Sample records for metropolitan sewer district


    Field studies at the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District facilities were conducted over a 3-year period to obtain long-term data on the performance of fine pore aeration equipment in municipal wastewater. The studies were conducted on several basins in the East Plant containi...

  2. Financial Management: Promptness of FY 2002 Third Quarter DoD Payments to the Department of the Treasury for District of Columbia Water and Sewer Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... the agency's promptness in paying the District of Columbia for water and sewer services. The audit reports must be submitted to the House and Senate Appropriations Committees within 15 days of the start of each quarter...

  3. Promptness of FY 2002 Second Quarter DoD Payments to the US Treasury for District of Columbia Water and Sewer Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Public Law 106-554 requires the inspector general of each Federal agency that receives water and sewer services from the District of Columbia to report to the Congressional Appropriations Committees...


    The Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District retrofitted two quadrants of their activated sludge aeration system with ceramic and membrane fine pore diffusers to provide savings in energy usage compared to the sparged turbine aerators originally installed. Because significant di...

  5. North Plant co-generation project for South Davis County Sewer Improvement District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.S. [Aqua Environmental Services, Inc., Bountiful, UT (United States)


    In the summer of 1988, the South Davis County Sewer Improvement District (SDCSID) learned of a grant/loan program being administered by the Utah State Department of Energy(DOE) for projects that demonstrate new and innovative ways of conserving energy or utilizing renewable energy sources. The SDCSID applied for and received from the DOE both a grant and a no-interest loan to finance half of the cost of a co-generation project at the North Wastewater Treatment Plant. This co-generation project utilizes methane gas, a by-product of the anaerobic digestion process, to generate both electricity and heat that is used at the plant. The SDCSID calculated that at the current anaerobic gas production rate, a 140 KW engine generator could be run almost 24 hours a day. Approximately 75% of the current electrical needs at the North Plant are supplied by the 140 KW engine generator. Also, all of the heat necessary to raise the temperature of the incoming sludge to 95{degrees}F, and to heat four large buildings is supplied from the heat recovery system of the engine. The system utilizes an induction type generator to supply electricity, which is somewhat simpler to design and less expensive to install than a synchronous type system. An induction system utilizes the Electrical Utility`s incoming power to excite the generator to correct the phase so that is can be used by the loads in the plant. In addition, the SDCSID installed a second identical engine generator as a back-up and to peak shave. Plant effluent is used to cool the engines instead of air-cooling through radiators.

  6. Forest Fires in the Metropolitan District of Quito (DMQ: Risk knowledge and public intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Estacio


    Full Text Available Every summer, the Metropolitan District of Quito (MDQ is subject to the recurrence of forest fires with different consequences in terms of loss of protected areas of great biodiversity, affectation of public and private spaces of different use and impact on the population well-being. The management of municipal authorities of this type of risks is still limited, since there is no decisional tool that can improve the preventive planning and the response to the annual presence of these events. For this reason, the generation of a study on potential fores fires represents the first step towards the comprehension and the reduction of risks. The present article presents the result of this study, the mechanisms and the efforts of the municipal technicians that made possible the achievement of these tools in the frame of the Risk Reduction Program of the Metropolitan District of Quito. The obtained results allowed the implementation of prevention actions in areas with very valuable ecosystems services but fragile in the same time, as well as the improvement of the fire emergency plans in order to optimize resources and reinforce local capacities. 

  7. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...... and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...

  8. Capital District Transportation Committee Albany, New York : planning the congestion management process in the context of metropolitan transportation planning goals and objectives (United States)


    The Capital District Transportation Committee (CDTC) uses a broad and integrated approach for transportation planning in the Albany-Schenectady-Troy (New York) metropolitan area. This approach encompasses issues critical to the future of the Capital ...

  9. Water-resources-related information for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District planning area, Wisconsin, 1970-2002 (United States)

    Schneider, Morgan A.; Lutz, Michelle A.; ,


    The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study is a three-phase project designed to improve the understanding of water resources in the stream corridors of the MMSD planning area by initially compiling existing data and using the compiled information to develop 3-year baseline and long-term monitoring plans. This report is one of the products of Phase I of the Corridor Study.

  10. Effects of combined sewer overflow and stormwater on indicator bacteria concentrations in the Tama River due to the high population density of Tokyo Metropolitan area. (United States)

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Takasago, Masahisa


    The indicator bacteria (standard plate count, total coliform, and fecal coliform bacteria) concentrations have been investigated using six ambient habitats (population density, percent sewer penetration, stream flow rate (m(3)/sec), percent residential area, percent forest area and percent agricultural area) in the Tama River basin in Tokyo, Japan during June 2003 to January 2005. The downstream and tributary Tama River showed higher concentrations of TC and FC bacteria than the upstream waters, which exceeded an environmental quality standard for rivers and a bathing water quality criterion. It was estimated that combined sewer overflow (CSO) and stormwater effluents contributed -4-23% to the indicator bacteria concentrations of the Tama River. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the indicator bacteria concentrations of Tama River basin are significantly affected by population density. It is concluded that the Tama River received a significant bacterial contamination load originating from the anthropogenic source.

  11. Peracetic Acid as a Green Disinfectant for Combined Sewer ... (United States)

    This cooperative research and development agreement between U.S. EPA, Solvay, MSDGC, and CB&I is evaluating the potential of PAA for disinfection of Muddy Creek CSO wastewater and comparing that with sodium hypochlorite disinfection. This presentation will document the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite and PAA for the inactivation of E. coli in CSO wastewater using laboratory bench-scale jar tests and Muddy Creek field site studies based on the following items:•Storage, shelf life, and application of the disinfectants.•Effectiveness of the disinfectants in the inactivation of E. coli.•Formation of harmful byproducts by the disinfectants.•Operation and maintenance costs, including the cost of the disinfectant, its storage, application, and neutralizing agent for the disinfectant to maintain the Ohio EPA guideline for residual disinfectant at the discharge point. Like many cities in the USA, Cincinnati, Ohio is attempting to find the best way to meet state and federal requirements concerning combined sewer overflow (CSO) wastewater. The Muddy Creek CSO treatment facility was constructed to provide treatment for CSO Numbers 198 and 216 from the Westwood Trunk sewer. The Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati (MSDGC) is currently using sodium hypochlorite for disinfection in this treatment facility. Because of degradation of hypochlorite during storage and the formation of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), MSDGC is evaluating alternat

  12. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Robert Charles; Green, Timothy Scott; Hull, Laurence Charles


    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  13. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  14. Sewer System Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Field Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan.

  15. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality... (United States)


    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD...

  16. City sewer collectors biocorrosion (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz


    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  17. Financial Management: Measurement of Water Usage by DoD Components Serviced by the District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    Who Should Read This Report and Why? This report should be read by DoD managers who have a direct interest in, or are in need of information about the accuracy of the measurement of water usage by DoD Components serviced by the District...

  18. Biological water-quality assessment of selected streams in the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District Planning Area of Wisconsin, 2007 (United States)

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Alvarez, David A.


    Changes in the water quality of stream ecosystems in an urban area may manifest in conspicuous ways, such as in murky or smelly streamwater, or in less conspicuous ways, such as fewer native or pollution-sensitive organisms. In 2004, and again in 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled stream organisms—algae, invertebrates, and fish—in 14 Milwaukee area streams to assess water quality as part of the ongoing Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study. In addition, passive-sampling devices (SPMDs, “semipermeable membrane devices”) were deployed at a subset of sites in order to evaluate the potential exposure of stream organisms to certain toxic chemicals. Results of the 2007 sampling effort are the focus of this report. Results of sampling from 2007 are compared with results from 2004. The water quality of sampled streams was assessed by evaluating biological-assemblage data, metrics computed from assemblage data, and an aggregate bioassessment ranking method that combined data for algae, invertebrates, and fish. These data contain information about the abundance (number) of different species in each group of stream organisms and the balance between species that can or cannot tolerate polluted or disturbed conditions. In 2007, the highest numbers of algal, invertebrate, and fish species were found at the Milwaukee River at Milwaukee, the largest sampled site. Algal results indicated water quality concerns at 10 of the 14 sampled sites due to the occurrence of nuisance algae or low percentages of pollution-sensitive algae. When compared to 2004, total algal biovolume was higher in 2007 at 12 of 14 sites, due mostly to more nuisance green algae from unknown causes. Results of several metrics, including the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI-10), suggest that invertebrate assemblages in the Little Menomonee River, Underwood Creek, and Honey Creek were poorer quality in 2007 compared to 2004. Six sites received “very poor” quality ratings for

  19. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  20. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.


    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO), along with sanitary-sewer overflow and stormwater are significant contributors of contamination to surface waters. During a rain event, the flow in a combined sewer system may exceed the capacity of the intercepting sewer leading to the wastewater t...

  2. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality... (United States)


    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  3. RTC simulations on large branched sewer systems with SmaRTControl. (United States)

    de Korte, Kees; van Beest, Dick; van der Plaat, Marcel; de Graaf, Erno; Schaart, Niels


    In The Netherlands many large branched sewer systems exist. RTC can improve the performance of these systems. The objective of the universal algorithm of SmaRTControl is to improve the performance of the sewer system and the WWTP. The effect of RTC under rain weather flow conditions is simulated using a hydrological model with 19 drainage districts. The system related inefficiency coefficient (SIC) is introduced for assessment of the performance of sewer systems. The performance can be improved by RTC in combination with increased pumping capacities in the drainage districts, but without increasing the flow to the WWTP. Under dry weather flow conditions the flow to the WWTP can be equalized by storage of wastewater in the sewer system. It is concluded that SmaRTControl can improve the performance, that simulations are necessary and that SIC is an excellent parameter for assessment of the performance.

  4. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott


    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  5. Effluent and sanitary sewer monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.; Vasey, M.R.


    Two similar instruments that monitor the liquid wastes from the plutonium facility are described. The operation of the two instruments is completely automatic and performs a continuous surveillance in the frame of Nuclear Safeguards. One instrument controls the liquids from the facility and the other checks the sanitary sewer wastes. Both have self-diagnosing capabilities and take automatic actions in case of abnormal occurrences

  6. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff,...

  7. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality... (United States)


    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the California State... sources within the areas covered by the plan as necessary to assure that the National Ambient Air Quality...

  8. Recent Trends in Atmospheric Lead Levels at an Urban-Industrial District of Metropolitan Lisbon, Portugal, through PIXE Analysis of Air-Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M. Carmo; Reis, Miguel A.; Pacheco, Adriano M.G.


    Despite a steep decline in primary, traffic-related loads, lead in the environment is still much of an issue. Current atmospheric levels may be unmistakably reflecting the widespread use of cleaner fuels, yet decades of uncontrolled emissions from mobile sources have made lead to pervade every terrestrial (and aquatic) ecosystem, from where it keeps re-entering the lower troposphere, at least in terms of local circulation. The continuing surveillance of airborne-lead levels is thus necessary, not just for ensuring a strict compliance with regulatory decisions, but also for assisting in the implementation of remediation and/or rehabilitation policies. In Portugal, unleaded gasoline was made generally available in 1990, yet both leaded and lead-free varieties were commercialised until 1998. After that, all vehicles were compelled to use unleaded gasoline. Even though it is certainly too early for a full trend analysis of airborne levels and their response to the ban on lead, concentrations in ambient air over an important urban-industrial corridor within the Lisbon metropolitan area show a steady, sharp decrease through the last decade. Since 2000, airborne-lead data seems somewhat stabilised and, as far as busy conurbations are concerned, roughly within the values that were usually observed in the rural hinterland back in the mid 1990s

  9. Loads of Sewer Manholes within Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zięba


    Originality/Value: The presented method is an original concept. It enables the determination of additional external horizontal loads acting on sewer manholes within mining areas, in particular the flexible manholes made of thermoplastics. It also enables the determination of dependencies of changes in the cross-sections of risers of flexible sewer manholes (with different circumferential stiffness on the horizontal soil strains.

  10. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealin...

  11. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealin...

  12. Information use in Dutch sewer assest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.


    Sewer systems are capital-intensive infrastructures, requiring appropriate asset management to safeguard serviceability. In the Netherlands, effective sewer asset management is described by De Leeuw’s control paradigm. Reliable data and information are key elements in decision-making for

  13. Application of Morphological Segmentation to Leaking Defect Detection in Sewer Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ching Su


    Full Text Available As one of major underground pipelines, sewerage is an important infrastructure in any modern city. The most common problem occurring in sewerage is leaking, whose position and failure level is typically identified through closed circuit television (CCTV inspection in order to facilitate rehabilitation process. This paper proposes a novel method of computer vision, morphological segmentation based on edge detection (MSED, to assist inspectors in detecting pipeline defects in CCTV inspection images. In addition to MSED, other mathematical morphology-based image segmentation methods, including opening top-hat operation (OTHO and closing bottom-hat operation (CBHO, were also applied to the defect detection in vitrified clay sewer pipelines. The CCTV inspection images of the sewer system in the 9th district, Taichung City, Taiwan were selected as the experimental materials. The segmentation results demonstrate that MSED and OTHO are useful for the detection of cracks and open joints, respectively, which are the typical leakage defects found in sewer pipelines.

  14. Assessment of oral health status and periodontal treatment needs among rural, semi-urban, urban, and metropolitan population of Gurgaon District, Haryana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover


    Full Text Available Background: Role of various etiologic factors in periodontal disease has been investigated by means of epidemiologic surveys and clinical studies. The community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN provides a picture of the public health requirements in the periodontal field, which is essential for national oral health policy-making and specific interventions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 4000 individuals among rural, semi-urban, and metro population of Gurgaon District, Haryana State, to find out the oral health status and periodontal treatment needs (TNs using CPITN index. Results: An inference was drawn from the results that among 4000 participants from all the four population groups' maximum, i.e., 63.80% of individuals needed TN2 whereas 18.20% of individuals needed TN3 and 18.10% of individuals needed TN1. Conclusion: It can be concluded with a word of hope and a word of warning. Hope lies in the fact that the measurement of periodontal diseases by epidemiological study of this condition is improving and receiving wide spread attention. The warning lies in the varied nature of the condition which goes to make up periodontal disease and perplexing ways in which these conditions blend. In addition to dental practitioner, periodontist and public health workers must devote more time and effort toward controlling periodontal disease than they seem to be devoting at present.

  15. Model Predictive Control of Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Einar B.; Herbertsson, Hannes R.; Niemann, Henrik


    The developments in solutions for management of urban drainage are of vital importance, as the amount of sewer water from urban areas continues to increase due to the increase of the world’s population and the change in the climate conditions. How a sewer network is structured, monitored and cont...... benchmark model. Due to the inherent constraints the applied approach is based on Model Predictive Control....

  16. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems. (United States)

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V


    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted.

  17. Research note: Mapping spatial patterns in sewer age, material, and proximity to surface waterways to infer sewer leakage hotspots (United States)

    Hopkins, Kristina G.; Bain, Daniel J.


    Identifying areas where deteriorating sewer infrastructure is in close proximity to surface waterways is needed to map likely connections between sewers and streams. We present a method to estimate sewer installation year and deterioration status using historical maps of the sewer network, parcel-scale property assessment data, and pipe material. Areas where streams were likely buried into the sewer system were mapped by intersecting the historical stream network derived from a 10-m resolution digital elevation model with sewer pipe locations. Potential sewer leakage hotspots were mapped by identifying where aging sewer pipes are in close proximity (50-m) to surface waterways. Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), indicated 41% of the historical stream length was lost or buried and the potential interface between sewers and streams is great. The co-location of aging sewer infrastructure (>75 years old) near stream channels suggests that 42% of existing streams are located in areas with a high potential for sewer leakage if sewer infrastructure fails. Mapping the sewer-stream interface provides an approach to better understand areas were failing sewers may contribute a disproportional amount of nutrients and other pathogens to surface waterways.

  18. Simulating groundwater-induced sewer flooding (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Mansour, M.; Stanic, M.; Jackson, C. R.


    During the last decade, Chalk catchments of southern England experienced severe groundwater flooding. High groundwater levels resulted in the groundwater ingress into the sewer network that led to restricted toilet use and the overflow of diluted, but untreated sewage to road surfaces, rivers and water courses. In response to these events the water and sewerage company Thames Water Utilities Ltd (TWUL) had to allocate significant funds to mitigate the impacts. It was estimated that approximately £19m was spent responding to the extreme wet weather of 2013-14, along with the use of a fleet of over 100 tankers. However, the magnitude of the event was so large that these efforts could not stop the discharge of sewage to the environment. This work presents the analysis of the risk of groundwater-induced sewer flooding within the Chalk catchment of the River Lambourn, Berkshire. A spatially distributed groundwater model was used to assess historic groundwater flood risk and the potential impacts of changes in future climate. We then linked this model to an urban groundwater model to enable us to simulate groundwater-sewer interaction in detail. The modelling setup was used to identify relationships between infiltration into sewers and groundwater levels at specific points on TWUL's sewer network, and to estimate historic and future groundwater flood risk, and how this varies across the catchment. The study showed the significance of understanding the impact of groundwater on the urban water systems, and producing information that can inform a water company's response to groundwater flood risk, their decision making process and their asset management planning. However, the knowledge gained through integrated modelling of groundwater-sewer interactions has highlighted limitations of existing approaches for the simulation of these coupled systems. We conclude this work with number of recommendations about how to improve such hydrological/sewer analysis.

  19. Revenues for Education in Metropolitan Areas. Chapter VI, Metropolitanism: Its Challenge to Education, 1968. Sixty-seventh Yearbook, Part I. (United States)

    Alkin, Marvin C.

    For local school districts to provide equal educational opportunities throughout a metropolitan area, a school organization plan should distribute populations among districts in such a manner as to maximize the aggregate expressed demand for educational services and to provide relatively equal financial support. Consolidation of contiguous…

  20. Oahu Sewer Lateral Lines, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inventory of sewer laterals, used for tracking, monitoring, and flow analysis as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. The base sewer...

  1. Oahu Sewer Main Lines, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear features representing sewer main lines as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. Includes an inventory of sewer mains used for...

  2. Sewerage Service Areas - MDC_SewerServiceArea (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Water and Sewer Service Area layer was derived from the original paper based sketches which contained both water and sewer utility boundary information. This...

  3. Oahu Sewer Manhole Points, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point features representing sewer manholes as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. This inventory of sewer manholes used by tracking,...

  4. Adolescent and young pregnant women at increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and poorer maternal and infant health outcomes: A cohort study at public facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan district, Eastern Cape, South Africa. (United States)

    Fatti, G; Shaikh, N; Eley, B; Jackson, D; Grimwood, A


    South Africa (SA) has the highest burden of childhood HIV infection globally, and has high rates of adolescent and youth pregnancy. To explore risks associated with pregnancy in young HIV-infected women, we compared mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and maternal and infant health outcomes according to maternal age categories. A cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants were followed up at three sentinel surveillance facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan (NMBM) district, Eastern Cape Province, SA. Young women were defined as 24 years old and adolescents as 19 years. The effect of younger maternal age categories on MTCT and maternal and child health outcomes was assessed using log-binomial and Cox regression controlling for confounding, using women aged > 24 years as the comparison group. Of 956 mothers, 312 (32.6%) were young women; of these, 65 (20.8%) were adolescents. The proportion of young pregnant women increased by 24% between 2009/10 and 2011/12 (from 28.3% to 35.1%). Young women had an increased risk of being unaware of their HIV status when booking (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21 - 1.54), a reduced rate of antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% CI 0.31 - 0.67), reduced early infant HIV diagnosis (aRR 0.94; 95% CI 0.94 - 0.94), and increased MTCT (aRR 3.07; 95% CI 1.18 - 7.96; adjusted for ART use). Of all vertical transmissions, 56% occurred among young women. Additionally, adolescents had increased risks of first presentation during labour (aRR 3.78; 95% CI 1.06 - 13.4); maternal mortality (aRR 35.1; 95% CI 2.89 - 426) and stillbirth (aRR 3.33; 95% CI 1.53 - 7.25). An increasing proportion of pregnant HIV-positive women in NMBM were young, and they had increased MTCT and poorer maternal and infant outcomes than older women. Interventions targeting young women are increasingly needed to reduce pregnancy, HIV infection and MTCT and improve maternal

  5. The fate of radioactivity in sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Environment Agencies authorise and monitor the disposal of low-level radioactive waste to sewers. Such discharges originate from non-nuclear sites such as hospitals, universities and research centres. Discharges are strictly controlled through authorisations, which place conditions and limits on the disposer. We commissioned the work summarised within this, leaflet to reassess the fate of these radioactive discharges and to ensure that this practice remains acceptable and is still the best option for disposal. In all cases the study found assessed radiation doses (associated with these discharges) to be a small fraction of the public dose limit. The Environment Agencies conclude from this study that the disposal of radioactive waste to sewers remains the best option available to ensure the safety of the public (including sewer workers) and to protect the environment

  6. On Hydraulic and Pollution Effects of Converting Combined Sewer Catchments to Separate Sewer Catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    systems to become serviced with separate sewer systems decreases the volumes of storm water and pollutants diverted to the waste water treatment plant and discharged as combined sewer overflow. This happens at the expense of an increase in volumes of storm water and pollutant loads diverted to local...... receiving waters when detention ponds are not built-in the new separate sewer systems. It is concluded that consequences can be fatal for receiving waters, if no retention of pollutants is integrated into the system....


    This paper overviews causes of combined-sewer deterioration and their heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer and combined-sewer overflow (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removi...

  8. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh


    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flo...

  9. Predicting concrete corrosion of sewers using artificial neural network. (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Corrosion is often a major failure mechanism for concrete sewers and under such circumstances the sewer service life is largely determined by the progression of microbially induced concrete corrosion. The modelling of sewer processes has become possible due to the improved understanding of in-sewer transformation. Recent systematic studies about the correlation between the corrosion processes and sewer environment factors should be utilized to improve the prediction capability of service life by sewer models. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN)-based approach for modelling the concrete corrosion processes in sewers. The approach included predicting the time for the corrosion to initiate and then predicting the corrosion rate after the initiation period. The ANN model was trained and validated with long-term (4.5 years) corrosion data obtained in laboratory corrosion chambers, and further verified with field measurements in real sewers across Australia. The trained model estimated the corrosion initiation time and corrosion rates very close to those measured in Australian sewers. The ANN model performed better than a multiple regression model also developed on the same dataset. Additionally, the ANN model can serve as a prediction framework for sewer service life, which can be progressively improved and expanded by including corrosion rates measured in different sewer conditions. Furthermore, the proposed methodology holds promise to facilitate the construction of analytical models associated with corrosion processes of concrete sewers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    This presentation overviews causes of sewer deterioration and heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO-) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of ...

  11. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    of transients in pumped pipeline systems. This present publication can be understood as the second and revised edition of the pamphlet ”Transients in pumped sewer mains” (2006) which was published as a technical report by The EVA committee under The Danish Water Pollution Committee (The Danish Society......This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential...


    Managers, engineers, and operators of combined urban sewer systems are faced with difficult problems related to the operation and maintenance of their facilities. In addition to the issues related to the operation and upkeep of the system, many sewerage agencies are facing increa...

  13. Value of Information for Sewer Replacement Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.


    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. It is unknown to what extent each information source is appreciated by decision makers. Further insight into this relative

  14. An Environmental Innovation: The Sewer Mouse (United States)


    In the effort to clean up America's waters, there is a little-known complicating factor: because they leak, sewer systems in many American cities are causing rather than preventing pollution of rivers and lakes. Fixing the leaks is difficult because their locations are unknown. Maintenance crews can't tear up a whole city looking for cracks in the pipes; they must first determine which areas are most likely suspects. An aerospace spinoff is providing help in that regard. The problem starts with heavy rains. Rainwater naturally flows into the sewers from streets, but sewage systems are designed to accommodate it. However, they are not designed to handle the additional flow of "groundwater", rain absorbed by the earth which seeps into the sewers through leaks in pipes and sewer walls. After a storm, groundwater seepage can increase the waterflow to deluge proportions, with the result that sewage treatment plants are incapable of processing the swollen flow. When that happens the sluices must be opened, dumping raw sewage into rivers and lakes.

  15. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  16. Agile Design of Sewer System Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nooijen, R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.; Van Leeuwen, P.E.R.M.; Van Velzen, E.


    We describe the first part of an attempt to include stakeholder participation in the design of a central automatic controller for a sewer system in a small pilot project (five subcatchments) and present lessons learned so far. The pilot is part of a project aimed at the improvement of water quality

  17. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3 (United States)

    This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater in the same pipe. Most of the time, combined sewer systems transport all of their wastewater to a sewage treatment plant, where it is treated and then discharged to a water body. During periods of heavy rainfall or snowmelt, however, the wastewater volume in a combined sewer system can exceed the capacity of the sewer system or treatment plant. For this reason, combined sewer systems are designed to overflow occasionally and discharge excess untreated wastewater directly to nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies. For further information visit:

  18. City School District Reorganization: An Annotated Bibliography. Centralization and Decentralization in the Government of Metropolitan Areas with Special Emphasis on the Organization, Administration, and Financing of Large-City School Systems. Educational Research Series No. 1. (United States)

    Rideout, E. Brock; Najat, Sandra

    As a guide to educational administrators working in large cities, abstracts of 161 books, pamphlets, papers, and journal articles published between 1924 and 1966 are classified into five categories: (1) Centralization versus decentralization, (2) local government, (3) metropolitan organization, (4) the financing of education, and (5) the…

  19. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk


    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement......-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic...... complex CSO structures. The three concepts was tested and verified under real practical conditions. All three concepts were accurate when compared to electromagnetic flow measurements....

  20. A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben


    This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model i...... is being developed as a part of a study being carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden. The project is funded by the Swedish Water and Waste Water Works Association and the Nordic Industrial Foundation.......This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Synowiecka


    Full Text Available Monitoring of the drainage networks is an extremely important tool used to understand the phenomena occurring in them. In an era of urbanization and increased run-off, at the expense of natural retention in the catchment, it helps to minimize the risk of local flooding and pollution. In its scope includes measurement of the amount of rainfall, with the use of rain gauges, and their measure in the sewer network, in matter of flows and channel filling, with the help of flow meters. An indispensable part in this step is their proper calibration calibration. In addition to ongoing monitoring of the sewer system, periodic inspections by the qualified employees of Water and Sewage Company should be done. The following article reviews measurement devices, their calibration methods, as well as the phenomena that occur during operation in the sewer network. It provides a solution for monitoring and control based on the experience of the Municipal Water and Sewage Company in Wroclaw, describing common operational problems, their causes, prevention methods and a network operation walkthrough with the improve of performance indicators KPI (Key Performance Indicators according the ECB (European Benchmarking Co-operation.

  2. The Historical Development of Sewers Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Feo


    Full Text Available Although there is evidence of surface-based storm drainage systems in early Babylonian and Mesopotamian Empires in Iraq (ca. 4000–2500 BC, it is not until after ca. 3000 BC that we find evidence of the well organized and operated sewer and drainage systems of the Minoans and Harappans in Crete and the Indus valley, respectively. The Minoans and Indus valley civilizations originally, and the Hellenes and Romans thereafter, are considered pioneers in developing basic sewerage and drainage technologies, with emphasis on sanitation in the urban environment. The Hellenes and Romans further developed these techniques and greatly increased the scale of these systems. Although other ancient civilizations also contributed, notably some of the Chinese dynasties, very little progress was made during the Dark ages from ca. 300 AD through to the middle of the 18th century. It was only from 1850 onwards that that modern sewerage was “reborn”, but many of the principles grasped by the ancients are still in use today. This paper traces the development of the sewer from those earliest of civilizations through to the present day and beyond. A 6000 year technological history is a powerful validation of the vital contribution of sewers to human history.

  3. Prediction of organic combined sewer sediment release and transport


    Seco, Raquel Irene; Schellart, Alma Neeltje Antonia; Gómez Valentín, Manuel; Tait, Simon


    Accurate predictions of sediment loads released by sewer overflow discharges are important for being able to provide protection to vulnerable receiving waters. These predictions are sensitive to the estimated sediment characteristics and on the site conditions of in-pipe deposit formation. Their application without a detailed analysis and understanding of the initial conditions under which in-sewer deposits were formed normally results in very poor estimations. In this study, in-sewer sedimen...

  4. Dynamics of rain-induced pollutographs of solubles in sewers. (United States)

    Rutsch, M; Müller, I; Krebs, P


    When looking at acute receiving water impacts due to combined sewer overflows the characteristics of the background diurnal sewage flux variation may influence the peak loads from combined sewer overflows (CSO) and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent significantly. In this paper, effects on the dynamic compounds transported in the sewer, on CSO discharges and WWTP loading are evaluated by means of hydrodynamic simulations. The simulations are based on different scenarios for diurnal dry-weather flow variations induced by different infiltration rates.

  5. Modeling Metropolitan Detroit transit. (United States)


    "The seven-county Southeast Michigan region, that encompasses the Detroit Metropolitan Area, : ranks fifth in population among top 25 regions in the nation. It also ranks among bottom five in : the transit service provided, measured in miles or hours...

  6. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C


    This monograph is intended to inform interested and capable pesons, who happen not to be specialists in water resources planning, of the issues and alternative strategies related to metropolitan water supply...

  7. Using data from monitoring combined sewer overflows to assess, improve, and maintain combined sewer systems


    Montserrat Royuela, Albert; Bosch, Ll.; Kiser, M.A.; Poch, Manuel; Corominas Tabares, Lluís


    Using low-cost sensors, data can be collected on the occurrence and duration of overflows in each combined sewer overflow (CSO) structure in a combined sewer system (CSS). The collection and analysis of real data can be used to assess, improve, and maintain CSSs in order to reduce the number and impact of overflows. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of CSSs using low-cost monitoring. This methodology includes (1) assessing the capacity of a C...

  8. The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.


    Metropolitan cities are undergoing a major spatial and environmental transformation. The proliferation of business districts, corporate headquarters and international hotels is prompting a massive verticalization and densification of land use, which is affecting the urban environment and

  9. Salaryfax for Nine Districts 1972-73. (United States)

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    This study compares salaries as well as benefits of school district personnel in the nine metropolitan school districts that include Albuquerque, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; El Paso, Texas; Memphis, Tennessee; Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona; Wichita, Kansas; and Mobile, Alabama. The tables aggregate all the elements in the total compensation…

  10. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes


    summarizes this newly obtained knowledge and emphasizes important implications of the findings. Model simulations of the in-sewer processes important for the sulfur cycle showed that sulfide oxidation in the wetted biofilm is typically the most important sink for dissolved sulfide in gravity sewers. However...

  11. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.


    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Bot...


    This paper presents an overview of causes of sewer deterioration together with a discussion of control methods that can prevent or arrest this deterioration. In particular, the paper covers inline- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of se...

  13. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in § 35...

  14. Regulatory control analysis and design for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, Dines


    A systematic methodology for regulatory control analysis and design is adapted for sewer system operation and evaluated. The main challenge with adapting the methodology is the handling of the stochastic and transient nature of the rainfall disturbances, inherent to sewer system operation...



    Justyna Synowiecka; Ewa Burszta-Adamiak; Tomasz Konieczny; Paweł Malinowski


    Monitoring of the drainage networks is an extremely important tool used to understand the phenomena occurring in them. In an era of urbanization and increased run-off, at the expense of natural retention in the catchment, it helps to minimize the risk of local flooding and pollution. In its scope includes measurement of the amount of rainfall, with the use of rain gauges, and their measure in the sewer network, in matter of flows and channel filling, with the help of flow meters. An indispens...

  16. Oxidation and Precipitation of Sulfide in Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A. H.

    risks and corrosion of concrete and metals. Most of the problems relate to the buildup of hydrogen sulfide in the atmosphere of sewer networks. In this respect, the processes of the sulfur cycle are of fundamental importance in ultimately determining the extent of such problems. This study focused...... calibrated and validated against field data. In the extension to the WATS model, sulfur transformations were described by six processes: 1. Sulfide production taking place in the biofilm and sediments covering the permanently wetted sewer walls; 2. Biological sulfide oxidation in the permanently wetted...... to the sewer atmosphere, potentially resulting in concrete corrosion. The extended WATS model represents a major improvement over previously developed models for prediction of sulfide buildup in sewer networks. Compared to such models, the major processes governing sulfide buildup in sewer networks...

  17. Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers. (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S


    Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP.

  18. Valuing information for sewer replacement decisions. (United States)

    van Riel, Wouter; Langeveld, Jeroen; Herder, Paulien; Clemens, François

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. This is not to be preferred in light of public accountability and cost-effectiveness. It is unknown to what extent each decision criterion is appreciated by decision-makers. Further insight into this relative importance improves understanding of decision-making of sewer system managers. As such, a digital questionnaire (response ratio 43%), containing pairwise comparisons between 10 relevant information sources, was sent to all 407 municipalities in the Netherlands to analyse the relative importance and assess whether a shared frame of reasoning is present. Thurstone's law of comparative judgment was used for analysis, combined with several consistency tests. Results show that camera inspections were valued highest, while pipe age was considered least important. The respondents were pretty consistent per individual and also showed consistency as a group. This indicated a common framework of reasoning among the group. The feedback of the group showed, however, the respondents found it difficult to make general comparisons without having a context. This indicates decision-making in practice is more likely to be steered by other mechanisms than purely combining information sources.

  19. Identifying the best locations to install flow control devices in sewer networks to enable in-sewer storage (United States)

    Leitão, J. P.; Carbajal, J. P.; Rieckermann, J.; Simões, N. E.; Sá Marques, A.; de Sousa, L. M.


    The activation of available in-sewer storage volume has been suggested as a low-cost flood and combined sewer overflow mitigation measure. However, it is currently unknown what the attributes for suitable objective functions to identify the best location for flow control devices are and the impact of those attributes on the results. In this study, we present a novel location model and efficient algorithm to identify the best location(s) to install flow limiters. The model is a screening tool that does not require hydraulic simulations but rather considers steady state instead of simplistic static flow conditions. It also maximises in-sewer storage according to different reward functions that also considers the potential impact of flow control device failure. We demonstrate its usefulness on two real sewer networks, for which an in-sewer storage potential of approximately 2,000 m3 and 500 m3 was estimated with five flow control devices installed.

  20. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance and evaluation...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation...

  1. A dynamic ventilation model for gravity sewer networks. (United States)

    Wang, Y C; Nobi, N; Nguyen, T; Vorreiter, L


    To implement any effective odour and corrosion control technology in the sewer network, it is imperative that the airflow through gravity sewer airspaces be quantified. This paper presents a full dynamic airflow model for gravity sewer systems. The model, which is developed using the finite element method, is a compressible air transport model. The model has been applied to the North Head Sewerage Ocean Outfall System (NSOOS) and calibrated using the air pressure and airflow data collected during October 2008. Although the calibration is focused on forced ventilation, the model can be applied to natural ventilation as well.

  2. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Sediment Transport in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole

    A study of the sediment transport processes in sewers has been carried out. Based on this study a mathematical modelling system has been developed to describe the transport processes of sediments and dissolved matter in sewer systems. The modelling system consists of three sub-models which...... constitute the basic modelling system necessary to give a discription of the most dominant physical transport processes concerning particles and dissolved matter in sewer systems: A surface model. An advection-dispersion model. A sediment transport model....

  3. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee


    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  4. The polycentric structure of local labour markets in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Casado Izquierdo


    Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.

  5. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal


    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  6. Metro Council Districts, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of the twelve (12) Metropolitan Council Districts within the Parish of East Baton Rouge. The...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories, California sewer system management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C.


    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Site Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan. Elements of this Plan are under development in accordance with the SWRCB's schedule.

  8. New Findings in Hydrogen Sulfide Related Corrosion of Concrete Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild


    This paper summarizes major findings of a long-term study of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) adsorption and oxidation on concrete and plastic sewer pipe surfaces. The processes have been studied using a pilot-scale setup designed to replicate conditions in a gravity sewer located downstream of a force...... main. H2S related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed at such locations. The experiments showed that the rate of H2S oxidation was significantly faster on concrete pipe surfaces than on plastic pipe surfaces. Steady state calculations based on the kinetic data demonstrated that the gas phase...... H2S concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henrys law. In plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on these surfaces. Finally...

