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Sample records for mets components obesity

  1. Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism in obese Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Dae-Sun; Kim, Se-Lim; Kim, Sun-Young; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Lee, Kee-Hyoung; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2005-11-01

    Ghrelin is a novel gut-brain peptide that has somatotropic, orexigenic, and adipogenic effects. We examined the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism in 222 obese Korean children to determine whether it is associated with obesity. The frequencies of the Leu72Met polymorphism were 29.3% in obese, 32.3% in overweight, and 32.5% in lean Korean children. No significant difference was found between Met72 carrier and non-carrier obese children with respect to BMI, total body fat, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, or LDL-cholesterol levels. Our data suggest that the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is not associated with obesity in children.

  2. A protective effect of the BDNF Met/Met genotype in obesity in healthy Caucasian subjects but not in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustar, A; Nikolac Perkovic, M; Nedic Erjavec, G; Svob Strac, D; Pivac, N

    2016-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor with an important role in the regulation of body weight, body mass index (BMI) and obesity. Increased BMI that leads to obesity is a substantial risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been associated with CHD, obesity and BMI. The aim of the study was to determine the association between BDNF rs6265 polymorphism and CHD and/or BMI in patients with CHD and healthy control subjects. The study included 704 Caucasian subjects: 206 subjects with CHD and 498 healthy control subjects. The BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was similar in male and female subjects, and there were no differences in the frequency of the BDNF rs6265 genotypes in 206 patients with CHD and in 498 healthy subjects. When study participants were subdivided according to the BMI categories into normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, significantly different BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was found within healthy subjects, but not within patients with CHD. Healthy subjects, but not patients with CHD, subdivided into carriers of the Met/Met, Met/Val and Val/Val genotype, had different BMI scores. The BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was similar in male and female subjects, and there were no differences in the frequency of the BDNF rs6265 genotypes in 206 patients with CHD and in 498 healthy subjects. When study participants were subdivided according to the BMI categories into normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, significantly different BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was found within healthy subjects, but not within patients with CHD. Healthy subjects, but not patients with CHD, subdivided into carriers of the Met/Met, Met/Val and Val/Val genotype, had different BMI scores. BDNF rs6265 polymorphism was not associated with a diagnosis of CHD or with BMI categories among patients with CHD. In contrast, healthy Caucasians, carriers of the BDNF Met/Met genotype, had more

  3. Adiponectin in eutrophic and obese children as a biomarker to predict metabolic syndrome and each of its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klünder-Klünder Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with the rise of noncommunicable diseases worldwide. The pathophysiology behind this disease involves the increase of adipose tissue, being inversely related to adiponectin, but directly related to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between adiponectin levels with each component of MetS in eutrophic and obese Mexican children. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 190 school-age children classified as obese and 196 classified as eutrophic. Adiponectin, glucose, insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides were determined from a fasting blood sample. Height, weight, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP were measured; MetS was evaluated with the IDF definition. The study groups were divided according to tertiles of adiponectin, using the higher concentration as a reference. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between adiponectin and components of the MetS. Finally, stepwise forward multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, basal HOMA-IR values and BMI was performed to determine the odds ratio of developing MetS according to adiponectin tertiles. Results Anthropometric and metabolic measurements were statistically different between eutrophic and obese children with and without MetS (P Conclusion In this sample of eutrophic and obese Mexican children we found that adiponectin concentrations and MetS components have an inversely proportional relationship, which supports the idea that this hormone could be a biomarker for identifying individuals with risk of developing MetS.

  4. Association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome components in prepubertal obese children (Tanner Stage I) from Nuevo León, Mexico - a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Elizabeth Solis; Medina, Mario Alberto González; Lomeli, Manuel Lopez-Cabanillas; González, Verónica Tijerina; Pérez, Jesús Zacarías Villarreal; Lavalle González, Fernando J; Imrhan, Victorine; Juma, Shanil; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Boonme, Kittipong; Prasad, Chandan

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in obese children demonstrating a positive association between serum uric acid (sUA) and components of MetS are confounded by lack of uniformity in age and pubertal status of children. Therefore, we have examined the role of sUA in MetS and its components in pre-pubertal children (Tanner Stage I, age ≤ 9 years). Pre-pubertal obese children (32 boys, 27 girls, age 6-9 years) were recruited from Nuevo Leon, Mexico. For comparison, an equal number of children with normal body mass index (BMI) in the same age range (22 Boys, 39 girls, age 6-9 years) were also recruited from the same community. Presence of MetS and its components was defined according to the criteria of International Diabetes Federation. Fasting blood was analyzed for lipids, glucose, insulin, and uric acid. Among the obese children, sUA was positively associated with insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia and negatively associated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLc). Subjects were three times more likely to have a MetS diagnosis per one unit (md/dL) difference in sUA. Of the 59 obese pre-pubertal children, 20 were classified as having MetS defined by the presence of abdominal obesity and two or more of other components described under methods. Of these, 57.1% (20/61) had sUA between 5.1 and 7.1 mg/dl. The findings of this study clearly indicate a positive relationship between uric acid and MetS and its components in pre-pubertal obese children with Tanner stage I and ≤9 years of age.

  5. Molecular screening of the ghrelin gene in Italian obese children: the Leu72Met variant is associated with an earlier onset of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia del Giudice, E; Santoro, N; Cirillo, G; Raimondo, P; Grandone, A; D'Aniello, A; Di Nardo, M; Perrone, L

    2004-03-01

    To test whether ghrelin variants could play a role in modulating some aspects of the obese phenotype during childhood. We screened the ghrelin gene in 300 Italian obese children and adolescents (mean age 10.5+/-3.2 y; range 4-19 y) and 200 controls by using the single-strand conformation polymorphism and the restriction fragment length polymoprhism analysis. No mutations were detected with the exception of two previously described polymorphisms, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met. For both variations, allelic frequencies were similar between patients and controls. Interestingly, we showed that the Leu72Met polymorphism was associated with differences in the age at obesity onset. Patients with the Met72 allele became obese earlier than homozygous patients for the wild Leu72 allele. The logrank test comparing the plots of the complement of Kaplan-Meier estimates between the two groups of patients was statistically significant (Pghrelin variations cause the obesity due to single-gene mutations. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene seems to play a role in anticipating the onset of obesity among children suggesting, therefore, that ghrelin may be involved in the pathophysiology of human adiposity.

  6. MetExploreViz: web component for interactive metabolic network visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazalviel, Maxime; Frainay, Clément; Poupin, Nathalie; Vinson, Florence; Merlet, Benjamin; Gloaguen, Yoann; Cottret, Ludovic; Jourdan, Fabien

    2017-09-15

    MetExploreViz is an open source web component that can be easily embedded in any web site. It provides features dedicated to the visualization of metabolic networks and pathways and thus offers a flexible solution to analyze omics data in a biochemical context. Documentation and link to GIT code repository (GPL 3.0 license)are available at this URL: http://metexplore.toulouse.inra.fr/metexploreViz/doc /. Tutorial is available at this URL. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Common Genetic Components of Obesity Traits and Serum Leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann L; Benyamin, Beben; Visscher, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    To estimate common and distinct genetic influences on a panel of obesity-related traits and serum leptin level in adults. In a cross-sectional study of 625 Danish, adult, healthy, monozygotic, and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs of both genders, we carried out detailed anthropometry (height, weight...... components, which suggests that it is important to distinguish between the different phenotypes in the search for genes involved in the development of obesity.Obesity (2008) doi:10.1038/oby.2008.440........ For leptin vs. the various measures of overall and local fatness the correlations ranged from 0.54 to 0.74 in men and from 0.48 to 0.75 in women. All correlations were significantly different genetic...

  8. Obese individuals with more components of the metabolic syndrome and/or prediabetes demonstrate decreased activation of reward-related brain centers in response to food cues in both the fed and fasting states: a preliminary fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, O M; Mantzoros, C S

    2017-03-01

    It remains unknown whether obese individuals with more components of the metabolic syndrome and/or prediabetes demonstrate altered activation of brain centers in response to food cues. We examined obese individuals with prediabetes (n=26) vs obese individuals without prediabetes (n=11) using fMRI. We also performed regression analyses on the basis of the number of MetS components per subject. Obese individuals with prediabetes have decreased activation of the reward-related putamen in the fasting state and decreased activation of the salience- and reward-related insula after eating. Obese individuals with more components of MetS demonstrate decreased activation of the putamen while fasting. All these activations remain significant when corrected for BMI, waist circumference (WC), HbA1c and gender. Decreased activation in the reward-related central nervous system areas among the obese is more pronounced in subjects with prediabetes and MetS. Prospective studies are needed to quantify their contributions to the development of prediabetes/MetS and to study whether they may predispose to the exacerbation of obesity and the development of comorbidities over time.

  9. Association between Type 2 Diabetes, Obesity and Key Immunological Components of IgE-mediated Inflammation

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    Sokolova Raditsa N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in lifestyle and obesity in recent decades have brought about a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 and allergic diseases. Clinical and epidemiological studies associate obesity with epidemics of allergic diseases. The link between obesity and DM2 with immunological components of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation is not yet conclusively established.

  10. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is rapidly increasing in developing countries. However, the epidemiology of MetS is not well reported in the pediatric and young adult population. We determined the prevalence of MetS and its components among overweight and obese Nigerian adolescents and ...

  11. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THYROID HORMONES AND OBESITY SEVERITY, METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS IN TURKISH CHILDREN WITH OBESITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Samet; Bütün, İlknur; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Yılmaz, Resul; Demir, Osman

    2015-08-01

    we investigated the relationships between thyroid function and obesity severity, metabolic syndrome (MS) and MS components in 260 obese children and adolescents 10-17 years of age. we aimed to determine the association of thyroid functions with obesity severity and the components of metabolic syndrome (MS) in pediatric obese patients. only obese children and adolescents were included, and divided the obese children into three groups according to body mass index (BMI)-SDS quartiles. The first quartile was group 1, the second and third quartiles were group 2, and the fourth quartile was group 3. Group 3 indicated severe obesity. The modified WHO criteria adapted for children were used to diagnose MS. We assessed anthropometric data and serum biochemical parameters, including the lipid profile and fasting glucose (FG), insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with a standard digital sphygmomanometer. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated to determine insulin resistance (IR). TSH level was significantly higher in obese children with MS than that in the others (p = 0.045). Mean TSH level was not different among the BMI-SDS groups (p = 0.590). TSH levels and the fT3/fT4 ratio were not different in children with dyslipidemia, IR or hypertension (p = 0.515, 0.805, 0.973, 0.750, 0.515, and 0.805, respectively). obesity severity does not affect TSH level or the fT3/fT4 ratio in obese children and adolescents. IR is in close relationship with TSH level. Elevated TSH level is a risk factor for MS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between Childhood Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: Evidence from a Large Sample of Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Shan, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Tianyou; Zhao, Di

    2012-01-01

    Data about metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children is limited in China. We aimed to assess the prevalence of MetS related components, and their association with obesity. Data were collected as part of a representative study on MetS among 19593 children, aged 6–18 years old in Beijing. General obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and central obesity by waist circumference. Finger capillary blood tests were used to assess triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Vein blood samples were collected from a subsample of 3814 children aged 10–18 years to classify MetS. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation 2007 definition. The associations between MetS related components and the degree and type of obesity were tested using logistic regression models. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, high blood pressure, elevated TG, TC and IFG were13.6%, 5.8%, 8.5%, 8.8%, 1.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Compared with normal weight children, overweight and obese children were more likely to have other MetS related components. In the subsample of 3814 children aged 10–18 years, the prevalence of MetS was much higher in obese subjects than in their normal weight counterparts (27.6% vs. 0.2%). Children with both general and central obesity had the highest prevalence of MetS. Compared with normal weight children, overweight and obese children were more likely to have MetS (overweight: OR = 67.33, 95%CI = 21.32–212.61; obesity: OR = 249.99, 95% CI = 79.51–785.98). Prevalence of MetS related components has reached high level among Beijing children who were overweight or obese. The association between metabolic disorders and obesity was strong. PMID:23082159

  13. Interconnection between metabolic syndrome components in obese patients

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    E.G. Bayanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our study is to deter­mine intercommunication between the indexes of insulin resistance, С-peptide, leptin, cortisol, thyroid hormones in obese patients. Materials and methods. The study involved 30 persons with the average body mass index (BMI 35.1 kg/м2. They were divided into three groups by this index depending on the obesity severity. Results. The indexes of insulin, С-peptide, HOMA index with the enhanced BMI had a tendency to the increase. Their average indexes were highest in patients with III stage obesity. An increased level of ТSH was determined for the 31 % patients of the first group, in 25 % patients of the second group and in 50 % patients of the third group. Free thyroxine (fТ4 level was highest in the patients of the second group, fТ4 indexes under 0.93 ng/dl were observed in 25 % patients of the first group and in 50 % patients of the third group. The cortisol level maximally rose in the patients of the second group and went down a little in the patients of the third group. The leptin indexes rose with the increase of BMI. Conclusions. Metabolic syndrome develops on a background of the decline of thyroid function and increase of insulin secretion.

  14. Central obesity is important but not essential component of the metabolic syndrome for predicting diabetes mellitus in a hypertensive family-based cohort. Results from the Stanford Asia-pacific program for hypertension and insulin resistance (SAPPHIRe) Taiwan follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hwu, Chii-Min; He, Chih-Tsueng; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Lin, Yu-Chun; Assimes, Themistocles; Curb, J David; Sheu, Wayne H-H

    2012-04-26

    Metabolic abnormalities have a cumulative effect on development of diabetes, but only central obesity has been defined as the essential criterion of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by the International Diabetes Federation. We hypothesized that central obesity contributes to a higher risk of new-onset diabetes than other metabolic abnormalities in the hypertensive families. Non-diabetic Chinese were enrolled and MetS components were assessed to establish baseline data in a hypertensive family-based cohort study. Based on medical records and glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the cumulative incidence of diabetes was analyzed in this five-year study by Cox regression models. Contribution of central obesity to development of new-onset diabetes was assessed in subjects with the same number of positive MetS components. Among the total of 595 subjects who completed the assessment, 125 (21.0%) developed diabetes. Incidence of diabetes increased in direct proportion to the number of positive MetS components (P ≪ 0.001). Although subjects with central obesity had a higher incidence of diabetes than those without (55.7 vs. 30.0 events/1000 person-years, P ≪ 0.001), the difference became non-significant after adjusting of the number of positive MetS components (hazard ratio = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.45-1.13). Furthermore, in all participants with three positive MetS components, there was no difference in the incidence of diabetes between subjects with and without central obesity (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95%CI: 0.50-2.16). In Chinese hypertensive families, the incidence of diabetes in subjects without central obesity was similar to that in subjects with central obesity when they also had the same number of positive MetS components. We suggest that central obesity is very important, but not the essential component of the metabolic syndrome for predicting of new-onset diabetes. ( NCT00260910, ClinicalTrials.gov).

  15. Convergent RANK- and c-Met-mediated signaling components predict survival of patients with prostate cancer: an interracial comparative study.

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    Hu, Peizhen; Chung, Leland W K; Berel, Dror; Frierson, Henry F; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Ruoxiang; Li, Qinlong; Rogatko, Andre; Zhau, Haiyen E

    2013-01-01

    We reported (PLoS One 6 (12):e28670, 2011) that the activation of c-Met signaling in RANKL-overexpressing bone metastatic LNCaP cell and xenograft models increased expression of RANK, RANKL, c-Met, and phosphorylated c-Met, and mediated downstream signaling. We confirmed the significance of the RANK-mediated signaling network in castration resistant clinical human prostate cancer (PC) tissues. In this report, we used a multispectral quantum dot labeling technique to label six RANK and c-Met convergent signaling pathway mediators simultaneously in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, quantify the intensity of each expression at the sub-cellular level, and investigated their potential utility as predictors of patient survival in Caucasian-American, African-American and Chinese men. We found that RANKL and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) expression predicts survival of Caucasian-Americans with PC. A Gleason score ≥ 8 combined with nuclear p-c-Met expression predicts survival in African-American PC patients. Neuropilin-1, p-NF-κB p65 and VEGF are predictors for the overall survival of Chinese men with PC. These results collectively support interracial differences in cell signaling networks that can predict the survival of PC patients.

  16. Convergent RANK- and c-Met-mediated signaling components predict survival of patients with prostate cancer: an interracial comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhen Hu

    Full Text Available We reported (PLoS One 6 (12:e28670, 2011 that the activation of c-Met signaling in RANKL-overexpressing bone metastatic LNCaP cell and xenograft models increased expression of RANK, RANKL, c-Met, and phosphorylated c-Met, and mediated downstream signaling. We confirmed the significance of the RANK-mediated signaling network in castration resistant clinical human prostate cancer (PC tissues. In this report, we used a multispectral quantum dot labeling technique to label six RANK and c-Met convergent signaling pathway mediators simultaneously in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissue specimens, quantify the intensity of each expression at the sub-cellular level, and investigated their potential utility as predictors of patient survival in Caucasian-American, African-American and Chinese men. We found that RANKL and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1 expression predicts survival of Caucasian-Americans with PC. A Gleason score ≥ 8 combined with nuclear p-c-Met expression predicts survival in African-American PC patients. Neuropilin-1, p-NF-κB p65 and VEGF are predictors for the overall survival of Chinese men with PC. These results collectively support interracial differences in cell signaling networks that can predict the survival of PC patients.

  17. Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome components in Mexican adults without type 2 diabetes or hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Barquera, Simón; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the number of Mexican adults with undiagnosed diabetes and arterial hypertension and their association with obesity. The study included a sub-sample of 6 613 subjects aged 20 years or more who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006). Subjects with a previous diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension (n=1 861) were excluded. Prevalences and standard errors were estimated, taking into account the complex sample design. 6.4 million adults have obesity and undiagnosed impaired fasting glucose. Almost two million more have fasting glucose levels diagnostic for diabetes. As for arterial blood pressure, 5.4 million adults had prehypertension. Another 5.4 million adults had blood pressure levels suggestive of probable hypertension. A total of 21.4 million Mexican adults with obesity had at least one further component of the metabolic syndrome. A large proportion of adults with obesity-related metabolic comorbidities remains undiagnosed in Mexico.

  18. A Mediation Analysis on the Relationship of Physical Fitness Components, Obesity, and Academic Performance in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner-Mas, Adrià; Pere, Palou; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene

    2018-04-20

    To examine the relationship between a battery of obesity indicators and physical fitness components with academic performance in children and to explore the combined and mediation role of the physical fitness components in the relationship between obesity and academic performance in children. A cross-sectional study including data from 250 Spanish schoolchildren (Balearic Islands) between 10 and 12 years of age (mean age, 10.98 ± 0.76 years) was conducted. Obesity measures (body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and speed-agility), and academic performance (Spanish language, Catalan language, English language, natural sciences, social sciences, arts, physical education, religion, and grade point average [GPA]) were collected. All obesity measures were negatively related to at least 3 of the 10 academic indicators, including GPA (β range, -0.135 to -0.229; all P fitness and speed-agility were positively related to all academic indicators (β range, 0.182 to 0.350; all P fitness with 3 academic indicators (β range, 0.143 to 0.253; all P fit had better academic performance than their unfit peers (score +0.75; P = .001). The association between body mass index and GPA was mediated by cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility. This investigation contributes to the current knowledge by adding evidence about the crucial role of physical fitness in terms of academic performance rather than obesity status, suggesting that physical fitness may ameliorate the negative influence of obesity on academic performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrical grid requirements to be met by superconducting components of energy supply systems; Elektrische Netzanforderungen an supraleitende Komponenten der Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, D W; Radtke, U

    1995-05-01

    Suoerconducting components will reduce the effective losses of electrical equipment to practically zero. The new technology will bring about novel components with completely new or modified properties and capacities, and thus a number of economic advantages for grid operation. The novel components opened up by superconductivity technology are of particular interest to maximum and high-voltage applications. Components such as generators and transformers will be enhanced in their electrical performance, and effects of synergism are expected to be achieved in multi-functional applications of SMES and through specific combination of the components current limiter and cable, and transformer. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Supraleitende Betriebsmittel reduzieren die Wirkverluste elektrischer Betriebsmittel praktisch auf null. Daraus resultieren Betriebsmittel mit neuen bzw. veraenderten elektrischen Eigenschaften, die fuer das Netz eine Reihe von Verbesserungen mit sich bringen koennen. Mit Supraleitung werden neuartige Betriebsmittel moeglich und fuer die Hoechst- und Hochspannungsebene wirtschaftlich attraktiv. Andere supraleitende Betriebsmittel wie Generator und Transformator erhalten verbesserte elektrische Eigenschaften. Synergieeffekte sind beim multi-funktionalen Einsatz des SMES und bei Kombination der Betriebsmittel Strombegrenzer und Kabel sowie Transformator zu erwarten. (orig./MM)

  20. Requirements to be met by recurrent ultrasonic inspection of reactor components using collimator-free testing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csapo, G.; Just, T.

    1997-01-01

    The paper is intended as an initial contribution to establishing concrete definitions and requirements for digital, collimator-free US testing systems. The objective is to warrant the quality of information derived and reproducibility of test results of recurrent inspections of nuclear components, as well as to achieve a reduction of testing and evaluation time. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Proficiency deficiency: mastery of fundamental movement skills and skill components in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Steele, Julie R; Baur, Louise A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to compare the mastery of 12 fundamental movement skills (FMS) and skill components between a treatment-seeking sample of overweight/obese children and a reference sample from the United States. Mastery of six locomotor and six object-control skills (24 components in each subdomain) were video-assessed by one assessor using the test of gross motor development-2 (TGMD-2). The 153 overweight/obese children (mean ± s.d. age = 8.3 ± 1.1 years, BMI z-score = 2.78 ± 0.69, 58% girls, 77% obese) were categorized into age groups (for the underhand roll and strike: 7-8 years and 9-10 years; all other FMS: 6-7 years and 8-10 years) and mastery prevalence rates were compared with representative US data (N = 876) using χ(2) analysis. For all 12 skills in all age groups, the prevalence of mastery was lower among overweight/obese children compared with the reference sample (all P skill components (all P movement patterns that could be targeted for improvement include positioning of the body and feet, the control or release of an object at an optimal position, and better use of the arms to maintain effective force production during the performance of FMS. Physical activity programs designed for overweight and obese children may need to address deficiencies in FMS proficiency to foster the movement capabilities required for participation in health-enhancing physical activity.

  2. [Obesity and components of metabolic syndrome in Mexican women survivors of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel; de la Fuente-Vera, Tania Angélica

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest that obesity and metabolic syndrome are frequent in cancer survivors. In our country, there is a lack of documentation with regards to this problem in women. Therefore, our aim is to establish the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome components in surviving Mexican women. We elected women who received treatment for cancer with a surviving = 24 months. The data evaluated were demography, clinical anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, kind of cancer, surviving time, and comorbidities, as well as glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. We studied 107 women. Their average age was 60 ± 10 years, with a surviving time of 77 ± 43 months, and a body mass index of 31 ± 6 kg/m2. Their mean glucose level was 120 ± 58 mg/dL, cholesterol 228 ± 43 mg/dL, and triglycerides 207 ± 120 mg/dL. There were 55 (51 %) with glucose > 99 mg/dL, 85 (79 %) with cholesterol > 199 mg/dL, and 67 (63 %) with triglycerides > 149 mg/dL. Obesity (body mass index = 30 kg/m2) occurred in 49 (46 %) and metabolic syndrome in 27 (26 %). Due to a high prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome components were frequent.

  3. Personality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Rossier, Jérôme; Preisig, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers and metabolic components as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). A total of 2543 participants from the general population (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) had provided complete information on physical health and unhealthy behaviors and completed the Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Our results show a strong cross-correlation between obesity markers and metabolic components suggesting that their combination could represent an important CVRF. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with both obesity markers and metabolic components latent traits. The conscientiousness personality trait was significantly associated with obesity markers, but played a modest role. Indeed, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower level of obesity indicators. However, no link between personality and metabolic components were found. In sum, our data suggest that health related behaviours have more effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases than personality traits.

  4. Insulin resistance and its association with the components of the metabolic syndrome among obese children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mass-Díaz Eliezer; Madrigal-Azcárate Adrián; Medina-Bravo Patricia; Klünder-Klünder Miguel; Juárez-López Carlos; Flores-Huerta Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Insulin resistance is the primary metabolic disorder associated with obesity; yet little is known about its role as a determinant of the metabolic syndrome in obese children. The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among obese children and adolescents. Methods An analytical, cross-sectional and population-based study was performed in forty-four public primary schools ...

  5. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Teske

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2. Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL, lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides, oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62% and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57% subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10% and 36/61 (59%, respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents.

  6. Metabolically healthy/unhealthy components may modify bone mineral density in obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzababaei, Atieh; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Khorrami-Nezhad, Leila; Maghbooli, Zhila; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2017-10-29

    Link between obesity and bone health is controversial. It seems that maybe the difference in metabolic status leads to this difference. We studied relation between metabolically healthy/unhealthy components with bone mineral density. Results showed metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) phenotypes have better bone status at hip site than metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Also, component metabolic can effect on BMD in different sites. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare total BMD and L-L4 BMD in MHO and MUHO base on Karelis criteria. We enrolled 272 Iranian obese women and men (BMI ≥ 30). According to Karelis criteria, the participants were grouped base to MHO and MUHO. The body composition and BMD were assessed for all cases. Serum HDL-C, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were quantified by ELISA method. Our results demonstrate MUHO phenotype have high total BMD more than MHO (P = 0.01, CI = 0.12 to 0.21). Also, the results of logistic regression analysis showed MUHO have strongly associated with total BMD (β = -0.42, CI = - 0.31 to - 0.04, P = 0.009), but did not affected L2-L4 BMD (β = - 0.09, CI = - 0.14 to 0.08, P = 0.578); this represents that there was discordance in MUHO subjects. Our evidence implicated that HOMA-IR, high level serum TG, hs-CRP, and low level serum HDL had mediatory effect on relationship between obesity and high BMD at the hip region in MUHO subjects (P < 0.05). Present evidence indicates that, could be a novel link between difference in MUH phenotype and MH phenotype with bone status. Also, component metabolic can effect on BMD in different sites.

  7. Frequency of metabolic syndrome and its components in 300 Pakistani obese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, I.; Ishaq, T.; Fida, Z.; Rehman, F.U.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its constituents in a sample of Pakistani obese patients. Methodology: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, we used a sample of 300 patients from Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan from April 2016 to November 2016. They were randomly selected and their mean age was between 15 and 25 years. The variables obtained included BMI, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride levels, LDL- cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, waist to hip ratio, waist circumference and insulin resistance. Results: Of the 300 patients, the frequency of MS was 20%. There were no significant differences in the frequency of developing MS between the genders. The order of frequency of the components as observed was as follows; abdominal obesity was 88%, high triglyceride level was 85%, males were 40%, 40% of the sampled population resided in the urban area. Meanwhile, 35% of the patients had hypertension while only 5% had hyperglycemia. The frequency of developing MS was 70 times higher in patients with high triglyceride levels in their when compared to those with normal levels. Conclusion: The frequency of MS and its components in Pakistani adolescent patients is high. The high levels of triglyceride and a sedentary lifestyle profoundly contributed to MS. Moreover, the findings signify the importance of early treatment and prevention of obesity in working toward reducing the rate of diabetes mellitus type 2; as glucose intolerance had a strong relationship with the components of MS, and cardiovascular diseases such coronary artery disease. (author)

  8. Association between obesity and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphism Val66Met in individuals with bipolar disorder in Mexican population

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    Morales-Marín ME

    2016-07-01

    , and obesity (Ob >30 kg/m2.Results: In the present work, we report the association of a particular BMI phenotype with the presence of the Val66Met allele in patients with BD (P=0.0033 and odds ratio [95% confidence interval] =0.332 [157–0.703], and correlated the risk for valine allele carriers with Ow and Ob in patients with BD.Conclusion: We found that the methionine allele confers a lower risk of developing Ow and Ob in patients with BD. We also confirmed that the G polymorphism represents a risk of developing Ow and Ob in patients with BD. In future studies, the haplotype analysis should provide additional evidence that BDNF may be associated with BD and BMI within the Mexican population. Keywords: brain-derived neurotrophic factor, bipolar disorder, single nucleotide polymorphism, body mass index

  9. Neurological Consequences of Obesity

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    O’Brien, Phillipe D.; Hinder, Lucy M.; Callaghan, Brian C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, primarily a consequence of poor dietary choices and an increased sedentary lifestyle, has become a global pandemic that brings with it enormous medical, social, and economic challenges. Not only does obesity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, but it is also recognized as a key driver of other metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. These components include insulin resistance, hyperglycemia with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and are underlying contributors to systemic metabolic dysfunction. More recently, obesity and diet-induced metabolic dysfunction have been identified as risk factors for the development of a wide variety of neurological disorders in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. An abundance of literature has shown that obesity is associated with mild cognitive impairment and altered hippocampal structure and function, and there is a robust correlation between obesity and Alzheimer’s type dementia. Similarly, many reports show that both the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system are impacted by obesity. The autonomic nervous system, under control of the hypothalamus, displays altered catabolic and anabolic processes in obese individuals attributed to sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalances. A close association also exists between obesity and polyneuropathy, a complication most commonly found in prediabetic and diabetic patients, and is likely secondary to a combination of obesity-induced dyslipidemia with hyperglycemia. This review will outline the pathophysiological development of obesity and dyslipidemia, discuss the adverse impact of these conditions on the nervous system, and provide evidence for lipotoxicity and metabolic inflammation as the drivers underlying the neurological consequences of obesity. In addition, this review will examine the benefits of lifestyle and surgical interventions in obesity-induced neurological disorders. PMID

  10. Insulin resistance and its association with the components of the metabolic syndrome among obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-López, Carlos; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Medina-Bravo, Patricia; Madrigal-Azcárate, Adrián; Mass-Díaz, Eliezer; Flores-Huerta, Samuel

    2010-06-07

    Insulin resistance is the primary metabolic disorder associated with obesity; yet little is known about its role as a determinant of the metabolic syndrome in obese children. The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among obese children and adolescents. An analytical, cross-sectional and population-based study was performed in forty-four public primary schools in Campeche City, Mexico. A total of 466 obese children and adolescents between 11-13 years of age were recruited. Fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured; insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were also evaluated. Out of the total population studied, 69% presented low values of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, 49% suffered from abdominal obesity, 29% had hypertriglyceridemia, 8% presented high systolic and 13% high diastolic blood pressure, 4% showed impaired fasting glucose, 51% presented insulin resistance and 20% metabolic syndrome. In spite of being obese, 13% of the investigated population did not present any metabolic disorder. For each one of the components of the metabolic syndrome, when insulin resistance increased so did odds ratios as cardiometabolic risk factors. Regardless of age and gender an increased degree of insulin resistance is associated with a higher prevalence of disorders in each of the components of the metabolic syndrome and with a heightened risk of suffering metabolic syndrome among obese children and adolescents.

  11. Iso-α-acids, bitter components of beer, prevent obesity-induced cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Tatsuhiro; Ohya, Rena; Kondo, Keiji; Ano, Yasuhisa

    2018-03-19

    Dementia and cognitive decline have become worldwide public health problems, and it was recently reported that life-style related diseases and obesity are key risk factors in dementia. Iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter components of beer, have been reported to have various physiological functions via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In this report, we demonstrated that daily intake of iso-α-acids suppresses inflammations in the hippocampus and improves cognitive decline induced by high fat diet (HFD). Body weight, epididymal fat weight, and plasma triglyceride levels were increased in HFD-fed mice, and significantly decreased in iso-α-acids supplemented HFD-fed mice. HFD feeding enhances the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α, which was significantly suppressed by iso-α-acids administration. HFD-induced neuroinflammation caused lipid peroxidation, neuronal loss, and atrophy in hippocampus, and those were not observed in iso-α-acids-treated mice. Furthermore, iso-α-acids intake significantly improved cognitive decline induced by HFD-feeding. Iso-α-acids are food derived components that suppressing both lipid accumulation and brain inflammation, thus iso-α-acids might be beneficial for the risk of dementia increased by obesity and lifestyle-related diseases.

  12. Regular multi-component exercise increases physical fitness and muscle protein anabolism in frail, obese, older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Villareal, Dennis T.; Smith, Gordon I.; Sinacore, David R.; Shah, Krupa; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in strength, endurance, balance, and mobility. Obesity worsens the age-related impairment in physical function and often leads to frailty. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends a multi-component (strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance) exercise program to maintain physical fitness. However, the effect of such an exercise program on physical fitness in frail, obese older adults is not known. We therefore determined the effect of a 3 month-...

  13. Relationships between 24-hour urinary free cortisol concentrations and metabolic syndrome in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas; Kulle, Alexandra; Wolters, Barbara; Knop, Caroline; Lass, Nina; Welzel, Maik; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-07-01

    Clinical features of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Cushing's Syndrome are similar, suggesting a pathogenetic role of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in MetS. The aim of the study was to determine whether MetS diagnosis and specific clusters of MetS components (waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose metabolism) are associated with serum cortisol (SC) or 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of data from our obesity cohort. We studied 264 obese children (age, 11.0 ± 2.8 years; male, 48%; BMI, 28.2 ± 5.4 kg/m(2)). We examined UFC, SC, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and features of MetS (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and glucose). Slightly increased UFC concentrations were measured in 30.7% of the children. Obese children with MetS had significantly (P = .003) higher UFC levels compared with obese children without MetS. Girls demonstrated significantly higher UFC concentrations compared with boys independent of pubertal stage. UFC and SC levels were significantly related to features of MetS, but the associations were stronger for UFC. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, none of the features of MetS but HOMA index was correlated with UFC, whereas SC demonstrated no significant association to any parameter of MetS or HOMA. Our findings support the hypothesis that changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis are related to MetS in obesity. UFC seems to be a suitable marker for this relationship. Norm values for UFC adapted to obese children may help to avoid unnecessary dexamethasone suppression tests.

  14. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, and microvascular dysfunction: a principal component analysis approach.

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    Panazzolo, Diogo G; Sicuro, Fernando L; Clapauch, Ruth; Maranhão, Priscila A; Bouskela, Eliete; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz G

    2012-11-13

    We aimed to evaluate the multivariate association between functional microvascular variables and clinical-laboratorial-anthropometrical measurements. Data from 189 female subjects (34.0 ± 15.5 years, 30.5 ± 7.1 kg/m2), who were non-smokers, non-regular drug users, without a history of diabetes and/or hypertension, were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA is a classical multivariate exploratory tool because it highlights common variation between variables allowing inferences about possible biological meaning of associations between them, without pre-establishing cause-effect relationships. In total, 15 variables were used for PCA: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose, levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides (TG), insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and functional microvascular variables measured by nailfold videocapillaroscopy. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy was used for direct visualization of nutritive capillaries, assessing functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV) at rest and peak after 1 min of arterial occlusion (RBCV(max)), and the time taken to reach RBCV(max) (TRBCV(max)). A total of 35% of subjects had metabolic syndrome, 77% were overweight/obese, and 9.5% had impaired fasting glucose. PCA was able to recognize that functional microvascular variables and clinical-laboratorial-anthropometrical measurements had a similar variation. The first five principal components explained most of the intrinsic variation of the data. For example, principal component 1 was associated with BMI, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, insulin, TG, CRP, and TRBCV(max) varying in the same way. Principal component 1 also showed a strong association among HDL-c, RBCV, and RBCV(max), but in the opposite way. Principal component 3 was associated only with microvascular

  15. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, and microvascular dysfunction: a principal component analysis approach

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    Panazzolo Diogo G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to evaluate the multivariate association between functional microvascular variables and clinical-laboratorial-anthropometrical measurements. Methods Data from 189 female subjects (34.0±15.5 years, 30.5±7.1 kg/m2, who were non-smokers, non-regular drug users, without a history of diabetes and/or hypertension, were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA. PCA is a classical multivariate exploratory tool because it highlights common variation between variables allowing inferences about possible biological meaning of associations between them, without pre-establishing cause-effect relationships. In total, 15 variables were used for PCA: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, fasting plasma glucose, levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, triglycerides (TG, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP, and functional microvascular variables measured by nailfold videocapillaroscopy. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy was used for direct visualization of nutritive capillaries, assessing functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV at rest and peak after 1 min of arterial occlusion (RBCVmax, and the time taken to reach RBCVmax (TRBCVmax. Results A total of 35% of subjects had metabolic syndrome, 77% were overweight/obese, and 9.5% had impaired fasting glucose. PCA was able to recognize that functional microvascular variables and clinical-laboratorial-anthropometrical measurements had a similar variation. The first five principal components explained most of the intrinsic variation of the data. For example, principal component 1 was associated with BMI, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, insulin, TG, CRP, and TRBCVmax varying in the same way. Principal component 1 also showed a strong association among HDL-c, RBCV, and RBCVmax, but in the opposite way. Principal component 3 was

  16. The Relationship between Metabolically Obese Non-Obese Weight and Stroke: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Young-Gyun Seo

    Full Text Available Both metabolic syndrome (MetS and obesity increase the risk of stroke. However, few studies have compared the risks of stroke associated with metabolically obese non-obese weight (MONW and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of stroke in MONW and MHO individuals.A total of 25,744 subjects aged ≥40 years were selected from the 2007-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. MetS was defined using 2001 National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III and 2005 American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria. Non-obese weight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2, respectively. MONW was defined as meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI <25 kg/m2 and MHO was defined as not meeting the MetS criteria with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2.Women with MONW had a higher prevalence of stroke than those with MHO (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-3.57. The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of MetS components increased. The ORs for MONW with 3, 4, and 5 MetS components were 1.95 (95% CI: 1.19-3.21, 2.49 (95% CI: 1.46-4.24 and 2.74 (95% CI: 1.39-5.40, respectively.Our study findings may better emphasize the risk of stroke among more lean but unhealthy individuals, who appear healthy but may be suffering from MetS. These findings also highlight the need for stroke risk factor assessment in non-obese weight individuals.

  17. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...

  18. Insulin resistance and its association with the components of the metabolic syndrome among obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mass-Díaz Eliezer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance is the primary metabolic disorder associated with obesity; yet little is known about its role as a determinant of the metabolic syndrome in obese children. The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among obese children and adolescents. Methods An analytical, cross-sectional and population-based study was performed in forty-four public primary schools in Campeche City, Mexico. A total of 466 obese children and adolescents between 11-13 years of age were recruited. Fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured; insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were also evaluated. Results Out of the total population studied, 69% presented low values of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, 49% suffered from abdominal obesity, 29% had hypertriglyceridemia, 8% presented high systolic and 13% high diastolic blood pressure, 4% showed impaired fasting glucose, 51% presented insulin resistance and 20% metabolic syndrome. In spite of being obese, 13% of the investigated population did not present any metabolic disorder. For each one of the components of the metabolic syndrome, when insulin resistance increased so did odds ratios as cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions Regardless of age and gender an increased degree of insulin resistance is associated with a higher prevalence of disorders in each of the components of the metabolic syndrome and with a heightened risk of suffering metabolic syndrome among obese children and adolescents.

  19. Effects of lifestyle interventions that include a physical activity component in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Aurélie Baillot

    Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further

  20. Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults

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    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults

  1. Comparison of the Effect of Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy on Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in a Cohort: Tehran Obesity Treatment Study (TOTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzin, Maryam; Motamedi, Mohammad Ali Kalantar; Serahati, Sara; Khalaj, Alireza; Arian, Peyman; Valizadeh, Majid; Khalili, Davood; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hosseinpanah, Farhad

    2017-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a prevalent counterpart of morbid obesity. With the surgical technique of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) gaining widespread acceptance for weight loss in morbid obese patients, we aimed to undertake a study to compare its effectiveness to gastric bypass (GB) for metabolic control in these patients. A total of 425 patients from a prospectively collected database of morbid obese subjects between 18 and 65 years of age undergoing a primary bariatric procedure from March 2013 to September 2015 were included. Statistical analysis was performed using general estimation equation and propensity scores, and odds ratios were calculated. Three hundred nineteen patients underwent SG and 106 underwent GB. Mean age of the patients was 37.8 ± 11.7, and mean body mass index (BMI) was 44.3 ± 5.9 kg/m 2 . MetS was present in 61.4% of patients and diabetes mellitus in 48.6%. MetS prevalence decreased from 60 and 64% in the SG and GB groups to 16 and 10% at 12 months, respectively. These improvements were consistent throughout the study period in both groups, with no significant difference between the two groups (for all variables: P trend   .05). After propensity score-adjusted analysis, neither surgical technique showed superiority over the other regarding metabolic improvement (OR for MetS resolution: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.49-1.34). In this short-term study with 1-year follow-up, SG showed similar results to GB in terms of weight loss, MetS resolution, and glycemic control in a large Middle Eastern cohort. Long-term studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of SG in this regard.

  2. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior changes can ... more calories than you burn. And most Americans' diets are too high in calories and are ... factors Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and ...

  3. The study of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry on body composition components in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhongkui; Chen Wei; Long Liling; Li Xiaoyang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation of the bone mineral density (BMD) and the body composition components of body mass index (BMI), FAT and LEAN in Chinese obesity. Methods: There were 150 cases in obesity group diagnosed by BMI, including 75 males [ median age 46 years, mean weight (89.64 ± 8.33) kg] and 75 females [median age 45 years, mean weight (77.23 ± 6.85) kg]. There were 150 persons with normal BMI in the control group, including 75 males [(median age 47 years, mean weight (62.34 ± 5.72) kg] and 75 females [ median age 45 years, mean weight (50.16 ± 5.06) kg]. The body height and weight of 300 persons in two groups were measured respectively and ,simultaneously calculated the BMI. These data and the body composition parameters measured by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in these two groups were compared and analyzed. The data obtained used two-sample t-test analysis, bi-variable correlation used Pearson linear correlation analysis and multi-variable correlation used multiple linear regression analysis. Results: FAT of arms, legs trunk and total body of male cases in obesity group was (2.90 ± 0.57), (7.48 ± 1.46), (15.67 ± 3.05), (30.92 ± 5.94) kg respectively, FAT% was (30.9 ± 5.1)%, (30.6 ± 5.8)%, (37.3 ± 4.7)%, (35.1 ± 4.4)% respectively, it was significantly higher than that in control group [FAT was (1.12 ± 0.64), (3.27 ± 1.22), (6.71 ± 3.29), (11.61 ± 5.16) kg respectively, FAT% was (15.4 ± 4.8)%, (16.5 ± 5.0)%, (21.8 ± 5.8)%, (18.6 ± 5.3)% respectively], P 2 respectively, it was significantly higher than that in control group [ LEAN was (22.89 ± 1.68), (48.89 ± 3.72) kg respectively, BMD was (0.89 ± 0.07), (1.15 ± 0.06) g/cm 2 respectively], P 2 respectively, and there were no statistical significance compared with those in control group [LEAN was (5.99 ± 0.72), (16.83 ± 1.67) kg respectively, BMD was (0.90 ± 0.08), (1.29 ± 0.09) g/cm 2 respectively]. FAT of arms, legs, trunk and total body of females in

  4. Sex Differences in Biomarkers Associated With Insulin Resistance in Obese Adolescents: Metabolomic Profiling and Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbern, Dorothee; Balikcioglu, Metin; Bain, James; Muehlbauer, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Ilkayeva, Olga; Dolinsky, Diana; Armstrong, Sarah; Irizarry, Krystal; Freemark, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) predispose to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yet only half of obese adolescents have IR and far fewer progress to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that amino acid and fatty acid metabolites may serve as biomarkers or determinants of IR in obese teens. Research Design and Methods: Fasting blood samples were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry in 82 obese adolescents. A principal components analysis and multiple linear regression models were used to correlate metabolic components with surrogate measures of IR: homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), adiponectin, and triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio. Results: Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels and products of BCAA catabolism were higher (P BCAA, uric acid, and long-chain acylcarnitines and negatively with byproducts of complete fatty acid oxidation (R2 = 0.659, P < .0001). In contrast, only BMI z-score correlated with HOMA-IR in females. Adiponectin correlated inversely with BCAA and uric acid (R2 = 0.268, P = .0212) in males but not females. TG to HDL ratio correlated with BMI z-score and the BCAA signature in females but not males. Conclusions: BCAA levels and byproducts of BCAA catabolism are higher in obese teenage boys than girls of comparable BMI z-score. A metabolic signature comprising BCAA and uric acid correlates positively with HOMA-IR in males and TG to HDL ratio in females and inversely with adiponectin in males but not females. Likewise, byproducts of fatty acid oxidation associate inversely with HOMA-IR in males but not females. Our findings underscore the roles of sex differences in metabolic function and outcomes in pediatric obesity. PMID:25202817

  5. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  6. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome components in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Levek-Motola, Noa; Kaidar, Kfir; Boyko, Valentina; Tisch, Efrat; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Graf-Barel, Chana; Landau, Zohar; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Frumkin Ben-David, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components. The study cohort comprised 326 (168 women) consecutive patients aged 5 to 30 years diagnosed with T1DM and followed up in the Juvenile Diabetes Clinic, Maccabi Health Care Services. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, presence of additional diseases, other medications, HbA1c , triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were obtained. The mean age in the study group was 18.5 ± 6.0 years, and the mean diabetes duration was 8.7 ± 5.0 years. Mean HbA1c level was 8.1 ± 1.3%. Nineteen per cent of the study population was overweight (85th > body mass index obese (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile). Female patients aged 15 ≤ 18 and 18 ≤ 25 years were significantly overweight compared with healthy Israeli women in the same age groups, 33.3% versus 12.7% and 26.3% versus 7.8%, respectively, p 1. There were no obese female patients in the 15 ≤ 18 age group. Among the men in all age groups, there was no difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity compared with healthy men in the general population. There was no difference in the age of onset, disease duration, HbA1c levels, treatment with anti-depressants and associated morbidities between the normal weight, overweight and obese groups. Obese patients had lower levels of HDL and increased prevalence of hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Overweight but not obesity was more prevalent in women with T1DM. Metabolic syndrome and its components were more prevalent among overweight and obese individuals with T1DM than among normal weight individuals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Association between Metabolite Profiles, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity Status

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    Bénédicte Allam-Ndoul

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Underlying mechanisms associated with the development of abnormal metabolic phenotypes among obese individuals are not yet clear. Our aim is to investigate differences in plasma metabolomics profiles between normal weight (NW and overweight/obese (Ov/Ob individuals, with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling was used to compare metabolite levels between each group. Three main principal components factors explaining a maximum of variance were retained. Factor 1’s (long chain glycerophospholipids metabolite profile score was higher among Ov/Ob with MetS than among Ov/Ob and NW participants without MetS. This factor was positively correlated to plasma total cholesterol (total-C and triglyceride levels in the three groups, to high density lipoprotein -cholesterol (HDL-C among participants without MetS. Factor 2 (amino acids and short to long chain acylcarnitine was positively correlated to HDL-C and negatively correlated with insulin levels among NW participants. Factor 3’s (medium chain acylcarnitines metabolite profile scores were higher among NW participants than among Ov/Ob with or without MetS. Factor 3 was negatively associated with glucose levels among the Ov/Ob with MetS. Factor 1 seems to be associated with a deteriorated metabolic profile that corresponds to obesity, whereas Factors 2 and 3 seem to be rather associated with a healthy metabolic profile.

  8. Populus balsamifera Extract and Its Active Component Salicortin Reduce Obesity and Attenuate Insulin Resistance in a Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Model

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    Despina Harbilas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Populus balsamifera L. (BP is a medicinal plant stemming from the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (CEI—Northern Quebec. In vitro screening studies revealed that it strongly inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting potential antiobesity activity. Salicortin was identified, through bioassay-guided fractionation, as the active component responsible for BP’s activity. The present study aimed to assess the potential of BP and salicortin at reducing obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome, in diet-induced obese C57Bl/6 mice. Mice were subjected to high fat diet (HFD for sixteen weeks, with BP (125 or 250 mg/kg or salicortin (12.5 mg/kg introduced in the HFD for the last eight of the sixteen weeks. BP and salicortin effectively reduced whole body and retroperitoneal fat pad weights, as well as hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Glycemia, insulinemia, leptin, and adiponectin levels were also improved. This was accompanied by a small yet significant reduction in food intake in animals treated with BP. BP and salicortin (slightly also modulated key components in signaling pathways involved with glucose regulation and lipid oxidation in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. These results confirm the validity of the CEI pharmacopoeia as alternative and complementary antiobesity and antidiabetic therapies.

