India); Mulik, Vikas Kaluram [University of Pune, Pune (India)

    2014-07-15

    The yields of various fission products in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U with the flux-weighted averaged neutron energies of 9.35 MeV and 12.52 MeV were determined by using an off-line gamma ray spectroscopic technique. The neutrons were generated using the {sup 7}Li(p, n) reaction at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre-Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Pelletron facility, Mumbai. The gamma- ray activities of the fission products were counted in a highly-shielded HPGe detector over a period of several weeks to identify the decaying fission products. At both the neutron energies, the fission-yield values are reported for twelve fission product. The results obtained from the present work have been compared with the similar data for mono-energetic neutrons of comparable energy from the literature and are found to be in good agreement. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratios were calculated from the fission-yield data and were found to decreases for neutron energy from 9.35 to 12.52 MeV, which indicates the role of excitation energy. The effect of the nuclear structure on the fission product-yield is discussed.

  10. Measurements of fission product yield in the neutron-induced fission of 238U with average energies of 9.35 MeV and 12.52 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Sadhana; Krishnani, Pritam Das; Shivashankar, Byrapura Siddaramaiah; Mulik, Vikas Kaluram; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula Venkat; Naik, Haladhara; Goswami, Ashok

    2014-07-01

    The yields of various fission products in the neutron-induced fission of 238U with the flux-weightedaveraged neutron energies of 9.35 MeV and 12.52 MeV were determined by using an off-line gammaray spectroscopic technique. The neutrons were generated using the 7Li(p, n) reaction at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre-Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Pelletron facility, Mumbai. The gamma- ray activities of the fission products were counted in a highly-shielded HPGe detector over a period of several weeks to identify the decaying fission products. At both the neutron energies, the fission-yield values are reported for twelve fission product. The results obtained from the present work have been compared with the similar data for mono-energetic neutrons of comparable energy from the literature and are found to be in good agreement. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratios were calculated from the fission-yield data and were found to decreases for neutron energy from 9.35 to 12.52 MeV, which indicates the role of excitation energy. The effect of the nuclear structure on the fission product-yield is discussed.

  11. Production of Medical isotope Technecium-99 from DT Fusion neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguski, John; Gentile, Charles; Ascione, George

    2011-10-01

    High energy neutrons produced in DT fusion reactors have a secondary application for use in the synthesis of valuable man-made isotopes utilized in industry today. One such isotope is metastable Technecium-99 (Tc99m), a low energy gamma emitter used in ~ 85% of all medical imaging diagnostics. Tc99m is created through beta decay of Molybdenum-99 (Mo99), which itself has only a 66 hour half-life and must be created from a neutron capture by the widely available and stable isotope Molydenum-98. Current worldwide production of Tc99m occurs in just five locations and relies on obtaining the fission byproduct Mo99 from highly enriched Uranium reactors. A Tc99m generator using DT fusion neutrons, however, could potentially be operated at individual hospitals and medical facilities without the use of any fissile material. The neutron interaction of the DT neutrons with Molybdenum in a potential device geometry was modeled using Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP. Trial experiments were also performed to test the viability of using DT neutrons to create ample quantities of Tc99m. Modeling and test results will follow.

  12. Production of heavy element and search for new isotopes at JAERI-RMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuta, Tomohiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    The new neutron deficient isotope {sup 209}Th and {sup 212}Pa have been produced in heavy ion induced fusion evaporation reactions. The evaporation residues were separated in-flight by the JAERI recoil mass separator (JAERI-RMS). The {alpha}-decay energy of {sup 209}Th and {sup 212}Pa are 8.080(50) MeV and 8.270(30) MeV, respectively. The corresponding half-lives are 3.8{sub -1.5}{sup +6.9} ms and 5.1{sub -1.9}{sup +6.1} ms. (author)

  13. Oak Ridge Isotope Products and Services - Current and Expected Supply and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Alexander, C.W.; Cline, R.L.; Collins, E.D.; Klein, J.A.; Knauer, J.B. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1999-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been a major center of isotope production research, development, and distribution for over 50 years. Currently, the major isotope production activities include (1) the production of transuranium element radioisotopes, including 252 Cf; (2) the production of medical and industrial radioisotopes; (3) maintenance and expansion of the capabilities for production of enriched stable isotopes; and, (4) preparation of a wide range of custom-order chemical and physical forms of isotope products, particularly in accelerator physics research. The recent supply of and demand for isotope products and services in these areas, research and development (R ampersand D), and the capabilities for future supply are described in more detail below. The keys to continuing the supply of these important products and services are the maintenance, improvement, and potential expansion of specialized facilities, including (1) the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), (2) the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and Radiochemical Development Laboratory (RDL) hot cell facilities, (3) the electromagnetic calutron mass separators and the plasma separation process equipment for isotope enrichment, and (4) the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) equipment for preparation of specialized chemical and physical forms of isotope products. The status and plans for these ORNL isotope production facilities are also described below

  14. Cosmogenic isotope beryllium-7 in the atmosphere: Production versus transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Alessandra; Usoskin, Ilya; Evangelista, Heitor; Echer, Ezequiel; Mursula, Kalevi; Leppanen, Ari-Pekka

    Cosmogenic isotope 7 Be measured near the ground can provide information about its produc-tion (that occurs in the atmosphere due to the interaction of cosmic rays and atmospheric constituents) and its deposition processes (that involves air mass dynamics, stratosphere-troposphere coupling and local climatic conditions). We present the results of an investigation of the atmospheric 7 Be temporal variations at different geographic locations (Finland and Brazil). This study was based on an analysis of three time series of 7 Be concentration measured in near-surface air samples from Rovaniemi and Loviisa (Finland) and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) for the last decades. We made use of the wavelet spectral method to identify the frequency-temporal features of the 7 Be temporal variations that allowed us to determine the relative importance of production and deposition process for the observed data. By comparing these time series with climatic indices and the values of 7 Be concentration expected from the model for the same period, we found that the climate system is the main driver of the surface isotopic modulation, while the imprints of the production variations are geographically dependent. Thus,7 Be can be considered a good tool to monitor the large-scale air mass dynamics.

  15. Experimental Measurement of the Ratio of the Reaction Cross Section (n,2n) for the Natural Mixtures of Lead and Iron Isotopes with 14 MeV Neutrons by the Method of Moderated Neutron-Neutron Coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Penchev, O.I.; Trifonov, A.I.; Troshev, T.M.; Christov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron data are widely applied in nuclei physics and into practice as well. Data obtained by means of different measurement methods are of interest for increasing the accuracy and reliability of the recommended values for the cross sections of neutron interactions, with substance. The activation analysis method gives a possibility to obtain data about cross section interactions of 14 MeV neutrons with the nuclei σ (n,2n), σ( n,p), σ (n,pn), σ (n,α), etc. A serious shortcoming of this measuring method is the necessity of applying express methods of analysis of induced activities - restrictions connected with the life-times of the reaction products. It is also necessary to comply with the requirements for high accuracy in the data about the decay schemes and the absolute intensities of the γ-transitions in the investigated nuclei. The investigations directly measuring the output of the reaction, products from the targets, placed into the neutron beam, do not possess the shortcomings of the activation method but require serious demands toward the detecting apparatuses (ionization chambers, semiconducting and scintillation detectors, proportional counters, etc.). These demands are connected with the heavy background conditions of work at the beams for measurements of whatever partial cross sections. During the experimental measurements of the reactions by neutron emission for registration, it is necessary to slow them down to thermal energies, since only in this energy interval there exist sufficiently effective without threshold detectors. We have elaborated the experimental set-up allowing to measure the neutron multiplicity in an interaction. In the present work we have also used it for a relative measurement the the reaction cross section σ (n,2n) for Pe and Pb nuclei in their natural isotope mixtures. As it is known, this reaction has an important application for the blanket materials of thermonuclear reactors and for tritium fuel regeneration problem. The

  16. Thermonuclear neutron sources - a new isotope production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Richard A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    With the successful detonation of the Hutch device, we have demonstrated the feasibility of a new isotope production technique. The exposure of a 238-U and 232-Th target to an extremely large neutron flux, 1.8 x 10{sup 25} neutrons/cm{sup 2}, produced super-heavy nuclides up to 257-Fm by the multiple neutron capture process. Kilogram quantities of Hutch debris were recovered by a modification of standard drilling techniques. A semicontinuous batch process was used to concentrate approximately 10{sup 10} atoms of 257-Fm from approximately 50 kg of debris. Experience from the Hutch debris recovery efforts indicates that significant engineering advances in recovery techniques and subsequent cost reductions are possible. The demonstrated success of the device clearly justifies anengineering development program. Comparing debris recovery by underground mining operations with recovery using possible advances in drilling technology does not indicate an obvious cost advantage of one system over the other. Possible advances in mining technology could change this tentative conclusion. Any novel schemes for debris concentration that might be possible through an understanding of underground nuclear detonation phonomenology would also radically affect recovery and processing economics. A preliminary process engineering design of a large-scale (a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms) processing facility located at the Nevada Test Site will be discussed. Cost estimates for isotopes produced in this facility will be described. The effects of debris concentration, 'ore' beneficiation, and total debris processed on unit costs will be discussed. These preliminary estimates show that this new isotope 'production' scheme would be competitive with existing reactor facilities. (author)

  17. Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 production with 4.2 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Mario; Morales, J.R.; Riquelme, H.O.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The natural copper irradiation with deuterons produces the Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 radionuclides. Of two radioisotopes, those with deficiencies in neutrons, are applied in nuclear medicine diagnostic processes, mainly for the nuclear characteristic of the decay modes. The positron emitters, of short life mean Cu-62 (9.1 min, β + ) and Cu(12.7 h), are radionuclides applied in radio pharmacological preparation for brain, core, blood flux studies. The radiochemical process consists in the de solution of the irradiated metallic copper target, in acid medium. The result solution, can be neutralized with a base or a buffer at wished pH. Using a deuteron beam of 4,2 ± 0,1 MeV energy has been obtained total yields of 1,103 ± 0,011 μCl/μAh medium for 62 Cu and of 0,148 ± 0,015 μCl/μAh for 64 Cu

  18. Study of the He3 breakup reaction and the triton production spectra at 283 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain Obid, R.

    1988-01-01

    The breakup of He3 ions at 94MeV/nucleon was studied in inclusive experiments on nuclei ranging from C12 to Pb208, and in coincidence experiments (γd) and (γt) on an A127 target. The inclusive spectra of protons and deuterons show an important contribution of the He3 breakup reaction to the reaction cross section (80%). Analysis of the dependence as a function of A confirms a peripheral mechanism. The coincidence experiment gives a proportion of inelastic breakup in the inclusive cross section of 40 %. Examination of triton spectra reveals that at 94 MeV the dominant reaction is not breakup transfer as at lower energies, but charge exchange. The spectra peak at energies of 20MeV, compatible with the excitation of a mixture of L=1 and L=2 states. The variation of the cross section following an A 1/3 law indicates a peripheral mechanism for the (He3,t) reaction too. The (γ-t) coincidence reaction showing residual nucleus production near the target nucleus reinforces this result [fr

  19. Evaluation of medical isotope production with the accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; Frey, G.D.; McLean, D.C., Jr; Spicer, K.M.; Davis, S.E.; Baron, S.; Frysinger, J.R.; Blanpied, G.; Adcock, D.

    1997-01-01

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility, with its high beam current and high beam energy, would be an ideal supplier of radioisotopes for medical research, imaging, and therapy. By-product radioisotopes will be produced in the APT window and target cooling systems and in the tungsten target through spallation, neutron, and proton interactions. High intensity proton fluxes are potentially available at three different energies for the production of proton- rich radioisotopes. Isotope production targets can be inserted into the blanket for production of neutron-rich isotopes. Currently, the major production sources of radioisotopes are either aging or abroad, or both. The use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine is growing and changing, both in terms of the number of nuclear medicine procedures being performed and in the rapidly expanding range of procedures and radioisotopes used. A large and varied demand is forecast, and the APT would be an ideal facility to satisfy that demand

  20. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of neutron production cross-sections at 180o for the 140 MeV proton incident reactions on carbon, iron, and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Satoh, Daiki; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Yashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Tamii, Atsushi; Iwase, Hiroshi; Endo, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Niita, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The neutron production cross-sections of carbon, iron, and gold targets with 140 MeV protons at 180 o were measured at the RCNP cyclotron facility. The time-of-flight technique was used to obtain the neutron energy spectra in the energy range above 1 MeV. The carbon and iron target results were compared with the experimental data from 113 MeV (p,xn) reactions at 150 o reported by Meier et al. Our data agreed well with them in spite of different incident energies and angles. Calculations were then performed using different intra-nuclear cascade models (Bertini, ISOBAR, and JQMD) implemented with PHITS code. The results calculated using the ISOBAR and JQMD models roughly agreed with the experimental iron and gold target data, but the Bertini could not reproduce the high-energy neutrons above 10 MeV.

  1. SCK-CEN increases production of medical isotopes by half

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsard, B.; Leysen, P.; Janssens, J.

    2010-01-01

    It is impossible to imagine the medical world today without radioisotopes, and due to rapid technological progress in nuclear medicine their use is still on the rise. An important role of research reactors is the production of molybdenum-99. Around the world this is done primarily by five nuclear research reactors, one of which is the BR2 reactor of SCK-CEN. As a result of checks and maintenance work on three other reactors, for a few years there has been a serious crisis in the availability of this medical isotope. In order to guarantee the worldwide supply of radioisotopes, SCK-CEN expanded its production of molybdenum-99 by 50 percent in 2010.

  2. Laser separating system for production of zinc isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhan, P.A.; Zakrevskij, D.Eh.; Stepanov, A.Yu.; Fateev, N.V.

    2000-01-01

    The separating system, which provides using the photochemical reaction of Zn at the long-lived Zn(4p 3 P j ) state with the CO 2 molecule was constructed. The reaction constant is equal to k = 2.5 · 10 -10 cm 3 c -1 . For production of selectively excited atoms the excitation of Zn at the Zn(6s 3 S 1 ) state by two counter UV photons followed by its decomposition at the Zn(4p 3 P j ) state was used. The feature of the used scheme of the Zn excitation provides the appearance of super-radiation on the cascades of transitions from the 6s 3 S 1 at 6p 3 P 1 0 state. The high selectivity of the consumption, the productivity of the system by the 66 Zn isotope exceeds over 0.5 g/h [ru

  3. Isotope production potential at Sandia National Laboratories: Product, waste, packaging, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trennel, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy to establish a domestic source of molybdenum-99, an essential isotope used in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacology. An Environmental Impact Statement for production of 99 Mo at one of four candidate sites is being prepared. As one of the candidate sites, Sandia National Laboratories is developing the Isotope Production Project. Using federally approved processes and procedures now owned by the U.S. Department of Energy, and existing facilities that would be modified to meet the production requirements, the Sandia National Laboratories' Isotope Project would manufacture up to 30 percent of the U.S. market, with the capacity to meet 100 percent of the domestic need if necessary. This paper provides a brief overview of the facility, equipment, and processes required to produce isotopes. Packaging and transportation issues affecting both product and waste are addressed, and the storage and disposal of the four low-level radioactive waste types generated by the production program are considered. Recommendations for future development are provided

  4. Calculation of isotopic mass and energy production by a matrix operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.E.

    1976-08-01

    The Volterra method of the multiplicative integral is used to determine the isotopic density, mass, and energy production in linear systems. The solution method, assumptions, and limitations are discussed. The method allows a rapid accurate calculation of the change in isotopic density, mass, and energy production independent of the magnitude of the time steps, production or decay rates, or flux levels

  5. Coherent pion production in 12C(p,nπ) at 800MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, R.; Brash, E.; Edwards, G.; Glashausser, C.; Jones, M.K.; Baker, F.T.; Bastea, S.; Beatty, D.P.; Bimbot, L.; Brusoe, J.; Chiba, J.; Cooper, D.; Kumbartzki, G.; Mauger, C.; Nagae, T.; Park, B.; Prout, D.; Ransome, R.D.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.; Rutt, P.; Storm, B.; Sugarbaker, E.; Taddeucci, T.; Zumbro, J.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the production of the Δ resonance in hadronic charge exchange reactions show a shift in the Δ peak position. Measurements looking also at the Δ decay products give some evidence for coherent pion production. We have recently completed a new measurement of the 12 C(p,n) reaction leading to the Δ resonance, including a higher resolution coincidence measurement of decay π's in the forward direction. We describe the experiment and some aspects of the preliminary analysis. ((orig.))

  6. New neutron-rich isotope production in 154Sm+160Gd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep inelastic scattering in 154Sm+160Gd at energies above the Bass barrier is for the first time investigated with two different microscopic dynamics approaches: improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD model and time dependent Hartree–Fock (TDHF theory. No fusion is observed from both models. The capture pocket disappears for this reaction due to strong Coulomb repulsion and the contact time of the di-nuclear system formed in head-on collisions is about 700 fm/c at an incident energy of 440 MeV. The isotope distribution of fragments in the deep inelastic scattering process is predicted with the simulations of the latest ImQMD-v2.2 model together with a statistical code (GEMINI for describing the secondary decay of fragments. More than 40 extremely neutron-rich unmeasured nuclei with 58≤Z≤76 are observed and the production cross sections are at the order of μb to mb. The multi-nucleon transfer reaction of Sm+Gd could be an alternative way to synthesize new neutron-rich lanthanides which are difficult to be produced with traditional fusion reactions or fission of actinides.

  7. Development of key technology for the medical isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Soo Youl; Kim, I. S.; Kim, W. W.; Rhee, C. K.; Park, K. B.; Park, S. J.; Shin, H. S.; Shin, Y. J.

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this project is to experimentally verify and enhance Mo-99 and Sr-89 recovery/purification processes as the key technologies for the medical isotope production from a solution fuel reactor. A joint experiment was planned between KAERI and Kurchatov Institute (KI), Russia. The kinds of experiments planed are, a series of Mo-99 recovery/purification experiments from the ARGUS reactor which uses High Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel, a series of the same experiments but from the Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) solution target, a demonstration of the mechanism of Sr-89 delivery from the air medium in the reactor vessel. Meanwhile, the survey and legalistic interpretation of relevant patents shows a possibility of infringement of TCI Inc.'s patents in case of exporting medical isotopes produced at the MIP to Japan and the US so far as the MIP adopts the concept of the Russian ARGUS and recovery/purification process. Eliminating, not minor changing, step(s) or condition(s) of patent processes would help to avoid the patent infringement. Because of a difficulty in the KAERI-KI full-time co-experiments at KI labs, a different idea between two parties about the depth of background information to be provided to KAERI, and other reasons, the experiment plan was not executed

  8. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes - environmental impact statement. Volume II, comment response document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133, and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community as soon as practicable. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition, three other reasonable alternatives and a No Action alternative are analyzed in detail, The sites for these three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity. This document contains comments recieved from meetings held regarding the site selection for isotope production

  9. Fission Product Yields from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and {sup 235}U Using 14 MeV Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, B.D., E-mail: bpnuke@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Greenwood, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Flaska, M. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 227 Reber Bldg., University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pozzi, S.A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Neutron-induced fission yield studies using deuterium-tritium fusion-produced 14 MeV neutrons have not yet directly measured fission yields from fission products with half-lives on the order of seconds (far from the line of nuclear stability). Fundamental data of this nature are important for improving and validating the current models of the nuclear fission process. Cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA) was performed on three actinide targets–thorium-oxide, depleted uranium metal, and highly enriched uranium metal–at the University of Michigan's Neutron Science Laboratory (UM-NSL) using a pneumatic system and Thermo-Scientific D711 accelerator-based fusion neutron generator. This was done to measure the fission yields of short-lived fission products and to examine the differences between the delayed fission product signatures of the three actinides. The measured data were compared against previously published results for {sup 89}Kr, −90, and −92 and {sup 138}Xe, −139, and −140. The average percent deviation of the measured values from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files VII.1 (ENDF/B-VII.1) for thorium, depleted-uranium, and highly-enriched uranium were −10.2%, 4.5%, and −12.9%, respectively. In addition to the measurements of the six known fission products, 23 new fission yield measurements from {sup 84}As to {sup 146}La are presented.

  10. Pb and Sr isotopic compositions of ancient pottery: a method to discriminate production sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xun; Chen Jiangfeng; Ma Lin; He Jianfeng; Wang Changsui; Qiu Ping

    2004-01-01

    The discriminating of production sites of ancient pottery samples using multi-isotopic systematics was described. Previous work has proven that Pb isotopic ratios can be used for discriminating the production sites of ancient pottery under certain conditions. The present work suggests that although Nd isotopic ratios are not sensitive to the production sites of ancient pottery, Sr isotopic ratios are important for the purpose. Pb isotopic ratios are indistinguishable for the pottery excavated from the Jiahu relict, Wuyang, Henan Province and for famous Qin Terra-cotta Figures. But, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the former (about 0.715) are significantly lower than that of the latter (0.717-0.718). The authors concluded that a combined use of Pb and Sr isotopes would be a more powerful method for discriminating the production site of ancient pottery. (authors)

  11. Materials technology for accelerator production of fissile isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, J.A.

    1978-02-01

    The materials used for the accelerator production of fissile isotopes must enable the facility to achieve maximum fuel production at a minimum cost. Neutron production in the target would be maximized by use of thorium cooled with Pb--56 percent Bi or with sodium. The thorium should be ion-plated with approximately 1 mil of nickel or stainless steel for retention of fission products. The target container will have to be replaced at frequent intervals because of the copious quantities of neutronically produced helium and hydrogen in the container. Replacement would coincide with shutdown of the facility for the removal of the fissile material produced. If sodium is used to cool both the target and fertile blanket, a simple basket-type target container could be used. This would greatly reduce radiation effects in the target container. Type 316 stainless steel or V--20 wt percent Ti should perform satisfactorily as a target container. The fertile blanket should be 233 Th or 238 U that is coated with approximately 1 mil of nickel or stainless steel and cooled with sodium. The blanket container could be an austenitic stainless steel such as type 304 or 316; some ferritic alloys may also provide a satisfactory blanket container. 31 references

  12. Stable isotope separation; Separations physicochimiques d'isotopes stables realisations et etudes de petites productions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botter, F; Molinari, Ph; Dirian, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    which cooling water circulates. Studies are going forward to increase the separation factor of the cascade by using an auxiliary gas. Isotopic Exchange: A series of experiments has been performed to determine the isotopic separation factor between a lithium amalgam and an organic solvent containing a lithium salt. The various parameters which may enter into this exchange were studied: the influence of the type of solvent (the two solvents used were dimethylformamide and tetrahydrofurane), of the temperature, of the concentration and of the nature of the associated halogen. Solutions of Li metal and liquid NH{sub 3} were studied also. A number of tests were carried out to see whether there was a difference between the isotopic compositions of the Li present in the two liquid layers obtained by the dissolution of Li metal in ammonia. No difference was observed between the Li isotopic ratios in the two phases. This was also true in the case of a layer of of Li in liquid NH{sub 3} and a layer of Li I in a similar solvent. Electromigration: The method of counter current electro Migration in fused salts is a powerful isotopic enrichment technique. It can be used successfully to separate the isotopes of elements with strongly metallic character. In the case of alkalis, small quantities of isotopically pure {sup 7}Li have been obtained, while the enrichment factors obtained for potassium are of the order of 10. With regard to the alkaline earths, it has been possible to produce small quantities of calcium enriched 5 times in {sup 46}Ca. However considerable technological difficulties rise up in the way of production on a semi-industrial scale. (authors) [French] Nous avons effectue Ia separation de deuterium pur, a partir de melanges gazeux d'hydrogene et de deuterium, par chromatographie de deplacement de bande sur colonnes de palladium supporte. Les meilleures performances ont ete obtenues par des colonnes de Pd sur fritte d'alumine {alpha}. Avec une colonne de ce type, de

  13. Safety evaluation of small samples for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Archana; Singh, Tej; Varde, P.V.

    2015-09-01

    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in basic and applied science and engineering, most notably as environmental and industrial tracers, and for medical imaging procedures. Production of radioisotope constitutes important activity of Indian nuclear program. Since its initial criticality DHRUVA reactor has been facilitating the regular supply of most of the radioisotopes required in the country for application in the fields of medicine, industry and agriculture. In-pile irradiation of the samples requires a prior estimation of the sample reactivity load, heating rate, activity developed and shielding thickness required for post irradiation handling. This report is an attempt to highlight the contributions of DHRUVA reactor, as well as to explain in detail the methodologies used in safety evaluation of the in pile irradiation samples. (author)

  14. Construction Status of the Beamline for Radio-Isotope Production in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. H.; Yoon, S. P.; Seol, K. T.; Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The 100-MeV beamline consist of 5 target room, a TR 103 as one of these is operating beamline, and a TR 101 as the other beamline is under construction as shown in Fig. 1. The TR 101 as beamline target room will be used for the high value-added medical isotope production and increased utilization of the proton accelerator. The optical system of the beamline consisted of dipole and quadrupole, and it included beam position monitor (BPM) and current transformer (CT) for beam diagnostics. The beamline was inserted into the carbon block and the aluminum collimator, the end of pipe as beam window was used for the aluminum to reduce the radioactive of materials. The target transfer equipment is being installed for RI production. The RI Beamline was aligned using the laser tracker, and vacuum leak was not detected by the helium leak detector. This facility is expected to the high value-added medical isotope production and increased utilization of the proton accelerator.

  15. Calculation of radiation production of high specific activity isotopes 192Ir and 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Quan; Zhong Wenfa; Xu Xiaolin

    1997-01-01

    The high specific activity isotopes: 192 Ir and 60 Co in the high neutron flux reactor are calculated with the method of reactor physics. The results of calculation are analyzed in two aspects: the production of isotopes and the influence to parameters of the reactor, and hence a better case is proposed as a reference to the production

  16. Carbon Isotope Measurements of Experimentally-Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products by Pyrolysis-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the C isotope composition of mineral catalyzed organic compounds derived from high temperature and high pressure synthesis. These experiments make use of an innovative pyrolysis technique designed to extract and measure C isotopes. To date, our experiments have focused on the pyrolysis and C isotope ratio measurements of low-molecular weight intermediary hydrocarbons (organic acids and alcohols) and serve as a proof of concept for making C and H isotope measurements on more complicated mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and intermediary products produced during high temperature and high pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [1-4], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history [5-7]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization reactions [8,9]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [10-12]. Further, recent experiments by Fu et al. [13] focus on examining detailed C isotope measurements of hydrocarbons produced by surface-catalyzed mineral reactions. Work described in this paper details the experimental techniques used to measure intermediary organic reaction products (alcohols and organic acids).

  17. Production of 81Rb/sup 81m/Kr generators with 60-MeV protons at BLIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Richards, P.

    1983-01-01

    By bombarding natural krypton gas with approx. 63 MeV protons, 81 Rb is formed by (p,4n) reaction from high abundance 84 Kr (57%) as well as some additional contribution from 83 Kr (11.5%) and 82 Kr (11.6%) by (p,3n) and (p,2n) reactions, respectively. The production rate of 81 Rb is typically 1.5 mCi/μAh. This production rate is sufficient to create up to several hundred millicuries per run if necessary, enough for several high activity 81 Rb/sup 81m/Kr generators. Presently generators that deliver 10 to 20 mCi to the lungs are produced weekly for on-site use. The only other important activity in the solution is Rb-82m (6.4 hr). Small amounts of Br-76 (16.1 hr), Br-77 (57 hr), Br-82 (35.5 hr), Rb-83 (86.2 d), and Rb-84 (33 d) were also present. The bromine impurities pose no problem since they are not trapped on the generator. Rb-82m and Rb-84 decay to stable Kr-82 and Kr-84 in the generator and do not interfere with Kr-81m studies

  18. Study of the production of neutron-rich isotope beams issuing from fissions induced by fast neutrons; Etude de la production de faisceaux riches en neutrons par fission induite par neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Ch

    2000-09-15

    This work is a contribution to the PARRNe project (production of radioactive neutron-rich isotopes). This project is based on the fission fragments coming from the fission of 238-uranium induced by fast neutrons. The fast neutron flux is produced by the collisions of deutons in a converter. Thick targets of uranium carbide and liquid uranium targets have been designed in order to allow a quick release of fission fragments. A device, able to trap on a cryogenic thimble rare gas released by the target, has allowed the production of radioactive nuclei whose half-life is about 1 second. This installation has been settled to different deuton accelerators in the framework of the European collaboration SPIRAL-2. A calibration experiment has proved the feasibility of fixing an ISOL-type isotope separator to a 15 MV tandem accelerator, this installation can provide 500 nA deutons beams whose energy is 26 MeV and be a valuable tool for studying fast-neutron induced fission. Zinc, krypton, rubidium, cadmium, iodine, xenon and cesium beams have been produced in this installation. The most intense beams reach 10000 nuclei by micro-coulomb for 26 MeV deutons. An extra gain of 2 magnitude orders can be obtained by using a more specific ion source and by increasing the thickness of the target. Another extra gain of 2 magnitude orders involves 100 MeV deutons.

  19. Spectroscopic study of 206,207,208Pb isotopes by high resolution analysis of 24.5 MeV proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallois, G.

    1968-03-01

    206,207,208 pb have been studied by 24.5 MeV proton inelastic scattering with a resolution of 20 keV. The angular distributions of the differential cross-sections corresponding to the different excited levels have been measured in a large angular region and analysed with the DWBA.This work shows that it exists between 4 and 5 MeV of excitation energy some strongly excited levels corresponding to transfer momenta l = 2, 4, 6 and 8. The single particle-hole models do not explain these states; so it will probably be necessary to introduce some several particle - hole configurations. (author) [fr

  20. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge

  1. Variability of Fe isotope compositions of hydrothermal sulfides and oxidation products at mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Wang, Jianqiang; Chu, Fengyou; Wang, Hao; Li, Zhenggang; Yu, Xing; Bi, Dongwei; He, Yongsheng

    2018-04-01

    Significant Fe isotopic fractionation occurs during the precipitation and oxidative weathering of modern seafloor hydrothermal sulfides, which has an important impact on the cycling of Fe isotopes in the ocean. This study reports the Fe-isotope compositions of whole-rock sulfides and single-mineral pyrite collected from hydrothermal fields at the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge (SMAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR) and discusses the impacts of precipitation and late-stage oxidative weathering of sulfide minerals on Fe isotopic fractionation. The results show large variation in the Fe-isotope compositions of the sulfides from the different hydrothermal fields on the mid-oceanic ridges, indicating that relatively significant isotope fractionation occurs during the sulfide precipitation and oxidative weathering processes. The Fe-isotope compositions of the sulfides from the study area at the SMAR vary across a relatively small range, with an average value of 0.01‰. This Fe-isotope composition is similar to the Fe-isotope composition of mid-oceanic ridge basalt, which suggests that Fe was mainly leached from basalt. In contrast, the Fe-isotope composition of the sulfides from the study area at the EPR are significantly enriched in light Fe isotopes (average value - 1.63‰), mainly due to the kinetic fractionation during the rapid precipitation process of hydrothermal sulfide. In addition, the pyrite from different hydrothermal fields is enriched in light Fe isotopes, which is consistent with the phenomenon in which light Fe isotopes are preferentially enriched during the precipitation of pyrite. The red oxides have the heaviest Fe-isotope compositions (up to 0.80‰), indicating that heavy Fe isotopes are preferentially enriched in the oxidation product during the late-stage oxidation process. The data obtained from this study and previous studies show a significant difference between the Fe-isotope compositions of the sulfides from the SMAR and EPR. The relatively heavy

  2. Complete gas production data library for nuclides from Mg to Bi at neutron incident energies up to 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Fischer, U.

    2015-07-01

    An evaluation of proton-, deuteron-, triton-, {sup 3}He-, and α-particles- production cross-sections was performed for 262 stable nuclides with atomic number from 12 to 83 at the energies of primary neutrons up to 200 MeV. The data were compiled in ENDF formatted data files.

  3. Measurements of neutron emission spectra and 7Be production in Li(d, n) and Be(d, n) reactions for 25 and 40 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Masayuki; Baba, Mamoru; Aoki, Takao; Kawata, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Naoya; Itoga, Toshiro

    2003-01-01

    The neutron spectra in Li(d, n) and Be(d, n) reactions for Ed = 25, 40 MeV were measured from ∼1 MeV to highest energy of secondary neutrons at ten laboratory angles between 0- and 110-deg with the time-of-flight (TOF) method. In addition, the number of 7 Be accumulated in the targets was also measured by counting the γ-rays from 7 Be using a pure Ge detector to obtain 7 Be production cross-section and yields. (author)

  4. Production cross section measurement of discrete gammas-ray at 90 degree for interactions of 14. 9 MeV neutrons with carbon and niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hongyu; Yan Yiming; Tang lin; Wen Chenlin; Zhang Shenji; Hua Ming; Han Chongzhan; Ding Xiaoji; Lan Liqiao; Fan Guoying; Yan Hua; Wang Xingfu; Wang Qi; Sun Suxu; Rong Yaning; Liu Shuzhen (Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (CN))

    1989-05-01

    The cross sections of discrete gamma-ray produced by interactions of 14.9 MeV neutrons with carbon and niobium were investigated. A pulsed {ital T}({ital d},{ital n}){sup 4} He neutron source was used in the measurement. Neutron flux incident upon the sample was determined with the associated particle method. Technique of time-of-flight was used for reducing the background. A new method to calculate neutron flux attenuation in large cylindrical sample was proposed. The split of 4.439 MeV gamma-ray line from {sup 12}C({ital n},{ital n}{prime}{gamma}){sup 12}C reactions was confirmed. 79 discrete gamma-ray lines and their production cross sections for the interactions of 14.9 MeV neutrons with niobium were obtained for the first time.

  5. Quantifying nitrous oxide production pathways in wastewater treatment systems using isotope technology - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haoran; Ye, Liu; Erler, Dirk; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2017-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is an important greenhouse gas and an ozone-depleting substance which can be emitted from wastewater treatment systems (WWTS) causing significant environmental impacts. Understanding the N 2 O production pathways and their contribution to total emissions is the key to effective mitigation. Isotope technology is a promising method that has been applied to WWTS for quantifying the N 2 O production pathways. Within the scope of WWTS, this article reviews the current status of different isotope approaches, including both natural abundance and labelled isotope approaches, to N 2 O production pathways quantification. It identifies the limitations and potential problems with these approaches, as well as improvement opportunities. We conclude that, while the capabilities of isotope technology have been largely recognized, the quantification of N 2 O production pathways with isotope technology in WWTS require further improvement, particularly in relation to its accuracy and reliability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Graphite Isotope Ratio Method: A Primer on Estimating Plutonium Production in Graphite Moderated Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesh, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    The Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM) is a technique used to estimate the total plutonium production in a graphite-moderated reactor. The cumulative plutonium production in that reactor can be accurately determined by measuring neutron irradiation induced isotopic ratio changes in certain impurity elements within the graphite moderator. The method does not require detailed knowledge of a reactor's operating history, although that knowledge can decrease the uncertainty of the production estimate. The basic premise of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method is that the fluence in non-fuel core components is directly related to the cumulative plutonium production in the nuclear fuel

  7. Isotope production and distribution Programs Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 Financial Statement Audit (ER-FC-96-01)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-12

    The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium and deuterium, and related isotope services. Services provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund, as established by the Fiscal Year 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act (Public Law 101-101). The Fiscal Year 1995 Appropriations Act (Public Law 103-316) modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research may not achieve full-cost recovery. Isotope Program costs are financed by revenues from the sale of isotopes and associated services and through payments from the isotope support decision unit, which was established in the DOE fiscal year 1995 Energy, Supply, Research, and Development appropriation. The isotope decision unit finances the production and processing of unprofitable isotopes that are vital to the national interest.

  8. Production cross-sections of radionuclides from α-induced reactions on natural copper up to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Otuka, Naohiko; Murakami, Masashi; Komori, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    The excitation functions were measured for the "n"a"tCu(α,x)"6"6","6"7Ga,"6"5Zn,"5"7","5"8","6"0Co reactions in the energy range of 16.5 −50 MeV. A conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was employed to determine cross-sections. The measured cross-sections were critically compared with relevant previous experimental data and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2014 library. Present results confirmed some of the previous experimental data, whereas only a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The measured data are useful for reducing the existing discrepancies in the literature, to improve the nuclear reaction model codes, and to enrich the experimental database towards various applications. - Highlights: • New measurements of gallium radionuclides for monitor reactions. • Production of cobalt radionuclides via alpha route on natural Copper. • Extensive critical review of earlier reported cross-sections.

  9. Differential neutron production cross sections and neutron yields from stopping-length targets for 113-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, M.M.; Amian, W.B.; Clark, D.A.; Goulding, C.A.; McClelland, J.B.; Morgan, G.L.; Moss, C.E.

    1989-03-01

    We have measured differential (P,ξn) cross sections, d 2 σ/dΩdE/sub n/, from thin targets and absolute neutron yields from stopping-length targets at angles of 7.5/degree/, 30/degree/, 60/degree/, and 150/degree/, for the 113--MeV proton bombardment of elemental beryllium, carbon, aluminum, iron, and depleted uranium. Additional cross-section measurements are reported for oxygen, tungsten, and lead. We used time-of-flight techniques to identify and discriminate against backgrounds and to determine the neutron energy spectrum. Comparison of the experimental data with intranuclear-cascade evaporation-model calculations with the code HETC showed discrepancies as high as a factor of 7 in the differential cross sections. These discrepancies in the differential cross sections make it possible to identify some of the good agreement seen in the stopping-length yield comparisons as fortuitous cancellation of incorrect production estimates in different energy regimes. 13 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  10. A new way to compute charges fusion products trajectories. Application to the detection of 3 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doloc, C.M.; Martin, G.

    1995-01-01

    We report here recent results concerning the 3 MeV Fusion Proton trajectories in the Tore-Supra Tokamak. The orbit computations were made in a new and unusual manner based on a topological equation which governs these trajectories. This method eludes both the problem of computing precision and the need to follow a large number of particles along their orbit: it allows to draw a topological map of trajectories, i.e. to find all possible trajectory classes, without any numerical computation. It gives also the transitions occurring between the various classes. The confinement of the proton orbits and the optimisation of the detector location were studied under the same topological rules. The need to develop this subject comes from the necessity to explain a large quantity of experimental data recorded by a silicon detector system on Tore-Supra. Experimental analysis of the Charged Fusion Product (CFP) is ensured by this unique detection system which allows to obtain simultaneously energy and pitch-angle resolution. (authors). 9 refs., 11 figs

  11. Stable isotope separation in calutrons: Forty years of production and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.A.; Tracy, J.G.