  9. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  10. Urban runoff and combined sewer overflow. [Wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffa, P.E. (Calocerinos and Spina, Liverpool, NY); Freedman, S.D.; Owens, E.M.; Field, R.; Cibik, C.


    The control, treatment and management of urban runoff and sewer overflow are reviewed. Simplified modeling and monitoring techniques are used to characterize urban runoff and to assess control alternatives. (KRM)

  11. Development of Sediment Deposition Height Capacity Equation in Sewer Networks (United States)

    Song, Yangho; Jo, Deokjun; Lee, Jungho


    Sediment characteristics and transport processes in sewers are markedly different from river. There is a wide range of particle densities and smaller particle size variation in sewers. Sediment supply and the available erodible material are more limited in sewers, and the diverse hydraulic characteristics in sewer systems are more unsteady. Prevention of sewer sediment accumulation, which can cause major sewer operational problems, is imperative and has been an immense concern for engineers. The effects of sediment formation in sewer systems, an appropriate sediment transport modelling with the ability to determine the location and depth of sediment deposit is needed. It is necessary to design efficiently considering the transfer and settling phenomena of the sediment coming into the sewer systems. During transport in the sewer, the minimum shear flow velocity and possible shear stress at which the sediment is transported smoothly. However, the interaction of sediment and fluid within the sewer systems has been very complex and the rigorous theoretical handling of this problem has not been developed. It is derived from the empirical values obtained from the river bed. The basic theory that particles float is based on the balance between sedimentation of particles by gravity and turbulent diffusion of fluids. There are many variables related. Representative parameters include complex phenomena due to collisions between particles, particles and fluids, and interactions between particles and tube walls. In general, the main parameters that form the boundary between the main transport and sediment are particle size, density, volume fraction, pipe diameter and gravity. As the particle size and volume concentration increase, the minimum feed rate increases and the same tendency is observed for the change of the capillary diameter. Based on this tendency, this study has developed a sediment deposition height capacity formula to take into consideration the sewer discharge


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MINZU


    Full Text Available It is necessary to adopt an optimal control that allows an efficient usage of the existing sewer networks, in order to avoid the building of new retention facilities. The main objective of the control action is to minimize the overflow volume of a sewer network. This paper proposes a method to apply a solution obtained by discrete dynamic programming through a realistic closed loop system.

  13. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems. (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn


    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  14. Council Districts (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  15. Using data from monitoring combined sewer overflows to assess, improve, and maintain combined sewer systems. (United States)

    Montserrat, A; Bosch, Ll; Kiser, M A; Poch, M; Corominas, Ll


    Using low-cost sensors, data can be collected on the occurrence and duration of overflows in each combined sewer overflow (CSO) structure in a combined sewer system (CSS). The collection and analysis of real data can be used to assess, improve, and maintain CSSs in order to reduce the number and impact of overflows. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate the performance of CSSs using low-cost monitoring. This methodology includes (1) assessing the capacity of a CSS using overflow duration and rain volume data, (2) characterizing the performance of CSO structures with statistics, (3) evaluating the compliance of a CSS with government guidelines, and (4) generating decision tree models to provide support to managers for making decisions about system maintenance. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of a CSS in La Garriga, Spain. The rain volume breaking point from which CSO structures started to overflow ranged from 0.6 mm to 2.8 mm. The structures with the best and worst performance in terms of overflow (overflow probability, order, duration and CSO ranking) were characterized. Most of the obtained decision trees to predict overflows from rain data had accuracies ranging from 70% to 83%. The results obtained from the proposed methodology can greatly support managers and engineers dealing with real-world problems, improvements, and maintenance of CSSs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Priority substances in combined sewer overflows: case study of the Paris sewer network. (United States)

    Gasperi, J; Garnaud, S; Rocher, V; Moilleron, R


    This study was undertaken to supply data on both priority pollutant (PP) occurrence and concentrations in combined sewer overflows (CSOs). A single rain event was studied on 13 sites within the Paris sewer network. For each sample, a total of 66 substances, including metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, organotins, volatile organic compounds, chlorobenzenes, phthalates and alkylphenols were analyzed. Of the 66 compounds analyzed in all, 40 PPs including 12 priority hazardous substances were detected in CSOs. As expected, most metals were present in all samples, reflecting their ubiquitous nature. Chlorobenzenes and most pesticides were never quantified above the limit of quantification, while the majority of the other organic pollutants, except DEHP (median concentration: 22 μg.l(-1)), were found to lie in the μg.l(-1) range. For the particular rain event studied, the pollutant loads discharged by CSOs were evaluated and then compared to pollutant loads conveyed by the Seine River. Under the hydraulic conditions considered and according to the estimations performed, this comparison suggests that CSOs are potentially significant local source of metals, PAHs and DEHP. Depending on the substance, the ratio between the CSO and Seine River loads varied from 0.5 to 26, underscoring the important local impact of CSOs at the scale of this storm for most pollutants.

  17. non-metropolitan stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Full Text Available Capitals gather constellations of bright and creative people, attracting them from the peripheries. Tchekhov’s sisters were anxious to get to Moscow, d’Artagnan – to Paris. Evtushenko, Shukshin and Gaidai ascended to the climax of their glory, having moved to the capital. Vampilov, Rasputin and Astafiev became internationally famous without leaving their home grounds, but having joined in the metropolitan whirl. In this regard, the architectural profession differs greatly from the literary and cinematographic ones. The destinies of the masters who fulfilled themselves far from the capital are different but equally bright and unique. The Irkutsk “Varangians”of the sixtieth – Voronezhsky, Bukh and Pavlov – built up their relations with geography in a different way:someone came from the capitals just for a few years that became the brightest, the most fruitful and the most interesting years of his creative life. But someone stayed in the non-metropolitan city for a long time and even forever. This subsection contains certain examples of self-fulfillment in the cities distant from the capitals: Khabarovsk, Irkutsk, Bratsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kemerovo and Anzhero-Sudzhensk.

  18. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air. (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R(2) > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  19. Optimal Design of Gravitational Sewer Networks with General Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Afshar


    Full Text Available In this paper, a Cellular Automata method is applied for the optimal design of sewer networks. The solution of sewer network optimization problems requires the determination of pipe diameters and average pipe cover depths, minimizing the total cost of the sewer network subject to operational constraints. In this paper, the network nodes and upstream and downstream pipe cover depths are considered as CA cells and cell states, respectively, and the links around each cell are taken into account as neighborhood. The proposed method is a general and flexible method for the optimization of sewer networks as it can be used to optimally design both gravity and pumped network due to the use of pipe nodal cover depths as the decision variables. The proposed method is tested against two  gravitational sewer networks and the  comparison of results with other methods such as  Genetic algorithm, Cellular Automata, Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Output-feedback control of combined sewer networks through receding horizon control with moving horizon estimation


    Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela


    An output-feedback control strategy for pollution mitigation in combined sewer networks is presented. The proposed strategy provides means to apply model-based predictive control to large-scale sewer networks, in-spite of the lack of measurements at most of the network sewers. In previous works, the authors presented a hybrid linear control-oriented model for sewer networks together with the formulation of Optimal Control Problems (OCP) and State Estimation Problems (SEP). By iteratively solv...

  1. Impacts on sewer performance due to changes to inputs in domestic wastewater


    Mattsson, Jonathan


    The impacts of changes in domestic wastewater inputs on sewer performance have been debated since the dawn of the great sewer construction movement in the 1850s. Nowadays, typical household wastewater that enters sewers can generally be divided into streams from the WC, shower and/or bathtub, kitchen sink, washing machine and dishwasher. Changes in thecomposition of domestic wastewater entering a sewer will depend on inter alia the properties of the appliances used in the households and house...

  2. A methodological approach to designing sewer system control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft

    for this thesis was therefore the wish for a methodological approach to sewer system control design. Using a case study the following research hypothesis was tested in this thesis: Using classical and modern control theory, a methodological approach can be derived for designing sewer system control. This can aid....... This was not unexpected, since the true potential of having optimisation arises, when a system has many control loops with limit-ing constraints and/or changing prioritisation between them. The results showed that for small sewer systems, where the complexity is limited, it is not necessarily the best option to implement...... generate control systems of the future that are more robust, more structured, have a better performance and are easi-er to maintain....

  3. Tree root intrusion in sewer systems: A review of extent and costs (United States)

    T.B. Randrup; E.G. McPherson; L.R. Costello


    Interference between trees and sewer systems is likely to occur in old systems and in cracked pipes. Factors that contribute to damage include old pipes with joints, shallow pipes, small-dimension pipes, and fast-growing tree species. Because roots are reported to cause >50% of all sewer blockages, costs associated with root removal from sewers is substantial. In...

  4. Searching for storm water inflows in foul sewers using fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilperoort, R.; Hoppe, H.; Haan, C.; Langeveld, J.G.


    A major drawback of separate sewer systems is the occurrence of illicit connections: unintended sewer cross-connections that connect foul water outlets from residential or industrial premises to the storm water system and/or storm water outlets to the foul sewer system. The amount of unwanted storm

  5. A statistical approach to guide the management of the anterior part of the sewer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.A.B.


    The anterior part of the sewer system consists of a system of gully pots and lateral (house) connections that drain to main sewers. The total length of lateral house connections can be similar to the total length of the sewers they drain to. In addition, there are 7 million gully pots with

  6. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  7. Salaryfax 1974-75 for Seven School Districts. (United States)

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    This study compares salaries as well as benefits of school district personnel in the seven metropolitan school districts that include Albuquerque, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona; Wichita, Kansas; and Mobile, Alabama. The tables aggregate all the elements in the total compensation package for each category of employee and…

  8. Salaryfax for Eight School Districts 1973-1974. (United States)

    Albuquerque Public Schools, NM.

    This study compares salaries as well as benefits of school district personnel in the eight metropolitan school districts that include Albuquerque, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; El Paso, Texas; Phoenix and Tuscon, Arizona; Wichita, Kansas; and Mobile, Alabama. The tables aggregate all the elements in the total compensation package for each category…

  9. Ventilation in Sewers Quantified by Measurements of CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning


    Understanding and quantifying ventilation in sewer systems is a prerequisite to predict transport of odorous and corrosive gasses within the system as well as their interaction with the urban atmosphere. This paper studies ventilation in sewer systems quantified by measurements of the natural...... occurring compound CO2. Most often Danish wastewater is supersaturated with CO2 and hence a potential for stripping is present. A novel model was built based on the kinetics behind the stripping process. It was applied to simulate ventilation rates from field measurements of wastewater temperature, p...

  10. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K


    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  11. Air Flows in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian; Vollertsen, Jes


    Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results...... of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water...

  12. Real Rainfall Time Series for Storm Sewer Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    The paper describes a simulation method for the design of retention storages, overflows etc. in storm sewer systems. The method is based on computer simulation with real rainfall time series as input ans with the aply of a simple transfer model of the ARMA-type (autoregressiv moving average model......) as the model of the storm sewer system. The output of the simulation is the frequency distribution of the peak flow, overflow volume etc. from the overflow or retention storage. The parameters in the transfer model is found either from rainfall/runoff measurements in the catchment or from one or a few...

  13. Assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to suspended solids loads in combined sewer systems during rain events. (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C


    Within the French observatories network SOERE "URBIS," databases of continuous turbidity measurements accumulating hundreds of events and many dry weather days are available for two sites with different features (Clichy in Paris and Ecully in Lyon). These measurements, converted into total suspended solids (TSS) concentration using TSS-turbidity relationships and combined with a model of runoff event mean concentration, enable the assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather TSS loads observed at the outlet of the two watersheds. Results show that the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather suspended solid's discharges is important but variable (between 20 and 80 % of the mass at the outlet depending on the event), including a site allegedly free of (coarse) sewer deposits. The uncertainties associated to these results are assessed too.

  14. Deprivation and mortality in non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales. (United States)

    Jessop, E G


    To test the hypothesis that the relationship between deprivation and mortality is weaker among residents of non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales than among residents of metropolitan areas. This study compared mortality, expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), in residents of metropolitan and non-metropolitan districts at three levels of deprivation classified by an electoral ward deprivation score and by home and car ownership. SMRs were computed for all causes of death, for bronchitis and asthma (ICD9 codes 490-493), and for accident, violence, and poisoning (ICD9 codes 800-999). England and Wales. Members of the longitudinal study of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a quasi-random 1% sample of the population of England and Wales. There was an association between deprivation and mortality which was clear for all cause mortality, more noticeable for respiratory disease, and less clear for deaths from accident, violence, and poison. In general, the results showed a remarkable similarity between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. This study does not support the hypothesis that the relationship between mortality and deprivation differs between residents of metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales.

  15. Metropolitan Lima: area profile. (United States)

    Hakkert, R


    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  16. Deterministic Versus Stochastic Interpretation of Continuously Monitored Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Niels Jacob


    An analysis has been made of the uncertainty of input parameters to deterministic models for sewer systems. The analysis reveals a very significant uncertainty, which can be decreased, but not eliminated and has to be considered for engineering application. Stochastic models have a potential for ...

  17. Real Rainfall Time Series for Storm Sewer Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben


    to a storm sewer system. The output of the simulation is the frequency distribution of the peak flow, overflow volume etc. from the overflow or the retention storage. The parameters in the transfer model are found either from rainfall/runoff measurements in the catchment or from one or more simulations...


    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.


    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the three main sanitary sewer lines serving the Change House Facility No.5008, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  20. A comparison of sewer reticulation system design standards gravity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirdly Botswana being a dry country does not always have the water supply available and only some households have a house connection which provides enough water to flush a gravity sewer. Coupled to this is the low housing density and generally flat landscape in rural Botswana that means the conventional gravity ...

  1. Sanitary sewer rehabilitation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellinger, R. J.; Burton, R.; Fritschy, B.


    The objectives of this paper are the following: to present LLNL`s collection system and innovative approach to sanitary sewer rehabilitation; share issues identified and lessons learned from over four (4) years of rehabilitation work; and discuss proposed system standards for ongoing maintenance and repair activities.

  2. Damage estimation of sewer pipe using subtitles of CCTV inspection video (United States)

    Park, Kitae; Kim, Byeongcheol; Kim, Taeheon; Seo, Dongwoo


    Recent frequent occurrence of urban sinkhole serves as a momentum of the periodic inspection of sewer pipelines. Sewer inspection using a CCTV device needs a lot of time and efforts. Many of previous studies which reduce the laborious tasks are mainly interested in the developments of image processing S/W and exploring H/W. And there has been no attempt to find meaningful information from the existing CCTV images stored by the sewer maintenance manager. This study adopts a cross-correlation based image processing method and extracts sewer inspection device's location data from CCTV images. As a result of the analysis of location-time relation, it show strong correlation between device stand time and the sewer damages. In case of using this method to investigate sewer inspection CCTV images, it will save the investigator's efforts and improve sewer maintenance efficiency and reliability.

  3. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild


    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree...... such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers...... (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit...

  4. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature (United States)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.


    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  5. Contributions of wastewater, runoff and sewer deposit erosion to wet weather pollutant loads in combined sewer systems. (United States)

    Gasperi, J; Gromaire, M C; Kafi, M; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G


    An observatory of urban pollutants was created in Paris for the purpose of assessing the dynamics of wastewater and wet weather flow (WW and WWF) pollutant loads within combined sewers. This observatory is composed of six urban catchments, covering land areas ranging in size from 42 ha to 2581 ha. For a wide array of parameters including total suspended solids (TSS), chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD(5)), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), heavy metals (Cu and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), this article is intended to evaluate the contributions of wastewater, runoff and in-sewer processes to WWF pollutant loads through the use of an entry-exit mass balance approach. To achieve this objective, a total of 16 rain events were sampled on these sites between May 2003 and February 2006. This study has confirmed that at the considered catchment scale (i.e. from 42 ha to 2581 ha) the production and transfer processes associated with WWF pollutant loads do not vary with basin scale. Entry-exit chemical mass balances over all catchments and for a large number of rain events indicate that wastewater constitutes the main source of organic and nitrogenous pollution, while runoff is the predominant source of Zn. For Cu, PAHs and TSS, the calculation underscores the major role played by in-sewer processes, specifically by sediment erosion, as a source of WWF pollution. A significant loss of dissolved metals was also observed during their transfer within the sewer network, likely as a consequence of the adsorption of dissolved metals on TSS and/or on sewer deposits. Moreover, the nature of eroded particles was examined and compared to the various sewer deposits. This comparison has highlighted that such particles exhibit similar organic and PAH contents to those measured in the organic layer, thus suggesting that the deposit eroded during a wet weather period is organic and of a nature comparable to the organic layer

  6. Spatial clustering of knowledge-based industries in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Chica


    Full Text Available The central locations of metropolitan areas have some specific attributes, leading to an accumulation of large knowledge exchanges and extensive knowledge externalities, which encourage the concentration of various economic activities, especially knowledge-based industries (KBI. Other agglomeration economies found in metropolitan areas – such as telecommunications and transport infrastructures connected to global productive circuits and complementary labour markets – are key factors for KBI employment growth. This paper explores the Helsinki Metropolitan Area’s (HMA spatial clustering of KBI at the sub-district level, and the role played by agglomeration economies (both specialization and diversity economies in fostering this process. The results reveal that KBI employment shows patterns of concentration in the core and adjacent areas. The specialization and diversity economies found in the metropolitan core and the specialization economies found in others areas lead to KBI spatial clustering in the HMA. Public policies regarding the promotion of science parks have also played a decisive role.

  7. Occurrence and sources of Escherichia coli in metropolitan St. Louis streams, October 2004 through September 2007 (United States)

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Davis, Jerri V.


    The occurrence and sources of Escherichia coli (E. coli), one of several fecal indicator bacteria, in metropolitan St. Louis streams known to receive nonpoint source runoff, occasional discharges from combined and sanitary sewers, and treated wastewater effluent were investigated from October 2004 through September 2007. Three Missouri River sites, five Mississippi River sites, and six small basin tributary stream sites were sampled during base flow and storm events for the presence of E. coli and their sources. E. coli host-source determinations were conducted using local library based genotypic methods. Human fecal contamination in stream samples was additionally confirmed by the presence of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, an anaerobic, enteric bacterium with a high occurrence in, and specificity to, humans. Missouri River E. coli densities and loads during base flow were approximately 10 times greater than those in the Mississippi River above its confluence with the Missouri River. Although substantial amounts of E. coli originated from within the study area during base flow and storm events, considerable amounts of E. coli in the Missouri River, as well as in the middle Mississippi River sections downstream from its confluence with the Missouri River, originated in Missouri River reaches upstream from the study area. In lower Mississippi River reaches, bacteria contributions from the numerous combined and sanitary sewer overflows within the study area, as well as contributions from nonpoint source runoff, greatly increased instream E. coli densities. Although other urban factors cannot be discounted, average E. coli densities in streams were strongly correlated with the number of upstream combined and sanitary sewer overflow points, and the percentage of upstream impervious cover. Small basin sites with the greatest number of combined and sanitary sewer overflows (Maline Creek and the River des Peres) had larger E. coli densities, larger loads, and a greater

  8. Application of a leakage model to assess exfiltration from sewers. (United States)

    Karpf, C; Krebs, P


    The exfiltration of wastewater from sewer systems in urban areas causes a deterioration of soil and possibly groundwater quality. Beside the simulation of transport and degradation processes in the unsaturated zone and in the aquifer the analysis of the potential impact requires the estimation of quantity and temporal variation of wastewater exfiltration. Exfiltration can be assessed by the application of a leakage model. The hydrological approach was originally developed to simulate the interactions between the groundwater and surface water, it was adapted to allow for modelling of interactions between groundwater and sewer system. In order to approximate the exfiltration specific model parameters infiltration specific parameters were used as a basis. Scenario analysis of the exfiltration in the City of Dresden from 1997 to 1999 and during the flood event in August 2002 shows the variation and the extent of exfiltration rates.

  9. A software-based sensor for combined sewer overflows. (United States)

    Leonhardt, G; Fach, S; Engelhard, C; Kinzel, H; Rauch, W


    A new methodology for online estimation of excess flow from combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures based on simulation models is presented. If sufficient flow and water level data from the sewer system is available, no rainfall data are needed to run the model. An inverse rainfall-runoff model was developed to simulate net rainfall based on flow and water level data. Excess flow at all CSO structures in a catchment can then be simulated with a rainfall-runoff model. The method is applied to a case study and results show that the inverse rainfall-runoff model can be used instead of missing rain gauges. Online operation is ensured by software providing an interface to the SCADA-system of the operator and controlling the model. A water quality model could be included to simulate also pollutant concentrations in the excess flow.

  10. Airflow in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient. (United States)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian Kilsgaard; Vollertsen, Jes; Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning


    Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water surface drags were found by log-law models of the velocity distribution in turbulent flows to fit velocity profiles measured from the water surface and by integrating the water surface drags along the wetted perimeter, mean water surface drags were found and a measure of the water surface drag coefficient was found.

  11. Metropolitan City: the Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Franco Ferrari


    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the definitions of territorial organization are no longer adequate, the concept of “metropolitan areas” arises as a solution to resolve such deficit. This study shows the beginnings of this figure in Italy and the problems of identification and delimitation caused by the abstraction of the norms, therefore entailing a difficult implementation of the concept of metropolitan cities. By identifying these obstacles, this paper presents an analysis where it is possible to ensure compliance with this new reality in the near future.

  12. The sewer collection system, the first treatment step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustia, B.M.; Dickerson, J.R.


    'Full text:' The Civil Engineering Research Foundation's (CERF) Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC) conducted an evaluation of a microbial treatment additive that converts the entire sewer collection system into an efficient high-speed treatment step. The technology claims to reduce total suspended solids (TSS) by > 60% and carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD), simultaneously by > 30% before it reaches the treatment plant. The technology uses pump station wet wells as the network nodes to add the microbial treatment to the waste water collection system This process uses the natural retention time in the sewer coupled with the addition of an extremely concentrated mixture of select, symbiotic, facultative microbes, which degrade the waste en route to the treatment plant. These bacteria do not produce odorous compounds and they replace the sulfur-reducing-bacteria (SRB) in the biomass on the walls of the force mains and on the wet perimeter of the gravity sewer piping by 'competitive exclusion.' This microbial substitution is achieved by the high quantity of organisms injected into the collection system. This reduces the sulfides in the wastewater thereby reducing the odor, along with greatly reducing the corrosion elements, which attack the piping in a sewer collection system. The objective of EvTEC evaluation was to verify the performance and reliability of such a microbial additive to treat wastewater and reduce plant 'sludges,' or biosolids. Among other performance issues, the evaluation addressed the technology's ability to treat domestic wastewater flows over an extended time period (i.e., greater than 3 months, 6 months, 12 months..., etc.) and to see if the benefits are improved during particular times of year. The benefits to using the additive include reducing the biosolids produced at the treatment plant and increasing the treatment plant's efficiency and capacity. This in turn helped reduce operating costs without requiring a large

  13. Radiation exposure of sewer workers associated with radioactive discharges from hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, C.E.; Wilkins, S.


    Models have been developed to estimate the dispersion of radionuclides discharged into the sewer system serving a hospital where nuclear medicine and other techniques are used, and to assess the radiation doses to sewer workers and maintenance staff who may be exposed to these discharges. The dispersion model has been tested in a practical situation for the radionuclide 131 I. For a typical combination of hospital and sewer works, the estimated critical group doses arising from discharges of four selected radionuclides, 32 P, 99m Tc, 125 I and 131 I, are 30 μSv y -1 and 20 μSv y -1 respectively for a worker at the sewer works and for a sewer maintenance worker exposed for prolonged periods in the region of the sewer system adjacent to the hospital discharge point. (author)

  14. Travel Models for Corridors of Metropolitan Areas Served by Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński A.


    Full Text Available In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems.

  15. CORAL off-line: an object-oriented tool for optimal control of sewer networks


    Figueras, J.; Cembrano, Gabriela; Puig, Vicenç; Quevedo, Joseba; Salamero Sansalvado, María; Marti Marques, Joaquim


    This paper describes a tool to aid in the analysis and design of combined sewer networks. Complex drainage systems include actuators, like flow-diversion gates and detention tanks, which should be optimally controlled in order to minimize flooding and combined sewer overflow (CSO). Through these optimisations volume to waste water treatment plants (WWTP) is maximised. CORAL is a tool able to model a combined sewer network, simulate rain events, calculate actuators optimal policies, reproduce ...

  16. A novel method for rapid inspection of sewer networks: combining acoustic and optical means


    Plihal, H.; Kretschmer, F.; Bin Ali, M.T.; See, C.H.; Romanova, A.; Horoshenkov, K.V.; Ertl, T.


    Operation and maintenance of the public sewer system represent key tasks for an\\ud operator. Condition assessment is usually conducted by conventional closed\\ud circuit television (CCTV) inspection. However, alternative tools such as\\ud manhole-zoom cameras (MZCs) and the acoustic technology SewerBatt® are\\ud available today.\\ud The INNOKANIS project investigates structural and operational condition\\ud assessment in the sewer system by means of 3 MZC models and SewerBatt® to\\ud develop a comb...

  17. Searching for storm water inflows in foul sewers using fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing. (United States)

    Schilperoort, Rémy; Hoppe, Holger; de Haan, Cornelis; Langeveld, Jeroen


    A major drawback of separate sewer systems is the occurrence of illicit connections: unintended sewer cross-connections that connect foul water outlets from residential or industrial premises to the storm water system and/or storm water outlets to the foul sewer system. The amount of unwanted storm water in foul sewer systems can be significant, resulting in a number of detrimental effects on the performance of the wastewater system. Efficient removal of storm water inflows into foul sewers requires knowledge of the exact locations of the inflows. This paper presents the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) monitoring data to localize illicit storm water inflows into foul sewer systems. Data results from two monitoring campaigns in foul sewer systems in the Netherlands and Germany are presented. For both areas a number of storm water inflow locations can be derived from the data. Storm water inflow can only be detected as long as the temperature of this inflow differs from the in-sewer temperatures prior to the event. Also, the in-sewer propagation of storm and wastewater can be monitored, enabling a detailed view on advection.

  18. Metropolitan siting: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, D.F.


    The paper discusses the development and implementation of the Reactor Site Criteria and particularly the evolving posture of the agency on the subject of metropolitan siting. The review actions on nine sites are described to illustrate the various issues and positions and to clarify at least some of the bases for current practices of the NRC staff

  19. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern--a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems. (United States)

    Kintrup, J; Wünsch, G


    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic "sewer slime impact" is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto.

  20. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Systems: Utilizing a Distributed Lag Model (United States)

    Combined sewer systems collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These combined sewer over...

  1. Influence of Sewer Sediments on Flow Friction and Shear Stress Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrusquia, G.; Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben


    Most sewers contain more or less deposited sediments. The paper discusses the distribution of the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with such deposited sediments. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical...

  2. Reconsidering Urban Sewer and Treatment Facilities in East Africa as Interplay of Flows, Networks and Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.


    Urbanization has brought about concentrations of people in densely populated settlements, resulting in the generation of waste water that needs to be disposed off in a hygienic way to avoid the outbreak of diseases. Decisions on what area to sewer, the nature of sewer schemes and treatment works to

  3. Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination (United States)

    This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

  4. The Characteristics of Waste Water Flow in a Danish Combined Sewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    have been analysed in order to extract some of their characteristics. Furthermore it is emphasised that the presence of a self-cleansing capacity of a combined sewer system is of vital importance in order to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows on receiving waters. Whether or not the pipelines...

  5. Determination of an Optimal Trunk Sewer-line Route for Kikuyu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best alternative is a sewerage system that uses sewer-lines to convey sewage into a treatment works. This project seeks to replace the traditional methods currently used in Kikuyu Town with a sewerage system. Geospatial technologies are used to site a treatment plant and the main trunk sewer-line route in Kikuyu ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TOPÇU


    Full Text Available Investment in education is considered important for economic growth and poverty alleviation. In many developed and developing countries families contribute privately to the education of their children as a result of continuously shrinking public budgets. Also, in Istanbul private primary schools were supported by the government in order to answer to increasing demand due to continuous rural migration and to create a competitive educational market to improve the quality of primary education. This paper, first, analyzes the spatial distribution of private primary schools according to the concentric rings and illustrates the gap between the center and the periphery and among the districts. Then, the relationships between the number of private primary schools and demand and the characteristics of the districts are investigated by a regression analysis. According to the results, the number of public primary schools is the most important factor and GDP per capita is the second factor to affect the number of private primary schools in the districts. Currently, the cluster of private primary schools mainly in high-income districts does not allow developing a competitive educational market at the metropolitan level. It is expected that a more balanced market will be develop as the urban structure of Istanbul adjusted to the neo-liberal economies in the future. The results are useful for urban planners, investors and policy makers. Further research is suggested to investigate the impact of private primary schools on the quality of public primary school education in Istanbul.

  7. Fisheries Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  8. Warden Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  9. Forestry Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  10. Wastewater Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  11. Wildlife Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  12. Park Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  13. 78 FR 9908 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Issuance of the Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System... (United States)


    ... Issuance of the Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit--New Hampshire AGENCY...) general permit for discharges from small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s) to certain waters... requirements of the CWA. The regulations at 40 CFR 122.26(b)(16) define a small municipal separate storm sewer...

  14. Uncertainties Related to Extreme Event Statistics of Sewer System Surcharge and Overflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Johansen, C.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke


    Today it is common practice - in the major part of Europe - to base design of sewer systems in urban areas on recommended minimum values of flooding frequencies related to either pipe top level, basement level in buildings or level of road surfaces. Thus storm water runoff in sewer systems is only...... proceeding in an acceptable manner, if flooding of these levels is having an average return period bigger than a predefined value. This practice is also often used in functional analysis of existing sewer systems. If a sewer system can fulfil recommended flooding frequencies or not, can only be verified...... by performing long term simulations - using a sewer flow simulation model - and draw up extreme event statistics from the model simulations. In this context it is important to realize that uncertainties related to the input parameters of rainfall runoff models will give rise to uncertainties related...

  15. Prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects using AHP-PROMETHEE II ranking method. (United States)

    Kessili, Abdelhak; Benmamar, Saadia


    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for the prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects for Algiers (Algeria) sewer networks to support the National Sanitation Office in its challenge to make decisions on prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects. The methodology applies multiple-criteria decision making. The study includes 47 projects (collectors) and 12 criteria to evaluate them. These criteria represent the different issues considered in the prioritization of the projects, which are structural, hydraulic, environmental, financial, social and technical. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine weights of the criteria and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE II) method is used to obtain the final ranking of the projects. The model was verified using the sewer data of Algiers. The results have shown that the method can be used for prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects.

  16. Sewer solids separation by sedimentation--the problem of modeling, validation and transferability. (United States)

    Kutzner, R; Brombach, H; Geiger, W F


    Sedimentation of sewer solids in tanks, ponds and similar devices is the most relevant process for the treatment of stormwater and combined sewer overflows in urban collecting systems. In the past a lot of research work was done to develop deterministic models for the description of this separation process. But these modern models are not commonly accepted in Germany until today. Water Authorities are sceptical with regard to model validation and transferability. Within this paper it is checked whether this scepticism is reasonable. A framework-proposal for the validation of mathematical models with zero or one dimensional spatial resolution for particle separation processes for stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment is presented. This proposal was applied to publications of repute on sewer solids separation by sedimentation. The result was that none of the investigated models described in literature passed the validation entirely. There is an urgent need for future research in sewer solids sedimentation and remobilization!

  17. Oil product sales in 2010 - Results per product and per district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korman, Bernard; Lauverjat, Jean


    This document proposes tables of data corresponding to sales of different oil products (super unleaded petrol, Diesel fuel, domestic heating oil, heavy fuels) in metropolitan France in 2011, in the French districts and regions, and in the coastal districts and regions for the maritime sector (fishing activity, ships).

  18. A stable isotope approach for the quantification of sewer infiltration. (United States)

    Kracht, Oliver; Gresch, Markus; Gujert, Willi


    Extraneous flows in wastewater collection systems are conventionally evaluated solely on the consideration of discharge hydrographs, which often involves a great degree of subjectivity and oversimplification. To obtain reliable information on the material fluxes within the urban environment, the use of intrinsic tracers can be the optimal choice. We demonstrate the successful use of naturally occurring stable isotopes of water (18O/16O and D/H) to accurately quantify extraneous discharge of groundwater in a combined sewer network. Fresh water supply from a distant hydrological regime provided usable isotopic separations between drinking water (proxy for real foul sewage) and local groundwater (proxy for sewer infiltration) of 1.8 per thousand in delta18O and 11.7 per thousand in 62H. Diurnal variation of wastewater isotopic composition reflected both the varying rates of foul sewage production and irregular dispersion effects in the pipe network. The latter suggest the existence of larger cumulative backwater zone volumes, which have not been attended to yet. Infiltrating groundwater contributed 39% (95% confidence interval = +/- 2.5%) of the total daily dry weather wastewater discharge. This paper discusses all relevant aspects for practical application of the method. It presents a comprehensive framework for uncertainty analysis and details on the detection and discrimination of possibly interfering effects.

  19. Detention storage volume for combined sewer overflow into a river. (United States)

    Temprano, J; Tejero, I


    This article discusses the storage volume needed in a combined sewer system tank in order to preserve the water quality. There are a lot of design criteria which do not take into account the conditions of the receiving water, and as a result are inappropriate. A model was used to simulate the performance of a theoretical combined sewer system where a tank was located downstream. Results were obtained from the overflows produced by the rain recorded in Santander (Spain) for 11 years, with several combinations of storage volume and treatment capacity in the wastewater treatment plant. Quality criteria were also proposed for faecal coliforms, BOD, and total nitrogen to evaluate the effects from the overflows in the river water quality. Equations have been obtained which relate the number of overflows, the storage volume and the treatment plant capacity. The bacteriological pollution, quantified by means of faecal coliforms, was the analytical parameter which produced the most adverse effects in the river, so that more storage volume is needed (45 to 180 m3 ha(-1) net) than with other simulated pollutants (5 to 50 m3 ha(-1) net for BOD, and less than 4 m3 ha(-1) net for the total nitrogen). The increase in the treatment plant's capacity, from two to three times the flow in dry weather, reduces the impact on the river water in a more effective way, allowing a reduction of up to 65% in the number of overflows rather than increasing the storage volume.

  20. Management of sewer overflow structure in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leymann, G.


    Due to the geological morphology of the south and west of Germany, combined sewer systems are used to drain sewage and rain water in urban areas. In this system, industrial and domestic sewage as well as rain water flowing off areas with sealed surfaces are discharged into one pipe. Size and structure of this sewer system are designed to fulfil the criterium, that the total amount of water, stemming from rain events of an intensity not to be exceeded more than once a year, can be drained without flooding any part of the area considered. In the past, construction costs were reduced by building overflow structures at suitable sites; these structures discharge a volume of water exceeding five times the amount of water produced during dry weather in a most directly way in the outlet channel. In the sewage treatment plant, only two fifths of this remaining water volume was treated mechanically and biologically. Three fifths were discharged into the natural waters after mechanical treatment only

  1. [Early detection of occupational skin diseases in sewer workers]. (United States)

    Lang, V; Lauffer, F; Fincan, Y; Biedermann, T; Zink, A


    Skin diseases affect 30-70% of the world population, and globally, skin cancer rates are continuously increasing. In this respect, prevention programs and early detection of skin diseases are of particular importance. To screen sewer workers for skin diseases with regard to their work-related risk. Employees of the municipal utilities in Munich (Münchner Stadtentwässerung) underwent a whole-body examination of the skin, conducted by two dermatologists. In addition, all employees completed a paper-based questionnaire on risk behavior and preventive measures. We examined 81 employees (79 men, 2 women, mean age 45.7 ± 9.5 years). Skin lesions in need of treatment were found in 30.9% (n = 25): the most frequent diagnosis was mycosis pedis (16.1%). In addition, one employee was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and two with actinic keratoses. According to the questionnaire, 43.5% of the employees had undergone a physician-led skin cancer screening in the past, whereas sun-protection practices were rarely applied. According to our findings, employee skin cancer screening seems to be beneficial for the detection of work-related skin diseases and is associated with a high participation rate. Furthermore, the study suggests that sewer workers have a high rate of mycosis pedis, possibly a work-related effect.