  9. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  10. A comparison of metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in Filipino women and Filipino American women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Irma B; Battie, Cynthia A; Tuason, Teresa; Ancheta, Christine V

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in women of Filipino ethnicity. The objective of our work was to determine if metabolic syndrome (MetS), a modifiable CVD risk factor, differs in women as a function of country of residency and to determine if, CVD prevention strategies need to differ for these groups of Filipino women. Data were collected in community-based health screenings for this cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS were recruited at places of worship in southeast United States (n=60) and Central Visayas, Philippines (n=56). Prevalence of MetS and its component factors as defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The prevalence of MetS in Filipino women (FW) and Filipino American women (FAW) groups was similar (52% vs 55%, P=.08) although the prevalence of elevated waist circumference was greater for FAW (78% vs 59%, P=.03). Conversely, the percentage of FW women with risk-associated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels was higher than the FAW group (84% vs 42%, PFilipino women regardless of the country of residency although the FAW tended to have higher rates of central obesity while the FW tended to have higher rates of risk-associated HDL levels. Further research should examine the cause of these differences in order to develop better cardiovascular screening and intervention strategies.

  11. Utility of obesity indices in screening Chinese postmenopausal women for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengju; Ma, Fang; Lou, Huiping; Zhu, Yanning

    2014-05-01

    Although a variety of indices have been used to assess obesity, which is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), the best indicator of the effects of fat accumulation on Chinese postmenopausal women is still uncertain. Thus, the objectives of this study were to analyze the potential of different obesity indices and to explore which index is best for predicting MetS in Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data of 1,234 Chinese postmenopausal women (aged 42-79 y) who participated in the annual health checkup was performed. The obesity indices of all participants, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), percent body fat (PBF), and fat mass index (FMI), were measured or calculated. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to assess MetS risk factors. Spearman and partial correlations were used to assess correlations between obesity indices and MetS components. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff values of all indicators of MetS development. The values of BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, PBF, and FMI that resulted in the maximization of the Youden index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) were defined as optimal. Among the participants, 38.8% (n = 479) were identified as having two or more nonadipose MetS risk components (excluding a positive WC component). These women had higher obesity indices than women with fewer metabolic risk factors. All indices were significantly associated with all MetS components even after controlling for age and C-reactive protein. A BMI of 24.0 kg/m, a WHR of 0.85, a WC of 79.9 cm, a WHtR of 0.49, a PBF of 29.9%, and an FMI of 7.2 kg/m were the optimal cutoff values for predicting at least two other MetS components according to ROC curve analysis. However, among the indicators of

  12. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  13. [PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL PROGRAM AS A WAY OF CORRECTING MOTIVATIONAL COMPONENTS IN PATIENTS WITH PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA WITH ABDOMINAL OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinayko, V; Korovina, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of motivational and targeted psychoeducational programs designed for patients with paranoid schizophrenia with abdominal obesity. We observed 34 women aged 18-42 with continuous-flow type paranoid schizophrenia. All patients had a concomitant abdominal obesity, which developed secondarily after long-term administration of second generation antipsychotic medications (at least 1 year). Based on clinical-psychopathological and psychometric methods of assessment and on the analysis of Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire we have developed modules for psychoeducational programs. Based on the results of the treatment we conclude that the application of psychoeducational programs is an effective component of complex treatment of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Abdominal obesity should be regarded as an important and the main side effect of long-term therapy with atypical antipsychotic medications. It has a marked negative effect on subjective assessment of patients and decreases the level of their mental and social adaptation. This factor should be the basis for the formation of re-socialization and compliance-oriented actions.

  14. Metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese adults in Palestinian refugee camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, Basma; Abualsoud, Mohammed S; Samara, Amjad M; Salameh, Sakhaa K

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the main reasons for elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Obese and overweight individuals are at high risk of developing these chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize and establish sex-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015, 689 (329 men and 360 women) aged 18-65 years from three refugee camps in the West Bank. International Diabetes Federation and modified National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel definitions were used to identify MetS. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was high, 63.1%; Obesity (42 and 29.2% in women men; respectively and overweight 25.8 and 28.9% in women and men; respectively. The prevalence of MetS among obese and overweight was significantly higher (69.4%) according to IDF than NCEP definition (52%) ( p  family history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus. In this study, irrespective of the definition used, metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in obese and overweight Palestinian adults with no gender-based differences. The contribution of the metabolic components to the metabolic syndrome is different in men and women. With the increase of age and obesity, the clustering of metabolic syndrome components increased remarkably. More attention through health care providers should, therefore, be given to the adult population at risk to reduce adulthood obesity and subsequent cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Relationship Between Two Common Lipoprotein Lipase Variants and the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Individual Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K. K.; Hansen, Tine W; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common lipoprotein lipase (LPL) variants are important determinants of triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (C) concentrations. High TG/low HDL-C tend to cluster with hypertension, glucose intolerance, and abdominal obesity and comprise the metabolic...... syndrome (MetS). The role of LPL variants as a cause of MetS is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between two common LPL variants and the presence of MetS and its individual components. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, including 2348 Danish women (50.7%) and men, age 41-72 years, without...

  16. Metabolic Syndrome Components After Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Prevalence and the Impact of Obesity and Immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perito, E R; Lustig, R H; Rosenthal, P

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with long-term morbidity and mortality after adult liver transplantation (LT). Whether pediatric LT recipients have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome remains controversial. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated pediatric LT recipients aged 8-30 years using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocols. LT recipients were matched by gender, race/ethnicity, and age with controls from NHANES. Pediatric LT recipients (n = 83), after adjusting for overweight/obesity and glucocorticoid use, had increased prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 2-h glucose after oral glucose tolerance test ≥140 mg/dL), and low high-density lipoprotein compared to matched NHANES controls (n = 235) despite a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity. Among LT recipients, the adjusted odds of IGT doubled for every 7.5 years taking calcineurin inhibitors (odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval 1.06-4.17 per 7.5 years taking calcineurin inhibitors, p = 0.03). Among all subjects with IGT, LT recipients had a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and less insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) than did controls with IGT. Among normal weight subjects, LT recipients were significantly more likely than controls to have prehypertension/hypertension, IGT, low high-density lipoprotein, and metabolic syndrome. Pediatric LT recipients have unique metabolic syndrome profiles and risk factors and will require tailored screening and management protocols. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain Are Associated with Components of Child Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sarah J; Richardson, Gale A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Himes, Katherine P; Brooks, Maria M; Day, Nancy L; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2015-11-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity affect two-thirds of women of childbearing age and may increase the risk of impaired child cognition. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that high/low gestational weight gain (GWG) and high/low prepregnancy BMI were associated with offspring intelligence quotient (IQ) and executive function at age 10. Mother-infant dyads (n = 763) enrolled in a birth cohort study were followed from early pregnancy to 10 y postpartum. IQ was assessed by trained examiners with the use of the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale-4th edition. Executive function was assessed by the number of perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and time to complete Part B on the Trail Making Test. Self-reported total GWG was converted to gestational-age-standardized GWG z score. Multivariable linear regression and negative binomial regression were used to estimate independent and joint effects of GWG and BMI on outcomes while adjusting for covariates. At enrollment, the majority of women in the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development cohort were unmarried and unemployed, and more than one-half reported their race as black. The mean ± SD GWG z score was -0.5 ± 1.8, and 27% of women had a pregravid BMI ≥ 25. The median (IQR) number of perseverative errors was 23 (17, 29), the mean ± SD time on Part B was 103 ± 42.6 s, and 44% of children had a low average IQ (≤ 89). Maternal obesity was associated with 3.2 lower IQ points (95% CI: -5.6, -0.8) and a slower time to complete the executive function scale Part B (adjusted β: 12.7 s; 95% CI: 2.8, 23 s) compared with offspring of normal-weight mothers. Offspring of mothers whose GWG was >+1 SD, compared with -1 to +1 SD, performed 15 s slower on the executive function task (95% CI: 1.8, 28 s). There was no association between GWG z score and offspring composite IQ score (adjusted β: -0.32; 95% CI: -0.72, 0.10). Prepregnancy BMI did not modify these associations. Although GWG may be important

  18. Central obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia in metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk for colorectal adenoma in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tsann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS is composed of cardiovascular risk factors including insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Most of the components of MetS have been linked to the development of neoplasm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between individual components of MetS and colorectal adenoma. Methods The study subjects were recruited from a pool of 4872 individuals who underwent a health check-up examination during the period January 2006 to May 2008. Each participant fulfilled a structured questionnaire. MetS was defined based on the America Heart Association and National Heart Lung Blood Institute criteria. Subjects with history of colon cancer, colon polyps, colitis, or prior colonic surgery were excluded. Results A total of 4122 subjects were included for final analysis (2367 men and 1755 women; mean age, 49.6 ± 11.7 years. Of them, MetS was diagnosed in 708 men (29.9% and in 367 women (20.9%. Among the patients with MetS, 34.6% had adenoma, 31.7% had hyperplastic polyps and 23.3% were polyp-free (p Conclusions Of the components of MetS analyzed in this study, central obesity and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for colorectal adenoma. With regard to the prevention of colorectal neoplasm, life-style modification such as weight reduction is worthwhile.

  19. Kidney function in obese adolescents with or without metabolic syndrome in a nationally-representative sample of pediatric population: First report from the Middle East and North Africa: The CASPIAN-III Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Obesity in accordance with metabolic syndrome (MetS confronts populations at the higher risk of morbidity and mortality of chronic diseases including, chronic kidney diseases (CKD. The renal complication of obesity and MetS has been less debated in young adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess the kidney function in obese adolescents with or without MetS. Materials and Methods: The data used in this study were collected as part of a national study entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable disease Study. The present study was conducted on a sub-sample of 113 obese adolescents (body mass index >95 th percentile aged between 10 years and 16 years selected by convenient sampling from the whole population studied. Anthropometric indexes and blood pressure were examined. A 12-h fasting serum was obtained for each participant to measure blood glucose, lipid profile, quantitative C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, Cystatin-c, urea, and creatinine. Fasting spot urine was collected to determine microalbumin and creatinine. Based on the study findings, participants were assigned into two groups with and without MetS. Results: The mean of microalbuminuria was in similar ranges in two groups and while the mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR calculated by Bokenkamp′s, updated and combined Schwartz′s formulas were significantly lower in MetS + obese group in comparison with obese group. The similar result was not achieved by Filler′s formula. Among MetS components, waist circumference had a correlation with hs-CRP ( P = 0.04; r = 0.15. GFR was calculated based on the Schwartz formula and Cystatin-c formulas had no significant correlation with any MetS components. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that MetS can increase the risk of kidney dysfunction in obese adolescents. More studies are suggested in this regard in the pediatric population.

  20. Effectiveness of a Multi-Component Intervention for Overweight and Obese Children (Nereu Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Noemi Serra-Paya

    Full Text Available Treatment of childhood obesity is a complex challenge for primary health care professionals.To evaluate the effectiveness of the Nereu Program in improving anthropometric parameters, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and dietary intake.Randomized, controlled, multicentre clinical trial comparing Nereu Program and usual counselling group interventions in primary care settings. The 8-month study recruited 113 children aged 6 to 12 years with overweight/obesity. Before recruitment, eligible participants were randomly allocated to an intensive, family-based multi-component behavioural intervention (Nereu Program group or usual advice from their paediatrician on healthy eating and physical activity. Anthropometric parameters, objectively measured sedentary and physical activity behaviours, and dietary intake were evaluated pre- and post-intervention.At the end of the study period, both groups achieved a similar decrease in body mass index (BMIsd compared to baseline. Nereu Program participants (n = 54 showed greater increases in moderate-intense physical activity (+6.27% vs. -0.61%, p<0.001 and daily fruit servings (+0.62 vs. +0.13, p<0.026, and decreased daily soft drinks consumption (-0.26 vs. -0.02, p<0.047, respectively, compared to the counselling group (n = 59.At the end of the 8-month intervention, participants in the Nereu Program group showed improvement in physical activity and dietary behaviours, compared to the counselling group.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01878994.

  1. Gender Differences Time Trends for Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Tehranian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the trend of metabolic syndrome and its components in Tehran children and adolescents during a median followup of 6.6 years. Methods. Data from 1999–2001 (phase I, 2002–2005 (phase II, and 2006–2008 (phase III of the Tehran, Lipid and Glucose Study were analyzed (=5439; age 6–18 years for the trend of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components. General estimation equation (GEE models were used to analyze this correlated data. Results. The crude prevalence of MetS for boys at baseline was 13.2%, which increased to 16.4% in the third phase. In girls, the prevalence of Mets decreased from 11.8% at baseline to 6% during followup. The odd ratios (OR of obesity over the whole study period were raised in both sexes. The OR of abdominal obesity increased significantly in boys, but no change was observed in girls. No significant OR was observed in boys, while OR for MetS was shown to have a decreasing trend in girls during the followup. In the three time points, the ORs of MetS decreased significantly in girls but no significant difference was observed in boys. Conclusion. Inspite of increasing trend for obesity in both sexes, the trend of MetS decreased in girls and was relatively stable in boys, in Tehranian children, and adolescents.

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher among non-obese PCOS women with hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularity in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ju Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperandrogenism (HA has been linked with several components of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Few studies in Asian women have evaluated the important risk factors for and prevalence of MetS according to PCOS subtype. In this study, we investigated differences in metabolic parameters and the prevalence of MetS in two major phenotypic subgroups of PCOS in Korea. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between HA-associated parameters and MetS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted from May 2010 to December 2011 in Korea. A total of 837 females with PCOS, aged 15-40, were recruited from Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology at 13 hospitals. Of those, 700 subjects with either polycystic ovaries (PCO+HA+oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (O or PCO+O were eligible for this study. MetS was diagnosed according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. RESULTS: MetS was more prevalent in the PCO+HA+O group (19.7% than in the PCO+O (11.9% group. There were statistically significant trends for an increased risk of MetS in the PCO+HA+O group compared to the PCO+O group. After adjustment for age, the odds ratio of MetS was 2.192 in non-obese subjects with PCO+HA+O compared to those with PCO+O, whereas the risk of MetS was not different in obese patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high free androgen index and low sex hormone-binding globulin were significantly associated with MetS in non-obese women with PCOS, with odds ratios of 4.234 (95% CI, 1.893-9.474 and 4.612 (95% CI, 1.978-10.750, respectively. However, no associations were detected between MetS and SHBG and FAI in obese PCOS subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that HA and its associated parameters (FAI and SHBG are significantly associated with MetS in non-obese PCOS subjects, whereas this association

  3. Effect of interaction between dynapenic component of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people sarcopenia criteria and obesity on activities of daily living in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Kim, Sun; Joh, Ju-Youn; Hwang, Hwan-Sik

    2014-05-01

    To examine the effects of interaction between dynapenic component of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) sarcopenia and obesity (dynapenia × obesity) on activities of daily living (ADL) in older participants. Cross-sectional analysis of the Validity and Reliability of Korean Frailty Index and the Validity and Reliability of the Kaigo-Yobo Checklist in Korean Elderly studies. Six welfare facilities operated by government in South Korea. Four hundred eighty-seven community-dwelling individuals (157 males, 330 females) >65 years of age. Dynapenic component of the EWGSOP sarcopenia was defined as usual gait speed sarcopenia and obesity in the elderly is associated with multiplicative interactions rather than additive interactions in ADL. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abdominal obesity is strongly associated to blood pressure in young Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquidez Romero, Rene; Murguía Romero, Miguel; Esparza Romero, Julián; Díaz Torres, Beatriz Araceli; Rodríguez Tadeo, Alejandra; Medrano Donlucas, Gabriel; Ramos Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall Medrano, Abraham; Gallardo Ortíz, Itzell A; Tapia Pancardo, Diana C Tapia-Pancardo C; Méndez Cruz, A René; Jiménez Flores, J Rafael; Villalobos Molina, Rafael

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between abdominal obesity (AOb) and the other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young Mexicans in a cross-sectional survey completed during a 4 year period. This cross-sectional study reports on components and prevalence of MetS by using Alberti et al. (16) criteria, as well as association between AOb and elevated blood pressure (BP) of 2,993 Mexican university students, ages 17 to 25 years (66% women) from central and northern Mexico, over a 4-year survey (2010-2013). The most prevalent MetS components in the total sample were low HDL-C concentration (43.6%) and AOb (41.1%). MetS prevalence was 11.8%, more men than women were classified with MetS (14.3% vs. 10.5%, p < 0.01). BP was the MetS component with the lowest prevalence (8.6%). A strong association between AOb and altered BP with in both men and women was found (OR 4.3, IC95% 2.5-7.4). Even BP was the component with the lowest prevalence, AOb was more strongly associated with it. This fact, could explain the prevalence of hypertension among young Mexican adults.

  5. Sereniteit met een dip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Ed de Jonge

    2015-01-01

    Boekbespreking van Serendipiteit. De ongezochte vondst. Het boek opent met een verzameling van citaten die direct of indirect met het onderwerp samenhangen. Daarna volgt een kort voorwoord van Hans Clevers, de toenmalige president van de KNAW, die een lans breekt voor serendipiteit in de biologie.

  6. Food Components Modulate Obesity and Energy Metabolism via the Transcriptional Regulation of Lipid-Sensing Nuclear Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension. Many modern people have a tendency to overeat owing to stress and loosening of self-control. Moreover, energy expenditure varies greatly among individuals. Scientific reduction of obesity is important under these circumstances. Furthermore, recent research on molecular levels has clarified the differentiation of adipocytes, the level of subsequent fat accumulation, and the secretion of the biologically active adipokines by adipocytes. Adipose tissues and obesity have become the most important target for the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. We have identified various food-derived compounds modulating nuclear receptors, especially peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor(PPAR), in the regulation of energy metabolism and obesity. In this review, we discuss the PPARs that are most important in obesity and energy metabolism.

  7. Fatty Acid Content of Plasma Triglycerides May Contribute to the Heterogeneity in the Relationship Between Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Juan C; Barona, Jacqueline; Gonzalez-Zapata, Laura I; Deossa, Gloria C; Estrada, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    About one-third of the people with abdominal obesity do not exhibit the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fatty acids in plasma triglycerides (TGs) may help to explain part of this heterogeneity. This study compared TG fatty acid profile of adults with and without abdominal obesity and examined the associations of these fatty acids with MetS components. Fifty-four abdominally obese subjects were matched by age and sex with 54 adults without abdominal obesity. People were classified with MetS according to the harmonizing criteria for MetS. Fatty acids in plasma TGs were analyzed by gas chromatography. There were no differences in fatty acids of plasma TGs between people with and without abdominal obesity. However, there were differences between abdominally obese people with and without MetS. The abdominally obese group with MetS had higher palmitic (+2.9%; P = 0.012) and oleic (+4.0%; P = 0.001) acids and lower linoleic (-6.4%; P = 0.018) and arachidonic (-1.2%; P = 0.004) acids. After adjustment for abdominal obesity, age, and sex, a stepwise regression analysis showed that palmitic acid positively contributed to the variance in insulin (β = +1.08 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (β = +1.09 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and myristic acid positively contributed to the variance in systolic blood pressure (β = +1.09 ± 1.03; P = 0.006). In contrast, linoleic acid negatively contributed to the variance in glucose (β = -0.321 ± 0.09; P = 0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; β = -1.05 ± 1.01; P = 0.000). There were no differences in the plasma TG fatty acid profile between people with and without abdominal obesity. Likewise, fatty acids in plasma TGs associated with many of the MetS variables independently of abdominal obesity. These results suggest that the plasma TG fatty acid profile may help to explain part of the heterogeneity

  8. Ervaringen met beeldverwerking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, J.

    1989-01-01

    Verslag van een werkbezoek aan het Franse instituut Cemagref, met nadruk op beeldverwerking. Toepassingen van beeldverwerking zijn onder andere: een plukrobot voor appels; het detecteren van oppervlaktebeschadigingen bij appels; het detecteren van breuk in eieren; remote sensing

  9. Nisine geholpen met hordentechnologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Een combinatie van nisine met carvacrol, thymol of carvon leidde tot een synergistische reductie van het aantal levensvatbare cellen van Listeria monocytogenes en Bacillus cereus. Verslag van een promotieonderzoek

  10. Autorijden met ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; de Vries, Stefanie M.; Koerts, Janneke; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Tucha, Oliver

    Volwassenen met attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) hebben uiteenlopende cognitieve beperkingen, die een aanzienlijke invloed kunnen hebben op verschillende aspecten van het dagelijks leven. Een van deze aspecten is het besturen van een auto. Autorijden is een belangrijke activiteit in

  11. When Historiography Met Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Stoffel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Bordoni, Stefano. When historiography met epistemology: Sophisticated histories and philosophies of science in French-speaking countries in the second half of the nineteenth century. Reviewed by Jean-François Stoffel.

  12. PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN YOUNG MEXICANS: A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ON ITS COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Jiménez-Flores, J Rafael; Sigrist-Flores, Santiago C; Tapia-Pancardo, Diana C; Jiménez-Ramos, Arnulfo; Méndez-Cruz, A René; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael

    2015-07-28

    obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the high prevalence of diabetes type II (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is in great part a consequence of that epidemic. Metabolic syndrome is a useful tool to estimate the risk of a young population to evolve to DM2 and CVD. to estimate the MetS prevalence in young Mexicans, and to evaluate each parameter as an independent indicator through a sensitivity analysis. the prevalence of MetS was estimated in 6 063 young of the México City metropolitan area. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the performance of each one of the components of MetS, as an indicator of the presence of MetS itself. Five statistical of the sensitivity analysis were calculated for each MetS component and the other parameters included: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value or precision, negative predictive value, and accuracy. the prevalence of MetS in Mexican young population was estimated to be 13.4%. Waist circumference presented the highest sensitivity (96.8% women; 90.0% men), blood pressure presented the highest specificity for women (97.7%) and glucose for men (91.0%). When all the five statistical are considered triglycerides is the component with the highest values, showing a value of 75% or more in four of them. Differences by sex are detected for averages of all components of MetS in young without alterations. Mexican young are highly prone to acquire MetS: 71% have at least one and up to five MetS parameters altered, and 13.4% of them have MetS. From all the five components of MetS, waist circumference presented the highest sensitivity as a predictor of MetS, and triglycerides is the best parameter if a single factor is to be taken as sole predictor of MetS in Mexican young population, triglycerides is also the parameter with the highest accuracy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. A whole brain volumetric approach in overweight/obese children: Examining the association with different physical fitness components and academic performance. The ActiveBrains project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Contreras-Rodriguez, Oren; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Mora-Gonzalez, Jose; Migueles, Jairo H; Henriksson, Pontus; Davis, Catherine L; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Catena, Andrés; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-10-01

    Obesity, as compared to normal weight, is associated with detectable structural differences in the brain. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has examined the association of physical fitness with gray matter volume in overweight/obese children using whole brain analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the key components of physical fitness (i.e. cardiorespiratory fitness, speed-agility and muscular fitness) and brain structural volume, and to assess whether fitness-related changes in brain volumes are related to academic performance in overweight/obese children. A total of 101 overweight/obese children aged 8-11 years were recruited from Granada, Spain. The physical fitness components were assessed following the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery. T1-weighted images were acquired with a 3.0 T S Magnetom Tim Trio system. Gray matter tissue was calculated using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). Academic performance was assessed by the Batería III Woodcock-Muñoz Tests of Achievement. All analyses were controlled for sex, peak high velocity offset, parent education, body mass index and total brain volume. The statistical threshold was calculated with AlphaSim and further Hayasaka adjusted to account for the non-isotropic smoothness of structural images. The main results showed that higher cardiorespiratory fitness was related to greater gray matter volumes (P structures; besides, some of these brain structures may be related to better academic performance. Importantly, the identified associations of fitness and gray matter volume were different for each fitness component. These findings suggest that increases in cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility may positively influence the development of distinctive brain regions and academic indicators, and thus counteract the harmful effect of overweight and obesity on brain structure during childhood. Copyright

  14. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  15. Jeugd met beperkingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerd Kooiker

    2006-01-01

    Voor kinderen en jongeren met een lichamelijke of verstandelijke beperking is 'gewoon meedoen' in de samenleving geen vanzelfsprekendheid.  Zij ervaren vaak meer obstakels bij het naar school gaan, het vinden van een baan en in hun vrijetijdsbesteding dan andere kinderen en jongeren. Ook

  16. Studeren met Hans Rosenberg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Hoe was het om in de jaren zestig te studeren? Laat ik een terugblik ophangen aan een studiemakker, Hans Rosenberg. We vormden samen de sterrekundejaar- gang 1961. Hans studeerde af in 1966 met hoofdvak wiskunde, promoveerde op radiostralingsprocessen in de zonnecorona in 1973, verliet de

  17. SPSS met syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Visscher, C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dit boekje wijkt af van de gebruikelijke statistiekboeken omdat het sec gaat over het bekende statistische computerprogramma SPSS, en dan alleen nog de oorspronkelijke variant waarin wordt gewerkt met syntax (intypen commando's -zoals bij DOS) i.p.v. de later ontwikkelde 'Windows-schil' (aanklikken

  18. Prebiotics in the management of components of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sarah; Chouinard-Castonguay, Sarah; Gagnon, Claudia; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2017-10-01

    Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers. Increased SCFA in the gut is associated with improved satiety and weight loss, reduced systemic inflammation by increasing the gut barrier function, and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. The objective of this review is to examine the recent literature in order to determine the types and doses of prebiotics that could be recommended for the management of MetS. A review of the literature was executed using the MEDLINE database and clinical trials from 2013 to 2017 were selected for analysis. In conclusion, a daily supplementation of 10g of inulin, resistant starches or fructo-oligosaccharide-enriched inulin could have beneficial effects on MetS components in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In healthy subjects or in individuals with the MetS, the results are too heterogeneous and scarce to be able to set any specific recommendations. More clinical studies are needed to better understand the role of prebiotics in the management of MetS components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Karina S S; Dias, João M D; Araújo, Marília C; Pinheiro, Ana C; Moreira, Bruno S; Dias, Rosângela C

    2016-07-11

    Sarcopenic obesity is associated with disability in older people, especially in women. Resistance exercises are recommended for this population, but their efficacy is not clear. To evaluate the effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity. Twenty-eight women 65 to 80 years old, with a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and handgrip strength ≤21kg were randomly allocated to two groups. The experimental group underwent a 10-week resistance exercise program designed to improve strength, power, and endurance of lower-limb muscles, with open chain and closed chain exercises. The control group had their health status monitored through telephone calls. The primary outcomes were lower limb muscle performance measured by knee extensor strength, power and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry, and mobility measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery and by gait velocity. The secondary outcome was health-related quality of life assessed by the SF-36 Questionnaire. The average rate of adherence was 85%, with few mild adverse effects. There were no significant between-group differences for any of the outcomes. In this study, a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component was not effective for improving the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity.

  20. Clustering of leptin and physical activity with components of metabolic syndrome in Iranian population: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Zandieh, Ali; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Morteza, Afsaneh; Meysamie, Alipasha; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), manifested by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, and hypertension, is conceived to be associated with hyperleptinemia and physical activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors underlying components of MetS and also to test the suitability of leptin and physical activity as additional components of this syndrome. Data of the individuals without history of diabetes mellitus, aged 25-64 years, from third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007), were analyzed. Performing factor analysis on waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) led to extraction of two factors which explained around 59.0% of the total variance in both genders. When TG and HDL-C were replaced by TG to HDL-C ratio, a single factor was obtained. In contrast to physical activity, addition of leptin was consistent with one-factor structure of MetS and improved the ability of suggested models to identify obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, Pphysical activity loaded on the first identified factor. Our study shows that one underlying factor structure of MetS is also plausible and the inclusion of leptin does not interfere with this structure. Further, this study suggests that physical activity influences MetS components via modulation of the main underlying pathophysiologic pathway of this syndrome.

  1. Does fitness improve the cardiovascular risk profile in obese subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, H; Lønnebakken, M T; Saeed, S; Midtbø, H; Cramariuc, D; Gerdts, E

    2017-06-01

    Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. We explored the association of fitness with the prevalences of major cardiovascular risk factor like hypertension (HT), diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight and obese subjects. Clinical data from 491 participants in the FAT associated CardiOvasculaR dysfunction (FATCOR) study were analyzed. Physical fitness was assessed by ergospirometry, and subjects with at least good level of performance for age and sex were classified as fit. HT subtypes were identified from clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in combination. Diabetes was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The participants were on average 48 years old (60% women), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 32 kg/m 2 . 28% of study participants were classified as fit. Fitness was not associated with lower prevalences of HT or HT subtypes, diabetes, MetS or individual MetS components (all p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, being fit was characterized by lower waist circumference, BMI risk factors like HT, diabetes or MetS. Given the strong association of cardiovascular risk factor burden with risk of clinical cardiovascular disease, these findings challenge the notion that fitness alone is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese young Palestinian students at An-Najah National University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, Basma; Aghbar, Amir; Alkhdour, Saja; Arafat, Yousef

    2018-05-01

    Metabolic Syndrome "MetS" is characterized by the presence of several factors that play a major role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted to establish the prevalence of MetS and its individual components among the overweight and obese students at An-Najah National University (ANU) using IDF and modified NCEP ATP III definition and to identify conditions associated with it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016. Data were collected in two stages: first stage included anthropometric and blood pressure measurements for 850 participants. Second stage included a self-administered questionnaire and biochemical analysis for only overweight or obese (154) participants. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 26.2%, with significant increase among males (36.4%) compared with females (19.1%). The prevalence of MetS among obese and overweight was (28.6%) according to IDF with no significant increase compared to NCEP ATP criteria (24%). Reduced HDL- cholesterol was the most prevalent component (74.7%) in obese and overweight participants followed by central obesity (72.1%), raised blood pressure (29.9%), elevated fasting blood sugar (24%), and lastly increased triglycerides (18.2%). No significant differences were found between males and females according to both criteria. Moreover, no significant associations with geographic locality, house-hold income, smoking, physical activity, or family history were determined. The prevalence of MetS among overweight and obese young adult Palestinians was high and demands immediate intervention, given the potential for these adults to develop chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Evaluation of the Peer Helper Component of "Go!": A Multimessage, Multi-"Step" Obesity Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rebecca; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Goei, Ryan; LaCaille, Lara; Kotowski, Michael R.; Schultz, Jennifer Feenstra; LaCaille, Rick; Versnik Nowak, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevention efforts typically involve changing eating and exercise behaviors as well as the physical and social environment in which those behaviors occur. Due to existing social networks, worksites are a logical choice for implementing such interventions. Purpose: This article describes the development and implementation of a…

  4. Variance-component analysis of obesity in Type 2 Diabetes confirms loci on chromosomes 1q and 11q

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeften, T.W. van; Pearson, P.L.; Tilburg, J.H.O. van; Strengman, E.; Sandkuijl, L.A.; Wijmenga, C.

    2003-01-01

    To study genetic loci influencing obesity in nuclear families with type 2 diabetes, we performed a genome-wide screen with 325 microsatellite markers that had an average spacing of 11 cM and a mean heterozygosity of ~75% covering all 22 autosomes. Genotype data were obtained from 562

  5. Lipid ratio as a suitable tool to identify individuals with MetS risk: A case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Maryam; Delvarianzadeh, Mehri; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Khosravi, Farideh

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the serum lipids ratio in staff with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) who were working in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences. This case-control study was conducted in 2015 on 499 personnel aged 30-60 years old. ATP III criteria were used to diagnose patients with MetS. The data were analyzed by using logistic regression and ROC curve. Mean lipid ratio was higher in individuals having the MetS in both sexes compared with those without. In addition, the mean levels of lipid ratios significantly increased with increasing number of MetS components in both sexes. Also it could be concluded that TG/HDL-C ratio is the best marker for the diagnosis of MetS in men and women. Moreover, the cut-off point for the TG/HDL-C was 2.86 in women and 4.03 in men. It was found that for any unit of increases in the TG/HDL-C, the risk of developing the MetS will increase by 2.12 times. TG/HDL-C ratio is found to be the best clinical marker for the diagnosis of MetS compare with other lipid ratios, therefore it is recommended to be used as a feasible tool to identify individuals with MetS risk. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic syndrome definitions and components in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Silver, Samuel A; Al-Lawati, Ali I; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associates with cardiovascular risk post-kidney transplantation, but its ambiguity impairs understanding of its diagnostic utility relative to components. We compared five MetS definitions and the predictive value of constituent components of significant definitions for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a cohort of 1182 kidney transplant recipients. MetS definitions were adjusted for noncomponent traditional Framingham risk factors and relevant transplant-related variables. Kaplan-Meier, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards analysis were utilized. There were 143 MACE over 7447 patient-years of follow-up. Only the World Health Organization (WHO) 1998 definition predicted MACE (25.3 vs 15.5 events/1000 patient-years, P = 0.019). Time-to-MACE was 5.5 ± 3.5 years with MetS and 6.8 ± 3.9 years without MetS (P < 0.0001). MetS was independent of pertinent MACE risk factors except age and previous cardiac disease. Among MetS components, dysglycemia provided greatest hazard ratio (HR) for MACE (1.814 [95% confidence interval 1.26-2.60]), increased successively by microalbuminuria (HR 1.946 [1.37-2.75]), dyslipidemia (3.284 [1.72-6.26]), hypertension (4.127 [2.16-7.86]), and central obesity (4.282 [2.09-8.76]). MetS did not affect graft survival. In summary, although the WHO 1998 definition provides greatest predictive value for post-transplant MACE, most of this is conferred by dysglycemia and is overshadowed by age and previous cardiac disease. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  7. Obesity as a chronic disease: modern medical and lifestyle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, J M; Crossley, S; Ringer, R

    1998-10-01

    The United States is in the midst of an epidemic of obesity involving more than one third of the adult population. The prevalence of obesity increased by 40% between 1980 and 1990. Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifactorial etiology including genetics, environment, metabolism, lifestyle, and behavioral components. A chronic disease treatment model involving both lifestyle interventions and, when appropriate, additional medical therapies delivered by an interdisciplinary team including physicians, dietitians, exercise specialists, and behavior therapists offers the best chance for effective obesity treatment. Lifestyle factors such as proper nutrition, regular physical activity, and changes in eating behaviors should be coordinated by this team. This review addresses the modern epidemic of obesity, the strong association between obesity and comorbidities such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. In addition to obesity, the health risks of abdominal obesity and adult weight gain are discussed. The evidence that supports health benefits from modest weight loss (between 5% and 10% of body weight) is evaluated and the 5 key principles of effective obesity therapy are put forward. Obesity is a therapeutic challenge best met by teams of health care professionals, including dietitians and physicians, working together to deliver optimal treatment.

  8. DYNAPENIA AND METABOLIC HEALTH IN OBESE AND NON-OBESE OLDER ADULTS AGED 70 YEARS AND OLDER: THE LIFE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S; Beavers, DP; Manini, TM; Fielding, R; Newman, A; Church, T; Kritchevsky, SB; Conroy, D; McDermott, MM; Botoseneanu, A; Hauser, ME; Pahor, M

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynapenia and metabolic risk factors in obese and non-obese older adults. Methods A total of 1453 men and women (age ≥ 70 years) from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study were categorized as (1) non-dynapenic/non-obese (NDYN-NO), (2) dynapenic/non-obese (DYN-NO), (3) non-dynapenic/obese (NDYN-O), or (4) dynapenic/obese (DYN-O), based on muscle strength (FNIH criteria) and body mass index. Dependent variables were blood lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, presence of at least three metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria and other chronic conditions. Results A significantly higher likelihood of having abdominal obesity criteria in NDYN-NO compared to DYN-NO groups (55.6 vs 45.1%, p ≤ 0.01) was observed. Waist circumference was also significantly higher in obese groups (DYN-O=114.0±12.9 and NDYN-O=111.2±13.1) than in non-obese (NDYN-NO=93.1±10.7 and DYN-NO=92.2±11.2, p ≤ 0.01); and higher in NDYN-O compared to DYN-O (p = 0.008). Additionally, NDYN-O demonstrated higher diastolic blood pressure compared to DYN-O (70.9±10.1 vs 67.7±9.7, p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences were found across dynapenia and obesity status for all other metabolic components (p>0.05). The odds of having metabolic syndrome or its individual components were similar in obese and non-obese, combined or not with dynapenia (non-significant OR [95%CI]). Conclusion Non-obese dynapenic older adults had fewer metabolic disease risk factors than non-obese and non-dynapenic older adults. Moreover, among obese older adults, dynapenia was associated with lower risk of meeting metabolic syndrome criteria for waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure. Additionally, the presence of dynapenia did not increase cardiometabolic disease risk in either obese or non-obese older adults. PMID:27914851

  9. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome components in young adults: A pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Nolan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn represents a clustering of different metabolic abnormalities. MetSyn prevalence is present in approximately 25% of all adults with increased prevalence in advanced ages. The presence of one component of MetSyn increases the risk of developing MetSyn later in life and likely represents a high lifetime burden of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore we pooled data from multiple studies to establish the prevalence of MetSyn and MetSyn component prevalence across a broad range of ethnicities. PubMed, SCOPUS and Medline databases were searched to find papers presenting MetSyn and MetSyn component data for 18–30 year olds who were apparently healthy, free of disease, and MetSyn was assessed using either the harmonized, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII, American Heart Association/National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (AHA/NHBLI, or International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of MetSyn. After reviewing returned articles, 26,609 participants' data from 34 studies were included in the analysis and the data were pooled. MetSyn was present in 4.8–7% of young adults. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia defined as low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol was the most prevalent MetSyn component (26.9–41.2%, followed by elevated blood pressure (16.6–26.6%, abdominal obesity (6.8–23.6%, atherogenic dyslipidaemia defined as raised triglycerides (8.6–15.6%, and raised fasting glucose (2.8–15.4%. These findings highlight that MetSyn is prevalent in young adults. Establishing the reason why low HDL is the most prevalent component may represent an important step in promoting primary prevention of MetSyn and reducing the incidence of subsequent clinical disease.

  10. Changes in body weight are significantly associated with changes in fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference < 85 cm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu

    2011-06-01

    The aims are to examine whether changes in body weight (dBW) are associated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese men without abdominal obesity (waist circumference (WC) obesity. It is a retrospective study in 692 Japanese men without abdominal obesity who took annual health screening tests consecutively over one year. Standardized linear regression coefficients (SRCs) of dBW and dWC were calculated for changes in systolic blood pressure (dSBP), diastolic blood pressure (dDBP), fasting plasma glucose (dFPG), triglycerides (dTG), HDL cholesterol (dHDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (dCRP). The SRCs of dBW for dFPG and dHDL were significant in all men and in men with each risk factor corresponding to the component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The SRCs of dWC for dTG and dCRP were significant in all men but not in men with each risk factor corresponding to the MetS component. In conclusions, dBW were significantly associated with dFPG and dHDL in Japanese men without abdominal obesity. Therefore, abdominal obesity should not be considered as a necessary component of MetS in Japanese men. dBW may be more useful than dWC as a marker of changes in cardiovascular risk factors in lifestyle intervention programs.

  11. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae-Mi; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kawada, Teruo; Yoo, Hoon; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina

    2007-02-13

    Inflammation plays a key role in obesity-related pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and several types of cancer. Obesity-induced inflammation entails the enhancement of the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue and the release of various proinflammatory proteins from fat tissue. Therefore, the modulation of inflammatory responses in obesity may be useful for preventing or ameliorating obesity-related pathologies. Some spice-derived components, which are naturally occurring phytochemicals, elicit antiobesity and antiinflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether active spice-derived components can be applied to the suppression of obesity-induced inflammatory responses. Mesenteric adipose tissue was isolated from obese mice fed a high-fat diet and cultured to prepare an adipose tissue-conditioned medium. Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with the adipose tissue-conditioned medium with or without active spice-derived components (i.e., diallyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, piperine, zingerone and curcumin). Chemotaxis assay was performed to measure the degree of macrophage migration. Macrophage activation was estimated by measuring tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentrations. The active spice-derived components markedly suppressed the migration of macrophages induced by the mesenteric adipose tissue-conditioned medium in a dose-dependent manner. Among the active spice-derived components studied, allyl isothiocyanate, zingerone, and curcumin significantly inhibited the cellular production of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, and significantly inhibited the release of MCP-1 from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings suggest that the spice-derived components can suppress obesity-induced inflammatory responses by suppressing adipose tissue macrophage accumulation or activation and inhibiting MCP-1 release from adipocytes

  12. Met kerse op met -konstruksies 1 : 'n Verwysingspuntperspektief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Met kerse op met-konstruksies1: 'n Verwysingspuntperspektief. Johanna Messerschmidt, Luna Bergh. Abstract. This article analyses the usage of the Afrikaans preposition met ('with'). The analysis is done within the framework of Cognitive Linguistics and more specifically within the model proposed by Langacker (1993) ...

  13. The effect of obesity and components of metabolic syndrome on urinary and sexual functions in Saudi men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosli HA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hisham A Mosli,1 Hala H Mosli,2 Akram A Bokhari1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objective: To establish a possible association between obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC and body mass index (BMI, and voiding and sexual functions in a random cohort of Saudi men. Materials and methods: An outpatient men’s health clinic was set up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and men were invited to discuss their sexual and urinary functions. The data collected included age, WC, weight, height, blood pressure, history of diabetes, hypertension, and smoking. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS and the International Inventory of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 questionnaire were used to assess urinary tract symptoms and sexual function, respectively. Serum testosterone, prostate-specific antigen and cholesterol levels were measured and documented. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: We recruited 113 participants. The mean WC and BMI of the men were 104 ± 14.599 cm and 29.706 kg/m2, respectively. Thirty-seven men (32.7% had an IPSS ≥ 8 points. Sexual disorders were reported in 19 men; 16 men had erectile dysfunction, while three had premature ejaculation. Of the whole cohort, 37 men were diabetic, of which 15 (40.5% had an IPSS ≥ 8 and 13 (35% were either overweight or obese. Conclusion: Increased WC and BMI were associated with diabetes mellitus and large percentages of voiding and sexual disorders. Keywords: obesity, waist circumference, body mass index, voiding function, sexual function

  14. Dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Framingham women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Pencina, Michael; Kimokoti, Ruth; Quatromoni, Paula; Nam, Byung-Ho; D'Agostino, Ralph; Meigs, James B; Ordovas, Jose; Cobain, Mark; Millen, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between habitual dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women and to identify foci for preventive nutrition interventions. Dietary patterns, nutrient intake, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and MetS risk factors were characterized in 1615 Framingham Offspring-Spouse Study (FOS) women. Dietary pattern subgroups were compared for MetS prevalence and CVD risk factor status using logistic regression and analysis of covariance. Analyses were performed overall in women and stratified on obesity status; multivariate models controlled for age, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes, and CVD risk factors. Food and nutrient profiles and overall nutritional risk of five non-overlapping habitual dietary patterns of women were identified including Heart Healthier, Lighter Eating, Wine and Moderate Eating, Higher Fat, and Empty Calories. Rates of hypertension and low high-density lipoprotein levels were high in non-obese women, but individual MetS risk factor levels were substantially increased in obese women. Overall MetS risk varied by dietary pattern and obesity status, independently of APOE and CVD risk factors. Compared with obese or non-obese women and women overall with other dietary patterns, MetS was highest in those with the Empty Calorie pattern (contrast p value: p<0.05). This research shows the independent relationship between habitual dietary patterns and MetS risk in FOS women and the influence of obesity status. High overall MetS risk and the varying prevalence of individual MetS risk factors in female subgroups emphasize the importance of preventive nutrition interventions and suggest potential benefits of targeted behavior change in both obese and non-obese women by dietary pattern.

  15. Relationship among physical activity, smoking, drinking and clustering of the metabolic syndrome diagnostic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Sayuri; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Aki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Taichiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Takebayashi, Toru; Yamato, Hiroshi; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-06-30

    To examine the relation between lifestyle and the number of metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnostic components in a general population, and to find a means of preventing the development of MetS components. We examined baseline data from 3,365 participants (2,714 men and 651 women) aged 19 to 69 years who underwent a physical examination, lifestyle survey, and blood chemical examination. The physical activity of each participant was classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We defined four components for MetS in this study as follows: 1) high BP: systolic BP > or = 130 mmHg or diastolic BP > or = 85 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive drugs; 2) dyslipidemia: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration or = 150 mg/dL, or on medication for dyslipidemia; 3) Impaired glucose tolerance: fasting blood sugar level > or = 110 mg/d, or if less than 8 hours after meals > or = 140 mg/dL), or on medication for diabetes mellitus; 4) obesity: body mass index > or = 25 kg/m(2). Those who had 0 to 4 MetS diagnostic components accounted for 1,726, 949, 484, 190, and 16 participants, respectively, in the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors contributing to the number of MetS diagnostic components were being male (regression coefficient b=0.600, p physical activity was inversely associated with the number of MetS diagnostic components, whereas smoking was not associated.

  16. Association of the components of the metabolic syndrome with non- alcoholic fatty liver disease among normal-weight, overweight and obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelishadi Roya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, abnormalities of liver enzymes and sonographic fatty liver, as well as the inter-related associations in normal weight, overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 1107 students (56.1% girls, aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. In addition to physical examination, fasting blood glucose, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes were determined. Liver sonography was performed among 931 participants. These variables were compared among participants with different body mass index (BMI categories. Results From lower to higher BMI category, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and systolic blood pressure increased, and HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly. Elevated ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were documented in respectively 4.1%, 6.6% and 9.8% of normal weight group. The corresponding figure was 9.5%, 9.8% and 9.1% in overweight group, and 16.9%, 14.9% and 10.8% in obese group, respectively. In all BMI categories, ALT increased significantly by increasing the number of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Odds ratio for elevated liver enzymes and sonographic fatty liver increased significantly with higher number of the components of the metabolic syndrome and higher BMI categories before and after adjustment for age. Conclusions Because of the interrelationship of biochemical and sonographic indexes of fatty liver with the components of the metabolic syndrome, and with increase in their number, it is suggested to determine the clinical impact of such association in future longitudinal studies.

  17. Technology Components as Adjuncts to Family-Based Pediatric Obesity Treatment in Low-Income Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripicchio, Gina L; Ammerman, Alice S; Neshteruk, Cody; Faith, Myles S; Dean, Kelsey; Befort, Christie; Ward, Dianne S; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Burger, Kyle S; Davis, Ann

    2017-12-01

    Strategies to treat pediatric obesity are needed, especially among high-need populations. Technology is an innovative approach; however, data on technology as adjuncts to in-person treatment programs are limited. A total of 64 children [body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile, mean age = 9.6 ± 3.1 years, 32.8% female, 84.4% Hispanic] were recruited to participate in one of three cohorts of a family-based behavioral group (FBBG) treatment program: FBBG only, TECH1, and TECH2. Rolling, nonrandomized recruitment was used to enroll participants into three cohorts from May 2014 to February 2015. FBBG began in May 2014 and received the standard, in-person 12-week treatment only (n = 21); TECH1 began in September 2014 and received FBBG plus a digital tablet equipped with a fitness app (FITNET) (n = 20); TECH2 began in February 2015 and received FBBG and FITNET, plus five individually tailored TeleMed health-coaching sessions delivered via Skype (n = 23). Child BMI z-score (BMI-z) was assessed at baseline and postintervention. Secondary aims examined weekly FBBG attendance, feasibility/acceptability of FITNET and Skype, and the effect of technology engagement on BMI-z. FBBG and TECH1 participants did not show significant reductions in BMI-z postintervention [FBBG: β = -0.05(0.04), p = 0.25; TECH1: β = -0.006(0.06), p = 0.92], but TECH2 participants did [β = -0.09(0.02), p < 0.001] and TeleMed session participation was significantly associated with BMI-z reduction [β = -0.04(0.01), p = 0.01]. FITNET use and FBBG attendance were not associated with BMI-z in any cohort. Overall, participants rated the technology as highly acceptable. Technology adjuncts are feasible, used by hard-to-reach participants, and show promise for improving child weight status in obesity treatment programs.