    1987-11-01

    The stable isotope separation program, established in 1945, has operated continually to provide enriched stable isotopes and selected radioactive isotopes, including the actinides, for use in research, medicine, and industrial applications. This report summarizes the first forty years of effort in the production and distribution of stable isotopes. Evolution of the program along with the research and development, chemical processing, and production efforts are highlighted. A total of 3.86 million separator hours has been utilized to separate 235 isotopes of 56 elements. Relative effort expended toward processing each of these elements is shown. Collection rates (mg/separator h), which vary by a factor of 20,000 from the highest to the lowest ( 205 Tl to 46 Ca), and the attainable isotopic purity for each isotope are presented. Policies related to isotope pricing, isotope distribution, and support for the enrichment program are discussed. Changes in government funding, coupled with large variations in sales revenue, have resulted in 7-fold perturbations in production levels

  12. Pion production from deuterium by the bombardment with polarized protons of 277 and 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolos, G.J.; Auld, E.G.; Giles, G.; Jones, G.; McParland, B.; Ottewell, D.; Walden, P.L.; Zeigler, W.

    1982-11-01

    Analyzing power measurements of the (anti) pd → tπ + reaction are reported at incident proton energies of 277 and 500 MeV. The 277 MeV results span the angular range from 70 0 to 130 0 in the centre of mass while the two 500 MeV measurements at large angles were taken as a check of published results. With the angular distribution of the analyzing power at 277 MeV being now available, an examination of the energy dependence of the analyzing power shows that it exhibits characteristics closely resembling the shape and magnitude of the distribution observed for nuclei in the 9-12 mass range

  13. Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, C.D.; Miller, D.L.; Carson, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to be irradiated in the ACRR. The intent of DOE would be to provide a capability to satisfy the North American health care system demand for 99 Mo, the parent of 99m Tc, in the event of an interruption in the current Canadian supply. 99m Tc is used in 70 to 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures in the US. The goal of the SNL/NM study effort is to determine the physical plant capability, infrastructure, and staffing necessary to meet the North American need for 99 Mo and to identify and examine all issues with potential for environmental impact

  14. Production of medically useful bromine isotopes via alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Katharina; Scholten, Bernhard; Spahn, Ingo; Hermanne, Alex; Spellerberg, Stefan; Coenen, Heinz H.; Neumaier, Bernd

    2017-09-01

    The cross sections of α-particle induced reactions on arsenic leading to the formation of 76,77,78Br were measured from their respective thresholds up to 37 MeV. Thin sediments of elemental arsenic powder were irradiated together with Al degrader and Cu monitor foils using the established stacked-foil technique. For determination of the effective α-particle energies and of the effective beam current through the stacks the cross-section ratios of the monitor nuclides 67Ga/66Ga were used. This should help resolve discrepancies in existing literature data. Comparison of the data with the available excitation functions shows some slight energy shifts as well as some differences in curve shapes. The calculated thick target yields indicate, that 77Br can be produced in the energy range Eα = 25 → 17 MeV free of isotopic impurities in quantities sufficient for medical application.

  15. Possibilities of production of neutron-rich Md isotopes in multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Myeong-Hwan; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The possibilities of production of yet unknown neutron-rich isotopes of Md are explored in several multi-nucleon transfer reactions with actinide targets and stable and radioactive beams. The projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies are suggested to produce new neutron-rich isotopes of Md in future experiments. (orig.)

  16. BIPAL - a data library for computing the burnup of fissionable isotopes and products of their decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralovcova, E.; Hep, J.; Valenta, V.

    1978-01-01

    The BIPAL databank contains data on 100 heavy metal isotopes starting with 206 Tl and finishing with 253 Es. Four are stable, the others are unstable. The following data are currently stored in the databank: the serial number and name of isotopes, decay modes and, for stable isotopes, the isotopic abundance (%), numbers of P decays and Q captures, numbers of corresponding final products, branching ratios, half-lives and their units, decay constants, thermal neutron captures, and fission cross sections, and other data (mainly alpha, beta and gamma intensities). The description of data and a printout of the BIPAL library are presented. (J.B.)

  17. Isotope Production and Distribution Program. Financial statements, September 30, 1994 and 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-11-30

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution (IP&D) Program`s financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on IP&D`s 1994 statements. Their reports on IP&D`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws,and regulations are also provided. The charter of the Isotope Program covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, byproducts, and related isotope services. Prior to October 1, 1989, the Program was subsidized by the Department of Energy through a combination of appropriated funds and isotope sales revenue. The Fiscal Year 1990 Appropriations Act, Public Law 101-101, authorized a separate Isotope Revolving Fund account for the Program, which was to support itself solely from the proceeds of isotope sales. The initial capitalization was about $16 million plus the value of the isotope assets in inventory or on loan for research and the unexpended appropriation available at the close of FY 1989. During late FY 1994, Public Law 103--316 restructured the Program to provide for supplemental appropriations to cover costs which are impractical to incorporate into the selling price of isotopes. Additional information about the Program is provided in the notes to the financial statements.

  18. Dose determination of 600 MeV proton irradiated specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavillet, D.

    1991-01-01

    The calculation method for the experimental determination of the atomic production cross section from the γ activity measurements are presented. This method is used for the determination of some isotope production cross sections for 600 MeV proton irradition in MANET steel, copper, tungsten, gold and titanium. The results are compared with some calculation. These values are used to determine the dose of specimens irradiated in the PIREX II facility. The results are discussed in terms of the irradiation parameters. A guide for the use of the production cross section determined in the dosimetry experiment are given. (author) tabs., refs

  19. Fragment production and collective Behaviour in central 197Au + 197Au reactions at E/A = 100 MeV to 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienold, T.

    1993-07-01

    In this thesis results of the reaction Au on Au at incident energies of 100 to 800 MeV/u are preentes, which were obtained with the phase 1 of the 4π detector system at the GSI in Darmstadt. The studies are concentrated to collective behaviour and the production of medium-heavy fragments (IMF) in hot and dense nuclear matter, as it is produced in semicentral and central collisions. The data set consists of the measurement of triple respectively quadruple differential cross sections of charged fragments in a large range of the phase space over nearly one order of magnitude in the incident energy. In this thesis for the first time the existence of a central source of medium-heavy fragments in very central collisions is shown. For this new criteria for the event selection are applied, as the combination of large particle multiplicity and the absence of a directed sideward flow, or the degree of the stopping in the energy flow. The analysis of the central source yielded a large mean IMF multiplicity of 13±2 (extrapolated to 4π, 100 MeV/u incident energy). Furthermore the quantitative change of the directed sideward flow with the ''centrality'' of the collisions was evaluated. With the measurments performed here now a new data set exists, which prepares many observables for the test of the numerous theoretical transport theories

  20. The global threat reduction initiative and conversion of isotope production to LEU targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has given a decisive impetus to the RERTR program's longstanding goal of converting worldwide production of medical radioisotopes from reliance on bomb-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) unsuitable for weapons. Although the four major; isotope producers continue to resist calls for conversion, they face mounting pressure from a variety of fronts including: (1) GTRI; (2) a related, multilateral U.S. initiative to forge agreement on conversion among the states that are home to the major producers; (3) an IAEA effort to provide technical assistance that will facilitate large-scale production of medical isotopes using LEU by producers who seek to do so; (4) planned production in the United States of substantial quantities of medical isotopes using LEU; and (5) pending U.S. legislation that would prohibit the export of HEU for production of isotopes as soon as alternative, LEU-produced isotopes are available. Accordingly, it now appears inevitable that worldwide isotope production will be converted from reliance on HEU to LEU. The only remaining question is which producers will be the first to reliably deliver sizeable quantities of LEU-produced isotopes and thereby capture global market share from the others. (author)

  1. Production of a narrow band of 0. 511-MeV radiation by use of the PHERMEX bremsstrahlung spectrum. [Cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroscio, M.A.

    1976-06-01

    The pair production cross section is numerically integrated over a typical PHERMEX bremsstrahlung spectrum to obtain the probability of pair production in a target of nuclear charge Z, and density rho. The pair production cross section used herein is only approximate in that it neglects screening, neglects the Coulomb field for the emerging pair (first Born approximation), and neglects pair production by atomic electrons. In spite of these approximations, an order-of-magnitude estimate of the amount of 0.511-MeV radiation produced by a typical pulse is still given.

  2. Transmutation of Isotopes --- Ecological and Energy Production Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowski, Waclaw

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes principles of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Wastes (ATW) and gives some flavour of the most important topics which are today under investigations in many countries. An assessment of the potential impact of ATW on a future of nuclear energy is also given. Nuclear reactors based on self-sustained fission reactions --- after spectacular development in fifties and sixties, that resulted in deployment of over 400 power reactors --- are wrestling today more with public acceptance than with irresolvable technological problems. In a whole spectrum of reasons which resulted in today's opposition against nuclear power few of them are very relevant for the nuclear physics community and they arose from the fact that development of nuclear power had been handed over to the nuclear engineers and technicians with some generically unresolved problems, which should have been solved properly by nuclear scientists. In a certain degree of simplification one can say, that most of the problems originate from very specific features of a fission phenomenon: self-sustained chain reaction in fissile materials and very strong radioactivity of fission products and very long half-life of some of the fission and activation products. And just this enormous concentration of radioactive fission products in the reactor core is the main problem of managing nuclear reactors: it requires unconditional guarantee for the reactor core integrity in order to avoid radioactive contamination of the environment; it creates problems to handle decay heat in the reactor core and finally it makes handling and/or disposal of spent fuel almost a philosophical issue, due to unimaginable long time scales of radioactive decay of some isotopes. A lot can be done to improve the design of conventional nuclear reactors (like Light Water Reactors); new, better reactors can be designed but it seems today very improbable to expect any radical change in the public perception of conventional

  3. Cross sections from 800 MeV proton irradiation of terbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, J.W., E-mail: jwengle@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mashnik, S.G.; Bach, H.; Couture, A.; Jackman, K.; Gritzo, R.; Ballard, B.D.; Fassbender, M.; Smith, D.M.; Bitteker, L.J.; Ullmann, J.L.; Gulley, M.S.; Pillai, C.; John, K.D.; Birnbaum, E.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Nortier, F.M., E-mail: meiring@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-11-02

    Terbium foils were irradiated with 800 MeV protons to ascertain the potential for production of lanthanide isotopes of interest in medical, astrophysical, and basic science research and to contribute to nuclear data repositories. Isotopes produced in the foil were quantified by gamma spectroscopy. Cross sections for 35 isotopes produced in the irradiation are reported and compared with predictions by the MCNP6 transport code using the CEM03.03, Bertini and INCL + ABLA event generators. Our results indicate the need to accurately consider fission and fragmentation of relatively light target nuclei like terbium in the modeling of nuclear reactions at 800 MeV. The predictive power of the code was found to be different for each event generator tested but was satisfactory for most of the product yields in the mass region where spallation reactions dominate. However, none of the event generators' results are in complete agreement with measured data.

  4. Isotope Production Facility Conceptual Thermal-Hydraulic Design Review and Scoping Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Shelton, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic design of the target for the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) is reviewed. In support of the technical review, scoping calculations are performed. The results of the review and scoping calculations are presented in this report

  5. HETC-3STEP calculations of proton induced nuclide production cross sections at incident energies between 20 MeV and 5 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji

    1996-08-01

    For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of {sup 16}O, {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Fe, {sup 59}Co, {sup nat}Zr and {sup 197}Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for {sup nat}Zr and {sup 197}Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)

  6. HETC-3STEP calculations of proton induced nuclide production cross sections at incident energies between 20 MeV and 5 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Ishibashi, Kenji.

    1996-08-01

    For the OECD/NEA code intercomparison, nuclide production cross sections of 16 O, 27 Al, nat Fe, 59 Co, nat Zr and 197 Au for the proton incidence with energies of 20 MeV to 5 GeV are calculated with the HETC-3STEP code based on the intranuclear cascade evaporation model including the preequilibrium and high energy fission processes. In the code, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk, the atomic mass table of Audi and Wapstra and the mass formula derived by Tachibana et al. are newly employed in the evaporation calculation part. The calculated results are compared with the experimental ones. It is confirmed that HETC-3STEP reproduces the production of the nuclides having the mass number close to that of the target nucleus with an accuracy of a factor of two to three at incident proton energies above 100 MeV for nat Zr and 197 Au. However, the HETC-3STEP code has poor accuracy on the nuclide production at low incident energies and the light nuclide production through the fragmentation process induced by protons with energies above hundreds of MeV. Therefore, further improvement is required. (author)

  7. Developing the Sandia National Laboratories transportation infrastructure for isotope products and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trennel, A.J.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) plans to establish a medical isotope project that would ensure a reliable domestic supply of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and related medical isotopes (Iodine-125, Iodine-131, and Xenon-133). The Department's plan for production will modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and associated hot cell facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/New Mexico and the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Transportation activities associated with such production is discussed

  8. Exploratory study of fission product yields of neutron-induced fission of 235U , 238U , and 239Pu at 8.9 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B. F.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Rusev, G. Y.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    Using dual-fission chambers each loaded with a thick (200 -400 -mg /c m2) actinide target of 235 ,238U or 239Pu and two thin (˜10 -100 -μ g /c m2) reference foils of the same actinide, the cumulative yields of fission products ranging from 92Sr to 147Nd have been measured at En= 8.9 MeV . The 2H(d ,n ) 3He reaction provided the quasimonoenergetic neutron beam. The experimental setup and methods used to determine the fission product yield (FPY) are described, and results for typically eight high-yield fission products are presented. Our FPYs for 235U(n ,f ) , 238U(n ,f ) , and 239Pu(n ,f ) at 8.9 MeV are compared with the existing data below 8 MeV from Glendenin et al. [Phys. Rev. C 24, 2600 (1981), 10.1103/PhysRevC.24.2600], Nagy et al. [Phys. Rev. C 17, 163 (1978), 10.1103/PhysRevC.17.163], Gindler et al. [Phys. Rev. C 27, 2058 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevC.27.2058], and those of Mac Innes et al. [Nucl. Data Sheets 112, 3135 (2011), 10.1016/j.nds.2011.11.009] and Laurec et al. [Nucl. Data Sheets 111, 2965 (2010), 10.1016/j.nds.2010.11.004] at 14.5 and 14.7 MeV, respectively. This comparison indicates a negative slope for the energy dependence of most fission product yields obtained from 235U and 239Pu , whereas for 238U the slope issue remains unsettled.

  9. Gamma ray production cross sections for the interactions of 14.9 MeV neutrons with C, Al, V, Fe and Nb at 90 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hongyu; Tang Lin; Yan Yiming

    1986-11-01

    Discrete γ-ray spectra and production cross sections for the interactions of 14.9 MeV neutrons with C, Al, V, Fe and Nb targets have been measured at 90 deg. using a 110.7cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. A single γ-ray peak was measured for C. For Al 34 γ lines, for Fe 41 γ lines, for V 61 γ lines and for Nb 79 γ lines were measured

  10. Observation of enhanced zero-degree binary encounter electron production with decreasing charge-state q in 30 MeV Oq+ + O2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, T.J.M.; Wong, K.L.; Hidmi, H.I.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured binary encounter electron production in collisions of 30 MeV O q+ projectiles (q=4-8) and O 2 targets. Measured double differential BEe cross-sections are found to increase with decreasing charge-state q, in agreement with similar previously reported zero-degree investigations for H 2 and He targets. However, measurements for the same system but at 25 degrees shows the opposite trend, that BEe cross sections decrease slightly with decreasing charge state

  11. Study of Ne and Kr production in Mg, Al, Rb, Sr and Y targets by 0-180 MeV neutrons. Cosmochemical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, P.

    1989-07-01

    High sensitivity mass spectrometry technique has been used to measure production of noble gases Ne and Kr induced by 0-180 MeV neutrons in Mg, Al, Rb, Sr and Y targets. This experiment allowed us an evaluation of the implied excitation functions, in an energy range where no experimental data were available. These results have exhibited the importance of secondary neutrons induced in the interaction of cosmic rays with meteorites and moon surface [fr

  12. Light charged particle production in fast neutron-induced reactions on carbon (En=40 to 75 MeV) (II). Tritons and alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufauquez, C.; Slypen, I.; Benck, S.; Meulders, J.P.; Corcalciuc, V.

    2000-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections for fast neutron-induced triton and alpha-particle production on carbon are reported at six incident neutron energies between 40 and 75 MeV. Angular distributions were measured at laboratory angles between 20 deg. and 160 deg. . Energy-differential, angle-differential and total cross sections are also reported. Experimental cross sections are compared to existing experimental data and to theoretical model calculations

  13. Study of medical isotope production facility stack emissions and noble gas isotopic signature using automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Hoffmann, Emmy; Ungar, Kurt; Dolinar, George; Miley, Harry; Mekarski, Pawel; Schrom, Brian; Hoffman, Ian; Lawrie, Ryan; Loosz, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The nuclear industry emissions of the four CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) relevant radioxenon isotopes are unavoidably detected by the IMS along with possible treaty violations. Another civil source of radioxenon emissions which contributes to the global background is radiopharmaceutical production companies. To better understand the source terms of these background emissions, a joint project between HC, ANSTO, PNNL and CRL was formed to install real-time detection systems to support 135Xe, 133Xe, 131mXe and 133mXe measurements at the ANSTO and CRL 99Mo production facility stacks as well as the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) primary coolant monitoring system at CRL. At each site, high resolution gamma spectra were collected every 15 minutes using a HPGe detector to continuously monitor a bypass feed from the stack or CANDU primary coolant system as it passed through a sampling cell. HC also conducted atmospheric monitoring for radioxenon at approximately 200 km distant from CRL. A program was written to transfer each spectrum into a text file format suitable for the automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform and then email the file to a server. Once the email was received by the server, it was automatically analysed with the gamma-spectrum software UniSampo/Shaman to perform radionuclide identification and activity calculation for a large number of gamma-spectra in a short period of time (less than 10 seconds per spectrum). The results of nuclide activity together with other spectrum parameters were saved into the Linssi database. This database contains a large amount of radionuclide information which is a valuable resource for the analysis of radionuclide distribution within the noble gas fission product emissions. The results could be useful to identify the specific mechanisms of the activity release. The isotopic signatures of the various radioxenon species can be determined as a function of release time. Comparison of 133mXe and 133Xe activity

  14. Production and identification of an isomeric state in 217Pa and the new isotope 218Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, K.H.; Faust, W.; Muenzenberg, G.; Ewald, H.; Guettner, K.; Clerc, H.G.; Lang, W.; Wohlfarth, H.; Pielenz, K.

    1977-02-01

    Evaporation residues produced in the reaction 40Ar(176 MeV) + 181Ta were separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP and detected by a ΔE-E counter telescope. The technique of delayed coincidences was applied to individually identify the reaction products implanted into a Si-surface barrier detector by their subsequent alpha decays. The previously unknown nucleus 218Pa was identified by its known daughter decays. 218Pa was found to decay with Esub(α) = (9.614 +- 0.015) MeV, T(1/2) = (140 +- 50) μs and probably also with Esub(α) = (9.535 +- 0.020) MeV, T(1/2) = (150 + 100 - 50) μs. The half-life of the 8.33 MeV alpha decay of 217Pa was determined to be (o.2 +- 0.4) ms. Anew isomer in 217 Pa was found which decays with Esub(α) = (10.16 +- 0.02) MeV and T(1/2) = (1.8 +- 0.5) ms. (orig./BJ) [de

  15. Experimental study of xenon isotopes production by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mingsheng; Liang Xiongwen; Zhang Yonggang; Dong Jinping

    2006-01-01

    The gas centrifuge technology is studied for the separation of Xe isotopes. The nature Xe is chosen as processing gas. A four-state cascade is designed to separate 124 Xe to a concentration of being greater than 65% in three separation runs. 124 Xe can be enriched to a concentration 99% in more separation runs using a cascade of more gas centrifuges. (authors)

  16. Production of stable isotopes at Urenco. 10 years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, C.A.; Rakhorst, H.

    2003-01-01

    In the last ten years, Urenco has built its spin-off activity of stable isotopes in a multi-million dollar business. It is a high quality, ISO certified, client oriented and profitable European business with further growth potential. (author)

  17. Radioactive Emissions from Fission-Based Medical Isotope Production and Their Effect on Global Nuclear Explosion Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, T.; Saey, P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of medical isotopes, such as Tc-99m, is widespread with over 30 million procedures being performed every year, but the fission-based production of isotopes used for medical procedures causes emissions into the environment. This paper will show that gaseous radioactive isotopes of xenon, such as Xe-133, are released in high quantities, because they have a high fission cross section and they are difficult to scrub from the processes used to produce the medical isotopes due to their largely unreactive nature. Unfortunately, the reasons that large amounts of radioactive xenon isotopes are emitted from isotope production are the same as those that make these isotopes the most useful isotopes for the detection of underground nuclear explosions. Relatively recently, the nuclear explosion monitoring community has established a provisional monitoring network for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) that includes radioactive xenon monitoring as a major component. This community has discovered that emissions from medical isotope production present a more serious problem to nuclear explosion monitoring than thought when the network was first conceived. To address the growing problem, a group of scientists in both the monitoring and the isotope production communities have come together to attempt to find scientific and pragmatic ways to address the emissions problems, recognizing that medical isotope production should not be adversely affected, while monitoring for nuclear explosions should remain effective as isotope production grows, changes, and spreads globally. (author)

  18. Optical potentials and isoscalar transition rates from 104 MeV alpha-particle scattering by the N=28 isotopes 48Ca, 50Ti and 52Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, E.; Pesl, R.; Gils, H.J.; Rebel, H.; Buschmann, J.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Zagromski, S.

    1983-02-01

    Precisely measured differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering from 104 MeV alpha-particles by 48 Ca, 50 Ti and 52 Cr are reported. The analyses aim primarily at the determination of strength, radial shapes and deformation of the scattering potentials, looking for isotonic differences of N = 28 isotones. The mean square radii of the (real) potentials are discussed in terms of mean square radius differences of the matter distributions. The isoscalar transition rates derived by coupled channel analyses of the measured cross sections are compared with electromagnetic rates. In addition to the analyses on the basis of a slightly generalized extended optical model a semi-microscopic deformed folding model has been applied, using a density-dependent effective alpha-bound nucleon interaction. Though an excellent description of the data over the full angular range is obtained the resulting values of the deformation parameters appear to be not consistent with results from various different methods. (orig.) [de

  19. Solidification of acidic liquid waste from 99Mo isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The production of the radioisotope molybdenum-99 by the fission process began at ANSTO in the late 1960's. Molybdenum-99, with a half life of 66 hours, decays by beta emission to produce technetium-99m, a metastable isotope. Technetium-99m is the most widely used medical radioisotope due to its near ideal properties, particularly the radioactive half life of only 6 hours. ANSTO has been producing generators for around 30 years for distribution to hospitals and nuclear medicine centres. These generators produce technetium-99m for medical use by decay of the contained molybdenum-99. To produce molybdenum-99, uranium dioxide pellets enriched to 2.2% 235 U are irradiated in ANSTO's HIFAR reactor for about one week. The irradiated pellets are subsequently dissolved in nitric acid to allow the recovery of the molybdenum. An acidic intermediate level liquid waste results from this processing. A primary waste results from the raw leach solution (after removal of the molybdenum onto a packed alumina column) and a weaker secondary waste is produced from a series of column washing steps. The waste solution contains uranium, the majority of the other fission products and low levels of ammonia in a nitric acid solution. This liquid waste had been accumulating and stored in specially designed shielded tanks in a storage facility. A process has been developed at ANSTO to convert this intermediate level liquid waste into a crystalline solid form of considerably less volume and mass, for improved storage. The operation comprises three processing steps. The lower strength secondary waste solution first requires concentration, with the removal of water and some acid into a condensate. The condensate is chemically neutralised and treated through the conventional water treatment plant. Concentrated solution is then treated in a batch chemical process to reduce the low levels of ammonia to very low levels. The final evaporation process removes further water and acid and

  20. Production of a pulseable fission-like neutron flux using a monoenergetic 14 MeV neutron generator and a depleted uranium reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltick, D.; McConchie, S.; Sword, E.

    2008-04-01

    The design and performance of a pulseable neutron source utilizing a D-T neutron generator and a depleted uranium reflector are presented. Approximately half the generator's 14 MeV neutron flux is used to produce a fission-like neutron spectrum similar to 252Cf. For every 14 MeV neutron entering the reflector, more than one fission-like neutron is reflected back across the surface of the reflector. Because delayed neutron production is more than two orders of magnitude below the prompt neutron production, the source takes full advantage of the generator's pulsed mode capability. Applications include all elemental characterization systems using neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy. The source simultaneously emits 14 MeV neutrons optimal to excite fast neutron-induced gamma-ray signals, such as from carbon and oxygen, and fission-like neutrons optimal to induce neutron capture gamma-ray signals, such as from hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine. Experiments were performed, which compare well to Monte Carlo simulations, showing that the uranium reflector enhances capture signals by up to a factor of 15 compared to the absence of a reflector.

  1. A conversion development program to LEU targets for medical isotope production in the MAPLE Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    Historically, the production of molybdenum-99 in the NRU research reactors at Chalk River, Canada has been extracted from reactor targets employing highly enriched uranium (HEU). The molybdenum extraction process from the HEU targets provided predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume molybdenum production process. A reliable supply of HEU for the NRU research reactor targets has enabled MDS Nordion to develop a secure chain of medical isotope supply for the international nuclear medicine community. Each link of the isotope supply chain, from isotope production to patient application, has been established on a proven method of HEU target irradiation and processing. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, the design of the MAPLE facilities was based on our established process - extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. However, in concert with the global trend to utilize low enriched uranium (LEU) in research reactors, MDS Nordion has launched a program to convert the MAPLE facilities to LEU targets. An initial feasibility study was initiated to identify the technical issues to convert the MAPLE targets from HEU to LEU. This paper will present the results of the feasibility study. It will also describe future challenges and opportunities in converting the MAPLE facilities to LEU targets for large scale, commercial medical isotope production. (author)

  2. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2008-01-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, γ), (n, 2n), (n, p), and (γ, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope

  3. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: alby@anl.gov; Gohar, Yousry [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, {gamma}), (n, 2n), (n, p), and ({gamma}, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope.

  4. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2008-05-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, gamma), (n, 2n), (n, p), and (gamma, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope.

  5. Production of isotopically labeled heterologous proteins in non-E. coli prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Shimada, Ichio

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of stable isotope-labeled proteins is necessary for the application of a wide variety of NMR methods, to study the structures and dynamics of proteins and protein complexes. The E. coli expression system is generally used for the production of isotope-labeled proteins, because of the advantages of ease of handling, rapid growth, high-level protein production, and low cost for isotope-labeling. However, many eukaryotic proteins are not functionally expressed in E. coli, due to problems related to disulfide bond formation, post-translational modifications, and folding. In such cases, other expression systems are required for producing proteins for biomolecular NMR analyses. In this paper, we review the recent advances in expression systems for isotopically labeled heterologous proteins, utilizing non-E. coli prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  6. Production of low energy gamma rays by neutron interactions with fluorine for incident neutron energies between 0.1 and 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.L.; Dickens, J.K.

    1975-06-01

    Differential cross sections for the production of low-energy gamma rays (less than 240 keV) by neutron interactions in fluorine have been measured for neutron energies between 0.1 and 20 MeV. The Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator was used as the neutron source. Gamma rays were detected at 92 0 using an intrinsic germanium detector. Incident neutron energies were determined by time-of-flight techniques. Tables are presented for the production cross sections of three gamma rays having energies of 96, 110, and 197 keV. (14 figures, 3 tables) (U.S.)

  7. Gamma-ray production cross sections for 0.9 to 20 MeV neutron interactions with 10B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bywater, R.L. Jr.

    1986-09-01

    Gamma-ray spectral data previously obtained at the 20-meter station of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator flight-path 8 were studied to determine cross sections for 0.9- to 20-MeV neutron interactions with 10 B. Data reduction techniques, including those for determination of incident neutron fluences as well as those to compensate for Doppler-broadened gamma-ray-detection responses, are given in some detail in this report. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Progresses in the stable isotope studies of microbial processes associated with wetland methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Lin Guanghui

    2013-01-01

    Methane emissions from wetlands play a key role in regulating global atmospheric methane concentration, so better understanding of microbial processes for the methane emission in wetlands is critical for developing process models and reducing uncertainty in global methane emission inventory. In this review, we describe basic microbial processes for wetland methane production and then demonstrate how stable isotope fractionation and stable isotope probing can be used to investigate the mechanisms underlying different methanogenic pathways and to quantify microbial species involved in wetland methane production. When applying stable isotope technique to calculate contributions of different pathways to the total methane production in various wetlands, the technical challenge is how to determine isotopic fractionation factors for the acetate derived methane production and carbon dioxide derived methane production. Although the application of stable isotope probing techniques to study the actual functions of different microbial organisms to methane production process is significantly superior to the traditional molecular biology method, the combination of these two technologies will be crucial for direct linking of the microbial community and functional structure with the corresponding metabolic functions, and provide new ideas for future studies. (authors)

  9. Hot cell chemistry for isotope production at Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.W.; Bentley, G.E.; Ott, M.A.; DeBusk, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    A family of standardized glass and plastic ware has been developed for the unit processes of dissolution, volume reduction, ion exchange, extraction, gasification, filtration, centrifugation, and liquid transfer in the hot cells. Computerized data handling and gamma pulse analysis have been applied to quality control and process development in hot cell procedures for production of isotopes for research in physics and medicine. The above has greatly reduced the time needed to set up for and produce a new isotope

  10. Computational investigation of 99Mo, 89Sr, and 131I production rates in a subcritical UO2(NO32 aqueous solution reactor driven by a 30-MeV proton accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gholamzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of subcritical aqueous homogenous reactors driven by accelerators presents an attractive alternative for producing 99Mo. In this method, the medical isotope production system itself is used to extract 99Mo or other radioisotopes so that there is no need to irradiate common targets. In addition, it can operate at much lower power compared to a traditional reactor to produce the same amount of 99Mo by irradiating targets. In this study, the neutronic performance and 99Mo, 89Sr, and 131I production capacity of a subcritical aqueous homogenous reactor fueled with low-enriched uranyl nitrate was evaluated using the MCNPX code. A proton accelerator with a maximum 30-MeV accelerating power was used to run the subcritical core. The computational results indicate a good potential for the modeled system to produce the radioisotopes under completely safe conditions because of the high negative reactivity coefficients of the modeled core. The results show that application of an optimized beam window material can increase the fission power of the aqueous nitrate fuel up to 80%. This accelerator-based procedure using low enriched uranium nitrate fuel to produce radioisotopes presents a potentially competitive alternative in comparison with the reactor-based or other accelerator-based methods. This system produces ∼1,500 Ci/wk (∼325 6-day Ci of 99Mo at the end of a cycle.

  11. Study of the desintegration of short-life fission products. Application to the mass distribution in the fission of 238U and 233U induced by 14MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallini, Pierre.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear spectrometry of short-life fission products was investigated, together with direct applications to the study of mass and charge distribution in fission reactions. It is shown that, by choosing judiciously the target in which the fission product is created and owing to the differences in stabilities and evaporation temperatures of the compounds obtained, it is possible to separate some elements. For example, niobium was separated by heating after irradiation of a mixture of UC and RuCl 3 , and sublimation in a tube with temperature gradient. It was thus possible to study the 99 Nb isotope. Other classical chemical separation processes were used for yttrium and strontium. The half-lifes beta and gamma spectra, decay schemes of 93 Sr, 94 Y and 95 Y were studied. It was shown how to obtain mass distribution in fission using a nondestructive gamma analysis method. As an application, results obtained in the fission of 233 U and 238 U at 14 MeV are given [fr

  12. Principles and limitations of stable isotopes in differentiating organic and conventional foodstuffs: 2. Animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Caio T; Chalk, Phillip M

    2017-01-02

    In this review, we examine the variation in stable isotope signatures of the lighter elements (δ 2 H, δ 13 C, δ 15 N, δ 18 O, and δ 34 S) of tissues and excreta of domesticated animals, the factors affecting the isotopic composition of animal tissues, and whether stable isotopes may be used to differentiate organic and conventional modes of animal husbandry. The main factors affecting the δ 13 C signatures of livestock are the C3/C4 composition of the diet, the relative digestibility of the diet components, metabolic turnover, tissue and compound specificity, growth rate, and animal age. δ 15 N signatures of sheep and cattle products have been related mainly to diet signatures, which are quite variable among farms and between years. Although few data exist, a minor influence in δ 15 N signatures of animal products was attributed to N losses at the farm level, whereas stocking rate showed divergent findings. Correlations between mode of production and δ 2 H and δ 18 O have not been established, and only in one case of an animal product was δ 34 S a satisfactory marker for mode of production. While many data exist on diet-tissue isotopic discrimination values among domesticated animals, there is a paucity of data that allow a direct and statistically verifiable comparison of the differences in the isotopic signatures of organically and conventionally grown animal products. The few comparisons are confined to beef, milk, and egg yolk, with no data for swine or lamb products. δ 13 C appears to be the most promising isotopic marker to differentiate organic and conventional production systems when maize (C4) is present in the conventional animal diet. However, δ 13 C may be unsuitable under tropical conditions, where C4 grasses are abundant, and where grass-based husbandry is predominant in both conventional and organic systems. Presently, there is no universal analytical method that can be applied to differentiate organic and conventional animal products.

  13. Review of Cyclotrons for the Production of Radioactive Isotopes for Medical and Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmor, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Radioactive isotopes are used in a wide range of medical, biological, environmental and industrial applications. Cyclotrons are the primary tool for producing the shorter-lived, proton-rich radioisotopes currently used in a variety of medical applications. Although the primary use of the cyclotron-produced short-lived radioisotopes is in PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) diagnostic medical procedures, cyclotrons are also producing longer-lived isotopes for therapeutic procedures as well as for other industrial and applied science applications. Commercial suppliers of cyclotrons are responding by providing a range of cyclotrons in the energy range of 3-70MeV for the differing needs of the various applications. These cyclotrons generally have multiple beams servicing multiple targets. This review article presents some of the applications of the radioisotopes and provides a comparison of some of the capabilities of the various current cyclotrons. The use of nuclear medicine and the number of cyclotrons supplying the needed isotopes are increasing. It is expected that there will soon be a new generation of small "tabletop" cyclotrons providing patient doses on demand.

  14. Recent developments in application of stable isotope analysis on agro-product authenticity and traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gang; Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming; Ye, Zhihua

    2014-02-15

    With the globalisation of agro-product markets and convenient transportation of food across countries and continents, the potential for distribution of mis-labelled products increases accordingly, highlighting the need for measures to identify the origin of food. High quality food with identified geographic origin is a concern not only for consumers, but also for agriculture farmers, retailers and administrative authorities. Currently, stable isotope ratio analysis in combination with other chemical methods gradually becomes a promising approach for agro-product authenticity and traceability. In the last five years, a growing number of research papers have been published on tracing agro-products by stable isotope ratio analysis and techniques combining with other instruments. In these reports, the global variety of stable isotope compositions has been investigated, including light elements such as C, N, H, O and S, and heavy isotopes variation such as Sr and B. Several factors also have been considered, including the latitude, altitude, evaporation and climate conditions. In the present paper, an overview is provided on the authenticity and traceability of the agro-products from both animal and plant sources by stable isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of primary production in a eutrophic lake from carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of a carnivorous fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Takahito

    1991-01-01

    The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of Hypomesus transpacificus (a pond smelt) in a eutrophic lake, Lake Suwa, were measured from April to September in 1986 and 1987. The differences in the isotope ratios between these two years were observed. The stable isotopes were transferred from phytoplankton to zooplankton and pond smelt, associated with organic matters. Therefore, the difference in the isotope ratios in two years seemed to reflect the differences of the proceeding of primary production. It was suggested that the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of animal, whose trophic level is far from primary producer, can be the qualitative indicators for assessing the primary production in a lake ecosystem. (author)

  16. Preparation and use of nitrogen (2) oxide of special purity for production of oxygen and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polevoj, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Problems related with production of oxygen and nitrogen isotopes by means of low-temperature rectification of nitrogen (2) oxide are analyzed. Special attention, in particular, is payed to the techniques of synthesis and high purification of initial NO, utilization of waste flows formed during isotope separation. Ways to affect the initial isotope composition of nitrogen oxide and the rate of its homogeneous-isotope exchange, which provide for possibility of simultaneous production of oxygen and nitrogen isotopes by means of NO rectification, are considered. Description of a new technique for high purification of nitrogen oxide, prepared at decomposition of nitric acid by sulfurous anhydride, suggested by the author is presented

  17. Method of separation of fission and corrosion products and of corresponding isotopes from liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, H.; Stamberg, K.; Jilek, R.; Hulak, P.; Katzer, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method of separating fission and corrosion products and corresponding stable isotopes from liquid waste is described. Mycelia of fungi are used as sorbents for retaining these products on their surface and within their pores. Methods of activation or regeneration of the sorbent are outlined. 11 claims

  18. Natural carbon isotopes used to study methane consumption and production in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, Per; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann; Kemner, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the isotopic composition of carbon can be used to reveal simultaneous occurrence of methane production and oxidation in soil. The method is conducted in laboratory jar experiments as well as in the field by using flux chambers. Simultaneous occurrence of production and oxidation of met...

  19. A cyclotron isotope production facility designed to maximize production and minimize radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, W.J.; Stevenson, N.R.; Szlavik, F.F.

    1993-01-01

    Continuing increases in requirements from the nuclear medicine industry for cyclotron isotopes is increasing the demands being put on an aging stock of machines. In addition, with the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP publication in place, strict dose limits will be required and this will have an effect on the way these machines are being operated. Recent advances in cyclotron design combined with lessons learned from two decades of commercial production mean that new facilities can result in a substantial charge on target, low personnel dose, and minimal residual activation. An optimal facility would utilize a well engineered variable energy/high current H - cyclotron design, multiple beam extraction, and individual target caves. Materials would be selected to minimize activation and absorb neutrons. Equipment would be designed to minimize maintenance activities performed in high radiation fields. (orig.)