  2. Regional differences in commuting activities of inhabitants in the Tokyo metropolitan suburb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kawase


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to elucidate gender differences and regional differences of co-mmuting activities by inhabitants in Japanese metropolitan suburbs. I found the different parts by districts in the metropolitan suburb. Regional factors cause gender differences in commuting activities and result in regional differences: In residential areas, inhabitants who work in metropolitan centers occupy much of the population. In older built-up areas, there are many “local” persons. In rural areas, motorization is progressing because access to rail-roads has been inconvenient. These regional factors influence the behavioral characteristics of commuting by married men, married women, never married men and never married women.

  3. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.


    buried and converted to storm drains or sewers and because of higher density development in the Western and Central United States. The national indices (MA-NUII, NUII) were compared to indices that were derived independently for each metropolitan area (MA-UII) based on variables that were of local interest. The MA-UIIs, which were based on 5 to 40 variables, tended to overestimate urban intensity relative to the national indices particularly when the MA-UII was composed of large numbers of variables that were not linearly related to population density as in Denver, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Milwaukee-Green Bay.

  4. Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecon Pascual, R.


    The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

  5. Sticking Points: How School Districts Experience Implementing the Portfolio Strategy (United States)

    Lake, Robin; Posamentier, Jordan; Denice, Patrick; Hill, Paul


    The portfolio strategy is a change strategy for public education in a district or metropolitan area. It is founded on the idea of re-missioning government agencies from rigid bureaucratic entities that mostly manage compliance requirements and interest group politics to a new role: overseeing performance and a diverse range of school choices…

  6. Factors that influence properties of FOG deposits and their formation in sewer collection systems. (United States)

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J


    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages that leads to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer systems displayed strong similarities with calcium-based fatty acid salts as a result of a saponification reaction. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors that may affect the formation of FOG deposits and their chemical and rheological properties. These factors included the types of fats used in FSEs, environmental conditions (i.e. pH and temperature), and the source of calcium in sewer systems. The results of this study showed that calcium content in the calcium based salts seemed to depend on the solubility limit of the calcium source and influenced by pH and temperature conditions. The fatty acid profile of the calcium-based fatty acid salts produced under alkali driven hydrolysis were identical to the profile of the fat source and did not match the profile of field FOG deposits, which displayed a high fraction of palmitic, a long chain saturated fatty acid. It is hypothesized that selective microbial metabolism of fats and/or biologically induced hydrogenation may contribute to the FOG deposit makeup in sewer system. Therefore, selective removal of palmitic in pretreatment processes may be necessary prior to the discharge of FSE wastes into the sewer collection system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012 (United States)

    Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi


    Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408

  8. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012. (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi


    Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.

  9. The use of multiple tracers to evaluate the impact of sewered and non-sewered development on coastal water quality in a rural area of Florida. (United States)

    Meeroff, Daniel E; Bloetscher, Frederick; Long, Sharon C; Bocca, Thais


    When onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) are not sited appropriately or installed properly, wastewater constituents can be a source of adverse environmental impacts to soil and groundwater, which can lead to potential public health risks. A paired monitoring design developed to compare water quality in sewered and non-sewered areas is presented here. It is suggested as a possible monitoring scheme for assessing the impact of sewer installation projects. As such, two sets of single-family, rural residential Florida neighborhoods were evaluated over a two-year period to gain insight into the effects of small-community use of OSTDS on coastal water quality. One set of two neighborhoods were connected to the sanitary sewer network and the other set of two were served exclusively by OSTDS. Water quality sampling was conducted at the paired sites during seasonal high water table (SHWT) and seasonal low water table (SLWT) events. Measured surface water quality during the SHWT showed indications of environmental impacts from OSTDS in terms of nutrients, microbial pathogen indicators, and other water quality measures, such as turbidity and conductivity. However, during the SLWT events, no obvious impacts attributable to OSTDS were detected. The water quality results indicate that OSTDS impacts may be measureable in rural areas. Other factors, such as microbial indicator survival and regrowth potential, may confound the understanding of water quality impacts of sewer projects. For example, the microbial indicators Escherichia coli and enterococci were found to persist over time and therefore did not always represent true comparisons of OSTDS and sewered areas between seasons. The timeframe for evaluating the effects of sewer projects may be longer than anticipated because of this survival and regrowth phenomenon.

  10. School District Personnel Selection Practices: Exploring the Effects of Demographic Factors on Rural Values within a Person-Organization Fit Model. (United States)

    Little, Paula S.; Miller, Stephen K.

    A study examined the extent to which demographic factors predict rural values in Kentucky public school district hiring officials. Among the demographic factors considered were school district metropolitan classification, school district size, community racial composition, decision makers' position in the organizational hierarchy, and decision…

  11. The Ecology of Acidophilic Microorganisms in the Corroding Concrete Sewer Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Jiang


    Full Text Available Concrete corrosion is one of the most significant problems affecting valuable sewer infrastructure on a global scale. This problem occurs in the aerobic zone of the sewer, where a layer of surface corrosion develops on the exposed concrete and the surface pH is typically lowered from around 11–10 (pristine concrete to pH 2–4. Acidophilic microorganisms become established as biofilms within the concrete corrosion layer and enhance the loss of concrete mass. Until recently, the acidophilic community was considered to comprise relatively few species of microorganisms, however, the biodiversity of the corrosion community is now recognized as being extensive and varying from different sewer environmental conditions. The diversity of acidophiles in the corrosion communities includes chemolithoautotrophs, chemolithoheterotrophs, and chemoorganoheterotrophs. The activity of these microorganisms is strongly affected by H2S levels in the sewer gas phase, although CO2, organic matter, and iron in the corrosion layer influence this acidic ecosystem. This paper briefly presents the conditions within the sewer that lead to the development of concrete corrosion in that environment. The review focuses on the acidophilic microorganisms detected in sewer corrosion environments, and then summarizes their proposed functions and physiology, especially in relation to the corrosion process. To our knowledge, this is the first review of acidophilic corrosion microbial communities, in which, the ecology and the environmental conditions (when available are considered. Ecological studies of sewer corrosion are limited, however, where possible, we summarize the important metabolic functions of the different acidophilic species detected in sewer concrete corrosion layers. It is evident that microbial functions in the acidic sewer corrosion environment can be linked to those occurring in the analogous acidic environments of acid mine drainage and bioleaching.

  12. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems:a danisk case study


    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.; Neve, S. L.


    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promis...

  13. Principles and Approaches for Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Appelgren, Cecilia; Larsen, Torben


    A study has been carried out with the objectives of describing the effect of sediment deposits on the hydraulic capacity of sewer systems and to investigate the sediment transport in sewer systems. A result of the study is a mathematical model MOUSE ST which describes sediment transport in sewers....... This paper discusses the applicability and the limitations of various modelling approaches and sediment transport formulations in in MOUSE ST. Further, the paper presents a simple application of MOUSE ST to the Rya catchment in Gothenburg, Sweden....

  14. Principles and approaches for numerical modelling of sediment transport in sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole; Larsen, Torben; Appelgren, Cecilia


    model MOUSE ST which describes the sediment transport in sewers. This paper discusses the applicability and the limitations of various modelling approaches and sediment transport formulations in MOUSE ST. The study was founded by the Swedish Water and Waste Works Association and the Nordic Industrial......A study has been carried out at the University of Aalborg, Denmark and VBB VIAK, Sweden with the objectives to describe the effect of sediment deposits on the hydraulic capacity of sewer systems and to investigate the sediment transport in sewer systems. A results of the study is a mathematical...

  15. Gamma and beta logging of underground sewer and process lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, M.J.; Martz, D.E.; Langner, G.H. Jr.


    The GammaSnake can be useful for locating uranium mill tailings used as backfill for sewer lines or storm drains where the lines can be readily accessed from a cleanout access port or other opening. The time required to determine if contamination is present using the GammaSnake method is considerably less than when using the delta gamma or drilling methods. There is, also, less potential hazard to the equipment operators when using the GammaSnake method. The GammaSnake method is generally limited to a distance of 100 feet or less. Used with the MAC-51B line locator, the GammaSnake method can provide useful information without extensive drilling or surveying. 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Premises for Shaping Metropolitan Areas in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The setting up of metropolitan areas is a process which is still in progress in Romania. The legislative framework for the creation of these areas has been built up only since 2001, and there are still a number of juridical inconsistencies concerning the association of administrative units to form metropolitan areas. On the other hand, political reasons and the fear of losing a certain degree of authority and to become subordinates of the large cities (in the case of rural municipalities also hindered the development of metropolitan areas in Romania. Nevertheless, the metropolitan areas already in existence are running a number of projects that are beneficial for most members of the association. Such positive examples may trigger the creation of the other metropolitan areas. Although the existing metropolitan areas did not yield spectacular results, the time passed since their foundation is yet too short to correctly assess their usefulness and territorial meaning. For the moment, the following metropolitan areas exist in Romania: Iaşi, Oradea, Braşov, Constanţa, Bacău, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş and Craiova. Bucharest, Timişoara, Ploieşti and Galaţi-Brăila metropolitan areas are still in process of setting up.

  17. The Settlements Growth in Mijen District, Suburb of Semarang (United States)

    Pigawati, B.; Yuliastuti, N.; Mardiansjah, F. H.


    Semarang is one of metropolitan cities in Indonesia. As common in metropolitan cities, Semarang has problems regarding the availability of urban space, especially for settlements. This is related to the increase of population in Semarang. The selection of settlements should consider the suitability of space usage. This study aimed to analyze the growth of Semarang settlements in 2006-2015, distribution patterns, characteristics, directions and factors affecting growth. The location of the research is Mijen District located in Suburb of Semarang. This research used a quantitative descriptive spatial approach by using remote sensing technique and Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed that some of the growth sites of settlements in Mijen District, the suburb of Semarang are located in areas which not suitable for settlements. There are several types of settlement patterns in Mijen District. Accessibility is the major factor driving the growth of settlements. An integrated development policy is needed to maintain a sustainable balance of urban settlement development.

  18. Modelling of sedimentation and remobilization in in-line storage sewers for stormwater treatment. (United States)

    Frehmann, T; Flores, C; Luekewille, F; Mietzel, T; Spengler, B; Geiger, W F


    A special arrangement of combined sewer overflow tanks is the in-line storage sewer with downstream discharge (ISS-down). This layout has the advantage that, besides the sewer system, no other structures are required for stormwater treatment. The verification of the efficiency with respect to the processes of sedimentation and remobilization of sediment within the in-line storage sewer with downstream discharge is carried out in a combination of a field and a pilot plant study. The model study was carried out using a pilot plant model scaled 1:13. The following is intended to present some results of the pilot plant study and the mathematical empirical modelling of the sedimentation and remobilization process.

  19. Demonstration of an Innovative Large-Diameter Sewer Rehabilitation Technology in Houston, Texas (United States)

    While sewer renewal technologies currently being used for the repair, replacement and/or rehabilitation of deteriorating wastewater collection systems are generally effective, there is still room for improvement of existing technologies and for the development of new technologies...

  20. Demonstration of an Innovative Large-Diameter Sewer Rehabilitation Technology in Houston, Texas - slides (United States)

    While sewer renewal technologies currently being used for the repair, replacement and/or rehabilitation of deteriorating wastewater collection systems are generally effective, there is still room for improvement of existing technologies and for the development of new technologies...

  1. Interactions between heavy metals and sewer slimes. Wechselwirkungen zwischen Schwermetallen und Sielhaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutekunst, B.


    Sewer slimes in wastewater pipes are an efficient means for detecting heavy metals discharged into the sewer system. The chances and limits of this method are discussed on the basis of the interactions between the heavy metals and the sewer slime. Chemical processes which lead to an accumulation of heavy metals are precipitation, adsorption and sedimentation. The mobilization is due to dissolution, desorption and complexation. The dependency of the waste water parameters pH, redox potential, heavy metal concentration and speciation on the accumulation and mobilization of the heavy metals is investigated as well as the binding capacity and strength. The heavy metals speciations in sewer slime are estimated by the application of a sequential leaching technique. Finally the practical significance of the experiments is shown. (orig.).

  2. Design Of A Laboratory Set-up For Evaluating Structural Strength Of Deteriorated Concrete Sewer Pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Salet, T.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.


    The principle of structural behaviour of buried concrete pipes is fairly understood, except for how material deterioration affects structural behaviour and performance. Consequently, information on the structural behaviour of deteriorated sewer pipes will contribute to better understanding of the

  3. Anticoagulant resistance: a relevant issue in sewer rat (Rattus norvegicus) control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte


    the resistant rats, had resistance-related mutations in the VKORC1 gene. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the genetic background of anticoagulant resistance may have to be redefined in respect of resistance-related changes in the VKORC1 gene. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry......BACKGROUND: The majority of rat problems in cities are thought to be related to defective sewers, and the use of anticoagulant rodenticides in such places is often implemented as part of regular urban rodent control. Knowledge pertaining to the resistance status of sewer rat populations is non......-existent, which may be leading to control problems in cities. It has become crucial to provide knowledge on the prevalence of resistance and how different control strategies have affected its prevalence among sewer rat populations. The prevalence of resistance was investigated in six sewer locations in Copenhagen...

  4. Determination of an Optimal Trunk Sewer-line Route for Kikuyu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proposed route utilises the existing road reserves, which help in minimising the costs ... and industries and conveys it using sewer pipes to a treatment works where it is treated and ..... Automating Utility Route Design and Planning through.

  5. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern - a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintrup, J. [Chemistry Lab., Wessling GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Wuensch, G. [Lehrgebiet Analytische Chemie, Univ. Hannover (Germany)


    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic ''sewer slime impact'' is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto. (orig.)

  6. Environmental assessment of sewer construction in small to medium sized cities using life cycle assessment


    Petit, Anna


    In a world with an increasing urban population, analysing the construction impacts of sanitation infrastructures through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is necessary for defining the best environmental management strategies. In this study, the environmental impacts of one linear meter of sewer constructive solution were analysed for different pipe materials and diameters used in Southern Europe; a unit of different sewer appurtenances (pump, manhole and inspection chamber) was also considered. Th...

  7. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system (United States)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.


    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  8. Receding horizon control of hybrid linear delayed systems: Application to sewer networks


    Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela


    A control-oriented hybrid linear model for water transport in sewer networks is proposed as a suitable framework for the computation of real-time controllers for the minimization of flooding in presence of heavy-rain events. The model is based on individual network elements (sewers, gates, weirs and tanks) and does not rely on topological simplifications, thus providing a better description of the hydrological and hydraulic phenomena than in similar works. Using a generic form of a hybrid lin...

  9. Conceptual design report, 200 Area sanitary sewer system: Project 96L-EWL-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, D.L.


    Project L-116 will install an integrated sanitary sewer system in the 200 Area. This new system will connect existing sewer systems for facilities that have a foreseeable future, provide capacity and routing for future facilities, and install new septic sewer systems for existing facilities that cannot be feasibly connected to the new sewer system and have a mission that will extend beyond the year 2000. Project L-116 will construct a sanitary sewer collection, treatment, and disposal system for facilities in the 200-East and -West Areas and adjacent areas located on the 200 Area plateau. The existing septic systems will be abandoned or decommissioned in accordance with applicable Washington State and local codes and regulations. The conceptual design for the sanitary sewer system is designed around population forecasts of 5,000 people for 200-West Area and 9,000 people for 200-East Area. The definitive design will be based on the latest forecast populations at the time definitive design is initiated

  10. Assessment of erosion and sedimentation dynamic in a combined sewer network using online turbidity monitoring. (United States)

    Bersinger, T; Le Hécho, I; Bareille, G; Pigot, T


    Eroded sewer sediments are a significant source of organic matter discharge by combined sewer overflows. Many authors have studied the erosion and sedimentation processes at the scale of a section of sewer pipe and over short time periods. The objective of this study was to assess these processes at the scale of an entire sewer network and over 1 month, to understand whether phenomena observed on a small scale of space and time are still valid on a larger scale. To achieve this objective the continuous monitoring of turbidity was used. First, the study of successive rain events allows observation of the reduction of the available sediment and highlights the widely different erosion resistance for the different sediment layers. Secondly, calculation of daily chemical oxygen demand (COD) fluxes during the entire month was performed showing that sediment storage in the sewer pipe after a rain period is important and stops after 5 days. Nevertheless, during rainfall events, the eroded fluxes are more important than the whole sewer sediment accumulated during a dry weather period. This means that the COD fluxes promoted by runoff are substantial. This work confirms, with online monitoring, most of the conclusions from other studies on a smaller scale.

  11. Separate and combined sewer systems: a long-term modelling approach. (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare


    Sewer systems convey mostly dry weather flow, coming from domestic and industrial sanitary sewage as well as infiltration flow, and stormwater due to meteoric precipitations. Traditionally, in urban drainage two types of sewer systems are adopted: separate and combined sewers. The former convey dry and wet weather flow separately into two different networks, while the latter convey dry and wet weather flow together. Which is the best solution in terms of cost-benefit analysis still remains a controversial subject. The present study was aimed at comparing the pollution loads discharged to receiving bodies by Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) for different kinds of sewer systems (combined and separate). To accomplish this objective, a comparison between the two systems was carried out using results from simulations of catchments characterised by different dimensions, population densities and water supply rate. The analysis was based on a parsimonious mathematical model able to simulate the sewer system as well as the WWTP during both dry and wet weather. The rain series employed for the simulations was six years long. Several pollutants, both dissolved and particulate, were modelled. The results confirmed the uncertainties in the choice of one system versus the other, emphasising the concept that case-by-case solutions have to be undertaken. Further, the compared systems showed different responses in terms of effectiveness in reducing the discharged mass to the RWB in relation to the particular pollutant taken into account.

  12. Biological assessment and streambed-sediment chemistry of streams in the Indianapolis metropolitan area, Indiana, 2003–2008 (United States)

    Voelker, David C.


    During 2003–2008, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 13 sites in the Indianapolis metropolitan area in Indiana for benthic invertebrates, fish communities, and streambed-sediment chemistry. Data from seven White River sites and six tributary sites complement surface-water chemistry data collected by the Indianapolis Department of Public Works. The information is being used to assess changes in water quality in conjunction with the City's programs to reduce combined sewer overflows and other point and nonpoint sources of pollution in the Indianapolis area. During the study, 233 benthic-invertebrate taxa were identified from which the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) Index, the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and the Invertebrate Community Index (ICI) were calculated. EPT index scores ranged from 2 to 16 on the White River and from 2 to 17 on the tributaries. EPT index scores indicate that these pollution-intolerant taxa are more prevalent upstream from and away from the combined-sewer areas of Indianapolis. HBI scores from sites on the White River ranged from 4.67 (good) to 9.55 (very poor), whereas on the tributaries, scores ranged from 4.21 (very good) to 8.14 (poor). Lower HBI scores suggest that less organic pollution was present and, like the EPT scores, indicate better conditions where combined-sewer overflows (CSOs) are not present. Similarly, ICI scores indicated better conditions upstream from the CSO outfalls on the White River. White River scores ranged from 12 to 46, where higher ICI scores indicate better conditions in the benthic-invertebrate community. ICI scores at the tributary sites ranged from 12 to 52, with the highest scores on streams without CSOs.

  13. Broadband availability in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Wood


    Full Text Available Over the past few years having a broadband connection has become essential for many Internet activities. As broadband increases in importance, it becomes imperative to assess how its use and availability may vary, especially in relation to issues such as geographic location. For rural areas in particular, the availability of broadband service is especially important. This research assesses broadband service availability in rural areas of Pennsylvania, USA. In particular, it examines the extent to which Digital Subscriber Line (DSL and broadband cable modem services are being deployed throughout rural Pennsylvania. It compares this deployment with the availability of such services in the state’s urban and metropolitan areas. The results of this research suggest that there is a “digital divide” in terms of broadband availability between rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. However, this “divide” is perhaps not as wide as might be expected. Thus, as broadband is becoming increasingly available in rural areas of the U.S. and throughout much of the rest of the world, this research concludes that while research must remain vigilant in terms of assessing advanced telecommunications availability in rural areas, future research should also be sure to focus on how such technologies can be used to promote economic and social concerns, including in relation to building online networks and diminishing social and professional isolation in rural areas.

  14. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system]. (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing


    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  15. Application of the Wallingford Procedure to sewer network rehabilitation. Rehabilitacion de redes de alcantarillado. Aplicando el sistema de Wallingford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M. (Universidad Politecnica de de Cataluna. Barcelona (Spain)); Lopez, R. (Universitat de Lleida. Lleida (Spain))


    In this paper we present a summary of the Wallingford Procedure application to sewer network rehabilitation studies. After the methodology of the Procedure is revised, an application to a sewer network of Sant Boi de Llobregat is showed. Flow survey campaigns, calibration and validation processes and the alternative proposed to improve the initial situation are described. Finally, the benefits to apply such methodologies to the sewer network rehabilitation analysis are exposed. (Author) 3 refs.

  16. Application of the Wallingford Procedure to sewer network rehabilitation; Rehabilitacion de redes de alcantarillado. Aplicando el sistema de Wallingford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M. [Universidad Politecnica de de Cataluna. Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, R. [Universitat de Lleida. Lleida (Spain)


    In this paper we present a summary of the Wallingford Procedure application to sewer network rehabilitation studies. After the methodology of the Procedure is revised, an application to a sewer network of Sant Boi de Llobregat is showed. Flow survey campaigns, calibration and validation processes and the alternative proposed to improve the initial situation are described. Finally, the benefits to apply such methodologies to the sewer network rehabilitation analysis are exposed. (Author) 3 refs.

  17. Resistance to anticoagulants in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in sewers in an urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodal, Jens


    primarily tested for possible resistance to coumatetralyl, bromadiolone and difenacoum by Blood Clotting Response tests. Feeding test was used in tests for resistance to difethialone. A total of 24 rats trapped in sewers at 15 locations were tested. Resistance to bromadiolone was found among rats from all......Control of rats in sewers is, though of varying intensity, common practice in a majority of Danish municipalities and bromadiolone is the most preferred active ingredient. The results of sewer rat control is very difficult to register and very little is known about resistance among sewer rats...

  18. Integrated solutions for urban runoff pollution control in Brazilian metropolitan regions. (United States)

    Morihama, A C D; Amaro, C; Tominaga, E N S; Yazaki, L F O L; Pereira, M C S; Porto, M F A; Mukai, P; Lucci, R M


    One of the most important causes for poor water quality in urban rivers in Brazil is the low collection efficiency of the sewer system due to unforeseen interconnections with the stormwater drainage system. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian cities have adopted separate systems for sanitary sewers and stormwater runoff. Gradually these two systems became interconnected. A major challenge faced today by water managers in Brazil is to find efficient and low cost solutions to deal with this mixed system. The current situation poses an important threat to the improvement of the water quality in urban rivers and lakes. This article presents an evaluation of the water quality parameters and the diffuse pollution loads during rain events in the Pinheiros River, a tributary of the Tietê River in São Paulo. It also presents different types of integrated solutions for reducing the pollution impact of combined systems, based on the European experience in urban water management. An evaluation of their performance and a comparison with the separate system used in most Brazilian cities is also presented. The study is based on an extensive water quality monitoring program that was developed for a special investigation in the Pinheiros River and lasted 2.5 years. Samples were collected on a daily basis and water quality variables were analyzed on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Two hundred water quality variables were monitored at 53 sampling points. During rain events, additional monitoring was carried out using an automated sampler. Pinheiros River is one of the most important rivers in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region and it is also a heavily polluted one.

  19. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1995 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin


    The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project.......The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project....

  20. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1996 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin


    The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC.......The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC....

  1. Risk assessment of radionuclide discharges to sanitary sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galpin, F.L.; Merrell, G.; Rogers, V.C.


    This presentation describes the basic approach and conduct of a study of the possible risks and consequences of radionuclide discharges into a sewage treatment system. The study's objective was to determine if there were any possible significant exposures to either WSSC workers or the public form the discharge of radioactive material into the sewer system. The conduct of this study included a review of applicable regulations, and a case study of some past contamination events. The evaluation of potential occupational exposures involved measurements in the collection system were selected based on their location relative to potential dischargers. Measurement points at the treatment works were selected at points where biosolids might accumulate. Both passive, (TLD) and active, (scintillation detector) measurements were made. A limited number of samples were taken and analyzed. Potential doses to the public were estimated based on the possible pathways to man. Due both to limited resources and other project constraints several assumptions and bounding calculations were necessary to meet the objective. Although the study concluded that there were no present significant health concerns, followup evaluations were recommended. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Fractal analysis of urban environment: land use and sewer system (United States)

    Gires, A.; Ochoa Rodriguez, S.; Van Assel, J.; Bruni, G.; Murla Tulys, D.; Wang, L.; Pina, R.; Richard, J.; Ichiba, A.; Willems, P.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Schertzer, D. J. M.


    Land use distribution are usually obtained by automatic processing of satellite and airborne pictures. The complexity of the obtained patterns which are furthermore scale dependent is enhanced in urban environment. This scale dependency is even more visible in a rasterized representation where only a unique class is affected to each pixel. A parameter commonly analysed in urban hydrology is the coefficient of imperviousness, which reflects the proportion of rainfall that will be immediately active in the catchment response. This coefficient is strongly scale dependent with a rasterized representation. This complex behaviour is well grasped with the help of the scale invariant notion of fractal dimension which enables to quantify the space occupied by a geometrical set (here the impervious areas) not only at a single scale but across all scales. This fractal dimension is also compared to the ones computed on the representation of the catchments with the help of operational semi-distributed models. Fractal dimensions of the corresponding sewer systems are also computed and compared with values found in the literature for natural river networks. This methodology is tested on 7 pilot sites of the European NWE Interreg IV RainGain project located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, United-Kingdom and Portugal. Results are compared between all the case study which exhibit different physical features (slope, level of urbanisation, population density...).

  3. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.


    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  4. Assessment of the service performance of drainage system and transformation of pipeline network based on urban combined sewer system model. (United States)

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Wu; Ma, Lu-Ming


    In recent years, due to global climate change and rapid urbanization, extreme weather events occur to the city at an increasing frequency. Waterlogging is common because of heavy rains. In this case, the urban drainage system can no longer meet the original design requirements, resulting in traffic jams and even paralysis and post a threat to urban safety. Therefore, it provides a necessary foundation for urban drainage planning and design to accurately assess the capacity of the drainage system and correctly simulate the transport effect of drainage network and the carrying capacity of drainage facilities. This study adopts InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) to present the two combined sewer drainage systems in Yangpu District, Shanghai (China). The model can assist the design of the drainage system. Model calibration is performed based on the historical rainfall events. The calibrated model is used for the assessment of the outlet drainage and pipe loads for the storm scenario currently existing or possibly occurring in the future. The study found that the simulation and analysis results of the drainage system model were reliable. They could fully reflect the service performance of the drainage system in the study area and provide decision-making support for regional flood control and transformation of pipeline network.

  5. Influence of pipe material and surfaces on sulfide related odor and corrosion in sewers. (United States)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild


    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation on sewer pipe surfaces was investigated in a pilot scale experimental setup. The experiments were aimed at replicating conditions in a gravity sewer located immediately downstream of a force main where sulfide related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed. During the experiments, hydrogen sulfide gas was injected intermittently into the headspace of partially filled concrete and plastic (PVC and HDPE) sewer pipes in concentrations of approximately 1,000 ppm(v). Between each injection, the hydrogen sulfide concentration was monitored while it decreased because of adsorption and subsequent oxidation on the pipe surfaces. The experiments showed that the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation was approximately two orders of magnitude faster on the concrete pipe surfaces than on the plastic pipe surfaces. Removal of the layer of reaction (corrosion) products from the concrete pipes was found to reduce the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation significantly. However, the rate of sulfide oxidation was restored to its background level within 10-20 days. A similar treatment had no observable effect on hydrogen sulfide removal in the plastic pipe reactors. The experimental results were used to model hydrogen sulfide oxidation under field conditions. This showed that the gas-phase hydrogen sulfide concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henry's law. In the plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on such surfaces.

  6. The distribution dynamics and desorption behaviour of mobile pharmaceuticals and caffeine to combined sewer sediments. (United States)

    Hajj-Mohamad, M; Darwano, H; Duy, S Vo; Sauvé, S; Prévost, M; Arp, H P H; Dorner, S


    Pharmaceuticals are discharged to the environment from wastewater resource recovery facilities, sewer overflows, and illicit sewer connections. To understand the fate of pharmaceuticals, there is a need to better understand their sorption dynamics to suspended sediments (SS) and settled sediments (StS) in sewer systems. In this study, such sorption dynamics to both SS and StS were assessed using a batch equilibrium method under both static and dynamic conditions. Experiments were performed with natively occurring and artificially modified concentrations of sewer pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, theophylline, carbamazepine, and a metabolite of carbamazepine) and caffeine. Differences in apparent distribution coefficients, K d,app , between SS and StS were related to differences in their organic carbon (OC) content, and the practice of artificially modifying the concentration. K d,app values of modified contaminant concentrations and high OC sediments were substantially higher. Pseudo-second order desorption rates for these mobile compounds were also quantified. Successive flushing events to simulate the addition of stormwater to sewer networks revealed that aqueous concentrations would not necessarily decrease, because the added water will rapidly return to equilibrium concentrations with the sediments. Sorption and desorption kinetics must be considered in addition to dilution, to avoid underestimating the influence of dilution on concentrations of pharmaceuticals discharged to the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of Parameters and Flow Characteristics for the Design of Sanitary Sewers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ansari


    Full Text Available Determination of the flow characteristics is very important for the design of sanitary sewers in any area. In the present study these are determined in the running sewers for the two parameters; per capita flow contribution and the peak flow factor. ISCO area - velocity flow meter model 4250 is used for this purpose. The flow meter, before being used in the running sewers, is calibrated first in the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of the UTM (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. During the study the flow meter is installed inside the manhole in 10 different phases in the months of June, August, September, and October 2005 to monitor the sewage flow running in it. Continuous data is recorded in the flow meter during the process and the recorded time varies between 47 hours 25 minutes and 128 hours 35 minutes. The rainfall data is also collected during the same time using an automatic rain gauge which recorded rainfall at every five minutes of interval. Both the parameters thus calculated are then compared with the Malaysian Standard for sewer design i.e. MS 1228:1991. The results show that higher values of these parameters are being used in the design of sanitary sewers and extensive study needs to be carried out to review these values for future use

  8. A risk-based approach to sanitary sewer pipe asset management. (United States)

    Baah, Kelly; Dubey, Brajesh; Harvey, Richard; McBean, Edward


    Wastewater collection systems are an important component of proper management of wastewater to prevent environmental and human health implications from mismanagement of anthropogenic waste. Due to aging and inadequate asset management practices, the wastewater collection assets of many cities around the globe are in a state of rapid decline and in need of urgent attention. Risk management is a tool which can help prioritize resources to better manage and rehabilitate wastewater collection systems. In this study, a risk matrix and a weighted sum multi-criteria decision-matrix are used to assess the consequence and risk of sewer pipe failure for a mid-sized city, using ArcGIS. The methodology shows that six percent of the uninspected sewer pipe assets of the case study have a high consequence of failure while four percent of the assets have a high risk of failure and hence provide priorities for inspection. A map incorporating risk of sewer pipe failure and consequence is developed to facilitate future planning, rehabilitation and maintenance programs. The consequence of failure assessment also includes a novel failure impact factor which captures the effect of structurally defective stormwater pipes on the failure assessment. The methodology recommended in this study can serve as a basis for future planning and decision making and has the potential to be universally applied by municipal sewer pipe asset managers globally to effectively manage the sanitary sewer pipe infrastructure within their jurisdiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposit formation mechanisms in sewer lines. (United States)

    He, Xia; Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J; de los Reyes, Francis L


    The presence of hardened and insoluble fats, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits in sewer lines is a major cause of line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Despite the central role that FOG deposits play in SSOs, little is known about the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sanitary sewers. In this study, FOG deposits were formed under laboratory conditions from the reaction between free fatty acids and calcium chloride. The calcium and fatty acid profile analysis showed that the laboratory-produced FOG deposit displayed similar characteristics to FOG deposits collected from sanitary sewer lines. Results of FTIR analysis showed that the FOG deposits are metallic salts of fatty acid as revealed by comparisons with FOG deposits collected from sewer lines and pure calcium soaps. Based on the data, we propose that the formation of FOG deposits occurs from the aggregation of excess calcium compressing the double layer of free fatty acid micelles and a saponification reaction between aggregated calcium and free fatty acids.

  10. A mathematical model to predict the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in sewers. (United States)

    Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar


    Raw wastewater contains considerable amounts of energy that can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer. The technique is well established, and there are approximately 50 facilities in Switzerland, many of which have been successfully using this technique for years. The planning of new facilities requires predictions of the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in the sewer because altered wastewater temperatures may cause problems for the biological processes used in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters. A mathematical model is presented that calculates the discharge in a sewer conduit and the spatial profiles and dynamics of the temperature in the wastewater, sewer headspace, pipe, and surrounding soil. The model was implemented in the simulation program TEMPEST and was used to evaluate measured time series of discharge and temperatures. It was found that the model adequately reproduces the measured data and that the temperature and thermal conductivity of the soil and the distance between the sewer pipe and undisturbed soil are the most sensitive model parameters. The temporary storage of heat in the pipe wall and the exchange of heat between wastewater and the pipe wall are the most important processes for heat transfer. The model can be used as a tool to determine the optimal site for heat recovery and the maximal amount of extractable heat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems. (United States)

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter


    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found.

  12. Long-term impacts on sewers following food waste disposer installation in housing areas. (United States)

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Viklander, Maria


    To increase biogas generation and decrease vehicle transportation of solid waste, the integration of food waste disposers (FWDs) into the wastewater system has been proposed. However, concerns have been raised about the long-term impact of the additional load of the FWDs on sewer systems. To examine the said impact, this study has used closed-circuit television inspection techniques to evaluate the status of 181 concrete pipes serving single family housing areas with a diameter of 225 mm, ranging from a 100% connection rate of households with an FWD to none. A minor study was also performed on a multi-family housing area, where mainly plastic pipes (200 mm) were used. The extent and distribution of deposits related to the ratio of FWDs, inclination and pipe sagging (backfalls) were ascertained by using linear regression and analysis of variance. The results showed that FWDs have had an impact on the level of deposits in the sewer, but this has, in turn, been of minor significance. With a high connection rate of FWDs upstream of a pipe, the extent of the total level of deposits, as well as finer sediments, was statistically determined to be greater. However, the majority of the deposits were observed to be small, which would suggest the impact of FWDs on sewer performance to be minor. As food waste not compatible with the FWD was seen in the sewers, educational campaigns could be beneficial to further lower the risks of sewer blocking.

  13. Hydrocarbon pollution fixed to combined sewer sediment: a case study in Paris. (United States)

    Rocher, Vincent; Garnaud, Stéphane; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan


    Over a period of two years (2000-2001), sediment samples were extracted from 40 silt traps (STs) spread through the combined sewer system of Paris. All sediment samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters (pH, organic matter content, grain size distribution), with total hydrocarbons (THs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) selected from the priority list of the US-EPA. The two main objectives of the study were (1) to determine the hydrocarbon contamination levels in the sediments of the Paris combined sewer system and (2) to investigate the PAH fingerprints in order to assess their spatial variability and to elucidate the PAH origins. The results show that there is some important inter-site and intra-site variations in hydrocarbon contents. Despite this variability, TH and PAH contamination levels (50th percentile) in the Parisian sewer sediment are estimated at 530 and 18 microg g(-1), respectively. The investigation of the aromatic compound distributions in all of the 40 STs has underlined that there is, at the Paris sewer system scale, a homogeneous PAH background pollution. Moreover, the study of the PAH fingerprints, using specific ratios, suggests the predominance of a pyrolytic origin for those PAHs fixed to the sewer sediment.