  18. Gezondheidsrisico's in verband met het werken met Pentachloorfenol : een onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, R.B.M.; Nossent, S.M.; Koëter, H.B.W.M.; Dreef-van der Meulen, H.C.; Stijkel, A.; Zielhuis, R.l.

    1989-01-01

    De gezondheidsrisico's i.v.m. het werken met pentachloorfenol (PCP) wordt geevalueerd. Het gebruik van PCP in Nederlandse arbeidssituaties neemt sterk af en is beperkt tot de formulering van emeltenkorrels en de, met name preventieve, houtverduurzaming. De totale risicopopulatie is niet omvangrijk

  19. Exposure to a multi-level multi-component childhood obesity prevention community-randomized controlled trial: patterns, determinants, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2018-05-22

    For community interventions to be effective in real-world conditions, participants need to have sufficient exposure to the intervention. It is unclear how the dose and intensity of the intervention differ among study participants in low-income areas. We aimed to understand patterns of exposure to different components of a multi-level multi-component obesity prevention program to inform our future impact analyses. B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a community-randomized controlled trial implemented in 28 low-income zones in Baltimore in two rounds (waves). Exposure to three different intervention components (corner store/carryout restaurants, social media/text messaging, and youth-led nutrition education) was assessed via post-intervention interviews with 385 low-income urban youths and their caregivers. Exposure scores were generated based on self-reported viewing of BHCK materials (posters, handouts, educational displays, and social media posts) and participating in activities, including taste tests during the intervention. For each intervention component, points were assigned for exposure to study materials and activities, then scaled (0-1 range), yielding an overall BHCK exposure score [youths: mean 1.1 (range 0-7.6 points); caregivers: 1.1 (0-6.7), possible highest score: 13]. Ordered logit regression analyses were used to investigate correlates of youths' and caregivers' exposure level (quartile of exposure). Mean intervention exposure scores were significantly higher for intervention than comparison youths (mean 1.6 vs 0.5, p selection bias may exist affecting causal inference. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02181010 . Retrospectively registered on 2 July 2014.

  20. [Relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and obesity/metabolic syndrome in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Wang, Wenpeng; Teng, Yue; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Ping; Yan, Yinkun; Mi, Jie

    2014-06-01

    To explore the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS) related factors in children. 403 children aged 10-14 and born in Beijing were involved in this study. Height, weight, waist circumference, fat mass percentage (Fat%), blood pressure (BP), hsCRP, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C) were observed among these children. hsCRP was transformed with base 10 logarithm (lgCRP). MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation 2007 definition. Associations between MetS related components and hsCRP were tested using partial correlation analysis, analysis of covariance and linear regression models. 1) lgCRP was positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, Fat%,BP, FPG, LDL-C and TC while negatively correlated with HDL-C. With BMI under control, the relationships disappeared, but LDL-C (r = 0.102). 2) The distributions of lgCRP showed obvious differences in all the metabolic indices, in most groups, respectively. With BMI under control, close relationships between lgCRP and high blood pressure/high TG disappeared and the relationship with MetS weakened. 3) Through linear regression models, factors as waist circumference, BMI, Fat% were the strongest factors related to hsCRP, followed by systolic BP, HDL-C, diastolic BP, TG and LDL-C. With BMI under control, the relationships disappeared, but LDL-C(β = 0.045). hsCRP was correlated with child obesity, lipid metabolism and MetS. Waist circumference was the strongest factors related with hsCRP. Obesity was the strongest and the independent influencing factor of hsCRP.

  1. Microbewerking met behulp van lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, M.M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Het bewerken van materialen met behulp van lasers staat momenteel enorm in de belangstelling, en terecht. De ontwikkeling van bestaande en nieuwe typen lasers staat alles behalve stil. Ontwikkelingen bevinden zich met name in het gebied van hogere vermogens, betere bundelkwaliteit en hogere

  2. Estimates of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in children and adolescents with and without components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frithioff-Bøjsøe, Christine; Trier, Cæcilie; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius

    2017-01-01

    measures of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were assessed by the OGTT-derived indices: the Matsuda index, the insulinogenic index, and the oral disposition index. The severity of MetS was assessed by measures of waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of triglycerides, high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose. RESULTS: The 83 children were allocated to one of three groups according to the number of components of MetS: the median body mass index standard deviation score was 0.2 (range -0.6-2.9) in the low MetS risk group (n=36), 2.8 (0.1-4.1) in the high MetS risk group (n=25......INTRODUCTION: The accumulation of components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a disturbed glucose metabolism in obese children. AIM OF STUDY: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between MetS and estimates of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function...

  3. Identification of Increased Amounts of Eppin Protein Complex Components in Sperm Cells of Diabetic and Obese Individuals by Difference Gel Electrophoresis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Heidenreich, Falk; Pursche, Theresia; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Kettner, Karina; Grunewald, Sonja; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Dittmar, Gunnar; Glander, Hans-Jürgen; Hoflack, Bernard; Kriegel, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic disorders like diabetes mellitus and obesity may compromise the fertility of men and women. To unveil disease-associated proteomic changes potentially affecting male fertility, the proteomes of sperm cells from type-1 diabetic, type-2 diabetic, non-diabetic obese and clinically healthy individuals were comparatively analyzed by difference gel electrophoresis. The adaptation of a general protein extraction procedure to the solubilization of proteins from sperm cells allowed for the resolution of 3187 fluorescent spots in the difference gel electrophoresis image of the master gel, which contained the entirety of solubilized sperm proteins. Comparison of the pathological and reference proteomes by applying an average abundance ratio setting of 1.6 and a p ≤ 0.05 criterion resulted in the identification of 79 fluorescent spots containing proteins that were present at significantly changed levels in the sperm cells. Biometric evaluation of the fluorescence data followed by mass spectrometric protein identification revealed altered levels of 12, 71, and 13 protein species in the proteomes of the type-1 diabetic, type-2 diabetic, and non-diabetic obese patients, respectively, with considerably enhanced amounts of the same set of one molecular form of semenogelin-1, one form of clusterin, and two forms of lactotransferrin in each group of pathologic samples. Remarkably, β-galactosidase-1-like protein was the only protein that was detected at decreased levels in all three pathologic situations. The former three proteins are part of the eppin (epididymal proteinase inhibitor) protein complex, which is thought to fulfill fertilization-related functions, such as ejaculate sperm protection, motility regulation and gain of competence for acrosome reaction, whereas the putative role of the latter protein to function as a glycosyl hydrolase during sperm maturation remains to be explored at the protein/enzyme level. The strikingly similar differences detected in the

  4. Gezondheidsrisico's in verband met het werken met Polychloorbifenylen : een onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, R.B.M.; Nossent, S.M.; Koëter, H.B.W.M.; Dreef-van der Meulen, H.C.; Stijkel, A.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Met behulp van gegevens verkregen uit een werkplekinventarisatie naar gegevens over produktie/gebruik, risicopopulatie en (mogelijke) blootstelling aan polychloorbifenylen (PCB's), en een literatuurstudie naar mogelijke schadelijke eigenschappen van PCB's op het reproductiesysteem en/of nageslacht

  5. Associations of meal frequency and breakfast with obesity and metabolic syndrome traits in adolescents of Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, A; Schwab, U; Kolehmainen, M; Pirkola, J; Järvelin, M-R; Laitinen, J

    2013-10-01

    Breakfast consumption and meal frequencies have been linked to the risk of obesity in youth but their associations with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young populations are yet to be studied. We examined associations of three meal patterns on weekdays--five meals including breakfast, ≤four meals including breakfast and ≤four meals without breakfast--with overweight/obesity and MetS components in Finnish adolescents. A population-based sample of 16-year-old boys and girls (n = 6247) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 was used. Adolescents were clinically examined and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Overweight/obesity and MetS features were defined according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs and the International Diabetes Federation MetS paediatric criteria and their associations with meal patterns assessed using logistic regression, adjusted separately for early life factors (birth size, maternal health) and later childhood factors (health behaviours, weight status, parental education). After adjustment for early life factors, the adolescents who ate five meals/day were at lower risk for overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.47 [0.34, 0.65]; girls: 0.57 [0.41, 0.79]), abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.32 [0.22, 0.48]; girls: 0.54 [0.39, 0.75]) and hypertriglyceridaemia (boys only). Adjusting for later childhood factors, the five-meal-a-day pattern was associated with decreased odds of overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.41 [0.29, 0.58]; girls: 0.63 [0.45, 0.89]) and abdominal obesity in boys (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16, 0.63). Among 16-year-olds, the five-meal-a-day pattern was robustly associated with reduced risks of overweight/obesity in both genders and abdominal obesity in boys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and Mediterranean diet: Impact on depression outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Toro, M; Vicens-Pons, E; Gili, M; Roca, M; Serrano-Ripoll, M J; Vives, M; Leiva, A; Yáñez, A M; Bennasar-Veny, M; Oliván-Blázquez, B

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and low adherence to Mediterranean diet are frequent in major depression patients and have been separately related with prognosis. The aim of this study is to analyse their predictive power on major depression outcome, at 6 and 12 months. 273 Major depressive patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory for depressive symptoms and the 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence score. MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). At the baseline Mediterranean diet adherence was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (p=0.007). Depression response was more likely in those patients with normal weight (p=0.006) and not MetS (p=0.013) but it was not associated with Mediterranean diet adherence (p=0.625). Those patients with MetS and obesity were less likely to improve symptoms of depression than patients with obesity but not MetS. Obesity and MetS, but not low adherence to the Mediterranean diet at baseline, predicted a poor outcome of depression at 12 months. Our study suggests that MetS is the key factor that impacts negatively in depression prognosis, rather than obesity or diet. If this finding is confirmed, clinicians should be aware about MetS diagnosis and treatment in overweight depressed patients, especially if outcome is not being satisfactory enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic syndrome components and diabetes incidence according to the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose: The Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Kayo; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Nagahama, Satsue; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Sasaki, Naoko; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kuroda, Reiko; Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2017-09-01

    We prospectively examined the association of diabetes risk with the number of metabolic abnormalities, as well as their combinations, according to the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a large-scale Japanese working population. Participants included 55,271 workers at 11 companies who received periodic health check-ups between 2008 and 2013. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) components were defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/L. Diabetes newly diagnosed after the baseline examination was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. We calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes incidence using the Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up period (median 4.95 years), 3183 subjects developed diabetes. In individuals with normal fasting glucose levels, the risk of diabetes increased steadily with the increasing number of MetS components; the multivariable-adjusted HRs for incident diabetes for the number of MetS components were 2.0, 4.3, 7.0, and 10.0 for one, two, three, or four MetS components, respectively, compared with the absence of components. A similar association was observed among individuals with IFG; the corresponding HRs were 17.6, 23.8, 33.9, and 40.7. The combinations that included central obesity appeared to be more strongly associated with diabetes risk than other combinations with the same number of MetS components within the same glucose status. Our findings indicate that risk stratification of individuals by the presence or absence of IFG and the number of MetS components can detect individuals with a high risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Reduced Kidney Function by Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Using an Equation Based on Creatinine and Cystatin C in Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ho Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is known that metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated and compared the prevalence of reduced kidney function in MetS and its components by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using an equation based on creatinine (eGFRcr, cystatin C (eGFRcys, and combined creatinine-cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys in Korean adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from 3,649 adults who participated in a comprehensive health examination.ResultsMean values of eGFRcys were higher compared with mean values of eGFRcr (96.1±18.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. 91.2±13.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 in total subjects. The prevalence of reduced kidney function increased with age (9.6% for eGFRcys vs. 5.8% for eGFRcr-cys vs. 4.9% for eGFRcr, in subjects aged ≥60 years, and significantly increased with MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein (HDL, and high insulin resistance. The prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high insulin resistance, low HDL, and hepatic steatosis was significantly increased in subjects with reduced kidney function. This increased prevalence and the odds ratio of reduced kidney function for prevalence of MetS was highest for eGFRcys, followed by those of eGFRcr-cys, and eGFRcr.ConclusionThe prevalence of reduced kidney function by eGFR was significantly increased in subjects with MetS and its related components. eGFRcys and eGFRcr-cys were superior to eGFRcr in detecting reduced kidney function.

  9. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick, Carl B.; Snellman, Kaisa; Putnam, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood and youth obesity represent significant US public health challenges. Recent findings that the childhood obesity ‘‘epidemic’’ may have slightly abated have been met with relief from health professionals and popular media. However, we document that the overall trend in youth obesity rates masks a significant and growing class gap between youth from upper and lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Until 2002, obesity rates increased at similar rates for all adolescents, but sinc...

  10. Dynapenia and Metabolic Health in Obese and Nonobese Adults Aged 70 Years and Older: The LIFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Anton, Stephen; Beavers, Daniel P; Manini, Todd M; Fielding, Roger; Newman, Ann; Church, Tim; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Conroy, David; McDermott, Mary M; Botoseneanu, Anda; Hauser, Michelle E; Pahor, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynapenia and metabolic risk factors in obese and nonobese older adults. A total of 1453 men and women (age ≥70 years) from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study were categorized as (1) nondynapenic/nonobese (NDYN-NO), (2) dynapenic/nonobese (DYN-NO), (3) nondynapenic/obese (NDYN-O), or (4) dynapenic/obese (DYN-O), based on muscle strength (Foundation for the National Institute of Health criteria) and body mass index. Dependent variables were blood lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, presence of at least 3 metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria, and other chronic conditions. A significantly higher likelihood of having abdominal obesity criteria in NDYN-NO compared with DYN-NO groups (55.6 vs 45.1%, P ≤ .01) was observed. Waist circumference also was significantly higher in obese groups (DYN-O = 114.0 ± 12.9 and NDYN-O = 111.2 ± 13.1) than in nonobese (NDYN-NO = 93.1 ± 10.7 and DYN-NO = 92.2 ± 11.2, P ≤ .01); and higher in NDYN-O compared with DYN-O (P = .008). Additionally, NDYN-O demonstrated higher diastolic blood pressure compared with DYN-O (70.9 ± 10.1 vs 67.7 ± 9.7, P ≤ .001). No significant differences were found across dynapenia and obesity status for all other metabolic components (P > .05). The odds of having MetS or its individual components were similar in obese and nonobese, combined or not with dynapenia (nonsignificant odds ratio [95% confidence interval]). Nonobese dynapenic older adults had fewer metabolic disease risk factors than nonobese and nondynapenic older adults. Moreover, among obese older adults, dynapenia was associated with lower risk of meeting MetS criteria for waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure. Additionally, the presence of dynapenia did not increase cardiometabolic disease risk in either obese or nonobese older adults. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and

  11. La metáfora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2007-01-01

    2002 y principios de 2003, anteriores a la proclamación de las Juntas de Buen Gobierno. Nuestro objetivo es comprobar cómo las metáforas crean nuevas significaciones, que intentan deshacer una lógica comúnmente asumida, y promover otros modos de comprender la acción y la realidad político-social. Este...

  12. The genetics of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    All definitions of the metabolic syndrome include some form of obesity as one of the possible features. Body mass index (BMI) has a known genetic component, currently estimated to account for about 70% of the population variance in weight status for non-syndromal obesity. Much research effort has be...

  13. Challenges in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential impact of serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular risk factor burden in nondiabetic, obese African American women: implications for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria includes 3 metabolic parameters: serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) measurements. However, the impact of each of the 3 metabolic parameters on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in African American women (AAW) is unknown. Therefore, we investigated CVD risk clusters associated with each of the 3 metabolic components of MetS in adult nondiabetic, overweight/obese AAW. We studied the clinical and metabolic CVD risk factors of 258 AAW (mean age, 42.4 +/- 8.4 years; mean body mass index, 33.4 +/- 8.0 (kg/m(2)). Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide levels were obtained in each subject. Waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Insulin sensitivity (Bergman minimal model method) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) were calculated. We examined the prevalence of MetS and its components associated with each of the 3 metabolic components (ie, serum glucose, HDL-C, and triglycerides) of the MetS as defined by ATP III. Worsening of any of the 3 metabolic parameters was associated with increasing waist circumference but not with age and body mass index nor with insulin, C-peptide, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and insulin sensitivity. As a group, the prevalence of MetS was 35.5% in our AAW. The prevalence of MetS increased 3-fold from first to third tertiles of serum glucose (14.1% and 42.3%, respectively). Worsening of serum HDL-C from tertiles 3 to 1 was associated with significant increases in the prevalence of MetS (1.2% vs 42.3%, respectively). Comparing first with third tertile of triglycerides, there was no significant increase in MetS in our AAW (7% vs 17%). Contrasting the 3 metabolic components, the prevalence of MetS was higher in the third tertile of glucose (43.2%) and first tertile of HDL-C (42.3%) and least with the third tertile of triglycerides (17%). In

  15. Association of Serum Ceruloplasmin Level with Obesity: Some Components of Metabolic Syndrome and High-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Morteza Safavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the mechanisms that has been suggested for obesity related metabolic disturbances is obesity-induced inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines generated in adipose tissue can increase hepatic synthesis of inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins (ISPs including ceruloplasmin (Cp. In this study we aimed to investigate the relation between serum Cp level and obesity. Methods. 61 persons with body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (case group and 61 persons with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (control group were included in this study with a case-control design. Serum Cp levels, triglyceride level, fating blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and hsCRP were measured in both groups. Results. We did not observe any significant association between serum Cp level and BMI in all subjects [OR: 1.02 (CI, 0.967 to 1.07] and in case (β=0.012, P=0.86 and control groups (β=0.49, P=0.07 separately. However, in control group, this positive association was marginally significant. We found a positive correlation between serum Cp level and serum triglyceride level. Conclusion. Serum Cp level was not related to obesity in this group of subjects. None of the baseline variables could predict obesity in this group of subjects, including serum Cp level, FBS, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL- cholesterols and hsCRP.

  16. Influence of non-dietary factors on the prevalence of abdominal obesity as a major component of the metabolic syndrome among 17-18-year-old youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Ewa; Broniecka, Anna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Wyka, Joanna; Bronkowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Youth nutrition and their nutritional status are conditioned by many factors, some of the main ones being: economic, social, climatic, cultural, and psychological factors as well as nutritional knowledge. With the growing problem of overweight and obesity among children and young people, the incidence of the metabolic syndrome is also increasing. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of demographic, sociological and psychological factors on the incidence of obesity among 17-18-year-old adolescents from Wroclaw and vicinity as a major risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome. The study was conducted in three upper-secondary schools in Wroclaw, Poland. In the surveyed group (17-18 years old, n = 269) girls accounted for 59.5% and boys constituted 40.5%. Majority of young people were Wroclaw citizens (72.9%). Centile charts elaborated by the Children's Memorial Health Institute were adopted for the evaluation of anthropometric parameters. Evaluation of the impact of non-dietary factors on the manner of nutrition was carried out using own questionnaire. Based on the tests, abdominal obesity was determined among 34.5% of adolescents aged 17 years and among 65.5% of these aged 18 years. Obesity was more common in girls carrying genetic burden of the disease. Youth with the largest waist circumference most often declared to use slimming diets - 6.7%, and the lowest hunger sensation in stress - 3.4%. In addition, 30.5% of the adolescents with the smallest waist circumference and 11.5% with the largest waist circumference declared to be non-smoking. Occasional alcohol consumption was declared by 30.1% of young people with the smallest waist circumference, and 13.4% with the largest waist circumference. Youth with abdominal obesity significantly more likely than those with normal waist circumference applied slimming diets. Significant impact on the formation of abdominal obesity among girls had inherited disease burden.

  17. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult’s overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. Results OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p snack food

  18. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2013-08-09

    Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult's overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p snack food consumption are independently and

  19. Short-term role of the dietary total antioxidant capacity in two hypocaloric regimes on obese with metabolic syndrome symptoms: the RESMENA randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Legarrea Patricia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary strategies seem to be the most prescribed therapy in order to counteract obesity regarding not only calorie restriction, but also bioactive ingredients and the composition of the consumed foods. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC is gaining importance in order to assess the quality of the diet. Methods Ninety-six obese adults presenting metabolic syndrome (MetS symptoms completed an 8-week intervention trial to evaluate the effects of a novel dietary program with changes in the nutrient distribution and meal frequency and to compare it with a dietary pattern based on the American Heart Association (AHA guidelines. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the study, in addition to 48-hours food dietary records. Results Both diets equally (p > 0.05 improved MetS manifestations. Dietary TAC was the component which showed the major influence on body weight (p = 0.034, body mass index (p = 0.026, waist circumference (p = 0.083 and fat mass (p = 0.015 reductions. Transaminases (ALT and AST levels (p = 0.062 and p = 0.004, respectively were associated with lower TAC values. Conclusion RESMENA diet was as effective as AHA pattern for reducing MetS features. Dietary TAC was the most contributing factor involved in body weight and obesity related markers reduction. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086

  20. Tidal analysis of Met rocket wind data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, J. F.; Constantinides, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method of analyzing Met Rocket wind data is described. Modern tidal theory and specialized analytical techniques were used to resolve specific tidal modes and prevailing components in observed wind data. A representation of the wind which is continuous in both space and time was formulated. Such a representation allows direct comparison with theory, allows the derivation of other quantities such as temperature and pressure which in turn may be compared with observed values, and allows the formation of a wind model which extends over a broader range of space and time. Significant diurnal tidal modes with wavelengths of 10 and 7 km were present in the data and were resolved by the analytical technique.

  1. Reactions of Met-Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.; Guo, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of metal-carbon complexes, termed metallo-carbohedrenes (Met-Cars), have been discovered to form in a plasma reactor in which early transition metals are vaporized into a stream carrying small hydrocarbon molecules. The initial discovery involved the species Ti 8 c 12 + , while subsequent studies revealed the stability of the anion and, most importantly, the neutral species. Subsequent investigations show that similar molecules, predicted to have a pentagonal dodecahedral structure, can also be formed with vanadium, hafnium, and zirconium. In the case of the latter, more recent investigations have displaced an interesting growth pattern. In particular, pentagonal dodecahedrons with dangling carbon atoms can undergo further growth, adding at least a second and third cage. The latest results on the properties and reactivities of these new cage-like molecular clusters will be discussed

  2. Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Is Associated with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Chan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs are the principle source of added sugar in diets. Cardiometabolic disturbances can occur from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the gender-specific association of SSB intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2727 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years randomly selected from three diverse economic areas in Southern Taiwan by using a multistage-sampling strategy participated in this study. Demographic, dietary, physical and anthropometric parameters were measured, and serum lipid profiles and glucose levels were determined. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF specifies that MetS requires abdominal obesity and ≥2 abnormal components, and Cook criteria for MetS require ≥3 abnormal components. We applied survey-data modules to data analyses, and used multiple regression and logistic models to adjust for covariates. An increased SSB intake was linked to a greater waist circumference in both sexes and to systolic blood pressure in boys (P for trend: ≤0.043. Male moderate and high consuming SSB drinkers exhibited triglyceride levels that were 8.0 and 8.2 mg/dL significantly higher, respectively, than those of nondrinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, boys who consumed >500 mL/day (high quantity of SSBs exhibited 10.3-fold (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 1.2-90.2 and 5.1-fold (95% CIs: 1.01-25.5 risks of contracting MetS, as defined by the IDF and Cook criteria for MetS, respectively. In girls, the risk estimates for the same comparison were not significant by the IDF criteria (6.5-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.9-∞ or Cook criteria (5.9-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.8-43.8 for MetS. High SSB consumption was also linked to 1.9-fold (95% CIs: 1.1-3.1 and 2.7-fold (95% CIs: 1.3-5.7 higher risks of being at a greater overall metabolic risk in girls and boys, respectively. In conclusion, a high SSB intake is associated with adolescent

  3. [A better self-perception of physical fitness is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Camacho, Deivy Fredery; Hernández-Fonseca, John Manuel; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2014-12-17

    To evaluate whether more positive self-perception of physical fitness is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in university students in Bogotá, Colombia Method: A total of 493 men (mean age 28.5±11.5 years old) without cardiovascular disease university students completed the self-report fitness tool, namely "The International FItness Scale" (IFIS). The overall prevalence of MetS and its components according to "International Diabetes Federation" (IDF) criteria and the "National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood, Cholesterol in Adults" (NCEP: ATP-III) were measured. Body Fat Mass (BFM), Body Fat Percentage (BF %), Fat-Free Mass (FFM) and Fat-Free Mass Index (FFMI), were estimated using segmental bioelectrical impedance equipment. Twenty three percent of participants had met the criteria of MetS. Central obesity (33%) was the most prevalent factor, followed by low HDL cholesterol level (31%). The other factors associated with the presence of MetS were hypercholesterolemia (60%), high LDL cholesterol level (32%) and hypertriglyceridemia (19%). Participants reporting to have a "good/very good" in the self-reported (cardiorespiratory and muscle fitness specific components), shown a healthy range in blood pressure, FFM, FFMI and triglycerides level (p self-perception of physical fitness have an increased prevalence of MetS and its components. This study suggests that the self-report tool used in this study, the IFIS tool, is a useful method to be used in large scale surveys and epidemiological studies in which, because of time, equipment, or qualified personnel limitations, fitness cannot be directly measured. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. San Diego Met High School: Personalization as a Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of San Diego Met High School is to prepare students for college and the workforce through active learning, academic rigor, and community involvement in a small school setting. Because personalization is a key component of the school culture, advisories of 20-25 students work with the same teachers for all four years. Advisers, parents,…

  5. Proef met duurzaam watergebruik in de bollenstreek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliegenthart, F.; Dik, P.E.; Groenendijk, P.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 begon in de Wieringermeer een praktijkproef met alternatieve waterbeheersystemen voor de bollenteelt. Met drie verschillende teeltsystemen wordt onderzoek verricht naar zo optimaal mogelijk gebruik van zoet water door recirculatie en hergebruik. Ook loopt onderzoek naar de emissie van

  6. Association between Exposure to Ambient Air Particulates and Metabolic Syndrome Components in a Saudi Arabian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Shamy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulates may be a factor in the etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS. In this novel study, we investigated the relationship between particulate levels and prevalence of MetS component abnormalities (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity in a recruited cohort (N = 2025 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We observed significant associations between a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and increased risks for MetS (Risk Ratio (RR: 1.12; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.06–1.19, hyperglycemia (RR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.03–1.14, and hypertension (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04–1.14. PM2.5 from soil/road dust was found to be associated with hyperglycemia (RR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06–1.19 and hypertension (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.05–1.18, while PM2.5 from traffic was associated with hyperglycemia (RR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.05–1.71. We did not observe any health associations with source-specific mass exposures. Our findings suggest that exposure to specific elemental components of PM2.5, especially Ni, may contribute to the development of cardiometabolic disorders.

  7. Diabetes and obesity are the main metabolic drivers of peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Brian C; Gao, LeiLi; Li, Yufeng; Zhou, Xianghai; Reynolds, Evan; Banerjee, Mousumi; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Feldman, Eva L; Ji, Linong

    2018-04-01

    To determine the associations between individual metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and peripheral neuropathy in a large population-based cohort from Pinggu, China. A cross-sectional, randomly selected, population-based survey of participants from Pinggu, China was performed. Metabolic phenotyping and neuropathy outcomes were performed by trained personnel. Glycemic status was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria, and the MetS using modified consensus criteria (body mass index instead of waist circumference). The primary peripheral neuropathy outcome was the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) examination. Secondary outcomes were the MNSI questionnaire and monofilament testing. Multivariable models were used to assess for associations between individual MetS components and peripheral neuropathy. Tree-based methods were used to construct a classifier for peripheral neuropathy using demographics and MetS components. The mean (SD) age of the 4002 participants was 51.6 (11.8) and 51.0% were male; 37.2% of the population had normoglycemia, 44.0% prediabetes, and 18.9% diabetes. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy increased with worsening glycemic status (3.25% in normoglycemia, 6.29% in prediabetes, and 15.12% in diabetes, P peripheral neuropathy. Age, diabetes, and weight were the primary splitters in the classification tree for peripheral neuropathy. Similar to previous studies, diabetes and obesity are the main metabolic drivers of peripheral neuropathy. The consistency of these results reinforces the urgent need for effective interventions that target these metabolic factors to prevent and/or treat peripheral neuropathy.

  8. c-Met in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: an independent prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Yohei; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Felizola, Saulo J A; Takeda, Kenichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Ito, Ken; Ishida, Hirotaka; Konno, Takuro; Kamei, Takashi; Miyata, Go; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-06-03

    c-Met is widely known as a poor prognostic factor in various human malignancies. Previous studies have suggested the involvement of c-Met and/or its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but the correlation between c-Met status and clinical outcome remains unclear. Furthermore, the identification of a novel molecular therapeutic target might potentially help improve the clinical outcome of ESCC patients. The expression of c-Met and HGF was immunohistochemically assessed in 104 surgically obtained tissue specimens. The correlation between c-Met/HGF expression and patients' clinicopathological features, including survival, was evaluated. We also investigated changes in cell functions and protein expression of c-Met and its downstream signaling pathway components under treatments with HGF and/or c-Met inhibitor in ESCC cell lines. Elevated expression of c-Met was significantly correlated with tumor depth and pathological stage. Patients with high c-Met expression had significantly worse survival. In addition, multivariate analysis identified the high expression of c-Met as an independent prognostic factor. Treatment with c-Met inhibitor under HGF stimulation significantly inhibited the invasive capacity of an ESCC cell line with elevated c-Met mRNA expression. Moreover, c-Met and its downstream signaling inactivation was also detected after treatment with c-Met inhibitor. The results of our study identified c-Met expression as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC patients and demonstrated that c-Met could be a potential molecular therapeutic target for the treatment of ESCC with elevated c-Met expression.

  9. c-Met in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: an independent prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Yohei; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Felizola, Saulo JA; Takeda, Kenichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Ito, Ken; Ishida, Hirotaka; Konno, Takuro; Kamei, Takashi; Miyata, Go; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2015-01-01

    c-Met is widely known as a poor prognostic factor in various human malignancies. Previous studies have suggested the involvement of c-Met and/or its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but the correlation between c-Met status and clinical outcome remains unclear. Furthermore, the identification of a novel molecular therapeutic target might potentially help improve the clinical outcome of ESCC patients. The expression of c-Met and HGF was immunohistochemically assessed in 104 surgically obtained tissue specimens. The correlation between c-Met/HGF expression and patients’ clinicopathological features, including survival, was evaluated. We also investigated changes in cell functions and protein expression of c-Met and its downstream signaling pathway components under treatments with HGF and/or c-Met inhibitor in ESCC cell lines. Elevated expression of c-Met was significantly correlated with tumor depth and pathological stage. Patients with high c-Met expression had significantly worse survival. In addition, multivariate analysis identified the high expression of c-Met as an independent prognostic factor. Treatment with c-Met inhibitor under HGF stimulation significantly inhibited the invasive capacity of an ESCC cell line with elevated c-Met mRNA expression. Moreover, c-Met and its downstream signaling inactivation was also detected after treatment with c-Met inhibitor. The results of our study identified c-Met expression as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC patients and demonstrated that c-Met could be a potential molecular therapeutic target for the treatment of ESCC with elevated c-Met expression. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1450-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. The Future of Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jeff; Emerick, Jill; Saxena, Harshita

    2016-03-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports a steady increase in obesity over the last 30 years. The greatest increase was seen in 15 to 19 year olds, whose obesity prevalence almost doubled from 10.5% to 19.4%. The solution to pediatric obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach addressing cultural norms, technologic advances, and family engagement. Future treatment strategies to combat the obesity epidemic will have to extend beyond the health care provider's office. Behavior modification remains the key component to pediatric obesity prevention and treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Behavioral management of the obese patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite countless diets, exercise regimens, drugs, and behavior modification strategies, the prevalence of obesity continues its relentless increase in both developed and developing nations. Although many necessary components to treat obesity have been identified, behavior modification remains the b...

  12. Childhood obesity affects adult metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Liang; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Yan, Yinkun; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Mi, Jie

    2015-09-01

    We seek to observe the association between childhood obesity by different measures and adult obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes. Thousand two hundred and nine subjects from "Beijing Blood Pressure Cohort Study" were followed 22.9 ± 0.5 years in average from childhood to adulthood. We defined childhood obesity using body mass index (BMI) or left subscapular skinfold (LSSF), and adult obesity as BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2). MetS was defined according to the joint statement of International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association with modified waist circumference (≥ 90/85 cm for men/women). Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or blood glucose 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or currently using blood glucose-lowering agents. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. The incidence of adult obesity was 13.4, 60.0, 48.3, and 65.1 % for children without obesity, having obesity by BMI only, by LSSF only, and by both, respectively. Compared to children without obesity, children obese by LSSF only or by both had higher risk of diabetes. After controlling for adult obesity, childhood obesity predicted independently long-term risks of diabetes (odds ratio 2.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.2-6.3) or abdominal obesity (2.7, 1.6-4.7) other than MetS as a whole (1.2, 0.6-2.4). Childhood obesity predicts long-term risk of adult diabetes, and the effect is independent of adult obesity. LSSF is better than BMI in predicting adult diabetes.

  13. Association of HMOX1 and NQO1 Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Martínez-Hernández

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is among the most important public health problems worldwide, and is recognized as a major risk factor for various illnesses, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, oxidative stress has been suggested as part of MetS aetiology. The heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 genes are crucial mediators of cellular defence against oxidative stress. In the present study, we analysed the associations of HMOX1 (GTn and NQO1 C609T polymorphisms with MetS and its components. Our study population comprised 735 Mexican Mestizos unrelated volunteers recruited from different tertiary health institutions from Mexico City. In order to know the HMOX1 (GTn and NQO1 C609T allele frequencies in Amerindians, we included a population of 241 Amerindian native speakers. Their clinical and demographic data were recorded. The HMOX1 (GTn polymorphism was genotyped using PCR and fluorescence technology. NQO1 C609T polymorphism genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes. Short allele (<25 GT repeats of the HMOX1 polymorphism was associated with high systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the T allele of the NQO1 C609T polymorphism was associated with increased triglyceride levels and decreased HDL-c levels, but only in individuals with MetS. This is the first study to analyse the association between MetS and genes involved in oxidative stress among Mexican Mestizos. Our data suggest that polymorphisms of HMOX1 and NQO1 genes are associated with a high risk of metabolic disorders, including high systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL-c levels in Mexican Mestizo individuals.

  14. Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism in Chinese subjects with coronary artery disease and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Na-Ping; Wang, Lian-Sheng; Yang, Li; Gu, Hai-Juan; Zhu, Huai-Jun; Zhou, Bo; Sun, Qing-Min; Cong, Ri-Hong; Wang, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is considered to exert a protective effect against atherosclerosis. The Leu72Met (+408C>A) polymorphic variant of the preproghrelin, the gene for the ghrelin precursor, has been linked to obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, it is unclear whether this polymorphism is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We conducted a case-control study with 317 CAD patients and 323 controls to investigate the potential association of the Leu72Met polymorphism with the occurrence of CAD and CAD-related phenotypes in Chinese population. No significant difference in the Leu72Met genotype frequency was observed between CAD patients and controls (P=NS). The Leu72Met polymorphism was not associated with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, the number of diseased vessels, plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or fasting glucose levels in CAD patients. However, among CAD patients, those with variant genotypes (Leu72Met and Met72Met) had lower BMI (24.4+/-0.3 kg/m(2)) than Leu72Leu carriers (25.4+/-0.2 kg/m(2), adjusted P=0.033). Our data indicate that the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is not associated with CAD in Chinese population. However, the Leu72Met variant is associated with BMI among CAD patients.

  15. Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Jo, Dae-Sun; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Park, Ji Hyun; Park, Sung Kwang; Yi, Ho Keun; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2006-03-01

    Ghrelin is a novel gut-brain peptide, which exerts somatotropic, orexigenic, and adipogenic effects. Genetic variants of ghrelin have been associated with both obesity and insulin metabolism. In this study, we determined a role of preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism on type 2 diabetes mellitus and its relationship to variables studied. Genotypes were assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Frequencies of the Leu72Met polymorphism were found to be 35.4% in the type 2 diabetic patients and 32.5% in the normal controls. The Leu72Met polymorphism was not associated with hypertension, macroangiopathy, retinopathy, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, HbA(1c), lipoprotein (a), fasting insulin, or 24-hour urinary protein levels in the type 2 diabetic group. However, the Leu72Met polymorphism was clearly associated with serum creatinine levels in the diabetic group, as the Met72 carriers exhibited lower serum creatinine levels than the Met72 noncarriers. Our data indicate that the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the Leu72Met polymorphism is associated with serum creatinine levels. These data suggest that Met72 carrier status may be a predictable marker for diabetic nephropathy or renal impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Alkaline transition of pseudoazurin Met16X mutant proteins: protein stability influenced by the substitution of Met16 in the second sphere coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Rehab F; Obara, Yuji; Kohzuma, Takamitsu

    2008-01-01

    Several blue copper proteins are known to change the active site structure at alkaline pH (alkaline transition). Spectroscopic studies of Met16Phe, Met16Tyr, Met16Trp, and Met16Val pseudoazurin variants were performed to investigate the second sphere role through alkaline transition. The visible electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra of Met16Phe, Met16Tyr, and Met16Trp variants showed the increasing of axial component at pH approximately 11 like wild-type PAz. The visible electronic absorption and far-UV CD spectra of Met16Val demonstrated that the destabilization of the protein structure was triggered at pH>11. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of PAz showed that the intensity-weighted averaged Cu-S(Cys) stretching frequency was shifted to higher frequency region at pH approximately 11. The higher frequency shift of Cu-S(Cys) bond is implied the stronger Cu-S(Cys) bond at alkaline transition pH approximately 11. The visible electronic absorption and far-UV CD spectra of Met16X PAz revealed that the Met16Val variant is denatured at pH>11, but Met16Phe, Met16Tyr, and Met16Trp mutant proteins are not denatured even at pH>11. These observations suggest that Met16 is important to maintain the protein structure through the possible weak interaction between methionine -SCH3 part and coordinated histidine imidazole moiety. The introduction of pi-pi interaction in the second coordination sphere may be contributed to the enhancement of protein structure stability.

  17. Contributions of polygenic risk for obesity to PTSD-related metabolic syndrome and cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erika J; Miller, Danielle R; Logue, Mark W; Sumner, Jennifer; Stoop, Tawni B; Leritz, Elizabeth C; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Miller, Mark W

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and that PTSD-associated MetS is related to decreased cortical thickness. However, the role of genetic factors in these associations is unclear. This study evaluated contributions of polygenic obesity risk and PTSD to MetS and of MetS and polygenic obesity risk to cortical thickness. 196 white, non-Hispanic veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan underwent clinical diagnostic interviews, physiological assessments, and genome-wide genotyping; 168 also completed magnetic resonance imaging scans. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for obesity were calculated from results of a prior genome-wide association study (Speliotes et al., 2010) and PTSD and MetS severity factor scores were obtained. Obesity PRS (β=0.15, p=0.009) and PTSD (β=0.17, p=0.005) predicted MetS and interacted such that the association between PTSD and MetS was stronger in individuals with greater polygenic obesity risk (β=0.13, p=0.02). Whole-brain vertex-wise analyses suggested that obesity PRS interacted with MetS to predict decreased cortical thickness in left rostral middle frontal gyrus (β=-0.40, pobesity genetic risk increases stress-related metabolic pathology, and compounds the ill health effects of MetS on the brain. Genetic proclivity towards MetS should be considered in PTSD patients when prescribing psychotropic medications with adverse metabolic profiles. Results are consistent with a growing literature suggestive of PTSD-related accelerated aging. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Differences in MetS marker prevalence between black African and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression analysis, independent of covariates, showed that the albumin:creatinine ratio is explained only by glucose in Africans. Conclusion: African women, as a group, present with few MetS risk factors, and glucose is associated with renal function risk in Africans. Keywords: MetS, metabolic syndrome, ...

  19. Psoriasis and Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis consisting of a genetic component, immune dysfunction, and environmental factors. It is associated with numerous comorbidities including psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and obesity....... Evidence suggests that obesity is a risk factor for incident psoriasis, aggravates existing psoriasis, and that weight reduction may improve the severity of psoriasis in overweight individuals. Excess body weight may interfere with the medical treatment used in psoriasis and adds to the cardiovascular risk...... profile in these patients, which underscores the importance of effective weight control regimens. In this review we examine the current literature with regard to the association between obesity and psoriasis....

  20. Circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, juvenile obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzystek-Korpacka, Malgorzata; Patryn, Eliza; Bednarz-Misa, Iwona; Mierzchala, Magdalena; Hotowy, Katarzyna; Czapinska, Elzbieta; Kustrzeba-Wojcicka, Irena; Gamian, Andrzej; Noczynska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) links obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and might be targeted in future therapies. Its utility as a MetS biomarker has been suggested in adults but has not been examined in children/adolescents. Our objectives were to identify metabolic parameters

  1. Performance of different diagnostic criteria of overweight and obesity as predictors of metabolic syndrome in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Overweight and obesity using BMI showed a moderate association with MetS, regardless of the diagnostic criteria used. However, the IOTF criterion showed better predictive capacity for the presence of MetS than the WHO and the Conde and Monteiro criteria.

  2. Laparoscopic colectomy in the obese, morbidly obese, and super morbidly obese: when does weight matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Bradley J; Nishtala, Madhuri; Brady, Justin T; Crawshaw, Benjamin P; Franklin, Morris E; Delaney, Conor P; Steele, Scott R

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that obese patients (BMI >30) undergoing laparoscopic colectomy have longer operative times and increased complications when compared to non-obese cohorts. However, there is little data that specifically evaluates the outcomes of obese patients based on the degree of their obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of increasing severity of obesity on patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy. A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy between 1996 and 2013. Patients were classified according to their BMI as obese (BMI 30.0-39.9), morbidly obese (BMI 40.0-49.9), and super obese (BMI >50). Main outcome measures included conversion rate, operative time, estimated blood loss, post-operative complications, and length of stay. There were 923 patients who met inclusion criteria. Overall, 604 (65.4%), 257 (27.9%), and 62 (6.7%) were classified as obese (O), morbidly obese (MO), and super obese (SO), respectively. Clinicopathologic characteristics were similar among the three groups. The SO group had significantly higher conversion rates (17.7 vs. 7 vs. 4.8%; P = 0.031), longer average hospital stays (7.1 days vs. 4.9 vs. 3.4; P = 0.001), higher morbidity (40.3 vs. 16.3 vs. 12.4%; P = 0.001), and longer operative times (206 min vs. 184 vs. 163; P = 0.04) compared to the MO and O groups, respectively. The anastomotic leak rate in the SO (4.8%; P = 0.027) and MO males (4.1%; P = 0.033) was significantly higher than MO females (2.2%) and all obese patients (1.8%). Increasing severity of obesity is associated with worse perioperative outcomes following laparoscopic colectomy.

  3. The Impact of Rapid Weight Loss on Oxidative Stress Markers and the Expression of the Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tumova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity is linked with a state of increased oxidative stress, which plays an important role in the etiology of atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of rapid weight loss on oxidative stress markers in obese individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Design and Methods. We measured oxidative stress markers in 40 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS+, 40 obese subjects without metabolic syndrome (MetS−, and 20 lean controls (LC at baseline and after three months of very low caloric diet. Results. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL levels decreased by 12% in MetS+ subjects, associated with a reduction in total cholesterol (TC, even after adjustment for age and sex. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 activity decreased by 4.7% in MetS+ subjects, associated with a drop in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, TC, and insulin levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a model including ox-LDL, LpPLA2 activity, and myeloperoxidase (MPO improved prediction of MetS status among obese individuals compared to each oxidative stress marker alone. Conclusions. Oxidative stress markers were predictive of MetS in obese subjects, suggesting a higher oxidative stress. Rapid weight loss resulted in a decline in oxidative stress markers, especially in MetS+ patients.

  4. Metsämaisema ulkoilijoiden kokemana

    OpenAIRE

    Vuohijoki, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Työn aiheena oli tutkia, miten ulkoilijat kokevat metsämaiseman Tampereella. Tavoitteena oli selvittää ulkoilijoiden maisema-arvostuksia sekä suhtautumista metsänhoidon toimenpiteisiin. Tutkimus toteutettiin maastohaastatteluina Tampereella kolmella eri asuinalueella: Hallilassa, Leinolassa ja Tesomajärvellä. Otoskooksi muodostui kymmenen haastattelua aluetta kohti, mutta yhdeltä vastaajalta ei ehditty kysyä kaikkia kysymyksiä. Vastaajat olivat yleisesti ottaen tyytyväisiä alueiden metsän...

  5. Estructuras Metálicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Se compone de dos naves adosadas de 20,80 m de luz y una longitud de 252 m. Existe un adosado de dos plantas donde se recogen las oficinas y los servicios del taller. Las naves están servidas por puentes-grúa de 25 t y por grúas de pescante, lo que da lugar a la presencia de vigas de rodadura a dos niveles distintos. La cubierta apoya sobre arcos triarticulados atirantados; los semiarcos se prolongan a partir de la clave en piezas inclinadas que sirven para constituir lucernarios alternados. Al igual que en los talleres mecánicos y de fundición, todos los elementos de cubierta fueron prefabricados.

  6. New targets to treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathleen A; Mani, Mitra V; Mani, Arya

    2015-09-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster ofassociated metabolic traits that collectively confer unsurpassed risk for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes compared to any single CVD risk factor. Truncal obesity plays an exceptionally critical role among all metabolic traits of the MetS. Consequently, the prevalence of the MetS has steadily increased with the growing epidemic of obesity. Pharmacotherapy has been available for obesity for more than one decade, but with little success in improving the metabolic profiles. The serotonergic drugs and inhibitors of pancreatic lipases were among the few drugs that were initially approved to treat obesity. At the present time, only the pancreatic lipase inhibitor orlistat is approved for long-term treatment of obesity. New classes of anti-diabetic drugs, including glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, are currently being evaluated for their effects on obesity and metabolic traits. The genetic studies of obesity and metabolic syndrome have identified novel molecules acting on the hunger and satiety peptidergic signaling of the gut-hypothalamus axis or the melanocortin system of the brain and are promising targets for future drug development. The goal is to develop drugs that not only treat obesity, but also favorably impact its associated traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-Grade Albuminuria Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Micro-albuminuria has been well established as one of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS. However, the association of MetS and its components with low-grade albuminuria among those with normal urinary albumin excretion has not been clearly elucidated in Chinese population.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 9,579 participants with normal urinary albumin excretion, who were recruited from Jia Ding District, Shanghai, China. The single-void first morning urine sample was collected for urinary albumin and creatinine measurements, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR was calculated as urinary albumin divided by creatinine. Low-grade albuminuria was classified as sex-specific upper UACR quartile in this population. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of MetS and its components increased across the UACR quartiles (all P trend <0.01. A multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of MetS was gradually elevated according to the UACR quartiles (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] were 1.14, 1.24 and 1.59 for UACR quartiles 2, 3 and 4, compared with the lowest quartile; P trend<0.0001. In the further stratified logistic regression analyses, the associations between low-grade albuminuria and MetS were significant in both sex strata (male and female, both age strata (<60 and ≥60 years, both body mass index strata (<24 and ≥24 kg/m(2, and both diabetes strata (yes and no. Compared to the lowest UACR quartile, the participants in the highest quartile of UACR had the highest prevalence of central obesity (OR = 1.43; 95%CI = 1.25-1.63, high blood pressure (OR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.43-1.87, hyperglycemia (OR = 1.52; 95%CI = 1.30-1.78 and high triglycerides (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.04-1.37.Low-grade albuminuria was significantly associated with the increasing prevalence of MetS and its

  8. Relation with HOMA-IR and thyroid hormones in obese Turkish women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, S; Yerlikaya, E; Akin, F; Kaptanoglu, B; Erürker, T

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and thyroid function in obese pre- and postmenopausal women with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). 141 obese women were divided into two groups, HOMA-IRHOMA-IR>2.7, to evaluate relation with HOMA-IR and fatness, hormone and blood parameters. They were then divided into four groups as pre- and postmenopausal with or without MetS. Various fatness, hormone and blood parameters were examined. Statistically significant difference was found in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat%, fasting insulin, TSH, FT3, FT4, FSH, Anti-microsomal antibody (ANTIM) and triglycerides levels in HOMA-IRHOMA-IR>2.7 obese Turkish women. This study showed that age, weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat%, fasting insulin, FT3, ANTIM, FSH, LH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, HOMA-IR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were related in preand post menopausal status in obese women with or without MetS. Obesity may influence the levels of thyroid hormones and increases the risk of MetS in women. Postmenopausal status with MetS is associated with an increased TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels and HOMA-IR in obese women. Strong relation was observed with MetS and TSH and FT3 levels.