  20. Isotopes and their possible use as bio markers of microbial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyakun, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to determine the range of possible variations in the distribution of carbon isotopes ( 12 C and 13 C) in the metabolic products of the basic biological systems (production of organic matter by photosynthetic bacteria, its consumption by heterotrophic organisms, biological production of methane, its utilization by methanotrophic organisms, biological production of carbon monoxide and its bacterial oxidation). 32 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Measurement of gamma-ray production cross sections in 27Al(n,xnγ) and 208Pb(n,pxnγ) reactions for neutron energies up to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, A.; Vonach, H.; Hitzenberger-Schauer, H.; Chadwick, M.B.; Nelson, R.O.; Haight, R.C.; Wender, S.A.; Young, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    The prompt γ-radiation from the interaction of fast neutrons with samples of Al and enriched 208 Pb was measured using the white neutron beam of the LANSCE/WNR facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. From the aluminum γ-ray spectra excitation functions for prominent γ-ray transitions in various residual nuclei (in the range from F to Al) were determined for neutron energies up to 400 MeV. In addition to the primary purpose of the 208 Pb experiment, the study of (n,xnγ) reactions leading to various lead isotopes. γ-ray transitions in residual Tl nuclei were analyzed and cross sections were derived in the neutron energy range from the effective threshold to 200 MeV. In the neutron energy range up to 200 MeV all experimental results were compared with nuclear model calculations using the code GNASH. (author)

  2. Developing the Sandia National Laboratories transportation infrastructure for isotope products and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trennel, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Certain radioactive isotopes for North American and especially the United States' needs are enormously important to the medical community and their numerous patients. The most important medical isotope is 99 Mo, which is currently manufactured by Nordion International Inc. in a single, aging reactor operated by Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. The reactor's useful life is expected to end at the turn of the century. Production loss because of reactor shutdown possibilities prompted the US Congress to direct the DOE to provide for a US backup source for this crucial isotope. The SNL Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) was evaluated as a site to provide 99 Mo initially and other isotopes that can be economically extracted from the process. Medical isotope production at SNL is a new venture in manufacturing. Should SNL be selected and the project reach the manufacturing stage, SNL would expect to service up to 30% of the US market under normal circumstances as a backup to the Canadian supply with the capability to service 100% should the need arise. The demand for 99 Mo increases each year; hence, the proposed action accommodates growth in demand to meet this increase. The proposed project would guarantee the supply of medical isotopes would continue if either the irradiation or processing activities in Canada were interrupted

  3. CR-39 track detector calibration for H, He, and C ions from 0.1-0.5 MeV up to 5 MeV for laser-induced nuclear fusion product identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccou, C; Yahia, V; Depierreux, S; Neuville, C; Goyon, C; Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Ducret, J E; Boutoux, G; Rafelski, J; Labaune, C

    2015-08-01

    Laser-accelerated ion beams can be used in many applications and, especially, to initiate nuclear reactions out of thermal equilibrium. We have experimentally studied aneutronic fusion reactions induced by protons accelerated by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, colliding with a boron target. Such experiments require a rigorous method to identify the reaction products (alpha particles) collected in detectors among a few other ion species such as protons or carbon ions, for example. CR-39 track detectors are widely used because they are mostly sensitive to ions and their efficiency is near 100%. We present a complete calibration of CR-39 track detector for protons, alpha particles, and carbon ions. We give measurements of their track diameters for energy ranging from hundreds of keV to a few MeV and for etching times between 1 and 8 h. We used these results to identify alpha particles in our experiments on proton-boron fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated protons. We show that their number clearly increases when the boron fuel is preformed in a plasma state.

  4. The study of 90 deg. gamma ray production cross sections for interactions of 14.9 Mev neutrons with C, Al, V, Fe, Co, Nb samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lin; Yan Yiming; Zhou Hongyu; Wen Shenlin; Wang Qi; Sun Shuxu; Ding Xiaoji; Wang Wanhong

    1987-04-01

    The (n,xr) reactions have been studied for incident neutron energy 14.9 Mev and for the samples C, Al, V, Fe, Co and Nb. The pulsed beam Time-of-Flight technique was adopted to discriminate neutrons and de-excitation r-rays and to improve the background conditions of the experiment. 90 deg. differential gamma production cross sections as the results of experiments are presented. Due to very low background many new r-rays peaks have been obtained. (author). 14 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  5. Proton and deuteron production in neutron-induced reactions on carbon at En=42.5, 62.7, and 72.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slypen, I.; Corcalciuc, V.; Meulders, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections for proton and deuteron production in fast neutron induced reactions on carbon are reported for three incident neutron energies: 42.5, 62.7, and 72.8 MeV. Angular distributions were measured at laboratory angles between 20 degree and 160 degree. Procedures for data taking and data reduction are presented. Energy-differential cross sections and total cross sections are also reported. Experimental cross sections are compared with existing data and with theoretical calculations in the frame of the intranuclear cascade model

  6. Proper interpretation of dissolved nitrous oxide isotopes, production pathways, and emissions requires a modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuss, Simon J; Venkiteswaran, Jason J; Schiff, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotopes ([Formula: see text]15N and [Formula: see text]18O) of the greenhouse gas N2O provide information about the sources and processes leading to N2O production and emission from aquatic ecosystems to the atmosphere. In turn, this describes the fate of nitrogen in the aquatic environment since N2O is an obligate intermediate of denitrification and can be a by-product of nitrification. However, due to exchange with the atmosphere, the [Formula: see text] values at typical concentrations in aquatic ecosystems differ significantly from both the source of N2O and the N2O emitted to the atmosphere. A dynamic model, SIDNO, was developed to explore the relationship between the isotopic ratios of N2O, N2O source, and the emitted N2O. If the N2O production rate or isotopic ratios vary, then the N2O concentration and isotopic ratios may vary or be constant, not necessarily concomitantly, depending on the synchronicity of production rate and source isotopic ratios. Thus prima facie interpretation of patterns in dissolved N2O concentrations and isotopic ratios is difficult. The dynamic model may be used to correctly interpret diel field data and allows for the estimation of the gas exchange coefficient, N2O production rate, and the production-weighted [Formula: see text] values of the N2O source in aquatic ecosystems. Combining field data with these modelling efforts allows this critical piece of nitrogen cycling and N2O flux to the atmosphere to be assessed.

  7. Production of neutrons up to 18 MeV in high-intensity, short-pulse laser matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, D. P. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94440 (United States); McNaney, J. M.; Swift, D. C.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94440 (United States); Petrov, G. M.; Davis, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Jarrott, L. C.; Tynan, G.; Beg, F. N. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Kodama, R.; Nakamura, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-5 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 454-0871 (Japan); Lancaster, K. L. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11OQX (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The generation of high-energy neutrons using laser-accelerated ions is demonstrated experimentally using the Titan laser with 360 J of laser energy in a 9 ps pulse. In this technique, a short-pulse, high-energy laser accelerates deuterons from a CD{sub 2} foil. These are incident on a LiF foil and subsequently create high energy neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(d,xn) nuclear reaction (Q = 15 MeV). Radiochromic film and a Thomson parabola ion-spectrometer were used to diagnose the laser accelerated deuterons and protons. Conversion efficiency into protons was 0.5%, an order of magnitude greater than into deuterons. Maximum neutron energy was shown to be angularly dependent with up to 18 MeV neutrons observed in the forward direction using neutron time-of-flight spectrometry. Absolutely calibrated CR-39 detected spectrally integrated neutron fluence of up to 8 x 10{sup 8} n sr{sup -1} in the forward direction.

  8. Massive mercury target for thallium isotope production on the beam of high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novgorodov, A.F.; Kolachkovski, A.; Nguen Kong Chang.

    1980-01-01

    The yields of thallium radioisotopes in a massive mercury target irradiated with 660 MeV protons have been determined. The constancy of isotopic composition of radiothallium along the whole length (40 cm) of the target has been found. The yields of 200 Tl, 201 Tl and 202 Tl amount to 22.9+-2.8; 3.42+-0.45 and 0.459+-0.61 mCu/mkA h, respectively. It has been shown that the extraction of radioisotopes of thallium and some other elements from large amounts of mercury as well as their subsequent concentration may be carried out fully and relatavely fast when using dilute solutions of acetic acid

  9. Measurement of neutron production double-differential cross-sections on carbon bombared with 430 MeV/ Nucleon carbon irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itashiki, Yutaro; Imahayashi, Youichi; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Uozumi, Yusuke [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Satoh, Daiki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Sanami, Toshiya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Koba, Yusuke; Matufuji, Naruhiro [Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Carbon ion therapy has achieved satisfactory results. However, patients have a risk to get a secondary cancer. In order to estimate the risk, it is essential to understand particle transportation and nuclear reactions in the patient's body. The particle transport Monte Carlo simulation code is a useful tool to understand them. Since the code validation for heavy ion incident reactions is not enough, the experimental data of the elementary reaction processes are needed. We measured neutron production double-differential cross-sections (DDXs) on a carbon bombarded with 430 MeV/nucleon carbon beam at PH2 beam line of HIMAC facility in NIRS. Neutrons produced in the target were measured with NE213 liquid organic scintillators located at six angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90°. Neutron production double-differential cross-sections for carbon bombarded with 430 MeV/nucleon carbon ions were measured by the time-of-flight method with NE213 liquid organic scintillators at six angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90°. The cross sections were obtained from 1 MeV to several hundred MeV. The experimental data were compared with calculated results obtained by Monte Carlo simulation codes PHITS, Geant4, and FLUKA. PHITS was able to reproduce neutron production for elementary processes of carbon-carbon reaction precisely the best of three codes.

  10. Estimate of production of medical isotopes by photo-neutron reaction at the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpunar, B.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Daté, S.; Ejiri, H.

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to conventional bremsstrahlung photon beam sources, laser backscatter photon sources at electron synchrotrons provide the capability to selectively tune photons to energies of interest. This feature, coupled with the ubiquitous giant dipole resonance excitations of atomic nuclei, promises a fertile method of nuclear isotope production. In this article, we present the results of simulations of production of the medical/industrial isotopes 196Au, 192Ir and 99Mo by (γ,n) reactions. We employ FLUKA Monte Carlo code along with the simulated photon flux for a beamline at the Canadian Light Source in conjunction with a CO2 laser system.

  11. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Beams of protons with several different energies have now been successfully transported between the injector cyclotron SPC1 and the SSC. Some small modifications to the placement of steering magnets and diagnostic equipment have been made in the light of our operational experience, which should improve the ease of tuning this beamline. Proton beams up to 200 MeV in energy have been transported to the experimental areas, where experiments in nuclear physics have been successful conducted. Three of the experimental beamlines are now in operation. Beams of 66 MeV protons have also been transported to targets in the isotope production vault, without difficulty. Field mapping of the remaining quadrupoles on site has been completed. Installation of and alignment of magnets up to the beam swinger is also complete, although the beam tube itself, plus vacuum and diagnostic equipment must still be tackled. The beam swinger has been designed and detailed in the drawing office, and is now being manufactured locally. The beamline elements for the sepctrometer beamline remain to be purchased. A personal computer has been purchased for controlling the field-mapping equipment for the spectrometer magnets, which are being manufactured in this country. A number of computer programs have been written for conversion of calibrated quadrupole and dipole magnet field data to absolute current values for the control system. Other programs permit diagnostic measurements of beam profiles to be used to calculated the beam emittance, or to set steering magnets so that the beam is correctly aligned

  12. Isotope materials availability and services for target production at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratledge, J.E.; Dahl, T.L.; Ottinger, C.L.; Aaron, W.S.; Adair, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Materials available through the Isotope Distribution Program include separated stable isotopes, byproduct radioisotopes, and research quantities of source and special nuclear materials. Isotope products are routinely available in the forms listed in the product description section of the Isotopes Products and Services Catalog distributed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Different forms can be provided in some cases, usually at additional cost. Routinely available services include cyclotron target irradiations, fabrication of special physical forms, source encapsulation, ion implantation, and special purifications. Materials and services that are not offered as part of the routine distribution program may be made available from commercial sources in the United States. Specific forms of isotopic research materials include thin films and foils for use as accelerator targets, metal or other compounds in the form of bars or wires, and metal foils. Methods of fabrication include evaporation, sputtering, rolling, electrolytic deposition, pressing, sintering, and casting. High-purity metal forms of plutonium, americium, and curium are prepared by vacuum reduction/distillation. Both fissionable and nonfissionable neutron dosimeters are prepared for determining the neutron energy spectra, flux, and fluence at various locations within a reactor. Details on what materials are available and how the materials and related services can be obtained from ORNL are described. (orig.)

  13. Advances in the production of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louw, P.A.; De Villiers, W.Y.Z.; Jarvis, N.V.

    1997-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) owns and operates the 20 MW research reactor, SAFARI-1. Utilisation of the reactor has in recent years changed from research and materials testing to the production of isotopes. The most important breakthrough achieved in recent years is the production of high quality fission 99Mo. This has been produced routinely since April 1993 and supplied to clients across the world. A capability for the reliable production of 1000 Ci of 99Mo per week (calibrated for six days after production) has been proven. The AEC has also established facilities to produce its own 99mTc generators together with a most of radiopharmaceutical kits for diagnostic nuclear medicine purposes. The production of 153 Sm and 131 I (tellurium oxide route) has been operational for many years. Applications include therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals such as 153 Sm-EDTMP for bone cancer pain palliation, 13' I-Lipiodol for liver cancer and 131 I capsules for thyroid treatment. Facilities for the production of other isotopes such as 131 I (from fission), 32 P and 35 S are in various stages of completion. Extensive analytical methods and equipment have been developed and are routinely used to certify the quality of exported isotopes. Irradiation and encapsulation of 192 Ir is also performed routinely at the AEC. Modern facilities allow for the production of isotopes such as 131 Ba and 140 La on an ad hoc basis. Quality assurance procedures based on ISO9000 were developed for all aspects of the production of the various isotopes. Documentation, such as Drug Master Files, required by authorities in various countries has also been submitted and accepted

  14. Analysis of tritium production in concentric spheres of oralloy and 6LiD irradiated by 14-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, L.R. Jr.; Roberts, R.R. II; Hunter, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Tritium production and activation of radiochemical detector foils in a sphere of 6 LiD with an oralloy core irradiated by a central source of 14-MeV neutrons have been calculated and compared with experimental measurements. The experimental assembly consisted of an oralloy sphere surrounded by three solid 6 LiD concentric shells with ampules of 6 LiH and 7 LiH and activation foils located in several positions throughout the assembly. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo Neutron Photon Transport Code (MCNP) was used to calculate neutron transport throughout the system, tritium production in the ampules, and foil activation. The overall experimentally observed-to-calculated ratios of tritium production were 0.996 +- 2.5% in 6 Li ampules and 0.903 +- 5.2% in 7 Li ampules. Observed-to-calculated ratios for foil activation are also presented. 11 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock [Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the {sup nat}Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction.

  16. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the nat Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction

  17. Calculation of the isotope concentrations, source terms and radiation shielding of the SAFARI-1 irradiation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, C.C.; Ball, G.

    2000-01-01

    The ever increasing expansion of the irradiation product portfolio of the SAFARI-1 reactor leads to the need to routinely calculate the radio-isotope concentrations and source terms for the materials irradiated in the reactor accurately. In addition to this, the required shielding for the transportation and processing of these irradiation products needs to be determined. In this paper the calculational methodology applied is described with special attention given to the spectrum dependence of the one-group cross sections of selected SAFARI-1 irradiation materials and the consequent effect on the determination of the isotope concentrations and source terms. Comparisons of the calculated isotopic concentrations and dose rates with experimental analysis and measurements provide confidence in the calculational methodologies and data used. (author)

  18. QMD simulation of multifragment production in heavy ion collisions at E/A=600 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann-Blaich, M.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Aichelin, J.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Leray, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Stuttge, L.; Tucholski, A.

    1993-04-01

    With the ALADIN forward spectrometer the fragmentation of gold nuclei at 600 MeV per nucleon after interaction with carbon, aluminum, copper and lead targets has been investigated. The results are compared to quantum-molecular-dynamics calculations using soft and hard equations of state as well as soft equation of state with momentum dependent forces. Whereas the QMD has been successfully applied to heavy ion collisions at lower energies, it is not possible to reproduce the fragment distributions and the light particle multiplicities observed in this experiment at relativistic energies. To study the reasons for the discrepancy between the experimental data and the simulations, we investigated the time evolution of the nuclear system after a collision and the disintegration pattern of excited nuclei in the QMD approach. (orig.). 9 figs

  19. Study of the production of uranium-233 in natural thorium subjected to a neutron flux of 14 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, G.; Martel, J.G.; St Germain, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This is a study of neutron flux and reactivity in several simplified models of a fusion reactor blanket composed of thorium, carbon and a stainless steel structure. The objective is the comparative determination, theoretical and experimental, of values for the conversion of nuclei of Th-232 into fissile U-233 nuclei in such a blanket. Theoretical calculations are carried out using the ANISN (transport equation) and MORSE (Monte Carlo) codes. Experimental values are measured in a stainless steel rack structure allowing simplified blanket models to be mounted around a 14 MeV neutron source. In the first year of work theoretical flux values have been obtained, the necesssary detectors constructed, the rack structure set up, programs worked out for the reactivity calculations, and finally verification methods worked out in conditions similar to those that will prevail. (LL) [fr

  20. Fission product yields from 6 to 9 MeV neutron induced fission of 235U and 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The yields of 28 mass chains have been measured for fission of 235 U and 238 U induced by neutrons at four different energies from 6.0 to 9.1 MeV. This is the first experimental measurement where sufficient energy resolution was obtained to observe the effect of the onset of second-chance fission in the case of symmetric fission. The 111 Ag results are compared with measurements at other neutron energies and with previous theoretical predictions. Several of the nuclide results are presented in graphical form, and all nuclide results are presented in tabular form, as a function of neutron energy. The mass chains measured range from 84 to 156, and their half-lives range from 18 minutes to 30 years

  1. Technical note: Consistent calculation of aquatic gross production from oxygen triple isotope measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen triple isotope measurements can be used to calculate aquatic gross oxygen production rates. Past studies have emphasised the appropriate definition of the 17O excess and often used an approximation to derive production rates from the 17O excess. Here, I show that the calculation can be phrased more consistently and without any approximations using the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences (delta values directly. I call this the "dual delta method". The 17O excess is merely a mathematical construct and the derived production rate is independent of its definition, provided all calculations are performed with a consistent definition. I focus on the mixed layer, but also show how time series of triple isotope measurements below the mixed layer can be used to derive gross production.

    In the calculation of mixed layer productivity, I explicitly include isotopic fractionation during gas invasion and evasion, which requires the oxygen supersaturation s to be measured as well. I also suggest how bubble injection could be considered in the same mathematical framework. I distinguish between concentration steady state and isotopic steady state and show that only the latter needs to be assumed in the calculation. It is even possible to derive an estimate of the net production rate in the mixed layer that is independent of the assumption of concentration steady state.

    I review measurements of the parameters required for the calculation of gross production rates and show how their systematic uncertainties as well as the use of different published calculation methods can cause large variations in the production rates for the same underlying isotope ratios. In particular, the 17O excess of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and the 17O excess of photosynthetic O2 need to

  2. Investigation of selenium compounds as targets for {sup 76,77}Br production using protons of energies up to 34 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, H. Ebrahim [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Centre; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; El-Azony, Khaled M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Labs. Centre; Azzam, Ahmed [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Centre; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie

    2017-07-01

    Selenium compounds of Zn, Sn and Cu were prepared using a conventional sintering method and the phase composition of each compound was investigated using X-ray diffraction. The compounds prepared were tested under variable irradiation and separation conditions for {sup 76,77}Br production. The activity of {sup 77}Br was measured as a function of proton beam current within the range 2-15 μA and the thermal stability of the irradiated compound was investigated. The results showed that the compounds ZnSe and Cu{sub 2}Se are thermally more stable in comparison to the SnSe. The effects of several factors, such as temperature, gas flow rate and separation time, were studied to obtain the maximum separation yield of radiobromine by the dry distillation method. The data showed that the compound Cu{sub 2}Se is the most suitable target for proton irradiation to produce {sup 76,77}Br at energies up to 20 MeV. A simplified method was used to prepare also CuSe, which was tested in irradiations with intermediate energy protons of beam currents up to 10 μA. The data of a typical production run using 17 MeV protons and the Cu{sub 2}Se target are reported.

  3. Depth profiles of production yields of natPb(p, xn206,205,204,203,202 Bi reactions using 100-MeV proton beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranj Leila Mokhtari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, results of the experimental study on the depth profiles of production yields of 206,205,204,203,202Bi radio-nuclei in the natural Pb target irradiated by a 100-MeV proton beam are presented. Irradiation was performed at proton linac facility (KOMAC in Korea. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of natural Pb, Al, Au foils and Pb plates. The proton beam intensity was determined by activation analysis method using 27Al(p, 3p1n24Na, 197Au(p, p1n196Au, and 197Au(p, p3n194Au monitor reactions and also using dosimetry method by a Gafchromic film. The production yields of produced Bi radio-nuclei in the natural Pb foils and monitor reactions were measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Monte Carlo simulations were performed by FLUKA, PHITS, and MCNPX codes and compared with the measurements in order to verify validity of physical models and nuclear data libraries in the Monte Carlo codes. A fairly good agreement was observed between the present experimental data and the simulations by FLUKA, PHITS, and MCNPX. However, physical models and the nuclear data relevant to the end of range of protons in the codes need to be improved.

  4. Methane Carbon Isotopic Composition Reveals Changing Production Pathways Across a Gradient of Permafrost Thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocci, K.; Burke, S. A.; Clariza, P.; Malhotra, A.; McCalley, C. K.; Verbeke, B. A.; Werner, S. L.; Roulet, N. T.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emission in areas of discontinuous permafrost may increase with warming temperatures resulting in a positive feedback to climate change. Characterizing the production pathways of CH4, which may be inferred by measuring carbon isotopes, can help determine underlying mechanistic changes. We studied CH4 flux and isotopic composition of porewater (δ13C-CH4) in a sub-arctic peatland in Abisko, Sweden to understand controls on these factors across a thaw gradient during four growing seasons. Methane chamber flux measurements and porewater samples were collected in July 2013, and over the growing seasons of 2014 to 2016. Samples were analyzed on a Gas Chromatograph with a Flame Ionization Detector for CH4 concentrations and a Quantum Cascade Laser for carbon isotopes. Increased emission rates and changing isotopic signatures were observed across the thaw gradient throughout the growing season. While CH4 flux increased with increases in temperature and shallower water table, δ13C-CH4 exhibited a seasonal pattern that did not correlate with measured environmental variables, suggesting dependence on other factors. The most significant controlling factor for both flux and isotopic signature was plant community composition, specifically, the presence of graminoid species. Graminoid cover increases with thaw stage so both CH4 emissions and δ13C-CH4 are likely to increase in a warmer world, suggesting a shift toward the acetoclastic pathway of methane production.

  5. Experimental validation of gallium production and isotope-dependent positron range correction in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile, L.M., E-mail: lmfraile@ucm.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Herraiz, J.L.; Udías, J.M.; Cal-González, J.; Corzo, P.M.G.; España, S.; Herranz, E.; Pérez-Liva, M.; Picado, E.; Vicente, E. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Muñoz-Martín, A. [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-01

    Positron range (PR) is one of the important factors that limit the spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) preclinical images. Its blurring effect can be corrected to a large extent if the appropriate method is used during the image reconstruction. Nevertheless, this correction requires an accurate modelling of the PR for the particular radionuclide and materials in the sample under study. In this work we investigate PET imaging with {sup 68}Ga and {sup 66}Ga radioisotopes, which have a large PR and are being used in many preclinical and clinical PET studies. We produced a {sup 68}Ga and {sup 66}Ga phantom on a natural zinc target through (p,n) reactions using the 9-MeV proton beam delivered by the 5-MV CMAM tandetron accelerator. The phantom was imaged in an ARGUS small animal PET/CT scanner and reconstructed with a fully 3D iterative algorithm, with and without PR corrections. The reconstructed images at different time frames show significant improvement in spatial resolution when the appropriate PR is applied for each frame, by taking into account the relative amount of each isotope in the sample. With these results we validate our previously proposed PR correction method for isotopes with large PR. Additionally, we explore the feasibility of PET imaging with {sup 68}Ga and {sup 66}Ga radioisotopes in proton therapy.

  6. Reconstruction of prehistoric plant production and cooking practices by a new isotopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastorf, C A [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Anthropology; DeNiro, M J [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences

    1985-06-06

    A new method is presented based on isotopic analysis of burnt organic matter, allowing the characterization of previously unidentifiable plant remains extracted from archaeological contexts. The method is used to reconstruct prehistoric production, preparation and consumption of plant foods, as well as the use of ceramic vessels, in the Upper Mantaro Valley region of the central Peruvian Andes.

  7. Modulation of the Southern Ocean cadmium isotope signature by ocean circulation and primary productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abouchami, W.; Galer, S.J.G.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Alderkamp, A.C.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Feldmann, H.; Andreae, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    The High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) Southern Ocean plays a key role in regulating the biological pump and the global carbon cycle. Here we examine the efficacy of stable cadmium (Cd) isotope fractionation for detecting differences in biological productivity between regions. Our results show

  8. Cl and C isotope analysis to assess the effectiveness of chlorinated ethene degradation by zero-valent iron: Evidence from dual element and product isotope values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audí-Miró, Carme; Cretnik, Stefan; Otero, Neus; Palau, Jordi; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Soler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCE and cis-DCE Cl isotope fractionation was investigated for the first time with ZVI. ► A C–Cl bond is broken in the rate-limiting step during ethylene ZVI dechlorination. ► Dual C/Cl isotope plot is a promising tool to discriminate abiotic degradation. ► Product-related carbon isotopic fractionation gives evidence of abiotic degradation. ► Hydrogenolysis and β-dichloroelimination pathways occur simultaneously. - Abstract: This study investigated C and, for the first time, Cl isotope fractionation of trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) during reductive dechlorination by cast zero-valent iron (ZVI). Hydrogenolysis and β-dichloroelimination pathways occurred as parallel reactions, with ethene and ethane deriving from the β-dichloroelimination pathway. Carbon isotope fractionation of TCE and cis-DCE was consistent for different batches of Fe studied. Transformation of TCE and cis-DCE showed Cl isotopic enrichment factors (ε Cl ) of −2.6‰ ± 0.1‰ (TCE) and −6.2‰ ± 0.8‰ (cis-DCE), with Apparent Kinetic Isotope Effects (AKIE Cl ) for Cl of 1.008 ± 0.001 (TCE) and 1.013 ± 0.002 (cis-DCE). This indicates that a C–Cl bond breakage is rate-determining in TCE and cis-DCE transformation by ZVI. Two approaches were investigated to evaluate if isotope fractionation analysis can distinguish the effectiveness of transformation by ZVI as opposed to natural biodegradation. (i) Dual isotope plots. This study reports the first dual (C, Cl) element isotope plots for TCE and cis-DCE degradation by ZVI. The pattern for cis-DCE differs markedly from that reported for biodegradation of the same compound by KB-1, a commercially available Dehalococcoides-containing culture. The different trends suggest an expedient approach to distinguish abiotic and biotic transformation, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. (ii) Product-related isotope fractionation. Carbon isotope ratios of the hydrogenolysis product cis

  9. Double differential cross sections for (p,n) reactions of 18 and 25 MeV protons with isotopes of Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Mo, Pd and Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scobel, W.; Blann, M.; Komoto, T.; Trabandt, M.; Grimes, S.M.; Hansen, L.F.; Pohl, B.A.; Wong, C.

    1984-06-01

    Cross sections for the inclusive production of neutrons from reactions of 25 MeV protons with 50 52 53 Cr, 54 56 58 Fe, 59 Co, 60 Ni, 63 Cu, 89 Y, 90 91 92 94 Zr, 92 94 95 96 97 98 100 Mo, 110 Pd and 159 Tb and of 18 MeV protons with 90 91 92 94 Zr have been measured with time-of-flight techniques for 16 angles between 3.5 0 less than or equal to theta/sub lab/ less than or equal to 159.0 0 . After a short presentation of the motivations for these measurements, the experimental set up is discussed with emphasis on the systematic and statistical error sources pertinent to this work, in particular the question of background correction in the continuous parts of the spectra. The main purpose of this report is to make the experimental results of this work (angle integrated spectra, angular distributions) available for distribution, reducing thereby the data required in publication of the results of these experiments. 20 references

  10. Characterization of the region and year of production of wines by stable isotopes and elemental analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Day

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope and elemental analyses were applied to the study of wines produced from the Cabernet Franc vine variety cultivated during several years (1982 to 1990 on specific parts of the Saumur-Champigny vineyard dedicated to the « terroir » experiment of INRA. The purpose of this work was to describe the behaviour or 2H, 13C and 18O isotopes in the water and ethanol of wines in terms of the meteorological conditions (temperature, precipitation and insolation which govern vine growing. Since the « terroir » concept involves a synergy between the c1imate and the soil, the distribution of typical metallic elements was also determined by flame and electrothermal ionization atomic absorption. About twenty parcels, carefully described from the geological and pedological point of view were considered in this study which demonstrated the ability of Sr, Al and Rb to discriminate between wines from the same year but grown on adjacent parcels. The content in trace elements of the wines was also shown to be correlated with the geological nature of the soil. As far as stable isotopes are considered, it appears that the climate of the year of production of a given region has a drastic influence on the isotope ratios of water and ethanol of wines and good correlations way be computed between these parameters and temperature and precipitations. From a more basic aspect, it is also shown that the nature of the soil which governs, at least in a part, the water use efficiency of vine, induces typical variations in the isotopic composition of wines. The results of this study demonstrate also the ability of stable isotope and elemental analyses to determine the geographical origin of a wine, and when the region of production is known, to infer the year of production from meteorological data. This method might prove to be an alternative method to radio carbon analysis for the next vintages.

  11. Experimental cross sections for light-charged particle production induced by neutrons with energies between 25 and 65 MeV incident on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benck, S.; Slypen, I.; Meulders, J.P.; Corcalciuc, V.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental double-differential cross sections (d 2 σ/dΩdE) for fast neutron-induced proton, deuteron, triton, and alpha-particle production on aluminum are reported, at several incident neutron energies between 25 and 65 MeV, for outgoing particle energies above the experimental energy thresholds. Angular distributions were measured at laboratory angles between 20 deg. and 160 deg. . Reliable extrapolated spectra are derived for very forward (2.5 deg. and 10 deg. ) and very backward angles (170 deg. and 177.5 deg. ). Based on these experimental data, energy-differential (dσ/dE), angle-differential (dσ/dΩ), and total production cross sections (σ T ) are reported for each outgoing particle

  12. Fission Product Yields of 233U, 235U, 238U and 239Pu in Fields of Thermal Neutrons, Fission Neutrons and 14.7-MeV Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurec, J.; Adam, A.; de Bruyne, T.; Bauge, E.; Granier, T.; Aupiais, J.; Bersillon, O.; Le Petit, G.; Authier, N.; Casoli, P.

    2010-12-01

    The yields of more than fifteen fission products have been carefully measured using radiochemical techniques, for 235U(n,f), 239Pu(n,f) in a thermal spectrum, for 233U(n,f), 235U(n,f), and 239Pu(n,f) reactions in a fission neutron spectrum, and for 233U(n,f), 235U(n,f), 238U(n,f), and 239Pu(n,f) for 14.7 MeV monoenergetic neutrons. Irradiations were performed at the EL3 reactor, at the Caliban and Prospero critical assemblies, and at the Lancelot electrostatic accelerator in CEA-Valduc. Fissions were counted in thin deposits using fission ionization chambers. The number of fission products of each species were measured by gamma spectrometry of co-located thick deposits.

  13. Projectile-charge-state dependence of 0 degree binary-encounter electron production in 30-MeV Oq++O2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, T.J.M.; Richard, P.; Wong, K.L.; Hidmi, H.I.; Sanders, J.M.; Liao, C.; Grabbe, S.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1994-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections (DDCS's) for the production of binary-encounter electrons (BEE's) are reported for 30-MeV O q+ +O 2 collisions. The BEE DDCS's were measured at θ=0 degree with respect to the beam direction for projectile charge states q=4--8. The measured BEE DDCS's were found to increase with decreasing charge state in agreement with other recent BEE results employing simpler H 2 and He targets. Impulse-approximation calculations of BEE production for θ=0 degree--45 degree are also presented, in which it is assumed that target electrons undergo elastic scattering in the screened Coulomb field of the projectile ion. These calculations are shown to be in agreement with our data at θ=0 degree where only 2s and 2p target electrons are considered

  14. Lead contamination in cocoa and cocoa products: isotopic evidence of global contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Charley W; Nriagu, Jerome O; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K; Arowolo, Toyin A; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A Russell

    2005-10-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria. Because of the high capacity of cocoa bean shells to adsorb lead, contamination from leaded gasoline emissions may occur during the fermentation and sun-drying of unshelled beans at cocoa farms. This mechanism is supported by similarities in lead isotopic compositions of cocoa bean shells from the different farms (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1548-1.1581; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4344-2.4394) with those of finished cocoa products (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1475-1.1977; 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4234-2.4673). However, the much higher lead concentrations and larger variability in lead isotopic composition of finished cocoa products, which falls within the global range of industrial lead aerosols, indicate that most contamination occurs during shipping and/or processing of the cocoa beans and the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate products.

  15. Principles and limitations of stable isotopes in differentiating organic and conventional foodstuffs: 1. Plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Caio Teves; Chalk, Phillip Michael; Magalhães, Alberto M T

    2015-01-01

    Among the lighter elements having two or more stable isotopes (H, C, N, O, S), δ(15)N appears to be the most promising isotopic marker to differentiate plant products from conventional and organic farms. Organic plant products vary within a range of δ(15)N values of +0.3 to +14.6%, while conventional plant products range from negative to positive values, i.e. -4.0 to +8.7%. The main factors affecting δ(15)N signatures of plants are N fertilizers, biological N2 fixation, plant organs and plant age. Correlations between mode of production and δ(13)C (except greenhouse tomatoes warmed with natural gas) or δ(34)S signatures have not been established, and δ(2)H and δ(18)O are unsuitable markers due to the overriding effect of climate on the isotopic composition of plant-available water. Because there is potential overlap between the δ(15)N signatures of organic and conventionally produced plant products, δ(15)N has seldom been used successfully as the sole criterion for differentiation, but when combined with complementary analytical techniques and appropriate statistical tools, the probability of a correct identification increases. The use of organic fertilizers by conventional farmers or the marketing of organic produce as conventional due to market pressures are additional factors confounding correct identification. The robustness of using δ(15)N to differentiate mode of production will depend on the establishment of databases that have been verified for individual plant products.

  16. Isotopic and sedimentological clues to productivity change in Late

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    610Ma) intracratonic carbonate successions viz., Bhander Limestone of Vindhyan Basin and Raipur Limestone of Chattisgarh Basin suggest higher organic productivity during this period. This view is supported by sedimentological evidence of ...

  17. Plutonium isotopic assay of reprocessing product solutions in the KfK K-edge densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, H.; Ottmar, H.; Matussek, P.

    1985-04-01

    The KfK K-edge densiometer, designed for accurate element concentration measurements using the technique of X-ray absorptiometry at the K absorption edge, provides as an additional option the possibility to determine the isotopic composition of freshly separated plutonium from an gamma-spectrometric analysis of its self-radiation. This report describes the underlying methodology and experimental procedures for the isotopic analysis in the K-edge densitometer. The paper also presents and discusses the experimental results so far obtained from routine measurements on reprocessing product solutions. (orig.)

  18. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Towards tabletop production of intense quasimonochromatic X-ray beams using small 2-20 MeV accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakian, R.O.; Ispirian, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The existing synchrotron radiation sources and the fourth generation x-ray sources, which are projected at SLAC, USA, and DESY, Germany, are very expensive. For this reason the search of the novel and cheaper sources using various types of radiation produced by 5-20 MeV electrons available at many hospitals, universities and firms in various countries is of great interest. In this article a review of the physics, history, new theoretical and experimental results and of some applications is given with a purpose to consider the possibilities of construction of small tabletop sources of quasimonochromatic X-ray photon beams necessary for scientific, industrial, medicine and other applications. Simple formulae for almost all types of radiation are given with the help of which one can estimate the expected useful yield and background. PACS: 41.60.-m; 43.35.Ty; 61.85+p;m 78.67.Pt; 78.70.-g. Key words: Bremsstrahlung/Cherenkov radiation/ Transition radiation / Parametric X-ray radiation / Channeling radiation/ Compton scattering

  20. The MAPLE-X concept dedicated to the production of radio-isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeds, W.

    1985-06-01

    MAPLE is a versatile new Canadian multi-purpose research reactor concept that meets the nuclear aspirations of developing countries. It is planned to convert the NRX reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories into MAPLE-X as a demonstration prototype of this concept and thereafter to dedicate its operation to the production of radio-isotopes. A description of MAPLE-X and details of molybdenum-99 production are given

  1. Selective Gaseous Extraction: Research, Development and Training for Isotope Production, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertch, Timothy C, [General Atomics

    2014-03-31

    General Atomics and the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) completed research and development of selective gaseous extraction of fission products from irradiated fuel, which included training and education of MURR students. The process used porous fuel and after irradiation flowed product gases through the fuel to selectively removed desired fission products with the primary goal of demonstrating the removal of rhodium 105. High removal rates for the ruthenium/rhodium (Ru/Rh), tellurium/iodine (Te/I) and molybdenum/technetium (Mo/Tc) series were demonstrated. The success of this research provides for the reuse of the target for further production, significantly reducing the production of actinide wastes relative to processes that dissolve the target. This effort was conducted under DOE funding (DE-SC0007772). General Atomics objective of the project was to conduct R&D on alternative methods to produce a number of radioactive isotopes currently needed for medical and industry applications to include rhodium-105 and other useful isotopes. Selective gaseous extraction was shown to be effective at removing radioisotopes of the ruthenium/rhodium, tellurium/iodine and molybdenum/technetium decay chains while having trace to no quantities of other fission products or actinides. This adds a new, credible method to the area of certain commercial isotope production beyond current techniques, while providing significant potential reduction of process wastes. Waste reduction, along with reduced processing time/cost provides for superior economic feasibility which may allow domestic production under full cost recovery practices. This provides the potential for improved access to domestically produced isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment at reduced cost, providing for the public good.