  14. Extreme Precipitation and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness in Areas With and Without Combined Sewer Systems: An Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007 (United States)

    Background: Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) occur in combined sewer systems when sewage and stormwater runoff discharge into waterbodies potentially contaminating water sources. CSOs are often caused by heavy precipitation and are expected to increase with increasing extreme pre...

  15. The prevalence of Leptospira sp in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, Louise; Villumsen, Steen; Markussen, Mette Drude

    Test). Preliminary results based on one fourth of the captured rats indicate, that the prevalence of pathogenic leptospira infected sewer rats are relatively high, as 28 out 48 rats were positive by PCR. This suggests that the sewer could be an environment representing high prevalence of leptospira...... among rats and thus an environment with high risk of transmission....

  16. Controlling sewer systems – a critical review based on systems in three EU cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Thornberg, D.


    The term Real Time Control (RTC) is widely used to describe all types of control systems in sewer systems. Today the term covers everything from the simplest to the most advanced types of control systems, making it difficult to communicate about sewer system control in a precise manner, as well...... as search and find specific types of control systems for comparison. Through a survey of implemented control systems in three EU cities today and with the perspectives of current research within the field of sewer system control, the needs for a new control system design framework is identified....... With the basis of existing frameworks for control system design, a new time-scale dependent framework is proposed. We believe this comprehensive time-scale dependent framework can help water utilities to retrofit and design new control solutions and facilitate knowledge sharing about existing designs....

  17. Modelling Illicit Drug Fate in Sewers for Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram

    was found during festival period as compared to normal weekdays. Wastewater-based epidemiology is a truly interdisciplinary approach in which engineering tools, including models developed and tested in this thesis, can be beneficial for the accurate estimation of drug consumption in urban areas........ Sewer systems can be considered as biological reactors, in which the concentration of organic chemicals present in wastewater can be impacted by in-sewer processes during hydraulic residence time. Illicit drug biomarkers, as trace organic chemicals in the range of nanograms to micrograms per liter...... on sorption and transformation of drug biomarkers in raw wastewater and sewer biofilms; and (ii) developing modelling tools – by combining and extending existing modelling frameworks – to predict such processes. To achieve this goal, a substantial part of this thesis was dedicated to the experimental...

  18. Measurement of infiltration rates in urban sewer systems by use of oxygen isotopes. (United States)

    De Bénédittis, J; Bertrand-Krajewski, J L


    The paper presents the principle of a method to measure infiltration rates in sewer systems based on the use of oxygen isotopes and its application in Lyon (France). In the urban area of Lyon, significant differences in delta 18O that can reach 3 per thousand are observed between the oxygen isotopic compositions of groundwater originating from Rhone, Saone and from their associated alluvial aquifers. Drinking water supplying Lyon results mainly from pumping in the Rhone alluvial aquifer. Therefore, in some areas, the difference of isotopic composition between wastewater resulting from the consumption of drinking water and local groundwater can be used to measure infiltration in sewer systems. The application in the catchment of Ecully shows that the infiltration flow rate presents strong fluctuations at an hourly scale: it varies between 15 and 40 m3/h. This variability could be explained by non-constant discharges of pumping and by variations of the water level in the sewer.

  19. Coordinated management of combined sewer overflows by means of environmental decision support systems. (United States)

    Murla, Damian; Gutierrez, Oriol; Martinez, Montse; Suñer, David; Malgrat, Pere; Poch, Manel


    During heavy rainfall, the capacity of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants may be surcharged producing uncontrolled wastewater discharges and a depletion of the environmental quality. Therefore there is a need of advanced management tools to tackle with these complex problems. In this paper an environmental decision support system (EDSS), based on the integration of mathematical modeling and knowledge-based systems, has been developed for the coordinated management of urban wastewater systems (UWS) to control and minimize uncontrolled wastewater spills. Effectiveness of the EDSS has been tested in a specially designed virtual UWS, including two sewers systems, two WWTP and one river subjected to typical Mediterranean rain conditions. Results show that sewer systems, retention tanks and wastewater treatment plants improve their performance under wet weather conditions and that EDSS can be very effective tools to improve the management and prevent the system from possible uncontrolled wastewater discharges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A methodological approach to the design of optimising control strategies for sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Sin, Gürkan


    This study focuses on designing an optimisation based control for sewer system in a methodological way and linking itto a regulatory control. Optimisation based design is found to depend on proper choice of a model, formulation of objective function and tuning of optimisation parameters. Accordin......This study focuses on designing an optimisation based control for sewer system in a methodological way and linking itto a regulatory control. Optimisation based design is found to depend on proper choice of a model, formulation of objective function and tuning of optimisation parameters....... Accordingly, two novel optimisation configurations are developed, where the optimisation either acts on the actuators or acts on the regulatory control layer. These two optimisation designs are evaluated on a sub-catchment of the sewer system in Copenhagen, and found to perform better than the existing...

  1. Design and Development of Vision Based Blockage Clearance Robot for Sewer Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Nesaian


    Full Text Available Robotic technology is one of the advanced technologies, which is capable of completing tasks at situations where humans are unable to reach, see or survive. The underground sewer pipelines are the major tools for the transportation of effluent water. A lot of troubles caused by blockage in sewer pipe will lead to overflow of effluent water, sanitation problems. So robotic vehicle that is capable of traveling at underneath effluent water determining blockage using ultrasonic sensors and clearing by means of drilling mechanism is done. In addition to that wireless camera is fixed which acts as a robot vision by which we can monitor video and capture images using MATLAB tool. Thus in this project a prototype model of underground sewer pipe blockage clearance robot with drilling type will be developed

  2. Critical review on the stability of illicit drugs in sewers and wastewater samples. (United States)

    McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Bade, Richard; Kinyua, Juliet; Lai, Foon Yin; Thai, Phong K; Covaci, Adrian; Bijlsma, Lubertus; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Ort, Christoph


    Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) applies advanced analytical methods to quantify drug residues in wastewater with the aim to estimate illicit drug use at the population level. Transformation processes during transport in sewers (chemical and biological reactors) and storage of wastewater samples before analysis are expected to change concentrations of different drugs to varying degrees. Ignoring transformation for drugs with low to medium stability will lead to an unknown degree of systematic under- or overestimation of drug use, which should be avoided. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the stability of commonly investigated drugs and, furthermore, suggest a more effective approach to future experiments. From over 100 WBE studies, around 50 mentioned the importance of stability and 24 included tests in wastewater. Most focused on in-sample stability (i.e., sample preparation, preservation and storage) and some extrapolated to in-sewer stability (i.e., during transport in real sewers). While consistent results were reported for rather stable compounds (e.g., MDMA and methamphetamine), a varying range of stability under different or similar conditions was observed for other compounds (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine and morphine). Wastewater composition can vary considerably over time, and different conditions prevail in different sewer systems. In summary, this indicates that more systematic studies are needed to: i) cover the range of possible conditions in sewers and ii) compare results more objectively. To facilitate the latter, we propose a set of parameters that should be reported for in-sewer stability experiments. Finally, a best practice of sample collection, preservation, and preparation before analysis is suggested in order to minimize transformation during these steps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fat, oil and grease deposits in sewers: characterisation of deposits and formation mechanisms. (United States)

    Williams, J B; Clarkson, C; Mant, C; Drinkwater, A; May, E


    Fat, oil and grease deposits (FOG) in sewers are a major problem and can cause sewer overflows, resulting in environmental damage and health risks. Often simplistically portrayed as cooling of fats, recent research has suggested that saponification may be involved in FOG formation. However there are still questions about the mechanisms effecting transformations in sewers and the role and source of metal cations involved in saponification. This study characterises FOG deposits from pumping stations, sewers and sewage works from different water hardness zones across the UK. The sites all had previous problems with FOG and most catchments contained catering and food preparation establishments. The FOG deposits were highly variable with moisture content ranging from 15 to 95% and oil content from 0 to 548 mg/g. Generally the pumping stations had lower moisture content and higher fat content, followed by the sewers then the sewage works. The water in contact with the FOG had high levels of oil (mean of about 800 mg/L) and this may indicate poor kitchen FOG management practices. FOG fatty acid profiles showed a transformation from unsaturated to saturated forms compared to typical cooking oils. This seems to relate to ageing in the sewer network or the mechanism of formation, as samples from pumping stations had higher proportions of C18:1 compared to C16. This may be due to microbial transformations by bacteria such as Clostridium sp. in a similar process to adipocere formation. There was an association between water hardness and increased Ca levels in FOG along with harder deposits and higher melting points. A link between FOG properties and water hardness has not been previously reported for field samples. This may also be due to microbial processes, such as biocalcification. By developing the understanding of these mechanisms it may be possible to more effectively control FOG deposits, especially when combined with promotion of behavioural change. Copyright © 2012

  4. Uncovering the secret lives of sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus): Movements, distribution and population dynamics revealed by a capture-mark-recapture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Sluydts, Vincent; Leirs, Herwig E.l.


    Context.: In many parts of the world, brown rats have colonised sewer systems and the rat populations in sewers are often thought to be a source of problems with rats on the surface. The management of sewer rat populations is usually performed with little, if any, knowledge of the dynamics and be...

  5. Catchment & sewer network simulation model to benchmark control strategies within urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saagi, Ramesh; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Fu, Guangtao


    This paper aims at developing a benchmark simulation model to evaluate control strategies for the urban catchment and sewer network. Various modules describing wastewater generation in the catchment, its subsequent transport and storage in the sewer system are presented. Global/local overflow based...... evaluation criteria describing the cumulative and acute effects are presented. Simulation results show that the proposed set of models is capable of generating daily, weekly and seasonal variations as well as describing the effect of rain events on wastewater characteristics. Two sets of case studies...

  6. Kinetics of aerobic oxidation of volatile sulfur compounds in wastewater and biofilm from sewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudelle, Elise Alice; Vollertsen, Jes; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild


    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of aerobic chemical and biological oxidation of selected odorous volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by wastewater and biofilm from sewers. The VSCs included methyl mercaptan (MeSH), ethyl mercaptan (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS......-spot downstream of a force main and the other was a gravity sewer transporting young aerobic wastewater. The kinetics of VSC oxidation for both wastewater and suspended biofilm samples followed a first-order rate equation. The average values of the reaction rate constants demonstrated the following order...... in the aerobic wastewater....

  7. Water sensitive urban design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fryd, O.; Backhaus, Antje; Birch, Heidi


    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility......, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented...

  8. Release of hydrogen sulfide in a sewer system under intermittent flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matias, Natércia; Matos, Rita Ventura; Ferreira, Filipa


    The presence and fate of hydrogen sulfide in wastewater systems were studied in two stretches of an intercepting sewer system located in a coastal village, in Portugal. A range of hydraulic parameters were obtained and liquid and gas phase measurements were carried out, both continuously and thro......The presence and fate of hydrogen sulfide in wastewater systems were studied in two stretches of an intercepting sewer system located in a coastal village, in Portugal. A range of hydraulic parameters were obtained and liquid and gas phase measurements were carried out, both continuously...... authors’ publications addressing relatively small pipes and moderate water flows....

  9. Metropolitan planning from an international comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Grønning, Marius


    policies, and thus also to the instrumental orientation within planning. A challenge stemming from this comparison is to understand how similar policies are implemented at a strategic and metropolitan level. Within the institutional framework of Copenhagen, the problem with the Finger Plan directive might...... (Faludi & van der Valk, 1994), thus integrating the archetypal land-use character of municipal plans and the strategic and growth-oriented pursuit of regional plans. A number of questions may be deduced: How explicit is the metropolitan scale? How local and how regional is the knowledge basis? Within......Over the last few years new practices of spatial strategy making at different planning scales have emerged. At the metropolitan level, such spatial strategies are reminiscent of national and supranational competitive strategies (e.g. EU policies) as well as ratifications of international...

  10. Oil product sales in 2010 - Results per product and per district; Les ventes de produits petroliers en 2010 - Resultats par produit et par departement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korman, Bernard; Lauverjat, Jean


    This document proposes tables of data corresponding to sales of different oil products (super unleaded petrol, Diesel fuel, domestic heating oil, heavy fuels) in metropolitan France in 2011, in the French districts and regions, and in the coastal districts and regions for the maritime sector (fishing activity, ships).

  11. Special design issues related to the G. Ross Lord Dam constructed in Metropolitan Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, V.A. [Jacques Whitford and Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tawil, A.H. [Acres International Ltd., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Haley, D.R. [Toronto Region and Conservation Authority, Downsview, ON (Canada)


    This paper describes the special considerations required to build a flood control dam in a metropolitan area that holds major city infrastructures such as power transmission towers, pipelines, sanitary sewers and graveyards. The paper refers to the G. Ross Lord Dam, a 20 m high earth fill flood control dam which was constructed in 1973 on the West Branch of the Don River in Toronto. It was built following recommendations after Hurricane Hazel caused widespread flooding and the death of 81 people in 1954. The dam includes a concrete chute spillway and stilling basin. The geotechnical design of the dam was described along with the dam structures and the methods used to flood proof the infrastructure. The dam has a sloping impervious core and an upstream blanket to reduce seepage. Seepage control is provided by a drainage blanket and a chimney drain. A main overflow spillway was constructed on the south abutment, and a low level outlet was constructed at the base of the dam to accommodate normal river flows through the dam. Most of the water level control during a flood event is provided by the main overflow spillway. Spillway slab anchor keys prevent down slope creep of the slabs. The dam, the spillway and the reservoir structure have performed well since construction. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Impact of the 2001 Tohoku-oki earthquake to Tokyo Metropolitan area observed by the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kasahara, K.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.


    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a great impact to the Tokyo metropolitan area in both seismological aspect and seismic risk management although Tokyo is located 340 km from the epicenter. The event generated very strong ground motion even in the metropolitan area and resulted severe requifaction in many places of Kanto district. National and local governments have started to discuss counter measurement for possible seismic risks in the area taking account for what they learned from the Tohoku-oki event which is much larger than ever experienced in Japan Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. We will discuss the main results that are obtained in the respective fields which have been integrated to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area; the project has been much improved after the Tohoku event. In order to image seismic structure beneath the Metropolitan Tokyo area we have developed Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net; Hirata et al., 2009). We have installed 296 seismic stations every few km (Kasahara et al., 2011). We conducted seismic

  13. Magneto-Inductive Communication among Pumps in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afkhami Meybodi, Soroush; Pardo, Pablo; Dohler, Mischa


    Realizing distributed control for a large scale district heating plant needs a metropolitan wireless communication framework among its pumps. The main challenge at PHY layer here is coverage rather than interference. This paper reviews the potential methods and proposes the use of magnetic induct...

  14. Changing Housing Patterns in Metropolitan Washington (United States)

    Grier, George; Grier, Eunice


    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes extensive studies of changing minority residential patterns in metropolitan Washington and less extensive studies of other groups; the prospects for future desegregation and for using the growing economic potential of minority families…

  15. Engaging with sustainability issues in metropolitan Chennai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, L.; Varrel, A.; Denis, E.; Dupont, V.; Dhanalakshmi, R.; Roumeau, S.; Baud, I.; Pfeffer, K.; Sridharan, N.; Vijayabaskar, M.; Suresh Babu, M.; Seifelislam, A.; Rouanet, H.; Saharan, T.


    Chennai is the largest metropolitan city in South India (8.7 million in 2011) and the provincial capital of the large state of Tamil Nadu (population 72 million in 2011). Before that, under British rule, the city was the capital of the Madras Presidency, and was known as Madras until 1996, when the

  16. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report. (United States)

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  17. Reconceptualization Sexuality and Rethinking Homophobia in Metropolitan Campus Spaces (United States)

    Deniz, Caglar


    The Metropolitan city gives non-metropolitan students an opportunity to meet new social groups. In this article, the perceptions of sexuality of those students who come from provincial areas to a metropolitan city for university education are examined within a framework of semi-structured interviews. The study on which this article is based used a…

  18. Spatial variations in US poverty: beyond metropolitan and non-metropolitan. (United States)

    Wang, Man; Kleit, Rachel Garshick; Cover, Jane; Fowler, Christopher S


    Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise. Given the number and concentration of poor people living in mixed-rural and rural counties in metropolitan regions, researchers and policy-makers need to pay more nuanced attention to the opportunities and constraints such individuals face. A cross-classification of the Office of Management and Budget’s metro system with a nuanced RUDC scheme is the most effective for revealing the geographical complexities of poverty within metropolitan areas.

  19. A review of best practice in relation to iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, A.; Kruse, P.; Smith, K


    This report was produced by Enviros Consulting Ltd under contract to the RPII. It presents a review of best practice in relation to the management of iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewer and recommends a waste management strategy that could be adopted in the Republic of Ireland

  20. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site

  1. The use and disposal of greywater in the non-sewered areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the use and disposal of greywater in non-sewered areas in South Africa and this included developing options for the management thereof, both in terms of reducing health and environmental risks as well as possibly providing benefits through controlled reuse. This paper reports ...

  2. Control of Sewer systems and Wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik; Nielsen, Marinus K.; Madsen, Henrik


    On-line measurements of pollutants in the wastewater combined with grey-box modelling are used to estimate the amount of deposits in the sewer system. The pollutant mass flow at the wastewater treatment plant is found to consist of a diurnal profile minus the deposited amount of pollutants...

  3. Functional evaluation of pollutant transformation in sediment from combined sewer system. (United States)

    Shi, Xuan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Sang, Langtao; Jin, Pengkang; Wang, Xiaochang C; Wang, Guanghua


    In this study, a pilot combined sewer system was constructed to characterize the pollutant transformation in sewer sediment. The results showed that particulate contaminants deposited from sewage could be transformed into dissolved matter by distinct pollutant transformation pathways. Although the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was varied from -80 mV to -340 mV in different region of the sediment, the fermentation was the dominant process in all regions of the sediment, which induced hydrolysis and decomposition of particulate contaminants. As a result, the accumulation of dissolved organic matter and the variation of ORP values along the sediment depth led to the depth-dependent reproduction characteristics of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were existed in the middle and deep layer of the sediment respectively. However, the diversity of nitrifying and polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria was low in sewer sediment and those microbial communities showed a non-significant correlation with nitrogen and phosphorus contaminants, which indicated that the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus contaminants was mainly caused by physical deposition process. Thus, this study proposed a promising pathway to evaluate pollutant transformation and can help provide theoretical foundation for urban sewer improvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New approach for receiving water objectives for overflows from sewer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben


    The paper describes the results of the work for the establishment of consistent objectives for storm overflows from sewer systems in respect to the physical conditions in streams and rivers in Denmark. First the result of a questionnaire is mentioned. Next some principles of the methods for formu...

  5. High-Rate Disinfection Techniques for Combined Sewer Overflow (Proceedings Paper) (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH ), a...

  6. Monitoring the Startup of a Sacrificial Concrete Sewer for Odor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes


    with extended retention time. For the purpose of the study, a 50-m long sacrificial concrete gravity sewer was constructed using a high alkalinity concrete pipe. The monitoring campaign reported in this paper covers the first 9 months of operation. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of the system...

  7. Vision-based system for the control and measurement of wastewater flow rate in sewer systems. (United States)

    Nguyen, L S; Schaeli, B; Sage, D; Kayal, S; Jeanbourquin, D; Barry, D A; Rossi, L


    Combined sewer overflows and stormwater discharges represent an important source of contamination to the environment. However, the harsh environment inside sewers and particular hydraulic conditions during rain events reduce the reliability of traditional flow measurement probes. In the following, we present and evaluate an in situ system for the monitoring of water flow in sewers based on video images. This paper focuses on the measurement of the water level based on image-processing techniques. The developed image-based water level algorithms identify the wall/water interface from sewer images and measure its position with respect to real world coordinates. A web-based user interface and a 3-tier system architecture enable the remote configuration of the cameras and the image-processing algorithms. Images acquired and processed by our system were found to reliably measure water levels and thereby to provide crucial information leading to better understand particular hydraulic behaviors. In terms of robustness and accuracy, the water level algorithm provided equal or better results compared to traditional water level probes in three different in situ configurations.

  8. Biodegradability of organic matter associated with sewer sediments during first flush. (United States)

    Sakrabani, Ruben; Vollertsen, Jes; Ashley, Richard M; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild


    The high pollution load in wastewater at the beginning of a rain event is commonly known to originate from the erosion of sewer sediments due to the increased flow rate under storm weather conditions. It is essential to characterize the biodegradability of organic matter during a storm event in order to quantify the effect it can have further downstream to the receiving water via discharges from Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO). The approach is to characterize the pollutograph during first flush. The pollutograph shows the variation in COD and TSS during a first flush event. These parameters measure the quantity of organic matter present. However these parameters do not indicate detailed information on the biodegradability of the organic matter. Such detailed knowledge can be obtained by dividing the total COD into fractions with different microbial properties. To do so oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurements on batches of wastewater have shown itself to be a versatile technique. Together with a conceptual understanding of the microbial transformation taking place, OUR measurements lead to the desired fractionation of the COD. OUR results indicated that the highest biodegradability is associated with the initial part of a storm event. The information on physical and biological processes in the sewer can be used to better manage sediment in sewers which can otherwise result in depletion of dissolved oxygen in receiving waters via discharges from CSOs.

  9. Output-feedback control of combined sewer networks through receding horizon control with moving horizon estimation (United States)

    Joseph-Duran, Bernat; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Cembrano, Gabriela


    An output-feedback control strategy for pollution mitigation in combined sewer networks is presented. The proposed strategy provides means to apply model-based predictive control to large-scale sewer networks, in-spite of the lack of measurements at most of the network sewers. In previous works, the authors presented a hybrid linear control-oriented model for sewer networks together with the formulation of Optimal Control Problems (OCP) and State Estimation Problems (SEP). By iteratively solving these problems, preliminary Receding Horizon Control with Moving Horizon Estimation (RHC/MHE) results, based on flow measurements, were also obtained. In this work, the RHC/MHE algorithm has been extended to take into account both flow and water level measurements and the resulting control loop has been extensively simulated to assess the system performance according different measurement availability scenarios and rain events. All simulations have been carried out using a detailed physically based model of a real case-study network as virtual reality.

  10. Bayesian analysis for erosion modelling of sediments in combined sewer systems. (United States)

    Kanso, A; Chebbo, G; Tassin, B


    Previous research has confirmed that the sediments at the bed of combined sewer systems are the main source of particulate and organic pollution during rain events contributing to combined sewer overflows. However, existing urban stormwater models utilize inappropriate sediment transport formulas initially developed from alluvial hydrodynamics. Recently, a model has been formulated and profoundly assessed based on laboratory experiments to simulate the erosion of sediments in sewer pipes taking into account the increase in strength with depth in the weak layer of deposits. In order to objectively evaluate this model, this paper presents a Bayesian analysis of the model using field data collected in sewer pipes in Paris under known hydraulic conditions. The test has been performed using a MCMC sampling method for calibration and uncertainty assessment. Results demonstrate the capacity of the model to reproduce erosion as a direct response to the increase in bed shear stress. This is due to the model description of the erosional strength in the deposits and to the shape of the measured bed shear stress. However, large uncertainties in some of the model parameters suggest that the model could be over-parameterised and necessitates a large amount of informative data for its calibration.

  11. Trace element carriers in combined sewer during dry and wet weather: an electron microscope investigation. (United States)

    El Samrani, A G; Lartiges, B S; Ghanbaja, J; Yvon, J; Kohler, A


    The nature of trace element carriers contained in sewage and combined sewer overflow (CSO) was investigated by TEM-EDX-Electron diffraction and SEM-EDX. During dry weather, chalcophile elements were found to accumulate in sewer sediments as early diagenetic sulfide phases. The sulfurization of some metal alloys was also evidenced. Other heavy metal carriers detected in sewage include metal alloys, some iron oxihydroxide phases and neoformed phosphate minerals such as anapaite. During rain events, the detailed characterization of individual mineral species allowed to differentiate the contributions from various specific sources. Metal plating particles, barite from automobile brake, or rare earth oxides from catalytic exhaust pipes, originate from road runoff, whereas PbSn alloys and lead carbonates are attributed to zinc-works from roofs and paint from building siding. Soil contribution can be traced by the presence of clay minerals, iron oxihydroxides, zircons and rare earth phosphates. However, the most abundant heavy metal carriers in CSO samples were the sulfide particles eroded from sewer sediments. The evolution of relative abundances of trace element carriers during a single storm event, suggests that the pollution due to the "first flush" effect principally results from the sewer stock of sulfides and previously deposited metal alloys, rather than from urban surface runoff.


    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) are generally difficult to witness or document as they usually occur during rain events when people are indoors or out of sight. To anser where and when an SSO may occur, it is necessary to know the flow conveyance capacity at various parts of the ...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Blackstone


    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the sanitary sewer line serving the Shop Building No.5006 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  14. Mechanisms of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation in sewer lines. (United States)

    He, Xia; de los Reyes, Francis L; Leming, Michael L; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J


    FOG deposits in sewer systems have recently been shown to be metallic salts of fatty acids. However, the fate and transport of FOG deposit reactant constituents and the complex interactions during the FOG deposit formation process are still largely unknown. In this study, batch tests were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation that lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). We report the first formation of FOG deposits on a concrete surface under laboratory conditions that mimic the formation of deposits in sewer systems. Results showed that calcium, the dominant metal in FOG deposits, can be released from concrete surfaces under low pH conditions and contribute to the formation process. Small amounts of additional oil to grease interceptor effluent substantially facilitated the air/water or pipe surface/water interfacial reaction between free fatty acids and calcium to produce surface FOG deposits. Tests of different fatty acids revealed that more viscous FOG deposit solids were formed on concrete surfaces, and concrete corrosion was accelerated, in the presence of unsaturated FFAs versus saturated FFAs. Based on all the data, a comprehensive model was proposed for the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sewer systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Vollertsen, J.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Th.


    Interactions between iron and sulfide in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer were investigated with particular emphasis on redox cycling of iron and iron sulfide formation. The concentration ranges of iron and total sulfide in the experiments were 0.4-5.4 mg Fe L-1 and 0-5.1 mg S L-1,

  16. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site.

  17. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges (United States)


    ... maintained sanitary sewer systems are meant to collect and transport all of the sewage that flows into them... sewage from these overflows can contaminate our waters, causing serious water quality problems. It can... influent flows to exceed the treatment capacity of existing secondary treatment units. Known as ``peak...

  18. Modelling sewer sediment deposition, erosion, and transport processes to predict acute influent and reduce combined sewer overflows and CO(2) emissions. (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan


    Understanding of solids deposition, erosion, and transport processes in sewer systems has improved considerably in the past decade. This has provided guidance for controlling sewer solids and associated acute pollutants to protect the environment and improve the operation of wastewater systems. Although measures to decrease combined sewer overflow (CSO) events have reduced the amount of discharged pollution, overflows continue to occur during rainy weather in combined sewer systems. The solution lies in the amount of water allotted to various processes in an effluent treatment system, in impact evaluation of water quality and prediction technology, and in stressing the importance of developing a control technology. Extremely contaminated inflow has been a serious research subject, especially in connection with the influence of rainy weather on nitrogen and organic matter removal efficiency in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). An intensive investigation of an extremely polluted inflow load to WWTP during rainy weather was conducted in the city of Matsuyama, the region used for the present research on total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Since the inflow during rainy weather can be as much as 400 times that in dry weather, almost all sewers are unsettled and overflowing when a rain event is more than moderate. Another concern is the energy consumed by wastewater treatment; this problem has become important from the viewpoint of reducing CO(2) emissions and overall costs. Therefore, while establishing a prediction technology for the inflow water quality characteristics of a sewage disposal plant is an important priority, the development of a management/control method for an effluent treatment system that minimises energy consumption and CO(2) emissions due to water disposal is also a pressing research topic with regards to the quality of treated water. The procedure to improve water quality must make use of not only water quality and biotic criteria, but also

  19. Transformation of AgCl nanoparticles in a sewer system — A field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaegi, Ralf, E-mail: [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zuleeg, Steffen [KUSTER + HAGER Group, Oberstrasse 222, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Siegrist, Hansruedi [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt, Michael [HSR University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Process Engineering (UMTEC), Oberseestrasse 10, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland)


    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~ 85 g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72–95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag{sub 2}S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters < 100 nm. During the 800 m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~ 30 min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag{sub 2}S. Ag{sub 2}S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (< 0.5 μg L{sup −1}) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (> 95%). - Highlights: • First field study on the transformation of AgCl nanoparticles released from a point source into the municipal sewer system. • Transformation of AgCl-NP into Ag{sub 2}S already occurred during 30-min transport in the

  20. Leveraging Spatial Data to Assess Where Sewers Leak and Impinge on Urban Water Quality (United States)

    Holden, P. A.; Roehrdanz, P.; Lee, D. G.; Feraud, M.; Maier, M.; Means, J. C.; Snyder, S.


    In the modern urban water environment (UWE), engineered systems provide wastewater collection, treatment, and reuse; stormwater and graywater management; and potable water treatment, distribution and conservation. Underpinning such systems are physical, private and public, infrastructures whose integrities impinge on major goals of protecting groundwater and surface water resources, managing flooding, and securing safe drinking water. Here we study sanitary sewers, i.e. the main pipes in wastewater collection systems that improve public health by reducing pathogen exposure, and that afford reclaiming water for beneficial reuse. We ask: what is the relationship between sanitary sewer integrity and nearby water quality? Research methods include acquiring spatially defined sewer metadata that are analyzed using a published pipe leakage algorithm with variables of age, depth, materials of construction, length, diameter, slope, and nature of overburden. By executing the algorithm within a geographical information system (GIS), coupled with relating leakage probabilities to shallow groundwater table proximities—also digitally assembled, from well depth data—maps of wastewater exfiltration scores were produced for a city. Field sampling shallow groundwater allowed assessing concentrations of wastewater indicator compounds including personal care products and pharmaceuticals (PCPPs), and showing positive relationships between wastewater exfiltration scores and tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF), reactive nitrogen species, an artificial sweetener acesulfame, and a stable isotope of oxygen (δ18O). The approach is extended to surface waters, where exfiltrating wastewater may transport from leaking sanitary sewers through the unsaturated zone to nearby storm drains or to storm drains that are submerged in contaminated groundwater. Spatially assessing sewer interactions within the UWE, as such, could aid urban infrastructure management and investment.

  1. Sewer slime analysis as a method of spotting heavy metal bearing waste water discharge. Sielhautuntersuchungen zur Einkreisung schwermetallhaltiger Einleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutekunst, B.


    The sewer slime method, in analogy to sediment analyses, informs about the discharges which are polluted with heavy metals and fed into the public sewage system at specific points, independent of the time of discharge. The sewer slime consisting of bacteria, fungi, organic and inorganic compounds concentrates heavy metals by sedimentation, adsorption and precipitation processes and thus represents a pollution indicator. This study characterizes sewer slimes by means of physical properties and by analysis of the chemical and biological composition. The mechanisms of heavy metal enrichment and reduction under altered environmental conditions are analyzed using the elements Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn as examples. (RB).

  2. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurico-Iglesias, Miguel; Castro, Ignacio Montero; Mollerup, Ane Loft


    . Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current......The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems...

  3. Oropharyngeal cancer mortality according to the human development index in the Metropolitan Region of Chile, 2002-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Livacic


    Full Text Available To determine mortality rates for oropharyngeal cancer according to the Human Development Index (HDI per district in the Metropolitan Region (RM, Santiago, Chile, between 2002 and 2014. Materials and Methods: An ecological study was carried out. The sample corresponded to individuals over 45 years, from the Metropolitan Region, with oropharyngeal cancer as cause of death, as registered in the Chilean National Institute of Statistics (INE. The HDI was classified into three categories: “medium” (8 districts, “high” (18 districts and “very high” (25 districts. The crude and adjusted mortality rates were calculated for each year and period. Results: The oropharyngeal cancer adjusted mortality rate for the chosen period was 3.98 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. The specific mortality rate from oropharyngeal cancer in the “medium” HDI category was 4.01; in the “high” DHI category, 4.42; and in the “very high” HDI category, 3.79. Conclusion: Mortality from oropharyngeal cancer was higher in the “medium” HDI category between 2002 and 2014.

  4. Private Water Districts (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  5. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  6. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.


    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  7. California Political Districts (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  8. State Water Districts (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  9. National Register Historic Districts (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  10. Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Benjamin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This presentation shows how NREL is approaching Zero Energy Districts, including key opportunities, design strategies, and master planning concepts. The presentation also covers URBANopt, an advanced analytical platform for district that is being developed by NREL.

  11. A summary of the benthic-invertebrate and fish-community data from streams in the Indianapolis metropolitan area, Indiana, 1981-2012 (United States)

    Voelker, David C.; Bunch, Aubrey R.; Dobrowolski, Edward G.; Shoda, Megan E.


    Intermittently, during 1981–2012, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled sites in the White River and several tributaries in the Indianapolis metropolitan area of Indiana for benthic invertebrates and fish communities. During 1981–87, one study focused on benthic-invertebrate data collection at three sites along the White River. During 1994–96, 21 sites were sampled for benthic invertebrates; after 1999, up to 13 sites were sampled for benthic invertebrates and fish communities. The information collected during these studies was used in conjunction with the Indianapolis Department of Public Works and CWA Authority, Inc., programs to help improve overall health of the White River and its tributaries by reducing combined sewer overflows and other point and non-point sources of pollution in the Indianapolis area.

  12. District nurse training


    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John


    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  13. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B


    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  14. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Bunandar


    Full Text Available Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss. Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  15. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk


    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  16. Twin cities institutional issues study cogenerated hot water district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, R. E.; Leas, R.; Kolb, J. O.


    Community district heating, utilizing hot water produced through electrical/thermal cogeneration, is seen as an integral part of Minnesota's Energy Policy and Conservation Plan. Several studies have been conducted which consider the technical and institutional issues affecting implementation of cogenerated district heating in the Minneapolis and St. Paul Metropolitan Area. The state of the technical art of cogenerated hot water district heating is assumed to be transferable from European experience. Institutional questions relating to such factors as the form of ownership, financing, operation, regulation, and product marketability cannot be transferred from the European experience, and have been the subject of an extensive investigation. The form and function of the Institutional Issues Study, and some of the preliminary conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study are discussed.

  17. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Facilities: Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007 (United States)

    Background: Combined sewer systems (CSS) collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These c...

  18. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control. (United States)

    Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane L; Sin, Gürkan


    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems. Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current rain event as well as the expected overflow given the probability of a future rain event. The methodology is successfully applied to design an optimising control strategy for a subcatchment area in Copenhagen. The results are promising and expected to contribute to the advance of the operation and control problem of sewer systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.


    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Indianapolis Department of Public Works began a study to evaluate the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff discharging to Fall Geek on the White River. This report describes the effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek during summer 1987 by comparing the water quality during base flow with that during storm runoff and by comparing water quality in the urbanized area with that in the less urbanized area upstream from the combined-sewer overflows. Data were collected at three streamflow-gaging stations located upstream from, downstream from, and in the middle of 27 combined-sewer overflows on Fall Creek. The most downstream station also was immediately downstream from the discharge of filter backwash from a water-treatment plant for public supply.

  20. Suitable flow pattern increases the removal efficiency of nitrogen in gravity sewers: a suitable anoxic and aerobic environment in biofilms. (United States)

    He, Qiang; Yin, Feixian; Li, Hong; Wang, Yinliang; Xu, Jingwei; Ai, Hainan


    The sewers have the function of carbon removal, which has been proven. But if the effect of nitrogen removal can be enhanced at the same time of carbon removal, it can lay a foundation for the realization of "sewer's working as a reactor." This paper investigated the effects of shear stress and C/N ratio on nitrogen removal through biofilms on the sewer inner wall and nitrogen transfer. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) nitrogen could be partially removed in sewers after a series of reactions; (2) the anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic environment and some bacteria related to nitrogen metabolism, which exist in the biofilm, promote the nitrification and denitrification; (3) a total of 722 functional genes involved in nitrogen metabolism were detected in the biofilm (C/N ratio of 10, shear stress of 1.4 Pa), accounting for 0.67% of all genes, and the functional genes related to denitrification were dominant. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.