  9. Evaluation of the Markers Affecting Obesity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Metin Donma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased prevalence of obese children has been observed in developed and to a lesser degree in developing countries. Childhood obesity is important because it provides a basis for the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. As a result of the increased obesity prevalence, the number of children with metabolic syndrome (MetS is also increased. The aim of this study is to evaluate markers that differ between morbid obese (MO and MO + MetS children. A total of eighty prepubertal children, thirty with normal body mass index (NW, twentyfive MO and twenty five MO + MetS, were included into the study. Groups were constituted using age- and sex-dependent BMI percentile tables created by WHO. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Body mass index values were calculated. Routine biochemical parameters were performed. Leptin, adiponectin, resistin, vaspin, chemerin, progranulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein, high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were determined by ELISA. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Values of p < 0.05 were statistically significant. Chemerin, hsCRP, leptin and adiponectin levels were higher (p ≤ 0.01 in MO and lower (p ≤ 0.01 in MO + MetS groups than those of NW group, respectively. Progranulin was the only parameter showing severe statistical significance between all groups (p ≤ 0.001. Higher values for vaspin were obtained in children with MO + MetS than those of NW group (p ≤ 0.05. Upon evaluation of markers affecting obesity, progranulin was reported as the unique parameter, which differs between MO and MO + MetS children. The evaluation of this parameter will be more informative than the other diagnostic parameters of MetS.

  10. Relationship between serologic markers of periodontal bacteria and metabolic syndrome and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Deepika; Choi, Youn-Hee; Zhang, Jiajia; Hazlett, Linda J; Merchant, Anwar T

    2015-03-01

    Periodontitis is a result of a complex biologic alteration of the periodontal microenvironment and a distributional shift of key periodontal pathogens. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a complex cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, has been linked to periodontal diseases; however, the contribution of periodontal bacteria to systemic conditions remains unclear. The study population comprised 7,848 United States adults who participated in an interview, underwent a clinical oral-health examination, and had serum immunoglobulin G titers measured against 19 periodontal bacteria as part of the third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The z-score antibody titers were clustered into four mutually exclusive groups and named after Socransky's classification of periodontal bacteria (Orange-Red, Red-Green, Yellow-Orange, and Orange-Blue). Survey logistic regression was used to investigate the independent associations between the cluster scores, and MetS and each component, including hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, central obesity, and elevated fasting glucose. The Orange-Red cluster score (that included Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella spp.) was positively associated (odds ratio [OR] = 1.067, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.12) and the Orange-Blue cluster score (which included Actinomyces naeslundii and Eubacterium nodatum) was inversely associated (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.88 to 0.97) with elevated fasting glucose (≥ 110 mg/dL) after adjustment for clusters and potential confounders. Neither MetS nor its other remaining MetS components were associated with a particular cluster score. The associations between specific antibody clusters (Orange-Red and Orange-Blue) against periodontal bacteria and elevated plasma glucose were in qualitatively opposite directions after multivariable adjustment in a large, adult population. The periodontal bacterial profile was not found to be associated with metabolic

  11. Is neurofeedback effectief bij kinderen met ADHD?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hen, M.H.; Geurts, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Kan neurofeedback verantwoord ingezet worden bij de behandeling van kinderen met ADHD? Omdeze vraag te beantwoorden worden zeven recente onderzoeken naar de effectiviteit van neurofeedback bij kinderen met ADHD geanalyseerd. Ondanks dat de resultaten in eerste instantie lijken te suggereren dat

  12. Association of HMOX1 and NQO1 Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Córdova, Emilio J; Rosillo-Salazar, Oscar; García-Ortíz, Humberto; Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Salas-Labadía, Consuelo; Orozco, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is among the most important public health problems worldwide, and is recognized as a major risk factor for various illnesses, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, oxidative stress has been suggested as part of MetS aetiology. The heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) genes are crucial mediators of cellular defence against oxidative stress. In the present study, we analysed the associations of HMOX1 (GT)n and NQO1 C609T polymorphisms with MetS and its components. Our study population comprised 735 Mexican Mestizos unrelated volunteers recruited from different tertiary health institutions from Mexico City. In order to know the HMOX1 (GT)n and NQO1 C609T allele frequencies in Amerindians, we included a population of 241 Amerindian native speakers. Their clinical and demographic data were recorded. The HMOX1 (GT)n polymorphism was genotyped using PCR and fluorescence technology. NQO1 C609T polymorphism genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes. Short allele (metabolic disorders, including high systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL-c levels in Mexican Mestizo individuals.

  13. The Impact of a Multi-Level Multi-Component Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention on Healthy Food Availability, Sales, and Purchasing in a Low-Income Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela C; Poirier, Lisa; Ross, Alexandra; Ruggiero, Cara; Schwendler, Teresa; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth

    2017-11-10

    The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment) multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level) community intervention. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) intervention worked at the wholesaler ( n = 3), corner store ( n = 50), carryout ( n = 30), recreation center ( n = 28), household ( n = 365) levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat) in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA), ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript). For this paper, we focus on more proximal impacts on the food environment, and measure change in stocking, sales and purchase of promoted foods at the different levels of the food system in 14 intervention neighborhoods, as compared to 14 comparison neighborhoods. Sales of promoted products increased in wholesalers. Stocking of these products improved in corner stores, but not in carryouts, and we did not find any change in total sales. Children more exposed to the intervention increased their frequency of purchase of promoted products, although improvement was not seen for adult caregivers. A multilevel food environment intervention in a low-income urban setting improved aspects of the food system, leading to increased healthy food purchasing behavior in children.

  14. The Impact of a Multi-Level Multi-Component Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention on Healthy Food Availability, Sales, and Purchasing in a Low-Income Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level community intervention. The B’more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK intervention worked at the wholesaler (n = 3, corner store (n = 50, carryout (n = 30, recreation center (n = 28, household (n = 365 levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA, ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript. For this paper, we focus on more proximal impacts on the food environment, and measure change in stocking, sales and purchase of promoted foods at the different levels of the food system in 14 intervention neighborhoods, as compared to 14 comparison neighborhoods. Sales of promoted products increased in wholesalers. Stocking of these products improved in corner stores, but not in carryouts, and we did not find any change in total sales. Children more exposed to the intervention increased their frequency of purchase of promoted products, although improvement was not seen for adult caregivers. A multilevel food environment intervention in a low-income urban setting improved aspects of the food system, leading to increased healthy food purchasing behavior in children.

  15. Global school-based childhood obesity interventions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-08-28

    The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  16. Global School-Based Childhood Obesity Interventions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda J. Ickes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1 primary research; (2 overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3 school-based; (4 studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5 published in the English language; (6 child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7 studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy.

  17. Word je met Donkey Konga een betere muzikant? : Muziek leren spelen met de spelcomputer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tom Langhorst

    2010-01-01

    Kan de spelcomputer behulpzaam zijn bij de ontwikkeling van het muzikale gevoel? Met die vraag in het achterhoofd bekijkt Tom Langhorst hier kritisch het Nintendo-spel Donkey Konga, waarin de speler mee kan drummen met bekende popsongs.

  18. Consumption of Two Healthy Dietary Patterns Restored Microbiota Dysbiosis in Obese Patients with Metabolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Carmen; García-Carpintero, Sonia; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Alcalá-Díaz, Juan F; Landa, Blanca B; Clemente, José C; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Camargo, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The consumption of two healthy diets (Mediterranean (MED) and low-fat (LF) diets) may restore the gut microbiome dysbiosis in obese patients depending on the degree of metabolic dysfunction. The differences in bacterial community at baseline and after 2 years of dietary intervention of 106 subjects from the CORDIOPREV study were analyzed, 33 of whom were obese patients with severe metabolic disease (5 criteria for metabolic syndrome) (MetS-OB), 32 obese patients without metabolic dysfunction (2 or less criteria for metabolic syndrome) (NonMetS-OB) and 41 non-obese subjects (NonMetS-NonOB). Our study showed a marked dysbiosis in people with severe metabolic disease (Met-OB), compared with obese people without MetS (NonMetS-OB) and non-obese people (NonMetS-NonOB). This disbiotic pattern was reversed by consumption of both MED (35% of calories as fat (22% MUFA fat, 6% PUFA fat and <10% saturated fat) or LF (<30% total fat (<10% saturated fat, 12%-14% MUFA fat and 6-8% PUFA fat) diets, whereas no significant microbiota changes were observed in NonMetS-NonOB and NonMetS-OB groups. Our results suggest that the chronic intake of two healthy dietary patterns partially restores the gut microbiome dysbiosis in obese patients with coronary heart disease, depending on the degree of metabolic dysfunction. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Aldosterone synthase gene polymorphism in alimentary obesity, metabolic syndrome components, some secondary forms of arterial hypertension, pathology of the adrenals glands core (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Koval

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal factors of adrenal origin belong to the pathophysiological mechanisms of the formation and progression of arterial hypertension (AH and should be consi­dered while developing differentiated approaches to the treatment and prevention of hypertensive states, their primary, secondary and resistant forms. The first thing we should point up is aldosterone (AL, enzyme aldosterone synthase (AS, which takes a direct part in the formation of this hormone, as well as gene polymorphisms of AS, which have not only molecular genetic, but also differential diagnostic and therapeutic significance for secondary forms of arterial hypertension, abdominal obesity (AO, metabolic syndrome (MS, adrenal pathology and other endocrine disorders. AL is a steroid (mineralocorticoid hormone of the adrenal cortex, which is synthesized from cholesterol (CH, mainly in the glomerular zone of the adrenal glands, is released under the action of angiotensin II (A II and potassium ions (K+. AL acti­vity is mediated through the corresponding mineralocorticoid receptors (MKR. The particular importance in AH and MS development belongs to AL activation and MKR density in adipocytes, this phenomenon is accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leptin, an adipogenic effect, and the inhibition of MCR activity is accompanied by increased production of adiponectin, which is more pronounced in patients with AH. Aldosterone synthase, a mitochondrial human enzyme encoded by the CYP11B2 gene (cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2 is located on the 8th chromosome. AS belongs to the superfamily of cytochrome P450 and regulates the synthesis of AL hormone. The CYP11B2 gene encodes the key enzyme for the synthesis of AL 18-hydroxylase. In scientific papers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of AS gene is often studied, such as 5312T, Intron 2, Lys-173/Arg; T-344C, 3097 C/A. 227 SNP of the AS gene were identified in different

  20. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  1. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Individual Components Among Midwestern University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie A; Snyder, Ericka; Cumper, Stephanie; Langolf, Andrea; Trayer, Chelsey; Green, Chelsea

    2017-08-01

    Michigan has the 17th highest adult obesity rate in the United States. Among college-aged adults between 18 and 25 years old, the rate of obesity was 11.6%. Obesity is a key precedent for the development of metabolic syndrome. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components among a sample of students at Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 462 students, aged 18-25 years, in Spring 2015 and Fall/Spring 2016 semesters. Students were recruited throughout the campus via flyers, in-class, and Blackboard announcements. Biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were taken for all students. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the prevalence of metabolic risk components. To explore the association between metabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors, students filled out a validated online questionnaire related to their eating habits, physical activity, and sleep patterns. Metabolic syndrome was not prevalent in our sample. However, about one-third of the students had at least one metabolic abnormality, and 6.0% had two metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormalities were low HDL-cholesterol levels (22.0%) and high waist circumference (12.6%), and elevated serum triglyceride (5.8%). Adjusting for other factors, excess adiposity and high visceral fat scores were associated with increased risk of metabolic risk factors, whereas healthy lifestyle practices such as daily breakfast consumption, eating three meals a day, being active, and not smoking were associated with lower risks for MetS. Given the adverse consequences of undiagnosed metabolic abnormalities, efforts to identify and manage MetS among asymptomatic college students, particularly women, is essential and warrants further

  2. Met1-linked Ubiquitination in Immune Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Methionine 1-linked ubiquitin chains (Met1-Ub), or linear ubiquitin, has emerged as a central post-translational modification in innate immune signalling. Molecular machinery that assembles, senses and, more recently, disassembles Met1-Ub has been identified, and technical advances have enabled...... identification of physiological substrates for Met1-Ub in response to activation of innate immune receptors. These discoveries have significantly advanced our understanding of how non-degradative ubiquitin modifications control pro-inflammatory responses mediated by nuclear factor κB and mitogen...

  3. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  4. High serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for the metabolic syndrome and its components among Japanese subjects: Mikkabi cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Minoru; Nakamura, Mieko; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi

    2015-11-28

    Recent epidemiological studies show the association of carotenoids with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but thorough longitudinal cohort studies regarding this association have not been well conducted. The objective of this study was to investigate longitudinally whether serum carotenoids are associated with the risk of developing the MetS and its components in Japanese subjects. We conducted a follow-up study on 1073 men and women aged 30-79 years at the baseline from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. Those who participated in the baseline and completed follow-up surveys were examined longitudinally. Over the 10-year period, 910 subjects (295 men and 615 women) took part in the follow-up survey at least once. Over a mean follow-up period of 7·8 (sd 2·9) years, thirty-six men and thirty-one women developed new MetS. After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratio (HR) for the MetS in the highest tertile of serum β-carotene against the lowest tertile was 0·47 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·95). On the other hand, significantly lower risks for dyslipidaemia were observed in the highest tertiles of serum α- and β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin (HR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·96; HR, 0·54; 95 % CI 0·37, 0·79; and HR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·99, respectively). Other significant associations between the risks for obesity, high blood pressure and hyperglycaemia with serum carotenoids were not observed. Our results further support the hypothesis that eating a diet rich in carotenoids might help prevent the development of the MetS and its complications in Japanese subjects.

  5. In vivo detection of c-Met expression in a rat C6 glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, R A; Smith, N; Doblas, S; Tesiram, Y; Garteiser, P; Saunders, D; Cranford, R; Silasi-Mansat, R; Herlea, O; Ivanciu, L; Wu, D; Lupu, F

    2008-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor, c-Met, and its substrate, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are implicated in the malignant progression of glioblastomas. In vivo detection of c-Met expression may be helpful in the diagnosis of malignant tumours. The C6 rat glioma model is a widely used intracranial brain tumour model used to study gliomas experimentally. We used a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) molecular targeting agent to specifically tag the cell surface receptor, c-Met, with an anti-c-Met antibody (Ab) linked to biotinylated Gd (gadolinium)-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetic acid)-albumin in rat gliomas to detect overexpression of this antigen in vivo. The anti-c-Met probe (anti-c-Met-Gd-DTPA-albumin) was administered intravenously, and as determined by an increase in MRI signal intensity and a corresponding decrease in regional T(1) relaxation values, this probe was found to detect increased expression of c-Met protein levels in C6 gliomas. In addition, specificity for the binding of the anti-c-Met contrast agent was determined by using fluorescence microscopic imaging of the biotinylated portion of the targeting agent within neoplastic and 'normal'brain tissues following in vivo administration of the anti-c-Met probe. Controls with no Ab or with a normal rat IgG attached to the contrast agent component indicated no non-specific binding to glioma tissue. This is the first successful visualization of in vivo overexpression of c-Met in gliomas.

  6. Gesloten kringloop met omgekeerde osmose of membraandestilatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijger, H.; Os, van E.A.

    2011-01-01

    TNO heeft samen met Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw een inventarisatie uitgevoerd naar geschikte zuiveringstechnieken om de waterstroom op tuinbouwbedrijven gesloten te krijgen. Uit de haalbaarheidstudie komen twee veelbelovende technieken naar voren die op vrij korte termijn inzetbaar zijn: omgekeerde

  7. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  8. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  9. Bio-composiet : Thermoplastische kunsstof met natuurvezels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Goselink, E.A. (Erik)

    2013-01-01

    Een biocomposiet wordt samengesteld uit een vezel en een hars. In dit document worden twee verwerkingsvormen van biocomposieten behandeld: - Vezel/poeder versterkt kunststof (granulaat); - Kunststof plaatmateriaal versterkt met een weefsel (laminaat), ook wel Sizopreg® genoemd. Door een

  10. Intern transport beter te plannen met computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Verbetering van intern transport in de potplantenteelt. Door getoetste vuistregels te combineren met toegepaste wiskunde is automatische planning van het intern transport binnen handbereik. Dit leidt tot minder transportbewegingen en tijdsbesparing bij het plannen

  11. Fosfaatwerking ogranische meststoffen vergelijkbaar met kunstmest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Pasterkamp, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    Gegevens in bijgaande tabel: Indicatieve fosfaatgehalten en de relatieve verdeling over mineraalfosfaat en organisch gebonden fosfaat in meststoffen met per mestsoort gegevens over het totaal fosfaatgehalte, het percentage mineraal fosfaat en het percentage organisch fosfaat

  12. Technisch lego met een Duplo-interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, A.; Schipper, D.

    2008-01-01

    Daedalus is een ontwerpflow op systeemniveau waarmee techneuten snel kunnen experimenteren met verschillende multiprocessorarchitecturen tijdens de vroege stadia van het ontwerptraject. Het is het resultaat van tien jaar onderzoek en ontwikkeling binnen de Progress-projecten Artemis en Artemisia.

  13. Extraboard performance : TriMet case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This paper examines extraboard operations and management at TriMet, the transit provider for the Portland Oregon metropolitan area. The : extraboard consists of a pool of operators who fill open work resulting from absences and other causes. The pape...

  14. Identifying the metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents: do age and definition matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Mariska; von Rosenstiel, Inès A; Schindhelm, Roger K; Brandjes, Dees P M; Beijnen, Jos H; Diamant, Michaela

    2009-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight/obese children and adolescents of an out-patient clinic, and to compare two definitions of MetS in adolescents. In total, 528 overweight / obese children (3-16 years), of multi-ethnic origin, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, blood collections and anthropometric measurements. In children definitions was moderate (kappa =0.51), with the agreement for the MetS-criteria for abnormal lipid levels being substantial to very good (kappa =0.71 to 0.80). MetS-child was highly prevalent in overweight/obese children and adolescents. A higher prevalence of MetS according to adolescent- as compared to child-specific criteria was found.

  15. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  16. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity Causes & Consequences CDC Reports Improvement in Childhood Obesity among Young Children Participating in WIC Data & Statistics Adult Obesity Facts Childhood Obesity Facts Data, Trends and ...

  17. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  18. Obesity prevention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity continues to be unacceptably high and of public health concern in Europe. During childhood and adolescence, environmental factors are the main drivers of obesity development. Obesity is caused by a chronic energy imbalance involving both dietary intake and physical activity patterns. Several risk factors are influencing obesity development, even starting in the prenatal period. From birth, along life, mainly diet and physical activity/inactivity are the most important drivers on top of genetic susceptibility. The first years of life can therefore be crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and on later overweight and obesity. Schools are an attractive and popular setting for implementing interventions for children. Interventions including a community component are considered to be the most effective. Obesity control will require policy interventions to improve the environments that promote poor dietary intake and physical inactivity rather than individually focused interventions. More solid institutional and health policies are needed together with more effective interventions to obtain evident changes for the prevention of excess adiposity among children. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: Developmental Trajectories of Eating and Weight-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Boeka, Abbe G.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), characterized by vascular symptoms, is strongly correlated with obesity, weight-related medical diseases and mortality, and has increased commensurately with secular increases in obesity in the U.S. Little is known about the distribution of MetSynin obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) or its associations with different developmental trajectories of dieting, binge eating, and obesity problems. Further, inconsistencies in the limited data necessitate...

  20. The Metabolic Syndrome and Behavioral Correlates in Obese Patients With Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Roehrig, Megan; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and explored behavioral eating- and weight-related correlates in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-three treatment-seeking obese BED patients (22 men and 71 women) with and without the MetSyn were compared on demographic features and a number of current and historical eating and weight variables. Sixty percent of the obese patients with BED met criteria for the MetSyn, with men and whites having signifi...

  1. Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Fernandes Patriota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. Methods/study design The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438 consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] –for-age Z score, n = 138 received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353 participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n

  2. Effectiveness of a 16-month multi-component and environmental school-based intervention for recovery of poor income overweight/obese children and adolescents: study protocol of the health multipliers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriota, Pollyanna Fernandes; Filgueiras, Andrea Rocha; de Almeida, Viviane Belucci Pires; Alexmovitz, Guilherme Aparecido Costa; da Silva, Carlos Eduardo; de Carvalho, Vivian Fortuna Feres; Carvalho, Natália; de Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Domene, Semiramis Martins Alvares; do Prado, Wagner Luiz; Torres, Gustavo Enrique Salazar; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Reis; Sesso, Ricardo; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2017-09-15

    Excess of weight is a serious public health concern in almost all countries, afflicting people of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Studies have indicated the need for developing treatment strategies that intervene directly in the obesogenic environment. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-component and environmental school-based intervention, lasting 16 months, on the recovery of the nutritional status of low-income children and adolescents with overweight/ obesity. The study was conducted by the Center for Recovery and Nutritional Education (CREN) in São Paulo, Brazil. Two schools located in poor neighborhoods were selected for the intervention, between March 2016 and June 2017. The participants were all students aged 8 to 12 years from the two participating schools. At the beginning of the intervention, anthropometric measurements were carried out to assess the nutritional status of the students. For convenience, students from one of the schools were considered as the control group, while those from the other school formed the experimental group. The intervention in the experimental group (n = 438) consists of the following weekly activities at school: psychological counseling in groups, theoretical/practical nutrition workshops, and supervised physical education classes. In addition, theoretical and practical educational activities are held regularly for parents, teachers, and cooks. Students with excess of weight (≥1 body mass index [BMI] -for-age Z score, n = 138) received clinical and nutritional care periodically at the outpatient care at CREN. Students enrolled in the control group (n = 353) participated in psychological counseling groups and theoretical/practical nutrition workshops for 6 months held in the school environment to provide motivation to entire classrooms. In the following 10 months, students with excess of weight from the control group (n = 125) were invited to attend the routine outpatient

  3. Obesity vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many pa...

  4. Addressing the problem of obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk in black South African women - time for action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H

    2017-01-01

    The PhD thesis of Gradidge, entitled 'Factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in an ageing cohort of black women living in Soweto, Johannesburg (Study of Women in and Entering Endocrine Transition [SWEET])', attempts to understand the determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a population of urban-dwelling black South African women. A conceptual framework is presented, which positions obesity as the central risk factor for MetS, and includes the possible influence of socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviours and body size perceptions, as key determinants of obesity. This commentary focuses on the two main findings of Gradidge's thesis, namely, (i) physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and (ii) body composition and adiponectin, as risk factors for obesity and MetS in black South African women. Despite a high prevalence of obesity (48%), Gradidge showed that 75% of the women taking part in the study were meeting WHO guidelines on physical activity. This commentary suggests that the relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk may be confounded by socioeconomic status. Alternatively, the intensity, and not necessarily the volume, of activity, as well as high rates of sedentary behaviour are posited as important determinants of obesity and MetS in black South African women. Accordingly, this commentary questions the veracity of the WHO guidelines on physical activity in developing countries, where most women meet the guidelines but have very poor cardiorespiratory fitness, are obese and are at high risk of MetS. Gradidge also showed that the most consistent and significant correlate of MetS in this cohort of middle-aged women was low serum levels of adiponectin. This commentary highlights various lifestyle interventions that have been shown to increase adiponectin levels. Finally, the importance of immediate action to address the problem of obesity and MetS is emphasised.

  5. MetBaro - Pressure Device for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Harri; Polkko, Jouni; Harri, Ari-Matti; Schmidt, Walter; Leinonen, Jussi; Genzer, Maria; Mäkinen, Teemu

    2010-05-01

    MetNet Mars Mission focused for Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure sensor of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitive type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 4 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  6. MetHumi - Humidity Device for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Polkko, Jouni; Harri, Ari-Matti; Schmidt, Walter; Leinonen, Jussi; Mäkinen, Teemu; Haukka, Harri

    2010-05-01

    MetNet Mars Mission focused for Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetHumi is the humidity sensor of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Humicap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetHumi is a capacitive type of sensing device where an active polymer film changes capacitance as function of relative humidity. One MetHumi device package consists of one humidity transducer including three Humicap® sensor heads, an accurate temperature sensor head (Thermocap® by Vaisala, Inc.) and constant reference channels. MetHumi is very small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs only about 15 g without wires, and consumes 15 mW of power. MetHumi can make meaningful relative humidity measurements in range of 0 - 100%RH down to -70°C ambient temperature, but it survives even -135°C ambient temperature.

  7. Association of ghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Jia; Tian, Li-min; Liu, Ju-xiang; Bing, Ya-jun; Zhang, Ji-ping; Wang, Yun-Fang; Zhang, Lu-yan

    2012-08-10

    Ghrelin, a novel endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is considered to implicate the development of the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Leu72Met (+408C>A) polymorphism of the preproghrelin, has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. To investigate the distribution of ghrelin gene Leu72Met polymorphism and its association with the type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study on 877 patients with T2DM and 864 controls, which were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and DNA sequence analysis. Laboratory analyses were carried out in the hospital laboratory. No significant difference in the Leu72Met genotype distributions and allele frequency was observed between type 2 diabetes mellitus and controls (both P>0.05). The polymorphism was not associated with T2DM. However, among the T2DM group, the patients carrying Leu72Leu genotype had significantly increased levels of FPG and serum creatinine compared with variant genotypes (Leu72Met and Met72Met) (Ppolymorphism of the preproghrelin gene was not associated with T2DM in Chinese population. However, it may have some roles in the etiology of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. C-MET overexpression and amplification in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yoonjin; Kim, Seong-Ik; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Lee, Soon-Tae; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    We investigated c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification in gliomas to determine their incidence and prognostic significance. c-Met immunohistochemistry and MET gene fluorescence in situ hybridization were carried out on tissue microarrays from 250 patients with gliomas (137 grade IV GBMs and 113 grade II and III diffuse gliomas). Clinicopathological features of these cases were reviewed. c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification were detected in 13.1% and 5.1% of the GBMs, respectively. All the MET-amplified cases showed c-Met overexpression, but MET amplification was not always concordant with c-Met overexpression. None of grade II and III gliomas demonstrated c-Met overexpression or MET gene amplification. Mean survival of the GBM patients with MET amplification was not significantly different from patients without MET amplification (P=0.155). However, GBM patients with c-Met overexpression survived longer than patients without c-Met overexpression (P=0.035). Although MET amplification was not related to poor GBM prognosis, it is partially associated with the aggressiveness of gliomas, as MET amplification was found only in grade IV, not in grade II and III gliomas. We suggest that MET inhibitor therapy may be beneficial in about 5% GBMs, which was the incidence of MET gene amplification found in the patients included in this study.

  9. Reimagining Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on Mills' sociological imagination (from the 1959 publication "The Sociological Imagination") to consider the connections between personal trouble and social issues when it comes to the causes and consequences of obesity. These connections may be important for assuaging the "obesity bias" that pervades our…

  10. Samen in Zee met Zelfregulatie: Een Design-Based Aanpak met Vmbo Leraren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jossberger, Helen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els; Van de Wiel, Margje

    2010-01-01

    Jossberger, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Van der Wiel, M. (2010, June). Samen in Zee met Zelfregulatie: Een Design-Based Aanpak met Vmbo Leraren. Poster presented at the 37th Onderwijs Research Dagen (ORD), Enschede, Nederland.

  11. MetBaro - Pressure Instrument for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkko, J.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Leinonen, J.; Mäkinen, T.

    2009-04-01

    THE METNET MISSION FOCUSED ON THE Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure instrument of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitic type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 6 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  12. [Childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M

    2002-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.

  13. Inhaken met sociale media in 60 minuten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs Waardenburg; Komala Mazerant

    2018-01-01

    Met creatieve content die slim inhaakt op actuele gebeurtenissen kun je elke dag nieuwe mensen bereiken. Goedkoper dan adverteren op sociale media, en sympathieker bovendien.Thijs Waardenburg en Komala Mazerant leggen uit hoe je kansrijke inhakers bedenkt en communiceert om je bereik op sociale

  14. Varroabestrijding met bijenbroed als mijtenval (2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.; Beetsma, J.; Boot, W.J.; Eijnde, van den J.; Ruijter, de A.

    1994-01-01

    Bij deze bestrijdingsmethode worden belegde darreraten uit een moergoede veger overgehangen naar het moerloze en later broedloze hoofdvolk. Hier worden de mijten die zich op de bijen bevinden gevangen. Nadat de laatste darreraat uit een hoofdvolk is verwijderd, wordt het bijenvolk met Perizine

  15. Beeldverwerking met de Micron Automatic Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Goyens, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Deze thesis is een onderzoek naar toepassingen binnen beeldverwerking op de Micron Automata Processor hardware. De hardware wordt vergeleken met populaire hedendaagse hardware. Ook bevat dit onderzoek nuttige informatie en strategieën voor het ontwikkelen van nieuwe toepassingen. Bevindingen in dit onderzoek omvatten proof of concept algoritmes en een praktische toepassing.

  16. Groen proceswater: zuivering brouwerijprocesafvalwater met microalgen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Kroon, A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 is het project Groen Proceswater gestart. Hierin worden de mogelijkheden van zuivering van brouwerijprocesafvalwater met behulp van microalgen onderzocht. Dit is gedaan in een samenwerkingsverband van Heineken Nederland BV, Algae Food & Fuel en WUR-ACRRES. De resultaten behaald in 2012

  17. Evangelisch Commando, onze omgamg met de buitenkerkelijke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Of J. en E. dus interkerklik is, bly 'n vraag! Die gedeelte oor die „Oorzaken van buitenkerklijkheid is prikkelend en interessant. Die vraag is net of dit nie nog dieper gesoek moet word, nl. in die herontwaking van die Heidendom wat sig sins die Renaissance hardnekkig deur sit met die outonomie van die mens in die sentrum.

  18. Risicoanalyse voor buisleidingen met brandbare vloeistoffen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet AAC; Laheij GMH; Wolting AG; CEV

    2006-01-01

    De minimale veiligheidsafstanden tussen buisleidingen met brandbare vloeistoffen en bebouwingen kunnen gelijk blijven of iets verkleind worden. Dit is de conclusie na een herberekening van de afstanden uit een circulaire uit 1991. In Nederland ligt zo'n 1850 kilometer aan ondergrondse buisleiding

  19. A brief report on mets system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.

    Mets system is basically a gas monitoring system, used for the detection of underwater gas. The system consists of a sensor, datalogger and energy module. The sensor works on the diffusion techniques. The system can be deployed to a water depth...

  20. Three novel obese indicators perform better in monitoring management of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-Ming; Lu, Na; Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Li; Lu, Qiang; Yin, Fu-Zai

    2017-08-29

    The present study evaluated the performance of three novel obese indicators, visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP) and waist circumference-triglyceride index (WTI), for identifying metabolic syndrome(MetS) in type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 711 type 2 diabetes in Qinhuangdao. The MetS was defined as the definition of Chinese Diabetes Society. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to assess the accuracy of three obese indicators as diagnostic tests for MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 71.3%. In men, among all three obese indicators, the LAP had the highest area under curve (AUC) value (AUC = 0.894), followed by VAI (AUC = 0.860) and WTI (AUC = 0.855). In women, among all three obese indicators, the LAP had the highest AUC value (AUC = 0.906), followed by WTI (AUC = 0.887) and VAI (AUC = 0.881). However. there was no significant difference between the three obese indicators(P > 0.05). Three obese indicators were effective indicators for the screening of MetS, LAP and WTI are more simple.

  1. COMT Val158Met polymorphism, cognitive stability and cognitive flexibility: an experimental examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Elise C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine in prefrontal cortex (PFC modulates core cognitive processes, notably working memory and executive control. Dopamine regulating genes and polymorphisms affecting PFC - including Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met - are crucial to understanding the molecular genetics of cognitive function and dysfunction. A mechanistic account of the COMT Val158Met effect associates the Met allele with increased tonic dopamine transmission underlying maintenance of relevant information, and the Val allele with increased phasic dopamine transmission underlying the flexibility of updating new information. Thus, consistent with some earlier work, we predicted that Val carriers would display poorer performance when the maintenance component was taxed, while Met carriers would be less efficient when rapid updating was required. Methods Using a Stroop task that manipulated level of required cognitive stability and flexibility, we examined reaction time performance of patients with schizophrenia (n = 67 and healthy controls (n = 186 genotyped for the Val/Met variation. Results In both groups we found a Met advantage for tasks requiring cognitive stability, but no COMT effect when a moderate level of cognitive flexibility was required, or when a conflict cost measure was calculated. Conclusions Our results do not support a simple stability/flexibility model of dopamine COMT Val/Met effects and suggest a somewhat different conceptualization and experimental operationalization of these cognitive components.

  2. Obesity prevention and obesogenic behavior interventions in child care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Krampe, Megan; Anundson, Katherine; Castle, Sherri

    2016-06-01

    Review peer-reviewed interventions designed to reduce obesity and improve obesogenic behaviors, including physical activity, diet, and screen time, at child care centers. Interventions components and outcomes, study design, duration, use of behavioral theory, and level of social ecological influence are detailed. Article searches were conducted from March 2014, October 2014, March 2015, January 2016 across three databases. Eligible interventions were conducted in child care settings, included 3-to-5-year-old children, included an outcome measure of obesity or obesogenic behavior, and published in English. Study design quality was assessed using Stetler's Level of Quantitative Evidence. All unique records were screened (n=4589): 237 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 97 articles describing 71 interventions met inclusion criteria. Forty-four articles included multi-level interventions. Twenty-nine interventions included an outcome measure of obesity. Forty-one interventions included physical activity. Forty-five included diet. Eight included screen time. Fifty-five percent of interventions were Level II (randomized controlled trials), while 37% were Level III (quasi-experimental or pre-post only study design), and 8% were Level IV (non-experimental or natural experiments). Most interventions had the intended effect on the target: obesity 48% (n=14), physical activity 73% (n=30), diet 87% (n=39), and screen time 63% (n=5). Summarizing intervention strategies and assessing their effectiveness contributes to the existing literature and may provide direction for practitioners and researchers working with young children in child care. Most interventions produced the targeted changes in obesity and obesity-associated behaviors, supporting current and future efforts to collaborate with early-care centers and professionals for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inverse Associations between a Locally Validated Mediterranean Diet Index, Overweight/Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Chilean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Guadalupe; McGee, Emma E; Urquiaga, Inés; Jiménez, Paulina; D'Acuña, Sonia; Villarroel, Luis; Velasco, Nicolás; Leighton, Federico; Rigotti, Attilio

    2017-08-11

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are key risk factors for chronic disease. Dietary patterns are critical in the incidence and persistence of obesity and MetS, yet there is few data linking diet to obesity and MetS in Chile. Our objective was to use a locally validated diet index to evaluate adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its correlations with overweight/obesity (OW/O) and MetS prevalence in Chilean adults. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional online survey of Chilean adults with complete self-reported diet and body mass index data ( n = 24,882). A subsample of 4348 users (17.5%) had valid MetS data. An inverse association was observed between adherence to Mediterranean diet and OW/O and MetS prevalence. As diet quality decreased from healthy, to moderately-healthy, to unhealthy, prevalence increased from 44.8, 51.1, to 60.9% for OW/O and from 13.4, 18.5, to 28.9% for MetS ( p -values diet groups in comparison to the healthy diet group. This study represents the first report on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic disease risk in Chile. It suggests that the Mediterranean diet may be applied to manage chronic disease risk beyond the Mediterranean basin.

  4. MET signalling in primary colon epithelial cells leads to increased transformation irrespective of aberrant Wnt signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, E M J; Kovarikova, M; Derksen, P W B; van der Neut, R

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that in hereditary and most sporadic colon tumours, components of the Wnt pathway are mutated. The Wnt target MET has been implicated in the development of colon cancer. Here, we show that overexpression of wild-type or a constitutively activated form of MET in colon epithelial cells leads to increased transformation irrespective of Wnt signalling. Fetal human colon epithelial cells without aberrant Wnt signalling were transfected with wild-type or mutated MET constructs. Expression of these constructs leads to increased phosphorylation of MET and its downstream targets PKB and MAPK. Upon stimulation with HGF, the expression of E-cadherin is downregulated in wild-type MET-transfected cells, whereas cells expressing mutated MET show low E-cadherin levels independent of stimulation with ligand. This implies a higher migratory propensity of these cells. Furthermore, fetal human colon epithelial cells expressing the mutated form of MET have colony-forming capacity in soft agar, while cells expressing wild-type MET show an intermediate phenotype. Subcutaneous injection of mutated MET-transfected cells in nude mice leads to the formation of tumours within 12 days in all mice injected. At this time point, mock-transfected cells do not form tumours, while wild-type MET-transfected cells form subcutaneous tumours in one out of five mice. We thus show that MET signalling can lead to increased transformation of colon epithelial cells independent of Wnt signalling and in this way could play an essential role in the onset and progression of colorectal cancer. PMID:15785735

  5. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, M A; Shield, J P H

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase worldwide. Its presence is associated with significant adverse effects on health including an increased propensity to type II diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disease. In the vast majority of children, obesity is lifestyle-related, yet there is a dearth of evidence on how to best develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. This review outlines the importance of childhood and adolescent growth on long-term health, the definitions used to define obesity in children (along with up-to-date prevalence data), causes and consequences, and aspects of prevention and management.

  6. Prevalence of metabolic components in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da; Sousa, Luana Savana Nascimento de; Rocha, Telma de Sousa; Cortez, Ramiro Marx Alves; Macêdo, Layla Gonçalves do Nascimento; Almeida, Paulo César de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the frequency of components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among university students.METHOD: descriptive study with 550 students, from various courses run by a public university. The socioeconomic data, lifestyle, and components of MetS were filled out using a questionnaire. Blood sample collection was undertaken in the university itself by a contracted clinical analysis laboratory.RESULTS: 66.2% were female, with a mean age of 22.6±4.41; 71.7% were sedentary; 1.8% stated...

  7. De Doop met de Heilige Geest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C.W. Duvenage.

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available Ds. Molenaar begin sy boek, waarvan hy self die publikasienie beleef het nie, deur te wys op 'n groot tekort, ’n manko,nie alleen in die Gereformeerde vroomheid of lewe nie maarook in die Gereformeerde teologie. Hy beskou dit as hoogsmerkwaardig dat die Gereformeerde teologie in die verledeso goed as niks raakgesien het van die groot betekenis vandie sogenaamde doop met die Heilige Gees nie. Daarby meenhy dat die Gereformeerde predikante verleë sit met die Pinkterfees.Talle probleme meen hy vir die Gereformeerde teoloograak te sien, veral ten aansien van die moontlikhede van dieGees teenoor die so tasbare „onmoontIikhede” in ons lewe. Dieprobleme is syns insiens nie onoplosbaar nie, as mens maardie moontlikhede van die Gees nie beperk tot die verlede nie.

  8. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gelsomino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  9. Fatty acid intake and metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maximino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine relations between fatty acids intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS status among overweight and obese women (n = 223. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The physical and laboratory tests included anthropometry, body composition evaluation and measurements of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulinemia and lipid profiles. A three-day food diary was used to evaluate fatty acids consumption. Statistical analysis included χ2 test and odds ratio measurements. Results: The women had 35.2 (6.9 years old and 15.2% presented MetS. Women with MetS presented higher serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin in addition to higher diastolic blood pressure in comparison to women without MetS. Overweight women with MetS consumed higher amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids - 24.3 g (24.7 - 36.4 versus overweight women without MetS - 23.9 g (23.8 - 26.8, polyunsaturated fatty acids - 16.7 g (14.6 - 21.1 versus overweight women without MetS - 13.6 g (13.8 - 15.8 and linoleic fatty acids - 15.9 g (6.5 versus overweight women without MetS - 13.1 g (5.1. Among obese women with MetS, higher intake of linoleic fatty acids was also noted - 17.6 g (6.1 versus obese women without MetS - 14.3 g (6.6 in addition to higher consumption of trans fatty acids - 4.7 g (4.8 - 6.3 versus obese women without MetS - 3.9 g (2.9 - 4.6. Increased quartiles of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, linoleic and trans fatty acid intake were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of MetS. Conclusion: Lipid intake may be related to MetS, although other factors also need to be considered, such as lifestyle, genetics and metabolism.

  10. Metáfora y estructura conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Castaño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La lingüística cognitiva siempre ha argumentado que la metáfora no pertenece exclusivamente al lenguaje, sino que es una competencia que se basa en la habilidad humana de concebir un dominio de experiencia en términos de otro. Entendida así, la metáfora no puede ser otra cosa que un fenómeno conceptual. No obstante, pocos adeptos de la lingüística cognitiva han concentrados sus esfuerzos en catalogar manifestaciones metafóricas en ámbitos no lingüísticos. En este trabajo, sugerimos que es factible encontrar pruebas de que la metáfora es un proceso conceptual y, como tal, se manifiesta en esferas que no son estrictamente lingüísticas. Para ello, aportamos un seguido de evidencias muy diversas, como por ejemplo su papel en el razonamiento lógico-matemático de los niños en la fase preoperacional del desarrollo cognitivo, la programación de interfaces para aplicaciones informáticas y los resultados de tres estudios empíricos realizados recientemente en el campo  de la psicología cognitiva que analizan los efectos whorfianos en la conceptualización del tiempo y los efectos del espacio en la memoria emocional.

  11. Serum amyloid A is found on ApoB-containing lipoproteins in obese humans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Anisa; Wilson, Patricia G; Hou, Tianfei; Brown, Aparna; King, Victoria L; Tannock, Lisa R

    2013-05-01

    In murine models of obesity/diabetes, there is an increase in plasma serum amyloid A (SAA) levels along with redistribution of SAA from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoprotein particles, namely, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. The goal of this study was to determine if obesity is associated with similar SAA lipoprotein redistribution in humans. Three groups of obese individuals were recruited from a weight loss clinic: healthy obese (n = 14), metabolic syndrome (MetS) obese (n = 8), and obese with type 2 diabetes (n = 6). Plasma was separated into lipoprotein fractions by fast protein liquid chromatography, and SAA was measured in lipid fractions using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Only the obese diabetic group had SAA detectable in apoB-containing lipoproteins, and SAA reverted back to HDL with active weight loss. In human subjects, SAA is found in apoB-containing lipoprotein particles only in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes, but not in healthy obese or obese subjects with MetS. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  12. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  13. OBESITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPERTENSION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Hendy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a global issue. Previous studies in Bali reveal an increase in the proportionof obesity in adolescents. Obesity causes hypertension; hence there should also be an increase inthe prevalence of hypertension as well in Bali. Hypertension in obese adolescents could be causedby various factors, hence identification of the risks factors is crucial as a preventive approach.The aim of this study was to prove an association between obesity and hypertension in adolescents,and to look for the risk factors. We used an analitical cross sectional design conducted to 12-14years old samples. We took body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, andblood pressure measurements with appropriate devices and asked for information regarding lifestyle and familial history by a questionnare filled in by the samples. The association of obeseadolescents with hypertension and their risk factors was analyzed by Chi-square and multivariatetests. A total of 225 subjects from Santo Yoseph junior high school students, west Denpasar,Bali, met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of obese subjects in this study was 25.7%. Wefound that proportion in familial history of obesity was greater in obese than non-obese subjects(70.7 % vs 41.3%. Logistic regression test revealed that obese subjects with hypertension had abody mass index (BMI > 30 with odds ratio of 7.3 (CI 95% = 1.8 to 28.8 and P = 0.005. Weconcluded that there was an association between obesity and adolescents with hypertension,and BMI > 30 could be a risk factor for obese adolescents with hypertension.

  14. Obesity in pediatric ALL survivors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Saltzman, Edward; Must, Aviva; Roberts, Susan B; Parsons, Susan K

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies of survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have drawn heterogeneous conclusions regarding the prevalence of obesity and risk factors for developing obesity in pediatric ALL survivors. We sought to determine the prevalence of obesity in pediatric ALL survivors and examine risk factors for obesity through a systematic review and meta-analysis. A MEDLINE search was performed from its inception through 2013. Studies met the inclusion criteria if they (1) included at least 10 survivors of pediatric ALL; (2) assessed the prevalence or indicators of obesity; and (3) compared obesity among ALL survivors to a reference population or external control group. Extracted data included patient and treatment characteristics, study design, population used for comparison, and prevalence of obesity. Forty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Despite significant heterogeneity among the studies (I(2) = 96%), the mean BMI z score in 1742 pediatric ALL survivors was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.60-1.06), which corresponds to the 80th BMI percentile, indicating a significantly higher BMI in pediatric ALL survivors than the reference population. Subgroup analyses found a high prevalence of obesity in ALL survivors regardless of survivors' receipt of cranial irradiation, gender, or age at diagnosis. Obesity is prevalent in pediatric ALL survivors and is independent of patient- and treatment-related characteristics. Clinicians need to screen for obesity and its associated health conditions early in survivorship.

  15. Association of Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome and its components among adult Arabs from the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hayder A; AbuOdeh, Ra'ed O; Muda, Wan Abdul Manan Bin Wan; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Bin Jan; Samsudin, Ab Rani

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships of Vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms to the components of MetS among Arabs adult residing in the United Arab Emirates. A cross-sectional study of 198 Arabs adult (50 males and 148 females). Serum levels of glucose, vitamin D, HDL-C, and TG, and blood pressure were measured. FokI, BsmI & TaqI genotyping of VDR were investigated using PCR-RFLP technique. Age of the participants was 21(9) years with a BMI of 26.8(7.8) kg/m 2 . About 15% had MetS with serum vitamin D levels of 25.5(18.2) nmol/L. VDR genotyping yielded: FokI: 57.1% FF and 38.9% Ff, BsmI: 29.8% bb and 51.5% Bb, while TaqI showed 39.4% TT and 43.4% Tt. The ff carriers had higher total cholesterol [174(12.4) mg/dl] than FF and Ff genotypes. Bb carriers showed higher BMI and LDL-C than BB and bb genotypes. In females, FokI VDR polymorphism showed significant association with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and F allele carriers were at higher risk of developing high SBP [x 2 =4.4, df1, OR=0.29 (95%CI: 0.087-0.98), p=0.035]. VDR gene polymorphisms were not associated with MetS, yet it may affect the severity of some of components of MetS, namely the association of BsmI with obesity, FokI and BsmI with dyslipidemia and FokI with SBP. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Obesity and episodic memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2018-04-17

    Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the totality of research examining whether obesity is associated with episodic memory function, and whether physical activity and dietary behavior confounds this relationship. A review approach was employed, using PubMed, PsychInfo, and Sports Discus databases. Fourteen studies met our criteria. Among these 14 reviewed studies, eight were cross-sectional, four were prospective, and two employed a randomized controlled experimental design. Twelve of the 14 studies did not take into consideration dietary behavior in their analysis, and similarly, nine of the 14 studies did not take into consideration participant physical activity behavior. Among the 14 studies, ten found an inverse association of weight status on memory function, but for one of these studies, this association was attenuated after controlling for physical activity. Among the 14 evaluated studies, four did not find a direct effect of weight status on memory. Among the four null studies, one, however, found an indirect effect of BMI on episodic memory and another found a moderation effect of BMI and age on memory function. It appears that obesity may be associated with worse memory function, with the underlying mechanisms discussed herein. At this point, it is uncertain whether adiposity, itself, is influencing memory changes, or rather, whether adiposity-related lifestyle behaviors (e.g., physical inactivity and diet) are driving the obesity-memory relationship.