  2. Neutron total cross section measurements in the energy region from 47 keV to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenitz, W.P.; Whalen, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    Neutron total cross sections were measured for 26 elements. Data were obtained in the energy range from 47 keV to 20 MeV for 11 elements in the range of light-mass fission products. Previously reported measurements for eight heavy and actinide isotopes were extended to 20 MeV. Data were also obtained for Cu (47 keV to 1.4 MeV) and for Sc, Zn, Nd, Hf, and Pt (1.8 to 20 MeV). The present work is part of a continuing effort to provide accurate neutron total cross sections for evaluations and for optical-model parameteriztions. The latter are required for the derivation of other nuclear-data information of importance to applied programs. 37 references

  3. Mathematical modeling and multicriterion optimization for photonuclear production of the 67cu isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikij, N.P.; Rudychev, Y.V.; Fedorchenko, D.V.; Khazhmuradov, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers a method for 67 Cu isotope production using electron bremsstrahlung by the 68 Zn(gamma, p) 67 Cu reaction. The facility for 67 Cu isotope production contains an electron accelerator, electron-gamma converter and zinc target. To optimize this facility we developed three-dimensional model of the converter and the target. Using this model, we performed the mathematical modeling of zinc target irradiation and thermal-hydraulic processes inside the target for various parameters of the electron beam and converter configurations. For mathematical modeling of radiation processes we used the MCNPX software. Thermal-hydraulic simulation utilized the commercial SolidWorks software with Flow Simulation module. Mathematical modeling revealed that efficient 67 Cu isotope production needs smaller beam diameter and higher electron energy. Under these conditions target heat power also increases, thus additional cooling is necessary. If the beam diameter and the electron energy are fixed the most effective method to satisfy the operating parameters and retain an efficient isotope yield is to optimize photonuclear spectra of the target by variation of converter thickness. We developed an algorithm for multicriterion optimization and performed the optimization of the facility with account to coupled radiation and heat transfer processes.

  4. Isotopic alloying to tailor helium production rates in mixed spectrum reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Stoller, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The purposes of this work are to increase the understanding of mechanisms by which helium affects microstructure and properties, to aid in the development of materials for fusion reactors, and to obtain data from fission reactors in regimes of direct interest for fusion reactor applications. Isotopic alloying is examined as a means of manipulating the ratio of helium transmutations to atom displacements in mixed spectrum reactors. The application explored is based on artificially altering the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of nickel to systematically vary the fraction of 58 Ni in nickel bearing alloys. The method of calculating helium production rates is described. Results of example calculations for proposed experiments in the High Flux Isotope Reactor are discussed

  5. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-05-15

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an accelerator driven subcritical assembly. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the medical isotope production, neutron thereby, and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. Reactor physics experiments and material research will be carried out using the capabilities of this facility. The United States of America and Ukraine have started collaboration activity for developing a conceptual design for this facility with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. Different conceptual designs are being developed based on the facility mission and the engineering requirements including nuclear physics, neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. Different fuel designs with LEU and reflector materials are considered in the design process. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements and upgrades. This report is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Activity within this collaboration for developing and characterizing the subcritical assembly conceptual design. In this study, the medical isotope production function of the Kharkov facility is defined. First, a review was carried out to identify the medical isotopes and its medical use. Then a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Finally, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and irradiation location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes were considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,p), and ({gamma},n). In the second part

  6. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an accelerator driven subcritical assembly. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the medical isotope production, neutron thereby, and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. Reactor physics experiments and material research will be carried out using the capabilities of this facility. The United States of America and Ukraine have started collaboration activity for developing a conceptual design for this facility with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. Different conceptual designs are being developed based on the facility mission and the engineering requirements including nuclear physics, neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. Different fuel designs with LEU and reflector materials are considered in the design process. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements and upgrades. This report is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Activity within this collaboration for developing and characterizing the subcritical assembly conceptual design. In this study, the medical isotope production function of the Kharkov facility is defined. First, a review was carried out to identify the medical isotopes and its medical use. Then a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Finally, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and irradiation location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes were considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,p), and (γ,n). In the second part, the parent

  7. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of neutron production cross-sections at 180{sup o} for the 140 MeV proton incident reactions on carbon, iron, and gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto.yosuke@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Satoh, Daiki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hagiwara, Masayuki [KEK (Japan); Yashima, Hiroshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Nakane, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tamii, Atsushi [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Iwase, Hiroshi [KEK (Japan); Endo, Akira; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hatanaka, Kichiji [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Niita, Koji [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology (Japan)

    2010-08-21

    The neutron production cross-sections of carbon, iron, and gold targets with 140 MeV protons at 180{sup o} were measured at the RCNP cyclotron facility. The time-of-flight technique was used to obtain the neutron energy spectra in the energy range above 1 MeV. The carbon and iron target results were compared with the experimental data from 113 MeV (p,xn) reactions at 150{sup o} reported by Meier et al. Our data agreed well with them in spite of different incident energies and angles. Calculations were then performed using different intra-nuclear cascade models (Bertini, ISOBAR, and JQMD) implemented with PHITS code. The results calculated using the ISOBAR and JQMD models roughly agreed with the experimental iron and gold target data, but the Bertini could not reproduce the high-energy neutrons above 10 MeV.

  8. Study of the multi-fragment production in asymmetric heavy ion reactions at E/A = 600 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubele, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    In this thesis the fragmentation of Au projectiles in collisions with light target nuclei ( 12 C, 27 Al, 64 Cu) is studied at a projectile energy of 600 MeV per nucleon. For the description of an event three observables are used: the multiplicity M lp of the light particles, the largest observed charge Z max of the projectile fragments, as well as a newly introduced obsevable Z bound , which is defined as the sum of all charge contained in complex projectile fragments (Z ≥ 2). By means of this observable different exit channels can be identified: the formation of a heavy residual nucleus by evaporation of light particles, the binary fission, the decay into IMF's (3 ≤ Z ≤ 30) and the complete decay into light particles. At the applied incident energy in the case of Au+Cu reactions each of these decay channels can be realized. The observables Z bound and M lpp are proved as suited quantities for the reconstruction of the impact parameter. Furthermore independently on the target a universal relation between Z bound and the multiplicity distribution of medium-heavy fragments is found. By simple model assumptions it is made plausible that Z bound is correlated both with the size of the projectile residue and in the mean with its excitation energy. For the characterization of the decay into IMF's the multiplicity M imf of these fragments is applied. For all three targets with increasing centrality first an increasing of the mean fragment multiplicities to maximal values of 3-4 is observed. In the case of the Cu target and suggestively also at the Al target in the most central collisions again a decreasing of the multiplicity is found. The universal Z bound behaviour is a hint to a - at least partial - equilibration of the primary projectile residue before the decay. (HSI) [de

  9. Computer study of isotope production for medical and industrial applications in high power accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashnik, S. G.; Wilson, W. B.; Van Riper, K. A.

    2001-07-01

    Methods for radionuclide production calculation in a high power proton accelerator have been developed and applied to study production of 22 isotopes. These methods are readily applicable both to accelerator and reactor environments and to the production of other radioactive and stable isotopes. We have also developed methods for evaluating cross sections from a wide variety of sources into a single cross section set and have produced an evaluated library covering about a third of all natural elements that may be expanded to other reactions. A 684 page detailed report on this study, with 37 tables and 264 color figures, is available on the Web at http://t2.lanl.gov/publications/.

  10. Optimization of neutron flux distribution in Isotope Production Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    In order to optimize the thermal neutrons flux distribution in a Radioisotope Production and Research Reactor, the influence of two reactor parameters was studied, namely the Vmod / Vcomb ratio and the core volume. The reactor core is built with uranium oxide pellets (UO 2 ) mounted in rod clusters, with an enrichment level of ∼3 %, similar to LIGHT WATER POWER REATOR (LWR) fuel elements. (author) [pt

  11. Production of exotic, short lived carbon isotopes in ISOL-type facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, Hanna; Köster, Ulli; Ammann, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The beam intensities of short-lived carbon isotopes at Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facilities have been limited in the past for technical reasons. The production of radioactive ion beams of carbon isotopes is currently of high interest for fundamental nuclear physics research. To produce radioactive ions a target station consisting of a target in a container connected to an ion source via a transfer line is commonly used. The target is heated to vaporize the product for transport. Carbon in elementary form is a very reactive element and react strongly with hot metal surfaces. Due to the strong chemisorption interaction, in the target and ion source unit, the atoms undergo significant retention on their way from the target to the ion source. Due to this the short lived isotopes decays and are lost leading to low ion yields. A first approach to tackle these limitations consists of incorporating the carbon atoms into less reactive molecules and to use materials for the target housing and the transfer line ...

  12. Thin layer activation (TLA) experiment of piston ring F.J product by using nuclear facility proton beam 12.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarmono; Silakhuddin

    2002-01-01

    The experiment of thin layer activation of piston ring F.J product, was done. The purpose of this experiment are to measure material wearing level by using concentration method. The experiment was carried out by activated piston ring proton beam with energy 12,5 MeV and beam current 1 μA for 30 minutes then was continued by wearing process. The measurement of the wear result activity was carried out by pouring the total of volume of lubricant oil for radioactivity measurement. Measurement of the activity level used the gamma spectroscopy. The minimum wearing duration that can detects a wear was 5 hours. The activity count was 1.230 pulse per 30 seconds which is in accordance with a wear in order of 8 mg of Fe material on 1 liter oil lubricant, this result is same with the result of T. Delvigne namely is less than 10 mgr

  13. Measurement of neutron-production double-differential cross sections for continuous neutron-incidence reaction up to 100 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takehito; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Ishibashi, Kenji; Satoh, Daiki; Nakamura, Takashi; Haight, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The inclusive measurements of neutron-incident neutron-production double-differential cross sections in intermediate energy range is now being carried out. Spallation neutrons are used as incident particles. As a part of this, the experiment was performed by using of NE213 liquid organic scintillators to detect outgoing-neutrons. Incident-neutron energy was determined by time-of-flight technique, and outgoing-neutron energy spectrum was derived by unfolding light-output spectrum of NE213 with response functions calculated by SCINFUL-R. Preliminary cross sections were obtained up to about 100 MeV, and were compared with calculations by the GNASH code. It is hoped to get pure measurements by using measured response functions for our detectors used in this study. (author)

  14. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pengzhen; Alexander, Becky; Geng, Lei; Chi, Xiyuan; Fan, Shidong; Zhan, Haicong; Kang, Hui; Zheng, Guangjie; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing

    2018-04-01

    Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter) in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m-3 with a mean of (141 ± 88 (1σ)) µg m-3, with SO42- representing 8-25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42-) varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9 ± 0.3) ‰. Δ17O(SO42-) increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5 ≥ 75 µg m-3) of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III-V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet) was estimated to contribute 41-54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48 ± 5) %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV) ( = SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3- + SO32-) oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5-13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42-). Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV) oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21-22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42-), such as S(IV) oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a radical chain mechanism, contributed the remaining 66-73 % of Phet. The assumption about the thermodynamic state of aerosols

  15. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42− collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m−3 with a mean of (141  ±  88 (1σ µg m−3, with SO42− representing 8–25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42− varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9  ±  0.3 ‰. Δ17O(SO42− increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5  ≥  75 µg m−3 of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III–V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet was estimated to contribute 41–54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48  ±  5 %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV ( =  SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3−  +  SO32− oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5–13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42−. Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21–22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42−, such as S(IV oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a

  16. Measurements of 36Cl production rates from Cl, K, and Ca in concrete at the 500-MeV neutron irradiation facility of KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aze, T.; Fujimura, M.; Matsumura, H.; Masumoto, K.; Nakao, N.; Kawai, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nagai, H.

    2005-01-01

    In high-energy accelerator facilities, concrete components around beam lines are exposed to secondary neutrons having various energies during machine operation. The neutrons produce the various long half-life radionuclides, such as 3 H, 36 Cl, 60 Co, and 152 Eu, in the concrete. Most of the nuclides mainly produced by thermal neutron-capture reactions and their specific activities are important from the viewpoint of accelerator clearance. In previous work, the specific activities of the 36 Cl in the concretes at the various accelerator facilities have been measured and it was suggested that the 36 Cl in the concrete is useful as an indicator for thermal neutron fluence because of a characteristic of very long half life (301 kyr). However, in the concretes of the accelerator facilities over several hundreds of MeV, the 36 Cl are considerably produced by spallation from other concrete components, such as K and Ca, in addition to the thermal neutron capture of 35 Cl. The contribution of the 36 Cl productions from the spallation is unclear due to the lack of the cross sections for the neutron-induced reactions. In this work, therefore, we measured the 36 Cl production rates in concrete from Cl, K, and Ca targets in irradiation with secondary neutrons, which were produced by a bombardment of primary 500-MeV protons with W targets, at high-energy neutron-irradiation course of KENS. Samples of NaCl, K2CO 3 , and CaCO 3 were set into 7. irradiation spaces located on the depth raging from O to 320 cm from the concrete surface and irradiated for approximately one week. After the irradiation, separations of Cl from the samples were carried out radiochemically and the production rates of 36 Cl were determined by the AMS. The production rates from Cl, K, and Ca exponentially decreased with an increase of the depth from the concrete surface, and the profiles were very similar each other. Although the production rates from Cl were two orders higher than those from Ca in the same

  17. Photospallation reactions of 133Cs and 139La by 100 MeV- and 200 MeV bremsstrahlungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, K.; Toramoto, H.; Hamajima, Y.; Okada, K.; Dohniwa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Spallation yields relative to the 196 Au yield from 197 Au(γ,n) of 26 to 46 nuclides of Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs and/or Ba and La from 133 Cs and 139 La targets irradiated with bremsstrahlungs of end energies of 100 MeV and 200 MeV were radiochemically determined. The isomeric yield ratios for 132 La and 131 Ba from the ( 139 La + 100 MeV-γ), 132 La, 131 Ba, 121 Te and 119 Te from the ( 139 La + 200 MeV-γ, and 120 I, 121 Te and 119 Te from the ( 133 Cs +- 200 MeV-γ) were also determined. The isotopic yields from the (γ,yn) reactions decrease exponentially with increase of y up to 5, and show no dependence on energy and targets studied, indicating that the reactions of a few neutron emissions occur at energies lower than 100 MeV. When the product yields from the (γ,xpyn) reactions were plotted against (x + y) for each x (isotopic distribution), a regular variation of the Gaussian distributions, typical of nuclear spallation, was observed. Isobaric mass distributions and charge dispersions were deduced to extract characteristic features of these reactions. The isobaric distributions due only to photons of 100 MeV to 200 MeV, which were obtained by subtracting the 100 MeV-yields from the 200 MeV-yields, are very close to a symmetric one peaking at about 8 amu from the target masses. Nuclear charges are also dispersed symmetrically, with most probable N/Zsub(p) of about 1.3 replaced by about 1 amu to the neutron-deficient side from the beta stability valley in all the cases studied. Parameters included in Rudstam's semi-empirical formula were examined by comparing with the observed yield curves. The P values of 0.45 and 0.65, chosen for a better fit to the 200 MeV data on 133 Cs and 139 La, respectively, were larger than the predictions reported in the literature. The magic number effects of 139 La may explain the target-differences in mass distributions. (orig.)

  18. TRIGA International - History of Training Research Isotope production General Atomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    TRIGA conceived at GA in 1956 by a distinguished group of scientists including Edward Teller and Freeman Dyson. First TRIGA reactor Mk-1 was commissioned on 3 may 1958 at G.A. Characteristic feature of TRIGA reactors is inherent safety: Sitting can be confinement or conventional building. TRIGA reactors are the most prevalent in the world: 67 reactors in 24 countries. Steady state powers up to 14 MWt, pulsing up to 22,000 MWt. To enlarge the scope of its manufactured products, CERCA engaged in a Joint Venture with General Atomics, and in July 1995 a new Company was founded: TRIGA INTERNATIONAL SAS (50% GA, 50% CERCA; Head Office: Paris (France); Sales offices: GA San Diego (Ca, USA) and CERCA Lyon (France); Manufacturing plant: CERCA Romans. General Atomics ID: founded in 1955 at San Diego, California, by General Dynamics; status: Privately held corporation; owners: Neal and Linden Blue; business: High technology research, design, manufacturing, and production for industry and Government in the U.S. and overseas; locations: U.S., Germany, Japan, Australia, Thailand, Morocco; employees: 5,000. TRIGA's ID: CERCA is a subsidiary of AREVA, born in November 05, 1957. Activities: fuel manufacture for research reactor, equipment and components for high-energy physics, radioactive sources and reference sources; plants locations: Romans and Pierrelatte (France); total strength: 180. Since the last five years TRIGA has manufactured and delivered more than 800 fuel elements with a door to door service. TRIGA International has the experience to manufacture all types of TRIGA fuel: standard fuel elements, instrumented fuel elements, fuel followed control rods, geometry: 37.3 mm (1.47 in.), 35.8 mm (1.4 in), 13 mm (0.5 in), chemical Composition: U w% 8.5, 12, 20, 30 and 45 w/o, erbium and no erbium. TRIGA International is on INL's approved vendor list (ISO 9000/NQA) and is ready to meet any TRIGA fuel needs either in the US or worldwide

  19. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of forward-angle secondary-neutron-production cross-sections for 137 and 200 MeV proton-induced reactions in carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Masuda, Akihiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Yashima, Hiroshi; Shima, Tatsushi; Tamii, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Secondary neutron-production double-differential cross-sections (DDXs) have been measured from interactions of 137 MeV and 200 MeV protons in a natural carbon target. The data were measured between 0° and 25° in the laboratory. DDXs were obtained with high energy resolution in the energy region from 3 MeV up to the maximum energy. The experimental data of 137 MeV protons at 10° and 25° were in good agreement with that of 113 MeV protons at 7.5° and 30° at LANSCE/WNR in the energy region below 80 MeV. Benchmark calculations were carried out with the PHITS code using the evaluated nuclear data files of JENDL/HE-2007 and ENDF/B-VII, and the theoretical models of Bertini-GEM and ISOBAR-GEM. For the 137 MeV proton incidence, calculations using JENDL/HE-2007 generally reproduced the shape and the intensity of experimental spectra well including the ground state of the 12N state produced by the 12C(p,n)12N reaction. For the 200 MeV proton incidence, all calculated results underestimated the experimental data by the factor of two except for the calculated result using ISOBAR model. ISOBAR predicts the nucleon emission to the forward angles qualitatively better than the Bertini model. These experimental data will be useful to evaluate the carbon data and as benchmark data for investigating the validity of the Monte Carlo simulation for the shielding design of accelerator facilities.

  20. Recent progress of in-flight separators and rare isotope beam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Toshiyuki, E-mail: kubo@ribf.riken.jp

    2016-06-01

    New-generation in-flight separators are being developed worldwide, including the Super-FRS separator at the GSI Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), the ARIS separator at the Michigan State University (MSU) Facility for Rare Isotopes Beams (FRIB), and the BigRIPS separator at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF), each of which is aimed at expanding the frontiers of rare isotope (RI) production and advancing experimental studies on exotic nuclei far from stability. Here, the recent progress of in-flight separators is reviewed, focusing on the advanced features of these three representative separators. The RI beam production that we have conducted using the BigRIPS separator at RIKEN RIBF is also outlined.

  1. Multi-isotopic signatures of organic and conventional Italian pasta along the production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bontempo, L.; Camin, F.; Paolini, M.

    2016-01-01

    The variability of stable isotope ratios (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N, δ18O and δ34S) along the production chain of pasta (durum wheat, flour and pasta) produced by using both conventional and organic farming systems in four Italian regions in 2 years was investigated. The aim was to evaluate if and how...... control procedures that can be used to check the geographical origin of Italian organic and conventional pasta and its raw materials....

  2. Statistical model of hadrons multiple production in space of total angular momentum and isotopic spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridneva, S.A.; Rus'kin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Basic features of the statistical model of multiple hadron production based on microcanonical distribution and taking into account the laws of conservation of total angular momentum, isotopic spin, p-, G-, C-eveness and Bose-Einstein statistics requirements are given. The model predictions are compared with experimental data on anti NN annihilation at rest and e + e - annihilation in hadrons at annihilation total energy from 2 to 3 GeV [ru

  3. Considerations related to the deuterium-depleted water isotopic analysis for an industrial production pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Mihai; Steflea, Dumitru; Irimescu, Rodica

    2000-01-01

    In the last few years, there is a major interest related to the use of Deuterium Depleted Water (DDW) for biological and medical purposes. Therefore, a production installation for DDW was developed and now, it is working in our Institute. The deuterium isotopic concentration for the final product is in the 10 - 40 ppm D / (D + H) range depending on customers' requirements. In order to control and manage the production process and also to validate the final product, a special procedure for deuterium content measurement for DDW by Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry was developed. The main instrumentation is a MAT 250 IRMS with a hydrogen preparation line based on the zinc reduction process. The first concern regarding the analysis procedure for these water samples with very low deuterium concentration has been related to the preparation of an internal standard with a D / (D + H) isotopic value in the measurement range. For this raison, a distinct procedure was developed and applied, so that starting to the well-known VSMOW standard and so, a sequence of 12 samples with decreasing deuterium content was obtained. These samples were measured and 3 / 2 ratio mass signals versus 2 mass signal were plotted and statistically analyzed. Obviously, for each measurement, a H 3+ correction factor was calculated and applied, as a results of an entire statistically elimination procedure and by extrapolation of the linear curve plotted, a value for the primary DDW was determined. Other important problem related to deuterium content determination was to minimize the H 3+ factor correction. As the deuterium content is very low the contribution of this factor to the 3 mass signal becomes very important. Therefore, special operations were developed, considering the behaviour of linear dependence between 3 / 2 mass signal versus 2 mass signal in the lower part. Finally, special attention was given to estimate the lower isotopic concentration analysis limit. (authors)

  4. Production yields of noble-gas isotopes from ISOLDE UC$_{x}$/graphite targets

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, U C; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Diget, C A; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Fynbo, H O U; Gausemel, H; Georg, U; Giles, T; Hagebø, E; Jeppesen, H B; Jonsson, O C; Köster, U; Lettry, Jacques; Nilsson, T; Peräjärvi, K; Ravn, H L; Riisager, K; Weissman, L; Äystö, J

    2003-01-01

    Yields of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe isotopic chains were measured from UC$_{x}$/graphite and ThC$_{x}$/graphite targets at the PSB-ISOLDE facility at CERN using isobaric selectivity achieved by the combination of a plasma-discharge ion source with a water-cooled transfer line. %The measured half-lives allowed %to calculate the decay losses of neutron-rich isotopes in the %target and ion-source system, and thus to obtain information on the in-target %productions from the measured yields. The delay times measured for a UC$_x$/graphite target allow for an extrapolation to the expected yields of very neutron-rich noble gas isotopes, in particular for the ``NuPECC reference elements'' Ar and Kr, at the next-generation radioactive ion-beam facility EURISOL. \\end{abstract} \\begin{keyword} % keywords here, in the form: keyword \\sep keyword radioactive ion beams \\sep release \\sep ion yields \\sep ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) \\sep uranium and thorium carbide targets. % PACS codes here, in the form: \\PACS code \\sep code...

  5. Government of Canada response to the report of the Expert Review Panel on medical isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent supply disruptions have highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers essential medical isotopes to patients globally. A new and more reliable way of supplying isotopes to Canadians needs to be found. That is why the Government of Canada established the Expert Review Panel on Medical Isotope Production (the Panel) in June 2009. The Government recognizes the relatively long lead times associated with the development of any new source of medical. isotopes. To ensure that appropriate action is taken now for the long term, the Government tasked the Panel with reporting to the Minister. of Natural Resources on its assessment of the most viable options for securing supplies of technetium-99m (Tc99r) for the Canadian health care system over the medium and long term and the actions that may be required by governments and others to facilitate realization of these options. The Panel reported to the Minister of Natural Resources on November 30, 2009. Since then, the Government has been carefully considering the recommendations of the Panel within the context of the broader nuclear and health care landscape. What follows is the Government's response to the Panel's thoughtful, comprehensive and insightful report, including actions that are planned based on its recommendations. (author)

  6. Study of the Production of Radioactive Isotopes through Cosmic Muon Spallation in KamLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Abe, S.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.; Yonezawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Leonard, D. S.; McKee, D.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gray, F.; Guardincerri, E.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Lendvai, C.; Luk, K.-B.; O' Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Vogel, P.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2009-06-30

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare event detection in {nu} detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillator, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and Geant4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be (2.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -4} n/({mu} {center_dot} (g/cm{sup 2})). For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  7. Investigation of two technical toxaphene products by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, W.; Armbruster, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelchemie; Gleixner, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Organochlorine compounds have been used in high quantities throughout the past 60 years. Being long-lived in the environment and toxic to humans and wildlife, some of them were classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). One of the POPs of special concern is toxaphene which is produced by the chlorination of the natural product camphene (or {alpha}-pinene). The technical products consist of several hundred compounds, mainly of chlorobornanes with an average number of eight chlorine substituents. Toxaphene has been produced in high quantities in different parts of the world. Even though the use has been discontinued during the last two decades, there are still several ecosystems which are heavily contaminated with this chloropesticide. Due to the huge variety of the technical products accompanied with a severe change of composition in the environment, analytical tracing back of toxaphene residues to a specific product has not yet been achieved. One of the potential analytical tools for distinguishing substances that differ only in their way of production is the determination of ratios of stable isotopes ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C; {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H; {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N). Since the synthesis of toxaphene is starting from natural compounds obtained from different continents, the technical products could have different ratios of stable isotopes. In this study, we investigated the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of two former major toxaphene products.

  8. Production of sup 5 sup 5 Co via the sup 5 sup 4 Fe(d, n)-process and excitation functions of sup 5 sup 4 Fe(d, t) sup 5 sup 3 Fe and sup 5 sup 4 Fe(d, alpha) sup 5 sup 2 sup m Mn reactions from threshold up to 13.8 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, M R; Qaim, S M

    2003-01-01

    For production of the medically interesting beta; sup + -emitter sup 5 sup 5 Co (T sup 1 sup / sup 2 = 17.6 h) via the sup 5 sup 4 Fe(d, n)-reaction, 91.6% enriched sup 5 sup 4 Fe sub 2 O sub 3 , mixed with Al powder, was pressed to a pellet which could be irradiated with 14 MeV deuterons at 4 mu A in a water-cooled target system. A separation method was developed which led to > 99.9% pure sup 5 sup 5 Co and allowed a recovery of the enriched target material. For a target thickness of E sub d = 12.6 -> 5 MeV, the experimental thick target yield of sup 5 sup 5 Co after chemical separation amounted to about 13 MBq/mu A.h, which is about 60% of the theoretical value. In a 3 h irradiation at 4 mu A, the batch yield of sup 5 sup 5 Co achieved was 160 MBq (4.3 mCi). An 8 h irradiation could lead to a batch yield of about 400 MBq. The sup 5 sup 4 Fe(d, n) reaction leads to the highest purity sup 5 sup 5 Co but it is essential that the isotopic enrichment of the target is not less than 90%. In addition to the product...

  9. K vacancy production in collisions of 63 MeV Cu ions with Ge and Ag atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, W.; Jaracz, R.; Kaun, K.-H.; Rudiger, J.; Stachura, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of K-shell vacancy production is studied in t in an X-ray-scattered ion coincidence experiment with 1 MeV/a.m.u. 63 Cu 4+ ion incident onto natural Ge and Ag targets. The impact parameter dependent K-shell vacancy production probability measured in the experiment is interpreted in terms of the rotational coupling and the statistical models. The dependence of the vacancy sharing process in the Cu-Ge collision system on the impact parameter is obtained and compared with the predictions of the Briggs-Myerhof-Demkov model

  10. Differential α-production cross sections of iron and nickel for 4.3 to 14.1 MeV Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru; Ito, Nobuo; Matsuyama, Isamu

    1994-01-01

    The cross section data for neutron-induced α-production are of prime importance in the evaluation of the radiation damage and nuclear heating in fusion and fast reactors. For the evaluation, energy and angular doubly differential cross sections are also required to calculate primary knock-on atom spectra. However, the experimental (n, xα) data are few and discrepant, therefore, the new experimental data are required urgently to improve the accuracy of the (n, xα) cross section data. The authors have measured the double differential (n, xα) cross sections of Fe and Ni in the neutron energy range of 4.3-14.1 MeV using a specially developed gridded ionization chamber. The present work was undertaken as a part of IAEA Coordinated Research Program for neutron-induced He production cross sections. The gridded ionization chamber and the experimental method were reported previously. Three-signals from the common cathode and two anodes were accumulated as two sets of two-dimensional data. The experimental two-dimensional data for the anode and cathode signals were transformed into the double differential cross sections. The results of the double differential cross sections, angular distributions, angle-integrated spectra in the center of mass system and total α-production cross sections are shown. (K.I.)

  11. Cross sections and differential spectra for reactions of 2-20 MeV neutrons on /sup nat/Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.; Komoto, T.T.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes product yields, secondary n,p and α spectra, and γ-ray spectra calculated for incident neutrons of 2 to 20 MeV on /sup nat/Cr targets. Results are all from the code ALICE, using the version ALISO which does weighting of results for targets which are a mix of isotopes. Where natural isotopic targets are involved, yields and n,p,α spectra will be reported weighted over isotopic yields. Gamma-ray spectra, however, will be reported for the most abundant isotope. We present product yields versus incident neutron energy, n,p,α spectra versus incident neutron energy, and calculated γ-ray spectra

  12. Photofission product yields of {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu with 22-MeV bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Xianfei; Yang, Haori, E-mail: haori.yang@oregonstate.edu

    2016-06-11

    In homeland security and nuclear safeguards applications, non-destructive techniques to identify and quantify special nuclear materials are in great demand. Although nuclear materials naturally emit characteristic radiation (e.g. neutrons, γ-rays), their intensity and energy are normally low. Furthermore, such radiation could be intentionally shielded with ease or buried in high-level background. Active interrogation techniques based on photofission have been identified as effective assay approaches to address this issue. In designing such assay systems, nuclear data, like photofission product yields, plays a crucial role. Although fission yields for neutron-induced reactions have been well studied and readily available in various nuclear databases, data on photofission product yields is rather scarce. This poses a great challenge to the application of photofission techniques. In this work, short-lived high-energy delayed γ-rays from photofission of {sup 238}U were measured in between linac pulses. In addition, a list-mode system was developed to measure relatively long-lived delayed γ-rays from photofission of {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu after the irradiation. Time and energy information of each γ-ray event were simultaneously recorded by this system. Cumulative photofission product yields were then determined using the measured delayed γ-ray spectra.

  13. Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Charley W.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Aggarwal, Jugdeep K.; Arowolo, Toyin A.; Adebayo, Kola; Flegal, A. Russell

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present lead concentrations and isotopic compositions from analyses of cocoa beans, their shells, and soils from six Nigerian cocoa farms, and analyses of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products. The average lead concentration of cocoa beans was ≤ 0.5 ng/g, which is one of the lowest reported values for a natural food. In contrast, lead concentrations of manufactured cocoa and chocolate products were as high as 230 and 70 ng/g, respectively, which are consistent with mark...

  14. Selection of the process for the heavy water production using isotopic exchange amonia-hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman R, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization of the Petroleos Mexicanos ammonia plants for heavy water production by the isotopic exchange NH 3 -H 2 process is presented, in addition a description of the other heavy water production processes was presented. In the ammonia hydrogen process exist two possible alternatives for the operation of the system, one of them is to carry out the enrichment to the same temperature, the second consists in making the enrichment at two different temperatures (dual temperature process), an analysis was made to select the best alternative. The conclusion was that the best operation is the dual temperature process, which presents higher advantages according to the thermodynamics and engineering of the process. (author)

  15. Installation and testing of a hospital-based cyclotron for radiation therapy and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, P.R.; Marbach, J.R.; Otte, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    A hospital based cyclotron is under installation at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital in Houston. This machine will be used for the production of radioactive isotopes and for the generation of neutrons for the radiotherapy treatment of cancer. It is a Cyclotron Corporation CP-42 negative proton accelerator. For neutron production the protons are transported through an isocentrically mounted beam transport system that can be rotated around the patient. The shielding requirements of this facility will be described as will the initial measurements on the characteristics of the neutron beam

  16. Production of transplutonium elements in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Corbett, B.L.; King, L.J.; McGuire, S.C.; Sims, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques described have been demonstrated to be adequate to predict the contents of transplutonium element production targets which have been irradiated in the HFIR. The deviations, at least for isotopes of mass 253 or less, are generally within the usual analytical uncertainties, or else are for isiotopes which are of little overall import to the program. Work is especially needed to get a better picture of the production of 250 Cm, 254 Es, 255 Es, and ultimately 257 Fm, since researchers are frequently stating their interest in obtaining larger quantities of these rare and difficult-to-produce nuclides

  17. Monte Carlo modelling and comparison with experiment of the nuclide production in thick stony targets isotropically irradiated with 600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylmer, D.; Herzog, G.F.; Kruse, T.H.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Moniot, R.K.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.; Tuniz, C.

    1987-05-01

    Depth profiles for the production of stable and radioactive nuclides have been measured for a large variety of target elements in three thick spherical stony targets with radii of 5, 15 and 26 cm isotropically irradiated with 600 MeV protons at the CERN synchrocyclotron. These irradiation experiments (CERN SC96) were intended to simulate the irradiation of meteoroids by galactic cosmic ray protons. In order to combine this experimental approach with a theoretical one the intra- and internuclear cascades were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques via the high energy transport code HET/KFA 1. Together with transport calculations for low energy neutrons by the MORSE-CG code the depth dependent spectra of primary and secondary protons and of secondary neutrons were derived. On the basis of these spectra and a set of evaluated experimental excitation functions for p-induced reactions and of theoretical ones for n-induced reactions, calculated by the code ALICE LIVERMORE 82, theoretical depth profiles for the production of stable and radioactive nuclides in the three thick targets were calculated. This report is a comprehensive survey on all those target/product combination for which both experimental and theoretical data are available. It provides the basis for a detailed discussion of the various production modes of residual nuclides and on the depth and size dependence of their production rates in thick stony targets, serving as a simulation of the galactic cosmic ray irradiation of meteoroids in space. On the other hand the comparison of the experimental and theoretical depth profiles validates the high energy transport calculations, making them a promissing tool for further model calculations of the interactions of cosmic rays with matter. (orig.)

  18. Production and identification of heavy Ni isotopes: Evidence for the doubly magic nucleus 7828Ni. Short note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, C.; Ameil, F.; Bernas, M.; Heinz, A.; Janas, Z.; Kozhuharov, C.; Miehe, C.; Pfuetzner, M.; Roehl, C.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Voss, B.

    1995-07-01

    We report the first observation of the doubly magic nucleus 78 Ni 50 and the heavy isotopes 77 Ni, 73,74,75 Co, 80 Cu. The isotopes were produced by nuclear fission in collisions of 750 A.MeV projectiles of 238 U on Be target nuclei. The fully-stripped fission products were separated in-flight by the fragment separator FRS and identified event-by-event by measuring the magnetic rigidity, the trajectory, the energy deposit, and the time of flight. Production cross-sections and fission yields for the new Ni-isotopes are given. (orig.)

  19. Production and separation of neutron-rich rare isotopes around and below the Fermi energy

    CERN Document Server

    Souliotis, G A; Chubarian, G; Yennello, S J

    2003-01-01

    The production of n-rich rare isotopes around and below the Fermi energy is investigated using beams from the K500 Superconducting Cyclotron and the MARS recoil separator at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A and M University. The experimental results from the reactions of 25 MeV/nucleon sup 8 sup 6 Kr + sup 6 sup 4 Ni and 21 MeV/nucleon sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Sn + sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Sn are presented and compared with simulations. The calculations involve a deep inelastic transfer (DIT) code for the primary interaction stage followed by the code GEMINI for the de-excitation stage. The results are also compared with the EPAX parametrization. The data on the 25 MeV/nucleon sup 8 sup 6 Kr + sup 6 sup 4 Ni reaction show that both proton-removal and several-neutron pick-up isotopes are produced. An enhancement is observed in the production of n-rich isotopes close to the projectile relative to the predictions of DIT/GEMINI and the expectations of EPAX. The data of 21 MeV/nucleon sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Sn + sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 ...

  20. Cosmic-ray production rates of neon isotopes in meteorite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, N.

    1988-01-01

    The rates of production of 21 Ne and 22 Ne in spallation reactions, both due to solar as well as galactic cosmic rays, in some major meteoritic minerals, e.g. olivines, feldspars and pyroxenes, are calculated using their energy spectra and excitation functions. The production profiles of 21 Ne and 22 Ne due to galactic cosmic rays, and the 22 Ne/ 21 Ne ratio depend upon the size of the meteoroid. The 22 Ne/ 21 Ne ratio is very sensitive to the abundance of sodium and consequently its depth profile is distinctly different in feldspars, the ratio increasing with depth rather than decreasing as in pyroxenes and olivines. In the near-surface regions, up to a depth of 2 cm, production due to solar flare protons dominates, giving rise to a steep gradient in isotopic production as well as in the 22 Ne/ 21 Ne ratio. Composite production profiles are given and compared with measurements in some meteorites. (author). 22 refs

  1. A Bragg curve counter with an internal production target for the measurement of the double-differential cross-section of fragment production induced by neutrons at energies of tens of MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, T.; Hagiwara, M.; Oishi, T.; Hosokawa, M.; Kamada, S.; Tanaka, Su.; Iwamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Baba, M.

    2009-01-01

    A Bragg curve counter equipped with an internal production target was developed for the measurements of double-differential cross-sections of fragment production induced by neutrons at energies of tens of MeV. The internal target permitted a large detection solid angle and thus the registration of processes at low production rates. In this specific geometry, the detection solid angle depends on the emission angle and the range of the particle. Therefore the energy, atomic number, and angle of trajectory of the particle have to be taken into account for the determination of the solid angle. For the selection of events with tracks confined within a defined cylindrical volume around the detector axis, a segmented anode was applied. The double-differential cross-sections for neutron-induced production of lithium, beryllium, and boron fragments from a carbon target were measured at 0 deg. for 65 MeV neutrons. The results are in good agreement with theoretical calculation using PHITS code with GEM and ISOBAR model.

  2. Molecular effects in carbon K-shell Auger-electron production by 0.6-2.0 MeV protons and extraction of an atomic cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, F.D.; Lapicki, G.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon K-shell Auger-electron production cross sections are reported for 0.6-2.0 MeV protons incident on CH 4 (methane), C 2 H 2 (acetylene), C 2 H 4 (ethylene), C 2 H 6 (ethane), n-C 4 H 10 (normal butane), i-C 4 H 10 (isobutane), C 6 H 6 (benzene), CO (carbon monoxide), and CO 2 (carbon dioxide). A constant-energy mode 45 0 parallel-plate electrostatic analyzer was used for detection of Auger electrons. The carbon KLL Auger-electron cross sections for all molecules were found to be lower than that found for CH 4 by 9-23%. All carbon KLL Auger-electron data could be brought into agreement when corrected for the chemical shift of the carbon K-shell binding energy in molecules and for intramolecular scattering. KLL Auger-electron production cross sections are compared to first Born and ECPSSR theories and show good agreement with both after the chemical shift of the carbon K-shell binding energy in molecules and the effects of intramolecular scattering are considered. (orig.)