    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  2. Identification of controlling factors for the initiation of corrosion of fresh concrete sewers. (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L


    The development of concrete corrosion in new sewer pipes undergoes an initiation process before reaching an active corrosion stage. This initiation period is assumed to last several months to years but the key factors affecting the process, and its duration, are not well understood. This study is therefore focused on this initial stage of the corrosion process and the effect of key environmental factors. Such knowledge is important for the effective management of corrosion in new sewers, as every year of life extension of such systems has a very high financial benefit. This long-term (4.5 year) study has been conducted in purpose-built corrosion chambers that closely simulated the sewer environment, but with control of three key environmental factors being hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas phase concentration, relative humidity and air temperature. Fresh concrete coupons, cut from an industry-standard sewer pipe, were exposed to the corrosive conditions in the chambers, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the controlling factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, sulfur compounds (elemental sulfur and sulfate) and concrete mass loss. Corrosion initiation times were thus determined for different exposure conditions. It was found that the corrosion initiation time of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the gas phase H2S concentration, but only at levels of 10 ppm or below, indicating that sulfide oxidation rate rather than the H2S concentration was the limiting factor during the initiation stage. Relative humidity also played a role for the corrosion initiation of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as these coupons were in direct contact with the sewage and hence did have sufficient moisture to enable the microbial processes to proceed. The

  3. Feasibility of sulfide control in sewers by reuse of iron rich drinking water treatment sludge. (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Dosage of iron salt is the most commonly used method for sulfide control in sewer networks but incurs high chemical costs. In this study, we experimentally investigate the feasibility of using iron rich drinking water treatment sludge for sulfide control in sewers. A lab-scale rising main sewer biofilm reactor was used. The sulfide concentration in the effluent decreased from 15.5 to 19.8 mgS/L (without dosing) to below 0.7-2.3 mgS/L at a sludge dosing rate achieving an iron to total dissolved inorganic sulfur molar ratio (Fe:S) of 1:1, with further removal of sulfide possible by prolonging the reaction time. In fact, batch tests revealed an Fe consumption to sulfide removal ratio of 0.5 ± 0.02 (mole:mole), suggesting the possible occurrence of other reactions involving the removal of sulfide. Modelling revealed that the reaction between iron in sludge and sulfide has reaction orders of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.77 ± 0.02 with respect to the Fe and sulfide concentrations, respectively. The addition of sludge slightly increased the total chemical oxidation demand (tCOD) concentration (by approximately 12%) as expected, but decreased the soluble chemical oxidation demand (sCOD) concentration and methane formation by 7% and 20%, respectively. Some phosphate removal (13%) was also observed at the sludge dosing rate of 1:1 (Fe:S), which is beneficial to nutrient removal from the wastewater. Overall, this study suggests that dosing iron-rich drinking water sludge to sewers could be an effective strategy for sulfide removal in sewer systems, which would also reduce the sludge disposal costs for drinking water treatment works. However, its potential side-effects on sewer sedimentation and on the wastewater treatment plant effluent remain to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area (United States)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill


    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  5. Impacts and managerial implications for sewer systems due to recent changes to inputs in domestic wastewater - A review. (United States)

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Ashley, Richard M; Viklander, Maria


    Ever since the advent of major sewer construction in the 1850s, the issue of increased solids deposition in sewers due to changes in domestic wastewater inputs has been frequently debated. Three recent changes considered here are the introduction of kitchen sink food waste disposers (FWDs); rising levels of inputs of fat, oil and grease (FOG); and the installation of low-flush toilets (LFTs). In this review these changes have been examined with regard to potential solids depositional impacts on sewer systems and the managerial implications. The review indicates that each of the changes has the potential to cause an increase in solids deposition in sewers and this is likely to be more pronounced for the upstream reaches of networks that serve fewer households than the downstream parts and for specific sewer features such as sags. The review has highlighted the importance of educational campaigns directed to the public to mitigate deposition as many of the observed problems have been linked to domestic behaviour in regard to FOGs, FWDs and toilet flushing. A standardized monitoring procedure of repeat sewer blockage locations can also be a means to identify depositional hot-spots. Interactions between the various changes in inputs in the studies reviewed here indicated an increased potential for blockage formation, but this would need to be further substantiated. As the precise nature of these changes in inputs have been found to be variable, depending on lifestyles and type of installation, the additional problems that may arise pose particular challenges to sewer operators and managers because of the difficulty in generalizing the nature of the changes, particularly where retrofitting projects in households are being considered. The three types of changes to inputs reviewed here highlight the need to consider whether or not more or less solid waste from households should be diverted into sewers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantification of groundwater infiltration and surface water inflows in urban sewer networks based on a multiple model approach. (United States)

    Karpf, Christian; Krebs, Peter


    The management of sewer systems requires information about discharge and variability of typical wastewater sources in urban catchments. Especially the infiltration of groundwater and the inflow of surface water (I/I) are important for making decisions about the rehabilitation and operation of sewer networks. This paper presents a methodology to identify I/I and estimate its quantity. For each flow fraction in sewer networks, an individual model approach is formulated whose parameters are optimised by the method of least squares. This method was applied to estimate the contributions to the wastewater flow in the sewer system of the City of Dresden (Germany), where data availability is good. Absolute flows of I/I and their temporal variations are estimated. Further information on the characteristics of infiltration is gained by clustering and grouping sewer pipes according to the attributes construction year and groundwater influence and relating these resulting classes to infiltration behaviour. Further, it is shown that condition classes based on CCTV-data can be used to estimate the infiltration potential of sewer pipes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology. (United States)

    Thai, Phong K; O'Brien, Jake; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen F


    Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sewer Networks Optimization by Particle Swarm Optimization with Abilities of Fly-Back Mechanism and Harmony Memory

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    محسن نفیسی


    Full Text Available Lack of an efficient sewer network in urban areas threatens public health and may give rise to contagious diseases. Various optimization methods have been developed for use in designing sewers networks in response to a number of requirements such as the high costs of constructing sewer networks, financial limitations, the presence of both discrete and continuous decision variables, and the nonlinear time complexity of such design problems. In this study, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO with the capability of “fly-back” mechanism equipped with the harmony search (HPSO is used for the optimization of sewers network designs. The objective function consists of minimizing the excavation and embedding costs of commercial pipes. The fly-back mechanism and the harmony memory method are used to prevent leaving out variables from the feasible space of the problem in an attempt to enhance model efficiency. Model constraints are satisfied at two levels, which leads to the desirable convergence of the PSO algorithm as compared to the conventional penalty methods in alternative evolutionary algorithms. In order to determine the admissible decision variables, the Manning equation is used as a hydraulic model. The performance of the proposed algorithm is shown by presenting two examples of sewer networks. Compared to the PSO algorithm used in sewer network optimization models, the proposed model exhibits a tangible improvement in cost reduction and a higher computational stability.

  9. Investigations to identify organic pollutions in sewer slime. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Identifizierung organischer Schadstoffe in Sielhaeuten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, E.; Sauer, J.; Ripp, C.; Hahn, H.H.


    An analytical method to measure organic compounds in sewer slime and sewage sludge has been developed. The method needs no halogenated solvents. Furthermore, the sorption behavior of sewer slime has been investigated. Chlorophenols, as an example of more polar organic compounds, show a more stronger and faster desorption from sewer slime than for example PAH. pH-value and fat-content (resp. content of organic carbon) are the most important parameters affecting the sorption kinetic and sorption capacity of sewer slime. To get comparable results, all datas should be refered to the content of organic carbon of the sewer slime. By constructing pollutions-profiles of parameters like AOX, PCB, Flame Protection Agencies and PAH in the sewers of an industrial area, emissions could be localized. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde eine analytische Methode entwickelt, die es erlaubt, ein breites Spektrum lipophiler organischer Schadstoffe in Sielhaut und Klaerschlamm zu identifizieren, als quantitativ zu bestimmen. Die Methode kommt ohne halogenierte Loesungsmittel aus. Verbindungen, die aufgrund ihrer Wasserunloeslichkeit nicht im Abwasser nachgewiesen werden konnten, koennen durch Sielhautanalyse verfolgt werden. Anhand von Schadstoffprofilen in Nebensammlern eines Industriegebietes konnte beispielhaft die Lokalisierung von punktfoermigen Schadstoffeinleitungen demonstriert werden. Erfolgreich verlief auch die Identifizierung eines AOX-Emittenten. Ebenso sind die Eintragspfade von Stoffen, die im Verdacht stehen, endokrine Wirkungen zu haben mit Sielhautanalyse aufklaerbar. Das Sorptionsverhalten der Sielhaut wird durch Faktoren, wie pH und Fettgehalt gepraegt. Bei der Auswertung der Proben muessen die Werte auf den organischen Kohlenstoffgehalt bezogen werden. (orig.)

  10. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge: a software sensor approach based on local water level measurements. (United States)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper E; Rasmussen, Michael R


    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic complex CSO structures. The three concepts were tested and verified under real practical conditions. All three concepts were accurate when compared to electromagnetic flow measurements.

  11. Stable isotopes of water as a natural tracer for infiltration into urban sewer systems (United States)

    Kracht, O.; Gresch, M.; de Bénédittis, J.; Prigiobbe, V.; Gujer, W.


    An adequate understanding of the hydraulic interaction between leaky sewers and groundwater is essential for the sustainable management of both sewer systems and aquifers in urbanized areas. Undesirable infiltration of groundwater into sewers can contribute over 50% of the total discharge and is detrimental to treatment plant efficiency. On the other hand, in many European cities groundwater surface levels seem to be particularly controlled by the drainage effect of permeable sewer systems. However, nowadays methods for the quantification of these exchange processes are still subject to considerable uncertainties due to their underlying assumptions. The frequently used assumption that the night time minimum in the diurnal wastewater hydrograph is equal to the "parasitic discharge" has to be reconsidered to today's patterns of human life as well as to the long residence time of wastewater in the sewer networks of modern cities. The suitability of stable water isotopes as a natural tracer to differentiate the origin of water in the sewer ("real" wastewater or infiltrating groundwater) is currently investigated in three different catchment areas. The studies are carried out within the framework of the European research project APUSS (Assessing Infiltration and Exfiltration on the Performance of Urban Sewer Systems): 1) The village of Rümlang (Zürich, Switzerland) is predominantly served with drinking water from the Lake Zürich. A large fraction of the lakes water is derived from precipitation in the Alps. This drinking water represents the intrinsic provenience of the wastewater with an δ18O value around -11,5 per mill and δ^2H value around -82 per mill vs. SMOW. In contrast, the local groundwater is originating from precipitation in a moderate altitude of about 450 m above sea level and shows comparatively enriched mean δ18O values of -9,7 per mill and δ^2H values of -70 per mill with only small natural variations. The isotopic separation between these


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Brzezińska


    Full Text Available Increased efficiency of wastewater treatment highlights the role of combined sewer overflows in deterioration the quality of water receiver because pollutant loads discharged by them have a growing share in entire load discharged into a receiver. The article contains the results of the wastewater quality analyzes emitted into the receiver from the three studied combined sewer overflows of the city of Lodz. The results demonstrated a large variations in the pollutant concentration directed to the receiver during rain events. The possible impact of untreated wastewater emitted to the receiver is also presented. Apart from the pollution of the receiver, mainly by organic and nutrient substances, the microbiological contamination which is dangerous for people using the river as a recreation area and for animals that use a water receiver as a source of drinking water, should be taken into particular attention.

  13. Cesium and strontium loads into a combined sewer system from rainwater runoff. (United States)

    Kamei-Ishikawa, Nao; Yoshida, Daiki; Ito, Ayumi; Umita, Teruyuki


    In this study, combined sewage samples were taken with time in several rain events and sanitary sewage samples were taken with time in dry weather to calculate Cs and Sr loads to sewers from rainwater runoff. Cs and Sr in rainwater were present as particulate forms at first flush and the particulate Cs and Sr were mainly bound with inorganic suspended solids such as clay minerals in combined sewage samples. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis showed Cs and Sr loads from rainwater runoff could be estimated by the total amount of rainfall and antecedent dry weather days. The variation of the Sr load from rainwater to sewers was more sensitive to total amount of rainfall and antecedent dry weather days than that of the Cs load. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A multicriteria approach to evaluate district heating system options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T. [Department of Wood Science, University of British Columbia, 2931-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sokhansanj, S. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Melin, S. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Delta Research Corporation, Delta, BC (Canada)


    District energy systems, in which renewable energy sources may be utilized, are centralized systems to provide energy to residential and commercial buildings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and rank energy sources available for a case of district heating system in Vancouver, Canada, based on multiple criteria and the view points of different stakeholders, and to show how communication would affect the ranking of alternatives. The available energy sources are natural gas, biomass (wood pellets), sewer heat, and geothermal heat. The evaluation criteria include GHG emissions, particulate matter emissions, maturity of technology, traffic load, and local source. In order to rank the energy options the PROMETHEE method is used. In this paper, two different scenarios were developed to indicate how the communication between the stakeholders would affect their preferences about criteria weights and would change the ranking of alternatives. The result of this study shows that without communication the best energy source for the considered district energy system is different for different stakeholders. While, addressing concerns through efficient communication would result in a general consensus. In this case, wood pellet is the best energy alternative for all the stakeholders. (author)

  15. Potential of turbidity monitoring for real time control of pollutant discharge in sewers during rainfall events


    LACOUR, Céline; JOANNIS, Claude; GROMAIRE, MC; CHEBBO, Ghassan


    Turbidity sensors can be used to continuously monitor the evolution of pollutant mass discharge. For two sites within the Paris combined sewer system, continuous turbidity, conductivity and flow data were recorded at one-minute time intervals over a one-year period. This paper is intended to highlight the variability in turbidity dynamics during wet weather. For each storm event, turbidity response aspects were analysed through different classifications. The correlation between classification...

  16. Bacterial diversity impacts as a result of combined sewer overflow in a polluted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Calderon


    Full Text Available Newtown Creek is an industrial waterway and former tidal wetland in New York City. It is one of the most polluted water bodies in the United States and was designated as a superfund site in 2010. For over a century, organic compounds, heavy metals, and other forms of industrial pollution have disrupted the creek’s environment. The creek is also impacted by discharges from twenty combined sewer overflow pipes, which may deposit raw sewage or partially treated wastewater directly into the creek during heavy or sustained rain events. Combined sewer overflow events and associated nutrient over-enrichment at the creek drive eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. At the current study, three sites were sampled one week apart during a dry period and a wet period, where indication of a combined sewage overflow event could be detected. 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing from these three sites collectively yielded over 1000 species of bacteria belonging to twenty-two classes. Based on these data, it is hypothesized that differences identified in the microbiome on wet versus dry days are as a result of combined sewage overflow, street runoff, and additional fluctuations in the creek’s environment associated with rain. It was found that after a combined sewer overflows event, the levels of Gamma Proteobacteria increased while the levels of Actinobacteria decreased. However, levels of bacteria stayed relatively unchanged at a site further away from combined sewer overflows discharge. Species found in Newtown Creek include pelagic, marine, human and animal pathogens, hydrocarbonoclastic, and other environmental microbes.

  17. Sewer-mining: A water reuse option supporting circular economy, public service provision and entrepreneurship. (United States)

    Makropoulos, C; Rozos, E; Tsoukalas, I; Plevri, A; Karakatsanis, G; Karagiannidis, L; Makri, E; Lioumis, C; Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Rippis, C; Lytras, E


    Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales. Specifically, we argue for an intermediate scale of a water reuse option termed 'sewer-mining', which could be considered a reuse scheme at the neighbourhood scale. We suggest that sewer mining (a) provides a feasible alternative reuse option when the geography of the wastewater treatment plant is problematic, (b) relies on mature treatment technologies and (c) presents an opportunity for Small Medium Enterprises (SME) to be involved in the water market, securing environmental, social and economic benefits. To support this argument, we report on a pilot sewer-mining application in Athens, Greece. The pilot, integrates two subsystems: a packaged treatment unit and an information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure. The paper reports on the pilot's overall performance and critically evaluates the potential of the sewer-mining idea to become a significant piece of the circular economy puzzle for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Down Under – Aspects of Microbial Fuel Cell’s sewer implementation


    Andrich, Jonas Maximilian Sven


    Increasing energy demand and simultaneous depletion of raw materials requires us to use existing resources more wisely. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) recover energy from waste water while clearing it. The sewage system with its million-kilometer-length is a highly interesting field for its application. The present work is therefore dedicated to aspects of Microbial Fuel Cells’ sewer implementation. Firstly, the wastewater infrastructure was evaluated with respect to suitable implementation s...

  19. Tracking artificial sweeteners and pharmaceuticals introduced into urban groundwater by leaking sewer networks. (United States)

    Wolf, Leif; Zwiener, Christian; Zemann, Moritz


    There is little quantitative information on the temporal trends of pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds, including artificial sweeteners, in urban groundwater and their suitability as tracers to inform urban water management. In this study, pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners were monitored over 6 years in a shallow urban groundwater body along with a range of conventional sewage tracers in a network of observation wells that were specifically constructed to assess sewer leakage. Out of the 71 substances screened, 24 were detected at above the analytical detection limit. The most frequent compounds were the iodinated X-ray contrast medium amidotrizoic acid (35.3%), the anticonvulsant carbamazepine (33.3%) and the artificial sweetener acesulfame (27.5%), while all other substances occurred in less than 10% of the screened wells. The results from the group of specifically constructed focus wells within 10 m of defective sewers confirmed sewer leaks as being a major entrance pathway into the groundwater. The spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners corresponds well with predictions by pipeline leakage models, which operate on optical sewer condition monitoring data and hydraulic information. Correlations between the concentrations of carbamazepine, iodinated X-ray contrast media and artificial sweeteners were weak to non-existent. Peak concentrations of up to 4130 ng/l of amidotrizoic acid were found in the groundwater downstream of the local hospital. The analysis of 168 samples for amidotrizoic acid, taken at 5 different occasions, did not show significant temporal trends for the years 2002-2008, despite changed recommendations in the medical usage of amidotrizoic acid. The detailed results show that the current mass balance approaches for urban groundwater bodies must be adapted to reflect the spatially distributed leaks and the variable wastewater composition in addition to the lateral and horizontal groundwater fluxes. Crown

  20. Population ecology and movement of the American cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) in sewers. (United States)

    Tee, Hui-Siang; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Lee, Chow-Yang


    The population size, age-class structure, and movement of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), were studied in three sewers in Penang, Malaysia, from September 2008 to October 2009. Eighteen to 20 glass-jar traps (two per manhole) were deployed for a 24-h period during each sampling occasion at each sewer. Adults and nymphs were active throughout the study period, with an average monthly trap catch of 57-97 adults and 79-99 nymphs. The mean proportions of adults and nymphs at the three sewers ranged from 0.47 to 0.57. Of the 2177 male and 2717 female cockroaches marked and released over the three sewers, recapture rates were 29.4-45.8 and 30.8-47.0%, respectively. The proportion of marked males and females did not differ significantly from the proportion of recaptured marked males and females. However, the mean number of times a marked female was recaptured was significantly greater than that of males. Of the 783 males and 1,030 females that were marked and recaptured, 19.4 and 24.7%, respectively, had moved between manholes, and significantly more females than males moved between manholes. Of the 406 recaptured marked adults that moved between manholes, 90.4% moved a distance of 2-20 m from their initial release site; one male moved 192 m, the longest distance recorded. Trap catch on each sampling occasion was positively correlated with daily mean temperature. The number of cockroach movements between manholes also was correlated with the mean daily minimum temperature.

  1. DSM-flux: A new technology for reliable Combined Sewer Overflow discharge monitoring with low uncertainties. (United States)

    Maté Marín, Ainhoa; Rivière, Nicolas; Lipeme Kouyi, Gislain


    In the past ten years, governments from the European Union have been encouraged to collect volume and quality data for all the effluent overflows from separated stormwater and combined sewer systems that result in a significant environmental impact on receiving water bodies. Methods to monitor and control these flows require improvements, particularly for complex Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) structures. The DSM-flux (Device for Stormwater and combined sewer flows Monitoring and the control of pollutant fluxes) is a new pre-designed and pre-calibrated channel that provides appropriate hydraulic conditions suitable for measurement of overflow rates and volumes by means of one water level gauge. In this paper, a stage-discharge relation for the DSM-flux is obtained experimentally and validated for multiple inflow hydraulic configurations. Uncertainties in CSO discharges and volumes are estimated within the Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) framework. Whatever the upstream hydraulic conditions are, relative uncertainties are lower than 15% and 2% for the investigated discharges and volumes, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Problem statement. Currently sanitary drainage systems of large cities in Ukraine are significantly worn down with prolonged use and due to inefficient solutions for protection of the structures from aggressive effects of the environment, poor quality of materials and construction and installation works during building. Restoration of performance characteristics, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels is the costly and technically complex task, which is urgently needed to be fulfilled to prevent accidents including those with serious environmental impact. Modern work technique and the materials used for restoration allow us to solve these problems with different levels of efficiency, while reducing the cost of restoration due to use of recycled polymeric raw material, as well as to improvement of technological solutions is a currently important direction of research. Purpose of the article. To develop solutions for restoring serviceability, reliability and durability of sewer tunnels taking into account the accumulated experience in renovation of water disposal networks. Conclusion. Use of components made of recycled polymer composite materials during restoring sewer tunnels has significant economic and environmental effects and allows to undertake repair work in hard-to-reach areas.

  3. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  4. Constructed Wetlands for Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment—Comparison of German, French and Italian Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meyer


    Full Text Available Combined sewer systems are designed to transport stormwater surface run off in addition to the dry weather flows up to defined limits. In most European countries, hydraulic loads greater than the design flow are discharged directly into receiving water bodies, with minimal treatment (screening, sedimentation, or with no treatment at all. One feasible solution to prevent receiving waters from strong negative impacts seems to be the application of vertical flow constructed wetlands. In Germany, first attempts to use this ecological technology were recognized in early 1990s. Since then, further development continued until a high level of treatment performance was reached. During recent years the national “state-of-the-art” (defined in 2005 was adapted in other European countries, including France and Italy. Against the background of differing national requirements in combined sewer system design, substantial developmental steps were taken. The use of coarser filter media in combination with alternating loadings of separated filter beds allows direct feedings with untreated combined runoff. Permanent water storage in deep layers of the wetland improves the system’s robustness against extended dry periods, but contains operational risks. Besides similar functions (but different designs and layouts, correct dimensioning of all approaches suffers from uncertainties in long-term rainfall predictions as well as inside sewer system simulation tools.

  5. Update summary of the 1991 discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS) report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Since the 1991 Y-12 Plant report, a flow study of the Y-12 Plant sanitary sewer collection system has been completed by the Y-12 Plant staff (Hanzelka and Maguire, 1993). Additional data has been obtained by the Y-12 Plant and the City of Oak Ridge (COR, 1994). COR developed limits on radionuclide concentrations in sludges used for land application (Stetar, 1993). Martin Marietta Energy Systems has provided recommendations to the Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the impacts of sludge land farming operations on the ORR (Frye, 1992). The DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (USDOE, 1993) completed an audit of activities related to radiological contamination of the COR sewer system due to DOE operations. In addition COR is currently developing limits on radionuclide releases for all industrial customers to be applied through the permitting process. In 1994, a new sanitary sewer monitoring station was installed and began operation at the Y-12 Plant to determine releases specifically from the Y-12 Plant. Previously, estimates were based on mass balance calculations using data from the City Monitoring Station which monitors Union Valley and Y-12 Plant releases. The purpose of this report is to update the 1991 Y-12 Plant study taking into account current data and information

  6. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.


    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees' discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem

  7. African urbanization in metropolitan South Africa--differential urbanization perspectives. (United States)

    Geyer, H S


    "As a potentially important urban development policy consideration, attention is focused in this paper on differential urbanization trends in South Africa at the metropolitan level. Recent informal urban settlement patterns of the African population within the major metropolitan areas are contrasted against these differential urbanization trends to determine the implications of both for residential development in the metropolitan areas during the post-apartheid era." excerpt

  8. Labor Force Activity of Women in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 15. (United States)

    Brown, David L.; O'Leary, Jeanne M.

    Between 1960 and 1970 economic opportunity and progress for women in American non-metropolitan areas was mixed. While women in metropolitan areas were more likely to be labor force members than were non-metropolitan women, the difference in metropolitan and non-metropolitan labor force participation rates narrowed during the period. For women…

  9. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  10. Implementation of an integrated real-time control system of sewer system and waste water treatment plant in the city of Wilhelmshaven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seggelke, Katja; Löwe, Roland; Beeneken, Thomas


    A case study for integrated real-time control (RTC) of an urban drainage system in the city of Wilhelmshaven (Germany) is explained. The fuzzy based RTC strategy combines control of the sewer system and inflow to the waste water treatment plant. The main objective in controlling the sewer system...... is to reduce the number of overflows and the volume at a combined sewer overflow (CSO), located close to a bathing beach. Based on online measurements, the operation mode of two pumping stations is modified. This approach allows the safe activation of free storage volume in the sewer system without...... RTC system has been operational for approximately one year....

  11. Model LPA Terpadu untuk Wilayah Surabaya Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimien Bt. M. Al Muhdhar a Henie Irawati


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to establish the integrated LPA model for Surabaya Metropolitan Area. The methods used are literature overviews, comparative studies to well-established areas, and expert assistantships through national seminars. The result shows that the integrated LPA has opportunity to combine some activities such as sorting and classifying, producing, wrapping and containing, selling the compost and decayed materials, and filling residual waste by landfill system. In 25 Ha land area, 14.10 Ha is allocated for waste management, and 10.90 Ha for sanitary landfill.

  12. Metropolitan vision making - using backcasting as a strategic learning process to shape metropolitan futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuvonen, A.; Ache, P.M.


    Abstract: The need for new forward looking tools in urban planning is immense: The new functional relations and structures are stretching beyond our capacity to 'rationally' capture modern metropolitan spaces Neuman & Hull 2009). At the same time cities struggle to find tools to help manage a

  13. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (United States)


    ...; (ii) Contains a good faith estimate of the year in which the roads, water and sewer facilities and... of State law, that period becomes the Federal revocation period and the contract must reflect the... subdivision, and adverse claims which are applicable to the lot to be purchased. (ii) Good faith estimates of...

  14. District heating in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.


    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  15. Investigating the Impact of the Cisco 21st Century Schools Initiative on Harrison County School District. Summative Report (United States)

    Ba, Harouna; Meade, Terri; Pierson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Camille; Roy, Amanda; Williams, Hakim


    There are 21 schools in the Harrison County School District (HCSD), located in southern Mississippi, in the Gulfport/Biloxi metropolitan area. Of those, only Harrison Central 9th Grade (HC9) and Harrison County High School (HCHS) participated in the Cisco 21S Initiative--therefore, this summary will focus on only administrators, teachers,…

  16. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07 (United States)

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed

  17. Business profile of metropolitan Las Vegas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, M.R.


    This first report describes the present makeup of the Las Vegas metropolitan statistical area (MSA) economy and analyzes the climate for business expansion. The second report contains an assessment of the competitiveness of the area as a location for new or expanded facilities investment by companies in approximately 600 business groups. The third report projects Las Vegas' competitiveness at the start of the next century in the absence of a nuclear waste storage facility and then evaluates the potential impacts of siting that facility near Las Vegas on its ability to attract and retain business investment. The primary purpose of these reports is to contribute to the overall assessment of the environmental impact of the US Department of Energy's proposed action to build and operate an underground nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain. The first two reports also serve a second purpose -- they can be used by economic development organizations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area in their ongoing efforts to attract new business investment. Information contained in the business climate analysis found in this first report can be incorporated into marketing materials. The competitiveness assessment contained in the second report can be used by these organizations in identifying targets they wish to pursue

  18. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci


    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  19. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. (United States)


    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements of...

  20. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Fat and Oil Deposits in Mashhad City Sewer Lines and the Solutions Developed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi kamali


    Full Text Available Formation of oil, fat, and grease deposits in sewer pipelines is a major concern as they result in sewage overflow and pose health problems. Analysis of two sample deposits collected from the sewer lines of Imam Reza Street in the city of Mashhad suggested that the chemical reactions promoted by edible oils in the sewer lines lead to the formation of insoluble soap and deposits. Being sticky, the deposits accumulate over time to eventually block the lines. The analysis also showed that the moisture content of the samples ranged between 50‒62%, indicating that water does not play a main role in their formation. The samples were also found to contain 61.78% and 84.35% saturated fatty acids, with palmitic acid being the dominant one. Calcium was the main metal in the samples, which is due to both water hardness and corrosion of the sewer lines. Based on the results obtained, the origin of these deposits, and the relevant protocols for the management of oil and fat wastes, solutions were proposed to prevent deposit formation and sewer line clogging that suit the special cultural and environmental conditions of the city. These proposals are under consideration for implementation in the region.

  1. Understanding the spatial formation and accumulation of fats, oils and grease deposits in the sewer collection system. (United States)

    Dominic, Christopher Cyril Sandeep; Szakasits, Megan; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J


    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially, along with other obstructions (roots intrusion) and pipe deformations (pipe sags), may influence the detrimental buildup of FOG deposits. The purpose of this study was to quantify the spatial variation in FOG deposit formation and accumulation in a pilot-scale sewer collection system. The pilot system contained straight pipes, manholes, roots intrusion, and a pipe sag. Calcium and oil were injected into the system and operated at alkaline (pH = 10) and neutral (pH = 7) pH conditions. Results showed that solid accumulations were slightly higher at neutral pH. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis on the solids samples confirmed that the solids were indeed calcium-based fatty acid salts. However, the fatty acid profiles of the solids deviated from the profile found from FOG deposits in sewer systems, which were primarily saturated fatty acids. These results confirm the work done previously by researchers and suggest an alternative fate of unsaturated fatty acids that does not lead to their incorporation in FOG deposits in full-scale sewer systems.

  2. Following a drop of water from the cloud, throughout the sewer system, into the receiving water - Model predictive control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari

    This article presents selected examples of model-based prediction and control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems, developed within the framework of the Storm- and Wastewater Informatics project (SWI). By exploiting all the available on-line information (e.g. radar based rainfall...... of pollutants discharged from treatment plants, etc.). The tools developed in the SWI project include (but are not limited to (i) rainfall nowcasting based on radar measurements, (ii) probabilistic flow forecasting based on data assimilation and stochastic models, (iii) prediction and optimization of wet......-weather performance of wastewater treatment plants, and (iv) integrated control of the different elements of the integrated wastewater systems. Full-scale testing of these tools in different catchment located in Denmark ensure that the developed tools can represent an important step forwards for on-line operation...

  3. Influence of Intimate Partner Violence on Domestic Relocation in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Young Australian Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Kibele, Eva; Rahman, Saifur; Loxton, Deborah


    Data from a national, population-based longitudinal study of Australian women (26-34 years) were analyzed to investigate the association between domestic relocation and multiple explanatory factors, namely intimate partner violence (IPV), metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence, education,

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of iron and alkalinity generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers. (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Kustermans, Caroline; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Prévoteau, Antonin; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje


    The addition of iron salts is one of the most commonly used dosing strategies for sulfide control in sewers. However, iron salts decrease the sewage pH which not only reduces the effectiveness of sulfide precipitation but also enhances the release of residual sulfide to the sewer atmosphere. Equally important, concentrated iron salt solutions are corrosive and their frequent transport, handling, and on-site storage often come with Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) concerns. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a novel sulfide control approach using electrochemical systems with parallel placed iron electrodes. This enabled combining anodic dissolved iron species release with cathodic hydroxyl anion production, which alleviates all the aforementioned concerns. A long-term experiment was successfully carried out achieving an average sulfide removal efficiency of 95.4 ± 4.4% at low voltage input of 2.90 ± 0.54 V over the course of 8 weeks. This electrochemical method was demonstrated to successfully achieve efficient sulfide control. In addition, it increases the sewage pH, thereby overcoming the drawbacks associated with the pH decrease in the case of conventional iron salt dosing. Ferrous ions were produced at an overall coulombic efficiency (CE) of 98.2 ± 1.2%, whereas oxygen evolution and direct sulfide oxidation were not observed. Short-term experiments showed that increasing either inter-electrode gap or current density increased the cell voltage associated with the increase in the ohmic drop of the system. Overall, this study highlights the practical potential of in-situ generation of dissolved iron species and simultaneous hydroxyl anion generation for efficient sulfide control in sewers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Municipal Revenue Generation and Development in the Calgary and Edmonton Metropolitan Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Conger


    Full Text Available Municipal reliance on property taxes and the competing priorities of municipalities—in terms of where they plan and approve land development within their boundaries—in order to capture new property taxes, has led to political conflict between adjacent municipalities.1 Nowhere in Alberta is this more evident than in the Edmonton and Calgary metropolitan regions, where sustained high-levels of growth has led to the expansion of the core-cities, rapid residential development rates in peripheral urban centres and the rise urban-scale development in the rural municipal districts – spurring intrametropolitan competition, harsh words and hurt feelings amongst municipalities.2 In response to this ongoing conflict, the province and at times the municipalities themselves have developed successive regional planning frameworks over the past 60 years3 to guide development and encourage—and at times enforce—intermunicipal collaboration. In an exploration of the contemporary relationship between municipal finance and development patterns in the Calgary and Edmonton metropolitan regions, we use municipal property tax and building-permit data for new residential, commercial and industrial development to track the incidence of development since 1983 and the property tax rates for municipalities in both regions from 2001 to 2015. In looking at the tax data there is evidence of increasing competition among municipalities, in particular for non-residential development; however, the trends could also be consistent with collusion. In looking at the building permit data, although there has been a lot of development in the peripheral urban and rural municipalities, proportionately, growth and development has occurred overwhelmingly in the core-cities. Our findings point to a system where local development considerations in both metropolitan regions, and the municipal prerogative to set municipal tax rates to attract development, take precedence over the

  6. Dopant-assisted negative photoionization Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with on-line cooling inlet for real-time monitoring H2S concentration in sewer gas. (United States)

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Hua, Lei; Li, Haiyang


    Malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas often exists in the sewer system and associates with the problems of releasing the dangerous odor to the atmosphere and causing sewer pipe to be corroded. A simple method is in demand for real-time measuring H2S level in the sewer gas. In this paper, an innovated method based on dopant-assisted negative photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (DANP-IMS) with on-line semiconductor cooling inlet was put forward and successfully applied for the real-time measurement of H2S in sewer gas. The influence of moisture was effectively reduced via an on-line cooling method and a non-equilibrium dilution with drift gas. The limits of quantitation for the H2S in ≥60% relative humidity air could be obtained at ≤79.0ng L(-1) with linear ranges of 129-2064ng L(-1). The H2S concentration in a sewer manhole was successfully determined while its product ions were identified by an ion-mobility time-of-fight mass spectrometry. Finally, the correlation between sewer H2S concentration and the daily routines and habits of residents was investigated through hourly or real-time monitoring the variation of sewer H2S in manholes, indicating the power of this DANP-IMS method in assessing the H2S concentration in sewer system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prioritising sewerage maintenance using inferred sewer age: a case study for Edinburgh. (United States)

    Arthur, S; Burkhard, R


    The reported research project focuses on using a database which contains details of customer contacts and CCTV data for a key Scottish catchment to construct a GIS based sewer condition model. Given the nature of the asset registry, a key research challenge was estimating the age of individual lengths of pipe. Within this context, asset age was inferred using the estimated age of surface developments-this involved overlaying the network in a GIS with historical digital maps. The paper illustrates that inferred asset age can reliably be used to highlight assets which are more likely to fail.