  17. Adipocyte aminopeptidases in obesity and fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alponti, Rafaela Fadoni; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2015-11-05

    This study checked the existence of a diverse array of aminopeptidase (AP) enzymes in high (HDM) and low (LDM) density microsomal and plasma membrane (MF) fractions from adipocytes of control, monosodium glutamate obese and food deprived rats. Gene expression was detected for ArgAP, AspAP, MetAP, and two AlaAP (APM and PSA). APM and PSA had the highest catalytic efficiency, whereas AspAP the highest affinity. Subcellular distribution of AP activities depended on metabolic status. Comparing catalytic levels, AspAP in HDM, LDM and MF was absent in obese and control under food deprivation; PSA in LDM was 3.5-times higher in obese than in normally fed control and control and obese under food deprivation; MetAP in MF was 4.5-times higher in obese than in food deprived obese. Data show new AP enzymes genetically expressed in subcellular compartments of adipocytes, three of them with altered catalytic levels that respond to whole-body energetic demands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. McAuley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third and fit (upper two-thirds; and by body mass index (kg/m2: nonobese (18.5−29.9 and obese (≥30.0. Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01 and 1.9 (=0.03 times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  19. Metáfora y conceptos abstractos

    OpenAIRE

    Danesi, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    La gran cantidad de datos recolectados sobre la metáfora sugiere enfáticamente que muchos de los conceptos abstractos, si no la mayoría, son codificables y reconocibles primordialmente como «ideas metaforizadas», es decir como conceptos que se derivan cognitivamente mediante el razonamiento metafórico y un proceso de asociación metafórica que en este artículo se denominará estratificación [layering] (Gibbs, 1994; Goatley, 1997). La literatura más actualizada sobre lo que se ha denominado Teor...

  20. Obesity and Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Obesity Explore this page: Obesity How does being overweight ... What you can do to reduce your risk? Obesity More than one-third of Americans are obese ...

  1. Cancer and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cancer and obesity Overweight and obesity are associated with cancer Language: ... a cancer associated with overweight and obesity. Problem Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. What’s happening? ...

  2. Dissection of combinatorial control by the Met4 transcriptional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Traci A; Jorgensen, Paul; Bognar, Andrew L; Peyraud, Caroline; Thomas, Dominique; Tyers, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Met4 is the transcriptional activator of the sulfur metabolic network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lacking DNA-binding ability, Met4 must interact with proteins called Met4 cofactors to target promoters for transcription. Two types of DNA-binding cofactors (Cbf1 and Met31/Met32) recruit Met4 to promoters and one cofactor (Met28) stabilizes the DNA-bound Met4 complexes. To dissect this combinatorial system, we systematically deleted each category of cofactor(s) and analyzed Met4-activated transcription on a genome-wide scale. We defined a core regulon for Met4, consisting of 45 target genes. Deletion of both Met31 and Met32 eliminated activation of the core regulon, whereas loss of Met28 or Cbf1 interfered with only a subset of targets that map to distinct sectors of the sulfur metabolic network. These transcriptional dependencies roughly correlated with the presence of Cbf1 promoter motifs. Quantitative analysis of in vivo promoter binding properties indicated varying levels of cooperativity and interdependency exists between members of this combinatorial system. Cbf1 was the only cofactor to remain fully bound to target promoters under all conditions, whereas other factors exhibited different degrees of regulated binding in a promoter-specific fashion. Taken together, Met4 cofactors use a variety of mechanisms to allow differential transcription of target genes in response to various cues.

  3. A social contagious model of the obesity epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Yan, Zhijun; Chen, Yahong; Liu, Fangyan

    2016-11-01

    Obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic by WHO, followed by many empirical evidences to prove its infectiousness. However, the inter-person spreading dynamics of obesity are seldom studied. A distinguishing feature of the obesity epidemic is that it is driven by a social contagion process which cannot be perfectly described by the infectious disease models. In this paper, we propose a novel belief decision model based on the famous Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to model obesity epidemic as the competing spread of two obesity-related behaviors: physical inactivity and physical activity. The transition of health states is described by an SIS model. Results reveal the existence of obesity epidemic threshold, above which obesity is quickly eradicated. When increasing the fading level of information spread, enlarging the clustering of initial obese seeds, or introducing small-world characteristics into the network topology, the threshold is easily met. Social discrimination against the obese people plays completely different roles in two cases: on one hand, when obesity cannot be eradicated, social discrimination can reduce the number of obese people; on the other hand, when obesity is eradicable, social discrimination may instead cause it breaking out.

  4. Childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings: systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan E; Emerson, Janice S; Levine, Robert S; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Hull, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    Childcare settings are an opportune location for early intervention programs seeking to prevent childhood obesity. This article reports on a systematic review of controlled trials of obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings. The review was limited to English language articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) between January 2000 and April 2012. childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings using controlled designs that reported adiposity and behavior outcomes. no interventions, non-childcare settings, clinical weight loss programs, non-English publications. Publications were identified by key word search. Two authors reviewed eligible studies to extract study information and study results. Qualitative synthesis was conducted, including tabulation of information and a narrative summary. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Seven studies reported improvements in adiposity. Six of the 13 interventions with dietary components reported improved intake or eating behaviors. Eight of the 12 interventions with physical activity components reported improved activity levels or physical fitness. Evidence was mixed for all outcomes. Results should be interpreted cautiously given the high variability in study designs and interventions. Further research needs long-term follow-up, multistrategy interventions that include changes in the nutrition and physical activity environment, reporting of cost data, and consideration of sustainability.

  5. Metallography at the Met Lab -- The first fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Met Lab at the University of Chicago was established to build the world's first nuclear reactor. The object was to see if a pile (CP-1) could be built to create a sustained chain reaction, i.e., controlled nuclear fission. New materials of the very best quality were needed and people of many skills worked together to achieve the goal as quickly as possible. This is the story of a select group of people who were scientific and engineering pioneers in this new field. Research continued at new sites on more advanced reactors and cooling systems. Many problems were encountered in the fabrication of reactor components, and metallography was a crucial method of analyzing the reactions and quality of consolidation. 1996 will be the 50th anniversary of the beginning of the National Laboratories, so it is appropriate to commemorate and recall some pioneering achievements

  6. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: a surgeon's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    Over the past decade, a major shift in the clinical risk factors in the population undergoing a cardiac surgery has been observed. In the general population, an increasing prevalence of obesity has largely contributed to the development of cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a heterogeneous condition in which body fat distribution largely determines metabolic perturbations. Consequently, individuals characterized by increased abdominal fat deposition and the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS) have a higher risk of developing coronary artery disease. Recent studies have also emphasized that visceral obesity is a strong risk factor for the development of heart valve diseases. In fact, individuals characterized by visceral obesity and its metabolic consequences, such as the small dense low-density lipoprotein phenotype, have a faster progression rate of aortic stenosis, which is related to increased valvular inflammation. Furthermore, the degenerative process of implanted bioprostheses is increased in subjects with the MetS and/or diabetes, suggesting that a process akin to atherosclerosis could be involved in the failure of bioprostheses. In addition to being an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders, the MetS is increasing the operative mortality risk following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Thus, recent evidence supports visceral obesity as a global risk factor that is affecting the development of many heart disorders, and that is also impacting negatively on the results of patients undergoing surgical treatment for cardiovascular diseases. In the present paper, recent concepts surrounding the MetS and its implications in various cardiovascular disorders are reviewed along with the clinical implications.

  7. Saving energy with paint. Coating with ceramic globules; Energie besparen met verf. Coating met keramische bolletjes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemse, R. [Coateq Coatings, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    The special paint coating of ThermoShield saves energy. The coating consists for 50% of hollow, vacuum ceramic globules. The waterborne damp-open coating with capillary function resists rain water and removes redundant water in case of draught and it reflects sunlight. [Dutch] Met de speciale verfcoating ThermoShield kan energie worden bespaard. De coating bestaat voor 50% uit holle, vacuum getrokken keramische bolletjes. De watergedragen damp-open coating met capillaire werking stoot bij regen water af en voert bij droogte overtollig vocht af en reflecteert zonlicht.

  8. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  9. Inhibition of the methionine aminopeptidase 2 enzyme for the treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joharapurkar AA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amit A Joharapurkar, Nirav A Dhanesha, Mukul R Jain Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zydus Research Centre, Cadila Healthcare Limited, Ahmedabad, India Abstract: Worldwide prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled since 1980. Obesity is the result of interactions among the environmental factors, genetic predisposition, and human behavior. Even modest weight reduction in obese patients provides beneficial health outcomes. For effective weight reduction, a drug should either increase energy expenditure or decrease energy intake without causing serious adverse effects. To overcome lack of efficacy and central nervous system related side effects, exploitation of the peripheral mechanism of anti-obesity action is needed. Inhibition of pathological angiogenesis in adipose tissue is one such peripheral mechanism that has attracted the attention of researchers in this area. Although originally developed as anti-cancer agents, methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2 inhibitors induce significant and sustained weight reduction. Here, we review preclinical and clinical pharmacology of MetAP2 inhibitors. Beloranib is a prototype MetAP2 inhibitor, and currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of obesity. Clinical data of beloranib indicate that MetAP2 inhibitors could be a future treatment option for weight reduction without serious adverse effects. Further clinical data from Phase III trials will add to our growing knowledge of MetAP2 inhibitor potential for anti-obesity therapy. Keywords: angiogenesis, beloranib, body weight, MetAP2, anti-obesity

  10. The new Met Office strategy for seasonal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, T. D.

    2012-04-01

    In October 2011 the Met Office began issuing a new-format UK seasonal forecast, called "The 3-month Outlook". Government interest in a UK-relevant product had been heightened by infrastructure issues arising during the severe cold of previous winters. At the same time there was evidence that the Met Office's "GLOSEA4" long range forecasting system exhibited some hindcast skill for the UK, that was comparable to its hindcast skill for the larger (and therefore less useful) 'northern Europe' region. Also, the NAO- and AO- signals prevailing in the previous two winters had been highlighted by the GLOSEA4 model well in advance. This presentation will initially give a brief overview of GLOSEA4, describing key features such as evolving sea-ice, a well-resolved stratosphere, and the perturbation strategy. Skill measures will be shown, along with forecasts for the last 3 winters. The new structure 3-month outlook will then be described and presented. Previously, our seasonal forecasts had been based on a tercile approach. The new format outlook aims to substantially improve upon this by illustrating graphically, and with text, the full range of possible outcomes, and by placing those outcomes in the context of climatology. In one key component the forecast pdfs (probability density functions) are displayed alongside climatological pdfs. To generate the forecast pdf we take the bias-corrected GLOSEA4 output (42 members), and then incorporate, via expert team, all other relevant information. Firstly model forecasts from other centres are examined. Then external 'forcing factors', such as solar, and the state of the land-ocean-ice system, are referenced, assessing how well the models represent their influence, and bringing in statistical relationships where appropriate. The expert team thereby decides upon any changes to the GLOSEA4 data, employing an interactive tool to shift, expand or contract the forecast pdfs accordingly. The full modification process will be illustrated

  11. MET Standards for Electro-Technical Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mindykowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with one of the most important changes in the STCW 1978 as amended in 2010 Convention, from the point of view of the watchkeeping officers responsible for control, maintenance, diagnostic and repair of electrical and electronic installations on board of ships. Some reasons, why the MET Standards for Electro-Technical had to be developed and implemented are shortly analyzed and described. A legislative way towards and a short description of the minimum standards competence for ETO are presented. Next, new tools supporting ETO’s standards implementation are appointed. Finally, the future works as well as the concluding remarks concerning discussed issue are formulated and commented on.

  12. Treating Obesity As a Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity, And What You Can Do Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic Stress Management How Does Stress Affect You? ... Keeping the Weight Off • Obesity - Introduction - Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic - Treating Obesity as a Disease - Childhood Obesity ...

  13. Metástasis hipofisaria Hypophyseal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Yanes Quesada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mayoría son lesiones silentes descubiertas accidentalmente en las autopsia. La aparición de metástasis sintomáticas es, en cambio, excepcional. DESARROLLO: se describen aquí los hallazgos clínicos y radiológicos de una paciente femenina de 69 años, con un carcinoma indiferenciado del pulmón, diagnosticado hace 2 años y medio, que comenzó con cefalea y trastornos visuales sin hipopituitarismo ni diabetes insípida. Se le realizó resonancia magnética nuclear y se le diagnosticó una lesión hipofisaria, que fue operada por vía tranesfenoidal, y se informó por anatomía patológica una metástasis del carcinoma del pulmón. CONCLUSIONES: la paciente se encuentra en estos momentos recibiendo quimioterapia, radioterapia y anticuerpo monoclonal con evolución favorable.INTRODUCTION: metastatic tumors of hypophyseal gland are infrequent. Most are silent lesions discovered accidentally in necropsy. Appearance of symptomatic metastasis is however, exceptional. DEVELOPMENT: we describe here clinical and radiological findings in a female patient aged 69, presenting with a non-differential carcinoma of lung, diagnosed two years a half ago, starting with headache and visual disorders without hypopituitarism and insipidus diabetes. We made a nuclear magnetic resonance and diagnosis was a hypophyseal lesion operated on by trans-esphenoidal route, and Pathological Anatomy Service reports a metastasis of lung carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: patient receives chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and monoclonal antibody with a favorable evolution.

  14. Components of the metabolic syndrome differ between young and old adults in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Andrew D; Sardi, Gabriel L; Reed, James F

    2012-08-01

    Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is high in the United States and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The authors examined whether the prevalence of the MetS and its components differs across age groups. Data were analyzed from 4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys between the years 1999 and 2006. Prevalence of MetS as defined by the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel criteria and prevalence of associated cardiac risk factors were determined in 41,474 participants aged 18 years and older without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). All estimates were weighted. Prevalence of MetS among asymptomatic adults without CVD was 20.5% and remained stable for the total population during survey periods. Prevalence of MetS increased with age: 6.6% in young adults (age 18-29 years) and 34.6% in older adults (70 and older). Components of MetS differed between young and old adults. Young adults had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, less glucose intolerance, and less hypertension. This study provides an estimate of MetS prevalence in asymptomatic adults in the United States during an 8-year period revealing that MetS affects a large number of Americans. Components of MetS differ between young and old adults and may have important implications in their clinical management. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. BMC Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guoqing; McConn, Betty R.; Liu, Dongmin; Cline, Mark A.; Gilbert, Elizabeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Broiler chickens are compulsive feeders that become obese as juveniles and are thus a unique model for metabolic disorders in humans. However, little is known about the relationship between dietary composition, fasting and refeeding and adipose tissue physiology in chicks. Our objective was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and fasting and refeeding affect chick adipose physiology during the early pos...

  16. Socioeconomic and Behavioral Characteristics Associated With Metabolic Syndrome Among Overweight/Obese School-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok Kyung

    Obesity in children comprises a significant public health concern in Korea. As with increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among children, risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) have also increased in this population. The purpose was to examine behavioral and socioeconomic factors that were associated with biomarkers of MetS among overweight/obese school-age children. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenience sample of 75 overweight/obese school-age children participated. Socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and physiologic examinations were studied. The data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 27.8% of our population. Severe stress was significantly associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (P family characteristics, children's perception of family income (wealthy and very wealthy) and mother's education level (high school or less) were associated with diagnoses of MetS in children (P < .05). The results indicated that certain socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics were associated with risk factors of MetS, and therefore, interventions to modify these risk factors are needed to promote the healthy development of overweight/obese school-age children.

  17. Resultaten boomkorsurvey 2013: BTS met onderzoeksvaartuigen Isis en Tridens (interview met Ingeborg de Boois)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boois, de I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Van begin augustus tot half september heeft IMARES de boomkorsurvey (BTS) uitgevoerd met de onderzoeksschepen Isis en Tridens. Op 29 maart 2014 wordt een bijeenkomst georganiseerd voor geinteresseerden, waar de resultaten van zowel de BTS als de bedrijfssurvey gepresenteerd worden. De BTS wordt

  18. Pastoors naar de PFA: nieuwe impuls voor samenwerking met de wetenschap (interview met Martin Pastoors)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastoors, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    De Pelagic Freezer-trawler Association (PFA) heeft visserijonderzoeler Martin Pastoors aangenomen als 'Chief Science Officer'. De afgelopen tien jaar is de PFA zich steeds meer bezig gaan houden met wetenschappelijk onderzoek. Bijvoorbeeld door het ontwikkelen van nieuwe manieren om data te

  19. Serum liver fatty acid binding protein levels correlate positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1 plays an inconclusive role in adiposity. We investigated the association of serum FABP1 levels with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young people under 30 years old. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional analysis including 200 obese and 172 normal-weight subjects matched for age and sex, anthropometric measurements were performed and serum FABP1 and biochemical characteristics were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and by the insulin sensitivity index (S(i derived from Bergman's minimal model. FABP1 levels in obese subjects were significantly higher than those in normal-weight subjects (p<0.001 and the significance remained after adjustment for age, gender, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.001. Serum FABP1 levels were significantly correlated with many metabolic-related parameters, with BMI and triglycerides as the independent determinants. FABP1 levels remained an independent risk factor of insulin resistance assessed by binary S(i (OR = 1.868 per SD unit, 95% CI [1.035-3.373], p = 0.038 after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol,. FABP1 levels were also elevated with an increasing number of components of the metabolic syndrome (p for trend <0.001. Multiple regression modeling for the MetS and its components demonstrated that hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated to serum FABP1 levels. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Serum FABP1 correlates positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults. Our data supports the fact that FABP1 might be an important mediator participating in fatty acid metabolism and energy balance.

  20. Milde voedselverwerkingstechnologie II : milde conservering met hoge druk : nieuwe ontwikkelingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Berg, van den R.

    2004-01-01

    Met behulp van hogedruktechnologie kunnen producten langer houdbaar worden gemaakt. Deze bekende techniek kent de laatste tijd nieuwe ontwikkelingen en toepassingen . Naast pasteuriseren door een hogedrukbehandeling bij kamertemperatuur is het nu ook mogelijk om te steriliseren met hoge druk. Ook

  1. MetNet Network Mission for Martian Atmospheric Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Arrugeo, I.; Schmidt, W.; Vazquez, L.; Genzer, M.; Haukka, H.

    2014-07-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars called MetNet is being developed for martian atmospheric investigations. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy tens of small landers on the martian surface.

  2. Dimensionering van de Uniqfill chemischer wasser met lamellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt een eerste aanzet gegeven tot de modellering van een kruisstroom chemische wasser met lamellen. Met behulp van bestaande metingen is de stofoverdrachtscoëfficiënt afgeschat, waarna scenario's voor nieuwe wassers doorgerekend konden worden.

  3. Klimaatverandering en de stadsboom (interview met Jitze Kopinga)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, P.; Kopinga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Bomen in de stad staan vaak op warme plaatsen met een gebrekkige waterhuishouding. Volgens het KNMI zal Nederland in de toekomst steeds vaker met hitte en droogte te maken hebben. Wat betekent dat voor onze stadsbomen?

  4. MET amplification, expression, and exon 14 mutations in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Li, Guichao; Sun, Xiangjie; Ni, Shujuan; Tan, Cong; Xu, Midie; Huang, Dan; Ren, Fei; Li, Dawei; Wei, Ping; Du, Xiang

    2018-04-08

    MET amplification, expression, and splice mutations at exon 14 result in dysregulation of the MET signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between MET amplification, protein or mRNA expression, and mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC). MET immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used for MET protein expression analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for MET amplification detection. Both analyses were performed in tissue microarrays (TMA) containing 294 of colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue samples and 131 samples of adjacent normal epithelial tissue. MET mRNA expression was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 72 fresh colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue samples and adjacent normal colon tissue. PCR sequencing was performed to screen for MET exon 14 splice mutations in 59 fresh CRC tissue samples. Our results showed that MET protein expression was higher in colorectal tumor tissue than in adjacent normal intestinal epithelium. Positive MET protein expression was associated with significantly poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Multivariate analysis revealed that positive MET protein expression was an independent risk factor for DFS, but not for OS. MET mRNA expression was upregulated in tumor tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. The incidence of MET amplification was 4.4%. None of the patients was positive for MET mutation. Collectively, MET was overexpressed in colorectal adenocarcinoma, and its positive protein expression predicted a poorer outcome in CRC patients. Furthermore, according to our results, MET amplification and 14 exon mutation are extremely rare events in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effect of MET on formation and vigor of wheat roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bingkui; Jin Ziyu; Zhao Miaozhen; Zhao Yanshen

    1993-01-01

    Effect of MET on the formation and vigor of roots of wheat seedlings were studied. The results showed that 50 ∼ 200 ppm MET inhibited vertical elongation of roots, increased root, shoot ratio and enhanced the formation and vigor of roots. But MET had no effect on the dry weight of roots. The activity of peroxidase was decreased and the proportion of assimilates in roots was increased by MET treatment compared with the control

  6. Gait and Function in Class III Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking, more specifically gait, is an essential component of daily living. Walking is a very different activity for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI of 40 or more (Class III obesity compared with those who are overweight or obese with a BMI between 26–35. Yet all obesity weight classes receive the same physical activity guidelines and recommendations. This observational study examined the components of function and disability in a group with Class III obesity and a group that is overweight or has Class I obesity. Significant differences were found between the groups in the areas of gait, body size, health condition, and activity capacity and participation. The Timed Up and Go test, gait velocity, hip circumference, and stance width appear to be most predictive of activity capacity as observed during gait assessment. The findings indicate that Class III-related gait is pathologic and not a normal adaptation.

  7. Innoveren met serious games : Wat is serious gaming?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Het begrip serious gaming is inmiddels gekaapt door vele aanbieders van wat vroeger simulatie en virtual reality technologie genoemd werd. Met die technologie kunnen we mensen laten rondlopen in virtuele gebouwen en landschappen, al dan niet met grote projectieschermen of met brillen op. Maar dat is

  8. Groen proceswater: zuivering brouwerijprocesafvalwater met microalgen : Resultaten onderzoek 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.; Diem, van A.; Doornbusch, P.; Grobben-Gaastra, S.A.; Kleinhout, G.; Kroon, A.; Weide, van der R.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Afgelopen jaar is de pilot met het kweken van algen met afvalwater van de brouwerijlocatie Zoeterwoude geslaagd. Dit is gedaan in een samenwerkingsverband van Heineken Nederland BV, Algae Food & Fuel en WUR-Acrres. Dit is de eerste inline pilot in de wereld waarbij met LED verlichting op 1000 L

  9. Erlotinib e metástases cerebrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Barata

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Relatamos dois casos de carcinoma pulmonar de não pequenas células (CPNPC com metástases cerebrais que após quimioterapia sistémica receberam em segunda e terceira linha erlotinib 150 mg/dia, oral, com resposta completa das lesões secundárias cerebrais e franca resposta parcial das lesões torácicas.A metastização cerebral, bastante prevalente no contexto do CPNPC, está associada a escassas opções terapêuticas eficazes e, consequentemente, a uma sobre-vida mediana de 4 a 6 meses.Estes casos alertam para o erlotinib como uma excelente opção terapêutica para estes doentes. Os autores propõem um ensaio clínico com este fármaco neste grupo de doentes, procurando determinar da resposta objectiva.Rev Port Pneumol 2008; XIV (Supl 3: S35-S42 Abstract: We report two cases of brain metastases in context of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. After having progressed to chemotherapy they received erlotinib 150 mg/m2 orally daily, with complete response of brain metastasis and partial response of thoracic lesions.Brain metastases are both prevalent and a major cause of mortality in NSCLC, with few systemic treatment options. Median survival after whole brain radiotherapy is 4-6 months and the role of systemic therapy for brain metastases is limited with the most drugs use to stage IV disease ineffective in this setting.This case demonstrates that brain metastases may be sensitive to erlotinib and give to us growing body of evidence that EGFR-associated tyrosine kinase inhibition is a feasible strategy in the management of NSCLC patients with brain metastasesWe propose further study into the continued use of this drug in the situation where there is a differential response.Rev Port Pneumol 2008; XIV (Supl 3: S35-S42 Palavras-chave: Erlotinib, metástase cerebral, cancro do pulmão, Key-words: Erlotinib, brain metastasis, lung cancer

  10. Discovery of potent, reversible MetAP2 inhibitors via fragment based drug discovery and structure based drug design-Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvallath, Zacharia; Tang, Mingnam; McBride, Christopher; Komandla, Mallareddy; Miura, Joanne; Ton-Nu, Thu; Erikson, Phil; Feng, Jun; Farrell, Pamela; Lawson, J David; Vanderpool, Darin; Wu, Yiqin; Dougan, Douglas R; Plonowski, Artur; Holub, Corine; Larson, Chris

    2016-06-15

    Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) is an enzyme that cleaves an N-terminal methionine residue from a number of newly synthesized proteins. Pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that MetAP2 inhibitors could be used as a novel treatment for obesity. Herein we describe our use of fragment screening methods and structural biology to quickly identify and elaborate an indazole fragment into a series of reversible MetAP2 inhibitors with <10nM potency, excellent selectivity, and favorable in vitro safety profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase I Trial of Anti-MET Monoclonal Antibody in MET-Overexpressed Refractory Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyun; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Sungju; Lee, Sujin; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Ho Yeong; Ahn, Hongmo; Bok, Haesook; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Ahn, Myung Ju; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Young Suk

    2018-06-01

    Samsung Advance Institute of Technology-301 (SAIT301) is a human immunoglobulin G2 antibody that can specifically target mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (c-MET). This novel antibody has higher priority over hepatocyte growth factors when binding to the Sema domain of c-MET and accelerates the internalization and degradation of c-MET, proving its powerful antitumor activities in intra- as well as extracellular areas. SAIT301 was administered intravenously once every 3 weeks in c-MET overexpressed solid tumor patients, focusing on metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) according to common clinical phase I criteria. Dose escalation was performed according to a modified Fibonacci design, following the conventional 3+3 design. The purpose of this phase I study was to assess the safety profile, to establish the recommended dose for clinical phase II studies and to assess potential anticancer activity of the compound. Sixteen patients with a median age of 56 (range, 39-69) years were enrolled in the study. The most common adverse events were decreased appetite (50.0%), hypophosphatemia, fatigue and dizziness (25.0%, respectively), and diarrhea, blood alkaline phosphatase increased and dyspnea (18.8%, respectively). For tumor response, no patients achieved complete response. One (9.1%) CRC patient had a partial response in the 1.23 mg/kg group, 4 (36.4%) patients achieved stable disease (2 in the 0.41 mg/kg group, 2 in the 1.23 mg/kg group, 0 in the 3.69 mg/kg group, and 1 in the 8.61 mg/kg group). Because of the increase in dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at 8.61 mg/kg, the 3.69 mg/kg dose was considered the maximum tolerated dose and selected for further assessment in phase II. We successfully completed a phase I trial with MET antibody in a MET-overexpressed patient population focusing on CRC, and found that the DLTs were alkaline phosphatase elevation or hypophosphatemia. The recommended dose of SAIT301 for phase II is the dose of 3.69 mg/kg. Copyright © 2018

  12. 3D RoboMET Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Jonathan D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Susan, Donald F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kilgo, Alice C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this project is to generate 3D microstructural data by destructive and non-destructive means and provide accompanying characterization and quantitative analysis of such data. This work is a continuing part of a larger effort to relate material performance variability to microstructural variability. That larger effort is called “Predicting Performance Margins” or PPM. In conjunction with that overarching initiative, the RoboMET.3D™ is a specific asset of Center 1800 and is an automated serialsectioning system for destructive analysis of microstructure, which is called upon to provide direct customer support to 1800 and non-1800 customers. To that end, data collection, 3d reconstruction and analysis of typical and atypical microstructures have been pursued for the purposes of qualitative and quantitative characterization with a goal toward linking microstructural defects and/or microstructural features with mechanical response. Material systems examined in FY15 include precipitation hardened 17-4 steel, laser-welds of 304L stainless steel, thermal spray coatings of 304L and geological samples of sandstone.

  13. Coriocarcinoma con metástasis pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicia Sánchez Abalos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de una fémina de 44 años de edad, con 32 semanas de embarazo, la cual fuera ingresada en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba, por presentar insuficiencia respiratoria aguda como consecuencia de una sepsis. La paciente fue tratada con cefalosporina de tercera generación y ventilación mecánica no invasiva, pero se mantuvieron las características gasométricas de hipoxemia y una mala reacción terapéutica, por lo que se requirió instrumentación de las vías respiratorias y soporte hemodinámico, sin lograr regresión del cuadro clínico, lo cual condujo a un paro cardiorrespiratorio y, con ello, a la muerte. La necropsia mostró un coriocarcinoma del endometrio con metástasis pulmonar

  14. Are there healthy obese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Obesity as an Emerging Risk Factor for Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Aigner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This constellation has been named the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS”. Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity.

  16. Metformin for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Min Hae; Kinra, Sanjay; Ward, Kirsten J.; White, Billy; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the efficacy of metformin in reducing BMI and cardiometabolic risk in obese children and adolescents without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Double-blind RCTs of > or =6 months duration in obese subjects age < or =19 years without diabetes were included. Our primary outcomes of interest include changes in BMI and measures of insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Five trials met in...

  17. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint T Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. CONCLUSION: Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  18. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  19. Progress in switching technology for METS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, E.M.; Swannack, C.E.; Warren, R.W.; Whitaker, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    Three distinct sets of switching requirements have emerged from design optimization studies of large superconducting magnetic energy storage systems, such as the METS system to power the adiabatic plasma compression field in the proposed theta-pinch SFTR. Extremely low joule loss cryogenic disconnects are required between storage coils in the liquid helium environment to allow charging the coils in series over a prolonged time, then to isolate the coils for parallel fast discharging into the load. Another switch must break the current in the series charging loop and absorb the energy from the stray inductance. This action will allow the subsequent opening of the cryogenic disconnects under near zero current condition. The current now has been transferred to the many paralleled circuits, each containing a high current, high voltage interrupter. The opening and arc commutation of the interrupter starts the energy transfer into the load. The primary activities associated with cryogenic disconnect have been testing and development of contact materials, configurations, and closing forces for carrying 26 kA with a resistance less than 40 nΩ, and development of an actuating system that is both reliable and fast acting in a liquid helium environment. The charging loop switch will include a continuous duty switch and a vacuum interrupter. The continuous duty switch resistance can be an order of magnitude larger than that of the cryogenic disconnect because it does not present a refrigeration load. The HVDC interrupter must break 26 kA and withstand 60 kV during the energy transfer time of 700 μs. Testing in progress already has shown successful interruption using single vacuum interrupters up to 31 kA and 66 kV

  20. Discordant Documentation of Obesity Body Mass Index and Obesity Diagnosis in Electronic Medical Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. Fink

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined concordance between presence of obesity body mass index (BMI, defined as BMI ≥ 30, in the patient’s electronic medical record (EMR and a documented diagnosis of obesity. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the EMR in a large health care system for a 1-year period (2012. A total of 397,313 patients met the study criteria of having at least one physician visit, being at least 18 years of age, and not being pregnant. Of those, 158,327 (40% had a recorded BMI ≥ 30. We examined the EMR of these obese patients to determine whether a diagnosis of obesity was recorded, and whether demographics or comorbid diagnoses impacted the likelihood of a recorded obesity diagnosis. Results: Obesity appeared on the EMR problem list for only 35% of patients with BMI ≥ 30. Obesity diagnosis was documented more frequently in women, middle-aged patients and blacks. The presence of some comorbidities (e.g. sleep apnea, hypertension, diabetes led to significantly more frequent diagnosis of obesity. There was a significant positive association between the number of comorbid diagnoses per patient and an obesity diagnosis appearing on the problem list. Conclusions: Obesity remains underrecorded in the EMR problem list despite the presence of obesity BMI in the EMR. Patient demographics and comorbidities should be considered when identifying best practices for weight management. New practices should be patient-centered and consider cultural context as well as the social and physical resources available to patients – all crucial for enacting systems change in a true accountable care environment.

  1. Population-based worksite obesity management interventions: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Martha C; Thomson, Erin; Kash, Kathryn

    2011-06-01

    Due to the increased prevalence of obesity and associated direct and indirect costs to employers, weight management programs have become an integral component of employer and insurer benefits plans. The programs vary in foci, scope, breadth, and implementation. The aim of this study was to explore promising employer-sponsored population-based obesity management programs. A case study that utilized a telephonic semi-structured questionnaire was conducted with small and large organizations located in different regions of the United States that had been recruited to participate. Eight employers and 1 health care advocacy coalition who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed about features of their weight management programs. The case study revealed a number of themes consistent with reports in the literature and reflecting cited best practices. Key findings include confirmation that weight management is a significant component of the wellness strategy in all participating organizations because employers are invested in population health programs and cost savings. Based upon their experience and knowledge, occupational health specialists are responsible for designing, implementing, managing, and evaluating employee health programs. Almost all employers utilize electronic media as a prominent component of wellness and disease management initiatives. Experience has shown that incentives-both financial and nonmonetary-are effective motivators for employee engagement and outcomes. However, while employers report success, favorable outcomes have been difficult to quantify.

  2. Plasmaspuiten van zelfsmerende deklagen met vaste smeermiddelen

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Frans

    1999-01-01

    The development of 'plasma sprayed self-lubricating coatings with solid lubricants' is an answer to industry's increasing demand for alternatives to oil lubricated systems. Solid lubricants offer an improved high temperature and low pressure resistance and an immediate performance after a long out-of-service period. A homogeneous dispersion of solid lubricant particles in a wear resistant material guarantees a long-term service of the lubricated component due to a continuous release of the lu...

  3. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  4. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  5. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  6. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  7. Association of blood pressure and metabolic syndrome components with magnesium levels in drinking water in some Serbian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Dragana; Gluvic, Zoran; Cankovic-Kadijevic, Milce

    2012-03-01

    Chronic exposure to insufficient levels of magnesium (Mg) in drinking water increases the risk of magnesium deficiency and its association with hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association of mineral contents in drinking water with blood pressure and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (BMI as measure of obesity, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin resistance, index-HOMA IR), in a healthy population. This study was conducted in three randomly selected municipalities (Pozarevac, Grocka and Banovci), and recruited 90 healthy blood donors, aged 20-50 years. The Pozarevac area had a four times higher mean Mg level in drinking water (42 mg L(-1)) than Grocka (11 mg L(-1)). Diastolic blood pressure was lowest in subjects from Pozarevac. Serum Mg (sMg) was highest, and serum Ca(2+)/Mg (sCa/Mg) lowest in subjects from Pozarevac, and after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, BMI), only total cholesterol and sMg levels were independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure, sMg levels were independent predictors of triglycerides, and sCa/Mg predicted glucose levels. These results suggest that Mg supplementation in areas of lower magnesium levels in drinking water may be an important measure in the prevention of hypertension and MetS in general.

  8. LINE-1 methylation in visceral adipose tissue of severely obese individuals is associated with metabolic syndrome status and related phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turcot Valérie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of genes found to be differentially expressed in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT of severely obese subjects with (MetS+ versus without (MetS- metabolic syndrome (MetS. Long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1 elements DNA methylation levels (%meth in blood, a marker of global DNA methylation, have recently been associated with fasting glucose, blood lipids, heart diseases and stroke. Aim To test whether LINE-1%meth levels in VAT are associated with MetS phenotypes and whether they can predict MetS risk in severely obese individuals. Methods DNA was extracted from VAT of 34 men (MetS-: n = 14, MetS+: n = 20 and 152 premenopausal women (MetS-: n = 84; MetS+: n = 68 undergoing biliopancreatic diversion for the treatment of obesity. LINE-1%meth levels were assessed by pyrosequencing of sodium bisulfite-treated DNA. Results The mean LINE-1%meth in VAT was of 75.8% (SD = 3.0%. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that LINE-1%meth was negatively associated with fasting glucose levels (β = -0.04; P = 0.03, diastolic blood pressure (β =  -0.65; P = 0.03 and MetS status (β = -0.04; P = 0.004 after adjustments for the effects of age, sex, waist circumference (except for MetS status and smoking. While dividing subjects into quartiles based on their LINE-1%meth (Q1 to Q4: lower %meth to higher %meth levels, greater risk were observed in the first (Q1: odds ratio (OR = 4.37, P = 0.004 and the second (Q2: OR = 4.76, P = 0.002 quartiles compared to Q4 (1.00 when adjusting for age, sex and smoking. Conclusions These results suggest that lower global DNA methylation, assessed by LINE-1 repetitive elements methylation analysis, would be associated with a greater risk for MetS in the presence of obesity.

  9. Emotional Eating Mediates the Relationship Between Role Stress and Obesity in Clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manister, Nancy N; Gigliotti, Eileen

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between role stress, emotional eating, and obesity in clergy. A random sample of United States Lutheran Church Missouri Synod clergy who met the study criteria (N = 430), response rate 38%, completed the Role Stress and Emotional Eating Behavior Scales, and self-reported height and weight for Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation. Obesity was high (81.4% overweight/obese, 36.7% obese), and emotional eating partially mediated the relationship between role stress and obesity. This study tested relations of the Neuman Systems Model. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. [Metabolic abnormalities in polycystic ovary syndrome women: obese and non obese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Lucas Gabriel Maltoni; Bedoschi, Giuliano; Melo, Anderson Sanches; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira de; Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2011-06-01

    To compare the metabolic characteristics of obese and non-obese young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (POS) from the Brazilian Southeast. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 218 women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of POS--90 non-obese women (BMI between 18.5 and 29.9 kg/m²), and 128 obese patients (BMI > 30 kg/m²) selected at the time of diagnosis. The frequency of insulin resistance (IR), glucose intolerance (GI), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and mean values of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), were compared between obese and non-obese patients with POS. The two groups were also compared in terms of clinical and hormonal characteristics (follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total testosterone, dihydroepiandrostenedione sulfate, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone). Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS 9.0 software. Quantitative variables were compared by the Student's t-test (data with normal distribution) or by the Mann-Whitney test (non-parametric distribution). Qualitative variables were compared by the Fisher test. The level of significance was set at 5% (p women with POS have a higher frequency of IR, GI and MS than non-obese. However, the occurrence of metabolic disorders is elevated also in the non-obese patients, suggesting that the presence of the syndrome may favor the development of metabolic comorbidities with potential medium- and long-term repercussions.

  11. Impact of cardiac rehabilitation on metabolic syndrome in Iranian patients with coronary heart disease: the role of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ali; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Amini, Afshin; Aryan, Reza Safi; Kerahroodi, Fahimeh Habibi; Rabiei, Katayoun; Taghipour, Hamid Reza; Moghimi, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Due to high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Iran, and their mutual relationship, we evaluated how comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can affect MetS in patients with CHD. In this study (1998-2003), we evaluated 547 patients with CHD undergoing comprehensive CR. Cases with MetS decreased from 42.8% to 33.3% after CR program (p < .001). Decrease in high fasting plasma glucose, triglyceridemia, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and increase in HDL cholesterol, functional capacity, and left ventricular ejection fraction was more prominent in the "MetS but not obese" group. However, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference showed a greater decrease in groups with obesity. Cardiac rehabilitation is an effective treatment of MetS, particularly in the absence of obesity. This represents an additional argument for the prevention of obesity and the linked insulin resistance. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  12. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share ...

  13. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  14. The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents : a review of interventions and programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doak, C M; Visscher, T L S; Renders, C M; Seidell, J C

    Overweight and obesity are serious, large-scale, global, public health concerns requiring population-based childhood overweight and obesity prevention. The overall objective of this review is to identify aspects of successful childhood overweight prevention programmes. This objective will be met by

  15. Dietary treatment in phenylketonuria does not lead to increased risk of obesity or metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Julio C.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Almeida, Manuela F.; Soares, Gabriela; Quelhas, Dulce; Ramos, Elisabete; Guimaraes, Joao T.; Borges, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the consequences of the special energy enriched diet used to treat patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) in terms of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) development. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and its consequences in terms

  16. Serum vitamin d levels and the components of metabolic syndrome: an analytical cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roomi, M.A.; Farooq, A.; Ullah, E.; Lone, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was planned to determine the serum vitamin D levels and its relation with the various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in MetS positive and MetS negative subjects. Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study on 88 subjects who were divided into two groups based on whether they fulfill the diagnostic criteria for MetS or not. Fasting serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin, HOMA-IR and vitamin D levels were measured. Two sample-t test and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the differences. Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used to observe the correlations. Results: BMI (p=0.001), waist/hip ratio (p=0.001), systolic blood pressure (p=0.010), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.010), fasting serum TGs (p = 0.001), TG/HDL ratio (p=0.001), fasting blood sugar (p=0.010), fasting serum insulin (p = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (p=0.001) were significantly high in MetS positive than MetS negative subjects. In MetS Positive subjects, serum vitamin D levels were found to have negative correlation with serum LDL (r= -0.485, p=0.001), total cholesterol (r= -0.408, p=0.007) and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (r= -0.355, p=0.019). Moreover, serum vitamin D levels were found to have positive correlation with HDL/LDL ratio (r= 0.443, p=0.003). Other components of MetS did not show significant correlation with serum vitamin D levels in MetS positive subjects. In MetS negative subjects, serum vitamin D levels did not show any significant correlation with any of the study parameters. Conclusions: Serum vitamin D levels were correlated with a number of MetS components which may be controlled by optimizing vitamin D levels. (author)

  17. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja K Jasińska

    Full Text Available Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265 is associated with children's (age 6-10 neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81 using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes.

  18. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Molfese, Peter J; Kornilov, Sergey A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes.

  19. Associations of sarcopenic obesity with the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance over five years in older men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David; Cumming, Robert; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Handelsman, David J; Seibel, Markus; Waite, Louise M; Hirani, Vasant

    2018-04-09

    Previous cross-sectional studies investigating associations of sarcopenic obesity with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance have not utilised consensus definitions of sarcopenia. We aimed to determine associations of sarcopenic obesity with MetS and insulin resistance over five years in community-dwelling older men. 1231 men aged ≥70 years had appendicular lean mass (ALM) and body fat percentage assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and hand grip strength and gait speed tests. Sarcopenia was defined as low ALM/height (m 2 ) and low hand grip strength or gait speed (European Working Group definition); obesity was defined as body fat percentage ≥30%. MetS was assessed at baseline and 5-years later. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was assessed at 5-years only. Men with sarcopenic obesity (odds ratio, 95% CI: 2.07, 1.21-3.55) and non-sarcopenic obesity (4.19, 3.16-5.57) had higher MetS likelihood than those with non-sarcopenic non-obesity at baseline. Higher gait speed predicted lower odds for prevalent MetS (0.45, 0.21-0.96 per m/s). Higher body fat predicted increased odds for prevalent and incident MetS (1.14, 1.11-1.17 and 1.11, 1.02-1.20 per kg, respectively) and deleterious 5-year changes in MetS fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (all P < 0.05). Compared with non-sarcopenic non-obesity, estimated marginal means for HOMA-IR at 5-years were higher in non-sarcopenic obesity only (1.0, 0.8-1.1 vs 1.3, 1.2-1.5; P < 0.001). Similar results were observed when sarcopenic obesity was defined by waist circumference. Sarcopenic obesity does not appear to confer greater risk for incident MetS or insulin resistance than obesity alone in community-dwelling older men. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene is significantly associated with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Castaldo, Eloisa; Di Filippo, Carmela; Maj, Mario

    2007-02-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying binge eating disorder are poorly understood. Evidence exists for the fact that abnormalities in peptides involved in the regulation of appetite, including ghrelin, may play a role in binge eating behavior. Genes involved in the ghrelin physiology may therefore contribute to the biological vulnerability to binge eating disorder. We examined whether two polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene, the G152A (Arg51Gln) and C214A (Leu72Met), were associated with binge eating disorder. Ninety obese or nonobese women with binge eating disorder and 119 normal weight women were genotyped at the ghrelin gene. Statistical analyses showed that the Leu72Met ghrelin gene variant was significantly more frequent in binge eating disorder patients (chi2=5.940; d.f.=1, P=0.01) and was associated with a moderate, but significant risk to develop binge eating disorder (odds ratio=2.725, 95% confidence interval: 1.168-6.350). Although these data should be regarded as preliminary because of the small sample size, they suggest that the Leu72Met ghrelin gene variant may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to binge eating disorder.

  1. Research progress in c-Met and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Changqing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available c-Met plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, which can lead to proliferation, survival, cytoskeleton reorganization, separation and diffusion, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Moreover, c-Met is an important prognostic factor for HCC. In HCC, c-Met acts as an activator of a series of signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, ERK/MAPK, and Rac-Pak. In recent years, it has been reported that small-molecule kinase inhibitors can abolish phosphorylation at the intracellular carboxyl terminal of c-Met, and then inhibit the recruitment of signal convertors and downstream signaling pathways, which finally achieve anti-tumor activities. Based on the carcinogenic activity of c-Met in HCC, this paper points out that selective inhibitors of c-Met hold promise for targeted therapies for HCC.

  2. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort.

  3. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the GHRL gene prevents the development of diabetic nephropathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Langen; Li, Ming; Yu, Changhua; Li, Can; Zhao, Mingming; Lu, Ming; Zheng, Taishan; Zhang, Rong; Zhao, Weijing; Bao, Yuqian; Xiang, Kunsan; Jia, Weiping; Wang, Niansong; Liu, Limei

    2014-02-01

    The preproghrelin (GHRL) Leu72Met polymorphism (rs 696217) is associated with obesity, reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion in healthy or diabetic subjects, and reduced serum creatinine (Scr) levels in type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the association of the Leu72Met polymorphism with measures of insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic control individuals and type 2 diabetics, and whether this variation contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetes. A case-control study was performed of 291 non-diabetic control subjects and 466 patients with type 2 diabetes, of whom 238 had DN with overt albuminuria (DN group; albuminuric excretion rate [AER] ≥ 300 mg/24 h) and 228 did not have DN, but had diabetes for more than 10 years (non-DN group). Genotyping was performed using a TaqMan PCR assay. The Leu/Leu, Leu/Met, and Met/Met genotype frequencies were significantly different between the non-DN and DN groups (p = 0.011). The frequency of the variant genotypes (Leu/Met, Met/Met) was significantly lower in the DN group than the non-DN group (23.5 vs. 36.0 %, p = 0.003). Met/Met non-diabetic control subjects had lower BMI and Scr levels and higher eGFR level than Leu/Leu or Leu/Met individuals (p GHRL Leu72Met polymorphism may help to maintain normal renal function and may protect against the development of DN by reducing albuminuria and improving renal function in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Design and Implementation of Image Research for the Columbia Mets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    the other hand, developed an unusual camaraderie through identifying with their underdog Mets." (7) Teams are finding good public relations programs do...supports the club. Question 24 was designed to measure brand loyalty by respondents to Mets sponsors versus non-Mets sponsors. Finally, question 27...be done to attract crowds. Especially with a brand new stadium. The Carolinas, in my opinion, are big minor league baseball states. Let’s get people

  5. Effective implementation of novel MET pharmacodynamic assays in translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Apurva K; Navas, Tony; Herrick, William G; Hollingshead, Melinda G; Bottaro, Donald P; Doroshow, James H; Parchment, Ralph E

    2017-01-01

    MET tyrosine kinase (TK) dysregulation is significantly implicated in many types of cancer. Despite over 20 years of drug development to target MET in cancers, a pure anti-MET therapeutic has not yet received market approval. The failure of two recently concluded phase III trials point to a major weakness in biomarker strategies to identify patients who will benefit most from MET therapies. The capability to interrogate oncogenic mutations in MET via circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) provides an important advancement in identification and stratification of patients for MET therapy. However, a wide range in type and frequency of these mutations suggest there is a need to carefully link these mutations to MET dysregulation, at least in proof-of-concept studies. In this review, we elaborate how we can utilize recently developed and validated pharmacodynamic biomarkers of MET not only to show target engagement, but more importantly to quantitatively measure MET dysregulation in tumor tissues. The MET assay endpoints provide evidence of both canonical and non-canonical MET signaling, can be used as "effect markers" to define biologically effective doses (BEDs) for molecularly targeted drugs, confirm mechanism-of-action in testing combination of drugs, and establish whether a diagnostic test is reporting MET dysregulation. We have established standard operating procedures for tumor biopsy collections to control pre-analytical variables that have produced valid results in proof-of-concept studies. The reagents and procedures are made available to the research community for potential implementation on multiple platforms such as ELISA, quantitative immunofluorescence assay (qIFA), and immuno-MRM assays.