  3. Mass-yield distributions of fission products from 20, 32, and 45 MeV proton-induced fission of 232Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, H.; Goswami, A.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K.; Suryanarayana, S. V.

    2013-10-01

    The yields of various fission products in the 19.6, 32.2, and 44.8 MeV proton-induced fission of 232Th have been determined by recoil catcher and an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the BARC-TIFR Pelletron in India and MC-50 cyclotron in Korea. The mass-yield distributions were obtained from the fission product yield using the charge distribution corrections. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratio of the present work and that of literature data for 232Th(p,f) and 238U(p,f) were obtained from the mass yield distribution. The present and the existing literature data for 232Th(p,f), 232Th(n,f), and 232Th( γ,f) at various energies were compared with those for 238U(p,f), 238U(n,f), and 238U( γ,f) to examine the probable nuclear structure effect. The role of Th-anomaly on the peak-to-valley ratio in proton-, neutron-, and photon-induced fission of 232Th was discussed with the similar data in 238U. On the other hand, the fine structure in the mass yield distributions of the fissioning systems at various excitation energies has been explained from the point of standard I and II asymmetric mode of fission besides the probable role of even-odd effect, A/ Z ratio, and fissility parameter.

  4. Comparison of 14 MeV isomer production of 178m2Hf and 179m2Hf using Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin and exciton preequilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The 178m2 Hf(16+) isomeric state has a 31-yr half life and could pose serious radioactive problems in nuclear fusion reactors if its production in 14 MeV neutron-induced reactions is significant. We present statistical/preequilibrium model calculations for the production of this isomer in the 179 Hf(n, 2n) 178m2 Hf reaction, as well as the 25-days 12.5 - isomer in the 179 Hf(n,n') 179m2 Hf reaction, using two different preequilibrium models: the exciton model and the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) theory. Our calculations which use the exciton model agree well with measurements, but those with the FKK theory underestimate measurements. Our calculations axe the first to probe angular momentum transfer effects in the FKK theory and suggest that, as it is presently applied, high spin-transfer reactions are underestimated. We suggest modifications to the FKK statistical averaging procedure which may result in an improved agreement with experiment

  5. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  6. Gamma ray NDA assay system for total plutonium and isotopics in plutonium product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowder, L.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Johnson, S.S.; Parker, J.L.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Asakura, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Kondo, I.

    1979-01-01

    A LASL-designed gamma-ray NDA instrument for assay of total plutonium and isotopics of product solutions at Tokai-Mura is currently installed and operating. The instrument is, optimally, a densitometer that uses radioisotopic sources for total plutonium measurements at the K absorption edge. The measured transmissions of additional gamma-ray lines from the same radioisotopic sources are used to correct for self-attenuation of passive gamma rays from plutonium. The corrected passive data give the plutonium isotopic content of freshly separated to moderately aged solutions. This off-line instrument is fully automated under computer control, with the exception of sample positioning, and operates routinely in a mode designed for measurement control. A one-half percent precision in total plutonium concentration is achieved with a 15-minute measurement

  7. United States Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Isotope Production and Distribution Program financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (Isotope Program) covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials such as lithium, and related isotope services. Service provided include, but are not limited to, irradiation services, target preparation and processing, source encapsulation and other special preparations, analyses, chemical separations, and leasing of stable isotopes for research purposes. Isotope Program products and services are sold worldwide for use in a wide variety of research, development, biomedical, and industrial applications. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s (Isotope) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  8. Progress update on the development of the 3He linac for PET isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.; Sun, D.; Larson, D.; Pasquinelli, R.; Anderson, K.; Bieniosek, F.; Schmidt, C.W.; Popovic, M.; McCrory, E.; Webber, R.; Link, J.; Krohn, K.; Bida, J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Fermilab and SAIC formed a collaboration with partners from the University of Washington (UW) and the Biomedical Research Foundation of Northwest Louisiana (BRF) to explore an innovative approach to the production of radioisotopes. The accelerator system that is being developed accelerates 3 He to 10.5 MeV and then delivers this beam to the target to produce the short lived radioisotopes of interest to the PET community ( 18 F, 15 0, 13 N, 11 C). Research is being conducted to investigate the contribution that this promising approach can make to clinical and research PET. The accelerator system has several very interesting aspects. These innovations include multiple RFQ accelerators configured in series, a gas stripper jet to doubly charge the low energy (1 MeV) 3 He beam, and an isochronous matching section to manipulate the transverse and maintain the longitudinal profile of the beam (without the use of an RF buncher) in the charge doubler transition section between RFQ's. This paper updates the progress of the PET 3 He RFQ accelerator, the current status of the design, and some of the interesting ongoing research. (author)

  9. Progress update on the development of the 3He linac for PET isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    In 1995, Fermilab and SAIC formed a collaboration with partners from the University of Washington (UW) and the Biomedical Research Foundation of Northwest Louisiana (BRF) to explore an innovative approach to the production radioisotopes. The accelerator system that is being developed accelerates 3 He to 10.5 MeV and then delivers this beam to the target to produce the short lived radioisotopes of interest to the PET community ( 18 F, 15 0, 13 N, 11 C). Research is being conducted to investigate the contribution that this promising approach can make to clinical and research PET. The accelerator system has several very interesting aspects. These innovations include multiple RFQ accelerators configured in series, a gas stripper jet to doubly charge the low energy (I MeV) 3 He beam, and an isochronous matching section to manipulate the transverse and maintain the longitudinal profile of the beam (without the use of an RF buncher) in the charge doubler transition section between RFQ'S. This paper updates the progress of the PET 3 He RFQ accelerator, the current status of the design, and some of the interesting ongoing research

  10. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  11. Calculation of cross sections of discrete γ rays production in the (n,n'γ) reaction on chromium and nickel with neutron energy up to 10MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, B.

    1975-01-01

    Cross-sections for the production of de-excitation γ rays following inelastic neutron scattering have been calculated, using the statistical model, and are given for natural chromium and nickel for neutron incident energy up to 10MeV [fr

  12. Experimental study of deuteron production in α-particle collisions with C, Cu and Pb target nucleus at energies ranging from 200 to 800 A. MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montarou, G.

    1988-01-01

    Deuteron production in collisions between alpha-particle and carbon, copper or lead target nuclei at 200, 400, 600 and 800 MeV (Mega-electron Volt) per nucleon have been measured by using the large solid angle detector DIOGENE. Nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies offer the possibility of studying the properties of highly excited nuclear matter at high density and temperature. Among the different observables measured for the determination of the nuclear matter equation of state, light fragment production measurements has raised considerable interest during the last years because of the close relationship between entropy and nuclear cluster formation. In chapter 1, a general presentation of the main experimental and theoretical aspects of the relativistic heavy ion collision is presented. Chapter 2 is devoted to the description of the detector DIOGENE used at the SATURNE (Saclay-France) accelerator. This detector can measure simultaneously the momenta, masses and emission angles of most of the particles (pions, protons, deuterons ...) emitted in each collision. The chapter 3 describes the method used in order to extract from the raw data the momentum, mass and emission angles of each particle measured in the detector. The deuteron production in central relativistic heavy ion collision is reviewed in chapter 4. Then we present the results of deuteron production measurements, using the DIOGENE detector. In chapter 5 deuteron differential cross-sections are compared with theoretical predictions obtained with intra-nuclear cascade model. In chapter 6 deuteron differential cross-sections are presented for the most central reactions. These spectra are investigated in order to extract the size of the interaction region at the end of the collision. Finally the deuteron-to-proton ratio is studied in relationship with the proton number measured in each event; this ratio is used to evaluate the entropy per nucleon in the most central collisions [fr

  13. Measurements of neutron emission spectra and {sup 7}Be production in Li(d, n) and Be(d, n) reactions for 25 and 40 MeV deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Masayuki; Baba, Mamoru; Aoki, Takao; Kawata, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Naoya; Itoga, Toshiro [Tohoku Univ., Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    The neutron spectra in Li(d, n) and Be(d, n) reactions for Ed = 25, 40 MeV were measured from {approx}1 MeV to highest energy of secondary neutrons at ten laboratory angles between 0- and 110-deg with the time-of-flight (TOF) method. In addition, the number of {sup 7}Be accumulated in the targets was also measured by counting the {gamma}-rays from {sup 7}Be using a pure Ge detector to obtain {sup 7}Be production cross-section and yields. (author)

  14. Inferring biome-scale net primary productivity from tree-ring isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, N.; Levesque, M.; Williams, A. P.; Hobi, M. L.; Smith, W. K.; Andreu-Hayles, L.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite estimates of vegetation growth (net primary productivity; NPP), tree-ring records, and forest inventories indicate that ongoing climate change and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration are altering productivity and carbon storage of forests worldwide. The impact of global change on the trends of NPP, however, remain unknown because of the lack of long-term high-resolution NPP data. For the first time, we tested if annually resolved carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) stable isotopes from the cellulose of tree rings from trees in temperate regions could be used as a tool for inferring NPP across spatiotemporal scales. We compared satellite NPP estimates from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer sensor (MODIS, product MOD17A) and a newly developed global NPP dataset derived from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) dataset to annually resolved tree-ring width and δ13C and δ18O records from four sites along a hydroclimatic gradient in Eastern and Central United States. We found strong correlations across large geographical regions between satellite-derived NPP and tree-ring isotopes that ranged from -0.40 to -0.91. Notably, tree-ring derived δ18O had the strongest relation to climate. The results were consistent among the studied tree species (Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera) and along the hydroclimatic conditions of our network. Our study indicates that tree-ring isotopes can potentially be used to reconstruct NPP in time and space. As such, our findings represent an important breakthrough for estimating long-term changes in vegetation productivity at the biome scale.

  15. A level-playing field for medical isotope production - How to phase-out reliance on HEU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Two decades ago, civilian commerce in highly enriched uranium (HEU) for use as targets in the production of medical isotopes was considered a relatively minor security concern for three reasons. First, the number of producers was small. Second, the amount of HEU involved was small. Third, the amount of HEU was dwarfed by the quantities of HEU in civilian commerce as fuel for nuclear research and test reactors. Now, however, all three variables have changed. First, as the use of medical isotopes has expanded rapidly, production programs are proliferating. Second, as the result of such new producers and the expansion of existing production facilities, the amounts of HEU involved are growing. Third, as the RERTR program has facilitated the phase-out of HEU as fuel in most research and test reactors, the quantities of HEU for isotope production have come to represent a significant percentage of global commerce in this weapons-usable material. Medical isotope producers in several states are cooperating with the RERTR program to convert to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets within the next few years, and one already relies on LEU for isotope production. However, the three biggest isotope producers - in Canada and the European Union - continue to rely on HEU, creating a double-standard that endangers the goal of the RERTR program. Each of these three producers has expressed economic concerns about being put at a competitive disadvantage if it alone converts. This paper proposes forging a firmer international consensus that all present and future isotope producers should convert to LEU, and calls for codifying such a commitment in a statement of intent to be prepared by producers over the next year. With such a level playing field, no producer would need fear being put at a competitive disadvantage by conversion, or being stigmatized by pressure groups for continued reliance on HEU. The phase-out of all HEU commerce for isotope production could be achieved within about

  16. Production technology status and development trend of stable isotopes C, N and O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hulin

    2011-01-01

    It has been over half a century since the successful separation of table isotopes carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. The production capacity achieved three levels improvements from the laboratory-scale of one hundred grams, to the pilot production of several kilo- grams, and mass production of one hundred kilograms. The separation technologies also achieved three generation progress. The first generation of separation technology was represented by thermal diffusion method, chromatography, and ion exchange; the second generation of separation technology was represented by chemical exchange, distillation; the third generation of separation technology was characterized by the techniques innovation of material recycling, energy coupling, energy saving, and large-scale production capacity. At present, "1"3C is wholly produced by cryogenic distillation method, "1"5N is produced by NO/HNO_3 chemical exchange and NO cryogenic distillation method, and "1"80 is manufactured by distillation of water, and cryogenic distillation of NO and O_2. The same features of these separation methods are achieving energy coupling, materials recycling, large-scale producing, and energy conservation in the process. In the future, it will be the theme of stable isotope industry to develop environment-friendly, raw materials available, energy saving, low-cost, and large-scale manufacturing technology through continuous technological innovation. (authors)

  17. Confirmatory experiments for the United States Department of Energy Accelerator Production of Tritium Program: Neutron, triton and radionuclide production by thick targets of lead and tungsten bombarded by 800 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Cappiello, M.; Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.; Laird, R.; Mayo, D.; Waters, L.; Zoeller, C.; Staples, P.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron and Triton Production by 800 MeV Protons: The experiments presented in this report were performed in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility in order to provide data to benchmark and validate physics simulations used in the APT target/blanket design. An experimental apparatus was built that incorporated many of the features of the neutron source region of the 3 He target/blanket. Those features included a tungsten neutron source, flux traps, neutron moderator, lead backstop, lead multiplying annulus, neutron absorbing blanket and a combination neutron de-coupler and tritium producing gas ( 3 He). The experiments were performed in two separate proton irradiations each with approximately 100 nA-hr of 800 MeV protons. The first irradiation was made with a small neutron moderating blanket, allowing the authors to measure tritium production in the 3 He gas by sampling, and counting the amount of tritium. The second irradiation was performed with a large neutron moderating blanket (light water with a 1% manganese sulfate solution) that allowed them to measure both the tritium production in the central region and the total neutron production. The authors did this by sampling and counting the tritium produced and by measuring the activation of the manganese solution. Results of the three tritium production measurements show large disagreements with each other and therefore with the values predicted using the LAHET-MCNP code system. The source of the discrepancies may lie with the sampling system or adsorption on the tungsten surfaces. The authors discuss tests that may resolve that issue. The data for the total neutron production measurement is much more consistent. Those results show excellent agreement between calculation and experiment

  18. Preliminary review on isotope separation of long life fission products. Application research of laser isotope separation to 135Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Hironori; Ozawa, Masaki; Ishikawa, Makoto; Koyama, Shin'ichi; Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    Recently establishment of self consistent nuclear fuel cycle has been required with respect to economical efficiency, safety and reduction of the load to the environment. Especially 135 Cs included in spent fuel of nuclear power plants has extremely long half life (3.0x10 6 y) and its water solubility leads to the anxiety of exudation into ground water for geologic disposal. The conventional methods for isotope separation based on the mass difference of isotope could not gain large separation factors, which leads to the requirement of operational repetition and large equipment. Furthermore many elements of which the masses are near to that of the object isotope are included in spent fuel, which makes it difficult to expect high separation factor by the methods merely based on the mass difference. Recent technology development of laser e.g. dye laser or semi-conductor laser has come to make it possible in principle to excite a specific isotope and separate it from other isotopes making use of its intrinsic physical and chemical properties of the excited state. This laser isotope separation (LIS) technique is believed to be suitable for cesium because of its stable properties on light absorption and emission and many studies have come to be made. This document reviews the principle, application to the separation of 135 Cs and current status of LIS and reports the subjects to be solved and suggestions; especially laser induced chemical reactions expected as a low-cost and simple equipment isotope separation method. The resulting extracted subjects are 1) the specification of the excited states of cesium i.e. extra-nuclear electron configuration, life (or duration) and transition probability, 2) the factors that may effect on the isotope shift of cesium; the mean square radius of the nucleus, electric quadrupole moment and extra nuclear electron wave function at the nucleus, 3) the factors that may cause the disturbance of the selectivity; resonant energy transference

  19. Measurement of double differential cross sections for light charged particles production in neutron induced reaction at 62.7 MeV on lead target; Mesures des sections efficaces doublement differentielles de production de particules chargees legeres lors de reactions induites par neutrons de 62.7 MeV sur cible de plomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerveno, M

    2000-09-27

    In order to develop new options for nuclear waste management, studies are carrying out on the perfecting of hybrid systems (sub-critical reactor driven by accelerator). This thesis work takes place more precisely in the framework of nuclear data linked to hybrid systems development. Increasing the upper limit energy value (from 20 to 150 MeV) of data bases supposes that theoretical codes could have sufficient predictive power in this energy range. Thus it's necessary to measure new cross sections to constrain these codes. The experiment, performed at Louvain-la-Neuve Cyclotron, aims to determine the double differential cross sections for light charged particles production in neutron induced reactions at 62.7 MeV on natural lead target. The detection device consists of 6 NE102-CsI telescopes. Time of flight measurements are used to reconstruct the neutron energy spectra. The general framework (hybrid systems and associated nuclear data problematic) in which this work takes place is presented in a first part. The experimental set up used for our measurements is described in a second part. The three following parts are dedicated to the data analysis and double differential cross sections extraction. The particle discrimination, the energy calibration of detectors as the different corrections applied to the experimental spectra are related in details. And finally a comparative study between our experimental results and some theoretical predictions is presented. (author)

  20. Measurement of double differential cross sections for light charged particles production in neutron induced reaction at 62.7 MeV on lead target; Mesures des sections efficaces doublement differentielles de production de particules chargees legeres lors de reactions induites par neutrons de 62.7 MeV sur cible de plomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerveno, M

    2000-09-27

    In order to develop new options for nuclear waste management, studies are carrying out on the perfecting of hybrid systems (sub-critical reactor driven by accelerator). This thesis work takes place more precisely in the framework of nuclear data linked to hybrid systems development. Increasing the upper limit energy value (from 20 to 150 MeV) of data bases supposes that theoretical codes could have sufficient predictive power in this energy range. Thus it's necessary to measure new cross sections to constrain these codes. The experiment, performed at Louvain-la-Neuve Cyclotron, aims to determine the double differential cross sections for light charged particles production in neutron induced reactions at 62.7 MeV on natural lead target. The detection device consists of 6 NE102-CsI telescopes. Time of flight measurements are used to reconstruct the neutron energy spectra. The general framework (hybrid systems and associated nuclear data problematic) in which this work takes place is presented in a first part. The experimental set up used for our measurements is described in a second part. The three following parts are dedicated to the data analysis and double differential cross sections extraction. The particle discrimination, the energy calibration of detectors as the different corrections applied to the experimental spectra are related in details. And finally a comparative study between our experimental results and some theoretical predictions is presented. (author)

  1. Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 production with 4.2 MeV deuterons; Produccion de {sup 62} Cu y {sup 64} Cu con deuterones de 4,2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Mario; Morales, J R; Riquelme, H O [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Fisica

    1997-12-31

    Full text: The natural copper irradiation with deuterons produces the Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 radionuclides. Of two radioisotopes, those with deficiencies in neutrons, are applied in nuclear medicine diagnostic processes, mainly for the nuclear characteristic of the decay modes. The positron emitters, of short life mean Cu-62 (9.1 min, {beta}{sup +}) and Cu(12.7 h), are radionuclides applied in radio pharmacological preparation for brain, core, blood flux studies. The radiochemical process consists in the de solution of the irradiated metallic copper target, in acid medium. The result solution, can be neutralized with a base or a buffer at wished pH. Using a deuteron beam of 4,2 {+-} 0,1 MeV energy has been obtained total yields of 1,103 {+-} 0,011 {mu}Cl/{mu}Ah medium for 62 Cu and of 0,148 {+-} 0,015 {mu}Cl/{mu}Ah for 64 Cu.

  2. Heavy mesons production study in the reaction antip + d → 3He+X at an incident energy of 1450 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loireleux, E.

    1990-02-01

    Study of heavy meson production in the antip + d → 3 He + X reaction has been performed at the Laboratoire National Saturne synchrotron at 1450 MeV incident energy. The helium 3 particles have been detected by means of the SPES III spectrometer in an angular range between -0.2 0 and 21 0 and for momenta between 600 MeV/c and 1400 MeV/c. In the first part of this work, we give a summary of the different experimental and theoretical results already obtained on the subject during the last twenty years. The second part of this thesis is devoted to the description of the experimental set-up by which this experiment was conducted, that is the spectrometer, the two kinds of wires chambers, the trigger and the read-out electronics associated with each detector. The calibration of the different parts of the detection and the beam characteristics - intensity and polarization - is studied in the third part. There is also a discussion about the data reduction and then the extraction of results obtained with the help of two and three pion phase spaces simulations in the spectrometer. The results are presented in the last part of this work. The differential cross sections and the analyzing powers have been established for the centre of mass angles varying in step of 10 degrees for the mesons π 0 , η and ω. A conclusion which indicates the prospects for a near future closes this thesis [fr

  3. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic studies of aqueous homogeneous reactor for medical isotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Daniel Milian; Lorenzo, Daniel E. Milian; Lira, Carlos A. Brayner de Oliveira; Garcia, Lorena P. Rodríguez; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

    2017-01-01

    The use of Aqueous Homogenous Reactors (AHR) is one of the most promissory alternatives to produce medical isotopes, mainly "9"9Mo. Compare to multipurpose research reactors, an AHR dedicated for "9"9Mo production has advantages because of their low cost, small critical mass, inherent passive safety, and simplified fuel handling, processing, and purification characteristics. This article presents the current state of research in our working group on this topic. Are presented and discussed the group validation efforts with benchmarking exercises that include neutronic and thermal-hydraulic results of two solution reactors, the SUPO and ARGUS reactors. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic results of 75 kWth AHR based on the ARGUS reactor LEU configuration are presented. The neutronic studies included the determination of parameters such as reflector thickness, critical height, medical isotopes production and others. Thermal-hydraulics studies were focused on demonstrating that sufficient cooling capacity exists to prevent fuel overheating. In addition, the effects of some calculation parameters on the computational modeling of temperature, velocity and gas volume fraction during steady-state operation of an AHR are discussed. The neutronic and thermal-hydraulics studies have been performed with the MCNPX version 2.6e computational code and the version 14 of ANSYS CFX respectively. Our group studies and the results obtained contribute to demonstrate the feasibility of using AHR for the production of medical isotopes, however additional studies are still necessary to confirm these results and contribute to development and demonstration of their technical, safety, and economic viability. (author)

  4. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic studies of aqueous homogeneous reactor for medical isotopes production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Daniel Milian; Lorenzo, Daniel E. Milian; Lira, Carlos A. Brayner de Oliveira; Garcia, Lorena P. Rodríguez, E-mail: milianperez89@gmail.com, E-mail: dmilian@instec.cu, E-mail: lorenapilar1109@gmail.com, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences (InSTEC), Havana (Cuba); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    The use of Aqueous Homogenous Reactors (AHR) is one of the most promissory alternatives to produce medical isotopes, mainly {sup 99}Mo. Compare to multipurpose research reactors, an AHR dedicated for {sup 99}Mo production has advantages because of their low cost, small critical mass, inherent passive safety, and simplified fuel handling, processing, and purification characteristics. This article presents the current state of research in our working group on this topic. Are presented and discussed the group validation efforts with benchmarking exercises that include neutronic and thermal-hydraulic results of two solution reactors, the SUPO and ARGUS reactors. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic results of 75 kWth AHR based on the ARGUS reactor LEU configuration are presented. The neutronic studies included the determination of parameters such as reflector thickness, critical height, medical isotopes production and others. Thermal-hydraulics studies were focused on demonstrating that sufficient cooling capacity exists to prevent fuel overheating. In addition, the effects of some calculation parameters on the computational modeling of temperature, velocity and gas volume fraction during steady-state operation of an AHR are discussed. The neutronic and thermal-hydraulics studies have been performed with the MCNPX version 2.6e computational code and the version 14 of ANSYS CFX respectively. Our group studies and the results obtained contribute to demonstrate the feasibility of using AHR for the production of medical isotopes, however additional studies are still necessary to confirm these results and contribute to development and demonstration of their technical, safety, and economic viability. (author)

  5. The production of cosmogenic isotopes in the earth's atmosphere and their inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, K.; de la Zerda Lerner, A.; Shea. M.A.; Smart, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, production rates of cosmogenic isotopes in the Earth's atmosphere and their dependence on solar modulation and geomagnetic field intensity are calculated. Spallation cross sections were also obtained using the Silberberg-Tsao equations and solar modulation effects were calculated using the force-field model. The current geomagnetic field is treated in detail, and past magnetic fields are modeled based on the archeomagnetic record. Radiocarbon and radioberyllium inventories so obtained are in good agreement with current values. The neutrino-emitting radioactivity of the Earth's atmosphere is shown to add a negligible contribution to the flux from the Sun

  6. Interplay of community dynamics, temperature, and productivity on the hydrogen isotope signatures of lipid biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ladd

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen isotopic composition (δ2H of lipid biomarkers has diverse applications in the fields of paleoclimatology, biogeochemistry, and microbial community dynamics. Large changes in hydrogen isotope fractionation have been observed among microbes with differing core metabolisms, while environmental factors including temperature and nutrient availability can affect isotope fractionation by photoautotrophs. Much effort has gone into studying these effects under laboratory conditions with single species cultures. Moving beyond controlled environments and quantifying the natural extent of these changes in freshwater lacustrine settings and identifying their causes is essential for robust application of δ2H values of common short-chain fatty acids as a proxy of net community metabolism and of phytoplankton-specific biomarkers as a paleohydrologic proxy. This work targets the effect of community dynamics, temperature, and productivity on 2H∕1H fractionation in lipid biomarkers through a comparative time series in two central Swiss lakes: eutrophic Lake Greifen and oligotrophic Lake Lucerne. Particulate organic matter was collected from surface waters at six time points throughout the spring and summer of 2015, and δ2H values of short-chain fatty acids, as well as chlorophyll-derived phytol and the diatom biomarker brassicasterol, were measured. We paired these measurements with in situ incubations conducted with NaH13CO3, which were used to calculate the production rates of individual lipids in lake surface water. As algal productivity increased from April to June, net discrimination against 2H in Lake Greifen increased by as much as 148 ‰ for individual fatty acids. During the same time period in Lake Lucerne, net discrimination against 2H increased by as much as 58 ‰ for individual fatty acids. A large portion of this signal is likely due to a greater proportion of heterotrophically derived fatty acids in the winter and early

  7. Considerations in the design of a high power medical isotope production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Russell M.; Nordyke, William H.; Brown, Roy

    2002-01-01

    For the low enriched aqueous homogeneous reactor to be economic in the production of medical isotopes, such as Mo-99 and Sr-89, the power level should be of the order of 100 kWth. This is double the earlier designs and this paper discusses the design changes which must be considered to meet this goal. The topics considered are: 1. Heat removal from the reactor solution; 2. Recombination of radiolytic gases; 3. Adequate radiation shielding; 4. Stability of reactor power with fluctuating reactivity; 5. Adequate cooling of the reflector; 6. Independent shutdown mechanisms; 7. Required volume of the reactor; 8. Economic implementation. (author)

  8. A Tale of Two Gases: Isotope Effects Associated with the Enzymatic Production of H2 and N2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Gandhi, H.; Kreuzer, H. W.; Moran, J.; Hill, E. A.; McQuarters, A.; Lehnert, N.; Ostrom, N. E.; Hegg, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Stable isotopes can provide considerable insight into enzymatic mechanisms and fluxes in various biological processes. In our studies, we used stable isotopes to characterize both enzyme-catalyzed H2 and N2O production. H2 is a potential alternative clean energy source and also a key metabolite in many microbial communities. Biological H2 production is generally catalyzed by hydrogenases, enzymes that combine protons and electrons to produce H2 under anaerobic conditions. In our study, H isotopes and fractionation factors (α) were used to characterize two types of hydrogenases: [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Due to differences in the active site, the α associated with H2 production for [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases separated into two distinct clusters (αFeFe > αNiFe). The calculated kinetic isotope effects indicate that hydrogenase-catalyzed H2 production has a preference for light isotopes, consistent with the relative bond strengths of O-H and H-H bonds. Interestingly, the isotope effects associated with H2 consumption and H2-H2O exchange reactions were also characterized, but in this case no specific difference was observed between the different enzymes. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 300 times that of CO2, and the concentration of N2O is currently increasing at a rate of ~0.25% per year. Thus far, bacterial and fungal denitrification processes have been identified as two of the major sources of biologically generated N2O. In this study, we measured the δ15N, δ18O, δ15Nα (central N atom in N2O), and δ15Nβ (terminal N atom in N2O) of N2O generated by purified fungal P450 nitric oxide reductase (P450nor) from Histoplasma capsulatum. We observed normal isotope effects for δ18O and δ15Nα, and inverse isotope effects for bulk δ15N (the average of Nα and Nβ) and δ15Nβ. The observed isotope effects have been used in conjunction with DFT calculations to provide important insight into the mechanism of P450nor. Similar

  9. Use of LEU in the aqueous homogeneous medical isotope production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R.M. [Babock & Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Medical Isotope Production Reactor (MIPR) is an aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate in water, contained in an aluminum cylinder immersed in a large pool of water which can provide both shielding and a medium for heat exchange. The control rods are inserted at the top through re-entrant thimbles. Provision is made to remove radiolytic gases and recombine emitted hydrogen and oxygen. Small quantities of the solution can be continuously extracted and replaced after passing through selective ion exchange columns, which are used to extract the desired products (fission products), e.g. molybdenum-99. This reactor type is known for its large negative temperature coefficient, the small amount of fuel required for criticality, and the ease of control. Calculation using TWODANT show that a 20% U-235 enriched system, water reflected can be critical with 73 liters of solution.

  10. Use of LEU in the aqueous homogeneous medical isotope production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Medical Isotope Production Reactor (MIPR) is an aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate in water, contained in an aluminum cylinder immersed in a large pool of water which can provide both shielding and a medium for heat exchange. The control rods are inserted at the top through re-entrant thimbles. Provision is made to remove radiolytic gases and recombine emitted hydrogen and oxygen. Small quantities of the solution can be continuously extracted and replaced after passing through selective ion exchange columns, which are used to extract the desired products (fission products), e.g. molybdenum-99. This reactor type is known for its large negative temperature coefficient, the small amount of fuel required for criticality, and the ease of control. Calculation using TWODANT show that a 20% U-235 enriched system, water reflected can be critical with 73 liters of solution

  11. Rate of germanium-isotope production by background processes in the SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Ibragimova, T.V.; Cleveland, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    Data on a direct determination of systematic uncertainties caused by the background production of germanium isotopes in the radiochemical SAGE experiment measuring the solar-neutrino flux are analyzed. The result obtained for the rate of 68 Ge production is 6.5(1±1.0) times greater than the expected one; the rate of 69 Ge production does not exceed preliminary estimates. The above result for 68 Ge corresponds to the systematic uncertainty that is caused by the interaction of cosmic-ray muons and which is equal to 5.8% (4.5 SNU) at a solar-neutrino-capture rate of 77.0 SNU. An experiment is proposed that would test the effect of cosmic-ray muon influence on the SAGE systematic uncertainty and which would be performed at the location of the underground scintillation telescope facilities of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences)

  12. Mass-yield distributions of fission products from 20, 32, and 45 MeV proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, H.; Goswami, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiochemistry Division, Mumbai (India); Kim, G.N.; Kim, K. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suryanarayana, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India)

    2013-10-15

    The yields of various fission products in the 19.6, 32.2, and 44.8 MeV proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th have been determined by recoil catcher and an off-line {gamma}-ray spectrometric technique using the BARC-TIFR Pelletron in India and MC-50 cyclotron in Korea. The mass-yield distributions were obtained from the fission product yield using the charge distribution corrections. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratio of the present work and that of literature data for {sup 232}Th(p,f) and {sup 238}U(p,f) were obtained from the mass yield distribution. The present and the existing literature data for {sup 232}Th(p,f), {sup 232}Th(n,f), and {sup 232}Th({gamma},f) at various energies were compared with those for {sup 238}U(p,f), {sup 238}U(n,f), and {sup 238}U({gamma},f) to examine the probable nuclear structure effect. The role of Th-anomaly on the peak-to-valley ratio in proton-, neutron-, and photon-induced fission of {sup 232}Th was discussed with the similar data in {sup 238}U. On the other hand, the fine structure in the mass yield distributions of the fissioning systems at various excitation energies has been explained from the point of standard I and II asymmetric mode of fission besides the probable role of even-odd effect, A/Z ratio, and fissility parameter. (orig.)

  13. Isotopic evidence for nitrous oxide production pathways in a partial nitritation-anammox reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Joss, Adriano; Emmenegger, Lukas; Kipf, Marco; Wolf, Benjamin; Mohn, Joachim; Wunderlin, Pascal

    2015-10-15

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathways in a single stage, continuously fed partial nitritation-anammox reactor were investigated using online isotopic analysis of offgas N2O with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS). N2O emissions increased when reactor operating conditions were not optimal, for example, high dissolved oxygen concentration. SP measurements indicated that the increase in N2O was due to enhanced nitrifier denitrification, generally related to nitrite build-up in the reactor. The results of this study confirm that process control via online N2O monitoring is an ideal method to detect imbalances in reactor operation and regulate aeration, to ensure optimal reactor conditions and minimise N2O emissions. Under normal operating conditions, the N2O isotopic site preference (SP) was much higher than expected - up to 40‰ - which could not be explained within the current understanding of N2O production pathways. Various targeted experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of N2O formation in the reactor. The high SP measurements during both normal operating and experimental conditions could potentially be explained by a number of hypotheses: i) unexpectedly strong heterotrophic N2O reduction, ii) unknown inorganic or anammox-associated N2O production pathway, iii) previous underestimation of SP fractionation during N2O production from NH2OH, or strong variations in SP from this pathway depending on reactor conditions. The second hypothesis - an unknown or incompletely characterised production pathway - was most consistent with results, however the other possibilities cannot be discounted. Further experiments are needed to distinguish between these hypotheses and fully resolve N2O production pathways in PN-anammox systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Consistency of neutron cross-section data, S /SUB N/ calculations, and measured tritium production for a 14-MeV neutron-driven sphere of natural lithium deuteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reupke, W.A.; Davidson, J.N.; Muir, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    The authors present algorithms, describe a computer program, and gives a computational procedure for the statistical consistency analysis of neutron cross-section data, S /SUB N/ calculations, and measured tritium production in 14-MeV neutron-driven integral assemblies. Algorithms presented include a reduced matrix manipulation technique suitable for manygroup, 14-MeV neutron transport calculations. The computer program incorporates these algorithms and is expanded and improved to facilitate analysis of such integral experiments. Details of the computational procedure are given for a natural lithium deuteride experiment performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results are explained in terms of calculated cross-section sensitivities and uncertainty estimates. They include a downward adjustment of the 7 Li(n,xt) 14-MeV cross section from 328 + or - 22 to 284 + or - 24 mb, which is supported by the trend of recent differential and integral measurements. It is concluded that with appropriate refinements, the techniques of consistency analysis can be usefully applied to the analysis of 14-MeV neutron-driven tritium production integral experiments

  15. Assessment of the production of medical isotopes using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA: Simulations against experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infantino, Angelo, E-mail: angelo.infantino@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, Montecuccolino Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Oehlke, Elisabeth [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada); Department of Radiation Science & Technology, Delft University of Technology, Postbus 5, 2600 AA Delft (Netherlands); Mostacci, Domiziano [Department of Industrial Engineering, Montecuccolino Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Schaffer, Paul; Trinczek, Michael; Hoehr, Cornelia [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    The Monte Carlo code FLUKA is used to simulate the production of a number of positron emitting radionuclides, {sup 18}F, {sup 13}N, {sup 94}Tc, {sup 44}Sc, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 86}Y, {sup 89}Zr, {sup 52}Mn, {sup 61}Cu and {sup 55}Co, on a small medical cyclotron with a proton beam energy of 13 MeV. Experimental data collected at the TR13 cyclotron at TRIUMF agree within a factor of 0.6 ± 0.4 with the directly simulated data, except for the production of {sup 55}Co, where the simulation underestimates the experiment by a factor of 3.4 ± 0.4. The experimental data also agree within a factor of 0.8 ± 0.6 with the convolution of simulated proton fluence and cross sections from literature. Overall, this confirms the applicability of FLUKA to simulate radionuclide production at 13 MeV proton beam energy.

  16. Track 8: health and radiological applications. Isotopes and radiation: general. 2. Radiation Pasteurization for Diverse Food Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.; Whittaker, A.D.; McLellan, M.; Waltar, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    requiring differential dosing, and many other technical variables. Both the testing of specific products and the basic research on irradiation processing require a fully instrumented irradiation facility and an extensive food safety and quality testing capability. To meet the needs of food processors that wish to consider entering the radiation-pasteurized product market, Texas A and M University (Texas A and M) has initiated a program to develop a comprehensive radiation pasteurization research facility. A 2-MV electrostatic electron accelerator for studying the potential benefits of surface pasteurization of some products is currently being assembled and will probably be the first radiation source to come on-line. A collaboration with Sure Beam Corporation, the major manufacturer of high-energy electron beam and X-ray irradiation equipment, will establish a new Texas A and M research and testing facility with two 20-kW, 10-MeV electron beam accelerators and a 5-MV X-ray source, all of which will be ready for use in 2002. An isotopic source of mono-energetic photons is also being considered. The food irradiation lines will connect directly with a new, 16 000-ft 2 , fully controlled temperature facility that is equipped with a loading ramp that can accommodate 18-wheeler trucks for receiving and delivering test market-sized loads of products. All of these irradiation facilities will be located in close proximity to the extensive food safety and quality testing facilities of Texas A and M, which operates one of the largest agricultural engineering and food sciences programs in American universities. We believe that this combination will provide the research and testing capability needed to support the rapid growth of radiation pasteurization that we expect to occur in the next few years. (authors)

  17. Evidence for two narrow pp resonances at 2020 MeV and 2200 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Benkheiri, P; Bouquet, B; Briandet, P; D'Almagne, B; Dang-Vu, C; De Rosny, G; Eisenstein, B I; Ferrer, A; Fleury, P; Grossetête, B; Irwin, G; Jacholkowski, A; Lahellec, A; Nguyen, H; Petroff, P; Richard, F; Rivet, P; Roudeau, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Six, J; Thénard, J M; Treille, D; Volte, A; Yaffe, D; Yiou, T P; Yoshida, H

    1977-01-01

    From the study of the reaction pi /sup -/p to p/sub F/pp pi /sup -/ using a fast proton (p/sub F/) trigger device in the CERN Omega spectrometer, the authors find evidence for two narrow pp states produced mainly in association with a Delta degrees (1232) and a N degrees (1520). The statistical significance of each peak is greater than 6 standard deviations. Masses and natural widths of these resonances are respectively M/sub 1/=2020+or-3 MeV, Gamma /sub 1 /=24+or-12 MeV and M/sub 2/=2204+or-5 MeV, Gamma /sub 2/=16/sub -16 //sup +20/ MeV. The data are consistent with a small production of the narrow approximately 1935 MeV resonance already reported. Production cross sections for these new pp resonances are given. (8 refs).