  8. Reliability of adaptive multivariate software sensors for sewer water quality monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen


    This study investigates the use of a multivariate approach, based on Principal Component Analysis PCA), as software sensor for fault detection and reconstruction of missing measurements in on-line monitoring of sewer water quality. The analysis was carried out on a 16-months dataset of five...... commonly available on-line measurements (flow, turbidity, ammonia, conductivity and temperature). The results confirmed the great performance of PCA (up to 10 weeks after parameter estimation) when estimating a measurement from the combination of the remaining four variables, a useful feature in data...

  9. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow waters using performic acid or peracetic acids


    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper; Gramstad, Robin; Öjstedt, Ulrik; Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    We investigated the possibility of applying performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus was studied in batch-scale and pre-field experiments. In the batch-scale experiment, 2.5 mg L− 1 PAA removed approximately 4 log unit of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO with a 360 min contact time. The removal of E. coli ...

  10. Combined Sewer Overflow pretreatment with chemical coagulation and a particle settler for improved peracetic acid disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Bonnerup, Arne; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    Full scale disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) was achieved on Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) water, which was pre-treated physically by a fast settling-filtration unit. Disinfection of untreated CSO water using PAA was compared to treatment using a particle separator (Hydro......Separator®) and additional coagulation with poly-aluminum-chloride. Disinfection for Enterococcus increased with the applied dose of PAA and additional improvement was achieved when it was preceded by chemical coagulation with 5 mg L−1 poly-aluminum-chloride. When Enterococcus was reduced by treatment in the Hydro...

  11. Micropollutants in stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflow in the Copenhagen area, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Jensen, J.K.


    Stormwater runoff contains a broad range of micropollutants. In Europe a number of these substances are regulated through the Water Framework Directive, which establishes Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for surface waters. Knowledge about discharge of these substances through stormwater...... runoff and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) is essential to ensure compliance with the EQSs. Results from a screening campaign including more than 50 substances at four stormwater discharge locations and one CSO in Copenhagen are reported here. Heavy metal concentrations were detected at levels similar...

  12. The Use of Intelligent Relays for the Sewer Cleaning Vehicle Control and Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chiver


    Full Text Available The paper presents the way in which the electrical control and automation system of the 5 mc combined sewer and gully cleaning vehicle equipped by a local company was designed, using the intelligent relay of the easy 700 type of Moeller (Eaton company. The control of all the equipments is performed locally from the control panel and some of them can also by remote controlled by means of the radio waves. The program required by the intelligent relay was created, tested and implemented with the help of the dedicated software easy-soft 6, developed by the manufacturing company.

  13. Radon survey in Metropolitan Toronto schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Moridi, R.


    The radon testing survey in Metropolitan Toronto public schools was the most intensive project of its kind ever undertaken in Canadian schools. It also included an extensive public education program on radiation and radon-in-schools. The radon levels at 632 schools were measured using the CAIRS Radon Monitors. Ninety percent of the locations measured were found to have a radon level equal to or less than 2 mWL. Two locations in two different schools were found to have a radon level at or above the Action Level (20 mWL). The remaining results were between the two extremes. Follow-up testing in those schools where more than 10 mWL of radon was found is in progress. (author)

  14. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow. (United States)

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya


    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system.

  15. Chieti-Pescara Metropolitan Area: International Migrations, Residential Choices and Economic Deconcentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Montanari


    Full Text Available The subject of human mobility – with reference to the migratory component – has taken on specific significance during the last decade, particularly with regard to the concept of place. This paper considers the subject in relation to residential and economic deconcentration. The specific point of reference is the metropolitan area of Chieti-Pescara, in the central part of Italy’s Adriatic coast. The research was carried out through quantitative analysis of official data from population censuses and register offices. The results highlight the links between movements of residents and those of firms, in which foreign residents show distinctive behaviour. The residential choices made by foreigners in the area are based on economic reasons and are primarily linked to housing and transport costs. Their communities tend to be concentrated in specific zones of the metropolitan area and in specific districts of the cities, as a consequence of a feeling of belonging and solidarity. Although there are no clear signs of segregation phenomena, the native population tends to avoid mingling with foreigners from marginal countries.

  16. Spatiotemporal Simulation of Future Land Use/Cover Change Scenarios in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruci Wang


    Full Text Available Simulating future land use/cover changes is of great importance for urban planners and decision-makers, especially in metropolitan areas, to maintain a sustainable environment. This study examines the changes in land use/cover in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA from 2007 to 2017 as a first step in using supervised classification. Second, based on the map results, we predicted the expected patterns of change in 2027 and 2037 by employing a hybrid model composed of cellular automata and the Markov model. The next step was to decide the model inputs consisting of the modeling variables affecting the distribution of land use/cover in the study area, for instance distance to central business district (CBD and distance to railways, in addition to the classified maps of 2007 and 2017. Finally, we considered three scenarios for simulating land use/cover changes: spontaneous, sub-region development, and green space improvement. Simulation results show varied patterns of change according to the different scenarios. The sub-region development scenario is the most promising because it balances between urban areas, resources, and green spaces. This study provides significant insight for planners about change trends in the TMA and future challenges that might be encountered to maintain a sustainable region.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer


    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Half saturation constants for nitrate and nitrite by in-sewer anoxic transformations of wastewater organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Talib, Suhaimi; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes


     significant breakthrough and progress have been made in the study of the kinetics of microbial transformation in sewers under aerobic and under changing aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Fundamental knowledge on anoxic kinetics of wastewater is still lacking, so it is not now possible to apply...... an integrated approach to municipal wastewater treatment incorporating sewer networks as a bio-chemical reactor. This paper presents the results of studies on determining half saturation constants for nitrate, KNO3, and nitrite, KNO2, in raw wastewater. The average values of KNO3 and KNO2, determined from...

  19. Water Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  20. Sewerage Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  1. Causes and consequences of rural-urban migration: The case of Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan (United States)

    Babi Moses, Lomoro Alfred; Guogping, Xiong; Celestino Ladu John, Leju


    Migration is the movement of people from one ecological region to another; it may be on temporary or permanent basis. This research studies focused on the causes and consequences of rural-urban migration in Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan as a case study. The stratified random sampling method on the basis of existing payam (districts) was used to divide the study area into three zones of Juba, Kator and Munuku. Data were generated through primary and secondary sources. The data generated were analyzed using SPSS. The findings of the study show that Munuki payam covers most of the migrants. The study also reveals that males migrate more than the females in Juba and migration is high within the age cohorts of 30-39 years and 40-49 years old. Furthermore, the study revealed that the propensity to migrate is directly related to educational attainment. It can be inferred from the findings of the study that the majority of migrants in Juba Metropolitan migrated in search of employment while others migrated to continue their education while others migrated in search for basic amenities, to join relatives and get married. This means, until the imbalance or disparity in socio-economic development between the rural and urban areas are removed, no amount of persuasion or force can put a stop to rural-urban migration and its’ multiplying effects in Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan.

  2. Solid Waste Management Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  3. District nursing is vital. (United States)

    Bliss, Julie


    Queen's Nursing Institute chief executive Crystal Oldman has welcomed the RCN congress resolution urging RCN council to lobby for all district nurses to have a specialist practice qualification. This provides the ideal route for future talent and must be supported.

  4. Floodplain District Permit (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  5. 115th Congressional Districts (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  6. Allegheny County Council Districts (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  7. ACT250 Districts (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  8. NM Property Tax Districts (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  9. NM School District Boundaries (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  10. Groundwater Managment Districts (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  11. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries. (United States)


    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  12. ‘New urbanism' or metropolitan-level centralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter


    Based on a study in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area, this paper compares the influences of macro-level and micro-level urban form characteristics on the respondents' traveling distance by car on weekdays. The Copenhagen study shows that metropolitan-scale urban structural variables generally exert...... stronger influences than neighborhood-scale built environment characteristics on the amount of car travel. In particular, the location of the residence relative to the main city center of the metropolitan region shows a strong effect. Some local scale variables often mentioned in the literature...

  13. Growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Lens, Piet N.L.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.; Bester, Kai; Nielsen, Asbjorn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes


    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by microbes present on concrete surfaces of sewer pipes is a key process in sewer corrosion. The growth of aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria from corroded concrete surfaces was studied in a batch reactor. Samples of corrosion products, containing sulfur oxidizing bacteria, were suspended in aqueous solution at pH similar to that of corroded concrete. Hydrogen sulfide was supplied to the reactor to provide the source of reduced sulfur. The removal of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen was monitored. The utilization rates of both hydrogen sulfide and oxygen suggested exponential bacterial growth with median growth rates of 1.25 d -1 and 1.33 d -1 as determined from the utilization rates of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen, respectively. Elemental sulfur was found to be the immediate product of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation. When exponential growth had been achieved, the addition of hydrogen sulfide was terminated leading to elemental sulfur oxidation. The ratio of consumed sulfur to consumed oxygen suggested that sulfuric acid was the ultimate oxidation product. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study to determine the growth rate of bacteria involved in concrete corrosion with hydrogen sulfide as source of reduced sulfur.

  14. Coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow: Influence of modeling parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Ganiyu Adeogun


    Full Text Available This paper presents outcome of our investigation on the influence of modeling parameters on 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow, developed through coupling of an existing 1D sewer network model (SWMM and 2D inundation model (BREZO. The 1D-2D hydrodynamic model was developed for the purpose of examining flood incidence due to surcharged water on overland surface. The investigation was carried out by performing sensitivity analysis on the developed model. For the sensitivity analysis, modeling parameters, such as mesh resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM resolution and roughness were considered. The outcome of the study shows the model is sensitive to changes in these parameters. The performance of the model is significantly influenced, by the Manning's friction value, the DEM resolution and the area of the triangular mesh. Also, changes in the aforementioned modeling parameters influence the Flood characteristics, such as the inundation extent, the flow depth and the velocity across the model domain. Keywords: Inundation, DEM, Sensitivity analysis, Model coupling, Flooding

  15. Monitoring of carbamazepine concentrations in wastewater and groundwater to quantify sewer leakage. (United States)

    Fenz, R; Blaschke, A P; Clara, M; Kroiss, H; Mascher, D; Zessner, M


    Monitoring of carbamazepine concentrations in wastewater and groundwater enables us to identify and quantify sewer exfiltration. The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine is hardly removed in wastewater treatment plants and not or just slightly attenuated during bank infiltration and subsoil flow. Concentrations in wastewater are generally 1000 times higher than the limit of quantification. In contrast to . many other wastewater tracers carbamazepine is discharged to the environment only via domestic wastewater. The results from this study carried out in Linz, Austria indicate an average exfiltration rate of 1%, expressed as percentage of the dry weather flow that is lost to the groundwater on the city-wide scale. This rate is lower than sewage losses reported in most other studies which attempted to quantify exfiltration on the basis of groundwater pollution. However, it was also possible to identify one area with significantly higher sewage losses. This method seems to be very suitable for the verification of leakage models used to assess sewer exfiltration on a regional scale.

  16. Sewer infiltration/inflow: long-term monitoring based on diurnal variation of pollutant mass flux. (United States)

    Bares, V; Stránský, D; Sýkora, P


    The paper deals with a method for quantification of infiltrating groundwater based on the variation of diurnal pollutant load and continuous water quality and quantity monitoring. Although the method gives us the potential to separate particular components of wastewater hygrograph, several aspects of the method should be discussed. Therefore, the paper investigates the cost-effectiveness, the relevance of pollutant load from surface waters (groundwater) and the influence of measurement time step. These aspects were studied in an experimental catchment of Prague sewer system, Czech Republic, within a three-month period. The results indicate high contribution of parasitic waters on night minimal discharge. Taking into account the uncertainty of the results and time-consuming maintenance of the sensor, the principal advantages of the method are evaluated. The study introduces a promising potential of the discussed measuring concept for quantification of groundwater infiltrating into the sewer system. It is shown that the conventional approach is sufficient and cost-effective even in those catchments, where significant contribution of foul sewage in night minima would have been assumed.

  17. Toxicity and pollutant impact analysis in an urban river due to combined sewer overflows loads. (United States)

    Casadio, A; Maglionico, M; Bolognesi, A; Artina, S


    The Navile Channel (Bologna, Italy) is an ancient artificial water course derived from the Reno river. It is the main receiving water body for the urban catchment of Bologna sewer systems and also for the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) main outlet. The aim of this work is to evaluate the Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) impact on Navile Channel's water quality. In order to collect Navile flow and water quality data in both dry and wet weather conditions, two measuring and sampling stations were installed, right upstream and downstream the WWTP outflow. The study shows that even in case of low intensity rain events, CSOs have a significant effect on both water quantity and quality, spilling a considerable amount of pollutants into the Navile Channel and presenting also acute toxicity effects. The collected data shown a good correlations between the concentrations of TSS and of chemical compounds analyzed, suggesting that the most part of such substances is attached to suspended solids. Resulting toxicity values are fairly high in both measuring points and seem to confirm synergistic interactions between heavy metals.

  18. Dynamics of pollutant discharge in combined sewer systems during rain events: chance or determinism? (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C


    A large database of continuous flow and turbidity measurements cumulating data on hundreds of rain events and dry weather days from two sites in Paris (called Quais and Clichy) and one in Lyon (called Ecully) is presented. This database is used to characterize and compare the behaviour of the three sites at the inter-events scale. The analysis is probed through three various variables: total volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) masses and concentrations during both wet and dry weather periods in addition to the contributions of diverse-origin sources to event flow volume and TSS load values. The results obtained confirm the previous findings regarding the spatial consistency of TSS fluxes and concentrations between both sites in Paris having similar land uses. Moreover, masses and concentrations are proven to be correlated between Parisian sites in a way that implies the possibility of some deterministic processes being reproducible from one catchment to another for a particular rain event. The results also demonstrate the importance of the contribution of wastewater and sewer deposits to the total events' loads and show that such contributions are not specific to Paris sewer networks.

  19. Combined sewer overflow control with LID based on SWMM: an example in Shanghai, China. (United States)

    Liao, Z L; Zhang, G Q; Wu, Z H; He, Y; Chen, H


    Although low impact development (LID) has been commonly applied across the developed countries for mitigating the negative impacts of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) on urban hydrological environment, it has not been widely used in developing countries yet. In this paper, a typical combined sewer system in an urbanized area of Shanghai, China was used to demonstrate how to design and choose CSO control solutions with LID using stormwater management model. We constructed and simulated three types of CSO control scenarios. Our findings support the notion that LID measures possess favorable capability on CSO reduction. Nevertheless, the green scenarios which are completely comprised by LID measures fail to achieve the maximal effectiveness on CSO reduction, while the gray-green scenarios (LID measure combined with gray measures) achieve it. The unit cost-effectiveness of each type of scenario sorts as: green scenario > gray-green scenario > gray scenario. Actually, as the storage tank is built in the case catchment, a complete application of green scenario is inaccessible here. Through comprehensive evaluation and comparison, the gray-green scenario F which used the combination of storage tank, bio-retention and rain barrels is considered as the most feasible one in this case.

  20. Impact of Combined Sewer Overflow on Wastewater Treatment and Microbiological Quality of Rivers for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Mascher


    Full Text Available Within the framework of a one-year study the treatment capacity of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP was evaluated, with regard to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB and to their influence on the recipient. The logarithmic reduction rates for fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli (EC and intestinal enterococci (IE were 2.84, 2.90 and 2.93. In the investigated period of time, the tested treatment plant released 4.3% of the total annual load flow volume as combined sewer overflow (CSO, that is, when the influent into the combined sewer exceeds the capacity of the treatment plant and coarsely cleaned wastewater arrives at the recipient. This CSO discharge increased the number of FIB significantly by 1.2 × 102 MPN/100 mL for EC, and by 1.8 × 101 MPN/100 mL for IE. For the Styrian part of the Mur River (1.6 million inhabitants, a calculation of FIB of all sewage treatment plants estimating the same ratio of CSO (4.3% and a given mean flow rate (QM results in a significant increase of the FIB load in the recipient: 3.8 × 103 MPN/100 mL for EC and 5.8 × 102 MPN/100 mL for IE. On the basis of these values the standards of water quality for recreational purposes cannot be met.

  1. Innovative use of lamella clarifiers for central stormwater treatment in separate sewer systems. (United States)

    Weiss, Gebhard


    Lamella settlers have been used in the past few years for the sedimentation of particles in wastewater and stormwater applications. A new and very innovative approach for the treatment of stormwater flows is proposed which extends the portfolio of solutions beyond traditional settling tanks. Surface runoff is stored in a sewer or a basin and finally treated in a small but continuously operated lamella clarifier. The low throughput flow will yield good treatment efficiency at a small footprint. The possibilities of using existing storage volume in a storm sewer, as well as the structural flexibility of the arrangement are decisive benefits. As a large operational advantage, the lamellae may be cleaned mechanically, e.g. by pivoting under water. Finally, the flow and the sludge which will be sent to the downstream treatment plant will be minimized. A new comparative simulation method is proposed in order to assess an equivalent degree of stormwater treatment, either by achieving an equal annual volume of treated stormwater or, more directly, an equal amount of spilled pollutant load. The new solution is compared with a traditional settling tank according to current German design rules. Additionally, a case study from a real installation will be presented.

  2. Predicting combined sewer overflows chamber depth using artificial neural networks with rainfall radar data. (United States)

    Mounce, S R; Shepherd, W; Sailor, G; Shucksmith, J; Saul, A J


    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) represent a common feature in combined urban drainage systems and are used to discharge excess water to the environment during heavy storms. To better understand the performance of CSOs, the UK water industry has installed a large number of monitoring systems that provide data for these assets. This paper presents research into the prediction of the hydraulic performance of CSOs using artificial neural networks (ANN) as an alternative to hydraulic models. Previous work has explored using an ANN model for the prediction of chamber depth using time series for depth and rain gauge data. Rainfall intensity data that can be provided by rainfall radar devices can be used to improve on this approach. Results are presented using real data from a CSO for a catchment in the North of England, UK. An ANN model trained with the pseudo-inverse rule was shown to be capable of predicting CSO depth with less than 5% error for predictions more than 1 hour ahead for unseen data. Such predictive approaches are important to the future management of combined sewer systems.

  3. The effects of sewer infrastructure on water quality: implications for land use studies. (United States)

    Vrebos, Dirk; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick


    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological status of the European water bodies and the necessary measures to obtain this have to be implemented. The water quality of a river is the result of complex anthropogenic systems (buildings, waste water treatment infrastructure, regulations, etc.) and biogeochemical and eco-hydrological interactions. It is therefore essential to obtain more insight in the factors that determine the water quality in a river. Research into the relation between land use and water quality is necessary. Human activities have a huge impact on the flow regimes and associated water quality of river systems. Effects of land use bound activities on water quality are often investigated, but these studies generally ignore the hydrological complexity of a human influenced catchment. Infrastructure like sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can displace huge quantities of polluted water. The transfers change flow paths, displace water between catchments and change the residence time of the system. If we want to correctly understand the effect of land use distribution on water quality we have to take these sewer systems into account. In this study we analyse the relation between land use and water quality in the Nete catchment (Belgium) and investigate the impact of the sewage infrastructure on this relation. The Nete catchment (1.673 km²) is a mosaic of semi natural, agricultural and urbanized areas and the land use is very fragmented. For the moment 74% of the households within the catchment are connected to a WWTP. The discharges from these WWTP's compose 15% of the total discharge of the Nete. Based on a runoff model the surface of upstream land use was calculated for 378 points. These data were then corrected for the impact of WWTP's. Using sewage infrastructure plans, urban areas connected to a WWTP were added to the upstream land use of the WWTP's water receiving stream. In order to understand the effect of

  4. An experiment to use medical I-131 as tracer in a city sewer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbrich, Susanne; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)


    City sewer systems have to reliably carry residential and industrial wastewater to treatment plants, often mixed with rainwater. Transport in the sewer system is regularly modelled in order to predict sewerage levels, transport velocities and volume discharges. Radioisotopes would be interesting tracers, as they can be detected quickly and without the need of applying wet chemistry. Medical isotopes are released in large quantities (many MBq) by excretion from patients either at the location of administration or from elsewhere, most probably the patient's home. Depending on diagnostic or treatment modality, isotopes of different physical characteristics are used, often bound to compounds of specific metabolic behaviour. Routine environmental surveillance regularly detects the most common diagnostic ({sup 99m}Tc) and therapeutic ({sup 131}I) isotopes in city wastewater samples. Except for {sup 131}I in the case of a nuclear emergency, no contributions from sources other than medical are expected. Medical isotopes therefore might be used for tracing purposes, provided individual inputs can be identified and separated. A field experiment has been designed involving {sup 131}I releases from a single patient who had undergone radioiodine thyroid ablation therapy. This modality is applied after thyroid cancer surgery in order to destroy residual thyroid tissue. Activities up to 5 GBq of {sup 131}I are used which are excreted within few days, as no iodine-retaining thyroid tissue remains. In Germany, about 20,000 of these treatments are performed yearly. For a sewer system of 500,000 inhabitants, about 150 cases would be expected per year, making it quite improbable to have interference between individual patient releases in the same region of the city sewer system. Practically, the radiometric laboratory was informed of the expected release of an (anonymous) patient from the collaborating radiotherapy unit several days in advance, plus the approximate location of

  5. Cesium and strontium behaviors in wastewater collected by different sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Nao K.; Hatanaka, Takuma; Umita, Teruyuki [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Iwate University, 020-8551, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka, Iwate (Japan); Ito, Ayumi [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Iwate University, 020-8551, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka, Iwate (Japan)


    The nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the release of radionuclides such as {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 90}Sr into the environment. Some of these radionuclides have been entering sewage treatment plants through sewer systems and then being transferred to sewage sludge. There are two types of sewer systems, e.g. a combined sewer system (CSS) and a separated sewer system (SSS). The CSS transfers rainwater runoff and domestic wastewater to the treatment plants in a single pipe. The SSS has independent pipes; one pipe transfers domestic wastewater to the treatment plant and the other pipe transfers rainwater runoff to river or sea. Since most of the radionuclides released into the atmosphere by the nuclear accident fell onto the land surface by precipitation, the CSS should collect more radionuclides than the SSS. However, there is little information about behavior differences of radionuclides in wastewater between the two types of sewer systems. The objective of the present study was to clarify the differences of radionuclide behavior in wastewater between the CSS and SSS. Behaviors of stable Cs and Sr in wastewater were observed as a means to predict radiocesium and radiostrontium. Two types of wastewater were collected in Morioka city, Japan: wastewater in a CSS in a rain event (WC) and wastewater in a SSS (WS). The WC was taken at a high rate filtration plant every 20 minutes from the beginning of the rain event for several hours in 2013. The WS was collected at a sewage treatment plant once a month from June to October 2013; sometimes the collection was at the time of a rain event. Suspended solid (SS) in each sample was measured as a physicochemical property. The element concentrations in total, dissolved, and particulate fractions were determined. While the SS in the WS taken on rainy day was 0.11 g/L, the SS in the WC was 0.36 g/L in the beginning of the rainfall and then decreased with time. Total Cs concentration

  6. Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Solid waste management is associated with health hazards. ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of ...

  7. Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes : a TPCB Peer Exchange (United States)


    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes Peer Exchange held on September 9-10, 2015 in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. This event was sponsored ...

  8. Fate of cocaine drug biomarkers in sewer system: the role of suspended solids in biotransformation and sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    on the fate of illicit drugs in sewer systems. This study aims at assessing the role of suspended solids on the biotransformation and sorption in raw sewage of eight illicit drug biomarkers (cocaine, heroin, methadone, mephedrone, ketamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and THC and their urinary metabolites...

  9. Sediment transport modeling in deposited bed sewers: unified form of May's equations using the particle swarm optimization algorithm. (United States)

    Safari, Mir Jafar Sadegh; Shirzad, Akbar; Mohammadi, Mirali


    May proposed two dimensionless parameters of transport (η) and mobility (F s ) for self-cleansing design of sewers with deposited bed condition. The relationships between those two parameters were introduced in conditional form for specific ranges of F s , which makes it difficult to use as a practical tool for sewer design. In this study, using the same experimental data used by May and employing the particle swarm optimization algorithm, a unified equation is recommended based on η and F s . The developed model is compared with original May relationships as well as corresponding models available in the literature. A large amount of data taken from the literature is used for the models' evaluation. The results demonstrate that the developed model in this study is superior to May and other existing models in the literature. Due to the fact that in May's dimensionless parameters more effective variables in the sediment transport process in sewers with deposited bed condition are considered, it is concluded that the revised May equation proposed in this study is a reliable model for sewer design.

  10. Correlations between reinfall data and insurance damage data related to sewer flooding for the case of Aarhus, Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, M.H.; Zhou, Q.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.


    Sewer flooding due to extreme rainfall may result in considerable damage. Damage data to quantify costs of cleaning, drying, and replacing materials and goods are rare in literature. In this study, insurance claim data related to property damages were analysed for the municipality of Aarhus,

  11. Geochemical distribution and mobility of heavy metals in sediments of urban streams affected by combined sewer overflows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnaťuková, Petra


    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 85-94 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : sediments * heavy metals * urban streams * sequential extraction * combined sewer overflows Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2011

  12. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data (United States)


    Using travel diary data from 2000–2001 and 2010–2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  13. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters. (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng


    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  14. Planning Assignments of the Italian Metropolitan Cities. Early Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo


    Full Text Available The last stage of the process of establishment of the Italian Metropolitan Cities, which took place in 2014, follows of a few decades the start of this institutional reform. In 1990, in fact, the Act 142 (Local Autonomies Reform had planned metropolitan areas as the administrative organization more suitable to provide these territories of structures for the management and the strategic development alike the best international models. The paper proposes to analyse the first activities taken by the Italian Metropolitan Cities in the sector of territorial government, three years after the enactment in 2014 of Act nr. 56.  Focal point of the analysis is the jurisdiction in the formation of two plans (the Strategic Plan and the Metropolitan Territorial Plan and the following relationships among them, in the logical assumption that between them a necessary and strict consistency there should be. In the first part, the paper analyses some factors characterizing the metropolitan areas and the functions that the law assigns to the new institution in the territorial government sector. The second part outlines the updated situation with regard to the formation of the sectoral tools (Strategic Plan, Territorial Plan and homogeneous zones. The third part analyses the progresses in three Metropolitan Cities taken as sample (Milan, Genoa and Bologna and, in general, to those of Southern Italy. In the last part, the paper exposes some considerations regarding the issues raised in the article, particularly about the innovativeness of the tools and the timeline for the implementation of the act.

  15. High School Graduate Participation Rates: Proportions of Sacramento Area High School Graduates Enrolled in Los Rios Community College District, Fall 1998-Fall 1994. (United States)

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA. Office of Planning and Research.

    This report profiles the enrollment patterns of recent high school graduates of the Greater Sacramento Metropolitan Area who attend Los Rios colleges (California). This summary and the full data report provide the District and its colleges with research information on rates of participation by students who graduated from Los Rios Community College…

  16. A Homegrown Design for Data Warehousing: A District Customizes Its Own Process for Generating Detailed Information about Students in Real Time (United States)

    Thompson, Terry J.; Gould, Karen J.


    In recent years the Metropolitan School District of Wayne Township in Indianapolis has been awash in data. In attempts to improve levels of student achievement, the authors collected all manner of statistical details about students and schools and attempted to perform data analysis as part of the school improvement process. The authors were never…

  17. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods. (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P


    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  18. District Energy Windsor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper presents a summary of how District Energy Windsor operates. It includes a system site map and reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. District Energy Windsor is a division of the Windsor Utilities Commission. It was developed in 1996 and was the first in North America to supply both heating and cooling requirements. It supplies nearly 2 million square feet of heating and cooling for Windsor's city centre. The district energy system produces hot water or chilled water at a central plant. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The 8 reasons for getting connected are: (1) less management costs, (2) lower energy costs, (3) lower level of risk management, (4) stable energy rates, (5) better use of building space, (6) reliable service, (7) reduced expansion costs, and (8) a cleaner environment. District heating improves air quality through reduced carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, fuel delivery and storage are eliminated. figs.

  19. Flood reduction as an ecosystem service of constructed wetlands for combined sewer overflow (United States)

    Rizzo, A.; Bresciani, R.; Masi, F.; Boano, F.; Revelli, R.; Ridolfi, L.


    Urban runoff negatively impacts the receiving streams and different solutions have been proposed in literature to limit the effect of urbanization on the water balance. These solutions suggest to manage urban runoff in order to switch from a post-development river hydrograph (high peak and short duration) back again to a pre-development hydrograph (low peak and high duration). Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) represent severe pollutant sources for receiving streams due to the combination of first flush of roads and sewers and black water conveyed by combined sewer systems. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment (CSO-CWs) are adopted with increasing frequency for reducing pollutant inputs to streams. Moreover, these systems exhibit the characteristic to behave similarly to ponds, wetlands, and bioretention systems that provide flood mitigation by decreasing the intensity of peak flows. This work aims to show the additional ecosystem service provided by CSO-CWs in term of limitation of the hydraulic impact of CSO on stream hydrograph. A mathematical model is developed to simulate the hydraulic behavior of a real case study situated in Gorla Maggiore (Italy), which includes vertical flow subsurface beds (VF) as first stage and a free water surface bed (FWS) as second stage. The model simulates the unsaturated flow within VF and the accumulation of water on the top of VF and within FWS. Results show a satisfactory lamination performance of the system for both single and up to 5 consecutive flood events, with a peak flow reduction ranging from 52.7% to 95.4%. Withdrawn of flow rate from the river in order to cope with long dry period does not significantly affect the lamination performances. The considered CSO-CW exhibits an excellent lamination efficiency also during more intense floods events, with a peak flow reduction of 86.2% for a CSO event with return period of 10 years. The flow rate frequency density function determined by the CSO-CW is more shifted towards

  20. District heating in Flensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, W.


    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  1. Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants (United States)

    Phillips, P.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Gray, J.L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Foreman, W.T.; Wall, G.R.


    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

  2. Use long short-term memory to enhance Internet of Things for combined sewer overflow monitoring (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Lindholm, Geir; Ratnaweera, Harsha


    Combined sewer overflow causes severe water pollution, urban flooding and reduced treatment plant efficiency. Understanding the behavior of CSO structures is vital for urban flooding prevention and overflow control. Neural networks have been extensively applied in water resource related fields. In this study, we collect data from an Internet of Things monitoring CSO structure and build different neural network models for simulating and predicting the water level of the CSO structure. Through a comparison of four different neural networks, namely multilayer perceptron (MLP), wavelet neural network (WNN), long short-term memory (LSTM) and gated recurrent unit (GRU), the LSTM and GRU present superior capabilities for multi-step-ahead time series prediction. Furthermore, GRU achieves prediction performances similar to LSTM with a quicker learning curve.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf


    Full Text Available An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this technique involves incorporating into the existing sewer a series of jointed prefabricated sandwich or composite shells. The purpose of his study is to determine the structural shell deflection, the high displacement areas and to validate the non-failure criterion for each ply constituting the inner and outer laminate facings. The numerical results were obtained at low cost by using the finite element method. Studies have focused on structural analysis of a typical shell unit with an ovoid form (egg-shaped section when it is subjected, during annular space filling operation, to pressure forces generated by wet concrete. To ensure the safety of the composite shell structure, Tsai-Hill criterion function is applied and results are presented for the most stressed plies

  4. Development and testing of highway storm-sewer flow measurement and recording system (United States)

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Kaehrle, W.R.; Hardee, Jack; Cordes, E.H.; Landers, M.N.


    A comprehensive study and development of measuring instruments and techniques for measuring all components of flow in a storm-sewer drainage system was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration. The study involved laboratory and field calibration and testing of measuring flumes, pipe insert meters, weirs, electromagnetic velocity meters as well as the development and calibration of pneumatic-bubbler pressure transducer head measuring systems. Tracer-dilution and acoustic flow meter measurements were used in field verification tests. A single micrologger was used to record data from all the above instruments as well as from a tipping-bucket rain gage and also to activate on command the electromagnetic velocity meter and tracer-dilution systems. (Author 's abstract)

  5. [Study on the characteristics of combined sewer overflow from the high density residential area in Shanghai]. (United States)

    Li, He; Li, Tian


    The urban non-point pollution has become main pollution resource of urban water bodies of Shanghai. Character of combined sewer overflow from watershed SA in Shanghai was studied, and the correlation of influence factors to the EMCs of overflows was discussed. It is found that the EMCs of COD, BOD, SS, NH3-N, TN, TP are 614 mg/L, 208.5 mg/L, 684 mg/L, 17.6 mg/L, 29.8 mg/L, 3.0 mg/L respectively, and the values obtained herein are much higher than the documented data from other countries. From the probability plot of the EMCs, it is found that the BOD has the best fitness for lognormal distribution; and correlation between the EMCs of COD, SS and the ratio of antecedent dry weather time to rain duration is quite good.

  6. Modeling climate change impacts on combined sewer overflow using synthetic precipitation time series. (United States)

    Bendel, David; Beck, Ferdinand; Dittmer, Ulrich


    In the presented study climate change impacts on combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Southern Germany, were assessed based on continuous long-term rainfall-runoff simulations. As input data, synthetic rainfall time series were used. The applied precipitation generator NiedSim-Klima accounts for climate change effects on precipitation patterns. Time series for the past (1961-1990) and future (2041-2050) were generated for various locations. Comparing the simulated CSO activity of both periods we observe significantly higher overflow frequencies for the future. Changes in overflow volume and overflow duration depend on the type of overflow structure. Both values will increase at simple CSO structures that merely divide the flow, whereas they will decrease when the CSO structure is combined with a storage tank. However, there is a wide variation between the results of different precipitation time series (representative for different locations).

  7. Determination of kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation in wastewater of sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild


    A method for determination of kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation by dissolved oxygen (DO) in wastewater is presented. The method was particularly developed to investigate chemical sulfide oxidation in wastewater of sewer networks at low DO concentrations. The method is based...... be considered constant during the course of the experiments although intermediates accumulated. This was explained by an apparent slow oxidation rate of the intermediates. The method was capable of determining kinetics and stoichiometry of chemical sulfide oxidation at DO concentrations lower than 1 g of O2 m...... on continuous measurement of the reactants allowing the kinetics to be determined at varying reactant concentrations during the course of the experiment. The kinetics determined was simulated by a rate equation. The precision of the method was assessed in terms of the standard deviation of the kinetic...

  8. Grey Box Modelling of Flow in Sewer Systems with State Dependent Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Thordarson, Fannar Örn; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg


    . It is shown that an additive diffusion noise term description leads to a violation of the physical constraints of the system, whereas a state dependent diffusion noise avoids this problem and should be favoured. It is also shown that a logarithmic transformation of the flow measurements secures positive lower...... flow prediction limits, because the observation noise is proportionally scaled with the modelled output. Finally it is concluded that a state proportional diffusion term best and adequately describes the one-step flow prediction uncertainty, and a proper description of the system noise is important......Generating flow forecasts with uncertainty limits from rain gauge inputs in sewer systems require simple models with identifiable parameters that can adequately describe the stochastic phenomena of the system. In this paper, a simple grey-box model is proposed that is attractive for both...

  9. Laboratory and field investigation of chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow in Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper

    We investigated the possibility to apply performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococcus were studied in batch scale...... and pre-field experiment. In batch scale experiment 2.5 mg·L -1 PAA removed around 4 log unit of E. coli and enterococcus from CSO with long contact time. Removal of E. coli and enterococcus from CSO were always around or above 3 log unit using 2-4 mg·L -1 PFA with short contact time in batch scale...... and pre-field experiment. There were no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA, slight toxicological effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic event. Disinfection...

  10. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow waters using performic acid or peracetic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper


    We investigated the possibility of applying performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus was studied in batch......-scale and pre-field experiments. In the batch-scale experiment, 2.5 mg L− 1 PAA removed approximately 4 log unit of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO with a 360 min contact time. The removal of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO was always around or above 3 log units using 2–4 mg L− 1 PFA; with a 20 min contact...... time in both batch-scale and pre-field experiments. There was no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA; a slight toxic effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic...