  6. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hisato [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Okamoto, Isamu, E-mail: okamotoi@kokyu.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Okamoto, Wataru [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Division of Transrlational Research, Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8577 (Japan); Tanizaki, Junko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Lowe Center for Thoracic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, HIM223, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Nakagawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Nishio, Kazuto [Department of Genome Biology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan)

    2014-07-22

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy.

  7. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hisato; Okamoto, Isamu; Okamoto, Wataru; Tanizaki, Junko; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy

  8. Mars MetNet Mission Pressure and Humidity Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Polkko, J.; Kemppinen, O.; Leinonen, J.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). MetBaro and MetHumi are part of the scientific payload of the MNL. Main scientific goal of both devices is to measure the meteorological phenomena (pressure and humidity) of the Martian atmosphere and complement the previous Mars mission atmospheric measurements (Viking and Phoenix) for better understanding of the Martian atmospheric conditions.

  9. The East Asian Atmospheric Water Cycle and Monsoon Circulation in the Met Office Unified Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José M.; Milton, Sean F.; Marzin, Charline

    2017-10-01

    In this study the low-level monsoon circulation and observed sources of moisture responsible for the maintenance and seasonal evolution of the East Asian monsoon are examined, studying the detailed water budget components. These observational estimates are contrasted with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) climate simulation performance in capturing the circulation and water cycle at a variety of model horizontal resolutions and in fully coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations. We study the role of large-scale circulation in determining the hydrological cycle by analyzing key systematic errors in the model simulations. MetUM climate simulations exhibit robust circulation errors, including a weakening of the summer west Pacific Subtropical High, which leads to an underestimation of the southwesterly monsoon flow over the region. Precipitation and implied diabatic heating biases in the South Asian monsoon and Maritime Continent region are shown, via nudging sensitivity experiments, to have an impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. By inference, the improvement of these tropical biases with increased model horizontal resolution is hypothesized to be a factor in improvements seen over East Asia with increased resolution. Results from the annual cycle of the hydrological budget components in five domains show a good agreement between MetUM simulations and ERA-Interim reanalysis in northern and Tibetan domains. In simulations, the contribution from moisture convergence is larger than in reanalysis, and they display less precipitation recycling over land. The errors are closely linked to monsoon circulation biases.

  10. Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among US adolescents with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Vidot, Denise C; Somarriba, Gabriel; Haney, Kanathy; Aytur, Semra; Natale, Ruby A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2015-02-15

    To generate prevalence estimates of weight status and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adolescents with and without disabilities. Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was conducted among 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and without disabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) were examined by the following standardized body mass index (BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities; overweight (BMI ≥ 85(th) - obesity (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile) and severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m(2)). Linear regression models were fit with each cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently as continuous outcomes to show relationships with disability status. Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%) and severely obese (12%) vs their peers without disabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P ≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight, obese and severely obese children with disabilities had abnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well as MetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% of severely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%, 16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents with disabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS (OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs their peers with no disabilities. Results show that adolescents with disabilities are disproportionately affected by obesity and poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers with no disabilities. Health care professionals should monitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents with disabilities.

  11. Association of circulating adipokines with metabolic dyslipidemia in obese versus non-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimlou, Mehran; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that circulating adipokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of some obesity related chronic disease such as dyslipidemia and type2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between vaspin, omentin-1 and retinol binding protein-4 levels with metabolic dyslipidemia (MD) criteria in obese and non-obese individuals. The study was conducted on 170 obese and 81 non-obese individuals. After collecting the blood samples, serum levels metabolic parameters as well as three circulating adipokines and body composition were measured. No significant difference was noted regarding the mean serum levels of omentin-1 and vaspin between the obese and non-obese groups, while, serum level of RBP4 was significantly higher in the non-obese group. We found the 0.22 increased risk of MD in obese individuals with higher RBP4 concentration. After the adjustment for confounding factors, this association was still significant. No significant association was noted between MD and its components relative risks with omentin-1 and vaspin levels. Our study demonstrated that circulating RBP4 was significantly higher in the obese individuals which may increase the risk of MD in them. Further researches are needed to address this association. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socioeconomic Inequality in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.

  13. Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaul, David

    2016-09-01

    Objective. To investigate whether obesity alters the sensory motor integration process and movement outcome during a visual rhythmic coordination task. Methods. 88 participants (44 obese and 44 matched control) sat on a chair equipped with a wrist pendulum oscillating in the sagittal plane. The task was to swing the pendulum in synchrony with a moving visual stimulus displayed on a screen. Results. Obese participants demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher values for continuous relative phase (CRP) indicating poorer level of coordination, increased movement variability (p < 0.05), and a larger amplitude (p < 0.05) than their healthy weight counterparts. Conclusion. These results highlight the existence of visual sensory integration deficiencies for obese participants. The obese group have greater difficulty in synchronizing their movement with a visual stimulus. Considering that visual motor coordination is an essential component of many activities of daily living, any impairment could significantly affect quality of life.

  14. Screening of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) α, γ and α Gene Polymorphisms for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Association in the Multi-Ethnic Malaysian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Phee-Phee; Fan, Sook-Ha; Say, Yee-How

    2015-11-05

    This study aimed to investigate the association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) genes PPARα L162V, PPARγ2 C161T and PPARδ T294C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity and metabolic syndrome (Met-S) in a multi-ethnic population in Kampar, Malaysia. Socio-demographic data, anthropometric and biochemical measurements (plasma lipid profile, adiponectin and interleukin-6 [IL-6] levels) were taken from 307 participants (124 males; 180 obese; 249 Met-S; 97 Malays, 85 ethnic Chinese, 55 ethnic Indians). The overall minor allele frequencies were .08, .22 and .30 for PPAR α L162V, γ C161T, δ T294C, respectively. All SNPs were not associated with obesity, Met-S and obesity with/without Met-S by χ(2) analysis, ethnicity-stratified and logistic regression analyses. Nevertheless, participants with V162 allele of PPARα had significantly higher IL-6, while those with T161 allele of PPARγ2 had significantly lower HOMA-IR. All PPAR SNPs were not associated with obesity and Met-S in the suburban population of Kampar, Malaysia, where only PPARα V162 and PPARγ2 T161 alleles were associated with plasma IL-6 and HOMA-IR, respectively.

  15. Relationship of obesity with osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan-Juan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Peng-Yuan; Hamilton, James; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Context The relationship between obesity and osteoporosis has been widely studied, and epidemiological evidence shows that obesity is correlated with increased bone mass. Previous analyses, however, did not control for the mechanical loading effects of total body weight on bone mass and may have generated a confounded or even biased relationship between obesity and osteoporosis. Objective To re-evaluate the relationship between obesity and osteoporosis by accounting for the mechanical loading effects of total body weight on bone mass. Methods We measured whole body fat mass, lean mass, percentage fat mass (PFM), body mass index (BMI), and bone mass in two large samples of different ethnicity: 1,988 unrelated Chinese subjects and 4,489 Caucasian subjects from 512 pedigrees. We first evaluated the Pearson correlations among different phenotypes. We then dissected the phenotypic correlations into genetic and environmental components, with bone mass unadjusted, or adjusted, for body weight. This allowed us to compare the results with and without controlling for mechanical loading effects of body weight on bone mass. Results In both Chinese and Caucasians, when the mechanical loading effect of body weight on bone mass was adjusted for, the phenotypic correlation (including its genetic and environmental components) between fat mass (or PFM) and bone mass was negative. Further multivariate analyses in subjects stratified by body weight confirmed the inverse relationship between bone mass and fat mass, after mechanical loading effects due to total body weight was controlled. Conclusions Increasing fat mass may not have a beneficial effect on bone mass. PMID:17299077

  16. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  17. MET Expression in Primary and Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Implications of Correlative Biomarker Assessment to MET Pathway Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Shuch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Inhibitors of the MET pathway hold promise in the treatment for metastatic kidney cancer. Assessment of predictive biomarkers may be necessary for appropriate patient selection. Understanding MET expression in metastases and the correlation to the primary site is important, as distant tissue is not always available. Methods and Results. MET immunofluorescence was performed using automated quantitative analysis and a tissue microarray containing matched nephrectomy and distant metastatic sites from 34 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Correlations between MET expressions in matched primary and metastatic sites and the extent of heterogeneity were calculated. The mean expression of MET was not significantly different between primary tumors when compared to metastases (P=0.1. MET expression weakly correlated between primary and matched metastatic sites (R=0.5 and a number of cases exhibited very high levels of discordance between these tumors. Heterogeneity within nephrectomy specimens compared to the paired metastatic tissues was not significantly different (P=0.39. Conclusions. We found that MET expression is not significantly different in primary tumors than metastatic sites and only weakly correlates between matched sites. Moderate concordance of MET expression and significant expression heterogeneity may be a barrier to the development of predictive biomarkers using MET targeting agents.

  18. Obesity and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures.

  19. Die grapteks met verwysing na die interessantheidsbeginsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. de Bruyn

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Jokes are special kinds of texts: they do not communicate something about the real, existing world like some other kinds of texts do, because they are worlds in themselves. These units of discourse consist of two components: a build-up and a punch line, the latter being the source of humour, mainly because it possesses elements of surprise. Although mostly fictitious, jokes do make use of an element of truth, or at least some common knowledge. They can also be seen as speech acts, acts of humour with the perlocutionary effect to amuse in mind. When De Beaugrande and Dressier's characteristics of a successful text are applied, jokes can be seen to fit the description. As in the case of other literary genres, jokes can be described as fiction because they are also special expressions with well-defined conventions. These special kinds of texts are spontaneously recognised for what they are. When those elements distinguishing jokes as such are removed, the effects jokes have are cancelled. These removed elements are thus proved to be essentials. The element of surprise, caused by the condensation of several meanings in the punch line, seems to be of vital importance in this respect. Jokes are intended to amuse. Jokes are consciously told with this purpose in mind and they are noticed because of that. It will be argued, using appropriate examples, that these special effects are achieved by means of the principle of interest. The exploitation of pragmatic means is used to attain this.

  20. 100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neil Carol E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR or above the Adequate Intake (AI were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%, UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p  Conclusion The results suggest that moderate consumption of 100% OJ should be encouraged to help individuals meet the USDA daily recommendation for fruit intake and as a component of a healthy diet.

  1. Gender-specific differences in the incidence of microalbuminuria in metabolic syndrome patients after treatment with fimasartan: The K-MetS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Bae; Kim, Su-A; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2017-01-01

    The effect of resolving metabolic syndrome on target organ damage in hypertensive patients is not well described. We evaluated whether treating metabolic syndrome (MetS) with an angiotensin receptor blocker subsequently reduced microalbuminuria in the K-MetS cohort. Among 10,601 total metabolic syndrome patients, 3,250 (52.2% male, 56.2±10.0 years) with sufficient data on five specific metabolic components were included in this study. Patients were divided into four groups based on MetS status at baseline and 3 months. All patients received an angiotensin receptor blocker, fimasartan, for these 3 months; thereafter, treatment was modified at the discretion of each patient's physician. Microalbuminuria and the albumin/creatine ratio were evaluated as a proxy of organ damage. Blood pressure and waist circumference decreased from baseline to 3 months and 1 year. The average albumin/creatinine ratio significantly improved during the first three months of the study from 36.0±147.4 to 21.0±74.9 mg/g (pTreatment of hypertensive patients for one year with the angiotensin receptor blocker fimasartan significantly reduced the albumin/creatine ratio, irrespective of whether the patient had MetS; however, the albumin/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in patents with persistent or newly developed MetS compared to patients without MetS. Additionally, these findings were more prominent in women than in men.

  2. Obesity and dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Noah S

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of dermatoses. It affects cutaneous sensation, temperature regulation, foot shape, and vasculature. Acanthosis nigricans is the most common dermatological manifestation of obesity. Skin tags are more commonly associated with diabetes than with obesity. Obesity increases the incidence of cutaneous infections that include: candidiasis, intertigo, candida folliculitis, furunculosis, erythrasma, tinea cruris, and folliculitis. Less common infections include cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and gas gangrene. Leg ulcerations, lymphedema, plantar hyperkeratosis, and striae are more common with obesity. Hormonal abnormalities and genetic syndromes (Prader-Willi) are related to obesity and its dermatoses; however, cellulite is not related to obesity.

  3. Cortisol in tissue and systemic level as a contributing factor to the development of metabolic syndrome in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinopoulos, Petros; Michalaki, Marina; Kottorou, Anastasia; Habeos, Ioannis; Psyrogiannis, Agathoklis; Kalfarentzos, Fotios; Kyriazopoulou, Venetsana

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal and extra-adrenal cortisol production may be involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). To investigate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the expression of HSD11B1, nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptors) α (NR3C1α) and β (NR3C1β) in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of severely obese patients with and without MetS. The study included 37 severely obese patients (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)), 19 with MetS (MetS+ group) and 18 without (MetS- group), studied before and during bariatric surgery. Before the day of surgery, urinary free cortisol (UFC) and diurnal variation of serum and salivary cortisol were estimated. During surgery, biopsies of the liver, VAT and SAT were obtained. The expression of HSD11B1, NR3C1α and NR3C1β was evaluated by RT-PCR. UFC and area under the curve for 24-h profiles of serum and salivary cortisol were lower in the MetS- group. In the MetS- group, mRNA levels of HSD11B1 in liver exhibited a negative correlation with liver NR3C1α (LNR3C1α) and VAT expression of HSD11B1 was lower than the MetS+ group. We observed a downregulation of the NR3C1α expression and lower VAT mRNA levels of HSD11B1 in the MetS- group, indicating a lower selective tissue cortisol production and action that could protect these patients from the metabolic consequences of obesity. In the MetS- group, a lower activity of the HPA axis was also detected. Taken together, cortisol in tissue and systematic level might play a role in the development of MetS in severely obese patients. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Aptamers Binding to c-Met Inhibiting Tumor Cell Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Piater

    Full Text Available The human receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met plays an important role in the control of critical cellular processes. Since c-Met is frequently over expressed or deregulated in human malignancies, blocking its activation is of special interest for therapy. In normal conditions, the c-Met receptor is activated by its bivalent ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. Also bivalent antibodies can activate the receptor by cross linking, limiting therapeutic applications. We report the generation of the RNA aptamer CLN64 containing 2'-fluoro pyrimidine modifications by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. CLN64 and a previously described single-stranded DNA (ssDNA aptamer CLN3 exhibited high specificities and affinities to recombinant and cellular expressed c-Met. Both aptamers effectively inhibited HGF-dependent c-Met activation, signaling and cell migration. We showed that these aptamers did not induce c-Met activation, revealing an advantage over bivalent therapeutic molecules. Both aptamers were shown to bind overlapping epitopes but only CLN3 competed with HGF binding to cMet. In addition to their therapeutic and diagnostic potential, CLN3 and CLN64 aptamers exhibit valuable tools to further understand the structural and functional basis for c-Met activation or inhibition by synthetic ligands and their interplay with HGF binding.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Workplace Charging Success: MetLife

    Science.gov (United States)

    future." Several others noted that their decision to purchase or lease a PEV was based on MetLife's : MetLife " By making PEV charging stations more readily available to employees, we can encourage more promote alternative transportation. By making PEV charging stations more readily available to employees

  6. Invloed krachtvoerniveau op vleesproduktiekenmerken van Piemontese met zwartbont kruislingstieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanekamp, W.J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Met 3 ronden van elk 36 Piemontese X zwartbonte kruislingstieren is het effect van extra krachtvoer vergeleken met de normaal gangbare gift naast onbeperkt snijmaoskuil. De stieren waren gehuisvest in een natuurlijk geventileerde stal (space-boarding)en op een volledige roostervloer.

  7. Interview met Leon Deben: van tegenstellingen leer je het meeste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepen, A.; Huisman, C.

    2008-01-01

    Wat in de jaren zeventig begonnen is als Sociologie van bouwen en wonen is uitgegroeid tot Stadssociologie. Leon Deben heeft het medeopgebouwd. Hij nam onlangs afscheid van de universiteit met een rede over de openbare ruimte. "Het centrale bestuur van de stad is druk met de waan van de dag en dan

  8. Mindfulness voor volwassenen met een licht verstandelijke beperking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.; Helmond, P.E.; Meirmans, M.; Otten, R.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mensen met een licht verstandelijke beperking (LVB) hebben veelal te maken met een opeenstapeling van verschillende biologische, psychologische en sociale factoren, waardoor zij vijf tot zes keer meer kans hebben op het ontwikkelen van psychopathologie dan normaal begaafden (Allen, 2008; Buckles,

  9. 'Epistemology models ontology'− In gesprek met John Polkinghorne

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    7 Jun 2011 ... maar met die aard daarvan. Polkinghorne wil met sy boek One World (1996) presies sê wat die titel suggereer. Hiervoor kry hy die oplossing by sy mentor en latere kollega, Paul Dirac. Vir meer as 30 jaar het Dirac dieselfde leerstoel in Fisika aan Cambridge beklee as Isaac Newton (Polkinghorne 2005:34).

  10. Efficacy of c-Met inhibitor for advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, William H; Zhu, Chunfang; Clark, Curtis; Christensen, James G; Sun, Zijie

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant expression of HGF/SF and its receptor, c-Met, often correlates with advanced prostate cancer. Our previous study showed that expression of c-Met in prostate cancer cells was increased after attenuation of androgen receptor (AR) signalling. This suggested that current androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer activates c-Met expression and may contribute to development of more aggressive, castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therefore, we directly assessed the efficacy of c-Met inhibition during androgen ablation on the growth and progression of prostate cancer. We tested two c-Met small molecule inhibitors, PHA-665752 and PF-2341066, for anti-proliferative activity by MTS assay and cell proliferation assay on human prostate cancer cell lines with different levels of androgen sensitivity. We also used renal subcapsular and castrated orthotopic xenograft mouse models to assess the effect of the inhibitors on prostate tumor formation and progression. We demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of PHA-665752 and PF-2341066 on the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells and the phosphorylation of c-Met. The effect on cell proliferation was stronger in androgen insensitive cells. The c-Met inhibitor, PF-2341066, significantly reduced growth of prostate tumor cells in the renal subcapsular mouse model and the castrated orthotopic mouse model. The effect on cell proliferation was greater following castration. The c-Met inhibitors demonstrated anti-proliferative efficacy when combined with androgen ablation therapy for advanced prostate cancer

  11. The metabolic portrait of obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Malyavskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the important problem of metabohc syndrome and obesity and the need for atherosclerotic and diabetogenic risk stratincation in childhood and adolescence. To study the prevalence of components of the metabohc syndrome at a normal weight and to reveal metabohc phenotypes of obesity in Arkhangelsk schoolchildren, clinical and laboratory tests were used to examine 369 children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years who were divided into groups according to the criteria of obesity and to identify different metabohc variants: metabohcally healthy normal-weight, metabohcally unhealthy normal-weight, metabohcally healthy obese, and metabohcally unhealthy obese subjects.The important result of the investigation is the established fact that metabohc atherogenic disturbances are detected in a high proportion (43.82% of individuals without abdominal obesity. These patients may represent a portion of the range of children and adolescents with insulin resistance syndrome, which is confirmed by the abnormal mean levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and blood pressure in the group of metabohcally unhealthy normal-weight children.The study shows that the concept of early detection of predictive signs should be extrapolated to the entire pediatric population, regardless of the presence or absence of obesity when efforts are aimed at verifying the metabohc activity of different fat types. The metabohcally unhealthy normal-weight children require special attention and timely therapeutic and preventive measures as soon as any component of the metabohc syndrome is identified.

  12. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Obin, Martin S; Zhao, Liping

    2013-02-01

    The human gut is densely populated by commensal and symbiotic microbes (the "gut microbiota"), with the majority of the constituent microorganisms being bacteria. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in the development of obesity, obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. In this review we discuss molecular and cell biological mechanisms by which the microbiota participate in host functions that impact the development and maintenance of the obese state, including host ingestive behavior, energy harvest, energy expenditure and fat storage. We additionally explore the diverse signaling pathways that regulate gut permeability and bacterial translocation to the host and how these are altered in the obese state to promote the systemic inflammation ("metabolic endotoxemia") that is a hallmark of obesity and its complications. Fundamental to our discussions is the concept of "crosstalk", i.e., the biochemical exchange between host and microbiota that maintains the metabolic health of the superorganism and whose dysregulation is a hallmark of the obese state. Differences in community composition, functional genes and metabolic activities of the gut microbiota appear to distinguish lean vs obese individuals, suggesting that gut 'dysbiosis' contributes to the development of obesity and/or its complications. The current challenge is to determine the relative importance of obesity-associated compositional and functional changes in the microbiota and to identify the relevant taxa and functional gene modules that promote leanness and metabolic health. As diet appears to play a predominant role in shaping the microbiota and promoting obesity-associated dysbiosis, parallel initiatives are required to elucidate dietary patterns and diet components (e.g., prebiotics, probiotics) that promote healthy gut microbiota. How the microbiota promotes human health and disease is a rich area of investigation that is likely to generate

  13. Utility of the modified ATP III defined metabolic syndrome and severe obesity as predictors of insulin resistance in overweight children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwalla Vipin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS has received increased attention since both place individuals at risk for Type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance (IR has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and MetS in both children and adults and is a known independent cardiovascular risk factor. However measures of IR are not routinely performed in children while MetS or severe obesity when present, are considered as clinical markers for IR. Objective The study was undertaken to assess the utility of ATPIII defined metabolic syndrome (MetS and severe obesity as predictors of insulin resistance (IR in a group of 576 overweight children and adolescents attending a pediatric obesity clinic in Brooklyn. Methods Inclusion criteria were children ages 3–19, and body mass index > 95th percentile for age. MetS was defined using ATP III criteria, modified for age. IR was defined as upper tertile of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA within 3 age groups (3–8, n = 122; 9–11, n = 164; 12–19, n = 290. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated within age groups for predicting IR using MetS and severe obesity respectively. Results MetS was present in 45%, 48% and 42% of the respective age groups and significantly predicted IR only in the oldest group (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.2, 3.4; p = .006. Sensitivities were Conclusion The expression of IR in overweight children and adolescents is heterogeneous and MetS or severe obesity may not be sufficiently sensitive and specific indicators of insulin resistance. In addition to screening for MetS in overweight children markers for IR should be routinely performed. Further research is needed to establish threshold values of insulin measures in overweight children who may be at greater associated risk of adverse outcomes whether or not MetS is present.

  14. Cardiometabolic healthy and unhealthy obesity: does vitamin D play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantanida, Eliana; Gallo, Daniela; Veronesi, Giovanni; Dozio, Eugenia; Trotti, Eugenia; Lai, Adriana; Ippolito, Silvia; Sabatino, Jessica; Tanda, Maria Laura; Toniolo, Antonio; Ferrario, Marco; Bartalena, Luigi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this observational study was to clarify the link between vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with visceral obesity. One hundred ninety-six consecutive patients (152 women; mean age 51 ± 13 years) with visceral obesity (mean body weight 103 ± 20 kg, mean waist circumference (WC) 119 ± 13 cm) were enrolled at the Obesity Outpatient Clinic of the University of Insubria in Varese. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Laboratory tests, including vitamin D (25(OH)D)), fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests were assessed. Vitamin D status was defined according to the European Society of Endocrinology guidelines, MetS to the 2009 harmonized definition. An inverse association emerged among 25(OH)D, body mass index (BMI) ( P  = 0.001) and WC (all P  = 0.003). Serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely related to FBG and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (respectively, P  = 0.01 and 0.02). Median serum 25(OH)D levels were 13.3 ng/mL (CI 95% 12; 15) in MetS and 16 ng/mL (CI 95% 14; 18) ( P  = 0.01) in non-MetS patients. Among patients with MetS, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were related to higher risk of hypertension (HT) (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, CI 95%, 0.7;4) and hyperglycemia (IFG)/type 2 diabetes (OR 5.5, CI 95% 2; 14). Vitamin D status and MetS are inversely correlated in visceral obesity, particularly with regard to glucose homeostasis and BP. More extensive studies are required to investigate the potential for causality. © 2017 The authors.

  15. Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jyu-Lin Chen,1 Mary Ellen Wilkosz2 1Department of Family Health Care Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Nursing Department, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA Abstract: About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12–18 years. The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time, while five of seven studies which assessed dietary

  16. Metabolically Healthy Obesity Is Not Associated with Food Intake in White or Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, P K

    2015-11-01

    Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status-metabolic health phenotypes. Men (n = 4855) aged ≥ 45 y with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P food intake in all models. Healthy obesity in men is not associated with a healthier diet. Future studies need to consider dietary patterns, which may better inform the holistic effect of diet on healthy obesity, in prospective analyses. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Controlling the competing magnetic anisotropy energies in FineMET amorphous thin films with ultra-soft magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar Masood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thickness dependent competing magnetic anisotropy energies were investigated to explore the global magnetic behaviours of FineMET amorphous thin films. A dominant perpendicular magnetization component in the as-deposited state of thinner films was observed due to high magnetoelastic anisotropy energy which arises from stresses induced at the substrate-film interface. This perpendicular magnetization component decreases with increasing film thickness. Thermal annealing at elevated temperature revealed a significant influence on the magnetization state of the FineMET thin films and controlled annealing steps leads to ultra-soft magnetic properties, making these thin films alloys ideal for a wide range of applications.

  18. Prenatal stress-immune programming of sex differences in comorbidity of depression and obesity/metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Holsen, Laura; Huang, Grace; Hammond, Bradley D; James-Todd, Tamarra; Cherkerzian, Sara; Hale, Taben M; Handa, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is comorbid with many chronic diseases, including obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS). Women have twice as much risk for MDD and comorbidity with obesity/MetS as men, although pathways for understanding this association remain unclear. On the basis of clinical and preclinical studies, we argue that prenatal maternal stress (ie, excess glucocorticoid expression and associated immune responses) that occurs during the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain has sex-dependent effects on brain development within highly sexually dimorphic regions that regulate mood, stress, metabolic function, the autonomic nervous system, and the vasculature. Furthermore, these effects have lifelong consequences for shared sex-dependent risk of MDD and obesity/MetS. Thus, we propose that there are shared biologic substrates at the anatomical, molecular, and/or genetic levels that produce the comorbid risk for MDD-MetS through sex-dependent fetal origins.

  19. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and met allele load on declarative memory related neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodds, Chris M; Henson, Richard N; Suckling, John

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activatio...

  20. Diet-Induced Abdominal Obesity, Metabolic Changes, and Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ludvigsen Al-Mashhadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are major risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases; however, a causal link remains elusive. Animal models resembling human MetS and its complications, while important, are scarce. We aimed at developing a porcine model of human MetS. Methods. Forty pigs with familial hypercholesterolemia were fed a high fat + fructose diet for 30 weeks. Metabolic assessments and subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained at 18 and 30 weeks, and fat distribution was assessed by CT-scans. Postmortem, macrophage density, and phenotype in fat tissues were quantified along with atherosclerotic burden. Results. During the experiment, we observed a >4-fold in body weight, a significant but small increase in fasting glucose (4.1 mmol/L, insulin (3.1 mU/L, triglycerides (0.5 mmol/L, and HDL cholesterol (2.6 mmol/L. Subcutaneous fat correlated with insulin resistance, but intra-abdominal fat correlated inversely with insulin resistance and LDL cholesterol. More inflammatory macrophages were found in visceral versus subcutaneous fat, and inflammation decreased in subcutaneous fat over time. Conclusions. MetS based on human criteria was not achieved. Surprisingly, visceral fat seemed part of a healthier metabolic and inflammatory profile. These results differ from human findings, and further research is needed to understand the relationship between obesity and MetS in porcine models.

  1. Plasma vitamin D and parathormone are associated with obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guasch Alba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low concentrations of plasma vitamin D (25(OHD have been associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS, obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to quantify the associations between 25(OHD and parathormone (PTH plasma levels and obesity, the presence of MetS, diabetes or atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD in a large sample of individuals with different degrees of adiposity. Methods Retrospective study of all patients who had attended the obesity clinics in a Spanish hospital between 2009 and 2011, and whose concentrations of PTH, 25(OHD, calcium and alkaline phosphatase had been determined (n=316, 75.9% women. Individuals were categorized by degree of adiposity, presence of MetS, and other comorbidities. Results PTH increased but 25(OHD and calcium decreased with increasing adiposity. The prevalence of 25(OHD deficiency or insufficiency increased with obesity (2, and 26% when >50. The prevalence of hyperparathyroidism increased from 12% in non-obese to 47.5% in morbidly obese individuals with BMI>50 kg/m2. Low plasma 25(OHD and high PTH concentrations were associated with an increased risk of MetS and AD. These associations disappeared, except in the case of AD for 25(OHD when adjusting for BMI. Regression analysis revealed that BMI and age or seasonality were independent predictors of PTH and 25(OHD levels, respectively. Conclusions BMI was the variable most strongly associated with plasma 25(OHD and PTH concentrations in our study. Low 25(OHD and high PTH concentrations were not independently associated with an increased risk of MetS, or diabetes. Our data support a possible contribution of plasma 25(OHD to the pathogenesis of hypertriglyceridemia and AD through inflammation.

  2. Multifactor Assessment of Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Uzbek Children and Adolescents with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara N. Rakhimova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS contributes to early atherosclerotic changes of blood vessels and type 2 diabetes mellitusnot only among adults, but among children and adolescents, causing onset and progression of severe diseases resulting in early disablement and death. Multifactor analysis of MetS risk in Uzbek children and adolescents with exogenous-constitutional obesity (ECO was the purpose of the study. The study included 100 Uzbek children and adolescents with ECO aged from 6 to 16 (mean age 11.7±0.25 years—54(54.0% boys and 46(46.0% girls. Prognostic matrix was made up by means of a modification of Bayesian probability by E. Shigan (1986. Mathematical analysis confirmed a high degree of risk for MetS onset and progression in obese patients with disorders of lipid profile and hemodynamics. MetS risk is 8.2 times higher with levels of HDL-C 3.0, HbA1c >6.7%, and obesity onset before 5 years of age.

  3. Time trend of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and related dietary pattern in Taiwan: from NAHSIT 1993-1996 to NAHSIT 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Jung; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are challenging public health issues as globesity popularizes. The present study illustrates the trend of obesity and MetS for the last 12 years in Taiwan based on the analysis of Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Between the two surveys, a large growth on MetS prevalence was observed, from 13.6% to 25.5%. In NAHSIT 2005-2008, the prevalence of MetS in females exceeded that of males in people older than the age of 45. With regard to regional differences, the growing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndromes alleviated in the northern area level one, the most urbanized and dense area. Prevalence of obesity and MetS in Hakka, central, and southern areas increased rapidly. Aboriginal areas had the highest prevalence, which increased modestly. Prevalence of MetS rose fast among males, but much slower among females. Comparing the Taiwanese data with other countries, obesity prevalence in Taiwan was higher than in many of Asian countries, but less than in the West. The prevalence of MetS in Taiwanese females reached levels close to that of the West. Reduced rank regression analysis was used to extract a risk reducing dietary pattern in women, featured by not only more vegetables, fruit, lean meat, and fish, but also some specific Taiwanese dietary items including mushrooms, seaweed, and soybean. No apparent increase in intake of certain healthy foods including lean meat, milk, dark-green vegetables, and fruit in the last 12 years, challenges future strategies to promote health.

  4. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a criterion for the identification of the healthy obesity phenotype in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwow, Felicja; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute a major health problem in postmenopausal women. The identification of the obesity phenotype, especially that of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients, is a necessary part of obesity treatment protocols. There are several methods to define MHO, but unfortunately, all of them are arbitrary and inconsistent. The aim of this work was to determine whether lipid accumulation product (LAP) could be used as a marker of the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. A sample of 345 Polish postmenopausal women aged 50-60years old participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese when their BMI was >27. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to estimate the best cutoff for the LAP index value to identify postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome components. We found that the best cutoff value was LAP ≤29.9, and this value was used to define MHO individuals. With this definition, the identification of MHO individuals could be made when both of the following criteria were met: LAP index ≤29.9 and no arterial hypertension (SBPwomen identified according to the above definition, were compared with those of MHO women identified by two other methods in the literature. These methods and our definition identified similar proportions of MHO women ranging from 11.6% to 16.9%. We found that MHO women identified by all of the definitions used in this study possessed a similar metabolic status, and they did not differ in anthropometric indices or body fat distribution measurements. We concluded that the combination of LAP estimation and arterial blood pressure measurement appear to constitute a useful method for identifying the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome components in Mexican adults without type 2 diabetes or hypertension Prevalencia de obesidad y componentes del síndrome metabólico en adultos mexicanos sin diabetes tipo 2 o hipertensión arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Rojas-Martínez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the number of Mexican adults with undiagnosed diabetes and arterial hypertension and their association with obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included a sub-sample of 6 613 subjects aged 20 years or more who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Subjects with a previous diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension (n=1 861 were excluded. Prevalences and standard errors were estimated, taking into account the complex sample design. RESULTS: 6.4 million adults have obesity and undiagnosed impaired fasting glucose. Almost two million more have fasting glucose levels diagnostic for diabetes. As for arterial blood pressure, 5.4 million adults had prehypertension. Another 5.4 million adults had blood pressure levels suggestive of probable hypertension. A total of 21.4 million Mexican adults with obesity had at least one further component of the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of adults with obesity-related metabolic comorbidities remains undiagnosed in Mexico.OBJETIVO: Estimar el número de adultos mexicanos que tienen diabetes o hipertensión arterial no diagnosticadas y el riesgo de tales condiciones asociado a la obesidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analiza una submuestra de 6 613 sujetos mayores de 20 años que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. Los sujetos con diagnóstico previo de diabetes o hipertensión arterial fueron excluidos (n=1 861. Las prevalencias y errores estándar fueron estimados considerando el diseño complejo de la muestra. RESULTADOS: 6.4 millones de adultos tienen obesidad y glucemia anormal de ayuno. Casi dos millones más tienen una glucemia de ayuno diagnóstica de diabetes En cuanto a la presión arterial, 5.4 millones tienen prehipertensión. El mismo número de casos tienen valores diagnósticos de hipertensión. Un total de 21.4 millones de adultos con obesidad tienen al menos un componente del síndrome metab

  6. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and met allele load on declarative memory related neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Chris M; Henson, Richard N; Suckling, John; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Lawrence, Phil; Bentley, Graham; Maltby, Kay; Skeggs, Andrew; Miller, Sam R; McHugh, Simon; Bullmore, Edward T; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including an investigation of the effect of met allele load on memory related activation in the medial temporal lobe. In contrast to previous studies, we found no evidence for an effect of BDNF genotype or met load during episodic memory encoding. Met allele carriers showed increased activation during successful retrieval in right hippocampus but this was contrast-specific and unaffected by met allele load. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism does not, as previously claimed, exert an observable effect on neural systems underlying encoding of new information into episodic memory but may exert a subtle effect on the efficiency with which such information can be retrieved.

  7. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and met allele load on declarative memory related neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M Dodds

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including an investigation of the effect of met allele load on memory related activation in the medial temporal lobe. In contrast to previous studies, we found no evidence for an effect of BDNF genotype or met load during episodic memory encoding. Met allele carriers showed increased activation during successful retrieval in right hippocampus but this was contrast-specific and unaffected by met allele load. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism does not, as previously claimed, exert an observable effect on neural systems underlying encoding of new information into episodic memory but may exert a subtle effect on the efficiency with which such information can be retrieved.

  8. Role of Met Axis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yiru, E-mail: xuyiru@umich.edu; Fisher, Gary J., E-mail: xuyiru@umich.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-26

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer worldwide. Despite advances in aggressive multidisciplinary treatments, the 5-year survival rate for this dreadful disease is only 50%, mostly due to high rate of recurrence and early involvement of regional lymph nodes and subsequent metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for invasion and metastasis is one of the most pressing goals in the field of head and neck cancer. Met, also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a member of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK) family. There is compelling evidence that Met axis is dysregulated and plays important roles in tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance in head and neck cancer. We describe in this review current understanding of Met axis in head and neck cancer biology and development of therapeutic inhibitors targeting Met axis.

  9. Met flora meer fauna de stad in trekken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffman, M.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Meer flora en fauna in de stedelijke omgeving begint met de aanplant van gevarieerd groen. Plant Publicity Holland geeft in een overzicht aan welke bomen, heesters en vaste planten daarvoor geschikt zijn.

  10. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Siikonen, T.; Palin, M.

    2017-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  11. Leven met de varroamijt in de 21ste eeuw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.; Cornelissen, B.; Smeekens, C.C.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Overzicht van voorhanden bestrijdingsmethoden tegen Varroa destructor op de korte termijn en vooruitzichten voor de bestrijding op langere termijn. In de nabije toekomst gaat het om bestrijding met diergeneesmiddelen van natuurlijke oorsprong (mierenzuur, oxaalzuur, thymol) in het kader van een

  12. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti

    2017-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - MetBaro Pressure device - MetHumi Humidity device - MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: - PanCam Panoramic - MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer - DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the world has seen an alarming increase in obesity and closely associated with insulin resistance which is a state of low-grade inflammation, the latter characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in blood and tissues. A shift in energy balance alters systemic metabolic regulation and the important role that chronic inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) play in this process.Why obesity is so closely associated with insulin resistance and inflammation is not understood well. This suggests that there are probably other causes for obesity-related insulin resistance and inflammation. One of these appears to be endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.The ER is a vast membranous network responsible for the trafficking of a wide range of proteins and plays a central role in integrating multiple metabolic signals critical in cellular homeostasis. Conditions that may trigger unfolded protein response activation include increased protein synthesis, the presence of mutant or misfolded proteins, inhibition of protein glycosylation, imbalance of ER calcium levels, glucose and energy deprivation, hypoxia, pathogens or pathogen-associated components and toxins. Thus, characterizing the mechanisms contributing to obesity and identifying potential targets for its prevention and treatment will have a great impact on the control of associated conditions, particularly T2D.

  14. Harmonizing the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome--focusing on abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter; Stanton, Kenneth R; Grande, Antonio José

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, important health organizations met to construct a Joint Scientific Statement (JSS) intended to harmonize the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome worldwide. The JSS aimed to unify the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome, particularly in relation to whether to include abdominal obesity as a criterion of diagnosis. A large part of the JSS is devoted to discussing the diagnosis of abdominal obesity. More specifically, 9 of the 16 papers focused on abdominal obesity. Continuing this emphasis, we discuss the harmonization of the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome worldwide, specifically focusing on the need to improve the diagnosis of abdominal obesity.

  15. Metabolic syndrome in Spanish adolescents and its association with birth weight, breastfeeding duration, maternal smoking, and maternal obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Montero-Alonso, Miguel A; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; García-García, Carmen J; Padez, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents is a growing problem. The objectives were to verify the association among early predictors such as birth weight, breastfeeding, maternal weight status, smoking during pregnancy, and the development of MetS. A cross-sectional study was performed of 976 children and adolescents, 10-15 years of age, at schools in the provinces of Granada and Almeria (Spain). For this purpose, we analyzed the physical characteristics as well as the biochemical markers of the participants with a view to ascertaining the prevalence of the MetS. Relevant data were also extracted from the clinical histories of their mothers. It was found that 3.85% of the female subjects and 5.38% of the male subjects in the sample population suffered from MetS. In both sexes, there was an association between birth weight and positive MetS diagnosis (OR 1.27). For both males and females, there was an inverse association between the length of time that they had been breastfed and positive MetS diagnosis (OR1-3 months 3.16; OR4-6 months 1.70; OR(>6 months) 0.13). There was also a significant association between maternal weight (OR(overweight )30.79; OR(obesity) 49.36) and cigarette consumption during pregnancy (OR 1.47) and the subsequent development of MetS in the children of these mothers. Those subjects born with a higher than average birth weight had a greater risk of developing MetS in childhood and adolescence. Breastfeeding children for longer than 6 months protected them from MetS in their early years as well as in their teens. Other risk factors for MetS were maternal smoking during pregnancy as well as maternal overweight and obesity.

  16. Integrated Haematological Profiles of Redox Status, Lipid, and Inflammatory Protein Biomarkers in Benign Obesity and Unhealthy Obesity with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lubrano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of obesity (OB and metabolic syndrome (MetS implies free radical-, oxidized lipid- (LOOH-, and inflammatory cytokine-mediated altered pathways in target organs. Key elements of the transition from benign OB to unhealthy OB+MetS remain unclear. Here, we measured a panel of redox, antioxidant, and inflammation markers in the groups of OB patients (67 with, 45 without MetS and 90 controls. Both OB groups displayed elevated levels of adipokines and heavy oxidative stress (OS evidenced by reduced levels of glutathione, downregulated glutathione-S-transferase, increased 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, reactive oxygen species, and membrane-bound monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. Exclusively in OB+MetS, higher-than-normal glutathione peroxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors were observed; a combination of high adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and MUFA was consistent with increased cardiovascular risk. The uncomplicated OB group showed features of adaptation to OS such as decreased levels of vitamin E, activated superoxide dismutase, and inhibited catalase, suggesting H2O2 hyperproduction. Proinflammatory cytokine pattern was normal, except few markers like RANTES, a suitable candidate for therapeutic approaches to prevent a setting of MetS by inhibition of LOOH-primed leukocyte chemotaxis/recruitment to target tissues.

  17. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  18. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...

  19. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  20. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000085.htm Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some ...

  1. Obesity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... always easy to know when a child has obesity or is overweight. Ask your health care provider ...

  2. Obesity and health (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

  3. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  4. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

  5. Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    cholesterol ↑ triglycerides Aim • Examine tissue-level alterations associated with obesity using whole transcriptome expression profiles of tumor and...the tumor tissue of obese patients included chromatin modification and remodeling genes involved in the regulation of chromatin structure and function...methylation, alterations in chromatin structure also represent an important component of transcription deregulation during tumor progression

  6. Attitudes of Jordanian Adolescent Students Toward Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Baker, Nesrin N.; Al-Ali, Nahla; Al-Ajlouni, Ranyah

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a serious public health problem especially among adolescents. Understanding adolescents’ attitudes toward obesity and healthy lifestyle is a crucial step to develop effective health programs to treat and prevent obesity. Objectives: To examine the attitudes toward overweight and obesity among Jordanian adolescent students and to identify the components of obesity prevention program that the students perceive as important. Methods: A sample of 1000 students in 8th to 10th grades was randomly selected from 16 schools in Irbid, Jordan. A self-reported questionnaire including attitude related questions was used in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Results: Generally, the students expressed positive attitudes toward obesity; which means that their attitudes were consistent with societal norms in terms of health and social functioning (mean= 3.5, SD=0.39). Furthermore, the students expressed positive attitudes toward lifestyle; which means that their attitudes were consistent with healthy behaviors (mean=3.7, SD=0.58). However, boys had significantly more positive attitudes than girls (p=0.04). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23.8%, while obese and non-obese students had similar attitudes toward lifestyle and obesity. Finally, around 20% to 30% of students desired a prevention program out of school time shared with their families and friends and involves eating healthy food and getting more exercise. Conclusion: More efforts are needed to build effective obesity prevention programs that focus on eating healthy diet and getting more exercise considering gender differences. PMID:29456780

  7. Attitudes of Jordanian Adolescent Students Toward Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Baker, Nesrin N; Al-Ali, Nahla; Al-Ajlouni, Ranyah

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem especially among adolescents. Understanding adolescents' attitudes toward obesity and healthy lifestyle is a crucial step to develop effective health programs to treat and prevent obesity. To examine the attitudes toward overweight and obesity among Jordanian adolescent students and to identify the components of obesity prevention program that the students perceive as important. A sample of 1000 students in 8 th to 10 th grades was randomly selected from 16 schools in Irbid, Jordan. A self-reported questionnaire including attitude related questions was used in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Generally, the students expressed positive attitudes toward obesity; which means that their attitudes were consistent with societal norms in terms of health and social functioning (mean= 3.5, SD=0.39). Furthermore, the students expressed positive attitudes toward lifestyle; which means that their attitudes were consistent with healthy behaviors (mean=3.7, SD=0.58). However, boys had significantly more positive attitudes than girls (p =0.04). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23.8%, while obese and non-obese students had similar attitudes toward lifestyle and obesity. Finally, around 20% to 30% of students desired a prevention program out of school time shared with their families and friends and involves eating healthy food and getting more exercise. More efforts are needed to build effective obesity prevention programs that focus on eating healthy diet and getting more exercise considering gender differences.

  8. Neurocognitive correlates of obesity and obesity-related behaviors in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Matheson, BE.; Kaye, WH.; Boutelle, KN.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have risen dramatically over the past few decades. Although obesity has been linked to poorer neurocognitive functioning in adults, much less is known about this relationship in children and adolescents. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to examine the relationship between obesity and obesity-related behaviors with neurocognitive functioning in youth. We reviewed articles from 1976 to 2013 using PsycInfo, PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar. Search terms included cognitive function, neurocognitive function/performance, executive function, impulsivity, self-regulation, effortful control, cognitive control, inhibition, delayed gratification, memory, attention, language, motor, visuo-spatial, academic achievement, obesity, overweight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, adiposity and body fat. Articles were excluded if participants had health problems known to affect cognitive functioning, the study used imaging as the only outcome measure, they were non-peer-reviewed dissertations, theses, review papers, commentaries, or they were non-English articles. Sixty-seven studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Overall, we found data that support a negative relationship between obesity and various aspects of neurocognitive functioning, such as executive functioning, attention, visuo-spatial performance, and motor skill. The existing literature is mixed on the effects among obesity, general cognitive functioning, language, learning, memory, and academic achievement. Executive dysfunction is associated with obesity-related behaviors, such as increased intake, disinhibited eating, and less physical activity. Physical activity is positively linked with motor skill. More longitudinal research is needed to determine the directionality of such relationships, to point towards crucial intervention time periods in the development of children, and to inform effective treatment programs. PMID:23913029

  9. RNase MRP cleaves pre-tRNASer-Met in the tRNA maturation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuichiro; Takeda, Jun; Adachi, Kousuke; Nobe, Yuko; Kobayashi, Junya; Hirota, Kouji; Oliveira, Douglas V; Taoka, Masato; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Ribonuclease mitochondrial RNA processing (RNase MRP) is a multifunctional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that is involved in the maturation of various types of RNA including ribosomal RNA. RNase MRP consists of a potential catalytic RNA and several protein components, all of which are required for cell viability. We show here that the temperature-sensitive mutant of rmp1, the gene for a unique protein component of RNase MRP, accumulates the dimeric tRNA precursor, pre-tRNA(Ser-Met). To examine whether RNase MRP mediates tRNA maturation, we purified the RNase MRP holoenzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and found that the enzyme directly and selectively cleaves pre-tRNA(Ser-Met), suggesting that RNase MRP participates in the maturation of specific tRNA in vivo. In addition, mass spectrometry-based ribonucleoproteomic analysis demonstrated that this RNase MRP consists of one RNA molecule and 11 protein components, including a previously unknown component Rpl701. Notably, limited nucleolysis of RNase MRP generated an active catalytic core consisting of partial mrp1 RNA fragments, which constitute "Domain 1" in the secondary structure of RNase MRP, and 8 proteins. Thus, the present study provides new insight into the structure and function of RNase MRP.