  18. Risk assessment of 30 MeV cyclotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Jin Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Yeal [Dept. of Radiation Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    A cyclotron is a kind of particle accelerator that produces a beam of charged particles for the production of medical, industrial, and research radioisotopes. More than 30 cyclotrons are operated in Korea to produce 18F, an FDG synthesis at hospitals. A 30-MeV cyclotron was installed at ARTI (Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI) mainly for research regarding isotope production. In this study, we analyze and estimate the items of risk such as the problems in the main components of the cyclotron, the loss of radioactive materials, the leakage of coolant, and the malfunction of utilities, fres and earthquakes. To estimate the occurrence frequency in an accident risk assessment, five levels, i.e., Almost certain, Likely, Possible, Unlikely, and Rare, are applied. The accident consequence level is classified under four grades based on the annual permissible dose for radiation workers and the public in the nuclear safety law. The analysis of the accident effect is focused on the radioactive contamination caused by radioisotope leakage and radioactive material leakage of a ventilation filter due to a free. To analyze the risks, Occupation Safety and Health Acts is applied. In addition, action plans against an accident were prepared after a deep discussion among relevant researchers. In this acts, we will search for hazard and introduce the risk assessment for the research 30-MeV cyclotron facilities of ARTI.

  19. Risk assessment of 30 MeV cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Chong Yeal

    2017-01-01

    A cyclotron is a kind of particle accelerator that produces a beam of charged particles for the production of medical, industrial, and research radioisotopes. More than 30 cyclotrons are operated in Korea to produce 18F, an FDG synthesis at hospitals. A 30-MeV cyclotron was installed at ARTI (Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, KAERI) mainly for research regarding isotope production. In this study, we analyze and estimate the items of risk such as the problems in the main components of the cyclotron, the loss of radioactive materials, the leakage of coolant, and the malfunction of utilities, fres and earthquakes. To estimate the occurrence frequency in an accident risk assessment, five levels, i.e., Almost certain, Likely, Possible, Unlikely, and Rare, are applied. The accident consequence level is classified under four grades based on the annual permissible dose for radiation workers and the public in the nuclear safety law. The analysis of the accident effect is focused on the radioactive contamination caused by radioisotope leakage and radioactive material leakage of a ventilation filter due to a free. To analyze the risks, Occupation Safety and Health Acts is applied. In addition, action plans against an accident were prepared after a deep discussion among relevant researchers. In this acts, we will search for hazard and introduce the risk assessment for the research 30-MeV cyclotron facilities of ARTI

  20. Production of large quantities of isotopically labeled protein in Pichia pastoris by fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Matthew J.; Komives, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris has many of the advantages of eukaryotic expression, proper folding and disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, and secretion. Contrary to other eukaryotic systems, protein production from P.pastoris occurs in simple minimal defined media making this system attractive for production of labeled proteins for NMR analysis. P.pastoris is therefore the expression system of choice for NMR of proteins that cannot be refolded from inclusion bodies or that require post-translational modifications for proper folding or function. The yield of expressed proteins from P.pastoris depends critically on growth conditions, and attainment of high cell densities by fermentation has been shown to improve protein yields by 10-100-fold. Unfortunately, the cost of the isotopically enriched fermentation media components, particularly 15NH4OH, is prohibitively high. We report fermentation methods that allow for both 15N- labeling from (15NH4)2SO4 and 13C-labeling from 13C-glucose or 13C-glycerol of proteins produced in Pichia pastoris. Expression of an 83 amino acid fragment of thrombomodulin with two N-linked glycosylation sites shows that fermentation is more cost effective than shake flask growth for isotopic enrichment

  1. Stable carbon isotopes in high-productive littoral areas of Lake Constance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chondrogianni, C.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation attempted to extend understanding of C fractionation in aquatic systems and to facilitate the interpretation of palaeolimnological isotope data. Particular interest was taken in the aspect of bicarbonate assimilation at high productivity and in the exchange processes between water and atmosphere. Littoral areas of lakes were chosen as areas of investigation as they offer a high-productivity environment with large populations of submersed macrophytes and periphytes. To get a better picture of the factors influencing C fractionation, litteral and pellagial regions were compared on the one hand and a mesotrophic (Ueberlingersee) and a eutrophic (Gnadensee) lake section on the other hand. Further factors of differentiation between the two lake parts were: Volume, the proportional share of the litteral area, and water exchange. Two main fields of interest were investigated: - Determination of the C isotope ratio (δ 13 C) in the dissolved bicarbonate of water in the sediments of a single year for the purpose of calibrating its fractionation in the basis of the present chemical and physical status of the lake water (water programme). - Determination of δ 13 C in selected carbonate components from sedimentary cores in order to find out about palaeolimnological events in the areas of investigation (sediment programme). (orig.) [de

  2. Study of the {eta} meson production and decay in {pi}{sup +} - d interactions between 600 and 900 MeV; Etude de la production et de la desintegration du meson {eta} dans les interactions {pi}{sup +} - deuterium entre 600 et 900 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauli, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The reaction {pi}{sup +} + d {yields} p + p + {eta} is observed in the 35 cm and 50 cm deuterium bubble chambers of the L.P.C.H.E. in Saclay. A total of 150000 pictures has been taken at six incident energies of the {pi}{sup +} between 600 MeV and 900 MeV in a {pi}{sup +} separated beam at Saturne. The results of this study show that the {eta} production cross section increases rapidly at threshold, then decreases slowly at higher energies. The {eta} production cross section increases rapidly at threshold, then decreases slowly at higher energies. The {eta} production angular distribution in the {pi}{sup +} - neutron c.m.s. is isotropic. From both of these facts, we conclude that the {eta} is produced in a S wave near threshold. As for the {eta} decay, the values of the following branching ratios have been determined: {gamma}{sub {eta}} ({gamma}{gamma})/{gamma}{sub {eta}} ({pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = 1.1 {+-} 0.5; {gamma}{sub {eta}} ({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma})/{gamma}{sub {eta}} ({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}) = 0.73 {+-} 0.25; {gamma}{sub {eta}} (neutrals)/{gamma}{sub {eta}} ({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}) = 3.8 {+-} 1.1; {gamma}{sub {eta}} (neutrals)/{gamma}{sub {eta}} (charged) = 2.2 {+-} 0.35. Finally, we compare the {eta} production and decay results with the different theoretical predictions. (author) [French] La reaction {pi}{sup +} + d {yields} p + p + {eta} est observee dans les chambres a bulles a deuterium de 35 cm et de 50 cm du L.P.C.H.E. a Saclay. L'energie incidente du {pi}{sup +} varie de 600 a 900 MeV et environ 150000 photos ont ete prises au total aupres de Saturne. Cette etude nous montre que la section efficace de production du {eta} augmente tres rapidement a partir du seuil et diminue a energie plus elevee. La distribution angulaire de production du {eta} dans le systeme {pi}{sup +} neutron est compatible avec une distribution isotrope. Ces deux resultats nous amenent a conclure que le {eta} est sans doute produit dans

  3. 0 degree binary encounter electron production in 30-MeV Oq++H2, He, O2, Ne, and Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, T.J.; Wong, K.L.; Grabbe, S.; Hidmi, H.I.; Richard, P.; Montenegro, E.C.; Sanders, J.M.; Liao, C.; Hagmann, S.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections (DDCS close-quote s) for the production of binary encounter electrons (BEE close-quote s) were measured for collisions of 30-MeV O q+ projectiles with H 2 , He, O 2 , Ne, and Ar targets with q=4 endash 8 and an electron ejection angle of θ=0 degree with respect to the beam direction. Particular interest focused on (a) the evaluation of the contributions of the different electron subshells of the multielectron targets, O 2 , Ne, and Ar; (b) the study of the well-known enhancement of the BEE DDCS close-quote s with decreasing projectile charge-state q; here this dependence was tested for higher collision energies and new targets; (c) the study of the dependence of the BEE peak energy on the particular target and projectile charge state. Results were analyzed in terms of the impulse approximation, in which target electrons in the projectile frame undergo 180 degree elastic scattering in the field of the projectile ion. The electron scattering calculations were performed in a partial-wave treatment using the Hartree-Fock model. Good agreement with the data was found for the H 2 and He targets, while for the multielectron targets O 2 , Ne, and Ar only electrons whose velocity was lower than the projectile velocity needed to be included for good agreement. All measured BEE DDCS close-quote s were found to increase with decreasing projectile charge state, in agreement with other recent BEE results. The BEE peak energies were found to be independent of the projectile charge state for all targets utilized. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. A comparison of the free vacancy production in α brass by fission reactor neutrons and 14.8-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damask, A.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.; Borg, R.J.; Dienes, G.J.

    1976-01-01

    Enhancement of substitutional diffusion is observed in α brass (30 wt% Zn) by following the decrease in electrical resistivity with neutron irradiation of a thermally equilibrated alloy; the decrease arises from the increase in short-range order. It was determined by previous research that this diffusion enhancement is largely caused by the annealling of radiation-produced vacancies in excess of the thermal equilibrium concentration. Therefore, the results reported here are based upon a well-established technique. The rate of resistivity change per neutron of different energies will give the relative number of free vacancies produced per neutron. This experiment compares the effect of 14.8 MeV neutrons with neutrons from a fission reactor. The results indicate that 14.8 MeV neutrons produce 10 +- 2 times as many free vacancies as reactor neutrons when the latter are expressed in terms of those neutrons with energies greater than 0.1 MeV. (author)

  5. Gas phase adsorption technology for nitrogen isotope separation and its feasibility for highly enriched nitrogen gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Asaga, Takeo

    2000-04-01

    Highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas is favorable to reduce radioactive carbon-14 production in reactor. The cost of highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas in mass production is one of the most important subject in nitride fuel option in 'Feasibility Study for FBR and Related Fuel Cycle'. In this work gas phase adsorption technology was verified to be applicable for nitrogen isotope separation and feasible to produce highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas in commercial. Nitrogen isotopes were separated while ammonia gas flows through sodium-A type zeolite column using pressure swing adsorption process. The isotopic ratio of eight samples were measured by high resolution mass spectrometry and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Gas phase adsorption technology was verified to be applicable for nitrogen isotope separation, since the isotopic ratio of nitrogen-15 and nitrogen-14 in samples were more than six times as high as in natural. The cost of highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas in mass production were estimated by the factor method. It revealed that highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas could be supplied in a few hundred yen per gram in mass production. (author)

  6. Near-Continuous Isotopic Characterization of Soil N2O Fluxes from Maize Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anex, R. P.; Francis Clar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Isotopomer ratios of N2O and especially intramolecular 15N site preference (SP) have been proposed as indicators of the sources of N2O and for providing insight into the contributions of different microbial processes. Current knowledge, however, is mainly based on pure culture studies and laboratory flask studies using mass spectrometric analysis. Recent development of laser spectroscopic methods has made possible high-precision, in situ measurements. We present results from a maize production field in Columbia County, Wisconsin, USA. Data were collected from the fertilized maize phase of a maize-soybean rotation. N2O mole fractions and isotopic composition were determined using an automatic gas flux measurement system comprising a set of custom-designed automatic chambers, circulating gas paths and an OA-ICOS N2O Isotope Analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc., Model 914-0027). The instrument system allows for up to 15 user programmable soil gas chambers. Wide dynamic range and parts-per-billion precision of OA-ICOS laser absorption instrument allows for extremely rapid estimation of N2O fluxes. Current operational settings provide measurements of N2O and its isotopes every 20 seconds with a precision of 0.1 ± 0.050 PPB. Comparison of measurements from four chambers (two between row and two in-row) show very different aggregate N2O flux, but SP values suggest similar sources from nitrifier denitrification and incomplete bacterial denitrification. SP values reported are being measured throughout the current growing season. To date, the majority of values are consistent with an origin from bacterial denitrification and coincide with periods of high water filled pore space.

  7. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, K.K.; Bose, Arun

    2014-01-01

    10 B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10 B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH) 4 - ) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10 B and 11 B

  8. L-shell X-ray production cross sections of Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy by impact of {sup 14}N{sup 2+} ions with energies between 7.0 MeV and 10.5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, G.; Méndez, B.; López-Monroy, J. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. México-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Méx. 52750 (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, Cd. Mx. 01000 (Mexico); Villaseñor, P. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. México-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Edo. Méx. 52750 (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A new data set of L X-ray production cross sections by nitrogen ion impact is given. • The target elements have atomic numbers in the range 58–66 (lanthanoids). • A universal scaling as function of a reduced velocity variable is applied. • The eCPSSR model with EC and MI corrections gives very good results. - Abstract: L-shell X-ray production cross sections from the lanthanoid elements Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy, induced by the impact of {sup 14}N{sup 2+} ions with energies in the interval 7.0 MeV to 10.5 MeV (0.50 MeV/μ to 0.75 MeV/μ), were measured and then compared with theoretical calculations obtained with the ECPSSR model with exact limits of integration (eCPSSR) and related corrections. These include the electron capture by the incoming ion and multiple ionizations of higher shells. Data from this work were contrasted with previously published L X-ray production cross sections for {sup 14}N{sup 2+} ion impact. As with other ions, a universal behavior is found when L{sub α} and L{sub γ} X-ray production cross sections are plotted as a function of reduced velocity parameters. The agreement with theoretical predictions was very good when the corrections were applied to the eCPSSR model.

  9. Research on isotope geology. Assessment of heat production potential of granitic rocks and development of geothermal exploration techniques using radioactive/stable isotopes and fission track 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Radioelements and heat production rates of granitic rocks and stable isotopes of groundwaters were analyzed to investigate the geothermal potential of Wolchulsan granite complex in the southern Yeongam area. Wolchulsan granite complex is composed mainly by Cretaceous pink alkali-feldspar granite and partly Jurassic biotite granite. The main target for the geothermal exploration is the alkali-feldspar granite that is known in general to be favorable geothermal reservoir(e.g., Shap granite in UK). To develop exploration techniques for geothermal anomalies, all geochemical data were compared to those from the Jeonju granite complex. Heat production rates(HPR) of the alkali-feldspar granite is 1.8 - 10.6 {mu}Wm{sup -3}. High radio-thermal anomalies were revealed from the central western and northern parts of the granite body. These are relatively higher than the Caledonian hot dry granites in the UK. The integrated assessment of Wolchulsan granite complex suggests potential of the Cretaceous alkali-feldspar granite as a geothermal targets. Groundwater geochemistry of the Yeongam area reflects simple evaporation process and higher oxidation environment. Stable isotope data of groundwaters are plotted on or close to the Meteoric Water Line(MWL). These isotopic data indicate a significant meteoric water dominance and do not show oxygen isotope fractionation between groundwater and wall rocks. In despite of high HPR values of the Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite, groundwater samples do not show the same geochemical properties as a thermal water in the Jeonju area. This reason can be well explained by the comparison with geological settings of the Jeonju area. The Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite does not possess any adjacent heat source rocks despite its high radio-thermal HPR. While the Jeonju granite batholith has later heat source intrusive and suitable deep fracture system for water circulation with sedimentary cap rocks. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Excitation functions of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natMo up to 21 MeV. An alternative route for the production of 99mTc and 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonck, M.; Hermanne, A.; Takacs, S.; Szelecsenyi, F.; Tarkanyi, F.

    1999-01-01

    Cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of 92m,95 Nb-, 93,94g,94m,95g,95m,96,99m Tc- and 99 Mo were measured up to 21 MeV deuteron energy by using stacked foil technique and activation method. The goal of this work was to study the production possibility of the medical important 94m,99m Tc- and 99 Mo-nuclides. Production of 99m Tc and 99 Mo is of importance for their use in nuclear medicine, whereas 94m Tc is of interest regarding quantification of kinetics of well-established 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals. The production possibilities of 99m Tc and 99 Mo above 20 MeV deuteron energies up to 50 MeV were estimated and was found that beside the proton induced reactions the deuteron induced reactions on enriched molybdenum target are very promising. (author)

  11. The South African isotope facility project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, R. A.; Barnard, A. H.; Conradie, J. L.; de Villiers, J. G.; van Schalkwyk, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    The South African Isotope Facility (SAIF) is a project in which iThemba LABS plans to build a radioactive-ion beam (RIB) facility. The project is divided into the Accelerator Centre of Exotic Isotopes (ACE Isotopes) and the Accelerator Centre for Exotic Beams (ACE Beams). For ACE Isotopes, a high-current, 70 MeV cyclotron will be acquired to take radionuclide production off the existing Separated Sector Cyclotron (SSC). A freed up SSC will then be available for an increased tempo of nuclear physics research and to serve as a driver accelerator for the ACE Beams project, in which protons will be used for the direct fission of Uranium, producing beams of fission fragments. The ACE Beams project has begun with "LeRIB" - a Low Energy RIB facility, now under construction. In a collaboration with INFN Legnaro, the target/ion-source "front-end" will be a copy of the front-end developed for the SPES project. A variety of targets may be inserted into the SPES front-end; a uranium-carbide target has been designed to produce up to 2 × 1013 fission/s using a 70 MeV proton beam of 150 µA intensity.

  12. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  13. Elastic scattering of 16O on 28Si between 45.0 and 73.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkolnik, V.; Dehnhard, D.; Kubono, S.; Franey, M.A.; Tripp, S.; Artz, J.L.; Weber, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Angular distributions of 16 O elastically scattering by Si isotopes were analyzed by the optical model. Differential cross sections are shown for all isotopes at 60 MeV, and for 28 Si at energies from 45 to 63 MeV. The potentials found are discussed in some detail; the best fits were produced by surface-transparent potentials. 3 figures, 2 tables

  14. Efficient production of isotopically labeled proteins by cell-free synthesis: A practical protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizawa, Takuya; Shimizu, Masato [Crest, Jst (Japan); Taoka, Masato [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Miyano, Hiroshi [Ajinomoto Co., Inc. Institute of Life Sciences (Japan); Kainosho, Masatsune [Crest, Jst (Japan)], E-mail: kainosho@nmr.chem.metro-u.ac.jp

    2004-11-15

    We provide detailed descriptions of our refined protocols for the cell-free production of labeled protein samples for NMR spectroscopy. These methods are efficient and overcome two critical problems associated with the use of conventional Escherichia coli extract systems. Endogenous amino acids normally present in E. coli S30 extracts dilute the added labeled amino acids and degrade the quality of NMR spectra of the target protein. This problem was solved by altering the protocol used in preparing the S30 extract so as to minimize the content of endogenous amino acids. The second problem encountered in conventional E. coli cell-free protein production is non-uniformity in the N-terminus of the target protein, which can complicate the NMR spectra. This problem was solved by adding a DNA sequence to the construct that codes for a cleavable N-terminal peptide tag. Addition of the tag serves to increase the yield of the protein as well as to ensure a homogeneous protein product following tag cleavage. We illustrate the method by describing its stepwise application to the production of calmodulin samples with different stable isotope labeling patterns for NMR analysis.

  15. Use of Stable Isotopes and Incubation Studies to Characterize Methane Production Mechanism in Northern Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanton, J. P.; Fields, D.; Hines, M. E.; Rooney-Varga, J.

    2003-12-01

    Arctic and boreal ecosystems are important since they occupy greater than 1/5 of the Earth's terrestrial surface, they are sensitive to subtle climate changes, and they have significant effects on the atmosphere. Methanogenesis is dominated by two major pathways, acetotrophic (i.e., acetoclastic) methanogenesis in which acetate is the immediate precursor of CH4 (and CO2), and H2/CO2 methanogenesis in which CH4 is a product of H2 oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction. Recent studies suggest that acetotrophic methanogenesis does not occur widely in the northern wetlands and acetate can accumulate to high levels (Duddleston et al., 2002; Hines et al., 2001a). Methanogenesis at these sites is dominated by the H2/CO2 pathway and the importance of acetate as a precursor of CH4 seems to decrease with decreasing temperature and increasing oligotrophy. We surveyed a transect across Alaska from Deadhorse to Anchorage and used stable isotope distributions of DIC, CH4 and H2O to discern the relative importance of differing methane production mechanisms. These results compared favorably to incubation studies. Vegetation type was found to be a strong indicator of methane production mechanism, with Carex indicating acetotrophic methaneogenesis and sphagnum being an indicator of a lack of acetate methaneogenesis. The effects of production pathway variation on the dD of methane will also be presented.

  16. Efficient production of isotopically labeled proteins by cell-free synthesis: A practical protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizawa, Takuya; Shimizu, Masato; Taoka, Masato; Miyano, Hiroshi; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2004-01-01

    We provide detailed descriptions of our refined protocols for the cell-free production of labeled protein samples for NMR spectroscopy. These methods are efficient and overcome two critical problems associated with the use of conventional Escherichia coli extract systems. Endogenous amino acids normally present in E. coli S30 extracts dilute the added labeled amino acids and degrade the quality of NMR spectra of the target protein. This problem was solved by altering the protocol used in preparing the S30 extract so as to minimize the content of endogenous amino acids. The second problem encountered in conventional E. coli cell-free protein production is non-uniformity in the N-terminus of the target protein, which can complicate the NMR spectra. This problem was solved by adding a DNA sequence to the construct that codes for a cleavable N-terminal peptide tag. Addition of the tag serves to increase the yield of the protein as well as to ensure a homogeneous protein product following tag cleavage. We illustrate the method by describing its stepwise application to the production of calmodulin samples with different stable isotope labeling patterns for NMR analysis

  17. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U, and 239Pu with monoenergetic neutrons between thermal and 14.8 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gooden Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements has been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ionization chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of two months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, 5.5, 7.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV. Preliminary results from thermal irradiations at the MIT research reactor will also be presented and compared to present data and evaluations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory through NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance grant No. DE-FG52-09NA29465, DE-FG52-09NA29448 and Office of Nuclear Physics Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  18. Tracing anthropogenic inputs to production in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan - A stable isotope approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Todd W.; Omori, Koji; Hamaoka, Hideki; Shibata, Jun-ya; Hidejiro, Onishi

    2010-01-01

    The Seto Inland Sea (SIS) receives waste runoff from ∼24% of Japan's total population, yet it is also important in regional fisheries, recreation and commerce. During August 2006 we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of particulate organic matter (POM) and zooplankton across urban population gradients of the SIS. Results showed a consistent trend of increasing δ 15 N in POM and zooplankton from the western to eastern subsystems of the SIS, corresponding to increasing population load. Principal components analysis of environmental variables indicated high positive loadings of δ 15 N and δ 13 C with high chlorophyll-a and surface water temperatures, and negative loadings of low salinities related to inputs from large rivers and high urban development in the eastern SIS. Anthropogenic nitrogen was therefore readily integrated into the SIS food web from primary production to copepods, which are a critical food source for many commercially important fishes.

  19. Tracing anthropogenic inputs to production in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan--a stable isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd W; Omori, Koji; Hamaoka, Hideki; Shibata, Jun-ya; Hidejiro, Onishi

    2010-10-01

    The Seto Inland Sea (SIS) receives waste runoff from ∼24% of Japan's total population, yet it is also important in regional fisheries, recreation and commerce. During August 2006 we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of particulate organic matter (POM) and zooplankton across urban population gradients of the SIS. Results showed a consistent trend of increasing δ(15)N in POM and zooplankton from the western to eastern subsystems of the SIS, corresponding to increasing population load. Principal components analysis of environmental variables indicated high positive loadings of δ(15)N and δ(13)C with high chlorophyll-a and surface water temperatures, and negative loadings of low salinities related to inputs from large rivers and high urban development in the eastern SIS. Anthropogenic nitrogen was therefore readily integrated into the SIS food web from primary production to copepods, which are a critical food source for many commercially important fishes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stable-carbon isotope ratios for sourcing the nerve-agent precursor methylphosphonic dichloride and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James J; Fraga, Carlos G; Nims, Megan K

    2018-08-15

    The ability to connect a chemical threat agent to a specific batch of a synthetic precursor can provide a fingerprint to contribute to effective forensic investigations. Stable isotope analysis can leverage intrinsic, natural isotopic variability within the molecules of a threat agent to unlock embedded chemical fingerprints in the material. Methylphosphonic dichloride (DC) is a chemical precursor to the nerve agent sarin. DC is converted to methylphosphonic difluoride (DF) as part of the sarin synthesis process. We used a suite of commercially available DC stocks to both evaluate the potential for δ 13 C analysis to be used as a fingerprinting tool in sarin-related investigations and to develop sample preparation techniques (using chemical hydrolysis) that can simplify isotopic analysis of DC and its synthetic products. We demonstrate that natural isotopic variability in DC results in at least three distinct, isotope-resolved clusters within the thirteen stocks we analyzed. Isotopic variability in the carbon feedstock (i.e., methanol) used for DC synthesis is likely inherited by the DC samples we measured. We demonstrate that the hydrolysis of DC and DF to methylphosphonic acid (MPA) can be used as a preparative step for isotopic analysis because the reaction does not impart a significant isotopic fractionation. MPA is more chemically stable, less toxic, and easier to handle than DC or DF. Further, the hydrolysis method we demonstrated can be applied to a suite of other precursors or to sarin itself, thereby providing a potentially valuable forensic tool. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Medical isotope production experience at the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Radium Institute cyclotron MGC-20 is used since 1990. There are four cyclotrons of such type in Russia and four abroad: in Finland, in Hungary, in North Korea and in Egypt. The Radium institute cyclotron was used in different fields, such as radioisotope production, nuclear physics, physics and engineering. For ten years some improvements of the Radium Institute cyclotron operation have been made. Those are: creation of the automatic control system based on IBM PC, development of a new power supply for the ion source, creation of the deflector electronic protection from discharges, change of the main elements of the cyclotron with high induced radioactivity. Moreover we investigated the possibility of the negative ions acceleration at the MGC-20 cyclotron without ion source exchange. The maximum value of the proton beam current reached was about 30 μA for 10 MeV H - beam energy. To extract the proton beam from the cyclotron after the stripping foil we made an additional output beam line. It was used for determination of the horizontal and vertical emittance. A special device was constructed and used for measurements of emittance. The latter amounted 30 π mm mrad for horizontal direction and 16 π mm mrad for vertical direction

  2. Isotope dilution ICP-MS with laser-assisted sample introduction for direct determination of sulfur in petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Heilmann, Jens; Heumann, Klaus G. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz (Germany). Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry

    2005-08-01

    Inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-IDMS) with direct laser-assisted introduction of isotope-diluted samples into the plasma, using a laser ablation system with high ablation rates, was developed for accurate sulfur determinations in different petroleum products such as 'sulfur-free' premium gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil. Two certified gas oil reference materials were analyzed for method validation. Two different {sup 34}S-enriched spike compounds, namely, elementary sulfur dissolved in xylene and dibenzothiophene in hexane, were synthesized and tested for their usefulness in this isotope dilution technique. The isotope-diluted sample was adsorbed on a filter-paper-like material, which was fixed in a special holder for irradiation by the laser beam. Under these conditions no time-dependent spike/analyte fractionation was only observed for the dibenzothiophene spike during the laser ablation process, which means that the measured {sup 34}S/{sup 32}S isotope ratio of the isotope-diluted sample remained constant - a necessary precondition for accurate results with the isotope dilution technique. A comparison of LA-ICP-IDMS results with the certified values of the gas oil reference materials and with results obtained from ICP-IDMS analyses with wet sample digestion demonstrated the accuracy of the new LA-ICP-IDMS method in the concentration range of 9.2 {mu}g g{sup -1} ('sulfur-free' premium gasoline) to 10.4 mg g{sup -1} (gas oil reference material BCR 107). The detection limit for sulfur by LA-ICP-IDMS is 0.04 {mu}g g{sup -1} and the analysis time is only about 10 min, which therefore also qualifies this method for accurate determinations of low sulfur contents in petroleum products on a routine level. (orig.)

  3. Isotope dilution ICP-MS with laser-assisted sample introduction for direct determination of sulfur in petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Heilmann, Jens; Heumann, Klaus G

    2005-08-01

    Inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-IDMS) with direct laser-assisted introduction of isotope-diluted samples into the plasma, using a laser ablation system with high ablation rates, was developed for accurate sulfur determinations in different petroleum products such as 'sulfur-free' premium gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil. Two certified gas oil reference materials were analyzed for method validation. Two different 34S-enriched spike compounds, namely, elementary sulfur dissolved in xylene and dibenzothiophene in hexane, were synthesized and tested for their usefulness in this isotope dilution technique. The isotope-diluted sample was adsorbed on a filter-paper-like material, which was fixed in a special holder for irradiation by the laser beam. Under these conditions no time-dependent spike/analyte fractionation was only observed for the dibenzothiophene spike during the laser ablation process, which means that the measured 34S/32S isotope ratio of the isotope-diluted sample remained constant-a necessary precondition for accurate results with the isotope dilution technique. A comparison of LA-ICP-IDMS results with the certified values of the gas oil reference materials and with results obtained from ICP-IDMS analyses with wet sample digestion demonstrated the accuracy of the new LA-ICP-IDMS method in the concentration range of 9.2 microg g(-1) ('sulfur-free' premium gasoline) to 10.4 mg g(-1) (gas oil reference material BCR 107). The detection limit for sulfur by LA-ICP-IDMS is 0.04 microg g(-1) and the analysis time is only about 10 min, which therefore also qualifies this method for accurate determinations of low sulfur contents in petroleum products on a routine level.

  4. Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangalos, G.E.; Beard, B.L.; Johnson, C.M.; Alpers, Charles N.; Shelobolina, E.S.; Xu, H.; Konishi, H.; Roden, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    The inventories and Fe isotope composition of aqueous Fe(II) and solid-phase Fe compounds were quantified in neutral-pH, chemically precipitated sediments downstream of the Iron Mountain acid mine drainage site in northern California, USA. The sediments contain high concentrations of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides [Fe(III)am] that allow dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) to predominate over Fe–S interactions in Fe redox transformation, as indicated by the very low abundance of Cr(II)-extractable reduced inorganic sulfur compared with dilute HCl-extractable Fe. δ56Fe values for bulk HCl- and HF-extractable Fe were ≈ 0. These near-zero bulk δ56Fe values, together with the very low abundance of dissolved Fe in the overlying water column, suggest that the pyrite Fe source had near-zero δ56Fe values, and that complete oxidation of Fe(II) took place prior to deposition of the Fe(III) oxide-rich sediment. Sediment core analyses and incubation experiments demonstrated the production of millimolar quantities of isotopically light (δ56Fe ≈ -1.5 to -0.5‰) aqueous Fe(II) coupled to partial reduction of Fe(III)am by DIR. Trends in the Fe isotope composition of solid-associated Fe(II) and residual Fe(III)am are consistent with experiments with synthetic Fe(III) oxides, and collectively suggest an equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III)am of approximately -2‰. These Fe(III) oxide-rich sediments provide a model for early diagenetic processes that are likely to have taken place in Archean and Paleoproterozoic marine sediments that served as precursors for banded iron formations. Our results suggest pathways whereby DIR could have led to the formation of large quantities of low-δ56Fe minerals during BIF genesis.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies of the yields of residual product nuclei produced in thin Pb and Bi targets irradiated by 40 - 2600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Karpikhin, E.I.; Zhivun, V.M.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Lunev, V.P.; Titarenko, N.N.; Shubin, Yu.N.; Barashenkov, V.S.

    2009-10-01

    The Project is aimed at experimental determining and computer-aided theoretical simulating the independent and cumulative yields of residual radioactive product nuclei in high-energy protonirradiated thin targets made of high-isotopic and natural lead ( 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 PB, natPb) and bismuth ( 209 Bi) that are the most probable choice to be the target materials in the acceleratordriven (hybrid) systems (ADS) coupled to a high-current proton accelerator. The yields of residual product nuclei are of great importance when estimating such basic radiation-technology characteristics of the hybrid facility targets as the total target activity, the target 'poisoning', the buildup of long-lived nuclides, the α-activity, the content of low-pressure evaporated nuclides (Hg), the content of the chemically-active nuclides that drastically spoil the corrosion resistance of the facility structure materials, etc. In view of the above, the radioactive product nuclide yields from targets materials were experimentally determined using the ITEP U-10 proton accelerator in 55 measurement runs using the monoisotopic and natural lead ( 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 PB, natPb) and bismuth ( 209 Bi) targets within the proton energy range fractionated minutely, namely at 0.04, 0.07, 0.10, 0.8, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 2.6 GeV to cover the entire range of the internuclear hadron cascading. As a result, 5972 cumulative and independent yields of residual radioactive product nuclei, whose lifetimes range from 8 minutes to 32 years, have been measured. Besides, the cross sections for the 27 Al(p,x) 24 Na and 27 Al(p,x)7Be monitor reactions have been measured at the same proton energies together with the 27 Al(n,p) 27 Mg reaction rate that characterizes the neutron background contributions in each experiment. The experimental nuclide yields are determined by the direct γ-spectrometry method. The γ-spectrometer resolution is 1.8 keV in the 1332 keV 60 Co γ-line. The experimental γ-spectra are processed by

  6. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The different facilities of the reactor Phenix for radio isotope production and fission product burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, P.; Clerc, R.; Tommasi, J.

    1993-01-01

    During the last few years different tests have been made to optimize the blanket of the reactor. Year after year the breeding ratio has lost a part of interest regarding the production and availability of plutonium in the world. A characteristic of a fast reactor is to have important neutron leaks from the core. The spectrum of those neutrons is intermediate, the idea was to find a moderator compatible with sodium and stable in temperature. After different tests we kept as a moderator the calcium hydride and as a samply support, a cluster which is separated from the carrier. At the end we present the model used for thermalized calculations. The scheme is then applied to a heavy nuclide transmutation example (Np237 Pu238) and to fission product transmutation (Tc99). (authors). 9 figs

  8. Medical Isotope Production With The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.; Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; O'Brien, H.

    1998-01-01

    In order to meet US tritium needs to maintain the nuclear weapons deterrent, the Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing a dual track program to provide a new tritium source. A record of decision is planned for late in 1998 to select either the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) or the Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) as the technology for new tritium production in the next century. To support this decision, an APT Project was undertaken to develop an accelerator design capable of producing 3 kg of tritium per year by 2007 (START I requirements). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was selected to lead this effort with Burns and Roe Enterprises, Inc. (BREI) / General Atomics (GA) as the prime contractor for design, construction, and commissioning of the facility. If chosen in the downselect, the facility will be built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and operated by the SRS Maintenance and Operations (M ampersand O) contractor, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), with long-term technology support from LANL. These three organizations (LANL, BREI/GA, and WSRC) are working together under the direction of the APT National Project Office which reports directly to the DOE Office of Accelerator Production which has program authority and responsibility for the APT Project

  9. Cross sections for the production of Li and Be isotopes in carbon targets irradiated by 300 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Lestringuez, J.; Yiou, F.

    1975-01-01

    Cross sections for the production of Li and Be isotopes in carbon targets irradiated by 300 GeV protons were measured by mass spectrometry. The results are compared with lower energy measurements and discussed in terms of the variation of the cosmic ray L/M ratio in this energy region [fr

  10. Cross sections for the production of Li and Be isotopes in carbon targets irradiated by 300 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Lestringuez, J.; Yiou, F.

    1975-01-01

    Cross sections for the production of Li and Be isotopes in carbon targets irradiated by 300 GeV protons have been measured by mass spectrometry. The results are compared with lower energy measurements and discussed in terms of the variation of the cosmic ray L/M ratio in the energy region [fr

  11. Production and chemical isolation procedure of positron-emitting isotopes of arsenic for environmental and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, P. A.; Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Nickles, R. J.; DeJesus, O. T.

    2012-12-01

    The positron-emitting isotopes of arsenic have unique potential for imaging research in medical and environmental applications. The production and purification of radioarsenic from proton-irradiated natural GeO2 targets is reported. The separation procedure utilizes precipitation and anion exchange separation steps. Two anion exchange procedures were investigated. An overall arsenic decay-corrected separation yield of 80% was obtained.

  12. Status of stable isotope enrichment, products, and services at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Tracy, J.G.; Collins, E.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Oak Ridge national laboratory (ORNL) has been supplying enriched stable and radioactive isotopes to the research, medical, and industrial communities for over 50 y. Very significant changes have occurred in this effort over the past several years, and, while many of these changes have had a negative impact on the availability of enriched isotopes, more recent developments are actually improving the situation for both the users and the producers of enriched isotopes. ORNL is still a major producer and distributor of radioisotopes, but future isotope enrichment operations to be conducted at the isotope enrichment facility (IEF)fwill be limited to stable isotopes. Among the positive changes in the enriched stable isotope area are a well-functioning, long-term contract program, which offers stability and pricing advantages; the resumption of calutron operations; the adoption of prorated conversion charges, which greatly improves the pricing of isotopes to small users; ISO 9002 registration of the IEF's quality management system; and a much more customer-oriented business philosophy. Efforts are also being made to restore and improve upon the extensive chemical and physical form processing capablities that once existed in the enriched stable isotope program. Innovative ideas are being pursued in both technical and administrative areas to encourage the beneficial use of enriched stable isotopes and the development of related technologies. (orig.)

  13. Status of stable isotope enrichment, products, and services at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Aaron, W.; Tracy, Joe G.; Collins, Emory D.

    1997-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supplying enriched stable and radioactive isotopes to the research, medical, and industrial communities for over 50 y. Very significant changes have occurred in this effort over the past several years, and, while many of these changes have had a negative impact on the availability of enriched isotopes, more recent developments are actually improving the situation for both the users and the producers of enriched isotopes. ORNL is still a major producer and distributor of radioisotopes, but future isotope enrichment operations to be conducted at the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) will be limited to stable isotopes. Among the positive changes in the enriched stable isotope area are a well-functioning, long-term contract program, which offers stability and pricing advantages; the resumption of calutron operations; the adoption of prorated conversion charges, which greatly improves the pricing of isotopes to small users; ISO 9002 registration of the IEF's quality management system; and a much more customer-oriented business philosophy. Efforts are also being made to restore and improve upon the extensive chemical and physical form processing capablities that once existed in the enriched stable isotope program. Innovative ideas are being pursued in both technical and administrative areas to encourage the beneficial use of enriched stable isotopes and the development of related technologies.