  11. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Egg-Shaped Sewer Pipes Flow Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Regueiro-Picallo


    Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model was developed to analyze the open-channel flow in a new set of egg-shaped pipes for small combined sewer systems. The egg-shaped cross-section was selected after studying several geometries under different flow conditions. Once the egg-shaped cross-section was defined, a real-scale physical model was built and a series of partial-full flow experiments were performed in order to validate the numerical simulations. Furthermore, the numerical velocity distributions were compared with an experimental formulation for analytic geometries, with comparison results indicating a satisfactory concordance. After the hydraulic performance of the egg-shaped pipe was analyzed, the numerical model was used to compare the average velocity and shear stress against an equivalent area circular pipe under low flow conditions. The proposed egg shape showed a better flow performance up to a filling ratio of h/H = 0.25.

  12. Internal audit risk management in metropolitan municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann


    Full Text Available Internal audit functions (IAFs of organisations are regarded as crucial components of the combined assurance model, alongside the audit committee, management and external auditors. The combined assurance model aims at having integrated and aligned assurance in organisations with the overall aim of maximising risk and governance oversight and control efficiencies. In this regard, internal audit plays a crucial role, insofar as it consists of experts in risk, governance and control consultancy who provide assurance to senior management and the audit committee. Audit committees are dependent on internal audit for information and their effectiveness revolves around a strong and well-resourced internal audit function which is able to aid audit committees to meet their oversight responsibilities. There is thus a growing demand for managing risk through the process of risk management and internal audit is in a perfect position to assist with the improvement of such processes. If internal auditors wish to continue being an important aspect of the combined assurance model, they need to address the critical area, amongst others, of risk management as part of their work. If not, it follows that the board, audit committees and other levels of management will remain uninformed on the status of these matters which, in turn, will negatively impact the ability of these stakeholders to discharge their responsibilities. This study therefore focuses on analysing the functioning of IAFs, with specific reference to their risk management mandate. The study followed a mixed method approach to describe internal audits risk management functioning in the big eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results show that internal audit provide a broad scope of risk management work which assist senior management in the discharge of their responsibilities. However, in the public eye, internal audits risk management functioning is scant

  13. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  14. Efficient district heating in the future energy system. Final report; Effektiv fjernvarme i fremtidens energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this project is to illustrate how district heating can develop its role in the future Danish energy system, for example by reducing energy losses and the dynamic use of common technologies such as cogeneration and heat storage, and less widespread technologies such as heat pumps, geothermal heating, and cooling. The aim is also to analyse how electricity and district heating can interact more effectively, and to point out how framework conditions are important for district heating's continued development and efficiency. In the project, a linear optimization model is developed and applied as to analyse the interaction between district heating supply on the one hand, and energy savings, CO{sub 2} targets, wind power and the international electricity market on the other hand. Furthermore, more close-case operational analyses of district heating systems have been made in Ringkoebing and the metropolitan area, based on data from the district heating companies. Finally, a wide range of challenges for district heating in the long term were discussed and analysed during meetings with the project's reference group, including the need for development and demonstration projects. (ln)

  15. Reconcentration of radioactive material released to sanitary sewers in accordance with 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, C.C.; Hill, R.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.; Norton, M.V.; Aaberg, R.L.; Stetar, E.A.


    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in accordance with 10 CFR 20, and agreement states, in accordance with state regulations, regulates the discharge of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. A one-year study was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the NRC to assess whether radioactive materials that are dischared to sanitary sewer systems undergo significant reconcentration within the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and to determine the physical and/or chemical processes that may result in radionuclide reconcentration within the WWTPs. The study objectives were addressed by collecting information and data on wastewater treatment, relevant geochemical processes, and individual radionuclide behavior in WWTPs from the open literature, NRC reports, EPA surveys, and interviews with NRC licensees and staff of WWTPs that may be impacted by these discharges. Radionuclide mass balance and removal efficiencies were calculated for WWTPs at Oak Ridge, TN; and Erwin, TN, but were not shown to be reliable since the licensee release data generally underestimated the mass of radionuclide that was ultimately found in the sludge. This disparity may be due, in part, to the fact that data available for use in this study were collected to address regulatory concerns and not to perform mass balance calculations. A limited modeling study showed some promise for predicting radionuclide behavior in WWTPS, however, the general applicability of using these empirical models remains uncertain. With the data and models currently available, it is not possible to quantitatively determine the physical and chemical processes that cause reconcentration or to calculate, a priori, reconcentration factors for specific WWTP unit processes or WWTPs in general

  16. An effective and comprehensive model for optimal rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems. (United States)

    Diogo, António Freire; Barros, Luís Tiago; Santos, Joana; Temido, Jorge Santos


    In the field of rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems, a large number of technical, environmental, and economic aspects are often relevant in the decision-making process, which may be modelled as a multi-objective optimization problem. Examples are those related with the operation and assessment of networks, optimization of structural, hydraulic, sanitary, and environmental performance, rehabilitation programmes, and execution works. In particular, the cost of investment, operation and maintenance needed to reduce or eliminate Infiltration from the underground water table and Inflows of storm water surface runoff (I/I) using rehabilitation techniques or related methods can be significantly lower than the cost of transporting and treating these flows throughout the lifespan of the systems or period studied. This paper presents a comprehensive I/I cost-benefit approach for rehabilitation that explicitly considers all elements of the systems and shows how the approximation is incorporated as an objective function in a general evolutionary multi-objective optimization model. It takes into account network performance and wastewater treatment costs, average values of several input variables, and rates that can reflect the adoption of different predictable or limiting scenarios. The approach can be used as a practical and fast tool to support decision-making in sewer network rehabilitation in any phase of a project. The fundamental aspects, modelling, implementation details and preliminary results of a two-objective optimization rehabilitation model using a genetic algorithm, with a second objective function related to the structural condition of the network and the service failure risk, are presented. The basic approach is applied to three real world cases studies of sanitary sewerage systems in Coimbra and the results show the simplicity, suitability, effectiveness, and usefulness of the approximation implemented and of the objective function proposed

  17. Treatment of Y-12 storm sewer sediments and DARA soils by thermal desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Shealy, S.E.


    The 1992 Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) listed a number of mixed wastes, subject to land disposal restrictions (LDR), for which no treatment method had been identified, and required DOE to develop strategies for treatment and ultimate disposal of those wastes. This paper presents the results of a program to demonstrate that thermal desorption can remove both organics and mercury from two mixed wastes from the DOE Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first waste, the Y-12 Storm Sewer Sediments (SSSs) was a sediment generated from upgrades to the plant storm sewer system. This material contained over 4 percent mercury, 2 percent uranium and 350 mg/kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Leachable mercury exceeded toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and LDR criteria. The second waste, the Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) Soils, are contaminated with uranium, mercury and PCBs. This treatability study included bench-scale testing of a thermal desorption process. Results of the testing showed that, for the SSSs, total mercury could be reduced to 120 mg/kg by treatment at 600 degrees C, which is at the high end of the temperature range for typical thermal desorption systems. Leachable TCLP mercury was less than 50 μg/L and PCBs were below 2 mg/kg. Treatment of the DARA Soils at 450 degrees C for 10 minutes resulted in residual PCBs of 0.6 to 3.0 mg/kg. This is too high (goal < 2mg/kg) and higher treatment temperatures are needed. The testing also provided information on the characteristics and quantities of residuals from the thermal desorption process

  18. Assessing the performance of sewer rehabilitation on the reduction of infiltration and inflow. (United States)

    Staufer, P; Scheidegger, A; Rieckermann, J


    Inflow and Infiltration (I/I) into sewer systems is generally unwanted, because, among other things, it decreases the performance of wastewater treatment plants and increases combined sewage overflows. As sewer rehabilitation to reduce I/I is very expensive, water managers not only need methods to accurately measure I/I, but also they need sound approaches to assess the actual performance of implemented rehabilitation measures. However, such performance assessment is rarely performed. On the one hand, it is challenging to adequately take into account the variability of influential factors, such as hydro-meteorological conditions. On the other hand, it is currently not clear how experimental data can indeed support robust evidence for reduced I/I. In this paper, we therefore statistically assess the performance of rehabilitation measures to reduce I/I. This is possible by using observations in a suitable reference catchment as a control group and assessing the significance of the observed effect by regression analysis, which is well established in other disciplines. We successfully demonstrate the usefulness of the approach in a case study, where rehabilitation reduced groundwater infiltration by 23.9%. A reduction of stormwater inflow of 35.7%, however, was not statistically significant. Investigations into the experimental design of monitoring campaigns confirmed that the variability of the data as well as the number of observations collected before the rehabilitation impact the detection limit of the effect. This implies that it is difficult to improve the data quality after the rehabilitation has been implemented. Therefore, future practical applications should consider a careful experimental design. Further developments could employ more sophisticated monitoring methods, such as stable environmental isotopes, to directly observe the individual infiltration components. In addition, water managers should develop strategies to effectively communicate statistically

  19. Organic micropollutants discharged by combined sewer overflows - Characterisation of pollutant sources and stormwater-related processes. (United States)

    Launay, Marie A; Dittmer, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Heidrun


    To characterise emissions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) regarding organic micropollutants, a monitoring study was undertaken in an urban catchment in southwest Stuttgart, Germany. The occurrence of 69 organic micropollutants was assessed at one CSO outfall during seven rain events as well as in the sewage network at the influent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in the receiving water. Several pollutant groups like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), urban biocides and pesticides, industrial chemicals, organophosphorus flame retardants, plasticisers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were chosen for analysis. Out of the 69 monitored substances, 60 were detected in CSO discharges. The results of this study show that CSOs represent an important pathway for a wide range of organic micropollutants from wastewater systems to urban receiving waters. For most compounds detected in CSO samples, event mean concentrations varied between the different events in about one order of magnitude range. When comparing CSO concentrations with median wastewater concentrations during dry weather, two main patterns could be observed depending on the source of the pollutant: (i) wastewater is diluted by stormwater; (ii) stormwater is the most important source of a pollutant. Both wastewater and stormwater only play an important role in pollutant concentration for a few compounds. The proportion of stormwater calculated with the conductivity is a suitable indicator for the evaluation of emitted loads of dissolved wastewater pollutants, but not for all compounds. In fact, this study demonstrates that remobilisation of in-sewer deposits contributed from 10% to 65% to emissions of carbamazepine in CSO events. The contribution of stormwater to CSO emitted loads was higher than 90% for all herbicides as well as for PAHs. Regarding the priority substance di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), this contribution varied between 39% and 85%. The PAH

  20. PPCPs wet weather mobilization in a combined sewer in NW Spain. (United States)

    Del Río, Héctor; Suárez, Joaquín; Puertas, Jerónimo; Ures, Pablo


    An intense campaign was carried out over a 14 month period to characterize concentrations and loads of 7 well-known Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), during dry and wet weather conditions, in an urban combined catchment in the northwest of Spain, a geographical zone with an average annual rainfall over 1500 mm. The main objective was to gather more in-depth knowledge of the mobilization of these "micropollutants" in an urban combined sewer and the possible pressures on water receiving bodies due to combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Hydrographs and pollutographs of these substances in dry weather flows (DWF), on weekdays and weekends, and wet weather flows (WWF) during 10 rain events have been characterized to obtain data that are sufficiently representative for statistical analysis. The research findings show that there is a considerable mobilization of these substances during rain events, mainly in the first part of the hydrographs, especially HHCB galaxolide, ibuprofen and paracetamol with maximum concentrations of 9.76, 8.51 and 5.71 μg/L respectively, whereas these concentrations in dry weather only reached 2.57, 2.11 and 0.72 μg/L respectively. There is a good correlation between the degree of mobilization in wet weather flows and the percentage of dry weather particulate phase of each studied substance, indicating that such mobilization may be associated with adsorption on the sediments deposited on the collectors during the antecedent dry period. These results are in good agreement with removal in conventional WWTP, especially for compounds that tend to adsorb onto sewage sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interim district energy implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, R.; Susak, W. [City of Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johnstone, I. [BCG Services Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    The concept of district energy was introduced in the City of North Vancouver, a city of 45,000, in 1997. A preliminary study was completed in 1997, followed by a tour of some district energy facilities in Finland in the same year. In 1999 a large district energy study was completed by a consultant. The study indicated the need for an investment of $15 million to implement district heating in the City. Lack of sufficient financial resources and immediately connectable heat load, the project was considered a non-starter. Some of the other factors leading to shelving the project included no current significant pricing advantages over competing energy sources and no current opportunity for cogeneration, given the low price that BC Hydro is willing to pay for independently produced power. The project, although shelved for the moment, has not been discarded. Planning and exploration are continuing, aided by the City's commitment to energy efficiency and conservation, its long term planning horizon and its significant influence over the development of some prime real estate.

  2. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  3. New Mexico State Forestry Districts (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  4. Illicit Drug Use, Illicit Drug Use Disorders, and Drug Overdose Deaths in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas - United States. (United States)

    Mack, Karin A; Jones, Christopher M; Ballesteros, Michael F


    Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015. The National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) collects information through face-to-face household interviews about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the U.S. noninstitutionalized civilian population aged ≥12 years. Respondents include residents of households and noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, rooming houses, dormitories, migratory workers' camps, and halfway houses) and civilians living on military bases. NSDUH variables include sex, age, race/ethnicity, residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan), annual household income, self-reported drug use, and drug use disorders. National Vital Statistics System Mortality (NVSS-M) data for U.S. residents include information from death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Cases were selected with an underlying cause of death based on the ICD-10 codes for drug overdoses (X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14). NVSS-M variables include decedent characteristics (sex, age, and race/ethnicity) and information on intent (unintentional, suicide, homicide, or undetermined), location of death (medical facility, in a home, or other [including nursing homes, hospices, unknown, and other locations]) and county of residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan). Metropolitan/nonmetropolitan status is assigned independently in each data system. NSDUH uses a three-category system: Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of ≥1 million persons; CBSA of illicit drugs, the prevalence was highest for the large metropolitan areas compared with

  5. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together (United States)

    Mart, Dan


    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  6. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  7. 7 CFR 917.14 - District. (United States)


    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District... Ventura County. (l) Stockton District includes and consists of San Joaquin County, Amador County...

  8. A Preliminary Tsunami vulnerability analysis for Bakirkoy district in Istanbul (United States)

    Tufekci, Duygu; Lutfi Suzen, M.; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Zaytsev, Andrey


    Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis has major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Vulnerability assessment of coastal areas under extreme events has major importance for preparedness and development of mitigation strategies. The Sea of Marmara has experienced numerous earthquakes as well as associated tsunamis. There are variety of coastal facilities such as ports, small craft harbors, and terminals for maritime transportation, water front roads and business centers mainly at North Coast of Marmara Sea in megacity Istanbul. A detailed vulnerability analysis for Yenikapi region and a detailed resilience analysis for Haydarpasa port in Istanbul have been studied in previously by Cankaya et al., (2015) and Aytore et al., (2015) in SATREPS project. In this study, the methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack given in Cankaya et al., (2015) is modified and applied to Bakirkoy district of Istanbul. Bakirkoy district is located at western part of Istanbul and faces to the North Coast of Marmara Sea from 28.77oE to 28.89oE. High resolution spatial dataset of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed. The bathymetry and topography database and the spatial dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the district are collated and utilized for tsunami numerical modeling and following vulnerability analysis. The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability assessment parameters in the district according to vulnerability and resilience are defined; and scored by implementation of a GIS based TVA with appropriate MCDA methods. The risk level is computed using tsunami intensity (level of flow depth from simulations) and TVA results at every location in Bakirkoy district. The preliminary results are presented and discussed

  9. Socio-economic factors and tuberculosis: a district-based ecological analysis in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Leung, C C; Yew, W W; Tam, C M; Chan, C K; Chang, K C; Law, W S; Wong, M Y; Au, K F


    Relatively little is known about the impact of socio-economic factors on tuberculosis in a metropolitan city with high disease incidence. District-specific tuberculosis notification rates for 1995--1997 and 2000--2002 were indirectly sex- and age-adjusted and compared with the socio-economic characteristics in the 1996 by-census and 2001 census. The differences between the 18 districts persisted after 3-year averaging and indirect standardisation. Only the percentage of population born locally, the percentage of the population widowed or divorced and the percentage of households residing in rooms or bedsits were consistently associated with the standardised notification ratios (SNR) for both periods, the first being negatively so (all P birth in China, residence birth, being married, and residing in rooms or bedsits were independent predictors of SNR (all P poverty are affecting the district-specific tuberculosis rates in Hong Kong.

  10. The burden of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection in a non-metropolitan setting. (United States)

    Bond, S E; Boutlis, C S; Yeo, W W; Pratt, W A B; Orr, M E; Miyakis, S


    Healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HCA-CDI) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. However, few data exist on the burden of HCA-CDI in multi-site non-metropolitan settings. This study examined the introduction of an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) in relation to HCA-CDI rates, and the effect of HCA-CDI on length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs. A comparative before-and-after intervention study of patients aged ≥16 years with HCA-CDI from December 2010 to April 2016 across the nine hospitals of a non-metropolitan health district in New South Wales, Australia was undertaken. The intervention comprised a multi-site ASP supported by a clinical decision support system, with subsequent introduction of email feedback of HCA-CDI cases to admitting medical officers. HCA-CDI rates, comparative LOS and hospital costs, prior use of antimicrobials and proton pump inhibitors, and appropriateness of CDI treatment. HCA-CDI rates rose from 3.07 to 4.60 cases per 10,000 occupied bed-days pre-intervention, and remained stable at 4 cases per 10,000 occupied bed-days post-intervention (P=0.24). Median LOS (17 vs six days; P<0.01) and hospital costs (AU$19,222 vs $7861; P<0.01) were significantly greater for HCA-CDI cases (N=91) than for matched controls (N=172). Half of the patients with severe HCA-CDI (4/8) did not receive initial appropriate treatment (oral vancomycin). HCA-CDI placed a significant burden on the regional and rural health service through increased LOS and hospital costs. Interventions targeting HCA-CDI could be employed to consolidate the effects of ASPs. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving Public Health and Environment through Plastic Waste Management in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE


    Full Text Available The Mumbai Metropolitan Region is growing in terms of population, industry, educational and commercial units. The daily requirements of commodities and services by all units have increased fast. Plastic is used extensively for packing, protection and service of various commodities. The use of plastic is much higher by industry and households in region. In Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation, the density of population is higher. The concentration of small and large industries is more. Therefore the plastic use is much higher for different purposes. It leads to more waste of plastic. In Ulhasnagar Municipal Corporation, the population and industrial units are less. Therefore plastic waste is less generated. Theaters are generating less plastic waste in metropolitan region. The Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC and municipal corporations in Thane district will continuously generate more plastic waste in future. The Tobit regression model shows that plastic waste is positively co-related and statistically significant with pollution and industry in region. Therefore the comprehensive policies are required to reduce plastic waste. This is because plastic waste is affecting on the health of human being. It also affects negatively on soil, air and water. The entire food supply chain gets affected due to plastic waste. The water logging is common due to plastic waste in region. It chock ups the drainage system and it becomes the ground for mosquitoes. It further leads to dengue, malaria and other diseases in region. Municipal corporations must collect plastic in separate bins and process it. The plastic and e-waste can be utilized for road construction in region. All the policies will certainly help to reduce the plastic waste and maintain the clean environment in region.

  12. The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in storm sewer sediments and the binding interaction with Cu(II) in four typical regions in Beijing, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Xiaoran; Li, Haiyan


    In this work, dissolved organic matter (DOM) was extracted from storm sewer sediments collected in four typical regions (residential, campus, traffic and business regions) in Beijing, China. The basic characteristics of DOM were analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), excitation-emission matrix Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexation between DOM and Cu(II) were investigated. The results showed that there were large amount of aromatic structure in the DOM extracted from storm sewer sediments. The microbial activities had also made a contribution to the DOM in storm sewer sediments. The composition of DOM influenced the complexing capacity of Cu(II) greatly, which may be attributed to the protein-like and humic-like substances in storm sewer sediments. This study demonstrated valuable information on the structure present in the DOM of storm sewer sediments and provided new insight for exploring the relationship between DOM and co-existing heavy metals in storm sewer sediments.

  13. A Monte-Carlo-Based Method for the Optimal Placement and Operation Scheduling of Sewer Mining Units in Urban Wastewater Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Psarrou


    Full Text Available Pressures on water resources, which have increased significantly nowadays mainly due to rapid urbanization, population growth and climate change impacts, necessitate the development of innovative wastewater treatment and reuse technologies. In this context, a mid-scale decentralized technology concerning wastewater reuse is that of sewer mining. It is based on extracting wastewater from a wastewater system, treating it on-site and producing recycled water applicable for non-potable uses. Despite the technology’s considerable benefits, several challenges hinder its implementation. Sewer mining disturbs biochemical processes inside sewers and affects hydrogen sulfide build-up, resulting in odor, corrosion and health-related problems. In this study, a tool for optimal sewer mining unit placement aiming to minimize hydrogen sulfide production is presented. The Monte-Carlo method coupled with the Environmental Protection Agency’s Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to conduct multiple simulations of the network. The network’s response when sewage is extracted from it is also examined. Additionally, the study deals with optimal pumping scheduling. The overall methodology is applied in a sewer network in Greece providing useful results. It can therefore assist in selecting appropriate locations for sewer mining implementation, with the focus on eliminating hydrogen sulfide-associated problems while simultaneously ensuring that higher water needs are satisfied.

  14. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas. (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C


    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  15. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  16. Printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Banulescu Bodoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Fustei


    Full Text Available The present study is dedicated to the printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Bănulescu-Bodoni’s activity. The religious and secular prints made from Chisinau’s Diocesan typography by Metropolitan Gavriil promote the idea of national unity of people from Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. Due to the new documents from archives, more evidences and „more light” are being spread over the activity of famous hierarch, whose life is linked with the history of culture of three nations – Romanians, Ukrainians and Russians.

  17. Case Study Application of Determining End of Physical Life Using Survival Analysis (WERF Report INFR2R11b) (United States)

    Abstract: This case study application provides discussion on a selected application of advanced concepts, included in the End of Asset Life Reinvestment decision-making process tool, using Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewer District (MMSD) pump and motor data sets. The tool provides s...

  18. St. Francis Rain Garden Water Quality Sampling Interim Data Report; Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus, Sediments or Solids, and E. Coli for the period April to June, 2014 (United States)

    This interim data reported is being provided per request to the Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) to provide summary statistics on a limited set of water quality parameters as measured at the St. Francis Rain Garden site in the Lick Run Valley as it pertains to MSD's Project Grou...

  19. The Factors of Local Energy Transition in the Seoul Metropolitan Government: The Case of Mini-PV Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Lee


    Full Text Available As a way of enhancing urban sustainability, Seoul Special City, the capital of South Korea, has shown strong enthusiasm for urban energy transition by tackling climate change and expanding renewable energy. The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG has adopted the “One Less Nuclear Power Plant (OLNPP” strategy since April 2012 and specific policy measures, including a mini-photovoltaic (PV plant program, were introduced to facilitate the energy transition. However, varying degrees of success were achieved by 25 district-level local governments (Gu with mini-PV plant programs. This study explored the reason why those local governments showed different levels of performance despite the strong will of municipal government (SMG to implement urban energy transitions through the mini-PV plant program. The tested hypotheses were based on capacity, political context, public awareness and geographical diffusion. The findings indicated that institutional capacity, financial dependence, political orientation and public perception had positively affected the performance of mini-PV plant installation at each district level. Especially, the political will of each district mayor played an important role in the implementation of the policy.

  20. Evaluating rain gardens as a method to reduce the impact of sewer overflows in sources of drinking water. (United States)

    Autixier, Laurène; Mailhot, Alain; Bolduc, Samuel; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah


    The implications of climate change and changing precipitation patterns need to be investigated to evaluate mitigation measures for source water protection. Potential solutions need first to be evaluated under present climate conditions to determine their utility as climate change adaptation strategies. An urban drainage network receiving both stormwater and wastewater was studied to evaluate potential solutions to reduce the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in a drinking water source. A detailed hydraulic model was applied to the drainage basin to model the implementation of best management practices at a drainage basin scale. The model was calibrated and validated with field data of CSO flows for seven events from a survey conducted in 2009 and 2010. Rain gardens were evaluated for their reduction of volumes of water entering the drainage network and of CSOs. Scenarios with different levels of implementation were considered and evaluated. Of the total impervious area within the basin directly connected to the sewer system, a maximum of 21% could be alternately directed towards rain gardens. The runoff reductions for the entire catchment ranged from 12.7% to 19.4% depending on the event considered. The maximum discharged volume reduction ranged from 13% to 62% and the maximum peak flow rate reduction ranged from 7% to 56%. Of concern is that in-sewer sediment resuspension is an important process to consider with regard to the efficacy of best management practices aimed at reducing extreme loads and concentrations. Rain gardens were less effective for large events, which are of greater importance for drinking water sources. These practices could increase peak instantaneous loads as a result of greater in-sewer resuspension during large events. Multiple interventions would be required to achieve the objectives of reducing the number, total volumes and peak contaminant loads of overflows upstream of drinking water intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Experimental calibration and validation of sewer/surface flow exchange equations in steady and unsteady flow conditions (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James


    The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.

  2. Investigation of the sources and fate of radioactive discharges to public sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titley, J.; Carey, A.; Crockett, G.


    The practise of disposing of small amounts of liquid radioactive waste from non-nuclear organisations to public sewer systems, is currently being reviewed by the Environment Agency, Scottish Environmental Protection Agency and the Industrial Pollution and Radiochemical Inspectorate. Changing sewage treatment and disposal practises, particularly the increasing use of incineration to treat sewage sludge in urban areas, have prompted this review. This study was undertaken as part of the review process to determine whether disposal into the public sewer system remains a safe disposal option. This report describes a study to investigate the sources and fates of authorised discharges of radionuclides into the sewer system. Sewage transport, treatment, discharge and incineration systems are described and the fate of radionuclides in the systems considered. A model (SMART) was developed to predict radionuclide behaviour through these systems and calculate the resulting doses. Case studies of two large urban sewerage systems were carried out in Leeds and Central London. Leeds is served by one sewage treatment works at Knostrop, which receives disposals of ten radionuclides from six disposers. Up to seven of the radionuclides were measurable in effluents, sludges or incinerator ash at the works. Naturally occurring and fallout radionuclides were also detected. Central London is served by one large works at Beckton which receives disposals of twenty radionuclides from 65 disposers. Up to ten of the disposed radionuclides, plus naturally occurring and fallout radionuclides were detected in effluents, sludges, incinerator cake or ash at Beckton. For both sites the largest authorised disposals were of Tc-99m, C-14, I-125, I-131 and H-3. The behaviour of radionuclides during incineration was assessed using measurements and literature values. The radiological implications of disposals in Leeds and Central London were assessed using the model SMART and by measuring dose rates

  3. Construction of the seismic wave-speed model by adjoint tomography beneath the Japanese metropolitan area (United States)

    Miyoshi, Takayuki


    The Japanese metropolitan area has high risks of earthquakes and volcanoes associated with convergent tectonic plates. It is important to clarify detail three-dimensional structure for understanding tectonics and predicting strong motion. Classical tomographic studies based on ray theory have revealed seismotectonics and volcanic tectonics in the region, however it is unknown whether their models reproduce observed seismograms. In the present study, we construct new seismic wave-speed model by using waveform inversion. Adjoint tomography and the spectral element method (SEM) were used in the inversion (e.g. Tape et al. 2009; Peter et al. 2011). We used broadband seismograms obtained at NIED F-net stations for 140 earthquakes occurred beneath the Kanto district. We selected four frequency bands between 5 and 30 sec and used from the seismograms of longer period bands for the inversion. Tomographic iteration was conducted until obtaining the minimized misfit between data and synthetics. Our SEM model has 16 million grid points that covers the metropolitan area of the Kanto district. The model parameters were the Vp and Vs of the grid points, and density and attenuation were updated to new values depending on new Vs in each iteration. The initial model was assumed the tomographic model (Matsubara and Obara 2011) based on ray theory. The source parameters were basically used from F-net catalog, while the centroid times were inferred from comparison between data and synthetics. We simulated the forward and adjoint wavefields of each event and obtained Vp and Vs misfit kernels from their interaction. Large computation was conducted on K computer, RIKEN. We obtained final model (m16) after 16 iterations in the present study. For the waveform improvement, it is clearly shown that m16 is better than the initial model, and the seismograms especially improved in the frequency bands of longer than 8 sec and changed better for seismograms of the events occurred at deeper than a

  4. Tracking the deployment of the integrated metropolitan ITS infrastructure in Orlando : FY99 results (United States)


    In January 1996, Secretary Pea set a goal of deploying the integrated metropolitan Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure in 75 of the nations largest metropolitan areas by 2006. In 1997, the U.S. Department of Transportation ini...

  5. New Metropolitan Spaces and Metropolitan Strategies in the Face of Modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Salet


    Full Text Available Au début du xxie siècle, les espaces urbains traversent une période de croissance et de transformation radicale. Les villes s’étendent de plus en plus. Leur configuration spatiale devient de plus en plus décentralisée et fragmentée. La dichotomie traditionnelle entre hiérarchie urbaine et périphérie est en train de disparaître. Les nouveaux espaces métropolitains sont caractérisés par des processus de segmentation et de spécialisation à distance ainsi que par des polarisations sociales qui structurent l’espace. Les tentatives de planification des villes-régions essaient de rééquilibrer ces processus qui font éclater la ville. Cet article explore brièvement les transformations métropolitaines actuelles en utilisant une approche générique. Il se focalise également sur les stratégies des métropoles pour affronter ces défis dans le cadre de situations institutionnelles variées, un peu partout en Europe. En troisième lieu, cet article interroge les effets potentiels des projets urbains sur un rééquilibrage des transformations urbaines. Comment les grands projets urbains sont-ils conceptuellement élaborés ? Comment les alliances d’acteurs qui les soutiennent se forgent-elles ? Comment les citoyens et les groupes sociaux sont-ils impliqués de manière à produire de nouveaux espaces plus intégrés ?At the beginning of the 21st century, urban spaces can be said to be in a stage of growth and radical transformation. Cities are highly expansive, both in scale and scope. The spatial configuration of urban spaces is, however, becoming more and more decentralised and fragmentary. The traditional dichotomy between urban hierarchy and periphery is disappearing. New metropolitan spaces are characterised by distance related processes of social and economic specialisation and segmentation, and often also by splitting social polarisation. The planning agendas in city regions are trying to make add more balance to the

  6. La Défense, a Unique Business District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Horn


    Full Text Available La Défense, the main business cluster of the Paris metropolitan area, had been planned and developed under the impulse of the 1950 onwards. Situated on the historic axis in the west of the city of Paris on the territory of the suburban French State from municipalities of Puteaux and Courbevoie, the basic urban planning principles of this district are strongly influenced by the concepts of the international modern urbanism of this period. The text describes the origin and the development of the site from the project in the 1950s to the construction in the 1960s until the first economic difficulties in the 1970s. It further gives in inside in the recent developments and adjustments of the initial constructions.

  7. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo


    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  8. Governing metropolitan green infrastructure in the United States (United States)

    Robert F. Young; E. Gregory McPherson


    In this paper we explore whether the enhancement of urban ecosystem services through largescale metropolitan treeplanting initiatives is being planned and executed as a component of traditional municipal government or represents new transdisciplinary strategies in environmental governance Drawing on qualitative interviews with...

  9. Disparities in Salaries: Metropolitan versus Nonmetropolitan Community College Faculty (United States)

    Glover, Louis C.; Simpson, Lynn A.; Waller, Lee Rusty


    This article explores disparities in faculty salaries between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan Texas community colleges. The analysis reveals a significant difference in faculty salaries for the 2000 and 2005 academic years respectively. The study found no significant difference in the rate of change in faculty salaries from 2000 to 2005.…

  10. Is There a Global Role for Metropolitan City Libraries? (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell


    Discusses the potential for linking large metropolitan public libraries to international interlibrary loan networks. Issues involved in international networking, including funding, standards, network connectivity, and protectionism, are discussed. Examples of libraries capable of participating and brief descriptions of their collections are given.…

  11. Designing metropolitan landscapes for biodiversity: deriving guidelines from metapopulation ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.


    The decentralization of planning is giving local planning groups more power in decision making on the spatial development of metropolitan landscapes. However, because scientific knowledge is rarely used in these decision-making processes, there is a risk of discrepancies between the conservation

  12. The Tshwane metropolitan municipality and strategic partnerships in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality commissioned research to investigate the potential of strategic partnerships for the optimal facilitation and co-operative governance of sport and recreation. The aim of this project was to identify the possible structure and nature of partnerships in order to facilitate effective management, ...

  13. Residential fencing in a metropolitan area and three small towns. (United States)

    Edwin Kallio; Jerry A. Sesco


    Many types of fences were found on residential lots in the metropolitan-suburban area of St. Louis County, Missouri, and three small towns in southern Illinois. Wire fences predominated. More wooden fences were found on village lots than on city lots. In general, the more expensive homes had the most wooden fencing. Homes over 5 years old had more fencing of all...

  14. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu


    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  15. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. (United States)


    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region consists of the following territorial area (including the territorial... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...

  16. 23 CFR 450.336 - Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation plans and programs. (United States)


    ... the Secretary concerning a metropolitan transportation plan or TIP developed through the processes... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and...

  17. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Houston-Galveston... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been...

  18. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to consist...

  19. A case independent approach on the impact of climate change effects on combined sewer system performance. (United States)

    Kleidorfer, M; Möderl, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Urich, C; Rauch, W


    Design and construction of urban drainage systems has to be done in a predictive way, as the average lifespan of such investments is several decades. The design engineer has to predict many influencing factors and scenarios for future development of a system (e.g. change in land use, population, water consumption and infiltration measures). Furthermore, climate change can cause increased rain intensities which leads to an additional impact on drainage systems. In this paper we compare the behaviour of different performance indicators of combined sewer systems when taking into account long-term environmental change effects (change in rainfall characteristics, change in impervious area and change in dry weather flow). By using 250 virtual case studies this approach is--in principle--a Monte Carlo Simulation in which not only parameter values are varied but the entire system structure and layout is changed in each run. Hence, results are more general and case-independent. For example the consideration of an increase of rainfall intensities by 20% has the same effect as an increase of impervious area of +40%. Such an increase of rainfall intensities could be compensated by infiltration measures in current systems which lead to a reduction of impervious area by 30%.

  20. Advances in concrete materials for sewer systems affected by microbial induced concrete corrosion: A review. (United States)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Ukrainczyk, Neven; Koraimann, Günther; Kienesberger, Sabine; Dietzel, Martin


    Microbial induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is recognized as one of the main degradation mechanisms of subsurface infrastructure worldwide, raising the demand for sustainable construction materials in corrosive environments. This review aims to summarize the key research progress acquired during the last decade regarding the understanding of MICC reaction mechanisms and the development of durable materials from an interdisciplinary perspective. Special focus was laid on aspects governing concrete - micoorganisms interaction since being the central process steering biogenic acid corrosion. The insufficient knowledge regarding the latter is proposed as a central reason for insufficient progress in tailored material development for aggressive wastewater systems. To date no cement-based material exists, suitable to withstand the aggressive conditions related to MICC over its entire service life. Research is in particular needed on the impact of physiochemical material parameters on microbial community structure, growth characteristics and limitations within individual concrete speciation. Herein an interdisciplinary approach is presented by combining results from material sciences, microbiology, mineralogy and hydrochemistry to stimulate the development of novel and sustainable materials and mitigation strategies for MICC. For instance, the application of antibacteriostatic agents is introduced as an effective instrument to limit microbial growth on concrete surfaces in aggressive sewer environments. Additionally, geopolymer concretes are introduced as highly resistent in acid environments, thus representing a possible green alternative to conventional cement-based construction materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration in sanitary sewer systems based on conductivity monitoring (United States)

    Zhang, Mingkai; Liu, Yanchen; Cheng, Xun; Zhu, David Z.; Shi, Hanchang; Yuan, Zhiguo


    Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration (RDII) in a sanitary sewer is difficult when RDII and overflow occur simultaneously. This study proposes a novel conductivity-based method for estimating RDII. The method separately decomposes rainfall-derived inflow (RDI) and rainfall-induced infiltration (RII) on the basis of conductivity data. Fast Fourier transform was adopted to analyze variations in the flow and water quality during dry weather. Nonlinear curve fitting based on the least squares algorithm was used to optimize parameters in the proposed RDII model. The method was successfully applied to real-life case studies, in which inflow and infiltration were successfully estimated for three typical rainfall events with total rainfall volumes of 6.25 mm (light), 28.15 mm (medium), and 178 mm (heavy). Uncertainties of model parameters were estimated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method and were found to be acceptable. Compared with traditional flow-based methods, the proposed approach exhibits distinct advantages in estimating RDII and overflow, particularly when the two processes happen simultaneously.

  2. Potential of turbidity monitoring for real time control of pollutant discharge in sewers during rainfall events. (United States)

    Lacour, C; Joannis, C; Gromaire, M-C; Chebbo, G


    Turbidity sensors can be used to continuously monitor the evolution of pollutant mass discharge. For two sites within the Paris combined sewer system, continuous turbidity, conductivity and flow data were recorded at one-minute time intervals over a one-year period. This paper is intended to highlight the variability in turbidity dynamics during wet weather. For each storm event, turbidity response aspects were analysed through different classifications. The correlation between classification and common parameters, such as the antecedent dry weather period, total event volume per impervious hectare and both the mean and maximum hydraulic flow for each event, was also studied. Moreover, the dynamics of flow and turbidity signals were compared at the event scale. No simple relation between turbidity responses, hydraulic flow dynamics and the chosen parameters was derived from this effort. Knowledge of turbidity dynamics could therefore potentially improve wet weather management, especially when using pollution-based real-time control (P-RTC) since turbidity contains information not included in hydraulic flow dynamics and not readily predictable from such dynamics.

  3. Assessment of annual pollutant loads in combined sewers from continuous turbidity measurements: sensitivity to calibration data. (United States)

    Lacour, C; Joannis, C; Chebbo, G


    This article presents a methodology for assessing annual wet weather Suspended Solids (SS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loads in combined sewers, along with the associated uncertainties from continuous turbidity measurements. The proposed method is applied to data from various urban catchments in the cities of Paris and Nantes. The focus here concerns the impact of the number of rain events sampled for calibration (i.e. through establishing linear SS/turbidity or COD/turbidity relationships) on the uncertainty of annual pollutant load assessments. Two calculation methods are investigated, both of which rely on Monte Carlo simulations: random assignment of event-specific calibration relationships to each individual rain event, and the use of an overall relationship built from the entire available data set. Since results indicate a fairly low inter-event variability for calibration relationship parameters, an accurate assessment of pollutant loads can be derived, even when fewer than 10 events are sampled for calibration purposes. For operational applications, these results suggest that turbidity could provide a more precise evaluation of pollutant loads at lower cost than typical sampling methods.

  4. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows. (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H


    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  5. Chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow waters using performic acid or peracetic acids. (United States)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper; Gramstad, Robin; Öjstedt, Ulrik; Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    We investigated the possibility of applying performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA towards Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus was studied in batch-scale and pre-field experiments. In the batch-scale experiment, 2.5 mg L(-1) PAA removed approximately 4 log unit of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO with a 360 min contact time. The removal of E. coli and Enterococcus from CSO was always around or above 3 log units using 2-4 mg L(-1) PFA; with a 20 min contact time in both batch-scale and pre-field experiments. There was no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA; a slight toxic effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic event, the disinfection efficiencies were confirmed and degradation rates were slightly higher than predicted in simulated CSO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of durable and cost effective sewer pipes using petroleum and industrial waste by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Gamal Maisa


    Full Text Available The Arabian Gulf environment has an adverse impact on concrete structures because of the high ambient temperature, humidity, salt contaminated dust, sea water and underground salts. As an innovative solution, reinforced modified sulfur concrete (MSC pipes are recognized as a durable and economical solution for deterioration of pipelines. This work describes the manufacture and characterization of new MSC based on a cost effective sulfur modification process. Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil refining process was used to modify elemental sulfur and enhance its physical, mechanical properties, and mostly to increase its corrosive resistivity. The study has focused on optimizing the proportions of an offered MSC mixes that are composed of modified sulfur (MS as a binder, crushed sand, dune sand and ladle furnace (LF slag as aggregates, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGFBS as a filler. To maximize the physical and mechanical properties of MSC sewer pipes, different mixtures were prepared and investigated. The optimum mix of MSC has a maximum compressive strength of 64 MPa, maximum splitting tensile strength of 4.5 MPa, maximum flexural strength of 21 MP, with a high corrosion resistance in acidic and salty environments.

  7. Performance assessment of a vertical flow constructed wetland treating unsettled combined sewer overflow. (United States)

    Pálfy, T G; Gerodolle, M; Gourdon, R; Meyer, D; Troesch, S; Molle, P


    The performance of a vertical flow constructed wetland for combined sewer overflow treatment (CSO CW) has been evaluated. The full-scale site has been monitored for 3 years for major pollutants and for two load events for a range of micropollutants (metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). Performance were predominantly high (97% for total suspended solids (TSS), 80% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 72% for NH 4 -N), even if several loads were extremely voluminous, pushing the filter to its limits. Two different filter materials (a 4:1 mixture of sand and zeolite and natural pozzolana) showed similar treatment performance. Furthermore, environmental factors were correlated with COD removal efficiency. The greatest influencers of COD removal efficiency were the inlet dissolved COD concentrations and the duration and potential evapotranspiration during inter-event periods. Furthermore, sludge was analysed for quality and a sludge depth map was created. The map, and calculating the changes in sludge volume, helped to understand solid accumulation dynamics.

  8. A rat in the sewer: How mental imagery interacts with object recognition. (United States)

    Karimpur, Harun; Hamburger, Kai


    The role of mental imagery has been puzzling researchers for more than two millennia. Both positive and negative effects of mental imagery on information processing have been discussed. The aim of this work was to examine how mental imagery affects object recognition and associative learning. Based on different perceptual and cognitive accounts we tested our imagery-induced interaction hypothesis in a series of two experiments. According to that, mental imagery could lead to (1) a superior performance in object recognition and associative learning if these objects are imagery-congruent (semantically) and to (2) an inferior performance if these objects are imagery-incongruent. In the first experiment, we used a static environment and tested associative learning. In the second experiment, subjects encoded object information in a dynamic environment by means of a virtual sewer system. Our results demonstrate that subjects who received a role adoption task (by means of guided mental imagery) performed better when imagery-congruent objects were used and worse when imagery-incongruent objects were used. We finally discuss our findings also with respect to alternative accounts and plead for a multi-methodological approach for future research in order to solve this issue.

  9. The evaluation of rainfall influence on combined sewer overflows characteristics: the Berlin case study. (United States)

    Sandoval, S; Torres, A; Pawlowsky-Reusing, E; Riechel, M; Caradot, N


    The present study aims to explore the relationship between rainfall variables and water quality/quantity characteristics of combined sewer overflows (CSOs), by the use of multivariate statistical methods and online measurements at a principal CSO outlet in Berlin (Germany). Canonical correlation results showed that the maximum and average rainfall intensities are the most influential variables to describe CSO water quantity and pollutant loads whereas the duration of the rainfall event and the rain depth seem to be the most influential variables to describe CSO pollutant concentrations. The analysis of partial least squares (PLS) regression models confirms the findings of the canonical correlation and highlights three main influences of rainfall on CSO characteristics: (i) CSO water quantity characteristics are mainly influenced by the maximal rainfall intensities, (ii) CSO pollutant concentrations were found to be mostly associated with duration of the rainfall and (iii) pollutant loads seemed to be principally influenced by dry weather duration before the rainfall event. The prediction quality of PLS models is rather low (R² < 0.6) but results can be useful to explore qualitatively the influence of rainfall on CSO characteristics.

  10. Managing sewer solids for the reduction of foul flush effects--Forfar WTP. (United States)

    Fraser, A G; Sakrabani, R; Ashley, R M; Johnstone, F M


    In times of high sewer flow, conditions can exist which enable previously deposited material to be re-entrained back into the body of the flow column. Pulses of this highly polluted flow have been recorded in many instances at the recently constructed wastewater treatment plant (WTP) in Forfar, Scotland. Investigations have been undertaken to characterise the incoming flows and to suggest remedial measures to manage the quality fluctuations. Initial visits to the works and incoming pipes indicated a high degree of sediment deposition in the two inlet pipes. Analyses were carried out and consequently, changes to the hydraulic regime were made. Measurements of sediment level, sediment quality, wall slime and bulk water quality were monitored in the period following the remedial works to observe any improvements. Dramatic alterations in each of the determinands measured were recorded. Analyses were then undertaken to determine long term sediment behaviour and to assess the future usefulness of existing upstream sediment traps. It was concluded that with proper maintenance of the traps, the new hydraulic regime is sufficient to prevent further significant build up of sediment deposits and reduce impacts on the WTP. Further investigations made by North of Scotland Water Authority highlighted trade inputs to the system which may also have contributed to the now managed foul flush problem.

  11. An Urban Heat Island Study of the Colombo Metropolitan Area, Sri Lanka, Based on Landsat Data (1997–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Ranagalage


    Full Text Available One of the major impacts associated with unplanned rapid urban growth is the decrease of urban vegetation, which is often replaced with impervious surfaces such as buildings, parking lots, roads, and pavements. Consequently, as the percentage of impervious surfaces continues to increase at the expense of vegetation cover, surface urban heat island (SUHI forms and becomes more intense. The Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA, Sri Lanka, is one of the rapidly urbanizing metropolitan regions in South Asia. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal variations of land surface temperature (LST in the CMA in the context of the SUHI phenomenon using Landsat data. More specifically, we examined the relationship of LST with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI at three time points (1997, 2007 and 2017. In addition, we also identified environmentally critical areas based on LST and NDVI. We found significant correlations of LST with NDVI (negative and NDBI (positive (p < 0.001 across all three time points. Most of the environmentally critical areas are located in the central business district (CBD, near the harbor, across the coastal belt, and along the main transportation network. We recommend that those identified environmentally critical areas be considered in the future urban planning and landscape development of the city. Green spaces can help improve the environmental sustainability of the CMA.

  12. Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin


    Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

  13. District heating from Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

  14. The Streltsovskoye uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischukova, L.P.


    This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

  15. Analysis of Spatiotemporal Statistical Properties of Rainfall in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (United States)

    Mascaro, G.


    The analysis of the rainfall statistical properties at multiple spatiotemporal scales is a necessary preliminary step to support modeling of urban hydrology, including flood prediction and simulation of impacts of land use changes. In this contribution, the rainfall statistical properties are analyzed in the Phoenix Metropolitan area and its surroundings ( 29600 km2) in Arizona using observations from 310 gauges of the Flood Control District of the Maricopa County network. Different techniques are applied to investigate the rainfall properties at temporal scales from 1 min to years and to quantify the associated spatial variability. Results reveal the following. The rainfall regime is characterized by high interannual variability, which is partially explained by teleconnections with El Niño Southern Oscillation, and marked seasonality, with two maxima in the monsoon season from July to September and in winter from November to March. Elevation has a significant control on seasonal rainfall accumulation, strength of thermal convective activity during the monsoon, and peak occurrence of the rainfall diurnal cycle present in summer. The spatial correlation of wintertime rainfall is high even at short aggregation times (cells).

  16. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.


    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer


    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines). Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.


    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  19. Green Infrastructure Simulation and Optimization to Achieve Combined Sewer Overflow Reductions in Philadelphia's Mill Creek Sewershed (United States)

    Cohen, J. S.; McGarity, A. E.


    The ability for mass deployment of green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) to intercept significant amounts of urban runoff has the potential to reduce the frequency of a city's combined sewer overflows (CSOs). This study was performed to aid in the Overbrook Environmental Education Center's vision of applying this concept to create a Green Commercial Corridor in Philadelphia's Overbrook Neighborhood, which lies in the Mill Creek Sewershed. In an attempt to further implement physical and social reality into previous work using simulation-optimization techniques to produce GSI deployment strategies (McGarity, et al., 2016), this study's models incorporated land use types and a specific neighborhood in the sewershed. The low impact development (LID) feature in EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to simulate various geographic configurations of GSI in Overbrook. The results from these simulations were used to obtain formulas describing the annual CSO reduction in the sewershed based on the deployed GSI practices. These non-linear hydrologic response formulas were then implemented into the Storm Water Investment Strategy Evaluation (StormWISE) model (McGarity, 2012), a constrained optimization model used to develop optimal stormwater management practices on the watershed scale. By saturating the avenue with GSI, not only will CSOs from the sewershed into the Schuylkill River be reduced, but ancillary social and economic benefits of GSI will also be achieved. The effectiveness of these ancillary benefits changes based on the type of GSI practice and the type of land use in which the GSI is implemented. Thus, the simulation and optimization processes were repeated while delimiting GSI deployment by land use (residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation). The results give a GSI deployment strategy that achieves desired annual CSO reductions at a minimum cost based on the locations of tree trenches, rain gardens, and rain barrels in specified land

  20. Identifying best practice in relation to Iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewers in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Fennell, Stepehn; McGarry, Ann; Punt, Adrian


    Full text: In line with a commitment in Ireland's strategy on the implementation of the Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR) as well as recent developments in the provision of national oncology services, best practice in relation to Iodine-131 (I-131) ablation discharges to sewers in Ireland is under review. Preparatory to this review the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) commissioned a study of current practices in Ireland and associated doses as well as a review of international best practice and advice. Currently, there are three hospitals in Ireland at which thyroid ablation therapy procedures (large therapeutic administrations of I-131 for thyroid cancer treatment) are carried out. Only one facility has a limited capacity for delay and decay storage prior to discharge. Based on current administrations and discharges, the potentially most exposed workers comprises hospital plumbers dealing with specific incidents with estimated doses in the order of 50 to 70 μSv per incident. Doses to sewage workers and fishing communities are estimated at less than 4 μSv y -1 and 0.4 μSv y -1 respectively. Based on anticipated future service requirements in Ireland, a marginal increase in doses to some of these groups is estimated. Iodine-131 discharges to the environment and associated doses to workers and members of the public may be significantly reduced by the introduction of state-of-the-art delay and decay tanks using multi-tank vacuum systems. The justification for the introduction of a regulatory requirement to install such systems is examined taking account of: discharges to the environment, concentrations in the environment, doses to workers and members of the public, best available techniques (BAT), international best practice and advice as well as the financial implications for medical facilities. The case for retrofitting delay and decay tanks to existing medical facilities is also examined as well as the option of including such tanks in the

  1. Climate change impacts on the duration and frequency of combined sewer overflows (United States)

    Fortier, C.; Mailhot, A.


    Combined sewer overflows (CSO) occur when large rainwater inflow from heavy precipitation exceeds the capacity of urban combined sewage systems. Many American and European cities with old sewage systems see their water quality significantly deteriorate during such events. In the long term, changes in the rainfall regime due to climate change may lead to more severe and more frequent CSO episodes and thus compel cities to review their global water management. The overall objective of this study is to investigate how climate change will impact CSO frequency and duration. Data from rain gauges located nearby 30 overflow outfalls, in southern Quebec, Canada, were used to identify rain events leading to overflows, using CSO monitored data from May to October during the period 2007-2009. For each site, occurrence and duration of CSO events were recorded and linked to a rainfall event. Many rain events features can be used to predict CSO events, such as total depth, duration, average intensity and peak intensity. Results based on Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis show that CSO occurrence is best predicted by total rainfall. A methodology is proposed to calculate the CSO probability of occurrence and duration for each site of interest using rainfall series as input data. Monte Carlo method is then used to estimate CSO frequency. To evaluate the climate change impact on CSO, these relationships are used with simulated data from the Canadian Regional Climate Model to compare the distribution of annual number of CSO events over the 1960-1990 period and the 2070-2100 period.

  2. Risk-based decision making to manage water quality failures caused by combined sewer overflows (United States)

    Sriwastava, A. K.; Torres-Matallana, J. A.; Tait, S.; Schellart, A.


    Regulatory authorities set certain environmental permit for water utilities such that the combined sewer overflows (CSO) managed by these companies conform to the regulations. These utility companies face the risk of paying penalty or negative publicity in case they breach the environmental permit. These risks can be addressed by designing appropriate solutions such as investing in additional infrastructure which improve the system capacity and reduce the impact of CSO spills. The performance of these solutions is often estimated using urban drainage models. Hence, any uncertainty in these models can have a significant effect on the decision making process. This study outlines a risk-based decision making approach to address water quality failure caused by CSO spills. A calibrated lumped urban drainage model is used to simulate CSO spill quality in Haute-Sûre catchment in Luxembourg. Uncertainty in rainfall and model parameters is propagated through Monte Carlo simulations to quantify uncertainty in the concentration of ammonia in the CSO spill. A combination of decision alternatives such as the construction of a storage tank at the CSO and the reduction in the flow contribution of catchment surfaces are selected as planning measures to avoid the water quality failure. Failure is defined as exceedance of a concentration-duration based threshold based on Austrian emission standards for ammonia (De Toffol, 2006) with a certain frequency. For each decision alternative, uncertainty quantification results into a probability distribution of the number of annual CSO spill events which exceed the threshold. For each alternative, a buffered failure probability as defined in Rockafellar & Royset (2010), is estimated. Buffered failure probability (pbf) is a conservative estimate of failure probability (pf), however, unlike failure probability, it includes information about the upper tail of the distribution. A pareto-optimal set of solutions is obtained by performing mean

  3. A Tale of Two Districts (United States)

    Simon, Mark


    These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

  4. Redesigning the District Operating System (United States)

    Hodas, Steven


    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  5. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter (United States)

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia


    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Fullerton


    Full Text Available Using an error correction framework, this study analyzes the long- and short-run dynamics of electricity demand in Ciudad Juarez, a large metropolitan economy on Mexico’s northern border. Demand is decomposed into the total number of electricity accounts and electricity usage per customer, each of which is modeled separately. A two-stage least squares approach is used to estimate the per customer electricity demand equations due to the endogeneity of the average price variable. The results indicate sustained growth in population, employment, and income can be expected to exert substantial upward pressure on regional electric power demand. Furthermore, demand is found to be price-inelastic in this metropolitan area, suggesting that rate increases can help raise the revenues necessary to fund expansion of the electrical grid.

  7. Analysis of Solid Waste Management and Strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palika Wannawilai


    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine and analyze strategic gaps and the environment of waste management of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in order to suggest suitable waste management strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan. The study was conducted by interviewing BMA and districts’ administrators and officers, local leaders and people, and private sectors, conducting a focus group, as well as reviewing relevant documents. The data was analyzed by applying Gap analysis and SWOT analysis. The proposed five strategies are: 1 enhancement of efficiency in solid waste and hazardous waste management; 2 discipline, participation and responsibility of citizens and all sectors related to waste management; 3 appropriate and integrated waste management; 4 capacity building for BMA’s staff and improvement of solid waste management system; and 5 research and development of knowledge and technology in waste management. The study also suggested driving approaches for effective implementation of the strategies.

  8. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan


    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  9. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    pressure. Growth management strategies are necessary to secure future balanced and sustainable development throughout the whole urban region. The analysis of urbanisation and urban growth in peri-urban areas is at the core of this study, including socio-demographic and functional dynamics, land use impacts...... and options for spatial planning. The main case was the metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Other cases from Europe and the USA were used as reference studies. The methods included quantitative analyses of register and land use data as well as general case study work to investigate options for spatial...... planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...

  10. Nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.


    An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs [fr

  11. Online monitoring and conditional regression tree test: Useful tools for a better understanding of combined sewer network behavior. (United States)

    Bersinger, T; Bareille, G; Pigot, T; Bru, N; Le Hécho, I


    A good knowledge of the dynamic of pollutant concentration and flux in a combined sewer network is necessary when considering solutions to limit the pollutants discharged by combined sewer overflow (CSO) into receiving water during wet weather. Identification of the parameters that influence pollutant concentration and flux is important. Nevertheless, few studies have obtained satisfactory results for the identification of these parameters using statistical tools. Thus, this work uses a large database of rain events (116 over one year) obtained via continuous measurement of rainfall, discharge flow and chemical oxygen demand (COD) estimated using online turbidity for the identification of these parameters. We carried out a statistical study of the parameters influencing the maximum COD concentration, the discharge flow and the discharge COD flux. In this study a new test was used that has never been used in this field: the conditional regression tree test. We have demonstrated that the antecedent dry weather period, the rain event average intensity and the flow before the event are the three main factors influencing the maximum COD concentration during a rainfall event. Regarding the discharge flow, it is mainly influenced by the overall rainfall height but not by the maximum rainfall intensity. Finally, COD discharge flux is influenced by the discharge volume and the maximum COD concentration. Regression trees seem much more appropriate than common tests like PCA and PLS for this type of study as they take into account the thresholds and cumulative effects of various parameters as a function of the target variable. These results could help to improve sewer and CSO management in order to decrease the discharge of pollutants into receiving waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems. (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B


    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality.

  13. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictScenic...

  14. VT Data - Overlay District 20170419, Colchester (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:General Development Four Commercial DistrictGeneral Development Four Openspace DistrictShoreland...



    Greden, Leah R.; Taff, Steven J.


    Two farmland protection programs in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) Metropolitan Area--Green Acres and Agricultural Preserves-- together enrolled 608,331 acres in 1992. The principal financing tool was a provision common to both programs under which participating landowners paid reduced property taxes in exchange for certain non- development assurances. The resulting shift in property tax obligations to other taxpayers amounted to $7.6 million for the 1993 tax year, an average shift of $12.50 per...

  16. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital


    Rutherford, Alexandra


    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavio...





    Spatial segmentation of the labour market of informal workers within the metropolitan is observed globally. InIndia it is not only compartmentalised on gender, caste, ethnic lines but also geographically segmented by thecreation of spatially disjoined markets. The differential impact of this limited mobility on female and malelabour remains largely unexplored. The present paper argues that the labour market for informal workers issegmented into smaller labour markets separated by commuting (h...

  18. Factors Influencing Patronage Of Medical Tourism In Metropolitan Lagos Nigeria


    Omisore; E.O.; Agbabiaka; H. I.


    Since medical tourism attract patient from various origin to seek medical services at different destinations it is paramount to consider the factors that motivate patrons decision on medical tourism. Hence this study assesses the factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in Lagos metropolis Nigeria. Lagos State is situated in the southwestern corner of Nigeria it lies within Latitudes 62N to 64N of the Equator and Longitudes 245E to 420E of the Greenwich meridian. Metropolitan Lagos is...

  19. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima


    Manuel Enrique Saavedra Martinez


    The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH), which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university stud...

  20. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima


    Saavedra Martinez, Manuel Enrique


    The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH), which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university stud...

  1. The 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake: A Metropolitan shock


    Hauksson, Egill; Stein, Ross S.


    Just 3 hours after the Whittier Narrows earthquake struck, it became clear that a heretofore unseen geological structure was seismically active beneath metropolitan Los Angeles. Contrary to initial expectations of strike-slip or oblique-slip motion on the Whittier fault, whose north end abuts the aftershock zone, the focal mechanism of the mainshock showed pure thrust faulting on a deep gently inclined surface [Hauksson et al., 1988]. This collection of nine research reports spans the spectru...

  2. Elementary composition in sediments of rivers located near to the dumps of domestic sewers by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Helder de; Mortatti, Jefferson; Bendassolli, Jose A.; Trivelin, Paulo C.O.; Santana, Andre G.B.


    Had to the fact of sediments to be important metal loaders weighed in the hydro cycle, it was inquired anthropogenic contribution of pollution during the passage of the river Piracicaba in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. Samples of sediments had been collected, during and posterior before to the urban perimeter of the city, next the dumps to domestic sewers without any handling, the open sky. With this study, it was possible to identify elements with evidence of anthropogenic enrichment in the river. The Cr was the element that had the biggest anthropogenic contribution during its passage in the city. (author)

  3. Characterization and risk assessment of seasonal and weather dynamics in organic pollutant mixtures from discharge of a separate sewer system. (United States)

    Beckers, Liza-Marie; Busch, Wibke; Krauss, Martin; Schulze, Tobias; Brack, Werner


    Sites of wastewater discharge are hotspots for pollution of freshwaters with organic micropollutants and are often associated with adverse effects to aquatic organisms. The assessment, monitoring and managment of these hotspots is challenged by variations in the pollutant mixture composition due to season, weather conditions and random spills. In this study, we unraveled temporal exposure patterns in organic micropollutant mixtures from wastewater discharge and analyzed respective acute and sublethal risks for aquatic organisms. Samples were taken from two components of a separate sewer system i) a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and ii) a rain sewer of a medium size town as well as from the receiving river in different seasons. Rain sewer samples were separately collected for rain and dry - weather conditions. We analyzed 149 compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By considering the pollution dynamics in the point sources, we reduced the complexity of pollutant mixtures by k-means clustering to a few emission groups representing temporal and weather-related pollution patterns. From these groups, we derived biological quality element (BQE) - specific risk patterns. In most cases, one main risk driving emission group and a few individual risk driving compounds were identified for each BQE. While acute risk for fish was quite low, algae were exposed to seasonally emitted herbicides (terbuthylazine, spiroxamine) and crustaceans to randomly spilled insecticides (diazinon, dimethoate). Sublethal risks for all BQE were strongly influenced by constantly emitted pollutants, above all, pharmaceuticals. Variability of risks in the river was mainly driven by water discharge of the river rather than by season or peak events. Overall, the studied WWTP represented the major pollution source with a specific emission of agricultural compounds. However, the investigated rain sewer showed to be a constant pollution source due to illicit connections

  4. Correlations between rainfall data and insurance damage data related to sewer flooding for the case of Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    Sewer flooding due to extreme rainfall may result in considerable damage. Damage data to quantify costs of cleaning, drying, and replacing materials and goods are rare in literature. In this study, insurance claim data related to property damages were analysed for the municipality of Aarhus...... to underestimations of correlations between rainfall and damage variables. Rainfall data from two rain gauges were used to extract rainfall characteristics. From cross correlations between time series of rainfall and claim data, it can be concluded that rainfall events induce claims mostly on the same day, but also...

  5. Management of storm water in unitary sewer systems; Gestion de las aguas de tormenta en las redes de alcantarillado unitarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayos, C.


    A brief review is provided of the general problems of storm waters and how they are dealt with in Directive 91/27/EEC. An experiment in Asturias, Spain, is reported in which storm water storage tanks were designed to reduce the number and impact of discharges from the unitary sewer systems. The criteria for calculating the design flows in accordance with the guidelines of Spain`s Northern Hydrographic Confederation, the procedures used in determining the size of the overflows and the different elements employed in the equipment, control systems and safety systems are all described. (Author) 31 refs.

  6. Modelling the impact of retention–detention units on sewer surcharge and peak and annual runoff reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Gabriel, S.; Mark, O.


    . The impact of retrofitting a retention-detention unit of 3.3 m(3)/100 m(2) (volume/impervious area) was simulated for a small catchment in Copenhagen using MIKE URBAN. The retention-detention unit was shown to prevent flooding from the sewer for a 10-year rainfall event. Statistical analysis of continuous...... simulations covering 22 years showed that annual stormwater runoff was reduced by 68-87%, and that the retention volume was on average 53% full at the beginning of rain events. The effect of different retention-detention volume combinations was simulated, and results showed that allocating 20...

  7. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof


    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  8. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States. (United States)

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S


    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brown, Marilyn A.


    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  10. Is Urban Planning in Australia Hindered by Poor Metropolitan Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Burton


    Full Text Available There are many calls for urban planning in Australia to be reformed, although often in contradictory ways. For example, some argue it should be capable of delivering greater certainty to developers while others call for more flexibility in processes of urban development regulation; some would like to roll back its regulatory impact while others argue for a renewal of planning’s commitment to promoting social and spatial justice. The Australian planning system is also held to be hindered by a comparative lack of planning at and for the metropolitan scale. This is connected to the absence of well-developed structures of metropolitan governance in what is a three-tier federal system, with most power over planning concentrated at the State and Territory government scale. The paper explores this putative hindrance by considering three important issues in Australian urban policy debates about the efficacy of contemporary multi-level governance arrangements: spatial scale; identity and legitimacy; and efficiency and effectiveness. It includes some analysis of the case made for a more explicit and rigorous national urban policy and how this might relate to lower level planning regimes. The paper focuses on recent urban policy and planning initiatives in South East Queensland, one of Australia’s fastest growing metropolitan regions, and concludes that while incremental but nonetheless significant improvements in planning policy and practice are possible, these are unlikely to satisfy those calling for more radical changes to improve the Australian planning system.

  11. VT Data - Overlay District 20070306, Marlboro (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Cartographic version of overlay district (surface water buffer), Marlboro, Vermont. Base zoning districts are in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created...

  12. Epidemiological Characteristics and Space-Time Analysis of the 2015 Dengue Outbreak in the Metropolitan Region of Tainan City, Taiwan. (United States)

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Ng, Ka-Chon; Nguyen, Thi Luong; Chaves, Luis Fernando


    The metropolitan region of Tainan City in southern Taiwan experienced a dengue outbreak in 2015. This manuscript describes basic epidemiological features of this outbreak and uses spatial and temporal analysis tools to understand the spread of dengue during the outbreak. The analysis found that, independently of gender, dengue incidence rate increased with age, and proportionally affected more males below the age of 40 years but females above the age of 40 years. A spatial scan statistic was applied to detect clusters of disease transmission. The scan statistic found that dengue spread in a north-south diffusion direction, which is across the North, West-Central and South districts of Tainan City. Spatial regression models were used to quantify factors associated with transmission. This analysis indicated that neighborhoods with high proportions of residential area (or low wetland cover) were associated with dengue transmission. However, these association patterns were non-linear. The findings presented here can help Taiwanese public health agencies to understand the fundamental epidemiological characteristics and diffusion patterns of the 2015 dengue outbreak in Tainan City. This type of information is fundamental for policy making to prevent future uncontrolled dengue outbreaks, given that results from this study suggest that control interventions should be emphasized in the North and West-Central districts of Tainan city, in areas with a moderate percentage of residential land cover.

  13. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report (United States)

    Hayashi, H.


    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  14. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.


    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  15. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  16. Recent levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Manh Hoai; Nguyen Thuy Ngoc; Nguyen Hung Minh; Pham Hung Viet; Berg, Michael; Alder, Alfredo C.; Giger, Walter


    The occurrence, temporal trend, sources and toxicity of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were investigated in sediment samples from the sewer system of Hanoi City, including the rivers Nhue, To Lich, Lu, Set, Kim Nguu and the Yen So Lake. In general, the concentrations of the pollutants followed the order DDTs > PCBs > HCHs (β-HCH) > HCB. However, the pollution pattern was different for the DDTs and PCBs when the sampling locations were individually evaluated. The concentrations of the DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, and HCB ranged from 4.4 to 1100, 1.3 to 384, <0.2 to 36 and <0.2 to 22 ng/g d.w., respectively. These levels are higher than at any other location in Vietnam. Compared to measurements from 1997, the DDTs, PCBs, β-HCH and HCB levels show an increasing trend with DDT/DDE ratios, indicating very recent inputs into the environment although these persistent compounds are banned in Vietnam since 1995. - Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were studied in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi.

  17. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Tao


    Full Text Available As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This paper reviews the application status of CSO constructed wetlands in the US, assesses the benefits of CSO constructed wetlands, identifies challenges to designing CSO constructed wetlands, and proposes design considerations. This review finds that constructed wetlands are effective in CSO treatment and relatively less expensive to build than comparable grey infrastructure. Constructed wetlands not only remove pollutants, but also mitigate the event-associated flow regime. The design challenges include incorporating considerations of green infrastructure into permit requirements, determining design capacity for highly variable flows, requiring pretreatment, and needing adaptive design and intensive monitoring. Simultaneous monitoring of flow rate and water quality at both the inflow and outflow of CSO constructed wetlands is required for performance assessment and needed to support design, but is rarely available.

  18. Characterization of water quality among direct and delayed wet -weather flows in an urban combined sewer catchment of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anootnara Talkul Kuster


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare five water quality parameters (BOD, TSS, total zinc, TKN, and fecal coliform in wet-weather flow of a combined sewer catchment against dry-weather flow, while making a distinction between direct and delayed inflow, which has often not been made. Correlations and event mean concentrations (EMCs were also calculated. A total of 38 samples were collected from Khon Kaen’s combined sewer system between March and August 2015. Concentrations in direct inflow of three parameters: total zinc ( x = 0.24 mg/L, IQR = 0.12-0.34, TSS (240 mg/L, 176-356, and BOD (59.7 mg/L, 42.4-77.8 were higher than delayed inflow ( x = 0.04 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 23.7 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations of delayed inflow were similar to or lower than dry-weather flow. Pollutant concentrations for particulatebased pollutants were much higher during the direct inflow phase of rain events compared to the delayed inflow phase. Dissolved-phased nutrients, however, were not different.

  19. Temporal analysis of E. coli, TSS and wastewater micropollutant loads from combined sewer overflows: implications for management. (United States)

    Anne-Sophie, Madoux-Humery; Dorner, Sarah M; Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Galarneau, Martine; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle


    A combined sewer overflow (CSO) outfall was monitored to assess the impact of temporal mass loads on the appropriateness of treatment options. Instantaneous loads (mass per s) varied by approximately three orders of magnitude during events (n = 9 in spring, summer and the fall) with no significant seasonal variations. The median fraction of total loads discharged with the first 25% of the total volume ranged from 28% (theophylline) to 40% (Total Suspended Solids (TSS)) and loads remained high for the duration of the events. E. coli and TSS loads originated primarily from wastewater (WW) (63% and 75%, respectively). However, a mix of stormwater (SW) and sewer deposit (SD) resuspension contributed from 73 to 95% for the first 50% of the volume discharged of total TSS loads for 2 events. The contribution of SD resuspension was not negligible for Wastewater Micropollutants (WWMPs), especially for carbamazepine. Sustained high loads over the course of CSOs highlight the need to revisit current CSO and SW management strategies that focus on the treatment of early discharge volumes.

  20. Peracetic acid disinfection kinetics for combined sewer overflows: indicator organisms, antibiotic resistance genes, and microbial community. (United States)

    Eramo, Alessia; Medina, William Morales; Fahrenfeld, Nicole L


    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) degrade water quality and end-of-pipe treatment is one potential solution for retrofitting this outdated infrastructure. The goal of this research was to evaluate peracetic acid (PAA) as a disinfectant for CSOs using viability based molecular methods for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), indicator organism marker gene BacHum, and 16S rRNA genes. Simulated CSO effluent was prepared using 23-40% wastewater, representing the higher end of the range of wastewater concentrations reported in CSO effluent. PAA residual following disinfection was greatest for samples with the lowest initial COD. Treatment of simulated CSO effluent (23% wastewater) with 100 mg∙min/L PAA (5 mg/L PAA, 20 min) was needed to reduce viable cell sul 1, tet (G), and BacHum (1.0±0.63-3.2±0.25-log) while 25 to 50 mg•min/L PAA (5 mg/L PAA, 5-10 min) was needed to reduce viable cell loads (0.62±0.56-1.6±0.08-log) in 40% wastewater from a different municipal treatment plant. Increasing contact time after the initial decrease in viable cell gene copies did not significantly improve treatment. A much greater applied Ct of 1200 mg∙min/L PAA (20 mg/L PAA, 60 min) was required for significant log reduction of 16S rRNA genes (3.29±0.13-log). No significant losses of mex B were observed during the study. Data were fitted to a Chick-Watson model and resulting inactivation constants for sul 1 and tet (G) > BacHum > 16S rRNA. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated the initial viable and total microbial communities were distinct and that treatment with PAA resulted in marked increases of the relative abundance of select phyla, particularly Clostridia which increased by 1-1.5 orders of magnitude. Results confirm that membrane disruption is a mechanism for PAA disinfection and further treatment is needed to reduce total ARGs in CSO effluent.