  10. Long-term interdisciplinary therapy decreases symptoms of binge eating disorder and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Paula Bresciani; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Poli, Vanessa Schoenardie; Sanches, Ricardo Badan; Silva, Stephan Garcia Andrade; Fidalgo, João Pedro Novo; Nascimento, Maythe Amaral; de Oliveira, Camila Aparecida Machado; Caranti, Danielle Arisa

    2017-04-01

    Obesity-associated comorbidities greatly impact the quality and expectancy of life. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder and it is an important risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). For these reasons, we aimed to assess the effect of an interdisciplinary therapy on the symptoms of BED and the prevalence of MetS in obese adults. It was hypothesized that the interdisciplinary therapy would decrease symptoms of BED and markers of MetS. Twenty-four volunteers (BMI 34.80±3.17 kg/m 2 ; 41.21±6.28 years old) completed a 32-week intervention. Biochemical characteristics, body composition, the degree of symptoms of binge eating, and macronutrients, and sodium consumption pre- and post-treatment were determined. The prevalence of MetS dropped from 75% to 45.8%, post-therapy. Among the markers of MetS, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly, whereas high-density lipoprotein levels increased. Fasting plasma glucose, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides did not change. Based on binge-eating scale (BES) scores, before therapy, 33.3% of volunteers were classified as moderate bingers, and after therapy all volunteers were classified as having no BED symptoms. No difference in the prevalence of MetS between individuals classified as normal or moderate bingers was observed, but we found a positive post-therapy correlation between the BES score and body fat, gynoid fat and trunk fat. Sodium, fat, and carbohydrate consumption decreased. Protein intake did not change. In conclusion, the interdisciplinary approach was efficient in reducing symptoms of BED and MetS prevalence in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal Associations between Triglycerides and Metabolic Syndrome Components in a Beijing Adult Population, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li-Xin; Yang, Kun; Liu, Xiang-Tong; Cao, Kai; Zhu, Hui-Ping; Luo, Yan-Xia; Guo, Jin; Wu, Li-Juan; Li, Xia; Guo, Xiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal associations between triglycerides (TG) and other metabolic syndrome (MetS) components have rarely been reported. The purpose was to investigate the longitudinal association between TG and other MetS components with time. The longitudinal study was established in 2007 on individuals who attended health check-ups at Beijing Tongren Hospital and Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital. Data used in this study was based on 7489 participants who had at least three health check-ups over a period of 5-year follow up. Joint model was used to explore longitudinal associations between TG and other MetS components after adjusted for age. There were positive correlations between TG and other MetS components except for high density lipoprotein (HDL), and the correlations increased with time. A negative correlation was displayed between TG and HDL, and the correlation also increased with time. Among all five pairs of TG and other MetS components, the marginal correlation between TG and body mass index (BMI) was the largest for both men and women. The marginal correlation between TG and fasting plasma glucose was the smallest for men, while the marginal correlation between TG and diastolic blood pressure was the smallest for women. The longitudinal association between TG and other MetS components increased with time. Among five pairs of TG and other MetS components, the longitudinal correlation between TG and BMI was the largest. It is important to closely monitor subjects with high levels of TG and BMI in health check-up population especially for women, because these two components are closely associated with development of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other metabolic diseases.

  12. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  13. Economics and obesity policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, J L

    2017-06-01

    This paper elucidates the challenges surrounding the economics of some popular obesity-related policy proposals. Solid economic justifications for anti-obesity policies are often lacking, and evidence suggests policies like fat and soda taxes or restrictions on food stamp spending are unlikely to substantively affect obesity prevalence. In short, many of the same factors that make obesity such a complicated and multifaceted issue extend to the economic analysis of public health policies.

  14. Canine and feline obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Palmer, Clare; Corr, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter Sandøe and colleagues...... argue that the relationship between obesity in people and in companion animals is closer and more complex than previously thought, and that obesity should be treated as a One Health problem....

  15. Family History of Type 2 Diabetes is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Female Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana Costa Rodrigues

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the family history (FH of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a group of non-diabetic obese female subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 239 female patients with obesity, regularly attending the Internal Medicine Division’s outpatient clinic (Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. The inclusion criteria were patients with body mass index ?30 kg/m2 and absence of type 2 diabetes. The FH was considered positive if a first degree relative had a diagnosis of diabetes. Seventy-four of 239 patients evaluated (30% had a positive FH for type 2 diabetes. Patients with positive FH had higher waist/hip ratio and MetS more often than patients with negative FH. FH of type 2 diabetes was associated with MetS in this sample of non-diabetic obese female patients. Waist/hip ratio and fasting plasma glucose, markers of insulin resistance, were also associated with FH of type 2 diabetes. The simple question: “Do you have a FH of type 2 diabetes?” may help to identify the obese patients that should be better evaluated and intensively treated with the objective of preventing type 2 diabetes.

  16. Effectiveness of long-term (twelve months nonsurgical weight loss interventions for obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Nicholson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fiona Nicholson1, Catherine Rolland1, John Broom1, John Love21Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland; 2School of Applied Social Studies, Faculty of Health and Social Care, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, ScotlandAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects 2%–26% of women of reproductive age and is often accompanied by obesity. Modest weight loss reduces health risks and ameliorates effects of the syndrome. Weight loss interventions are mainly of short duration and have limited success. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to assess the efficacy of long-term (12 months, nonsurgical weight loss interventions for women with PCOS. Fifteen databases were searched, resulting in eight papers that met the search criteria. Comparison of results and meta-analysis was difficult due to heterogeneity of studies. Behavioral components of interventions were poorly described, and compliance was difficult to ascertain. The results suggested that the inclusion of a lifestyle component improves outcomes, but protocols must be clearly described to maintain study validity and to identify successful behavioral strategies.Keywords: obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight loss 

  17. Cardiometabolic risk is associated with the severity of sleep-disordered breathing in children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Laurie; Roche, Johanna; Quinart, Sylvain; Thivel, David; Gillet, Valérie; Nègre, Véronique; Mougin, Fabienne

    2017-03-01

    The alarming progression of pediatric obesity is associated with the development of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and both exhibit similar adverse cardiometabolic health outcomes. Physical activity level (PAL) may counteract sleep and metabolic disturbances. The present study investigates i) the association between the metabolic syndrome in childhood obesity and SDB, ii) the impact of SDB severity on cardiometabolic risk scores and PAL in children with obesity. Maturation status (Tanner stages), anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index) and cardiometabolic characteristics (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid and glycemic profiles) were assessed in 83 obese children (mean±SD, age: 10.7±2.7years). PAL and SDB were investigated with a step test and interviews, and an overnight sleep monitor, respectively. The presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was established and continuous cardiometabolic risk scores were calculated (MetScore BMI and MetScore WC ). Obese children with (61.4%) and without (38.6%) MS present similar SDB. SDB severity is associated with increased insulin concentrations, MetScore BMI and MetScore WC (pobese children. There is no association between SDB and PAL. In a context where no consensus exists for SDB diagnosis in children, our results suggest the influence of SDB severity on cardiometabolic risk factors. Further studies are needed to explore the association between PAL and both metabolic and sleep alterations in obese children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Met Allele Load on Declarative Memory Related Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, Chris M.; Henson, Richard N.; Suckling, John; Miskowiak, Kamilla W.; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Lawrence, Phil; Bentley, Graham; Maltby, Kay; Skeggs, Andrew; Miller, Sam R.; McHugh, Simon; Bullmore, Edward T.; Nathan, Pradeep J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including...

  19. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  20. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  1. [Endocrine function in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Brandón-Sandá, Iria; Cordido, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated to significant disturbances in endocrine function. Hyper insulinemia and insulin resistance are the best known changes in obesity, but their mechanisms and clinical significance are not clearly established. Adipose tissue is considered to be a hormone-secreting endocrine organ; and increased leptin secretion from the adipocyte, a satiety signal, is a well-established endocrine change in obesity. In obesity there is a decreased GH secretion. Impairment of somatotropic function in obesity is functional and may be reversed in certain circumstances. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for low GH secretion in obesity is probably multifactorial. There are many data suggesting that a chronic state of somatostatin hypersecretion results in inhibition of GH release. Increased FFA levels, as well as a deficient ghrelin secretion, probably contribute to the impaired GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated to hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men, particularly those with morbid obesity, have decreased testosterone and gonadotropin levels. Obesity is associated to an increased cortisol production rate, which is compensated for by a higher cortisol clearance, resulting in plasma free cortisol levels that do not change when body weight increases. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be decreased in obese people. In obesity there is also a trend to increased TSH and free T3 levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  3. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...

  4. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  5. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  6. Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C

    2009-01-01

    Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing pr...

  7. COMT (Val158Met and BDNF (Val66Met Genes Polymorphism in Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ramin saravani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effects of human brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF Val66Met (G>A and the human Catechol-O-methylTransferase (COMT Val158Met (G>A polymorphisms on Schizophrenia (SCZ risk were evaluated.Methods: This case control study included 92 SCZ patients and 92 healthy controls (HCs. Genotyping of both variants were conducted using Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR.Results: The findings showed that BDNF Val66Met (G>A variant increased the risk of SCZ (OR=2.008 95%CI=1.008-4.00, P=0.047, GA vs. GG, OR=3.876 95%CI=1.001-14.925, P=0.049. AA vs. GG, OR=2.272. 95%CI=1.204-4.347, P=0.011, GA+AA vs. GG, OR=2.22 95%CI=1.29-3.82. P=0.005, A vs. G. COMT Val158Met (G>A polymorphism was not associated with the risk/protective of SCZ.Conclusion: The results proposed that BDNF Val66Met (G>A polymorphism may increase the risk of SCZ development and did not support an association between COMT Val158Met (G>A variant and risk/protective of SCZ. Further studies and different ethnicities are recommended to confirm the findings.

  8. Comparison of thermogenic sympathetic response to food intake between obese and non-obese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T; Miyawaki, C; Ue, H; Kanda, T; Yoshitake, Y; Moritani, T

    2001-02-01

    Sympathetic nervous system abnormality in humans is still a matter of debate. The present study was designed to examine diet-induced autonomic nervous system activity and metabolic change in obese and non-obese young women. Sixteen age- and height-matched obese and non-obese young women participated in this study. Sympathovagal activities were assessed by means of our newly developed spectral analysis procedure of heart-rate variability during the resting condition and after mixed-food ingestion (480 kcal). Energy expenditure was also measured under these two conditions. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters of the heart-rate variability between the obese group and control group during the resting condition. In the control group, both absolute values (221.5 +/- 54.5 vs. 363.8 +/- 43.7 ms2, p frequency component and global sympathetic nervous system index (1.46 +/- 0.19 vs. 3.26 +/- 0.61, p food ingestion compared with the values obtained after resting condition. However, no such sympathetic response was found in the obese group. Energy expenditure increased in the two groups after the meal, but the magnitude of the increase above the preprandial resting condition was significantly greater in the control group than in the obese group (11.2 +/- 2.3 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.8%, p food intake, which might be related to lowered capacity of thermogenesis and the state of obesity.

  9. Obesity: Current and Potential Pharmacotherapeutics and Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswami, Vidya; Dwoskin, Linda P.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior. Dysregulation of one or more of these homeostatic components results in obesity. Coincident with obesity, reward mechanisms that regulate hedonic aspects of food intake override the homeostatic regulation of eating. In addition to functional interactions between homeostatic and reward systems in the regulation of food intake, homeostatic signals have the ability to alter vulnerability to drug abuse. Regarding the treatment of obesity, pharmacological monotherapies primarily focus on a single protein target. FDA-approved monotherapy options include phentermine (Adipex-P®), orlistat (Xenical®), lorcaserin (Belviq®) and liraglutide (Saxenda®). However, monotherapies have limited efficacy, in part due to the recruitment of alternate and counter-regulatory pathways. Consequently, a multi-target approach may provide greater benefit. Recently, two combination products have been approved by the FDA to treat obesity, including phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia®) and naltrexone/bupropion (Contrave®). The current review provides an overview of homeostatic and reward mechanisms that regulate energy balance, potential therapeutic targets for obesity and current treatment options, including some candidate therapeutics in clinical development. Finally, challenges in anti-obesity drug development are discussed. PMID:27773782

  10. CYLD Limits Lys63- and Met1-Linked Ubiquitin at Receptor Complexes to Regulate Innate Immune Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matous Hrdinka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune signaling relies on the deposition of non-degradative polyubiquitin at receptor-signaling complexes, but how these ubiquitin modifications are regulated by deubiquitinases remains incompletely understood. Met1-linked ubiquitin (Met1-Ub is assembled by the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC, and this is counteracted by the Met1-Ub-specific deubiquitinase OTULIN, which binds to the catalytic LUBAC subunit HOIP. In this study, we report that HOIP also interacts with the deubiquitinase CYLD but that CYLD does not regulate ubiquitination of LUBAC components. Instead, CYLD limits extension of Lys63-Ub and Met1-Ub conjugated to RIPK2 to restrict signaling and cytokine production. Accordingly, Met1-Ub and Lys63-Ub were individually required for productive NOD2 signaling. Our study thus suggests that LUBAC, through its associated deubiquitinases, coordinates the deposition of not only Met1-Ub but also Lys63-Ub to ensure an appropriate response to innate immune receptor activation.

  11. Impaired cognitive flexibility during sleep deprivation among carriers of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Leilah K; Cain, Sean W; Chang, Anne-Marie; Saxena, Richa; Czeisler, Charles A; Anderson, Clare

    2018-02-15

    Accumulating evidence points to a genetic contribution to explain inter-individual vulnerability to sleep deprivation. A functional polymorphism in the BDNF gene, which causes a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) amino acid substitution at Codon 66, has been associated with cognitive impairment, particularly in populations with impaired frontal functioning. We hypothesised that sleep deprivation, which affects frontal function, may lead to cognitive dysfunction in Met allele carriers. To examine this, we investigated, in different BDNF genotypes, the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive flexibility, as measured by response inhibition using the Stroop Color Naming Task. Thirty healthy, adults of European ancestry, including 12 heterozygous Met allele carriers and 18 Val/Val homozygotes, underwent 30-h of extended wakefulness under constant routine conditions. A computerised Stroop task was administered every 2h. Error rate and reaction times increased with time awake for all individuals. Participants with the Val/Met genotype made more errors on incongruent trials after 20h awake. While Val/Met participants also took significantly longer to respond when inhibiting a prepotent response irrespective of time awake, this was particularly evident during the biological night. Our study shows that carriers of the BDNF Met allele are more vulnerable to the impact of prolonged wakefulness and the biological night on a critical component of executive function, as measured by response inhibition on the Stroop task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, life stress and depression: A meta-analysis of gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingzhe; Chen, Lu; Yang, Jiarun; Han, Dong; Fang, Deyu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Ma, Jingsong; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Shixiang; Song, Xuejia; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Mingqi; Qi, Dong; Yang, Yanjie; Pan, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Depression is thought to be multifactorial in etiology, including genetic and environmental components. While a number of gene-environment interaction studies have been carried out, meta-analyses are scarce. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantify evidence on the interaction between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and stress in depression. Included were 31 peer-reviewed with a pooled total of 21060 participants published before October 2016 and literature searches were conducted using PubMed, Wolters Kluwer, Web of Science, EBSCO, Elsevier Science Direct and Baidu Scholar databases. The results indicated that the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the relationship between stress and depression (Z=2.666, p = 0.003). The results of subgroup analysis concluded that stressful life events and childhood adversity separately interacted with the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in depression (Z = 2.552, p = 0.005; Z = 1.775, p = 0.03). The results could be affected by errors or bias in primary studies which had small sample sizes with relatively lower statistic power. We could not estimate how strong the interaction effect between gene and environment was. We found evidence that supported the hypothesis that BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderated the relationship between stress and depression, despite the fact that many included individual studies did not show this effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wilkosz, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games) in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12-18 years). The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months) follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time), while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale) in adolescents

  14. Obesity-risk behaviours and their associations with body mass index (BMI) in Korean American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret; Sadler, Lois; Jeon, Sangchoon; Nam, Soohyun; Song, Hee-Jung; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-08-03

    To describe obesity-risk behaviours (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour) and examine the relationships of the obesity-risk behaviours with body mass index (BMI) in school-aged Korean American children. Korean American children have a risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing obesity-related complications; however, there is limited research about obesity-risk behaviours in Korean American children. A cross-sectional study. Obesity-risk behaviours of children were assessed with well-validated self-report questionnaires (i.e., Elementary-level School-based Nutrition Monitoring Questionnaire) from children and their mothers. Height and weight of children were measured. Data were analysed with bivariate and multivariate analyses using mixed effects models to incorporate the correlation within siblings. A total of 170 Korean American children (mean age 10.9 [2.0] years; 52.4% girls; mean BMI 19.3 [3.2]; 28.7% ≥85 percentiles) participated in the study. Only 38.3% of Korean American children met established recommendations of five fruits/vegetables per day; 56.5% met recommendations for more than 3 days per week of vigorous physical activity; and 40.8% met recommendations for obesity in Korean American children and initiate clinical interventions to improve obesity-risk behaviours, especially sedentary behaviour, in Korean American children. Clinical assessment and management of the risk of developing overweight and obesity as well as obesity-related behaviours are important to improve obesity-related complications in overall Korean Americans. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Methylation of SOCS3 is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in an epigenome-wide association study of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar; Cerjak, Diana; Kent, Jack W; James, Roland; Blangero, John; Carless, Melanie A; Zhang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, mediate the interaction between gene and environment and may play an important role in the obesity epidemic. We assessed the relationship between DNA methylation and obesity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at 485,000 CpG sites across the genome in family members (8-90 y of age) using a discovery cohort (192 individuals) and a validation cohort (1,052 individuals) of Northern European ancestry. After Bonferroni-correction (P α=0.05 = 1.31 × 10 -7 ) for genome-wide significance, we identified 3 loci, cg18181703 (SOCS3), cg04502490 (ZNF771), and cg02988947 (LIMD2), where methylation status was associated with body mass index percentile (BMI%), a clinical index for obesity in children, adolescents, and adults. These sites were also associated with multiple metabolic syndrome (MetS) traits, including central obesity, fat depots, insulin responsiveness, and plasma lipids. The SOCS3 methylation locus was also associated with the clinical definition of MetS. In the validation cohort, SOCS3 methylation status was found to be inversely associated with BMI% (P = 1.75 × 10 -6 ), waist to height ratio (P = 4.18 × 10 -7 ), triglycerides (P = 4.01 × 10 -4 ), and MetS (P = 4.01 × 10 -7 ), and positively correlated with HDL-c (P = 4.57 × 10 -8 ). Functional analysis in a sub cohort (333 individuals) demonstrated SOCS3 methylation and gene expression in PBMCs were inversely correlated (P = 2.93 × 10 -4 ) and expression of SOCS3 was positively correlated with status of MetS (P = 0.012). We conclude that epigenetic modulation of SOCS3, a gene involved in leptin and insulin signaling, may play an important role in obesity and MetS.

  16. Barriers to exercise in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Egan, A M

    2013-07-01

    Although regular exercise is a critical component of the management of type 2 diabetes, many patients do not meet their exercise targets. Lack of exercise is associated with obesity and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  17. Addressing obesity in South Africa through taxation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... The same tax can reduce diabetes prevalence in adults by 4%, and incident ... are only one component of a multi-pronged strategy to address obesity. ... and regulating food labelling, advertising, and marketing to reduce ...

  18. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Awan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Obesity-related education should be implemented as a formal component of dental student training. Oral health practitioners should also provide their patients with information about how weight loss is beneficial to both general and oral health.

  19. The relationship between obesity, leptin, adiponectin and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between obesity, adipokines and the components of ... women between adiponectin and age, BMI and fasting blood glucose, and positive .... or medians. Correlations between continuous variables were.

  20. Requirements to be met by the operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The rule applies to the contents and the lay-out of the operating manual for stationary nuclear power plants. The draft contains: 1. General requirement to be met by the contents of the operating manual. The operating manual to be arranged in 4 parts (part 1: internal rules and regulations; part 2: operation overall plant; part 3: incidents; part 4: operation systems). Safety specifications to be included in the manual, the exemption being the system of technical documentation. 2. General requirements to be met by the lay-out of the operating manual. Comprehensibility; legibility; structure and subdivisions; arrangement of the instructions and design of the manuals cover. 3. Requirements to be met by part 1. Defining the various internal rules and regulations (personnel management); rules and regulations concerning inspections and shift work; maintenance and repair; radiation protection; guard duty and admission; alarm; fire protection; first aid. 4. Requirements to be met by part 2. Provisions and operational limitations; limit values important from the point of view of safety; normal operation; anomalous operation; in-service inspections. 6. Requirements to be met by part 3. 7. Annex: Rules, regulations and stipulations mentioned in the rule draft. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen storage capacity of titanium met-cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, N; Durgun, E; Yildirim, T; Ciraci, S

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen molecules on the titanium metallocarbohedryne (met-car) cluster has been investigated by using the first-principles plane wave method. We have found that, while a single Ti atom at the corner can bind up to three hydrogen molecules, a single Ti atom on the surface of the cluster can bind only one hydrogen molecule. Accordingly, a Ti 8 C 12 met-car can bind up to 16 H 2 molecules and hence can be considered as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium. Strong interaction between two met-car clusters leading to the dimer formation can affect H 2 storage capacity slightly. Increasing the storage capacity by directly inserting H 2 into the met-car or by functionalizing it with an Na atom have been explored. It is found that the insertion of neither an H 2 molecule nor an Na atom could further promote the H 2 storage capacity of a Ti 8 C 12 cluster. We have also tested the stability of the H 2 -adsorbed Ti 8 C 12 met-car with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations which have been carried out at room temperature

  2. MetReS, an Efficient Database for Genomic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Jordi; Alves, Rui; Solsona, Francesc; Mateo, Jordi; Teixidó, Ivan; Pifarré, Marc

    2018-02-01

    MetReS (Metabolic Reconstruction Server) is a genomic database that is shared between two software applications that address important biological problems. Biblio-MetReS is a data-mining tool that enables the reconstruction of molecular networks based on automated text-mining analysis of published scientific literature. Homol-MetReS allows functional (re)annotation of proteomes, to properly identify both the individual proteins involved in the processes of interest and their function. The main goal of this work was to identify the areas where the performance of the MetReS database performance could be improved and to test whether this improvement would scale to larger datasets and more complex types of analysis. The study was started with a relational database, MySQL, which is the current database server used by the applications. We also tested the performance of an alternative data-handling framework, Apache Hadoop. Hadoop is currently used for large-scale data processing. We found that this data handling framework is likely to greatly improve the efficiency of the MetReS applications as the dataset and the processing needs increase by several orders of magnitude, as expected to happen in the near future.

  3. NEURAXIAL ANESTHESIA and OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur sahin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the serious condition that commonly effects health in modern age. It was reported that obesity was three-fold increased in the last three decades. According to the statement by World Health Organisation in 2005, 700 million people will be estimated obese in 2015. While neuraxial anesthesia is a commonly used technique in the worldwide, the process may have difficulties in obese patients. In this review, the pathophysiological changes and challenges in neuraxial anesthesia procedure in obesity were assessed with current literatures. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 234-236

  4. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of long-term (twelve months) nonsurgical weight loss interventions for obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Fiona; Rolland, Catherine; Broom, John; Love, John

    2010-11-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 2%-26% of women of reproductive age and is often accompanied by obesity. Modest weight loss reduces health risks and ameliorates effects of the syndrome. Weight loss interventions are mainly of short duration and have limited success. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to assess the efficacy of long-term (12 months), nonsurgical weight loss interventions for women with PCOS. Fifteen databases were searched, resulting in eight papers that met the search criteria. Comparison of results and meta-analysis was difficult due to heterogeneity of studies. Behavioral components of interventions were poorly described, and compliance was difficult to ascertain. The results suggested that the inclusion of a lifestyle component improves outcomes, but protocols must be clearly described to maintain study validity and to identify successful behavioral strategies.

  6. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  7. Endoscopic Devices for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity.

  8. Obesity and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that fractures in obese postmenopausal women and older men contribute significantly to the overall fracture burden. The effect of obesity is to some extent site-dependent, the risk being increased for some fractures and decreased for others, possibly related to different patterns of falling and the presence or absence of soft tissue padding. Risk factors for fracture in obese individuals appear to be similar to those in the nonobese population, although falls may be particularly important in the obese. There is some evidence that the morbidity associated with fractures in obese individuals is greater than in the nonobese; however, a recent study indicates that the mortality associated with fracture is lower in obese and overweight people than in those of normal weight. The evidence base for strategies to prevent fractures in obese individuals is weak and is an important area for future research.

  9. Male obesity and semen quality: Any association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obose Rufus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Infertility as well as obesity are risng global concern. Whilst there is an established association between female obesity and infertility, a similar link is yet to be proven in men. Objective: To determine the effects of elevated body mass index (BMI on semen quality among male partners of infertile couples attending an infertility clinic. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 206 men who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Selected participants were grouped according to their BMI (kg/m2: normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2 and elevated BMI (≥25 kg/m2. The effect of weight on semen quality was assessed based on sperm count, percentage motility, and morphology. Results: The number of participants with normal BMI was 110 (53.4% while those with elevated BMI were 96 (46.6%. Of the participants in elevated BMI group, 52 (25.2% were overweight and 44 (21.4% were obese. There was no statistically significant difference in the semen quality as well as the pattern of semen parameter abnormalities between males with normal and elevated BMI (overweight or obese (p=0.813. Conclusion: Elevated BMI did not significantly influence semen quality.

  10. Rocket experiment METS - Microwave Energy Transmission in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Akiba, R.

    A Microwave Energy Transmission in Space (METS) rocket experiment is being planned by the Solar Power Satellite Working Group at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science in Japan for the forthcoming International Space Year, 1992. The METS experiment is an advanced version of the previous MINIX rocket experiment (Matsumoto et al., 1990). This paper describes a conceptual design of the METS rocket experiment. It aims at verifying a newly developed microwave energy transmission system for space use and to study nonlinear effects of the microwave energy beam in the space plasma environment. A high power microwave of 936 W will be transmitted by the new phased-array antenna from a mother rocket to a separated target (daughter rocket) through the ionospheric plasma. The active phased-array system has a capability of focusing the microwave energy around any spatial point by controlling the digital phase shifters individually.

  11. Rocket experiment METS Microwave Energy Transmission in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Akiba, R.

    A METS (Microwave Energy Transmission in Space) rocket experiment is being planned by the SPS (Solar Power Satellite) Working Group at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan for the forthcoming International Space Year (ISY), 1992. The METS experiment is an advanced version of our MINIX rocket experiment. This paper describes the conceptual design for the METS rocket experiment. Aims are to verify the feasibility of a newly developed microwave energy transmission system designed for use in space and to study nonlinear effects of the microwave energy beam on space plasma. A high power microwave (936 W) will be transmitted by a new phase-array antenna from a mother rocket to a separate target (daughter rocket) through the Earth's ionospheric plasma. The active phased-array system has the capability of being able to focus the microwave energy at any spatial point by individually controlling the digital phase shifters.

  12. El acertijo de la metáfora visual

    OpenAIRE

    De la Rosa Alzate, Adriana; Universidad Autónoma de Occidente

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación sobre el proceso de interpretación de la metáfora visual, en niños entre tres y cuatro años de edad. El propósito de la investigación fue dar cuenta del proceso de interpretación de la metáfora visual y del razonamiento involucrado. La metáfora visual se entiende como un fenómeno en el que los objetos representados presentan transformaciones que traen como consecuencia la emergencia de nuevas categorías e incluso la ambigüedad, ...

  13. Met Ed gets reprieve: banks lend tax money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1981-01-01

    A consortium of banks agreed to loan Metropolitan Edison $23 million to pay its April 15 state taxes and temporarily relieve a cash-flow problem that is leading to default after the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission expedited a rate request. The continued solvency of Met Ed is a matter of speculation because the present credit formula is based on liquid assets which the PUC did not address. While the action taken by the bankers gives Met Ed a reprieve, it does not provide a long-term solution. The Revolving Credit Agreement will expire on October 1. Met Ed is still faced with the problem of relicensing Three Mile Island-1 unit and the cost of underwriting the cleanup of the No. 2 unit

  14. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Youngji; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients.

  15. The influence of physical activity on components of metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Inactivity causes obesity which is related to insulin resistance, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ... of physical activity (PA) on the MS components and vascular function in children and ...

  16. Remembering the early days of the Met Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Met Lab was set up by the war-time Manhattan District, US Corp of Engineers to (i) find a system using normal uranium in which a chain reaction would occur; (ii) to show that if such a chain reaction did occur, it would be possible to separate plutonium chemically from the uranium matrix and the fission products formed in the chain reactions; and (iii) to prepare plans for the large-scale production of plutonium. Chemistry Section C-1 of the Met Lab was assigned the responsibility for developing separation methods for plutonium production on the industrial scale. This report describes some aspects of daily life in Section C-1

  17. Sustainable energy with thermochemical storage; Duurzame energie met thermochemische opslag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, M. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN) foresees an important role for heat in sustainable construction of buildings. Using salt hydrates the surplus of heat can be stored in the summer which then can be used in the winter. By means of thermochemical storage natural gas for heating tap water or houses is no longer necessary. [Dutch] Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) ziet voor warmteopslag een belangrijke rol weggelegd in het duurzaam bouwen. Met behulp van zouthydraten kan de overtollige warmte in de zomer opgeslagen worden om deze in de winter weer vrij te maken. Met deze thermochemische opslag is in de nabije toekomst aardgas overbodig voor de verwarming van kraanwater of woonhuis.

  18. Physiological Signaling and Structure of the HGF Receptor MET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Baldanzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The “hepatocyte growth factor” also known as “scatter factor”, is a multifunctional cytokine with the peculiar ability of simultaneously triggering epithelial cell proliferation, movement and survival. The combination of those proprieties results in the induction of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in target cells, fundamental for embryogenesis but also exploited by tumor cells during metastatization. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor, MET, is a proto-oncogene and a prototypical transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. Inhere we discuss the MET molecular structure and the hepatocyte growth factor driven physiological signaling which coordinates epithelial proliferation, motility and morphogenesis.

  19. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) data and methods in obesity-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, P; Cheng, X; Xue, H; Wang, Y

    2017-04-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) data/methods offer good promise for public health programs including obesity-related research. This study systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research. A systematic search of PubMed for studies published before 20 May 2016, utilizing synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for obesity as search terms, identified 121 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators. We found high spatial heterogeneity in obesity prevalence/risk and obesogenic environmental factors. Also, study design and characteristics varied considerably across studies because of lack of established guidance and protocols in the field, which may also have contributed to the mixed findings about environmental impacts on obesity. Existing findings regarding built environment are more robust than those regarding food environment. Applications of GIS data/methods in obesity research are still limited, and related research faces many challenges. More and better GIS data and more friendly analysis methods are needed to expand future GIS applications in obesity-related research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Obesity is a negative predictor of success after surgery for complex anal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwandner O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was the aim of this study to compare the outcome of surgery for complex anal fistulas in obese and non-obese patients. Methods All patients with complex anorectal fistulas who underwent fistulectomy and/or rectal advancement flap repair were prospectively recorded. Surgery was performed in a standardized technique. Body mass index (BMI [kg/m2] was used as objective measure to indicate morbid obesity. Patients with a BMI greater than 30 were defined as obese, and patients with a BMI below 30 were defined as non-obese. The parameters analyzed related to BMI included success or failure, and reoperation rate due to recurrent abscess. Success was defined as closure of both internal and external openings, absence of drainage without further intervention, and absence of abscess formation. Results Within two years, 220 patients underwent advancement flap repair and met the inclusion criteria. 55% of patients were females, mean age was 39 (range 18-76 years, and the majority of fistulas were located at the posterior site. 69% of patients (152/220 were non-obese (BMI 30. After a median follow-up of 6 months, primary healing rate ("success" for the whole collective was 82% (180/220. Success was significantly different between non-obese and obese patients: In non-obese patients, recurrence rate was significantly lower than in obese patients (14% vs. 28%; p Conclusion Obese patients are at higher risk for failure after surgery for complex anal fistula.

  1. Angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie-2 receptor plasma levels in children with obstructive sleep apnea and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, David; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Qiao, Zhuanghong; Smith, Dale L; Philby, Mona F; Koren, Dorit; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition, especially in children with obesity, and is associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Angiopoietins have been identified as potential biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and MetS. In adults, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and its soluble receptor (sTie-2) are associated with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity and could be increased in children with OSA and obesity, particularly those with evidence of cardiometabolic alterations. One hundred twenty-six children (7.4 ± 2.0 years) were consecutively recruited and underwent overnight polysomnography, as well as endothelial function and BMI z score assessments and a fasting blood draw the morning after the sleep study. In addition to lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Ang-2 and sTie-2 concentrations were determined. Children with obesity and OSA had significantly elevated plasma Ang-2 and sTie-2 levels compared to corresponding controls with and without obesity. Furthermore, endothelial function (Tmax) and HOMA-IR were linearly and independently associated with Ang-2 and sTie-2 levels. In a small subset of children (n = 14), treatment of OSA by adenotonsillectomy resulted in reductions of Ang-2 and sTie-2 (P obesity, particularly when endothelial dysfunction or insulin resistance is detectable, and appear to decrease upon OSA treatment. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome Components and Periodontal Disease in a Japanese General Population: the Suita Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikui, Miki; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Takahiro; Kida, Momoyo; Kosaka, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-05-01

    A positive association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontal status has recently been noted. However, no study has evaluated the relationship by sex and in a general urban population using the uniform definition proposed in the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between MetS and periodontal status using the uniform definition in a general urban Japanese population. A total of 1,856 Japanese men and women (mean age: 66.4 years) were studied using data from the Suita study. Periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). MetS was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. The associations of the MetS and its components with periodontal disease were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, drinking, and smoking. Among the components of the MetS, low HDL cholesterol level was significantly associated with periodontal disease in men and women [odds ratios (OR)=2.39 and 1.53; 95% confidence intervals=1.36-4.19 and 1.06-2.19]. Furthermore, the risk of periodontal disease showed 1.43-, 1.42-, and 1.89-fold increases in those with 2, 3, and ≥4 components, respectively, compared with those having no components (P trend <0.001). For the analysis by sex, the risk of periodontal disease was increased 2.27- and 1.76-fold in those with ≥4 components in men and women, respectively (both P trend =0.001). These findings suggest that MetS and lower HDL cholesterol are associated with periodontal disease. Subjects with two or more MetS components had a significantly higher prevalence of periodontal disease.

  3. Psychosocial aspects of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Varsha

    2006-01-01

    Obese patients have many physical limitations and much psychiatric burden to overcome. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the obese is similar to those with normal weight. However, in obese patients seeking treatment there is an increased prevalence (40-60%) of psychiatric morbidity, most commonly depression. It is difficult to separate the effects of depression on obesity and, on the contrary, the neuroendocrine changes associated with stress and depression may cause metabolic changes that predispose and perpetuate obesity. The stigma associated with obesity causes bullying in school as well as childhood psychiatric morbidity. Prejudice is not limited to the general public but exists among health professionals too. This chapter discusses the treatment of depression in obesity and the psychiatric evaluation of the pre-bariatric surgery patient. Education of society, starting with schools and including healthcare professionals will reduce bias and stigma as well as assist this vulnerable group of patients to seek help for their obesity and the many problems that come with it. Given that by the year 2025 obesity will be the world's number one health problem with the US leading the way, it is very important that we pursue preventive measures as well as encourage research for treatments of obesity.

  4. Is obesity a disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumarac-Dumanović Mirjana 0000-0002-6216-6650

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a complex entity that can have many causes, such as endocrine (like thyroid dysfunction or hyperfunctioning of the suprarenall gland-Cushing’s syndrome but often obesity is from a combination of inactivity and overeating. On the other side, there are genetic factors that produce a tendency to overweight even with the consumption of what would be for most people an appropriate number of calories. Whether the causes are hormonal, genetic or reside in the brain (its reward system or the circuitry that underlies habit, perception of portion size, the choice of food... is often difficult to sort out. Proponents contend that obesity is a disease because it meets the definition of disease. Obesity decreases life expectancy and impairs the normal body functions, also it can be caused by genetic factors. Opponents contend that obesity is not a disease because it is a preventable risk factor for other diseases. Obesity is the result of eating too much as well as it is caused by exercising too little. Formaly disease or condition obesity is associated with a variety of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, and may also be responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. Understanding the pathophysiology of obesity has grown significantly over the last few decades. Pathogenetic mechanisms in obesity and in the development of comorbidities that accompany obesity exhibit many of the characteristics of inflammatory processes. A key role in the pathogenesis of obesity could play the immune system. Despite identifying many critical players in these processes and finding new therapeutic modalities in the fight against obesity, treatment of obesity is still a great challenge and mostly with not-so-successful outcomes.

  5. Impact of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome on the postoperative immune, inflammatory, and endocrine response following surgery for esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S L; Mongan, A M; Donohoe, C L; Pidgeon, G P; Sherlock, M; Reynolds, J V; Lysaght, J

    2017-06-01

    Visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) represent a constellation of inflammation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia and are established risk factors for gastrointestinal cancer. However, their impact on the immune and inflammatory response after major upper gastrointestinal oncologic surgery is unknown. In 125 consecutive patients who underwent esophagectomy, C-reactive protein (CRP) and CRP:albumin levels were recorded preoperatively and on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 postoperatively. In a subset of 30 patients, circulating levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β, and cortisol were measured. Incidences of postoperative complications were prospectively recorded. In the study cohort, 51% of patients were viscerally obese, 40.7% had MetSyn, and 33.6% were hyperglycemic. Viscerally obese and MetSyn-positive patients demonstrated greater postoperative CRP levels and CRP:albumin levels on day 7 and day 14 compared with nonobese and MetSyn-negative patients (P levels of cortisol were observed in the viscerally obese and hyperglycemic patients compared to nonobese and normoglycemic patients. No association was observed between visceral obesity, MetSyn or hyperglycemia, and postoperative cytokine profile. Viscerally obese patients had an increased overall incidence of postoperative complications compared to nonobese patients (67.2% vs. 47.5%, P = 0.031) on univariate but not multivariate analysis (P = 0.078) and visceral obesity was not associated with an increased incidence of specific complications. Visceral obesity, MetSyn, and hyperglycemia are prevalent in patients undergoing major upper gastrointestinal resection and are associated with an exaggerated acute-phase inflammatory response postoperatively. Further research is warranted to determine whether this association is directly causal. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For

  6. Gonadal dysfunction in morbidly obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Vivian; Censani, Marisa; Lerner, Shulamit; Conroy, Rushika; Oberfield, Sharon; McMahon, Donald; Zitsman, Jeffrey; Fennoy, Ilene

    2014-04-01

    To describe gonadal dysfunction and evaluate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MeS) among girls in a morbidly obese adolescent population. In a cross-sectional study of 174 girls, height, weight, waist circumference, Tanner stage, reproductive hormones, carbohydrate and lipid markers, drug use, and menstrual history were obtained at baseline. Exclusion criteria were menarcheal age PCOS or MeS classification. University medical center outpatient clinic. Ninety-eight girls ages 13-19.6 years, Tanner 5, average body mass index of 46.6 kg/m(2), menarche at 11.4 years, and average menarcheal age of 5 years. None. Polycystic ovary syndrome and MeS. Ninety-eight girls were divided into four groups: PCOS by National Institutes of Health criteria (PCOSN, n = 24), irregular menses only (n = 25), elevated T (≥55 ng/dL) only (n = 6), and obese controls (n = 43). Metabolic syndrome by modified Cook criteria affected 32 girls or 33% overall: 6 of 24 PCOSN, 7 of 25 irregular menses only, 4 of 6 elevated T only, and 15 of 43 obese controls. Polycystic ovary syndrome by National Institutes of Health criteria and its individual components were not associated with MeS after adjusting for body mass index. Unlike obese adults, PCOSN and its individual components were not associated with MeS in the untreated morbidly obese adolescent population. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Zuivering brouwerijprocesafvalwater met behulp van microalgen: Resultaten onderzoek 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.; Schipperus, R.; Grobben, S.A.; Weide, van der R.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In een samenwerkingsverband van Heineken Nederland BV, Algae Food & Fuel en WUR (Acrres) is in 2012 een onderzoeksproject gestart om de mogelijkheden van zuivering van procesafvalwater van de brouwerijen met behulp van algen te onderzoeken. In het kader van dit project is in 2012 een

  8. Christus' offer bij Paulus vergeleken met de offeropvattingen van Philo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelma, Juurd Hari

    1938-01-01

    Een vergelijking der offeropvattingen van Paulus en Philo brengt ons in aanraking met twee principieel verschillende voorstellingen aangaande het offer. Het offer van Christus is voor Paulus de gave Gods, waardoor de macht van de zonde en dood vernietigd en de schuld verzoend is. Door de

  9. Constant Cremer, voetballer in Tilburg met Afrikaanse wortels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Thijs Kemmeren

    2012-01-01

    Constant Cremer is de eerste zwarte voetballer in Nederland. Hij is geboren in Belgisch Congo. Hij speelde bij Willem II in het seizoen 1904 -1905 en werd met Willem II Brabvants kampioen. Constant werd, als een donkere mulat een held in Tilburg. Hij kwam uiteindelijk terecht in Nederland Indie en

  10. Workshop ALOUD 'Onderzoek voor, door en met de OU'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Vraagt u zich wel eens af wat de doorsnee kenmerken zijn van de OU-student? Hoeveel studenten daadwerkelijk starten met de studeren? Wie van deze groep succesvol zijn? En welke verschillen er zitten tussen de faculteiten? En wilt u meedenken over wat voor details we van studenten willen weten voor

  11. Beoordeling gezondheidsrisico's door sporten op kunstgrasvelden met rubbergranulaat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; de Groot GM; CPV; M&V

    2016-01-01

    Uit nieuw onderzoek van het RIVM blijkt dat het risico voor de gezondheid van sporten op kunstgrasvelden die zijn ingestrooid met rubbergranulaat, praktisch verwaarloosbaar is. Dat betekent dat het verantwoord is om op deze velden te sporten. Aanleiding voor het onderzoek is de maatschappelijke

  12. Van Weel: "Werken met minimumbuis de gebruikelijke, maar foute weg"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staalduinen, van J.; Weel, van P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Door het aanzuigen en in de kas brengen van relatief droge, voorverwarmde buitenlucht is de RV in de kas te verlagen en beter te beheersen. Omdat ook de verticale temperatuurverschillen afnemen, is het mogelijk om intensiever te schermen. Met Aircobreezeventilatoren, die via kieren of gaten lucht

  13. Ervaringen met ICT-onderzoek in het HBO.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, H.; Teeuw, W.J.; Tangelder, R.; Griffioen, P.; Krose, B.; Schouten, B.

    2011-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt het belang aangegeven van onderzoeksvaardigheden in het HBO. Met de komst van de lectoraten en de nieuwe positionering van het HBO is het belangrijk om een antwoord te vinden hoe het onderzoek binnen het HBO vormgegeven moet worden. Hierbij wordt gekeken naar de bruikbaarheid

  14. Imidacloprid of niet? (interview met Sjef van der Steen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleis, R.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Is bijensterfte het werk van neonicotinoïden? Ja, zeggen en denken velen. Volgens hen zijn de neo’s rechtstreeks verantwoordelijk voor de hoge sterfte onder bijen. Nee, toont Wagenings onderzoek aan. Intussen lijkt het met de sterfte voorzichtig de goede kant op te gaan.

  15. Vers bloed voor spinazie (interview met C. Kik)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, R.; Kik, C.

    2011-01-01

    Chris Kik van het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland (CGN) keerde afgelopen weekend terug van een eenmansexpeditie door Azerbeidzjan, Georgië en Armenië. Resultaat van de reis: een koffer volgepropt met 53 witte linnen zakjes zaad van wilde en lokaal geteelde spinazie. Dat materiaal gaat

  16. Slim in het verkeer met open data : adviesrapport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, Danny; Plasmeyer, Luuk; van Heesewijk, Nick; Smeenge, Tetiana; Hoekzema, Niek; McCreesh, Séamus

    2013-01-01

    Rapport in opdracht van de gemeente Groningen. Aanleiding voor het schrijven van dit rapport is dat de gemeente Groningen graag wil weten hoe ze met het gebruik van open data het (openbaar) vervoer voor studenten in en naar de stad Groningen kunnen verbeteren. Het onderzoek richtte zich daarom op

  17. Een bepalingsmethode voor thallium in regenwater met behulp van voltammetrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs; J.; Wolfs; P.M.; Esseveld; F.G.van

    1985-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt een bepalingmethode beschreven voor thallium in het nanogram/liter-gebied, waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van differentiele pulse-anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) aan de dunne kwikfilm. Met deze techniek blijkt het mogelijk om de concentratie van dit element rechtstreeks

  18. Subtiel verleiden met nudging : Verhogen van enquêterespons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Versluis; dr. A.F. de Wild

    2015-01-01

    De nonrespons op enquêtes onder studenten is vaak hoog, waardoor verkregen informatie niet altijd betrouwbaar en valide is. Met nudges, subtiele interventies die gebaseerd zijn op inzichten uit de psychologie en sociologie, kan de respons op enquêtes aanzienlijk worden verhoogd. Bij de uitrol van

  19. Aan de slag met honors : praktijklessen uit Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfensberger, Marca; Hogenstijn, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    In de brochure ‘Aan de slag met honors’ worden onderzoeksresultaten van het onderzoeksproject Honors in Europe hertaald naar tips voor succesvol en inspirerend honorsonderwijs. De brochure is grotendeels gebaseerd op het boek Talent Development in European Higher Education – Honors programs in the

  20. Randvoorwaarden ontwerp happy games voor ouderen met dementie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. A.L. Cordia

    2014-01-01

    Deze publicatie is in twee fasen tot stand gekomen tijdens het In Touch onderzoek. De eerste fase had als doel de randvoorwaarden te bepalen voor het ontwerpen van drie nieuwe iPad spellen voor ouderen met dementie en betrof een beperkt literatuuronderzoek op gerelateerde onderwerpen, daar

  1. Stalboekje varkens : natuurlijk gezond met kruiden en andere natuurproducten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Kleijer-Ligtenberg, G.; Asseldonk, van T.

    2014-01-01

    Het streven om het gebruik van antibiotica terug te dringen vraagt om een ander management. Goede voeding, huisvesting en hygiëne zijn hierbij belangrijk. In dit boekje worden handvaten gegeven om met natuurlijke middelen de gezondheid van de dieren te bevorderen en zo ziektes te voorkomen. Tevens

  2. Met hard werken alleen is niets mis : werkdruk en stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Man, M. de; Heeten, W. den

    1996-01-01

    Als men continu onder flinke druk werkt en die druk ook als last wordt ervaren, ontstaan klachten. Omgaan met werkdruk en werkstress is te leren. De cursus 'Anders werken' biedt die mogelijkheid. Dit artikel geeft na enige statische gevens over stress een nadere definiëring van het begrip

  3. Kenmerken en recidivecijfers van ex-terbeschikkinggestelden met een zedendelict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönberger, H.J.M.; Kogel, C.H. de; Bregman, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft de omvang, achtergrondkenmerken en recidivegegevens van tbs-gestelden met een zedendelict als indexdelict. Het indexdelict is het delict waarvoor de tbs-maatregel is opgelegd. Twee populaties zedendelinquenten komen aan de orde. De eerste populatie, de 'uitstroompopulatie',

  4. Praktijkervaringen met de Venlow energy kas 2010-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Janse, J.

    2013-01-01

    NL De energiebesparing bij het nieuwe telen werd tot nu toe altijd bereikt door meer schermen te gebruiken. Een alternatief is toepassing van isolatieglas dat door de komst van coatings zoals Anti Refl ectie een vergelijkbare transmissie heeft als standaard enkel glas. Met een aangepast

  5. MET-RODOS: A comprehensive atmospheric dispersion module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Astrup, P.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive meteorological dispersion module called MET-RODOS is being developed to serve the real-time RODOS(1-3) decision support system with an integrated prediction capability for airborne radioactive spread, deposition and gamma radiation exposure on all scales. Deposition, ground level ...

  6. Vakansiehuis met swembad. Herman Koch. Vertaal deur Daniel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - tig minuten (“my verkoopspunt”), maar. “[p]asiënte verwar tyd met aandag”. Marc luistert niet echt, want een huisarts. “hoef mense nie gesond te maak nie” (12). En als ze zich niet laten afschepen, doet hij maar een rectaal touché, want “hulle.