  14. Status of stable isotope enrichment, products, and services at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Tracy, J.G.; Collins, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supplying enriched stable and radioactive isotopes to the research, medical, and industrial communities for over 50 years. Very significant changes have occurred in this effort over the past several years, and, while many of these changes have had a negative impact on the availability of enriched isotopes, more recent developments are actually improving the situation for both the users and the producers of enriched isotopes. ORNL is still a major producer and distributor of radioisotopes, but future isotope enrichment operations conducted at the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) will be limited to stable isotopes. Among the positive changes in the enriched stable isotope area are a well-functioning, long-term contract program, which offers stability and pricing advantages; the resumption of calutron operations; the adoption of prorated conversion charges, which greatly improves the pricing of isotopes to small users; SIO 9002 registration of the IEF's quality management system; and a much more customer-oriented business philosophy. Efforts are also being made to restore and improve upon the extensive chemical and physical form processing capabilities that once existed in the enriched stable isotope program. Innovative ideas are being pursued in both technical and administrative areas to encourage the beneficial use of enriched stable isotopes and the development of related technologies

  15. Detecting animal by-product intake using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, D A F; Biscola, N P; Dos Santos, L D; Sartori, M M P; Denadai, J C; da Silva, E T; Ducatti, C; Bicudo, S D; Barraviera, B; Ferreira, R S

    2016-11-01

    Sheep are used in many countries as food and for manufacturing bioproducts. However, when these animals consume animal by-products (ABP), which is widely prohibited, there is a risk of transmitting scrapie - a fatal prion disease in human beings. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive methods to detect previous ABP intake to select safe animals for producing biopharmaceuticals. We used stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for 13 C and 15 N to trace animal proteins in the serum of three groups of sheep: 1 - received only vegetable protein (VP) for 89 days; 2 - received animal and vegetable protein (AVP); and 3 - received animal and vegetable protein with animal protein subsequently removed (AVPR). Groups 2 and 3 received diets with 30% bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) added to a vegetable diet (from days 16-89 in the AVP group and until day 49 in the AVPR group, when MBM was removed). The AVPR group showed 15 N equilibrium 5 days after MBM removal (54th day). Conversely, 15 N equilibrium in the AVP group occurred 22 days later (76th day). The half-life differed between these groups by 3.55 days. In the AVPR group, 15 N elimination required 53 days, which was similar to this isotope's incorporation time. Turnover was determined based on natural 15 N signatures. IRMS followed by turnover calculations was used to evaluate the time period for the incorporation and elimination of animal protein in sheep serum. The δ 13 C and δ 15 N values were used to track animal protein in the diet. This method is biologically and economically relevant for the veterinary field because it can track protein over time or make a point assessment of animal feed with high sensitivity and resolution, providing a low-cost analysis coupled with fast detection. Isotopic profiles could be measured throughout the experimental period, demonstrating the potential to use the method for traceability and certification assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-sections and the analysing power of the production reaction p+p→π++d between 516 and 582 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelain, P.; Favier, B.; Foroughi, F.; Piffaretti, J.; Nussbaum, C.; Hoftiezer, J.; Weddigen, C.; Jaccard, S.

    1982-01-01

    The differential cross section of the reaction p+p→π + +d at 7 energies from 516 to 582 MeV has been measured. The incident protons were from the PM1 line at SIN. The π and d were detected in coincidence by scintillation counters. The measurement was monitored by the elastic diffusion pp, giving an absolute precision of 1.5% for the cross section. Graphs of results are presented. (G.F.F.)

  17. Production and aging of paramagnetic point defects in P-doped floating zone silicon irradiated with high fluence 27 MeV electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joita, A. C.; Nistor, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    Enhancing the long term stable performance of silicon detectors used for monitoring the position and flux of the particle beams in high energy physics experiments requires a better knowledge of the nature, stability, and transformation properties of the radiation defects created over the operation time. We report the results of an electron spin resonance investigation in the nature, transformation, and long term stability of the irradiation paramagnetic point defects (IPPDs) produced by high fluence (2 × 1016 cm-2), high energy (27 MeV) electrons in n-type, P-doped standard floating zone silicon. We found out that both freshly irradiated and aged (i.e., stored after irradiation for 3.5 years at 250 K) samples mainly contain negatively charged tetravacancy and pentavacancy defects in the first case and tetravacancy defects in the second one. The fact that such small cluster vacancy defects have not been observed by irradiation with low energy (below 5 MeV) electrons, but were abundantly produced by irradiation with neutrons, strongly suggests the presence of the same mechanism of direct formation of small vacancy clusters by irradiation with neutrons and high energy, high fluence electrons, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Differences in the nature and annealing properties of the IPPDs observed between the 27 MeV electrons freshly irradiated, and irradiated and aged samples were attributed to the presence of a high concentration of divacancies in the freshly irradiated samples, defects which transform during storage at 250 K through diffusion and recombination processes.

  18. Evaluation of selected ex-reactor accidents related to the tritium and medical isotope production mission at the FFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himes, D.A.

    1997-11-17

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been proposed as a production facility for tritium and medical isotopes. A range of postulated accidents related to ex-reactor irradiated fuel and target handling were identified and evaluated using new source terms for the higher fuel enrichment and for the tritium and medical isotope targets. In addition, two in-containment sodium spill accidents were re-evaluated to estimate effects of increased fuel enrichment and the presence of the Rapid Retrieval System. Radiological and toxicological consequences of the analyzed accidents were found to be well within applicable risk guidelines.

  19. Leakage Identification Of Volcanic Product Pollutant Of ijen Crater Using Natural Isotop Deuterium And Oxiren-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susiati, Heni; Sjarmufni, A.; S.B.S, Yarianto; Suprijadi; Wibagyo

    2001-01-01

    Community surrounding the Asembagus Sugar Fabric guess that the factory has polluted water body of Banyuputih River. Leakage detection of the pollutant has been to prove that guess using variation of natural isotop composition of Deuterium and Oxygen-18. Sampling was carried out at Ijen crater area, Banyupahit River and surrounding the sugar factory and also Belawan Fresh water source. Isotop analysis was done-by mass spectrometer. Based on analysis result have been gotten information that each location have vary of isotop value, Isotop concentration at Ijen crater was relative high so isotop concentration of Banyupahit river was also relative high although rather lower than lien Crater. Based on another interpretation, there are correlation at isotope concentration between Ijen crater and Banyupahit River

  20. Neutron data library for transactinides at energies up to 100 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korovin, Y.A.; Artisyuk, V.V.; Konobeyev, A.Y. [Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    New neutron data library for transactinides is briefly described. The library includes evaluated cross-sections for fission and threshold neutron induced reactions for isotopes of U, Np and Pu at energies 0-100 MeV.

  1. Measurement of cross sections for the scattering of neutrons in the energy range from 2 MeV to 4 MeV with the 15N(p,n) reaction as neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenitz, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In future nuclear facilities, the materials lead and bismuth can play a more important role than in today's nuclear reactors. Reliable cross section data are required for the design of those facilities. In particular the neutron transport in the lead spallation target of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor strongly depends on the inelastic neutron scattering cross sections in the energy region from 0.5 MeV to 6 MeV. In the recent 20 years, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections were measured with high precision for a variety of elements at the PTB time-of-flight spectrometer. The D(d,n) reaction was primarily used for the production of neutrons. Because of the Q value of the reaction and the available deuteron energies, neutrons in the energy range from 6 MeV to 16 MeV can be produced. For the cross section measurement at lower energies, however, another neutron producing reaction is required. The 15 N(p,n) 15 O reaction was chosen, as it allows the production of monoenergetic neutrons with up to 5.7MeV energy. In this work, the 15 N(p,n) reaction was studied with focus on the suitability as a source for monoenergetic neutrons in scattering experiments. This includes the measurement of differential cross sections for the neutron producing reaction and the choice of optimum target conditions. Differential elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections were measured for lead at four energies in the region from 2 MeV to 4 MeV incident neutron energy using the time-of-flight technique. A lead sample with natural isotopic composition was used. NE213 liquid scintillation detectors with well-known detection efficiencies were used for the detection of the scattered neutrons. Angle-integrated cross sections were determined by a Legendre polynomial expansion using least-squares methods. Additionally, measurements were carried out for isotopically pure 209 Bi and 181 Ta samples at 4 MeV incident neutron energy. Results are compared with other

  2. Establishing the potential of Ca isotopes as proxy for consumption of dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, N.-C.; Henderson, Gideon M.; Belshaw, Nick S.; Hedges, Robert E.M.

    2006-01-01

    A procedure has been developed which allows precise determination of Ca isotope ratios in natural and organic samples such as bones, milk and other biological materials. In this study the procedure is used to determine Ca isotope ratios in modern dietary systems and to establish the potential of Ca isotopes as a paleodiet tracer by analysis of bones. Multi-sampling across a 5 cm portion of a red deer jawbone shows invariant Ca isotope ratios and suggests negligible isotopic effect during bone remodelling. The difference between Ca isotopes in red deer diet and bones from one location was 0.65 per mille , in agreement with a previous study of diet/bone offsets. Similar values for modern deer-bone δ 44/42 Ca from four geographically diverse populations demonstrate that geological/environmental conditions do not cause large variability and suggest that diet is the major cause for variations in bone δ 44/42 Ca. δ 44/42 Ca of herbivore milk is found to be ∼0.5 to 0.6 higher than the corresponding diet. Modern human milk has a δ 44/42 Ca of -1.15 (n = 4) and is isotopically the lightest material reported in this study. This suggests that, for these samples, a significant portion of Ca intake was from dairy sources, and that human milk has Ca which is, again, ∼0.6 per mille isotopically lighter than dietary Ca intake. Finally, Ca isotope ratios are presented from a variety of samples formed during fermentation processes (e.g., curds, whey, etc.) which indicate that these processes do not fractionate Ca isotopes significantly. Together, the data in this paper indicate that, because milk is an important dietary source of Ca with a distinctive signature, Ca isotope ratios should provide a tracer for past dairy consumption. A simplified model is outlined to demonstrate the ability to quantify dairy consumption by the analysis of Ca isotopes in bones

  3. Determination of management by labor competencies in the production process of the Isotope Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Centurión, Yoneiki; Fernández Rodríguez, Rosio

    2016-01-01

    The present research is carried out in the Center of Isotopes (CENTIS) belonging to the Agency of Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba (CITMA). Its mission is to develop, produce, and supply radiopharmaceuticals, clinical diagnostics and scientific and technical health services in the national and international markets. Based on a diagnosis of the organization through the GRH-DPC model, it was determined that the main problem is the Deficient Management of Human Resources, highlighting as main cause that the labor competencies are not identified at any of its three levels . As a result of this analysis the need to establish a procedure to carry out the process of identification and validation of the competency system, as well as the design of the profile of positions by competencies of the entity. For the development of this work, different tools and techniques were used in the field of research such as: bibliographical analysis, brainstorming, expert method, statistical tools, cause and effect diagram, SWOT matrix, flow diagram, among others. The main result of the research is the identification of the organization's distinctive competencies, those of the key production processes of 99 Mo-99mTc Generators and the profiles of the positions of the Production Management linked to the selected subprocesses.

  4. The development of maple technology for materials testing, isotope production, and neutron-beam applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstone, R.F.; Gillespie, G.E.; Lee, A.G.; Bishop, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    AECL has been developing MAPLE technology to meet Canadian and international requirements for high-performance research reactors. MAPLE refers to a family of open-tank-in-pool reactors that employ compact H 2 O-cooled cores within D 2 O vessels to efficiently furnish neutrons to various types of irradiation facilities. The initial focus was on a 10-MW t Canadian facility for radioisotope production, the HANARO multipurpose-reactor project, and an associated R and D program. Recently, AECL began to develop the concept for a new Canadian Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) which will support the continued evolution of CANDU (CANadian Deuterium Uranium) technology and generate neutrons for basic and applied materials science. Additionally, AECL is currently developing a standardized MAPLE research-centre design with integrated neutron-application facilities; various reactor-core options have been optimized for different combinations of utilization: a 19-site core for neutron-beam applications and ancillary isotope production, a 31-site core for multipurpose materials testing and neutron-beam applications, and twin 18-site cores for high-flux neutron-beam applications. (author)

  5. Production of Thorium-229 at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll, Rose Ann; Garland, Marc A.; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of targeted cancer therapy using -emitters has developed considerably in recent years and clinical trials have generated promising results. In particular, the initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the -emitter 213Bi in killing cancer cells. Pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both 213Bi and its 225Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of the 10-d 225Ac parent, a member of the 7340-y 229Th chain. Currently, 233U is the only viable source for high purity 229Th; however, due to increasing difficulties associated with 233U safeguards, processing additional 233U is presently unfeasible. The recent decision to downblend and dispose of enriched 233U further diminished the prospects for extracting 229Th from 233U stock. Nevertheless, the anticipated growth in demand for 225Ac may soon exceed the levels of 229Th (∼40 g or ∼8 Ci; ∼80 times the current ORNL 229Th stock) present in the aged 233U stockpile. The alternative routes for the production of 229Th, 225Ra and 225Ac include both reactor and accelerator approaches. Here, we describe production of 229Th via neutron transmutation of 226Ra targets in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  6. Measurement of cross sections for the scattering of neutrons in the energy range from 2 MeV to 4 MeV with the {sup 15}N(p,n) reaction as neutron source; Messung von Wirkungsquerschnitten fuer die Streuung von Neutronen im Energiebereich von 2 MeV bis 4 MeV mit der {sup 15}N(p,n)-Reaktion als Neutronenquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenitz, Erik

    2010-04-26

    In future nuclear facilities, the materials lead and bismuth can play a more important role than in today's nuclear reactors. Reliable cross section data are required for the design of those facilities. In particular the neutron transport in the lead spallation target of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor strongly depends on the inelastic neutron scattering cross sections in the energy region from 0.5 MeV to 6 MeV. In the recent 20 years, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections were measured with high precision for a variety of elements at the PTB time-of-flight spectrometer. The D(d,n) reaction was primarily used for the production of neutrons. Because of the Q value of the reaction and the available deuteron energies, neutrons in the energy range from 6 MeV to 16 MeV can be produced. For the cross section measurement at lower energies, however, another neutron producing reaction is required. The {sup 15}N(p,n){sup 15}O reaction was chosen, as it allows the production of monoenergetic neutrons with up to 5.7MeV energy. In this work, the {sup 15}N(p,n) reaction was studied with focus on the suitability as a source for monoenergetic neutrons in scattering experiments. This includes the measurement of differential cross sections for the neutron producing reaction and the choice of optimum target conditions. Differential elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections were measured for lead at four energies in the region from 2 MeV to 4 MeV incident neutron energy using the time-of-flight technique. A lead sample with natural isotopic composition was used. NE213 liquid scintillation detectors with well-known detection efficiencies were used for the detection of the scattered neutrons. Angle-integrated cross sections were determined by a Legendre polynomial expansion using least-squares methods. Additionally, measurements were carried out for isotopically pure {sup 209}Bi and {sup 181}Ta samples at 4 MeV incident neutron energy

  7. Archaeological reconstruction of medieval lead production: Implications for ancient metal provenance studies and paleopollution tracing by Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Sandrine; Le-Carlier, Cecile; Carignan, Jean; Ploquin, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The identification of metal provenance is often based on chemical and Pb isotope analyses of materials from the operating chain, mainly ores and metallic artefacts. Such analyses, however, have their limits. Some studies are unable to trace metallic artefacts or ingots to their ore sources, even in well-constrained archaeological contexts. Possible reasons for this difficulty are to be found among a variety of limiting factors: (i) problems of ore signatures, (ii) mixing of different ores (alloys), (iii) the use of additives during the metallurgical process, (iv) metal recycling and (v) possible Pb isotopic fractionation during metal production. This paper focuses on the issue of Pb isotope fractionation during smelting to address the issue of metal provenance. Through an experimental reconstruction of argentiferous Pb production in the medieval period, an attempt was made to better understand and interpret the Pb isotopic composition of ore smelting products. It is shown that the measured differences (outside the total external uncertainties of 0.005 (2*sd) for 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios) in Pb signatures measured between ores, slag and smoke are not due to Pb mass fractionation processes, but to (1) ore heterogeneity (Δ 206 Pb/ 204 Pb slag-ores = 0.066) and (2) the use of additives during the metallurgical process (Δ 206 Pb/ 204 Pb slag-ores = 0.083). Even if these differences are due to causes (1) and/or (2), smoke from the ore reduction appears to reflect the ore mining area without a significant disturbance of its Pb signature for all the isotopic ratios (Δ 206 Pb/ 204 Pb smokes-ores = 0.026). Thus, because the isotopic heterogeneity of the mining district and additives is averaged in slags, slag appears as the most relevant product to identify ancient metal provenance. Whereas aiming at identifying a given mine seems beyond the possibilities provided by the method, searching for the mining district through analysis of the smelting workshop materials should

  8. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-01

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development of this

  9. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development

  10. Industrial scale production of stable isotopes employing the technique of plasma separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, N.R.; Bigelow, T.S.; Tarallo, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Calutrons, centrifuges, diffusion and distillation processes are some of the devices and techniques that have been employed to produce substantial quantities of enriched stable isotopes. Nevertheless, the availability of enriched isotopes in sufficient quantities for industrial applications remains very restricted. Industries such as those involved with medicine, semiconductors, nuclear fuel, propulsion, and national defense have identified the potential need for various enriched isotopes in large quantities. Economically producing most enriched (non-gaseous) isotopes in sufficient quantities has so far eluded commercial producers. The plasma separation process is a commercial technique now available for producing large quantities of a wide range of enriched isotopes. Until recently, this technique has mainly been explored with small-scale ('proof-of-principle') devices that have been built and operated at research institutes. The new Theragenics TM facility at Oak Ridge, TN houses the only existing commercial scale PSP system. This device, which successfully operated in the 1980's, has recently been re-commissioned and is planned to be used to produce a variety of isotopes. Progress and the capabilities of this device and it's potential for impacting the world's supply of stable isotopes in the future is summarized. This technique now holds promise of being able to open the door to allowing new and exciting applications of these isotopes in the future. (author)

  11. Stable isotope composition of environmental water and food products as a tracer of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchnicki, R.; Owczarczyk, A.; Soltyk, W.

    2004-01-01

    The paper is the review of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) activity in application of stable isotope ratios (especially D/H and 18 O/ 16 O) for environmental studies and food origin control. INCT has at disposal since 1998, a high class instrument - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer, Delta Plus, Finnigan MAT, Germany - suitable to perform such measurements. (author)

  12. Study of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the timelike region, from the production threshold to 900 MeV in the center of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenzer, A.

    1977-01-01

    The pion form factor is measured in the reaction e + e - →π + π - for center of mass energies in the range 480-900 MeV. The results are first analysed in terms of the conventional Vector Meson Dominance formalism, and then taking into account the ωπ inelastic channel. The results of this later formalisms is a pion form factor (F) which fits quite well all the existing data on F both in the timelike and spacelike regions, and a pion mean square radius [fr

  13. Correlations of fragments and their sequential products from the 3He-induced reaction on 58Ni at 130 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockhorst, H.

    1986-01-01

    The 3 He breakup on the 58 Ni nucleus was studied with a projectile energy of 130 MeV. The main topic of this studies lies thereby on the absorptive breakup in which a fragment from the 3 He breakup is absorbed by the target nucleus. Beside the single and coincidence measurements on the 3 He breakup on the one hand the reaction 58 Ni(d,pp') was studied at a projectile energy of 80 MeV and on the other hand the inclusive reactions 58 Ni(d,yX) and 58 Ni(p,yX) whereby the light particles y up to A=3 were spectroscoped in a wide angular range. The projectile energies were selected in such a way that they correspond almost to the energies of the primary fragments deuteron and proton from the 3 He breakup (E d =79 MeV and E p =39 MeV). The study of the elastic 3 He breakup resulted that the shapes of the deuteron and proton spectra can be well described by a PWBA model and reproduce the momentum distribution of the fragments before the 3 He breakup. The spectra are therefore determined by properties of the projectiles. However the proton and deuteron spectra from the absorptive breakup show distinct components which cannot be reduced to 3 He properties. Rather they are in their shape comparable with the inclusive spectra of the (d,p) respectively (p,p') reaction. Especially this is valid for spectra from the 3 He breakup in which a fragment was registrated with an energy corresponding to the projectile velocity. This suggests that in the absorptive 3 He breakup a two-stage process is present in which after the 3 He fragmentation in a second stage a (d,p) or (p,p') reaction occurs. The study of the 3 He breakup resulted that such processes yield an essential contribution to the inclusive cross section of the reactions 58 Ni( 3 He,dX) and 58 Ni( 3 He,pX). (HSI) [de

  14. Production of positive pions from polarized protons by linearly polarized photons in the energy region 300--420 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Grushin, V.F.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Luchanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.

    1980-10-01

    A technique for measurement of the polarization observables ..sigma.., P, and T for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..n..pi../sup +/ in a doubly polarized experiment (polarized proton target + linearly polarized photon beam) is described. Measurements of the angular distributions of these observables in the range of pion emission angles 30--150/sup 0/ are presented for four photon energies from 300 to 420 MeV. Inclusion of the new experimental data in an energy-independent multipole analysis of photoproduction from protons permits a more reliable selection of solutions to be made.

  15. Target irradiation facility and targetry development at 160 MeV proton beam of Moscow linac

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuikov, B L; Konyakhin, N A; Vincent, J

    1999-01-01

    A facility has been built and successfully operated with the 160 MeV proton beam of Moscow Meson factory LINAC, Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk. The facility was created for various isotope production goals as well as for fundamental nuclear investigations at high intensity beam (100 mu A and more). An important part of the facility targetry system is a high-intensity beam monitoring collimator device. Measurements of the temperature distribution between collimator sectors, cooling water flow and temperature, and the beam current, provide an opportunity to compute beam losses and beam position. The target holder design allows easy insertion by manipulator and simultaneous bombardment of several different targets of various types and forms, and variation of proton energy on each target over a wide range below 160 MeV. The main target utilized for commercial sup 8 sup 2 Sr isotope production is metallic rubidium in a stainless-steel container. A regular wet chemistry ...

  16. Production of beta-gamma coincidence spectra of individual radioxenon isotopes for improved analysis of nuclear explosion monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Derek Anderson

    Radioactive xenon gas is a fission product released in the detonation of nuclear devices that can be detected in atmospheric samples far from the detonation site. In order to improve the capabilities of radioxenon detection systems, this work produces beta-gamma coincidence spectra of individual isotopes of radioxenon. Previous methods of radioxenon production consisted of the removal of mixed isotope samples of radioxenon gas released from fission of contained fissile materials such as 235U. In order to produce individual samples of the gas, isotopically enriched stable xenon gas is irradiated with neutrons. The detection of the individual isotopes is also modeled using Monte Carlo simulations to produce spectra. The experiment shows that samples of 131mXe, 133 Xe, and 135Xe with a purity greater than 99% can be produced, and that a sample of 133mXe can be produced with a relatively low amount of 133Xe background. These spectra are compared to models and used as essential library data for the Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) to analyze atmospheric samples of radioxenon for evidence of nuclear events.

  17. Using Gas Chromatography/Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to Determine the Fractionation Factor for H2 Production by Hydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui; Ghandi, H.; Shi, Liang; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Hegg, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible formation of H2, and they are key enzymes in the biological cycling of H2. H isotopes should be a very useful tool in quantifying proton trafficking in biological H2 production processes, but there are several obstacles that have thus far limited the use of this tool. In this manuscript, we describe a new method that overcomes some of these barriers and is specifically designed to measure isotopic fractionation during enzyme-catalyzed H2 evolution. A key feature of this technique is that purified hydrogenases are employed, allowing precise control over the reaction conditions and therefore a high level of precision. A custom-designed high-throughput gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometer is employed to measure the isotope ratio of the H2. Using this method, we determined that the fractionation factor of H2 production by the (NiFe)-hydrogenase from Desulfivibrio fructosovran is 0.27. This result indicates that, as expected, protons are highly favored over deuterons during H2 evolution. Potential applications of this new method are discussed.

  18. Partitioning of evapotranspiration using a stable isotope technique in an arid and high temperature agricultural production system

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Xuefei

    2016-08-22

    Agricultural production in the hot and arid low desert systems of southern California relies heavily on irrigation. A better understanding of how much and to what extent irrigated water is transpired by crops relative to being lost through evaporation would improve the management of increasingly limited water resources. In this study, we examined the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) over a field of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which was under evaluation as a potential biofuel feedstock, based on isotope measurements of three irrigation cycles at the vegetative stage. This study employed customized transparent chambers coupled with a laser-based isotope analyzer to continuously measure near-surface variations in the stable isotopic composition of evaporation (E, δ), transpiration (T, δ) and ET (δ) to partition the total water flux. Due to the extreme heat and aridity, δ and δ were very similar, which makes this system highly unusual. Contrary to an expectation that the isotopic signatures of T, E, and ET would become increasingly enriched as soils became drier, our results showed an interesting pattern that δ, δ, and δ increased initially as soil water was depleted following irrigation, but decreased with further soil drying in mid to late irrigation cycle. These changes are likely caused by root water transport from deeper to shallower soil layers. Results indicate that about 46% of the irrigated water delivered to the crop was used as transpiration, with 54% lost as direct evaporation. This implies that 28 − 39% of the total source water was used by the crop, considering the typical 60 − 85% efficiency of flood irrigation. The stable isotope technique provided an effective means of determining surface partitioning of irrigation water in this unusually harsh production environment. The results suggest the potential to further minimize unproductive water losses in these production systems.

  19. MeV fullerene impacts on mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M.; Scandella, L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ames, F. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Hillock heights on mica irradiated with MeV C{sub 60} ions have been investigated systematically. Results show that the small range of secondary particles along the track plays a crucial role in defect production. (author) figs., tab., refs.

  20. Discovery of the iron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight iron isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  1. Discovery of the silver isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight silver isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Review of neutron data: 10 to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, R.C.

    1977-04-01

    Neutron data are reviewed for incident neutron energies between 10 and 40 MeV. A census of the data shows that there are many gaps in this range and that the existing data are primarily for neutron energies around 14 MeV. Aside from total cross sections, there are few data between 10 and 13 MeV and between 15 and 40 MeV. Examples are presented to show the quality of selected data for total, elastic, inelastic, activation, and charged-particle and gamma-ray production cross sections. The spectra of emitted particles are also discussed.

  4. Review of neutron data: 10 to 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.

    1977-04-01

    Neutron data are reviewed for incident neutron energies between 10 and 40 MeV. A census of the data shows that there are many gaps in this range and that the existing data are primarily for neutron energies around 14 MeV. Aside from total cross sections, there are few data between 10 and 13 MeV and between 15 and 40 MeV. Examples are presented to show the quality of selected data for total, elastic, inelastic, activation, and charged-particle and gamma-ray production cross sections. The spectra of emitted particles are also discussed

  5. Structure and chemical composition changes of Pd-rod and reaction product collector irradiated by 10 MeV braking gamma quanta inside high pressure chamber filled with 2.5 kbar molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Wisniewski, R.

    2013-01-01

    A research of the elemental composition and surface structure of a Pd rod saturated with hydrogen and a brass collector of nuclear and chemical reaction products irradiated by 10 MeV braking gamma quanta in dense molecular hydrogen gas at 2.5 kbar pressure is carried out. The changes of the elemental composition and surface structure of the Pd rod and collector similar to analogous changes in the experiment carried out in dense gas deuterium are observed. Possible explanations of the firstly observed phenomenon are offered

  6. Magnetic substate populations of product nuclei in the /sup 11/B(d,p)/sup 12/B reaction. [1. 3 to 3. 0 MeV, j mixings and alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M; Ochi, S; Minamisono, T; Mizobuchi, A; Sugimoto, K

    1976-01-01

    Magnetic substate populations of product nuclei in the /sup 11/B(d,p)/sup 112/B reaction were measured in an energy range E/sub d/ = 1.3 to 3.0 MeV at recoil angles around theta/sub R/ = 55, 45, and 27 to 37/sup 0/. The alignment of the first excited state of /sup 12/B was determined. A comparison of the present result with theoretical predictions is given, together with the resultant information about j mixings in the /sup 12/B states. (auth)

  7. Ranking and validation of spallation models for isotopic production cross sections of heavy residua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushil K.; Kamys, Bogusław; Goldenbaum, Frank; Filges, Detlef

    2017-07-01

    The production cross sections of isotopically identified residual nuclei of spallation reactions induced by 136Xe projectiles at 500AMeV on hydrogen target were analyzed in a two-step model. The first stage of the reaction was described by the INCL4.6 model of an intranuclear cascade of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon collisions whereas the second stage was analyzed by means of four different models; ABLA07, GEM2, GEMINI++ and SMM. The quality of the data description was judged quantitatively using two statistical deviation factors; the H-factor and the M-factor. It was found that the present analysis leads to a different ranking of models as compared to that obtained from the qualitative inspection of the data reproduction. The disagreement was caused by sensitivity of the deviation factors to large statistical errors present in some of the data. A new deviation factor, the A factor, was proposed, that is not sensitive to the statistical errors of the cross sections. The quantitative ranking of models performed using the A-factor agreed well with the qualitative analysis of the data. It was concluded that using the deviation factors weighted by statistical errors may lead to erroneous conclusions in the case when the data cover a large range of values. The quality of data reproduction by the theoretical models is discussed. Some systematic deviations of the theoretical predictions from the experimental results are observed.

  8. Ranking and validation of spallation models for isotopic production cross sections of heavy residua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sushil K.; Kamys, Boguslaw [Jagiellonian University, The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Goldenbaum, Frank; Filges, Detlef [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The production cross sections of isotopically identified residual nuclei of spallation reactions induced by {sup 136}Xe projectiles at 500 AMeV on hydrogen target were analyzed in a two-step model. The first stage of the reaction was described by the INCL4.6 model of an intranuclear cascade of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon collisions whereas the second stage was analyzed by means of four different models; ABLA07, GEM2, GEMINI++ and SMM. The quality of the data description was judged quantitatively using two statistical deviation factors; the H-factor and the M-factor. It was found that the present analysis leads to a different ranking of models as compared to that obtained from the qualitative inspection of the data reproduction. The disagreement was caused by sensitivity of the deviation factors to large statistical errors present in some of the data. A new deviation factor, the A factor, was proposed, that is not sensitive to the statistical errors of the cross sections. The quantitative ranking of models performed using the A-factor agreed well with the qualitative analysis of the data. It was concluded that using the deviation factors weighted by statistical errors may lead to erroneous conclusions in the case when the data cover a large range of values. The quality of data reproduction by the theoretical models is discussed. Some systematic deviations of the theoretical predictions from the experimental results are observed. (orig.)

  9. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs.

  10. FiR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auterinen, I.; Salmenhaara, S.E.J. . Author

    2004-01-01

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), but FiR 1 has also an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics etc. with isotope production and activation analysis services. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was built at the FiR 1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material Fluental TM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Recently the lithiated polyethylene neutron shielding of the beam aperture was modified to ease the positioning of the patient close to the beam aperture. Increasing the reactor power to 500 kW would allow positioning of the patient further away from the beam aperture. Possibilities to accomplish a safety analysis for this is currently under considerations. Over thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. Currently three clinical trial protocols for tumours in the brain as well as in the head and neck region are recruiting patients. (author)

  11. The consequences of helium production on microstructural development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of 60 Ni which produces no helium, 59 Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel ( Nat Ni) which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of 59 Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to ∼7 dpa at 300 and 400 degrees C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400 degrees C than at 300 degrees C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from 59 Ni and Nat Ni. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400 degrees C. At 300 degrees C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400 degrees C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces

  12. Deuteron-induced reactions generated by intense lasers for PET isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Sachie; Bonasera, Aldo

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using laser accelerated protons/deuterons for positron emission tomography (PET) isotope production by means of the nuclear reactions 11B(p, n) 11C and 10B(d, n) 11C. The second reaction has a positive Q-value and no energy threshold. One can, therefore, make use of the lower energy part of the laser-generated deuterons, which includes the majority of the accelerated deuterons. By assuming that the deuteron spectra are similar to the proton spectra, the 11C produced from the reaction 10B(d, n) 11C is estimated to be 7.4×10 9 per laser-shot at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Meanwhile a high-repetition table-top laser irradiation is estimated to generate 3.5×10 711C per shot from the same reaction. In terms of the 11C activity, it is about 2×10 4 Bq per shot. If this laser delivers kHz, the activity is integrated to 1 GBq after 3 min. The number is sufficient for the practical application in medical imaging for PET.

  13. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. A neutron booster for spallation sources--application to accelerator driven systems and isotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Galy, J; Van Dam, H; Valko, J

    2002-01-01

    One can design a critical system with fissile material in the form of a thin layer on the inner surface of a cylindrical neutron moderator such as graphite or beryllium. Recently, we have investigated the properties of critical and near critical systems based on the use of thin actinide layers of uranium, plutonium and americium. The thickness of the required fissile layer depends on the type of fissile material, its concentration in the layer and on the geometrical arrangement, but is typically in the mu m-mm range. The resulting total mass of fissile material can be as low as 100 g. Thin fissile layers have a variety of applications in nuclear technology--for example in the design neutron amplifiers for medical applications and 'fast' islands in thermal reactors for waste incineration. In the present paper, we investigate the properties of a neutron booster unit for spallation sources and isotope production. In those applications a layer of fissile material surrounds the spallation source. Such a module cou...

  15. Daily cortisol production rate in man determined by stable isotope dilution/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, N.V.; Loughlin, T.; Yergey, A.L.; Zawadzki, J.K.; Booth, J.D.; Winterer, J.C.; Loriaux, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Growth retardation as well as the development of Cushingoid features in adrenally insufficient patients treated with the currently accepted replacement dose of cortisol (33-41 mumol/day.m2; 12-15 mg/m2.day) prompted us to reevaluate the cortisol production rate (FPR) in normal subjects and patients with Cushing's syndrome, using a recently developed thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The stable isotope [9,12,12-2H3]cortisol was infused continuously for 31 h at about 5% of the anticipated FPR. Blood samples were obtained at 20-min intervals for 24 h, spun, and pooled in 4-h groups. Tracer dilution in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method was validated with controlled infusions in 6 patients with adrenal insufficiency. Results from 12 normal volunteers revealed a FPR of 27.3 +/- 7.5 mumol/day (9.9 +/- 2.7 mg/day) or 15.7 mumol/day.m2; 5.7 mg/m2. day. A previously unreported circadian variation in FPR was observed. Patients with Cushing's syndrome demonstrated unequivocal elevation of FPR and cortisol concentration correlated during each sample period in normal volunteers, indicating that cortisol secretion, rather than metabolism, is mainly responsible for changes in plasma cortisol. Our data suggest that the FPR in normal subjects may be lower than previously believed

  16. The consequences of helium production on microstructural development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of {sup 60}Ni which produces no helium, {sup 59}Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel ({sup Nat}Ni) which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of {sup 59}Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to {approx}7 dpa at 300 and 400{degrees}C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400{degrees}C than at 300{degrees}C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from {sup 59}Ni and {sup Nat}Ni. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400{degrees}C. At 300{degrees}C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400{degrees}C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces.

  17. Extension of activation cross section data of long lived products in deuteron induced nuclear reactions on platinum up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural platinum up to 50 MeV. • Stacked foil irradiation technique. • Comparison with the TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 calculations. • Cross section of Au, Pt and Ir radioisotopes. • Application for Thin Layer Activation (TLA). - Abstract: In the frame of a systematical study of light ion induced nuclear reactions on platinum, activation cross sections for deuteron induced reactions were investigated. Excitation functions were measured in the 20.8–49.2 MeV energy range for the {sup nat}Pt(d,xn){sup 191,192,193,194,195,196m2,196g,198g,199}Au, {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 188,189,191,195m,197m,197g}Pt and {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 189,190,192,194m2}Ir reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with previous results from the literature and with the theoretical predictions in the TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 libraries. The applicability of the produced radio-tracers for wear measurements has been presented.

  18. Estimation of exposure quantity of gamma and neutron in 13 MeV proton cyclotron for radioisotope production of 18F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunardi; Silakhuddin

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of gamma and neutron exposure in 13 MeV proton cyclotron for radioisotope of 18 F has been done. The aim of this study is to know the exposure of gamma and neutron that will be generated by 13 MeV proton cyclotron The method that was used is the determine of gamma and neutron quantity exposure that produced by proton beam collision with matter in the cyclotron chamber and cyclotron target. The analysis result showed that the reactions occur at chamber are 63 Cu(p,n) 63 Zn, 65 Cu(p,n) 65 Zn and 56 Fe(p,n) 56 Co,, while at the target is 18 O(p,n) 18 F. The calculation result of neutron flux at the chamber and the target facility are 7,34×10 7 n/cm 2 dt and 1.10×10 9 n/cm 2 dt, respectively. The gamma activity at the chamber for reaction 63 Cu(p,n) 63 Zn, 65 Cu(p,n) 65 Zn and 56 Fe(p,n) 56 Co are 3,0×10 8 Bq, 4,54×10 5 Bq and 1,13×10 9 Bq respectively, while the gamma activity at the cyclotron target is 1,84×10 8 Bq. The data can be used as a basis for designing the cyclotron radiation shielding. (author)

  19. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results on neutron production in the spallation target QUINTA irradiated with 660 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushvaktov, J.H.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Adam, J.; Vrzalova, J.; Baldin, A.A.; Furman, W.I.; Gustov, S.A.; Kish, Yu.V.; Solnyshkin, A.A.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tichy, P.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.; Zavorka, L.; Svoboda, J.; Zeman, M.; Vespalec, R.; Wagner, V.