  7. Insulineresistentie en diabetes mellitus type 2 bij kinderen met overgewicht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renders, C M; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Dekker, J M; Hirasing, Remy A

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is increasing significantly. This increase is attended by an increase in diabetes type 2 in children and adolescents. The most important risk factor for the rise of insulin resistance amongst young people is overweight. The diagnostic criteria for

  8. Kinderen met obesitas en afbuigende lengtegroeicurve: ziekte van Cushing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wezel, Esther M.; van Santen, Hanneke M.; van Furth, Wouter R.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Bisschop, Peter H.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul

    2012-01-01

    We describe two children who presented with extreme weight gain and failure to grow in height, and who were both diagnosed with Cushing's disease. Following preoperative metyrapone treatment, both children successfully underwent curative transsphenoidal surgery. While obesity is a common and

  9. MetAssimulo:Simulation of Realistic NMR Metabolic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Iorio Maria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probing the complex fusion of genetic and environmental interactions, metabolic profiling (or metabolomics/metabonomics, the study of small molecules involved in metabolic reactions, is a rapidly expanding 'omics' field. A major technique for capturing metabolite data is 1H-NMR spectroscopy and this yields highly complex profiles that require sophisticated statistical analysis methods. However, experimental data is difficult to control and expensive to obtain. Thus data simulation is a productive route to aid algorithm development. Results MetAssimulo is a MATLAB-based package that has been developed to simulate 1H-NMR spectra of complex mixtures such as metabolic profiles. Drawing data from a metabolite standard spectral database in conjunction with concentration information input by the user or constructed automatically from the Human Metabolome Database, MetAssimulo is able to create realistic metabolic profiles containing large numbers of metabolites with a range of user-defined properties. Current features include the simulation of two groups ('case' and 'control' specified by means and standard deviations of concentrations for each metabolite. The software enables addition of spectral noise with a realistic autocorrelation structure at user controllable levels. A crucial feature of the algorithm is its ability to simulate both intra- and inter-metabolite correlations, the analysis of which is fundamental to many techniques in the field. Further, MetAssimulo is able to simulate shifts in NMR peak positions that result from matrix effects such as pH differences which are often observed in metabolic NMR spectra and pose serious challenges for statistical algorithms. Conclusions No other software is currently able to simulate NMR metabolic profiles with such complexity and flexibility. This paper describes the algorithm behind MetAssimulo and demonstrates how it can be used to simulate realistic NMR metabolic profiles with

  10. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  11. Ciliary dysfunction and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, C A; Héon, E; Zhen, M

    2010-01-01

    Obesity associates with increased health risks such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. The steady rise in the obese population worldwide poses an increasing burden on health systems. Genetic factors contribute to the development of obesity, and the elucidation of their physiological functions helps to understand the cause, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment for this disorder. Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles whose dysfunctions lead to human disorders now defined as ciliopathies. Human ciliopathies present pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes that often include retinal degeneration, cystic renal anomalies and obesity. Increasing evidence implicates an intriguing involvement of cilia in lipid/energy homeostasis. Here we discuss recent studies in support of the key roles of ciliary genes in the development and pathology of obesity in various animal models. Genes affecting ciliary development and function may pose promising candidate underlying genetic factors that contribute to the development of common obesity.

  12. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107

  13. Obesity and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus......, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small...... for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age....

  14. Predisposition to Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna Julie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2012-01-01

    Obesity prevention should remain a priority, even if there is some suggestion that the epidemic may presently have reached a stable level. However, previous interventions have not been effective in preventing overweight and obesity, and at the same time studies suggest that some subgroups are more...... predisposed to future obesity. The purpose of this paper is to review interventions on obesity prevention published during the past year, and to examine if interventions targeting predisposed groups or individuals seem more efficient in preventing obesity than studies targeting general populations. Among 15...... status. Thus, we may be more successful in preventing obesity when targeting predisposed individuals, but more studies are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn....

  15. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  16. Plasma ghrelin levels and polymorphisms of ghrelin gene in Chinese obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J F; Liang, L; Zou, C C; Fu, J F

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the role of fasting plasma ghrelin levels [ln(ghrelin)] and polymorphisms of ghrelin gene in Chinese obese children. Genotyping for ghrelin polymorphism was performed in 230 obese and 100 normal weight children. Among them, plasma ghrelin levels were measured in 91 obese and 23 health subjects. (1) Bivariate correlation analysis showed the ln(ghrelin) was inversely correlated with abnormality of glucose metabolism (r = -0.240, P = 0.023). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that abnormality of glucose metabolism was an independent determinant of plasma ghrelin levels (P = 0.023). (2) There was no difference in frequency of Leu72Met polymorphisms between obese and control groups (36.09 vs. 41.00%). Ghrelin is associated with obesity in childhood, especially associated with the glucose homeostasis. Lower ghrelin levels might be a result of obesity, but not a cause of obesity. The Leu72Met polymorphism of ghrelin gene is not associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in Chinese children.

  17. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  18. [Obesity and free inquiry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutnowski, M

    2006-09-01

    The W.H.O. identifies obesity as one of the ten leading health risk factors. Obesity is a worldwide non-infectious pandemic with dramatic consequences, and its usual treatment comes generally to a failure. One may wonder if our therapeutic proposal is adequate, instead of speaking about the lack of willpower of our patients. The explanation of weight gain should not be reduced to a caloric balance. Obese people may have other physiological characteristics than lean ones. Examples are quoted.

  19. Early prevention of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  20. Obesity and Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Riobó Serván, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative impairment in insulin secretion and its possible long term complications. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, but both genetic and environmental factors, such as obesity and aging, play a key role. "Diabesity" is a new term which refers to diabetes occurring in the context of obesity. In this article, we will discuss the epidemiology and impact of diabetes and obesity and will also outline the comp...

  1. Current mapping of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Pérez Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced ...

  2. Challenges in obesity research

    OpenAIRE

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M. Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors -often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood- can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regard...

  3. Existence of a Strong Correlation of Biomarkers and miRNA in Females with Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity in a Population of West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguet-Rubio, Perrine; Klug, Rebecca L; Sharma, Dana L; Srikanthan, Krithika; Puri, Nitin; Lakhani, Vishal H; Nichols, Alexandra; O'Hanlon, Kathleen M; Abraham, Nader G; Shapiro, Joseph I; Sodhi, Komal

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome causes complications like cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). As metabolic syndrome develops, altered levels of cytokines and microRNAs (miRNA) are measurable in the circulation. We aimed to construct a panel detecting abnormal levels of cytokines and miRNAs in patients at risk for metabolic syndrome. Methods: Participants included 54 patients from a Family Medicine Clinic at Marshall University School of Medicine, in groups of: Control, Obese, and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Results: Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, leptin: adiponectin ratio, IL-6, six miRNAs (320a, 197-3p, 23-3p, 221-3p, 27a-3p, and 130a-3p), were measured. Among the three groups, leptin, and leptin: adiponectin ratio, and IL-6 levels were highest in MetS, and levels in Obese were greater than Control (p>0.05). Adiponectin levels were lower in Obese compared to Control, but lowest in MetS (p0.05). Conclusion: Our results support the clinical application of biomarkers in diagnosing early stage MetS, which will enable attenuation of disease progression before onset of irreversible complications. Since West Virginians are high-risk for developing MetS, our biomarker panel could reduce the disease burden on our population.

  4. Expression of p53/HGF/c-met/STAT3 signal in fetuses with neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Maria; D'Armiento, Maria; Lavra, Luca; Ulivieri, Alessandra; Dominici, Roberto; Vitarelli, Enrica; Grosso, Maddalena; Vecchione, Raffaella; Barresi, Gaetano; Sciacchitano, Salvatore

    2007-02-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are morphogenetic alterations due to a defective closure of neural tube. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met system plays a role in morphogenesis of nervous system, lung, and kidney. HGF/c-met morphogenetic effects are mediated by signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)3 and both HGF and c-met genes are regulated from p53. The aim of our study was to analyze mRNA and protein expressions of p53, HGF, c-met, and STAT3 in fetuses with NTD. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we analyzed neural tissues from four NTD fetuses and the corresponding non-malformed lungs, kidneys and placentas. We found a reduced mRNA expression of HGF/c-met/STAT3 pathway, in the malformed nervous systems and placentas. The reduced expression of this pathway correlated with the absence of p53 in all these samples. On the contrary, detectable expression levels of p53, HGF, c-met, and STAT3 were observed in non-malformed lungs and kidneys obtained from the same fetuses. Comparable results were obtained by immunohistochemistry, with the exception of p53, which was undetected in all fetal tissues. In conclusion, in NTD fetuses, both the defective neural tube tissue and the placenta have a reduction in all components of the p53/HGF/c-met/STAT3 cascade. This raises the possibility of using the suppression of these genes for early diagnosis of NTD especially on chorionic villus sampling.

  5. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: A surgeon’s perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, a major shift in the clinical risk factors in the population undergoing a cardiac surgery has been observed. In the general population, an increasing prevalence of obesity has largely contributed to the development of cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a heterogeneous condition in which body fat distribution largely determines metabolic perturbations. Consequently, individuals characterized by increased abdominal fat deposition and the so-called metabolic syndrome (Met...

  6. Development of a self-assessment score for metabolic syndrome risk in non-obese Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Youjin; Kim, Youngyo; Park, Taeyoung

    2017-03-01

    There is a need for simple risk scores that identify individuals at high risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study was performed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for MetS risk in non-obese Korean adults. Data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2007-2009 were used to develop a MetS risk score. We included a total of 5,508 non-obese participants aged 19-64 years who were free of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, stroke, angina, or cancer. Multivariable logistic regression model coefficients were used to assign each variable category a score. The validity of the score was assessed in an independent population survey performed in 2010 and 2011, KNHANES V (n=3,892). Age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, dairy consumption, dietary habit of eating less salty and food insecurity were selected as categorical variables. The MetS risk score value varied from 0 to 13, and a cut-point MetS risk score of >=7 was selected based on the highest Youden index. The cut-point provided a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 61%, positive predictive value of 14%, and negative predictive value of 98%, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78. Consistent results were obtained in the validation data sets. This simple risk score may be used to identify individuals at high risk for MetS without laboratory tests among non-obese Korean adults. Further studies are needed to verify the usefulness and feasibility of this score in various settings.

  7. The metabolic syndrome and its components in 178 patients treated for craniopharyngioma after 16 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; Olsson, Daniel S; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Hammarstrand, Casper; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2018-01-01

    Patients with craniopharyngioma are at an increased risk for cardio- and cerebrovascular mortality. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important cardiometabolic risk factor, but barely studied in patients with craniopharyngioma. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for the MetS and its components in patients with craniopharyngioma. Cross-sectional study with retrospective data. We studied the prevalence of and risk factors for the MetS and its components in 110 Dutch (median age 47 years, range 18-92) and 68 Swedish (median age 50 years, range 20-81) patients with craniopharyngioma with ≥3 years of follow-up (90 females (51%); 83 patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma (47%); median follow-up after craniopharyngioma diagnosis 16 years (range 3-62)). In Dutch patients aged 30-70 years and Swedish patients aged 45-69 years, we examined the prevalence of the MetS and its components relative to the general population. Sixty-nine (46%) of 149 patients with complete data demonstrated the MetS. Prevalence of the MetS was significantly higher in patients with craniopharyngioma compared with the general population (40% vs 26% ( P  < 0.05) for Dutch patients; 52% vs 15% ( P  < 0.05) for Swedish patients). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified visual impairment as a borderline significant predictor of the MetS (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.95-6.81; P  = 0.06) after adjustment for glucocorticoid replacement therapy and follow-up duration. Age, female sex, tumor location, radiological hypothalamic damage, 90 Yttrium brachytherapy, glucocorticoid replacement therapy and follow-up duration significantly predicted components of the MetS. Patients with craniopharyngioma are at an increased risk for the MetS, especially patients with visual impairment. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Association between Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Chinese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, X; Song, Zh; Zhao, Ch; Jiang, Y

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young Chinese population and assess the association between HOMA-IR and different components of MetS in young Chinese men. Overall 5576 young Chinese subjects (age range [19-44 yr], 3636 men) were enrolled in, who visited our Health Care Center for a related health checkup from March to December 2008. The international diabetes federation (IDF) definition for MetS was used. The SPSS statistical package, version 11.5 was used for the statistical analysis. The prevalence of MetS was 21.81% in young men and 5.62% in young women. According to suffering from different numbers of MetS components, the male subjects were divided into four groups. Numbers of MetS components were more and HOMA-IR values were significantly higher. In this male population, the quartile of HOMA-IR was higher, values of triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FBG), systolic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and waist circumference (WC) were all significantly higher, as well as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) value was significantly lower (P= 0.000). In Spearman's correlation analysis, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with TG, FBG, SBP, DBP and WC, and negatively correlated with HDL-C (r= 0.460, 0.464, 0.362, 0.346, 0.586, -0.357, respectively, all P value= 0.000). The prevalence of MetS in these young Chinese men was obviously high. Insulin resistance played an important role in occurrence and development of MetS. Waist circumference was the best correlation with HOMA-IR among all components of MetS.

  9. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and resources from NIDDK on obesity, weight control, physical activity, and related topics ... translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to ...

  10. DBS for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Franco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review the rationale for selecting different brain targets, surgical results and future perspectives for the use of DBS in medically refractory obesity.

  11. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. DGAT inhibitors for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Daisuke; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in adipocytes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final reaction of triacylgycerol synthesis. Two isozymes of DGAT, DGAT1 and DGAT2, have been reported. Increased DGAT2 activity has a role in steatosis, while DGAT1 plays a role in very (V)LDL synthesis; increased plasma VLDL concentrations may promote obesity and thus DGAT1 is considered a potential therapeutic target of inhibition for obesity control. Several DGAT inhibitors of natural and synthetic origin have been reported, and their future prospect as anti-obesity drugs is discussed in this review.

  13. Obesity and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus...... for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age....

  14. Controversies in Obesity Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karandish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely philosophical questions such as “Is obesity a disease?” or “Is it correct to treat obesity?” These questions are based on a few theories and real data that explain obesity as a biological adaptation and also the final results of weight loss programs. Many people attempt to lose weight by diet therapy, physical activity and lifestyle modifications. Importantly, weight loss strategies in the long term are ineffective and may have unintended consequences including decreasing energy expenditure, complicated appetite control, eating disorders, reducing self-esteem, increasing the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote metabolic complications, and consequently, higher risk of repeated cycles of weight loss and weight regain. In this review, major paradoxes and controversies on obesity including classic obesity paradox, pre-obesity; fat-but-fit theory, and healthy obesity are explained. In addition, the relevant strategies like “Health at Every Size” that emphasize on promotion of global health behaviors rather than weight loss programs are explained.

  15. Behavioral treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táki Athanássios Cordas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass, bigger are thepsychological problems. This abandonment contributes to thebig risk of unchain psychiatric pictures as depression, anxyetdisturbs, drugs and alcoholic excessive consumption andalimentary disturbs. Obeses of the general population do notpresent more psychological or psychiatric symptoms than theclinical population of obeses (obeses under treatment, presentmore clinical and psychiatric problems, mainly compulsoryalimentary standards. Some studies indicate that there is alinear relation between the ICM and the highest frequency ofalimentary compulsory behavior or bulimic episode. Thepsychiatric patients negative body perception added to theirother negative perceptions about their performance in searchingsocial interaction increase the trend to the isolation. Thepsychiatric picture presence in the bariatric surgery preoperatoryin a III degree overweight pacient has not to be facedas absolute surgery counter indication since such procedurecan be the difference between giving a better life quality orwaiting for a potentially lethal complication. We cannot forgetthat the obesity itself, due to the common associatedcomorbidyties, loads a great lethality potential. The surgerycounter-indication could be relative, it depending on how muchthe psychiatric disturbs interfere on the treatment andconditioned to the rigorous psychiatric control in the anteriorand post surgical period.

  16. [Obesity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  17. Social influence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ross A

    2010-10-01

    To review a selection of research published in the last 12 months on the role of social influence in the obesity epidemic. Recent papers add evidence to previous work linking social network structures and obesity. Social norms, both eating norms and body image norms, are identified as one major source of social influence through networks. Social capital and social stress are additional types of social influence. There is increasing evidence that social influence and social network structures are significant factors in obesity. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms of action and dynamics of social influence, and its link with other factors involved in the obesity epidemic, is an important goal for further research.

  18. 75 FR 1007 - MetLife, Inc. and MetLife Capital Trust V; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... the definition of investment company by section 3(b) of the Act or by the rules or regulations under... Act for an exclusion from the definition of an investment company. To the extent MetLife or another... definition of a ``parent company'' in rule 3a-5(b)(2)(i) solely because it is an ``insurance company'' or...

  19. No association of the Arg51Gln and Leu72Met polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kehua; Wang, Leiguang; Zhao, Yueran; Shi, Yuhua; Wang, Laicheng; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2009-02-01

    Ghrelin plays a role in regulating glucose metabolism and energy balance. Polymorphisms in preproghrelin and ghrelin gene could be responsible for obesity, insulin resistance and low ghrelin levels observed in some individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ghrelin gene on the clinical, the hormonal and metabolic features in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a Chinese population. A large sample of Chinese PCOS (n = 271) women and a control group (n = 296) of healthy women matched for age were studied. Hormone and metabolic profiles were measured and blood samples were collected for genotype and allelic frequency analysis. Non-synonymous SNPs in the coding region (exon 2) of the preproghrelin gene (Arg51Gln (346 G>A) and Leu72Met (408 C>A) were studied using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The polymorphism Arg51Gln was not found in the cohorts studied. The distribution of Leu72Met was similar in PCOS group and in healthy controls. There was no significant difference in age, BMI, waist-hip-ratio and levels of FSH, LH, estradiol, testosterone and prolactin between PCOS patients with different genotypes, and the level of plasma glucose and insulin was also similar. No association was found between Leu72Met and Arg51Gln polymorphisms in the ghrelin gene and PCOS in Chinese population.

  20. Activating mutation in MET oncogene in familial colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schildkraut Joellen M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, the lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC is 5%, and it is the second leading cause of death from cancer. The presence of family history is a well established risk factor with 25-35% of CRCs attributable to inherited and/or familial factors. The highly penetrant inherited colon cancer syndromes account for approximately 5%, leaving greater than 20% without clear genetic definition. Familial colorectal cancer has been linked to chromosome 7q31 by multiple affected relative pair studies. The MET proto-oncogene which resides in this chromosomal region is considered a candidate for genetic susceptibility. Methods MET exons were amplified by PCR from germline DNA of 148 affected sibling pairs with colorectal cancer. Amplicons with altered sequence were detected with high-resolution melt-curve analysis using a LightScanner (Idaho Technologies. Samples demonstrating alternative melt curves were sequenced. A TaqMan assay for the specific c.2975C >T change was used to confirm this mutation in a cohort of 299 colorectal cancer cases and to look for allelic amplification in tumors. Results Here we report a germline non-synonymous change in the MET proto-oncogene at amino acid position T992I (also reported as MET p.T1010I in 5.2% of a cohort of sibling pairs affected with CRC. This genetic variant was then confirmed in a second cohort of individuals diagnosed with CRC and having a first degree relative with CRC at prevalence of 4.1%. This mutation has been reported in cancer cells of multiple origins, including 2.5% of colon cancers, and in Conclusions Although the MET p.T992I genetic mutation is commonly found in somatic colorectal cancer tissues, this is the first report also implicating this MET genetic mutation as a germline inherited risk factor for familial colorectal cancer. Future studies on the cancer risks associated with this mutation and the prevalence in different at-risk populations will

  1. The HadGEM2 family of Met Office Unified Model climate configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The HadGEM2 Development Team: G. M. Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the HadGEM2 family of climate configurations of the Met Office Unified Model, MetUM. The concept of a model "family" comprises a range of specific model configurations incorporating different levels of complexity but with a common physical framework. The HadGEM2 family of configurations includes atmosphere and ocean components, with and without a vertical extension to include a well-resolved stratosphere, and an Earth-System (ES component which includes dynamic vegetation, ocean biology and atmospheric chemistry. The HadGEM2 physical model includes improvements designed to address specific systematic errors encountered in the previous climate configuration, HadGEM1, namely Northern Hemisphere continental temperature biases and tropical sea surface temperature biases and poor variability. Targeting these biases was crucial in order that the ES configuration could represent important biogeochemical climate feedbacks. Detailed descriptions and evaluations of particular HadGEM2 family members are included in a number of other publications, and the discussion here is limited to a summary of the overall performance using a set of model metrics which compare the way in which the various configurations simulate present-day climate and its variability.

  2. Epigenetics and human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, S J; Molloy, P L; Varinli, H; Morrison, J L; Muhlhausler, B S

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological advances in epigenome profiling have led to an increasing number of studies investigating the role of the epigenome in obesity. There is also evidence that environmental exposures during early life can induce persistent alterations in the epigenome, which may lead to an increased risk of obesity later in life. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the association between obesity and either global, site-specific or genome-wide methylation of DNA. Studies on the impact of pre- and postnatal interventions on methylation and obesity are also reviewed. We discuss outstanding questions, and introduce EpiSCOPE, a multidisciplinary research program aimed at increasing the understanding of epigenetic changes in emergence of obesity. An electronic search for relevant articles, published between September 2008 and September 2013 was performed. From the 319 articles identified, 46 studies were included and reviewed. The studies provided no consistent evidence for a relationship between global methylation and obesity. The studies did identify multiple obesity-associated differentially methylated sites, mainly in blood cells. Extensive, but small, alterations in methylation at specific sites were observed in weight loss intervention studies, and several associations between methylation marks at birth and later life obesity were found. Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Eventually this may help in predicting an individual's obesity risk at a young age and opens possibilities for introducing targeted prevention strategies. It has also become clear that several epigenetic marks are modifiable, by changing the exposure in utero, but also by lifestyle changes in adult life, which implies that there is the potential for interventions to be introduced in postnatal life to modify

  3. Genetics of pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, Melania; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2012-07-01

    Onset of obesity has been anticipated at earlier ages, and prevalence has dramatically increased worldwide over the past decades. Epidemic obesity is mainly attributable to modern lifestyle, but family studies prove the significant role of genes in the individual's predisposition to obesity. Advances in genotyping technologies have raised great hope and expectations that genetic testing will pave the way to personalized medicine and that complex traits such as obesity will be prevented even before birth. In the presence of the pressing offer of direct-to-consumer genetic testing services from private companies to estimate the individual's risk for complex phenotypes including obesity, the present review offers pediatricians an update of the state of the art on genomics obesity in childhood. Discrepancies with respect to genomics of adult obesity are discussed. After an appraisal of findings from genome-wide association studies in pediatric populations, the rare variant-common disease hypothesis, the theoretical soil for next-generation sequencing techniques, is discussed as opposite to the common disease-common variant hypothesis. Next-generation sequencing techniques are expected to fill the gap of "missing heritability" of obesity, identifying rare variants associated with the trait and clarifying the role of epigenetics in its heritability. Pediatric obesity emerges as a complex phenotype, modulated by unique gene-environment interactions that occur in periods of life and are "permissive" for the programming of adult obesity. With the advent of next-generation sequencing techniques and advances in the field of exposomics, sensitive and specific tools to predict the obesity risk as early as possible are the challenge for the next decade.

  4. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2016-05-27

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past few decades. In 2013, the prevalence of obesity exceeded the 50% of the adult population in some countries from Oceania, North Africa, and Middle East. Lower but still alarmingly high prevalence was observed in North America (≈30%) and in Western Europe (≈20%). These figures are of serious concern because of the strong link between obesity and disease. In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the relationship of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD), discussing how both the degree and the duration of obesity affect CVD. Although in the general population, obesity and, especially, severe obesity are consistently and strongly related with higher risk of CVD incidence and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach should not be used with obesity. There are relevant factors largely affecting the CVD prognosis of obese individuals. In this context, we thoroughly discuss important concepts such as the fat-but-fit paradigm, the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype and the obesity paradox in patients with CVD. About the MHO phenotype and its CVD prognosis, available data have provided mixed findings, what could be partially because of the adjustment or not for key confounders such as cardiorespiratory fitness, and to the lack of consensus on the MHO definition. In the present review, we propose a scientifically based harmonized definition of MHO, which will hopefully contribute to more comparable data in the future and a better understanding on the MHO subgroup and its CVD prognosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. (1)H-MRS measured ectopic fat in liver and muscle is associated with the metabolic syndrome in Danish girls but not in boys with overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, A; Fonvig, Cilius E; Chabanova, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complication to overweight and obesity, which can be observed already in childhood. Ectopic lipid accumulation in muscle and liver has been shown to associate with the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Thus, the interaction between...

  6. Association of insulin resistance with obesity in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.A.; Bashir, S.; Shabbir, I.; Sherwani, M.K.; Aasim, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance is the primary metabolic disorder associated with obesity. Little is known about its role as a determinant of the metabolic syndrome in obese children. Objectives: To assess the association of insulin resistance with metabolic syndrome in obese and non obese children. Study type and settings: Cross sectional analytical study conducted among children of ten Municipal Corporation high schools of Data Ganj Buksh Town Lahore. Subjects and Methods: A total of 46 obese and 49 non obese children with consent were recruited for the study. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, high density lipoprotein in cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesterol, non HDL-cholesterol LDL-cholesterol were measured using standard methods. Data were analyzed by using statistical software SPSS-Version 15. Results: A total of 95 children 49 obese and 46 non obese were recruited for the study. A significant association of serum triglyceride(p<0.001), high density lipoprotein cholesterol(p<0.001), fasting blood glucose(p<0.001), and insulin levels (p<0.001) , was seen between the two groups. For each component of metabolic syndrome, when insulin resistance increased so did odds ratios for cardio metabolic risk factors. Conclusions: Insulin resistance was seen in 34.7% children. Metabolic syndrome was found in 31.6% children reflecting that obese children are at high risk for metabolic syndrome and have low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides levels. (author)

  7. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745

  8. Remote Sensing of Volcanic ASH at the Met Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marenco F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 has triggered the rapid development of volcanic ash remote sensing activities at the Met Office. Volcanic ash qualitative and quantitative mapping have been achieved using lidar on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM research aircraft, and using improved satellite retrieval algorithms. After the eruption, a new aircraft facility, the Met Office Civil Contingencies Aircraft (MOCCA, has been set up to enable a rapid response, and a network of ground-based remote sensing sites with lidars and sunphotometers is currently being developed. Thanks to these efforts, the United Kingdom (UK will be much better equipped to deal with such a crisis, should it happen in the future.

  9. Operational Use of OGC Web Services at the Met Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    The Met Office has adopted the Service-Orientated Architecture paradigm to deliver services to a range of customers through Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). The approach uses standard Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web services to provide information to web-based applications through a range of generic data services. "Invent", the Met Office beta site, is used to showcase Met Office future plans for presenting web-based weather forecasts, product and information to the public. This currently hosts a freely accessible Weather Map Viewer, written in JavaScript, which accesses a Web Map Service (WMS), to deliver innovative web-based visualizations of weather and its potential impacts to the public. The intention is to engage the public in the development of new web-based services that more accurately meet their needs. As the service is intended for public use within the UK, it has been designed to support a user base of 5 million, the analysed level of UK web traffic reaching the Met Office's public weather information site. The required scalability has been realised through the use of multi-tier tile caching: - WMS requests are made for 256x256 tiles for fixed areas and zoom levels; - a Tile Cache, developed in house, efficiently serves tiles on demand, managing WMS request for the new tiles; - Edge Servers, externally hosted by Akamai, provide a highly scalable (UK-centric) service for pre-cached tiles, passing new requests to the Tile Cache; - the Invent Weather Map Viewer uses the Google Maps API to request tiles from Edge Servers. (We would expect to make use of the Web Map Tiling Service, when it becomes an OGC standard.) The Met Office delivers specialist commercial products to market sectors such as transport, utilities and defence, which exploit a Web Feature Service (WFS) for data relating forecasts and observations to specific geographic features, and a Web Coverage Service (WCS) for sub-selections of gridded data. These are locally rendered as maps or

  10. Estimation of METs by Accelerometers while Walking and Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kajiro; Yoneyama, Mitsuru

    It is quite important for Japan to maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are surmised using 3D accelerometer while the subjects are walking and running. As the result, the exercise intensities were surmised to be within the root mean square error of 1.2[METs] for walking and 3.2[METs] for running respectively.

  11. Testing ATLAS Z+MET excess with LHC run 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Terada, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    The ATLAS collaboration reported a 3σ excess in the search of events containing on-Z dilepton, jets, and large missing momentum (MET) in the 8 TeV LHC run. Motivated by this excess, many models of new physics have been proposed. Recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported new results for similar Z+MET channels in the 13 TeV run. In this paper, we comprehensively discuss the consistency between the proposed models and the LHC results of Run 1 and Run 2. We find that in models with heavy gluino production, there is generically some tension between the 8 TeV and 13 TeV results. On the other hand, models with light squark production provide relatively better fitting to both results.

  12. Cetuximab-Induced MET Activation Acts as a Novel Resistance Mechanism in Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant MET expression and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF signaling are implicated in promoting resistance to targeted agents; however, the induced MET activation by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors mediating resistance to targeted therapy remains elusive. In this study, we identified that cetuximab-induced MET activation contributed to cetuximab resistance in Caco-2 colon cancer cells. MET inhibition or knockdown sensitized Caco-2 cells to cetuximab-mediated growth inhibition. Additionally, SRC activation promoted cetuximab resistance by interacting with MET. Pretreatment with SRC inhibitors abolished cetuximab-mediated MET activation and rendered Caco-2 cells sensitive to cetuximab. Notably, cetuximab induced MET/SRC/EGFR complex formation. MET inhibitor or SRC inhibitor suppressed phosphorylation of MET and SRC in the complex, and MET inhibitor singly led to disruption of complex formation. These results implicate alternative targeting of MET or SRC as rational strategies for reversing cetuximab resistance in colon cancer.

  13. MetWAMer: eukaryotic translation initiation site prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendel Volker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translation initiation site (TIS identification is an important aspect of the gene annotation process, requisite for the accurate delineation of protein sequences from transcript data. We have developed the MetWAMer package for TIS prediction in eukaryotic open reading frames of non-viral origin. MetWAMer can be used as a stand-alone, third-party tool for post-processing gene structure annotations generated by external computational programs and/or pipelines, or directly integrated into gene structure prediction software implementations. Results MetWAMer currently implements five distinct methods for TIS prediction, the most accurate of which is a routine that combines weighted, signal-based translation initiation site scores and the contrast in coding potential of sequences flanking TISs using a perceptron. Also, our program implements clustering capabilities through use of the k-medoids algorithm, thereby enabling cluster-specific TIS parameter utilization. In practice, our static weight array matrix-based indexing method for parameter set lookup can be used with good results in data sets exhibiting moderate levels of 5'-complete coverage. Conclusion We demonstrate that improvements in statistically-based models for TIS prediction can be achieved by taking the class of each potential start-methionine into account pending certain testing conditions, and that our perceptron-based model is suitable for the TIS identification task. MetWAMer represents a well-documented, extensible, and freely available software system that can be readily re-trained for differing target applications and/or extended with existing and novel TIS prediction methods, to support further research efforts in this area.

  14. El sexo de las metáforas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Sedeño, Eulalia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that states metaphors are structurally determinant in our social relations, routines, and experience has been accepted broadly in the last decades. Moreover, metaphors are to be found in many different levels of scientific practices, and have a diverse set of functions in science. Therefore, they impregnate all scientific enterprise. In this work we examine selected gender metaphors used in biology. We show metaphors are effective precisely because its effectiveness depends on shared social conventions, kinship relations and, authority that, by convention, is given to those that use them.

    La tesis de que las metáforas estructuran gran parte de nuestras relaciones sociales y nuestra experiencia cotidiana ha sido ampliamente aceptada en las últimas décadas. En la ciencia, además, aparecen en muchos niveles y desempeñan diversas funciones, impregnando todo el quehacer científico. En este trabajo se examinan algunas metáforas de género usadas en biología. Se muestra que las metáforas eficaces lo son porque su efectividad depende de las convenciones sociales compartidas, los parecidos de familia ya vigentes y de la autoridad que, por convención, se otorga a quienes las usan.

  15. The EGFR/ErbB3 Pathway Acts as a Compensatory Survival Mechanism upon c-Met Inhibition in Human c-Met+ Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven N Steinway

    Full Text Available c-Met, a high-affinity receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, plays a critical role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients with activated HGF/c-Met signaling have a significantly worse prognosis. Targeted therapies using c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for HCC, although receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition in other cancers has demonstrated early success. Unfortunately, therapeutic effect is frequently not durable due to acquired resistance.We utilized the human MHCC97-H c-Met positive (c-Met+ HCC cell line to explore the compensatory survival mechanisms that are acquired after c-Met inhibition. MHCC97-H cells with stable c-Met knockdown (MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells were generated using a c-Met shRNA vector with puromycin selection and stably transfected scrambled shRNA as a control. Gene expression profiling was conducted, and protein expression was analyzed to characterize MHCC97-H cells after blockade of the c-Met oncogene. A high-throughput siRNA screen was performed to find putative compensatory survival proteins, which could drive HCC growth in the absence of c-Met. Findings from this screen were validated through subsequent analyses.We have previously demonstrated that treatment of MHCC97-H cells with a c-Met inhibitor, PHA665752, results in stasis of tumor growth in vivo. MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells demonstrate slower growth kinetics, similar to c-Met inhibitor treated tumors. Using gene expression profiling and siRNA screening against 873 kinases and phosphatases, we identified ErbB3 and TGF-α as compensatory survival factors that are upregulated after c-Met inhibition. Suppressing these factors in c-Met KD MHCC97-H cells suppresses tumor growth in vitro. In addition, we found that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway serves as a negative feedback signal responsible for the ErbB3 upregulation after c-Met inhibition. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate that

  16. Epidemiology of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in many parts of the world. In White populations living in the west and north of Europe, Australia, and the United States, the prevalence of obesity is similarly high in men and women. In countries with relatively low gross national

  17. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Childhood Obesity PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.

  19. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  20. Obesity and kidney protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. The concept of the "Metabolic Syndrome" helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity.

  1. Obesity Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ianosi Edith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking. Obesity has a plurifactorial pathogenesis. The central perturbation consists in the imbalance between calories intake and calories consumption (by inappropriate diet and sedentary lifestyle. Identification of all the ethiological factors is important for treatment and prophylaxis. Weight loss benefits are multiple and important: improvement in glicemic control and in plasma lipid levels, blood presure control, obstructiv sleep apneea reduction, improvement in management of daily activities and profesional performances, increase quality of life, reduction in mortality. Overweight or obese patient will complete a diagnostic and a treatment program. Treatment of obesity claims a targeted multidimensional therapy: weight and lifestyle management, diet, sustained physical activity in daily life, exercise, decrease life stressors, smoking cessation, drug therapy, bariatric surgery psichological, familial and social suport. Weight loss program must be carefully planned, adapted to the patient’s abilities and comorbidities and supervised by a nutritionist and a physiotherapist.

  2. The Obesity Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-18

    Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic.  Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  3. Epigenetic regulation in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Elaine M; Gibney, Eileen R

    2013-07-01

    Research suggests that 65% of variation in obesity is genetic. However, much of the known genetic associations have little known function and their effect size small, thus the gene-environment interaction, including epigenetic influences on gene expression, is suggested to be an important factor in the susceptibilty to obesity. This review will explore the potential of epigenetic markers to influence expression of genes associated with obesity. Epigenetic changes in utero are known to have direct implications on the phenotype of the offspring. More recently work has focused on how such epigenetic changes continue to regulate risk of obesity from infancy through to adulthood. Work has shown that, for example, hypomethylation of the MC4 gene causes an increase in expression, and has a direct impact on appetite and intake, and thus influences risk of obesity. Similar influences are also seen in other aspects of obesity including inflammation and adiposity. Maternal diet during foetal development has many epigenetic implications, which affect the offspring's risk factors for obesity during childhood and adulthood, and even in subsequent generations. Genes associated with risk of obesity, are susceptible to epigenetic mutations, which have subsequent effects on disease mechanisms, such as appetite and impaired glucose and insulin tolerance.

  4. [Obesity and heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svačina, Štěpán

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular complications of obesity are traditionally considered an important complication of obesity. Obesity itself is probably not direct cause of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease. This may occur indirectly in metabolic complications of obesity, especially diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, thrombogenicity potential of obesity contributes to embolism and atherosclerosis development. In cardiology is well-known a phenomenon of obesity paradox when obese patients have better prognosis than thin. This is the case of heart failure and some other cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a new concept has emerged of myokines - hormones from muscle tissue that have extensive protective effects on organism and probably on heart. Whether heart is a source of myokines is uncertain. However, undoubted importance has epicardial and pericardial fatty tissue. The epicardial fatty tissue has mainly protective effects on myocardium. This fatty tissue may produce factors of inflammation affecting the myocardium. Relationship between amount of epicardial fatty tissue and coronary heart disease is rather pathogenic. Currently, it is certain that obesity brings more metabolic and cancer complications than cardiovascular and accurate contribution to pathogenic or protective character of fatty tissue in cardiology requires further research. Nevertheless, the conclusion is that adipose tissue of organism and around the heart may be in some circumstances beneficial.

  5. Obesity: A Bibliographic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

  6. Severe childhood obesity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, O.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, obesity represents a major public health challenge. Obesity is at any age a concern but in pediatric populations it is particularly alarming because of its immediate biomedical and psychosocial consequences and the expectation that it will lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality and

  7. [Obesity and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soo-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Obesity worldwide is constantly increasing. Obesity acts as an independent significant risk factor for malignant tumors of various organs including colorectal cancer. Visceral adipose tissue is physiologically more important than subcutaneous adipose tissue. The relative risk of colorectal cancer of obese patients is about 1.5 times higher than the normal-weight individuals, and obesity is also associated with premalignant colorectal adenoma. The colorectal cancer incidence of obese patients has gender-specific and site-specific characteristics that it is higher in men than women and in the colon than rectum. Obesity acts as a risk factor of colorectal carcinogenesis by several mechanisms. Isulin, insulin-like growth factor, leptin, adiponectin, microbiome, and cytokines of chronic inflammation etc. have been understood as its potential mechanisms. In addition, obesity in patients with colorectal cancer negatively affects the disease progression and response of chemotherapy. Although the evidence is not clear yet, there are some reports that weight loss as well as life-modification such as dietary change and physical activity can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. It is very important knowledge in the point that obesity is a potentially modifiable risk factor that can alter the incidence and outcome of the colorectal cancer.

  8. Carbohydrate intake and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Seidell, J C

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related

  9. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  10. OPEN about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, L; Troiano, R P; Midthune, D

    2007-01-01

    energy and protein recovery biomarkers as reference measures. POPULATION AND METHODS: This report employs data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study. Analyses are based on stratified samples of 211 (57 obese) men and 179 (50 obese) women who completed 24-h recalls (24HR), food...

  11. PPARs, Obesity, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinke Stienstra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders is rising rapidly, increasing the burden on our healthcare system. Obesity is often accompanied by excess fat storage in tissues other than adipose tissue, including liver and skeletal muscle, which may lead to local insulin resistance and may stimulate inflammation, as in steatohepatitis. In addition, obesity changes the morphology and composition of adipose tissue, leading to changes in protein production and secretion. Some of these secreted proteins, including several proinflammatory mediators, may be produced by macrophages resident in the adipose tissue. The changes in inflammatory status of adipose tissue and liver with obesity feed a growing recognition that obesity represents a state of chronic low-level inflammation. Various molecular mechanisms have been implicated in obesity-induced inflammation, some of which are modulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism, and overall energy homeostasis. Importantly, PPARs also modulate the inflammatory response, which makes them an interesting therapeutic target to mitigate obesity-induced inflammation and its consequences. This review will address the role of PPARs in obesity-induced inflammation specifically in adipose tissue, liver, and the vascular wall.

  12. PPARs, Obesity, and Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, R.; Duval, C.N.C.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders is rising rapidly, increasing the burden on our healthcare system. Obesity is often accompanied by excess fat storage in tissues other than adipose tissue, including liver and skeletal muscle, which may lead to local insulin

  13. Obesity and Dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Remco; Monajemi, Houshang; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    The alarming and still increasing prevalence of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk raises much concern. The increase in cardiovascular risk depends to a significant extent on the changes in lipid profiles as observed in obesity These changes are decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

  14. Impact of obesity on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Juan J; Pérez Castrillón, José L; de Luis Román, Daniel A

    2016-12-01

    High weight is a protective factor against osteoporosis and risk of fracture. In obesity, however, where overweight is associated to excess fat, this relationship does not appear to be so clear, excess weight has sometimes been associated to decreased bone mass. Obesity interferes with bone metabolism through mechanical, hormonal, and inflammatory factors. These factors are closely related to weight, body composition, and dietary patterns of these patients. The net beneficial or harmful effect on bone mass or risk of fracture of the different components of this condition is not well known. We need to recognize patients at a greater risk of bone disease related to obesity to start an adequate intervention. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Physical environmental correlates of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

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    Dunton, G F; Kaplan, J; Wolch, J; Jerrett, M; Reynolds, K D

    2009-07-01

    Increasing rates of childhood obesity in the USA and other Western countries are a cause for serious public health concern. Neighborhood and community environments are thought to play a contributing role in the development of obesity among youth, but it is not well understood which types of physical environmental characteristics have the most potential to influence obesity outcomes. This paper reports the results of a systematic review of quantitative research examining built and biophysical environmental variables associated with obesity in children and adolescents through physical activity. Literature searches in PubMed, PsychInfo and Geobase were conducted. Fifteen quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional and published after 2005. Overall, few consistent findings emerged. For children, associations between physical environmental variables and obesity differed by gender, age, socioeconomic status, population density and whether reports were made by the parent or child. Access to equipment and facilities, neighborhood pattern (e.g. rural, exurban, suburban) and urban sprawl were associated with obesity outcomes in adolescents. For most environmental variables considered, strong empirical evidence is not yet available. Conceptual gaps, methodological limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  16. Obesity and suicide risk in adults--a systematic review.

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    Klinitzke, G; Steinig, J; Blüher, M; Kersting, A; Wagner, B

    2013-03-05

    There is evidence from prospective studies that obesity is positively associated with depression. In contradiction to this, however, a number of studies have revealed that the number of completed suicides decreases with increasing BMI. The objective of this systematic review is to elucidate this ambiguous research field, providing an overview of literature examining the relationship between obesity and risk of suicide in adults (>18 years). Literature searches of the databases PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, and Web of Sciences were conducted. Fifteen studies concerning completed suicide, suicide attempts and suicidal ideation met the inclusion criteria (seven prospective and eight cross-sectional studies). Eight studies evaluating completed suicide reported an inverse relationship between BMI and suicide, meaning that obese people are less likely to commit suicide than people of low or normal weight, whereas one study showed no association and one showed a positive association. Studies about suicide attempts and ideation, on the other hand, found results that differed depending on gender. While obese woman reported more suicide attempts and suicidal ideation, obese men reported less attempts and thoughts. The role of confounding variables such as age or psychiatric illness on suicide risk are discussed and remaining research questions are outlined, especially regarding the role of different underlying biological pathways and consideration of different classes of obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Health Behaviours during Pregnancy in Women with Very Severe Obesity

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    Nor A. Mohd-Shukri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The health behaviours of pregnant women with very severe obesity are not known, though these women are at high risk of pregnancy complications. We carried out a prospective case-control study including 148 very severely obese (BMI >40 kg/m2 and 93 lean (BMI <25 kg/m2 pregnant women. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and folic acid consumption were assessed by questionnaire in early and late (16 and 28 weeks gestation pregnancy. Circulating levels of iron, vitamin B12 and folate and other essential trace elements and minerals were measured in a subset at each time point. The findings biochemically confirmed that very severely obese women consumed diets that were energy-rich but poor in essential micronutrients. A third of all women met physical activity recommendations for pregnancy. A third of very severely obese women and two thirds of lean women took folic acid supplements prior to pregnancy. Very severely obese women were more likely to smoke but less likely to drink alcohol than lean women (all p < 0.05. Women with very severe obesity have low self-reported intakes and circulating levels of essential micronutrients in pregnancy and few follow current recommendations for pregnancy nutrition and lifestyle. These high-risk women represent a group to target for education about health behaviours prior to and during pregnancy.

  18. Childhood fitness reduces the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity.

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    Schmidt, M D; Magnussen, C G; Rees, E; Dwyer, T; Venn, A J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether childhood cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates or modifies the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity. The study consisted of a 20-year follow-up of 1792 adults who participated in the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey when they were 7-15 years of age. Baseline measures included a 1.6-km run to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference to assess abdominal adiposity. At follow-up, participants attended study clinics where indicators of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids) were measured and cardiorespiratory fitness was reassessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were significant independent predictors of MetS in early adulthood. The mutually adjusted relative risk of adult MetS was 3.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-4.89) for children in the highest (vs lowest) third of waist circumference and 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.96) for children with high (vs low) cardiorespiratory fitness. No significant interaction between waist circumference and fitness was observed, with higher levels of childhood fitness associated with lower risks of adult MetS among those with either low or high childhood waist circumference values. Participants who had both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were 8.5 times more likely to have MetS in adulthood than those who had low waist circumference and high cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood. Regardless of childhood obesity status, participants with low childhood fitness who increased their relative fitness by adulthood had a substantially lower prevalence of MetS than those who remained low fit. Childhood waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are both strongly associated with cardiometabolic health in later life. Higher levels of

  19. The cumulative impact of physical activity, sleep duration, and television time on adolescent obesity: 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R; Lee, Joey A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2015-03-01

    Physical activity (PA), television time (TV), and sleep duration (SLP) are considered individual risk factors for adolescent obesity. Our aim was to investigate the concurrent influence of meeting PA, SLP, and TV recommendations on adolescent obesity utilizing 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) data. Subjects included 9589 (4874 females) high school students. PA, SLP, and TV were categorized utilizing established national recommendations and youth were cross-tabulated into 1 of 8 groups based on meeting or not meeting each recommendation. Logistic models were used to examine the odds of obesity for each group. Youth meeting the PA recommendation were not at increased odds of obesity, regardless of SLP or TV status. However, not meeting any single recommendation, in general, led to increased odds of not meeting the other two. In boys, 11.8% met all recommendations while 14.1% met 0 recommendations. In girls, only 5.0% met all recommendations while 17.8% met none. Boys and girls not meeting any of the recommendations were 4.0 and 3.8 times more likely to be obese compared with their respective referent groups. Further research considering the simultaneous influence these risk factors may have on obesity and on one another is warranted.

  20. Metabolic syndrome and its components among university students in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbugua, Samuel Mungai; Kimani, Samuel Thuo; Munyoki, Gilbert

    2017-11-28

    Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of interrelated disorders which occur together causing an increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The university population is an understudied group despite the increase in the frequency of related disorders and metabolic risk factors e.g. obesity and diabetes, majorly due to the assumption that they are in their most active phase of life therefore healthy. This study looked at metabolic syndrome, the sedentary lifestyles and dietary habits present among university students attending Mount Kenya University, main campus. Stratified sampling was used to select participants. Self-administered questionnaires were issued to participants after a signed consent had been obtained following which clinical assessments and biochemical measures were performed. They included blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, anthropometric measurements; height, weight, BMI and waist circumference. Pearson's chi-square tests and non-parametric independent t-test were used to analyze the prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria per gender, the number of metabolic syndrome criteria per BMI and prevalence of metabolic syndrome criteria per BMI category. The study established that 1.9% of the participants met the criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to HJSS criteria. Among the elements, there was statistical difference in gender BMI and waist circumference. 11.8% of subjects had two metabolic syndrome components while 3.1% had three components while none of the subjects had all six components. Elevated triglycerides was the most prevalent defining component for metabolic syndrome. There is a statistically significant relationship between sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits as risk factors to metabolic syndrome. Young adults in university have begun developing metabolic syndrome and the risk of developing the syndrome continues to increase with the