    2017-01-01

    The activation experiment was performed using the accelerated beam of the Phasotron accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). The natural uranium spallation target QUINTA was irradiated with protons of energy 660 MeV. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the FLUKA and Geant4 codes. The number of leakage neutrons from the sections of the uranium target surrounded by the lead shielding and the number of leakage neutrons from the lead shield were determined. The total number of fissions in the setup QUINTA were determined. Experimental values of reaction rates for the produced nuclei in the "1"2"7I sample were obtained, and several values of the reaction rates were compared with the results of simulations by the FLUKA and Geant4 codes. The experimentally determined fluence of neutrons in the energy range of 10-200 MeV using the (n, xn) reactions in the "1"2"7I(NaI) sample was compared with the results of simulations. Possibility of transmutation of the long-lived radionuclide "1"2"9I in the QUINTA setup was estimated. [ru

  20. Re-enrichment of O-18 isotopic water used for the production of F-18 in a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Kim, T.S.; Choi, H.; Jang, D.S.; Jeong, D.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The demand for and applications of stable isotopes in medicine, industry, and science in the modern era has increased and expanded significantly. Especially, 18 O-enriched water (> 90%) is used as a target in a cyclotron for the production of the β -emitting radioisotope 18 F, which is essential for PET (Positron Emission Tomography) pharmaceutical [ 18 F]-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) synthesis. Currently, 18 O is produced by a cold distillation of NO (Nitric Oxide) or a fractional distillation of water. These processes, however, are technically complicated and costly so as to limit the production of 18 O. In this regard, it is essential to re-use the used target water as much as possible since the 18 O-enriched water is so expensive (∼ $150/g). In order to recycle the used target water, it is necessary to purify the organic and inorganic impurities contaminated during the 18 f-FDG production loop and to re-enrich the 18 O isotope in the target water diluted during the purification process. For the development of a compact target water 18 O re-enrichment system, the 18 O isotope separation characteristics of MD (Membrane Distillation) were investigated. The 18 O isotopic water permeation and separation characteristics of a hydrophobic PTFE membrane using Air Gap MD and Vacuum Enhanced MD were evaluated. Permeation fluxes were measured by weighing the collected membrane-permeated water vapor. 18 O/ 16 O of each water sample was analyzed by a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). We observed the effects of the air in the membrane pores and the temperature gradient applied to the membrane surfaces on the vapor permeation flux and the oxygen isotope separation for the first time. For both AGMD and VEMD, the permeation flux and the degree of 18 O separation increased as the membrane interfacial temperature gradient increased. Even though the oxygen isotope separation and the permeation flux for the VEMD is slightly higher than the AGMD, the

  1. Isotope Effects Associated with N2O Production by Fungal and Bacterial Nitric Oxide Reductases: Implications for Enzyme Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, E. L.; Yang, H.; Gandhi, H.; McQuarters, A.; Lehnert, N.; Ostrom, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is both a powerful greenhouse gas and a key participant in ozone destruction. Microbial activity accounts for over 70% of the N2O produced annually, and the atmospheric concentration of N2O continues to rise. Because the fungal and bacterial denitrification pathways are major contributors to microbial N2O production, understanding the mechanism by which NO is reduced to N2O will contribute to both N2O source tracing and quantification. Our strategy utilizes stable isotopes to probe the enzymatic mechanism of microbial N2O production. Although the use of stable isotopes to study enzyme mechanisms is not new, our approach is distinct in that we employ both measurements of isotopic preferences of purified enzyme and DFT calculations, thereby providing a synergistic combination of experimental and computational approaches. We analyzed δ18O, δ15Nα (central N atom in N2O), and δ15Nβ (terminal N atom) of N2O produced by purified fungal cytochrome P450 nitric oxide reductase (P450nor) from Histoplasma capsulatum as well as bacterial cytochrome c dependent nitric oxide reductase (cNOR) from Paracoccus denitrificans. P450nor exhibits an inverse kinetic isotope effect for Nβ (KIE = 0.9651) but a normal isotope effect for both Nα (KIE = 1.0127) and the oxygen atom (KIE = 1.0264). These results suggest a mechanism where NO binds to the ferric heme in the P450nor active site and becomes Nβ. Analysis of the NO-binding step indicated a greater difference in zero point energy in the transition state than the ground state, resulting in the inverse KIE observed for Nβ. Following protonation and rearrangement, it is speculated that this complex forms a FeIV-NHOH- species as a key intermediate. Our data are consistent with the second NO (which becomes Nα and O in the N2O product) attacking the FeIV-NHOH- species to generate a FeIII-N2O2H2 complex that enzymatically (as opposed to abiotically) breaks down to release N2O. Conversely, our preliminary data

  2. Fingerprinting Marcellus Shale waste products from Pb isotope and trace metal perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jason D.; Graney, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry drilled, uncontaminated cuttings from Marcellus Shale and surrounding units. • Unoxidized and oxidized samples leached short and long term with H 2 O or dilute HCl. • Pb isotope ratios have distinctly different values from Marcellus Shale samples. • Mo and other trace metals can be used as Marcellus Shale environmental tracers. • Marcellus Shale leachate concentrations can exceed EPA contaminant screening levels. - Abstract: Drill cuttings generated during unconventional natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin, U.S.A., generally contain a very large component of organic-rich black shale because of extensive lateral drilling into this target unit. In this study, element concentrations and Pb isotope ratios obtained from leached drill cuttings spanning 600 m of stratigraphic section were used to assess the potential for short and long term environmental impacts from Marcellus Shale waste materials, in comparison with material from surrounding formations. Leachates of the units above, below and within the Marcellus Shale yielded Cl/Br ratios of 100–150, similar to produced water values. Leachates from oxidized and unoxidized drill cuttings from the Marcellus Shale contain distinct suites of elevated trace metal concentrations, including Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Sb, U, V and Zn. The most elevated Mo, Ni, Sb, U, and V concentrations are found in leachates from the lower portion of the Marcellus Shale, the section typically exploited for natural gas production. In addition, lower 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios within the lower Marcellus Shale (0.661–0.733) provide a distinctive fingerprint from formations above (0.822–0.846) and below (0.796–0.810), reflecting 206 Pb produced as a result of in situ 238 U decay within this organic rich black shale. Trace metal concentrations from the Marcellus Shale leachates are similar to total metal concentrations from other black shales. These metal concentrations can exceed screening

  3. Sulfur Isotope Trends in Archean Microbialite Facies Record Early Oxygen Production and Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkle, A.; Meyer, N.; Izon, G.; Poulton, S.; Farquhar, J.; Claire, M.

    2014-12-01

    The major and minor sulfur isotope composition (δ34S and Δ33S) of pyrites preserved in ~2.65-2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) microbialites record localized oxygen production and consumption near the mat surface. These trends are preserved in two separate drill cores (GKF01 and BH1-Sacha) transecting the Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Ghaap Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa; Zerkle et al., 2012; Izon et al., in review). Microbialite pyrites possess positive Δ33S values, plotting parallel to typical Archean trends (with a Δ33S/δ34S slope of ~0.9) but enriched in 34S by ~3 to 7‰. We propose that these 34S-enriched pyrites were formed from a residual pool of sulfide that was partially oxidized via molecular oxygen produced by surface mat-dwelling cyanobacteria. Sulfide, carrying the range of Archean Δ33S values, could have been produced deeper within the microbial mat by the reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur, then fractionated upon reaction with O2 produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. Preservation of this positive 34S offset requires that: 1) sulfide was only partially (50­­-80%) consumed by oxidation, meaning H2S was locally more abundant (or more rapidly produced) than O2, and 2) the majority of the sulfate produced via oxidation was not immediately reduced to sulfide, implying either that the sulfate pool was much larger than the sulfide pool, or that the sulfate formed near the mat surface was transported and reduced in another part of the system. Contrastingly, older microbialite facies (> 2.7 Ga; Thomazo et al., 2013) appear to lack these observed 34S enrichments. Consequently, the onset of 34S enrichments could mark a shift in mat ecology, from communities dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesizers to cyanobacteria. Here, we test these hypotheses with new spatially resolved mm-scale trends in sulfur isotope measurements from pyritized stromatolites of the Vryburg Formation, sampled in the lower part of the BH1-Sacha core. Millimeter

  4. Isotope reversals in hydrocarbon gases of natural shale systems and well head production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Schloemer, S.; Stiller, E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Marquardt, D. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Relationships between gas geochemical signatures and the thermal maturity of source rocks containing aquatic organic matter are based on on pyrolysis experiments and have been successfully used in conventional hydrocarbon exploration since long. We demonstrate how these models can be applied to the evaluation of unconventional shale resources. For this purpose hydrocarbon gases have been extracted from low and high mature source rocks (type II kerogens) using laboratory desorption techniques. We determined the molecular composition of the gases as well as the carbon isotope ratios of methane to propane. In the extracted gases we observe an increase of {sup 13}C content in methane with increasing dry gas ratio (C1/{Sigma}C1-6). The carbon isotope ratios of ethane and propane initially increase with increasing dryness but start to become isotopically lighter above a dry gas ratio of 0.8. We show that oil-to-gas cracking explains the observed gas geochemical data, and that mixing between gases from different processes is a key factor to describe natural hydrocarbon systems of shales. However, data from published case studies using well head gases which show 'isotope roll-over' effects indicate that the isotopic reversal observed in well head samples deviate from those observed in natural shale systems in a fundamental way. We show that isotope reversals related to well head gases are best explained by an additional isotope fractionation effect induced through hydraulic fracturing and gas migration from the shale to the well head. Although, this induced isotope fractionation is an artifact which obscures isotopic information of natural systems to a large extend, we suggest a simple classification scheme which allows distinguishing between hot and cool spot areas using well head or mud line gas data. (orig.)

  5. Determination of the cross section for (n,p) reaction with producing short-lived nuclei on the 162,163Dy isotopes at 13.5 and 14.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Junhua; Feng, Zhifu; An, Li; Jiang, Li; He, Long

    2016-01-01

    Activation cross-sections for the 162 Dy(n,p) 162 Tb and 163 Dy(n,p) 163 Tb reactions have been measured by means of the activation technique and a coaxial HPGe γ-ray detector at 13.5 and 14.8 MeV. The fast neutrons were produced via the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction on Pd-300 neutron generator. The natural high-purity Dy 2 O 3 powder was used as target material. Theoretical excitation functions were calculated using the nuclear-reaction codes EMPIRE-3.2 Malta and TALYS-1.6 with default parameters, at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. The results were also discussed and compared with some corresponding values found in the literature, with the comprehensive evaluation data in ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDF-4.0 libraries, and with the estimates obtained from a published empirical formula based on the statistical model with Q-value dependence and odd–even effects taken into consideration. - Highlights: • The cross sections for the 162 Dy(n,p) 162 Tb and 163 Dy(n,p) 163 Tb have been measured. • 93 Nb(n,2n) 92m Nb was used as a monitor for neutron fluence. • Codes TALYS-1.6 and EMPIRE-3.2 Malta were used to model the reactions. • The results were compared with previous data. • Inconsistency with previous data and with model calculations are noted.

  6. The method for production of high purity carrier free ortophosphoric acid labeled with isotopes Phosphorus-32 and Phosphorus-33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, M.N.; Abdusalyamov, A.N.; Chistyakov, P.G.; Yuldashev, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    Extensive application for various radioactive isotopes was found in an extremity of the 20-Th century in a science and production. Labeled compounds are used with growing effectiveness in a molecular biology, gene engineering, medicine and other areas. Phosphorus-32 and Phosphorus-33 isotopes as a different labeled compounds that are used mainly in molecular biology are produced at the Radiopreparat enterprise of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan Republic. The quality of labeled preparations is very high. The specifications for above mentioned preparations corresponds to demands most of customers in different countries. P-32 or P-33 labeled orthophosphoric acid has high radiochemical purity (more than 99 %) and specific radioactivity close to theoretical. Orthophosphoric acid prepared by the described above method has radiochemical purity about 95 % and output of the target product 99%

  7. Potential impact of releases from a new Molybdenum-99 production facility on regional measurements of airborne xenon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Metz, Lori A.; Miley, Harry S.

    2014-03-01

    The monitoring of the radioactive xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe is important for the detection of nuclear explosions. While backgrounds of the xenon isotopes are short-lived, they are constantly replenished from activities dominated by the fission-based production of 99Mo used for medical procedures. One of the most critical locations on earth for the monitoring of nuclear explosions is the Korean peninsula, where the Democratic Republic of North Korea (DPRK) has announced that it had conducted three nuclear tests between 2009 and 2013. This paper explores the backgrounds that would be caused by the medium to large scale production of 99Mo in the region of the Korean peninsula.

  8. Determination of Unknown Neutron Cross Sections for the Production of Medical Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen E. Binney

    2004-04-09

    Calculational assessment and experimental verification of certain neutron cross sections that are related to widely needed new medical isotopes. Experiments were performed at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor and the High Flux Irradiation Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Evaluation and Compilation of Neutron Activation Cross Sections for Medical Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Calculational assessment and experimental verification of certain neutron cross sections that are related to widely needed new medical isotopes. Experiments were performed at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor and the High Flux Irradiation Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  10. Nitrate denitrification with nitrite or nitrous oxide as intermediate products: Stoichiometry, kinetics and dynamics of stable isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, V A; Rytov, S V

    2015-09-01

    A kinetic analysis of nitrate denitrification by a single or two species of denitrifying bacteria with glucose or ethanol as a carbon source and nitrite or nitrous oxide as intermediate products was performed using experimental data published earlier (Menyailo and Hungate, 2006; Vidal-Gavilan et al., 2013). Modified Monod kinetics was used in the dynamic biological model. The special equations were added to the common dynamic biological model to describe how isotopic fractionation between N species changes. In contrast to the generally assumed first-order kinetics, in this paper, the traditional Rayleigh equation describing stable nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation in nitrate was derived from the dynamic isotopic equations for any type of kinetics. In accordance with the model, in Vidal-Gavilan's experiments, the maximum specific rate of nitrate reduction was proved to be less for ethanol compared to glucose. Conversely, the maximum specific rate of nitrite reduction was proved to be much less for glucose compared to ethanol. Thus, the intermediate nitrite concentration was negligible for the ethanol experiment, while it was significant for the glucose experiment. In Menyailo's and Hungate's experiments, the low value of maximum specific rate of nitrous oxide reduction gives high intermediate value of nitrous oxide concentration. The model showed that the dynamics of nitrogen and oxygen isotope signatures are responding to the biological dynamics. Two microbial species instead of single denitrifying bacteria are proved to be more adequate to describe the total process of nitrate denitrification to dinitrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of actinide isotopes in simulated PWR fuel and their influence on inherent neutron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosler, G.E.; Phillips, J.R.; Wilson, W.B.; LaBauve, R.J.; England, T.R.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes calculations that examine the sensitivity of actinide isotopes to various reactor parameters. The impact of actinide isotope build-up, depletion, and decay on the neutron source rate in a spent-fuel assembly is determined, and correlations between neutron source rates and spent-fuel characteristics such as exposure, fissile content, and plutonium content are established. The application of calculations for evaluating experimental results is discussed

  12. Measurement of activation cross-section of long-lived products in deuteron induced nuclear reactions on palladium in the 30-50MeV energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F; Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2017-10-01

    Excitation functions were measured in the 31-49.2MeV energy range for the nat Pd(d,xn) 111,110m,106m,105,104g,103 Ag, nat Pd(d,x) 111m,109,101,100 Pd, nat Pd(d,x), 105,102m,102g,101m,101g,100,99m,99g Rh and nat Pd(d,x) 103,97 Ru nuclear reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with our previous results and with the theoretical predictions calculated with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (TENDL libraries) codes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross sections for pion, proton, and heavy-ion production from 800 MeV protons incident upon aluminum and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicello, J.F. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (USA)); Schillaci, M.E.; Liu Lonchang (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    When high-energy cosmic rays interact with electronics or other materials in a spacecraft, including the occupants themselves, pions are produced as secondary particles. These secondary pions interact further in the materials producing nuclear secondaries, including nuclear recoils and heavy-ion tertiaries. The secondary pions and the the tertiary particles are capable of producing single-event upsets and other damage in integrated circuits and damage in biological systems. Negative pions stopping in materials are particularly effective because of their unique ability to produce short-range heavy particles from pion stars. With the Los Alamos National Laboratory's version of the intranuclear cascade evaporation code, VEGAS, we have calculated the number of pions produced per energy interval per incident proton from 800 MeV protons on aluminum-27 and silicon-28 along with corresponding results for neutrons, protons, and heavier ions. (orig.).

  14. Analysis and results of a hydrogen-moderated isotope production assembly in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Rawlins, J.A.; Carter, L.L.; Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a cobalt test assembly containing yttrium hydride pins for neutron moderation irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) during cycle 9A for 137.7 equivalent full-power days at a power level of 291 MW. The 36 test pins consisted of a batch of 32 pins containing cobalt metal used to produce 60 Co and a set of four pins with europium oxide to produce 153 Gd, a radioisotope used in detection of the bone disease osteoporosis. Postirradiation examination of the cobalt pins determined the 60 Co production to be predictable to an accuracy of ∼ 5%. The measured 60 Co spatially distributed concentrations were within 20% of the calculated concentrations. The assembly average 60 Co measured activity was 4% less than the calculated value. The europium oxide pins were gamma scanned for the europium isotopes 152 Eu and 154 Eu to an absolute accuracy of ≅ 10%. The measured europium radioisotope and 153 Gd concentrations were within 20% of calculated values. The hydride assembly performed well and is an excellent vehicle for many FFTF isotope production applications. The results also demonstrate the accuracy of the calculational methods developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for predicting isotope production rates in this type of assembly

  15. Dynamic isotope effect on the product energy partitioning in CH2OH+→CHO++H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Young Min; Kim, Myung Soo

    1998-10-01

    The deuterium isotope effect on the product energy partitioning in the title reaction was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The measured kinetic energy release (KER) showed a significant dependence on the position of deuteration. A reliable potential energy surface of the reaction was constructed from ab initio results using the recently developed interpolation algorithm. The classical trajectory calculation on this surface well reproduced the experimental finding. Close inspection of the potential energy surface revealed that the isotope effect on KER and the product rotations arose from the alteration of the symmetry of the reaction path near the transition state induced by the mass change upon isotopic substitution. The product vibrations were found to be affected by the change in the coupling constants which also arose from the mass-dependent change in the reaction path. Possibility of the quantum mechanical tunneling was also considered. Tunneling-corrected classical trajectory results were in excellent agreement with the experimental ones, indicating that the reaction proceeds via barrier penetration below the threshold.

  16. Computer analyses for the design, operation and safety of new isotope production reactors: A technology status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented on the currently available technologies for nuclear reactor analyses by computer. The important distinction is made between traditional computer calculation and advanced computer simulation. Simulation needs are defined to support the design, operation, maintenance and safety of isotope production reactors. Existing methods of computer analyses are categorized in accordance with the type of computer involved in their execution: micro, mini, mainframe and supercomputers. Both general and special-purpose computers are discussed. Major computer codes are described, with regard for their use in analyzing isotope production reactors. It has been determined in this review that conventional systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5, RETRAN, etc.) cannot meet four essential conditions for viable reactor simulation: simulation fidelity, on-line interactive operation with convenient graphics, high simulation speed, and at low cost. These conditions can be met by special-purpose computers (such as the AD100 of ADI), which are specifically designed for high-speed simulation of complex systems. The greatest shortcoming of existing systems codes (TRAC, RELAP5) is their mismatch between very high computational efforts and low simulation fidelity. The drift flux formulation (HIPA) is the viable alternative to the complicated two-fluid model. No existing computer code has the capability of accommodating all important processes in the core geometry of isotope production reactors. Experiments are needed (heat transfer measurements) to provide necessary correlations. It is important for the nuclear community, both in government, industry and universities, to begin to take advantage of modern simulation technologies and equipment. 41 refs

  17. The NNSA global threat reduction initiative's efforts to minimize the use of highly enriched uranium for medical isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, Parrish

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) is to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. GTRI is a key organization for supporting domestic and global efforts to minimize and, to the extent possible, eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian nuclear applications. GTRI implements the following activities in order to achieve its threat reduction and HEU minimization objectives: Converting domestic and international civilian research reactors and isotope production facilities from the use of HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU); Demonstrating the viability of medical isotope production technologies that do not use HEU; Removing or disposing excess nuclear and radiological materials from civilian sites worldwide; and Protecting high-priority nuclear and radiological materials worldwide from theft and sabotage. This paper provides a brief overview on the recent developments and priorities for GTRI program activities in 2010, with a particular focus on GTRI's efforts to demonstrate the viability of non-HEU based medical isotope production technologies. (author)

  18. The use of the isotopic composition of individual compounds for correlating spilled oils and refined products in the environment with suspected sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philp, R.P.; Allen, J.; Kuder, T.

    2002-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (CGMS) are two methods generally used to correlate crude oils and refined products found in the environment with their suspected pollution sources. In certain cases, this can be done with bulk carbon isotope compositions, but with crude condensates, or refined products, the lack of biomarkers prohibits the successful use for making unique correlations. Such products can be correlated using an alternative method which makes use of combined gas chromatography-isotope ratio and mass spectrometry (GCIRMS). This method makes it possible to determine the carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of individual compounds in crude oil, thus producing isotopic fingerprints that could be used in correlation studies. The feasibility of using of GCIRMS to correlate various spilled products in different environments was the main focus of this study. The authors are not proposing that this method will replace GC or GCMS, but are suggesting that it is a powerful tool that could be used in conjunction with the early methods. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation has been reported for light components such as benzene and toluene. Higher carbon numbered compounds do not seem to undergo major carbon isotopic fractionation as a result of weathering. Hydrogen variations are currently undergoing investigation for compounds with a carbon number greater than C10. Also, isotopic fractionation for refined products has the potential to attenuate naturally. 33 refs., 6 figs

  19. Thermal Safety Analyses for the Production of Plutonium-238 at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, Christopher J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Freels, James D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hobbs, Randy W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jain, Prashant K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maldonado, G. Ivan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    There has been a considerable effort over the previous few years to demonstrate and optimize the production of plutonium-238 (238Pu) at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This effort has involved resources from multiple divisions and facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the fabrication, irradiation, and chemical processing of targets containing neptunium-237 (237Np) dioxide (NpO2)/aluminum (Al) cermet pellets. A critical preliminary step to irradiation at the HFIR is to demonstrate the safety of the target under irradiation via documented experiment safety analyses. The steady-state thermal safety analyses of the target are simulated in a finite element model with the COMSOL Multiphysics code that determines, among other crucial parameters, the limiting maximum temperature in the target. Safety analysis efforts for this model discussed in the present report include: (1) initial modeling of single and reduced-length pellet capsules in order to generate an experimental knowledge base that incorporate initial non-linear contact heat transfer and fission gas equations, (2) modeling efforts for prototypical designs of partially loaded and fully loaded targets using limited available knowledge of fabrication and irradiation characteristics, and (3) the most recent and comprehensive modeling effort of a fully coupled thermo-mechanical approach over the entire fully loaded target domain incorporating burn-up dependent irradiation behavior and measured target and pellet properties, hereafter referred to as the production model. These models are used to conservatively determine several important steady-state parameters including target stresses and temperatures, the limiting condition of which is the maximum temperature with respect to the melting point. The single pellet model results provide a basis for the safety of the irradiations, followed by parametric analyses in the initial prototypical designs

  20. Cross-section calculations for neutron-induced reactions up to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, Nobuhiro.

    1996-01-01

    In the field of accelerator development, medium-energy reaction cross-section data for structural materials of accelerator and shielding components are required, especially for radiation protection purposes. For a d + Li stripping reaction neutron source used in materials research, neutron reaction cross sections up to 50 MeV are necessary for the design study of neutron irradiation facilities. The current version of SINCROS-II is able to calculate neutron and proton-induced reaction cross sections up to ∼ 50 MeV with some modifications and extensions of the cross-section calculation code. The production of isotopes when structural materials and other materials are bombarded with neutrons or protons is calculated using a revised code in the SINCROS-II system. The parameters used in the cross-section calculations are mainly examined with proton-induced reactions because the experimental data for neutrons above 20 MeV are rare. The status of medium mass nuclide evaluations for aluminum, silicon, chromium, manganese, and copper is presented. These data are useful to estimate the radiation and transmutation of nuclei in the materials

  1. Stable carbon isotope analysis (δ13C values) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their UV-transformation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Bendig, Paul; Vetter, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are frequently detected in food and environmental samples. We used compound specific isotope analysis to determine the δ 13 C values of individual PBDEs in two technical mixtures. Within the same technical product (DE-71 or DE-79), BDE congeners were the more depleted in 13 C the higher brominated they were. In contrast, the products of light-induced hydrodebromination of BDE 47 and technical DE-79 were more enriched in 13 C because of more stable bonds between 13 C and bromine. As a result, the δ 13 C values of the irradiated solution progressed diametrically compared to those of the technical synthesis. The ratio of the δ 13 C values of BDE 47 to BDE 99 and of BDE 99 to BDE 153 are thus suggested as indicators to distinguish native technical products from transformation products. Ratios 1) is typical of transformation products. - Highlights: → δ 13 C values of PBDEs were determined by means of compound specific isotope analysis. → PBDEs in technical mixtures were the more depleted in 13 C the higher they were brominated. → Solutions of individual PBDEs and technical PBDE mixtures were irradiated by UV light. → δ 13 C values of irradiated PBDEs and technical PBDEs progressed diametrically. → Ratios of the δ 13 C values were used to distinguish native from transformed PBDEs. - Diametrically progressing δ 13 C values in technical mixtures and UV-transformation products of DE-79 may be useful for source appointment of PBDEs in environmental samples

  2. Production of intense metallic ion beams in order of isotopic separations; Production de faisceaux intenses d'ions metalliques en vue de la separation des isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrouy, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    We describe an isotope separator with magnetic sector of 60 deg that permits, with a process of neutralization of the space charge, to use efficiently intense ion beams. The sources of realized ions provide ionic debits of 10 mA. This present work deals who to obtain intense ion beams (10 to 15 mA), different processes of ion currents measurement, as well as the study of the phenomenon of space charge neutralization. The second part of this memory will be on the survey and the adaptation on the source of various type of oven permitting to spray and to ionize metals directly. By order of increasing difficulty of vaporization, we reached the chromium. (M.B.) [French] 0n decrit un separateur d'isotope a secteur magnetique de 60 deg qui permet, grace a un procede de neutralisation de la charge d'espace, d'utiliser efficacement des faisceaux d'ions intenses. Les sources d'ions realisees fournissent des debits ioniques de 10 mA. Ce present travail porte sur l'obtention de faisceaux d'ions faisceaux d'ions intenses (10 a 15 mA), des differents procedes de mesures des courants d'ions, ainsi que l'etude du phenomene de neutralisation de charge d'espace. La deuxieme partie de ce memoire portera sur l'etude et l'adaptation sur la source de divers type de four permettant de vaporiser et d'ioniser directement les metaux. Par ordre de difficulte croissantes de vaporisations, nous avons atteint le chrome. (M.B.)

  3. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  4. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xu, E-mail: emmazhang103@gmail.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir [BEST Cyclotron Inc (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN–LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  5. Isotope aided studies on non-protein nitrogen and agro-industrial by-products utilization by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This publication reports the results of a five year Co-ordinated Research Programme aimed at (1) evaluating locally available resources, in particular agro-industrial by-products as feeds for ruminant animals and (2) formulating rations using these resources to improve the level of animal production in developing countries. The Programme was executed by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development and involved 13 participants from 12 countries. The papers published here are those presented by the participants of the Programme at the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 24 to 26 March 1986

  6. Search of the decay of the heaviest isotopes of element 112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Eremin, A.V.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.

    1998-01-01

    To produce heavy isotopes of element 112 in the reaction 48 Ca + 238 U two experiments at different beam energies were performed. In the first experiment the beam energy at the middle of the target was 231 MeV which leads to the production of the compound nucleus 286 112 with an excitation energy of E x = 33 MeV. In a 20 - day irradiation of the 238 U target with a beam dose of 3.5 x 10 18 on the focal plane of the recoil separator VASSILISSA two spontaneous fission events were detected. No α-particle emission preceding spontaneous fission nor α-α correlation in the energy range from 8 to 13 MeV in the time interval of up to 10000 s. have been observed. The most probable explanation of the data obtained in this experiment is that the observed spontaneous fission corresponds to the decay of the even-odd isotope (N = 171) of element 112 produced in the reaction 238 U ( 48 Ca, 3n) 283 112 with a cross section of ∼ 5 pb. The half-life of the new spontaneous fission nuclide is about 100 s. In the second experiment the beam energy was 238 MeV which increases the excitation energy of compound nuclei up to E x = 39 MeV. The total beam dose in that case was 2.2 x 10 18 . No events due either to spontaneous fission or sequential α-α decay in an energy range from 8 to 12 MeV and the time interval of 1000 s. were detected. These data give the upper limit of 3 pb for the production cross section of the even-even isotope 282 112 in the reaction 238 U ( 48 Ca, 4n) 282 112

  7. Proceedings of V International Seminar and V National Workshop 'Use and development of products isotopic health industry'. 20th anniversary CENTIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    At the Salon Copa Room. Hotel Habana Riviera Took place the V International Seminar and V National Workshop 'Use and development of products isotopic health industry' for the 20th anniversary CENTIS. The event was organized by the Isotope Center. Some 200 domestic and foreign experts debated topics related to the development and production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba and the world, its therapeutic applications in certain tumors, and quality management systems in nuclear medicine. (author)

  8. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa [NIGL, BGS, Keyworth, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Richards, Gemma J. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom); Brereton, Nicola [The Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Knowles, Toby G. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  9. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jane A.; Pashley, Vanessa; Richards, Gemma J.; Brereton, Nicola; Knowles, Toby G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) isotopes measured in modern British meat were geogenic in origin. • The match indicates that this technique may be used to provenance biological products. • There was no evidence for a contribution from modern anthropogenic Pb sources.

  10. Characterizing isotopic variability of primary production and consumers in Great Plains ecosystems during protracted regional drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveles, A. W.; Fox-Dobbs, K.; Talmadge, K. A.; Fetrow, A.; Fox, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years (2010-2012), the Great Plains of the central USA experienced protracted drought conditions, including historically severe drought during Summer, 2011. Drought severity in the region generally decreases with increasing latitude, but episodic drought is a fundamental trait of grassland ecosystems. Documenting above ground energy and nutrient flow with current drought is critical to understanding responses of grassland ecosystems in the region to predicted increased episodicity of rainfall and recurrence of drought due to anthropogenic climate change. Characterization of biogeochemical variability of modern ecosystems at the microhabitat, local landscape, and regional scales is also necessary to interpret biogeochemical records of ancient grasslands based on paleosols and fossil mammals. Here, we characterize three grassland ecosystems that span the drought gradient in the Great Plains (sites in the Texas panhandle, southwest Kansas, and northwest Nebraska). We measured δ13C and δ15N values of plants and consumers to characterize the biogeochemical variability within each ecosystem. Vegetation at each site is a mix of trees, shrubs, herbs, and cool- and warm-growing season grasses (C3 and C4, respectively). Thus, consumers have access to isotopically distinct sources of forage that vary in abundance with microhabitat (e.g., open grassland, shrub thicket, riparian woodland). Observations indicate herbivorous arthropod (grasshoppers and crickets) abundance follows drought severity, with high abundance of many species in Texas, and low abundance of few species in Nebraska. Small mammal (rodents) abundance follows the inverse pattern with 0.8%, 3.2% and 17.2% capture success in Texas, Kansas and Nebraska, respectively. The inverse abundance patterns of consumer groups may result from greater sensitivity of small mammal consumers with high metabolic needs to lower local net primary productivity and forage quality under drought conditions. As a

  11. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jane A; Pashley, Vanessa; Richards, Gemma J; Brereton, Nicola; Knowles, Toby G

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Cosmic-ray production of tungsten isotopes in lunar samples and meteorites and its implications for Hf-W cosmochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leya, Ingo; Wieler, Rainer; Halliday, Alex N.

    2000-01-01

    Excesses and deficiencies in 182W in meteorites and lunar samples relative to the terrestrial 182W atomic abundance have been assigned to the decay of 182Hf (t1/2=9 Ma) and have been used to date metal-silicate fractionation events in the early solar system. Because the effects are very small, production and burn-out of tungsten isotopes by cosmic ray interactions are a concern in such studies. Masarik [J. Masarik, Contribution of neutron-capture reactions to observed tungsten isotopic ratios, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 152 (1997) 181-185] showed that neutron-capture reactions on tungsten isotopes can account at best for a minor part of the observed deficit of 182W in Toluca and other iron meteorites. On the other hand, in lunar samples and stony meteorites the production of 182W from 181Ta may become crucial. Here, we calculate this contribution as well as production and consumption of 182-186W by other neutron-induced reactions. The neutron fluence of each sample is estimated by its nominal cosmic-ray exposure age deduced from noble gas data. This approach overestimates the true cosmogenic W isotopic shifts for samples that might have been irradiated very close to the regolith surface. A quantitative estimate is often also hampered by a lack of Ta data. Despite these reservations, it appears that in many lunar samples neutron-capture on Ta has caused a large part of the observed 182W excess. On the other hand, in some samples, especially those with very low exposure ages, clearly only a minor or even negligible fraction of the 182W excess can be cosmogenic. Therefore, the conclusion, based on Hf-W model ages, that the Moon formed 50 Myr after the start of the solar system remains valid. Martian meteorites have lower Ta/W ratios and cosmic ray exposure ages than most lunar samples. Therefore, cosmogenic production has not significantly altered the W isotopic composition in Martian meteorites. Observed 182W excesses in Martian meteorites as well as the very large

  13. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, M. E.; Arnold, C. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fallin, B.; Fowler, M. M.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Krishichayan; Macri, R.; Rusev, G.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber and gamma

  14. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooden, M.E., E-mail: m_gooden@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Arnold, C.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bhatia, C. [McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Bhike, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Bond, E.M.; Bredeweg, T.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Fallin, B. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Fowler, M.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27605 (United States); Krishichayan [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Macri, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rusev, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Tonchev, A.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2016-01-15

    Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber

  15. Isotopes Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairiki, J.M.; Browne, E.; Firestone, R.B.; Lederer, C.M.; Shirley, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Isotopes Project compiles and evaluates nuclear structure and decay data and disseminates these data to the scientific community. From 1940-1978 the Project had as its main objective the production of the Table of Isotopes. Since publication of the seventh (and last) edition in 1978, the group now coordinates its nuclear data evaluation efforts with those of other data centers via national and international nuclear data networks. The group is currently responsible for the evaluation of mass chains A = 167-194. All evaluated data are entered into the International Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and are published in Nuclear Data Sheets. In addition to the evaluation effort, the Isotopes Project is responsible for production of the Radioactivity Handbook

  16. Cross sections for Discrete γ ray production in interactions of 14.6 MeV neutrons with light and medium heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavac, S.; Benovic, M.; Betak, E.; Dostal, L.; Turzo, I.; Simakov, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    We measured cross section of prompt discrete γ ray transitions produced in 14.6 MeV neutron interactions with 23 Na, 27 Al, 28 Si, 31 P 39 K, 51 V, 55 Mn and nat Mo. Cross sections were measured relative to reference cross sections with low uncertainties using a dedicated experimental setup with a 244 cm 3 HPGe photon detector and associated α particle timing. In addition to photons from inelastic scattering we observed discrete transitions from (n,p), (n,n'p), (n,α), and (n,2n) reactions. Discrete γ transitions in 28 Si(n,n'p) 27 Al, the majority of transitions in Mn+n, and all transitions in Mo+n reactions were observed for the first time. Where available, our experimental data are compared with existing data. This comparison shows that existing data are in disagreement with present data in many cases, a finding which stresses the necessity of standardization of measurement procedure. For some reactions we compared our results with statistical model predictions, calculated with the advanced code GNASH as well as with a technically simpler code DEGAS, developed in our lab. In several instances, mostly in reactions where only a single nucleon is emitted, the statistical model calculations describe the observed cross sections well. In other cases, where several nucleons are emitted sequentially or in a cluster, the agreement is less satisfactory. (author)

  17. Gamma-ray production cross-sections for the interactions of 14.9 MeV neutrons with Si, Cu, Nb and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guoying

    1991-12-01

    Gamma rays produced in the interactions of 14.9 MeV neutrons with Si, Cu, Nb and Pb targets were studied. The neutron beam was produced with the T(d,n)He reaction using 300 KeV Cockroft-Walton accelerator. Absolute neutron flux was determined by the associated particle technique. The time-of-flight technique was used to reduce the background. The FWHM of neutron pulses was 1.5 ns. A Ge(Li) detector was used for gamma-ray detection. 39 gamma lines for Si, 39 gamma lines for Cu, 79 for Nb and 39 for Pb were detected. Most of these gamma rays were emitted in (n,γ), (n,n') and (n,2n) reactions. The measurements were made at 40 deg. C, 55 deg. C, 125 deg. C and 140 deg. C relative to the incident neutron beam. The results are presented in the form of the data tables. 9 refs, 11 figs, 19 tabs

  18. Benchmark test of 14-MeV neutron-induced gamma-ray production data in JENDL-3.2 and FENDL/E-1.0 through analysis of the OKTAVIAN experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, F.; Oyama, F.

    1996-01-01

    Secondary gamma rays play an important role along with neutrons in influencing nuclear design parameters, such as nuclear heating, radiation dose, and material damage on the plasma-facing components, vacuum vessel, and superconducting magnets, of fusion devices. Because evaluated nuclear data libraries are used in the designs, one must examine the accuracy of secondary gamma-ray data in these libraries through benchmark tests of existing experiments. The validity of the data should be confirmed, or problems with the data should be pointed out through these benchmark tests to ensure the quality of the design. Here, gamma-ray production data of carbon, fluorine, aluminum, silicon, titanium, chromium, manganese, cobalt, copper, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, and lead in JENDL-3.2 and FENDL/E-1.0 induced by 14-MeV neutrons are tested through benchmark analyses of leakage gamma-ray spectrum measurements conducted at the OKTAVIAN deuterium-tritium neutron source facility. The MCNP transport code is used along with the flagging method for detailed analyses of the spectra. As a result, several moderate problems are pointed out for secondary gamma-ray data of titanium, chromium, manganese, and lead in FENDL/E-1.0. Because no fatal errors are found, however, secondary gamma-ray data for the 13 elements in both libraries are reasonably well validated through these benchmark tests as far as 14-MeV neutron incidence is concerned

  19. Research and development studies into isotope production using the Harwell Variable Energy Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.; Bett, R.; Cuninghame, J.G.; Goodall, J.A.B.; Hill, J.I.S.; Sims, H.E.; Willis, H.H.

    1979-11-01

    Many useful radioisotopes can be produced by means of the Harwell Chemistry Division's Variable Energy Cyclotron. This report describes the preliminary preparation of a number of these neutron deficient isotopes (i.e. F18, S38, Fe52, Sr82-Rb82, Nb92m, Rh99, I123, Xe125, Tl201, Pu236, Pu237). Recently a targetry development programme has been initiated to optimise isotope yields. Gas, liquid and solid targets have been designed that can be quickly and safely removed from the cyclotron beam-line so that the target activity can be rapidly processed after the irradiation, if necessary. (author)

  20. Development of 68Ge/68Ga Generator using 30 MeV Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hur Min; Dae, Yang Seung; Hoon, Park Jeong; Dae, Park Yong; Je, Lee Eun; Bae, Kong Young; Kim, In Jong; Lee, Jin Woo; Hyun, Yu Kook

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop the 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator where daughter nuclide 68 Ga can be eluted according to the designated periods from the resin which holds mother nuclide 68 Ge absorbed and to develop the 68 Ga utilization technology. 1. Target development for 68 Ge target and production of 68 Ge - Target designed for 68 Ge production with 30 MeV cyclotron - Target body material evaluation and proton beam irradiation 2. Separation of 68 Ge and development of column material and extraction system for 68 Ge/ 68 Ga separation - Development of 68 Ge separation method from nat Ga target - Development of absorbents for generator using stable isotope 3. Development of 68 Ga labelled radiopharmaceutical - Development of 68 Ga labelled benzamide derivative for diagnosis of melanoma - Development of 68 Ga dendrimer complex using nano-technology 4. Development of shield case for 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator