WorldWideScience

Sample records for metric compatible giving

  1. Generalized fixed point theorems for compatible mappings with some types in fuzzy metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeol Je; Sedghi, Shaban; Shobe, Nabi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give some new definitions of compatible mappings of types (I) and (II) in fuzzy metric spaces and prove some common fixed point theorems for four mappings under the condition of compatible mappings of types (I) and (II) in complete fuzzy metric spaces. Our results extend, generalize and improve the corresponding results given by many authors.

  2. Common fixed point theorems for weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem for a pair of weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric space by using the (CLRg property. An example is also furnished which demonstrates the validity of our main result. As an application to our main result, we present a fixed point theorem for two finite families of self mappings in fuzzy metric space by using the notion of pairwise commuting. Our results improve the results of Sedghi, Shobe and Aliouche [A common fixed point theorem for weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric spaces, Gen. Math. 18(3 (2010, 3-12 MR2735558].

  3. A common fixed point theorem for weakly compatible mappings in Menger probabilistic quasi metric space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badridatt Pant

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove a common fixed point theorem for finite number of self mappings in Menger probabilistic quasi metric space. Our result improves and extends the results of Rezaiyan et al. [A common fixed point theorem in Menger probabilistic quasi-metric spaces, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 37 (2008 1153-1157.], Miheţ [A note on a fixed point theorem in Menger probabilistic quasi-metric spaces, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 40 (2009 2349-2352], Pant and Chauhan [Fixed points theorems in Menger probabilistic quasi metric spaces using weak compatibility, Internat. Math. Forum 5 (6 (2010 283-290] and Sastry et al. [A fixed point theorem in Menger PQM-spaces using weak compatibility, Internat. Math. Forum 5 (52 (2010 2563-2568

  4. Common fixed point theorems for finite number of mappings without continuity and compatibility on intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sushil; Deshpande, Bhavana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove some common fixed point theorems for finite number of discontinuous, noncompatible mappings on noncomplete intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. Our results extend, generalize and intuitionistic fuzzify several known results in fuzzy metric spaces. We give an example and also give formulas for total number of commutativity conditions for finite number of mappings.

  5. The Combined Quantification and Interpretation of Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics Enlightens Longitudinal Changes Compatible with Brain Repair in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnier, G.; Marechal, B.; Fartaria, M.J.; Marques, J.P.; Simioni, S.; Schluep, M.; Du Pasquier, R.; Thiran, J.-P.; Krueger, G.; Granziera, C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Quantitative and semi-quantitative MRI (qMRI) metrics provide complementary specificity and differential sensitivity to pathological brain changes compatible with brain inflammation, degeneration and repair. Moreover, advanced MRI metrics with overlapping elements amplify the true

  6. Weakly Compatible Mappings along with $CLR_{S}$ property in Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Manro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to use newly introduced property, which is so called common limit in the range $(CLR_{S}$ for four self-mappings, and prove some theorems which satisfy this property. Moreover, we establish some new existence of a common fixed point theorem for generalized contractive mappings in fuzzy metric spaces by using this new property and give some examples to support our results. Ours results does not require condition of closeness of range and so our theorems generalize, unify, and extend many results in literature. Our results improve and extend the results of Cho et al. [4], Pathak et al. [20] and Imdad et. al. [10] besides several known results.

  7. n-Tupled Coincidence Point Theorems in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces for Compatible Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Dalal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to introduce the notion of compatible mappings for n-tupled coincidence points due to (Imdad et al. (2013. Related examples are also given to support our main results. Our results are the generalizations of the results of (Gnana Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham (2006, Lakshmikantham and Ćirić (2009, Choudhury and Kundu (2010, and Choudhary et al. (2013.

  8. Robustness Metrics : How Are They Calculated, When Should They Be Used and Why Do They Give Different Results?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McPhail, C.; Maier, H. R.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Giuliani, M; Castelletti, A; Westra, S.

    2018-01-01

    Robustness is being used increasingly for decision analysis in relation to deep uncertainty and many metrics have been proposed for its quantification. Recent studies have shown that the application of different robustness metrics can result in different rankings of decision alternatives, but

  9. Robustness Metrics: How Are They Calculated, When Should They Be Used and Why Do They Give Different Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, C.; Maier, H. R.; Kwakkel, J. H.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Westra, S.

    2018-02-01

    Robustness is being used increasingly for decision analysis in relation to deep uncertainty and many metrics have been proposed for its quantification. Recent studies have shown that the application of different robustness metrics can result in different rankings of decision alternatives, but there has been little discussion of what potential causes for this might be. To shed some light on this issue, we present a unifying framework for the calculation of robustness metrics, which assists with understanding how robustness metrics work, when they should be used, and why they sometimes disagree. The framework categorizes the suitability of metrics to a decision-maker based on (1) the decision-context (i.e., the suitability of using absolute performance or regret), (2) the decision-maker's preferred level of risk aversion, and (3) the decision-maker's preference toward maximizing performance, minimizing variance, or some higher-order moment. This article also introduces a conceptual framework describing when relative robustness values of decision alternatives obtained using different metrics are likely to agree and disagree. This is used as a measure of how "stable" the ranking of decision alternatives is when determined using different robustness metrics. The framework is tested on three case studies, including water supply augmentation in Adelaide, Australia, the operation of a multipurpose regulated lake in Italy, and flood protection for a hypothetical river based on a reach of the river Rhine in the Netherlands. The proposed conceptual framework is confirmed by the case study results, providing insight into the reasons for disagreements between rankings obtained using different robustness metrics.

  10. The Combined Quantification and Interpretation of Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics Enlightens Longitudinal Changes Compatible with Brain Repair in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnier, Guillaume; Maréchal, Benedicte; Fartaria, Mário João; Falkowskiy, Pavel; Marques, José P; Simioni, Samanta; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Krueger, Gunnar; Granziera, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative and semi-quantitative MRI (qMRI) metrics provide complementary specificity and differential sensitivity to pathological brain changes compatible with brain inflammation, degeneration, and repair. Moreover, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with overlapping elements amplify the true tissue-related information and limit measurement noise. In this work, we combined multiple advanced MRI parameters to assess focal and diffuse brain changes over 2 years in a group of early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients. Thirty relapsing-remitting MS patients with less than 5 years disease duration and nine healthy subjects underwent 3T MRI at baseline and after 2 years including T1, T2, T2* relaxometry, and magnetization transfer imaging. To assess longitudinal changes in normal-appearing (NA) tissue and lesions, we used analyses of variance and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the correlation between clinical outcome and multiparametric MRI changes in lesions and NA tissue. In patients, we measured a significant longitudinal decrease of mean T2 relaxation times in NA white matter ( p  = 0.005) and a decrease of T1 relaxation times in the pallidum ( p  decrease in T1 relaxation time ( p -value  0.4, p  < 0.05). In summary, the combination of multiple advanced MRI provided evidence of changes compatible with focal and diffuse brain repair at early MS stages as suggested by histopathological studies.

  11. The Combined Quantification and Interpretation of Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics Enlightens Longitudinal Changes Compatible with Brain Repair in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Bonnier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveQuantitative and semi-quantitative MRI (qMRI metrics provide complementary specificity and differential sensitivity to pathological brain changes compatible with brain inflammation, degeneration, and repair. Moreover, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI metrics with overlapping elements amplify the true tissue-related information and limit measurement noise. In this work, we combined multiple advanced MRI parameters to assess focal and diffuse brain changes over 2 years in a group of early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients.MethodsThirty relapsing-remitting MS patients with less than 5 years disease duration and nine healthy subjects underwent 3T MRI at baseline and after 2 years including T1, T2, T2* relaxometry, and magnetization transfer imaging. To assess longitudinal changes in normal-appearing (NA tissue and lesions, we used analyses of variance and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the correlation between clinical outcome and multiparametric MRI changes in lesions and NA tissue.ResultsIn patients, we measured a significant longitudinal decrease of mean T2 relaxation times in NA white matter (p = 0.005 and a decrease of T1 relaxation times in the pallidum (p < 0.05, which are compatible with edema reabsorption and/or iron deposition. No longitudinal changes in qMRI metrics were observed in controls. In MS lesions, we measured a decrease in T1 relaxation time (p-value < 2.2e−16 and a significant increase in MTR (p-value < 1e−6, suggesting repair mechanisms, such as remyelination, increased axonal density, and/or a gliosis. Last, the evolution of advanced MRI metrics—and not changes in lesions or brain volume—were correlated to motor and cognitive tests scores evolution (Adj-R2 > 0.4, p < 0.05. In summary, the combination of multiple advanced MRI provided evidence of changes compatible with focal and diffuse brain repair at

  12. EnviroDIY ModularSensors: A Library to give Environmental Sensors a Common Interface of Functions for use with Arduino-Compatible Dataloggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Damiano, S. G.; Hicks, S.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    EnviroDIY is a community for do-it-yourself environmental science and monitoring (https://envirodiy.org), largely focused on sharing ideas for developing Arduino-compatible open-source sensor stations, similar to the EnviroDIY Mayfly datalogger (http://envirodiy.org/mayfly/). Here we present the ModularSensors Arduino code library (https://github.com/EnviroDIY/ModularSensors), deisigned to give all sensors and variables a common interface of functions and returns and to make it very easy to iterate through and log data from many sensors and variables. This library was written primarily for the EnviroDIY Mayfly, but we have begun to test it on other Arduino based boards. We will show the large number of developed sensor interfaces, and examples of using this library code to stream near real time data to the new EnviroDIY Water Quality Data Portal (http://data.envirodiy.org/), a data and software system based on the Observations Data Model v2 (http://www.odm2.org).

  13. Semantic metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bo; Kalfoglou, Yannis; Dupplaw, David; Alani, Harith; Lewis, Paul; Shadbolt, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    In the context of the Semantic Web, many ontology-related operations, e.g. ontology ranking, segmentation, alignment, articulation, reuse, evaluation, can be boiled down to one fundamental operation: computing the similarity and/or dissimilarity among ontological entities, and in some cases among ontologies themselves. In this paper, we review standard metrics for computing distance measures and we propose a series of semantic metrics. We give a formal account of semantic metrics drawn from a...

  14. $\\eta$-metric structures

    OpenAIRE

    Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss recent results about generalized metric spaces and fixed point theory. We introduce the notion of $\\eta$-cone metric spaces, give some topological properties and prove some fixed point theorems for contractive type maps on these spaces. In particular we show that theses $\\eta$-cone metric spaces are natural generalizations of both cone metric spaces and metric type spaces.

  15. Some fixed point theorems for weakly compatible mappings in Non-Archimedean Menger probabilistic metric spaces via common limit range property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we utilize the notion of common limit range property in Non-Archimedean Menger PM-spaces and prove some fixed point theorems for two pairs of weakly compatible mappings. Some illustrative examples are furnished to support our results. As an application to our main result, we present a common fixed point theorem for four finite families of self mappings. Our results improve and extend several known results existing in the literature.

  16. Incentive Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ledyard, John O.

    1987-01-01

    Incentive compatibility is described and discussed. A summary of the current state of understanding is provided. Key words are: incentive compatibility, game theory, implementation, mechanism, Bayes, Nash, and revelation.

  17. Giving presentations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Mark

    1997-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  18. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  19. Sharp metric obstructions for quasi-Einstein metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jeffrey S.

    2013-02-01

    Using the tractor calculus to study smooth metric measure spaces, we adapt results of Gover and Nurowski to give sharp metric obstructions to the existence of quasi-Einstein metrics on suitably generic manifolds. We do this by introducing an analogue of the Weyl tractor W to the setting of smooth metric measure spaces. The obstructions we obtain can be realized as tensorial invariants which are polynomial in the Riemann curvature tensor and its divergence. By taking suitable limits of their tensorial forms, we then find obstructions to the existence of static potentials, generalizing to higher dimensions a result of Bartnik and Tod, and to the existence of potentials for gradient Ricci solitons.

  20. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 ...We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  1. Socially compatible technology management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschiedel, R.

    1989-01-01

    The public has a critical eye on the impacts of technology, and there is a growing awareness of the social impacts in addition to health hazards and economic and ecologic impacts. 'Socially compatible technology management' is the magic formula frequently used which has emerged as a political demand in the course of the social controversy about the hazards of large-scale technology. It marks a position in the conflict between those who declare existing market and policy instruments to be sufficient regulatory tools, and those who understand the incidents ranging from inadequacy to desaster as a warning, and call for more precaution in decisions with an impact on the future. The concept of 'social compatibility' has to be given shape by elaborating criteria and methods for achieving this goal. The book shows that social compatibility cannot sufficiently be defined either as a quality of a technology and of a socio-technical system (acceptability), or as the willingness of the people concerned to accept a technology (acceptance). The investigation explains by means of empirical analysis and examples that participation is the only way to combine acceptability and acceptance into a socially compatibly designed technology. The leading theoretical and political formula developed for this purpose is 'acquisition'. To put it in a provocative way: Man has to learn to manage and master technical systems as if they were an integral part of themselves. Which means, man has to acquire the required knowledge and skill in the changing social structures, and the real power of disposal. Sociology of technology is a branch of research that can and should give support in the process of designing and managing technological systems in a way compatible with social needs. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Robustness Metrics: Consolidating the multiple approaches to quantify Robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    robustness metrics; 3) Functional expectancy and dispersion robustness metrics; and 4) Probability of conformance robustness metrics. The goal was to give a comprehensive overview of robustness metrics and guidance to scholars and practitioners to understand the different types of robustness metrics...

  3. Metric learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bellet, Aurelien; Sebban, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Similarity between objects plays an important role in both human cognitive processes and artificial systems for recognition and categorization. How to appropriately measure such similarities for a given task is crucial to the performance of many machine learning, pattern recognition and data mining methods. This book is devoted to metric learning, a set of techniques to automatically learn similarity and distance functions from data that has attracted a lot of interest in machine learning and related fields in the past ten years. In this book, we provide a thorough review of the metric learnin

  4. Metrication manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, A.F.A.; Digby, R.B.; Thong, S.P.; Lacey, F.

    1978-04-01

    In April 1978 a meeting of senior metrication officers convened by the Commonwealth Science Council of the Commonwealth Secretariat, was held in London. The participants were drawn from Australia, Bangladesh, Britain, Canada, Ghana, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Trinidad and Tobago. Among other things, the meeting resolved to develop a set of guidelines to assist countries to change to SI and to compile such guidelines in the form of a working manual

  5. Kerr metric in the deSitter background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to the Kerr metric with cosmological constant Λ several other metrics are presented giving a Kerr-like solution of Einstein's equations in the background of deSitter universe. A new metric of what may be termed as rotating deSitter space-time devoid of matter but containing null fluid with twisting null rays, has been presented. This metric reduces to the standard deSitter metric when the twist in the rays vanishes. Kerr metric in this background is the immediate generalization of Schwarzschild's exterior metric with cosmological constant. (author)

  6. Invariant metrics for Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, G.; Dragt, A.J.; Neri, F.

    1991-05-01

    In this paper, invariant metrics are constructed for Hamiltonian systems. These metrics give rise to norms on the space of homeogeneous polynomials of phase-space variables. For an accelerator lattice described by a Hamiltonian, these norms characterize the nonlinear content of the lattice. Therefore, the performance of the lattice can be improved by minimizing the norm as a function of parameters describing the beam-line elements in the lattice. A four-fold increase in the dynamic aperture of a model FODO cell is obtained using this procedure. 7 refs

  7. Compatible Lie Bialgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ming-Zhong; Bai Cheng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    A compatible Lie algebra is a pair of Lie algebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie brackets is a Lie bracket. We construct a bialgebra theory of compatible Lie algebras as an analogue of a Lie bialgebra. They can also be regarded as a “compatible version” of Lie bialgebras, that is, a pair of Lie bialgebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie bialgebras is still a Lie bialgebra. Many properties of compatible Lie bialgebras as the “compatible version” of the corresponding properties of Lie bialgebras are presented. In particular, there is a coboundary compatible Lie bialgebra theory with a construction from the classical Yang–Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras as a combination of two classical Yang–Baxter equations in Lie algebras. Furthermore, a notion of compatible pre-Lie algebra is introduced with an interpretation of its close relation with the classical Yang–Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras which leads to a construction of the solutions of the latter. As a byproduct, the compatible Lie bialgebras fit into the framework to construct non-constant solutions of the classical Yang–Baxter equation given by Golubchik and Sokolov. (paper)

  8. Metrics of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhihao; Chen Jingling

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study metrics of quantum states, which are natural generalizations of the usual trace metric and Bures metric. Some useful properties of the metrics are proved, such as the joint convexity and contractivity under quantum operations. Our result has a potential application in studying the geometry of quantum states as well as the entanglement detection.

  9. Graev metrics on free products and HNN extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slutsky, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    We give a construction of two-sided invariant metrics on free products (possibly with amalgamation) of groups with two-sided invariant metrics and, under certain conditions, on HNN extensions of such groups. Our approach is similar to the Graev's construction of metrics on free groups over pointed...

  10. Software architecture analysis tool : software architecture metrics collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.; Chaudron, M.R.V.; Westgeest, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Software Engineering discipline lacks the ability to evaluate software architectures. Here we describe a tool for software architecture analysis that is based on metrics. Metrics can be used to detect possible problems and bottlenecks in software architectures. Even though metrics do not give a

  11. Give Me Strength.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    维拉

    1996-01-01

    Mort had an absolutely terrible day at the office.Everythingthat could go wrong did go wrong.As he walked home he could beheard muttering strange words to himself:“Oh,give me strength,give me strength.”Mort isn’t asking for the kind of strength thatbuilds strong muscles:he’s asking for the courage or ability to

  12. Crowdsourcing metrics of digital collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Pääkkönen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the National Library of Finland (NLF there are millions of digitized newspaper and journal pages, which are openly available via the public website  http://digi.kansalliskirjasto.fi. To serve users better, last year the front end was completely overhauled with its main aim in crowdsourcing features, e.g., by giving end-users the opportunity to create digital clippings and a personal scrapbook from the digital collections. But how can you know whether crowdsourcing has had an impact? How much crowdsourcing functionalities have been used so far? Did crowdsourcing work? In this paper the statistics and metrics of a recent crowdsourcing effort are analysed across the different digitized material types (newspapers, journals, ephemera. The subjects, categories and keywords given by the users are analysed to see which topics are the most appealing. Some notable public uses of the crowdsourced article clippings are highlighted. These metrics give us indications on how the end-users, based on their own interests, are investigating and using the digital collections. Therefore, the suggested metrics illustrate the versatility of the information needs of the users, varying from citizen science to research purposes. By analysing the user patterns, we can respond to the new needs of the users by making minor changes to accommodate the most active participants, while still making the service more approachable for those who are trying out the functionalities for the first time. Participation in the clippings and annotations can enrich the materials in unexpected ways and can possibly pave the way for opportunities of using crowdsourcing more also in research contexts. This creates more opportunities for the goals of open science since source data becomes ­available, making it possible for researchers to reach out to the general public for help. In the long term, utilizing, for example, text mining methods can allow these different end-user segments to

  13. Giving behavior of millionaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Paul; Bauer, Rob; Gneezy, Uri

    2015-08-25

    This paper studies conditions influencing the generosity of wealthy people. We conduct incentivized experiments with individuals who have at least €1 million in their bank account. The results show that millionaires are more generous toward low-income individuals in a giving situation when the other participant has no power, than in a strategic setting, where the other participant can punish unfair behavior. Moreover, the level of giving by millionaires is higher than in any other previous study. Our findings have important implications for charities and financial institutions that deal with wealthy individuals.

  14. Giving Back, Moving Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Fortmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While reflecting on her own experience with giving back in Zimbabwe, Fortmann considers how the idea of “giving back” sits at the intersection of feminist theory, participatory research, and the democratization of science. From feminist theory arises the question of how to reciprocate to those who have contributed to our research. The participatory research and democratization of science literature push us to recognize and consider the collaborative nature of our research. Fortmann concludes by identifying three categories of reciprocity in research: material, intellectual, and personal. Sharing must occur, regardless of the kind of research taking place.

  15. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  16. The metrics of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Eliezer

    2000-01-01

    Dr. Geisler's far-reaching, unique book provides an encyclopedic compilation of the key metrics to measure and evaluate the impact of science and technology on academia, industry, and government. Focusing on such items as economic measures, patents, peer review, and other criteria, and supported by an extensive review of the literature, Dr. Geisler gives a thorough analysis of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in metric design, and in the use of the specific metrics he cites. His book has already received prepublication attention, and will prove especially valuable for academics in technology management, engineering, and science policy; industrial R&D executives and policymakers; government science and technology policymakers; and scientists and managers in government research and technology institutions. Geisler maintains that the application of metrics to evaluate science and technology at all levels illustrates the variety of tools we currently possess. Each metric has its own unique strengths and...

  17. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  18. The Planck Vacuum and the Schwarzschild Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Planck vacuum (PV is assumed to be the source of the visible universe. So under conditions of sufficient stress, there must exist a pathway through which energy from the PV can travel into this universe. Conversely, the passage of energy from the visible universe to the PV must also exist under the same stressful conditions. The following examines two versions of the Schwarzschild metric equation for compatability with this open-pathway idea.

  19. METRIC context unit architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  20. Group covariance and metrical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, L.

    1983-01-01

    The a priori introduction of a Lie group of transformations into a physical theory has often proved to be useful; it usually serves to describe special simplified conditions before a general theory can be worked out. Newton's assumptions of absolute space and time are examples where the Euclidian group and translation group have been introduced. These groups were extended to the Galilei group and modified in the special theory of relativity to the Poincare group to describe physics under the given conditions covariantly in the simplest way. The criticism of the a priori character leads to the formulation of the general theory of relativity. The general metric theory does not really give preference to a particular invariance group - even the principle of equivalence can be adapted to a whole family of groups. The physical laws covariantly inserted into the metric space are however adapted to the Poincare group. 8 references

  1. Weyl metrics and wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Gary W. [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA U.K. (United Kingdom); Volkov, Mikhail S., E-mail: gwg1@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: volkov@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, LMPT CNRS—UMR 7350, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, Tours, 37200 France (France)

    2017-05-01

    We study solutions obtained via applying dualities and complexifications to the vacuum Weyl metrics generated by massive rods and by point masses. Rescaling them and extending to complex parameter values yields axially symmetric vacuum solutions containing singularities along circles that can be viewed as singular matter sources. These solutions have wormhole topology with several asymptotic regions interconnected by throats and their sources can be viewed as thin rings of negative tension encircling the throats. For a particular value of the ring tension the geometry becomes exactly flat although the topology remains non-trivial, so that the rings literally produce holes in flat space. To create a single ring wormhole of one metre radius one needs a negative energy equivalent to the mass of Jupiter. Further duality transformations dress the rings with the scalar field, either conventional or phantom. This gives rise to large classes of static, axially symmetric solutions, presumably including all previously known solutions for a gravity-coupled massless scalar field, as for example the spherically symmetric Bronnikov-Ellis wormholes with phantom scalar. The multi-wormholes contain infinite struts everywhere at the symmetry axes, apart from solutions with locally flat geometry.

  2. Metric diffusion along foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Szymon M

    2017-01-01

    Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.

  3. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  4. Massless and massive quanta resulting from a mediumlike metric tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soln, J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple model of the ''primordial'' scalar field theory is presented in which the metric tensor is a generalization of the metric tensor from electrodynamics in a medium. The radiation signal corresponding to the scalar field propagates with a velocity that is generally less than c. This signal can be associated simultaneously with imaginary and real effective (momentum-dependent) masses. The requirement that the imaginary effective mass vanishes, which we take to be the prerequisite for the vacuumlike signal propagation, leads to the ''spontaneous'' splitting of the metric tensor into two distinct metric tensors: one metric tensor gives rise to masslesslike radiation and the other to a massive particle. (author)

  5. Prognostic Performance Metrics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter presents several performance metrics for offline evaluation of prognostics algorithms. A brief overview of different methods employed for performance...

  6. Overview of journal metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihong Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of metrics used for the quantitative evaluation of scholarly journals are reviewed. The impact factor and related metrics including the immediacy index and the aggregate impact factor, which are provided by the Journal Citation Reports, are explained in detail. The Eigenfactor score and the article influence score are also reviewed. In addition, journal metrics such as CiteScore, Source Normalized Impact per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank, h-index, and g-index are discussed. Limitations and problems that these metrics have are pointed out. We should be cautious to rely on those quantitative measures too much when we evaluate journals or researchers.

  7. Energy functionals for Calabi-Yau metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headrick, M; Nassar, A

    2013-01-01

    We identify a set of ''energy'' functionals on the space of metrics in a given Kähler class on a Calabi-Yau manifold, which are bounded below and minimized uniquely on the Ricci-flat metric in that class. Using these functionals, we recast the problem of numerically solving the Einstein equation as an optimization problem. We apply this strategy, using the ''algebraic'' metrics (metrics for which the Kähler potential is given in terms of a polynomial in the projective coordinates), to the Fermat quartic and to a one-parameter family of quintics that includes the Fermat and conifold quintics. We show that this method yields approximations to the Ricci-flat metric that are exponentially accurate in the degree of the polynomial (except at the conifold point, where the convergence is polynomial), and therefore orders of magnitude more accurate than the balanced metrics, previously studied as approximations to the Ricci-flat metric. The method is relatively fast and easy to implement. On the theoretical side, we also show that the functionals can be used to give a heuristic proof of Yau's theorem

  8. Brand metrics that matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntinga, D.; Bernritter, S.

    2017-01-01

    Het merk staat steeds meer centraal in de organisatie. Het is daarom essentieel om de gezondheid, prestaties en ontwikkelingen van het merk te meten. Het is echter een uitdaging om de juiste brand metrics te selecteren. Een enorme hoeveelheid metrics vraagt de aandacht van merkbeheerders. Maar welke

  9. Privacy Metrics and Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at defining a set of privacy metrics (quantitative and qualitative) in the case of the relation between a privacy protector ,and an information gatherer .The aims with such metrics are: -to allow to assess and compare different user scenarios and their differences; for

  10. The Explicit Construction of Einstein Finsler Metrics with Non-Constant Flag Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enli Guo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available By using the Hawking Taub-NUT metric, this note gives an explicit construction of a 3-parameter family of Einstein Finsler metrics of non-constant flag curvature in terms of navigation representation.

  11. Hermitian-Einstein metrics on parabolic stable bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiayu; Narasimhan, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    Let M-bar be a compact complex manifold of complex dimension two with a smooth Kaehler metric and D a smooth divisor on M-bar. If E is a rank 2 holomorphic vector bundle on M-bar with a stable parabolic structure along D, we prove the existence of a metric on E' = E module MbarD (compatible with the parabolic structure) which is Hermitian-Einstein with respect to the restriction of Kaehler metric of M-barD. A converse is also proved. (author). 24 refs

  12. Analytic convergence of harmonic metrics for parabolic Higgs bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Semin; Wilkin, Graeme

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the moduli space of parabolic Higgs bundles over a punctured Riemann surface with varying weights at the punctures. We show that the harmonic metric depends analytically on the weights and the stable Higgs bundle. This gives a Higgs bundle generalisation of a theorem of McOwen on the existence of hyperbolic cone metrics on a punctured surface within a given conformal class, and a generalisation of a theorem of Judge on the analytic parametrisation of these metrics.

  13. Exact solutions of strong gravity in generalized metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, R.; Smailagic, A.

    1981-05-01

    We consider classical solutions for the strong gravity theory of Salam and Strathdee in a wider class of metrics with positive, zero and negative curvature. It turns out that such solutions exist and their relevance for quark confinement is explored. Only metrics with positive curvature (spherical symmetry) give a confining potential in a simple picture of the scalar hadron. This supports the idea of describing the hadron as a closed microuniverse of the strong metric. (author)

  14. Robustness of climate metrics under climate policy ambiguity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Lindroos, Tomi J.; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the economic impacts of using different climate metrics. • The setting is cost-efficient scenarios for three interpretations of the 2C target. • With each target setting, the optimal metric is different. • Therefore policy ambiguity prevents the selection of an optimal metric. • Robust metric values that perform well with multiple policy targets however exist. -- Abstract: A wide array of alternatives has been proposed as the common metrics with which to compare the climate impacts of different emission types. Different physical and economic metrics and their parameterizations give diverse weights between e.g. CH 4 and CO 2 , and fixing the metric from one perspective makes it sub-optimal from another. As the aims of global climate policy involve some degree of ambiguity, it is not possible to determine a metric that would be optimal and consistent with all policy aims. This paper evaluates the cost implications of using predetermined metrics in cost-efficient mitigation scenarios. Three formulations of the 2 °C target, including both deterministic and stochastic approaches, shared a wide range of metric values for CH 4 with which the mitigation costs are only slightly above the cost-optimal levels. Therefore, although ambiguity in current policy might prevent us from selecting an optimal metric, it can be possible to select robust metric values that perform well with multiple policy targets

  15. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  16. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition

  17. Probabilistic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, B

    2005-01-01

    Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.

  18. Tracker Performance Metric

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Sanders, Johnnie

    2002-01-01

    .... We have developed the Tracker Performance Metric (TPM) specifically for this purpose. It was designed to measure the output performance, on a frame-by-frame basis, using its output position and quality...

  19. IT Project Management Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many software and IT projects fail in completing theirs objectives because different causes of which the management of the projects has a high weight. In order to have successfully projects, lessons learned have to be used, historical data to be collected and metrics and indicators have to be computed and used to compare them with past projects and avoid failure to happen. This paper presents some metrics that can be used for the IT project management.

  20. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  1. A family of metric gravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to take a completely fresh approach to metric gravity, in which the metric principle is strictly adhered to but its properties in local space-time are derived from conservation principles, not inferred from a global field equation. The global field strength variation then gains some flexibility, but only in the regime of very strong fields (2nd-order terms) whose measurement is now being contemplated. So doing provides a family of similar gravities, differing only in strong fields, which could be developed into meaningful verification targets for strong fields after the manner in which far-field variations were used in the 20th century. General Relativity (GR) is shown to be a member of the family and this is demonstrated by deriving the Schwarzschild metric exactly from a suitable field strength assumption. The method of doing so is interesting in itself because it involves only one differential equation rather than the usual four. Exact static symmetric field solutions are also given for one pedagogical alternative based on potential, and one theoretical alternative based on inertia, and the prospects of experimentally differentiating these are analyzed. Whether the method overturns the conventional wisdom that GR is the only metric theory of gravity and that alternatives must introduce additional interactions and fields is somewhat semantical, depending on whether one views the field strength assumption as a field and whether the assumption that produces GR is considered unique in some way. It is of course possible to have other fields, and the local space-time principle can be applied to field gravities which usually are weak-field approximations having only time dilation, giving them the spatial factor and promoting them to full metric theories. Though usually pedagogical, some of them are interesting from a quantum gravity perspective. Cases are noted where mass measurement errors, or distributions of dark matter, can cause one

  2. Heuristic extension of the Schwarzschild metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Schwarzschild solution of Einstein's equations of gravitation has several singularities. It is known that the singularity at r = 2Gm/c 2 is only apparent, a result of the coordinates in which the solution was found. Paradoxical results occuring near the singularity show the system of coordinates is incomplete. We introduce a simple, two-dimensional metric with an apparent singularity that makes it incomplete. By a straightforward, heuristic procedure we extend and complete this simple metric. We then use the same procedure to give a heuristic derivation of the Kruskal system of coordinates, which is known to extend the Schwarzschild manifold past its apparent singularity and produce a complete manifold

  3. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ibuprofen are available in similar forms. How to Give When giving ibuprofen, refer to the following dosage ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  4. Fault Management Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  5. Deep Transfer Metric Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlin Hu; Jiwen Lu; Yap-Peng Tan; Jie Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Conventional metric learning methods usually assume that the training and test samples are captured in similar scenarios so that their distributions are assumed to be the same. This assumption does not hold in many real visual recognition applications, especially when samples are captured across different data sets. In this paper, we propose a new deep transfer metric learning (DTML) method to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations for cross-domain visual recognition by transferring discriminative knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Specifically, our DTML learns a deep metric network by maximizing the inter-class variations and minimizing the intra-class variations, and minimizing the distribution divergence between the source domain and the target domain at the top layer of the network. To better exploit the discriminative information from the source domain, we further develop a deeply supervised transfer metric learning (DSTML) method by including an additional objective on DTML, where the output of both the hidden layers and the top layer are optimized jointly. To preserve the local manifold of input data points in the metric space, we present two new methods, DTML with autoencoder regularization and DSTML with autoencoder regularization. Experimental results on face verification, person re-identification, and handwritten digit recognition validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  6. A bi-metric theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, N.

    1975-01-01

    The bi-metric theory of gravitation proposed previously is simplified in that the auxiliary conditions are discarded, the two metric tensors being tied together only by means of the boundary conditions. Some of the properties of the field of a particle are investigated; there is no black hole, and it appears that no gravitational collapse can take place. Although the proposed theory and general relativity are at present observationally indistinguishable, some differences are pointed out which may some day be susceptible of observation. An alternative bi-metric theory is considered which gives for the precession of the perihelion 5/6 of the value given by general relativity; it seems less satisfactory than the present theory from the aesthetic point of view. (author)

  7. Steiner trees for fixed orientation metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazil, Marcus; Zachariasen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing Steiner minimum trees for a metric defined by a polygonal unit circle (corresponding to s = 2 weighted legal orientations in the plane). A linear-time algorithm to enumerate all angle configurations for degree three Steiner points is given. We provide...... a simple proof that the angle configuration for a Steiner point extends to all Steiner points in a full Steiner minimum tree, such that at most six orientations suffice for edges in a full Steiner minimum tree. We show that the concept of canonical forms originally introduced for the uniform orientation...... metric generalises to the fixed orientation metric. Finally, we give an O(s n) time algorithm to compute a Steiner minimum tree for a given full Steiner topology with n terminal leaves....

  8. Mechanical compatibility and stress analyses in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmoeller, H.; Ruge, J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper gives a short description of the problem of mechanical interactions and mechanical compatibility in composite bodies. The formation of stress-strain states, caused by the mechanical compatibility by bonding of the interfaces, is discussed. The difference between the continuous and discontinuous type of material transition in the interface is described. Flat laminated materials are at first considered. For this type of composite bodies thermal stresses and thermal residual stresses are elastically-plastically calculated. (orig.) [de

  9. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  10. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...

  11. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression...... by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  12. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  13. Metrical Phonology and SLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English language with the intention that it may be used in second language instruction. Stress is defined by its physical and acoustical correlates, and the principles of…

  14. Engineering performance metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delozier, R.; Snyder, N.

    1993-03-01

    Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful management tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons learned may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.

  15. Metrics for Probabilistic Geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosi, Alessandra; Hauberg, Søren; Vellido, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    the distribution over mappings is given by a Gaussian process. We treat the corresponding latent variable model as a Riemannian manifold and we use the expectation of the metric under the Gaussian process prior to define interpolating paths and measure distance between latent points. We show how distances...

  16. Interiors of Vaidya's radiating metric: Gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayos, F.; Jaen, X.; Llanta, E.; Senovilla, J.M.M.

    1992-01-01

    Using the Darmois junction conditions, we give the necessary and sufficient conditions for the matching of a general spherically symmetric metric to a Vaidya radiating solution. We present also these conditions in terms of the physical quantities of the corresponding energy-momentum tensors. The physical interpretation of the results and their possible applications are studied, and we also perform a detailed analysis of previous work on the subject by other authors

  17. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  18. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  19. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  20. Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E

  1. Differential Equations Compatible with KZ Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, G.; Markov, Y.; Tarasov, V.; Varchenko, A.

    2000-01-01

    We define a system of 'dynamical' differential equations compatible with the KZ differential equations. The KZ differential equations are associated to a complex simple Lie algebra g. These are equations on a function of n complex variables z i taking values in the tensor product of n finite dimensional g-modules. The KZ equations depend on the 'dual' variable in the Cartan subalgebra of g. The dynamical differential equations are differential equations with respect to the dual variable. We prove that the standard hypergeometric solutions of the KZ equations also satisfy the dynamical equations. As an application we give a new determinant formula for the coordinates of a basis of hypergeometric solutions

  2. Giving Voice: Narrating silence, history and memory in André Brink ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giving Voice: Narrating silence, history and memory in André Brink\\'s The Other Side of Silence and Before I Forget. ... Both narrators, though, draw attention to the problems associated with this reconstructive and potentially ... Article Metrics.

  3. Compatible quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-01-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call ‘compatible quantum theory (CQT)’, consists of a ‘microscopic’ part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a ‘macroscopic’ part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths (‘c-truths’), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The

  4. Enterprise Sustainment Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    are negatively impacting KPIs” (Parmenter, 2010: 31). In the current state, the Air Force’s AA and PBL metrics are once again split . AA does...must have the authority to “take immediate action to rectify situations that are negatively impacting KPIs” (Parmenter, 2010: 31). 3. Measuring...highest profitability and shareholder value for each company” (2014: 273). By systematically diagraming a process, either through a swim lane flowchart

  5. Symmetries of the dual metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.

    1998-01-01

    The geometric duality between the metric g μν and a Killing tensor K μν is studied. The conditions were found when the symmetries of the metric g μν and the dual metric K μν are the same. Dual spinning space was constructed without introduction of torsion. The general results are applied to the case of Kerr-Newmann metric

  6. Kerr metric in cosmological background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, P C [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-06-01

    A metric satisfying Einstein's equation is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a nomogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.

  7. The Limits to Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade S. Sasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider the limitations on giving back that they faced in field research, or saw others face. For some authors, their attempts at giving back were severely limited by the scope of their projects, or their understandings of local cultures or histories. For others, very specific circumstances and historical interventions of foreigners in certain places can limit how and to what extent a researcher is able to have a reciprocal relationship with the participating community. Some authors, by virtue of their lesser positions of power relative to those that they were studying, simply decided not to give back to those communities. In each article it becomes apparent that how and in what ways people give back is unique (and limited both to their personal values and the contexts in which they do research.

  8. Resources available for applying metrics in security and safety programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizzo, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating metrics into security surveys has been championed as a better way of substantiating program-related effectiveness and expenditures. Although security surveys have been aroundfor well over 40 years, rarely, if ever, have metric-related strategies been part of the equation, the author says. In this article, he cites several published articles and research findings available to security professionals and their surveyors that may give them the expertise and confidence they need to make use of this valuable tool.

  9. Assessing Software Quality Through Visualised Cohesion Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Shih

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Cohesion is one of the most important factors for software quality as well as maintainability, reliability and reusability. Module cohesion is defined as a quality attribute that seeks for measuring the singleness of the purpose of a module. The module of poor quality can be a serious obstacle to the system quality. In order to design a good software quality, software managers and engineers need to introduce cohesion metrics to measure and produce desirable software. A highly cohesion software is thought to be a desirable constructing. In this paper, we propose a function-oriented cohesion metrics based on the analysis of live variables, live span and the visualization of processing element dependency graph. We give six typical cohesion examples to be measured as our experiments and justification. Therefore, a well-defined, well-normalized, well-visualized and well-experimented cohesion metrics is proposed to indicate and thus enhance software cohesion strength. Furthermore, this cohesion metrics can be easily incorporated with software CASE tool to help software engineers to improve software quality.

  10. Kerr-Newman metric in deSitter background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, L.K.; Koppar, S.S.; Bhatt, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to the Kerr-Newman metric with cosmological constant several other metrics are presented giving Kerr-Newman type solutions of Einstein-Maxwell field equations in the background of deSitter universe. The electromagnetic field in all the solutions is assumed to be source-free. A new metric of what may be termed as an electrovac rotating deSitter space-time- a space-time devoid of matter but containing source-free electromagnetic field and a null fluid with twisting rays-has been presented. In the absence of the electromagnetic field, these solutions reduce to those discussed by Vaidya (1984). 8 refs. (author)

  11. Learning Low-Dimensional Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Lalit; Mason, Blake; Nowak, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the theoretical foundations of metric learning, focused on three key questions that are not fully addressed in prior work: 1) we consider learning general low-dimensional (low-rank) metrics as well as sparse metrics; 2) we develop upper and lower (minimax)bounds on the generalization error; 3) we quantify the sample complexity of metric learning in terms of the dimension of the feature space and the dimension/rank of the underlying metric;4) we also bound the accuracy ...

  12. GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олійник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.

  13. The New Planned Giving Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ronald R.; Quynn, Katelyn L.

    1994-01-01

    A planned giving officer is seen as an asset to college/university development for technical expertise, credibility, and connections. Attorneys, certified public accountants, bank trust officers, financial planners, investment advisers, life insurance agents, and real estate brokers may be qualified but probably also need training. (MSE)

  14. (Micro)Financing to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    and workings of microfinance. We illustrate how market-like elements are productively and problematically deployed in philanthropic giving and address the need to consider a broader range of socio-material relations involved in the framing of transactions. A complex network of actors and (trans)actions needs...

  15. Metrics with vanishing quantum corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A A; Hervik, S; Gibbons, G W; Pope, C N

    2008-01-01

    We investigate solutions of the classical Einstein or supergravity equations that solve any set of quantum corrected Einstein equations in which the Einstein tensor plus a multiple of the metric is equated to a symmetric conserved tensor T μν (g αβ , ∂ τ g αβ , ∂ τ ∂ σ g αβ , ...,) constructed from sums of terms, the involving contractions of the metric and powers of arbitrary covariant derivatives of the curvature tensor. A classical solution, such as an Einstein metric, is called universal if, when evaluated on that Einstein metric, T μν is a multiple of the metric. A Ricci flat classical solution is called strongly universal if, when evaluated on that Ricci flat metric, T μν vanishes. It is well known that pp-waves in four spacetime dimensions are strongly universal. We focus attention on a natural generalization; Einstein metrics with holonomy Sim(n - 2) in which all scalar invariants are zero or constant. In four dimensions we demonstrate that the generalized Ghanam-Thompson metric is weakly universal and that the Goldberg-Kerr metric is strongly universal; indeed, we show that universality extends to all four-dimensional Sim(2) Einstein metrics. We also discuss generalizations to higher dimensions

  16. Completion of a Dislocated Metric Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumati Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a construction for the completion of a dislocated metric space (abbreviated d-metric space; we also prove that the completion of the metric associated with a d-metric coincides with the metric associated with the completion of the d-metric.

  17. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    ) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  18. The metric system: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    On July 13, 1992, Deputy Director Duane Sewell restated the Laboratory`s policy on conversion to the metric system which was established in 1974. Sewell`s memo announced the Laboratory`s intention to continue metric conversion on a reasonable and cost effective basis. Copies of the 1974 and 1992 Administrative Memos are contained in the Appendix. There are three primary reasons behind the Laboratory`s conversion to the metric system. First, Public Law 100-418, passed in 1988, states that by the end of fiscal year 1992 the Federal Government must begin using metric units in grants, procurements, and other business transactions. Second, on July 25, 1991, President George Bush signed Executive Order 12770 which urged Federal agencies to expedite conversion to metric units. Third, the contract between the University of California and the Department of Energy calls for the Laboratory to convert to the metric system. Thus, conversion to the metric system is a legal requirement and a contractual mandate with the University of California. Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770 are discussed in more detail later in this section, but first they examine the reasons behind the nation`s conversion to the metric system. The second part of this report is on applying the metric system.

  19. Attack-Resistant Trust Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levien, Raph

    The Internet is an amazingly powerful tool for connecting people together, unmatched in human history. Yet, with that power comes great potential for spam and abuse. Trust metrics are an attempt to compute the set of which people are trustworthy and which are likely attackers. This chapter presents two specific trust metrics developed and deployed on the Advogato Website, which is a community blog for free software developers. This real-world experience demonstrates that the trust metrics fulfilled their goals, but that for good results, it is important to match the assumptions of the abstract trust metric computation to the real-world implementation.

  20. The metric system: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Susan M.

    On 13 Jul. 1992, Deputy Director Duane Sewell restated the Laboratory's policy on conversion to the metric system which was established in 1974. Sewell's memo announced the Laboratory's intention to continue metric conversion on a reasonable and cost effective basis. Copies of the 1974 and 1992 Administrative Memos are contained in the Appendix. There are three primary reasons behind the Laboratory's conversion to the metric system. First, Public Law 100-418, passed in 1988, states that by the end of fiscal year 1992 the Federal Government must begin using metric units in grants, procurements, and other business transactions. Second, on 25 Jul. 1991, President George Bush signed Executive Order 12770 which urged Federal agencies to expedite conversion to metric units. Third, the contract between the University of California and the Department of Energy calls for the Laboratory to convert to the metric system. Thus, conversion to the metric system is a legal requirement and a contractual mandate with the University of California. Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770 are discussed in more detail later in this section, but first they examine the reasons behind the nation's conversion to the metric system. The second part of this report is on applying the metric system.

  1. Two classes of metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Garrido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The class of metric spaces (X,d known as small-determined spaces, introduced by Garrido and Jaramillo, are properly defined by means of some type of real-valued Lipschitz functions on X. On the other hand, B-simple metric spaces introduced by Hejcman are defined in terms of some kind of bornologies of bounded subsets of X. In this note we present a common framework where both classes of metric spaces can be studied which allows us to see not only the relationships between them but also to obtain new internal characterizations of these metric properties.

  2. Blood compatibility--a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, B D

    2000-01-01

    This perspective on blood- materials interactions is intended to introduce the set of papers stemming from the symposium, "Devices and Diagnostics in Contact with Blood: Issues in Blood Compatibility at the Close of the 20th Century," organized on August 4-6, 1999 at the University of Washington by the University of Washington Engineered Biomaterials (UWEB) Engineering Research Center. This article outlines some of the history of blood contacting materials, overviews the work that has originated at the University of Washington over the past 28 years, speculates on the origins of the controversies on blood compatibility and considers the issues that should be addressed in future studies.

  3. A note on Hermitian-Einstein metrics on parabolic stable bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiayu; Narasimhan, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Let M-bar be a compact complex manifold of complex dimension two with a smooth Kaehler metric and D a smooth divisor on M-bar. If E is a rank 2 holomorphic vector bundle on M-bar with a stable parabolic structure along D, we prove that there exists a Hermitian-Einstein metric on E' = E-vertical bar M-barbackslashD compatible with the parabolic structure, and whose curvature is square integrable. (author)

  4. Software metrics: Software quality metrics for distributed systems. [reliability engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    Software quality metrics was extended to cover distributed computer systems. Emphasis is placed on studying embedded computer systems and on viewing them within a system life cycle. The hierarchy of quality factors, criteria, and metrics was maintained. New software quality factors were added, including survivability, expandability, and evolvability.

  5. Is Christian Education Compatible With Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael

    Science education and Christian education are not compatible if by Christian education one means teaching someone to be a Christian. One goal of science education is to give students factual knowledge. Even when there is no actual conflict of this knowledge with the dogmas of Christianity, there exists the potential for conflict. Another goal of science education is to teach students to have the propensity to be sensitive to evidence: to hold beliefs tentatively in light of evidence and to reject these beliefs in the light of new evidence if rejection is warranted by this evidence. This propensity conflicts with one way in which beliefs are often taught in Christian education: namely as fundamental dogmas, rather than as subject to revision in the light of the evidence.

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  7. Socio-compatible energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Albrecht, G.; Kotte, U.; Peters, H.P.; Stegelmann, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    The socio-compatibility project comprises three central analytical elements: 1) The arborescent value analysis: Eminent social groups (such as the trade-unions or the ecological institutes) were questioned on their values and criteria applied to evaluate different energy systems. 2) The energy system and scenario impact analysis: Indicators deduced from the arborescent value analysis serve to approximately cover the value dimensions affected by above criteria. 3) Impact analysis weighing executed by a group of arbitrarily chosen citizens. All reflections considered, it is evident that none of the energy policies discussed may claim the title 'socio-compatible'. The individual, i.e. neither scientist nor politician, cannot decide upon the socio-compatibility of one or the other concept. An altogether socially compatible solution accepted and classified as such by different social groups may only crystallize and be set against different options by the political formation of opinion. The studys' primary concern lies in furnishing information, i.e. aids for politicians having to decide on energy policies. Above all the study aimed at finding out about reactions, social protest, opposition or approval to be coped with by those who, having the say in political matters, want to speak up for one of the energy policies under public discussion. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Relevance of motion-related assessment metrics in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Lamata, Pablo; Rodrigues, Sharon P; Enciso, Silvia; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-06-01

    Motion metrics have become an important source of information when addressing the assessment of surgical expertise. However, their direct relationship with the different surgical skills has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of motion-related metrics in the evaluation processes of basic psychomotor laparoscopic skills and their correlation with the different abilities sought to measure. A framework for task definition and metric analysis is proposed. An explorative survey was first conducted with a board of experts to identify metrics to assess basic psychomotor skills. Based on the output of that survey, 3 novel tasks for surgical assessment were designed. Face and construct validation was performed, with focus on motion-related metrics. Tasks were performed by 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts). Movements of the laparoscopic instruments were registered with the TrEndo tracking system and analyzed. Time, path length, and depth showed construct validity for all 3 tasks. Motion smoothness and idle time also showed validity for tasks involving bimanual coordination and tasks requiring a more tactical approach, respectively. Additionally, motion smoothness and average speed showed a high internal consistency, proving them to be the most task-independent of all the metrics analyzed. Motion metrics are complementary and valid for assessing basic psychomotor skills, and their relevance depends on the skill being evaluated. A larger clinical implementation, combined with quality performance information, will give more insight on the relevance of the results shown in this study.

  9. Multimetric indices: How many metrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multimetric indices (MMI’s) often include 5 to 15 metrics, each representing a different attribute of assemblage condition, such as species diversity, tolerant taxa, and nonnative taxa. Is there an optimal number of metrics for MMIs? To explore this question, I created 1000 9-met...

  10. Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

  11. Extending cosmology: the metric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  12. Numerical Calabi-Yau metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Michael R.; Karp, Robert L.; Lukic, Sergio; Reinbacher, Rene

    2008-01-01

    We develop numerical methods for approximating Ricci flat metrics on Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in projective spaces. Our approach is based on finding balanced metrics and builds on recent theoretical work by Donaldson. We illustrate our methods in detail for a one parameter family of quintics. We also suggest several ways to extend our results

  13. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  14. Metrics Evolution in an Energy Research and Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Brent

    2011-01-01

    All technology programs progress through three phases: Discovery, Definition, and Deployment. The form and application of program metrics needs to evolve with each phase. During the discovery phase, the program determines what is achievable. A set of tools is needed to define program goals, to analyze credible technical options, and to ensure that the options are compatible and meet the program objectives. A metrics system that scores the potential performance of technical options is part of this system of tools, supporting screening of concepts and aiding in the overall definition of objectives. During the definition phase, the program defines what specifically is wanted. What is achievable is translated into specific systems and specific technical options are selected and optimized. A metrics system can help with the identification of options for optimization and the selection of the option for deployment. During the deployment phase, the program shows that the selected system works. Demonstration projects are established and classical systems engineering is employed. During this phase, the metrics communicate system performance. This paper discusses an approach to metrics evolution within the Department of Energy's Nuclear Fuel Cycle R and D Program, which is working to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy.

  15. Metrics for image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise

    1998-07-01

    An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.

  16. Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A D

    2000-01-01

    The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces

  17. Metric interpretation of gauge fields in noncommutative geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinetti, P.

    2007-01-01

    We shall give an overview of the metric interpretation of gauge fields in noncommutative geometry, via Connes distance formula. Especially we shall focus on the Higgs fields in the standard model, and gauge fields in various models of fiber bundle. (author)

  18. Computing the Gromov hyperbolicity of a discrete metric space

    KAUST Repository

    Fournier, Hervé ; Ismail, Anas; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2015-01-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for computing the Gromov hyperbolicity of an n-point discrete metric space. We observe that computing the Gromov hyperbolicity from a fixed base-point reduces to a (max,min) matrix product. Hence, using

  19. Fixed points for weak contractions in metric type spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we prove some fixed point theorems in metric type spaces. This article is just a generalization some results previously proved in \\cite{niyi-gaba}. In particular, we give some coupled common fixed points theorems under weak contractions. These results extend well known similar results existing in the literature.

  20. A metric model of lambda calculus with guarded recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Schwinghammer, Jan; Støvring, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    We give a model for Nakano’s typed lambda calculus with guarded recursive definitions in a category of metric spaces. By proving a computational adequacy result that relates the interpretation with the operational semantics, we show that the model can be used to reason about contextual equivalence....

  1. Analysis gives sensibility two models gives migration and transport gives radionuclides in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Berdeguez, M. B.; Gil Castillo, R.; Peralta Vidal, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    An sensibility analysis it was applied two models, the first one, a model compressible for the near field (I finish source) The second, a simple model gives migration and transport radionuclides in the geosphere. The study was developed varying the securities ed simultaneously at the same time each parameter and observing the results in changes in the output and input. The intention in analysis it is to determine the parameter that but it influences in the variation the concentration. The statistical technique Regression it was employee in the study. This statistical method is used to analyze the dependence between a dependent variable and an or but independent variables

  2. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  3. A Metric for Heterotic Moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelas, Philip; de la Ossa, Xenia; McOrist, Jock

    2017-12-01

    Heterotic vacua of string theory are realised, at large radius, by a compact threefold with vanishing first Chern class together with a choice of stable holomorphic vector bundle. These form a wide class of potentially realistic four-dimensional vacua of string theory. Despite all their phenomenological promise, there is little understanding of the metric on the moduli space of these. What is sought is the analogue of special geometry for these vacua. The metric on the moduli space is important in phenomenology as it normalises D-terms and Yukawa couplings. It is also of interest in mathematics, since it generalises the metric, first found by Kobayashi, on the space of gauge field connections, to a more general context. Here we construct this metric, correct to first order in {α^{\\backprime}}, in two ways: first by postulating a metric that is invariant under background gauge transformations of the gauge field, and also by dimensionally reducing heterotic supergravity. These methods agree and the resulting metric is Kähler, as is required by supersymmetry. Checking the metric is Kähler is intricate and the anomaly cancellation equation for the H field plays an essential role. The Kähler potential nevertheless takes a remarkably simple form: it is the Kähler potential of special geometry with the Kähler form replaced by the {α^{\\backprime}}-corrected hermitian form.

  4. Materials compatibility information data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    A major concern in the design of weapons systems is the compatibility of the materials used with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long term storage with a high reliability for proper function at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is then based on both past experience and laboratory accelerated aging experiments to assure this long term reliability. To assist in the task of materials selection a computerized materials compatibility data bank is being established. This data bank will provide a source of annotated information and references to personnel and documents for both the designer and materials engineer to draw on for guidance in materials selection. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy will be discussed and procedures for information gathering outlined. Examples of data entries and search routines will be presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the proposed system

  5. Implications of Metric Choice for Common Applications of Readmission Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Sheryl; Saynina, Olga; Schultz, Ellen; McDonald, Kathryn M; Baker, Laurence C

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the differential impact on hospital performance of three readmission metrics: all-cause readmission (ACR), 3M Potential Preventable Readmission (PPR), and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid 30-day readmission (CMS).

  6. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  7. Issues in Benchmark Metric Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crolotte, Alain

    It is true that a metric can influence a benchmark but will esoteric metrics create more problems than they will solve? We answer this question affirmatively by examining the case of the TPC-D metric which used the much debated geometric mean for the single-stream test. We will show how a simple choice influenced the benchmark and its conduct and, to some extent, DBMS development. After examining other alternatives our conclusion is that the “real” measure for a decision-support benchmark is the arithmetic mean.

  8. Background metric in supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneya, T.

    1978-01-01

    In supergravity theories, we investigate the conformal anomaly of the path-integral determinant and the problem of fermion zero modes in the presence of a nontrivial background metric. Except in SO(3) -invariant supergravity, there are nonvanishing conformal anomalies. As a consequence, amplitudes around the nontrivial background metric contain unpredictable arbitrariness. The fermion zero modes which are explicitly constructed for the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric are interpreted as an indication of the supersymmetric multiplet structure of a black hole. The degree of degeneracy of a black hole is 2/sup 4n/ in SO(n) supergravity

  9. Generalized Painleve-Gullstrand metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Chunyu [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: l2891112@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Soo Chopin [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2009-02-02

    An obstruction to the implementation of spatially flat Painleve-Gullstrand (PG) slicings is demonstrated, and explicitly discussed for Reissner-Nordstroem and Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter spacetimes. Generalizations of PG slicings which are not spatially flat but which remain regular at the horizons are introduced. These metrics can be obtained from standard spherically symmetric metrics by physical Lorentz boosts. With these generalized PG metrics, problematic contributions to the imaginary part of the action in the Parikh-Wilczek derivation of Hawking radiation due to the obstruction can be avoided.

  10. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  11. Next-Generation Metrics: Responsible Metrics & Evaluation for Open Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilsdon, J.; Bar-Ilan, J.; Peters, I.; Wouters, P.

    2016-07-01

    Metrics evoke a mixed reaction from the research community. A commitment to using data to inform decisions makes some enthusiastic about the prospect of granular, real-time analysis o of research and its wider impacts. Yet we only have to look at the blunt use of metrics such as journal impact factors, h-indices and grant income targets, to be reminded of the pitfalls. Some of the most precious qualities of academic culture resist simple quantification, and individual indicators often struggle to do justice to the richness and plurality of research. Too often, poorly designed evaluation criteria are “dominating minds, distorting behaviour and determining careers (Lawrence, 2007).” Metrics hold real power: they are constitutive of values, identities and livelihoods. How to exercise that power to more positive ends has been the focus of several recent and complementary initiatives, including the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA1), the Leiden Manifesto2 and The Metric Tide3 (a UK government review of the role of metrics in research management and assessment). Building on these initiatives, the European Commission, under its new Open Science Policy Platform4, is now looking to develop a framework for responsible metrics for research management and evaluation, which can be incorporated into the successor framework to Horizon 2020. (Author)

  12. A Coupled Fixed Point Theorem in Fuzzy Metric Space Satisfying ϕ-Contractive Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Pant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to prove a coupled fixed point theorem for two pairs of compatible and subsequentially continuous (alternately subcompatible and reciprocally continuous mappings, satisfying ϕ-contractive conditions in a fuzzy metric space. We also furnish some illustrative examples to support our results.

  13. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  14. Experiential space is hardly metric

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal; Lukavský, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2008, č. 37 (2008), s. 58-58 ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception. 24.08-28.08.2008, Utrecht] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1676 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : visual space perception * metric and non-metric perceptual judgments * ecological validity Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  16. Phantom metrics with Killing spinors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Sabra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study metric solutions of Einstein–anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1-dimensional space–time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  17. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Alexander; Windbacher, Thomas; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    For many decades CMOS devices have been successfully scaled down to achieve higher speed and increased performance of integrated circuits at lower cost. Today’s charge-based CMOS electronics encounters two major challenges: power dissipation and variability. Spintronics is a rapidly evolving research and development field, which offers a potential solution to these issues by introducing novel ‘more than Moore’ devices. Spin-based magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is already recognized as one of the most promising candidates for future universal memory. Magnetic tunnel junctions, the main elements of MRAM cells, can also be used to build logic-in-memory circuits with non-volatile storage elements on top of CMOS logic circuits, as well as versatile compact on-chip oscillators with low power consumption. We give an overview of CMOS-compatible spintronics applications. First, we present a brief introduction to the physical background considering such effects as magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect, and magnetoelectric effects. We continue with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art spintronic devices for memory applications (STT-MRAM, domain wall-motion MRAM, and spin-orbit torque MRAM), oscillators (spin torque oscillators and spin Hall nano-oscillators), logic (logic-in-memory, all-spin logic, and buffered magnetic logic gate grid), sensors, and random number generators. Devices with different types of resistivity switching are analyzed and compared, with their advantages highlighted and challenges revealed. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices are demonstrated beginning with predictive simulations, proceeding to their experimental confirmation and realization, and finalized by the current status of application in modern integrated systems and circuits. We conclude the review with an outlook, where we share our vision on the future applications of the prospective devices in the area.

  18. On the differential structure of metric measure spaces and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gigli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The main goals of this paper are: (i) To develop an abstract differential calculus on metric measure spaces by investigating the duality relations between differentials and gradients of Sobolev functions. This will be achieved without calling into play any sort of analysis in charts, our assumptions being: the metric space is complete and separable and the measure is Radon and non-negative. (ii) To employ these notions of calculus to provide, via integration by parts, a general definition of distributional Laplacian, thus giving a meaning to an expression like \\Delta g=\\mu, where g is a functi

  19. Piecewise linear manifolds: Einstein metrics and Ricci flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an attempt to extend concepts from the theory of Riemannian manifolds to piecewise linear (p.l.) spaces. In particular we propose an analogue of the Ricci tensor, which we give the name of an Einstein vector field . On a given set of p.l. spaces we define and discuss (normalized) Einstein flows. p.l. Einstein metrics are defined and examples are provided. Criteria for flows to approach Einstein metrics are formulated. Second variations of the total scalar curvature at a specific Einstein space are calculated. (paper)

  20. To give or not to give, that's the question: How methodology is destiny in Dutch giving data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Wiepking, P.

    2006-01-01

    In research on giving, methodology is destiny. The volume of donations estimated from sample surveys strongly depends on the length of the questionnaire used to measure giving. By comparing two giving surveys from the Netherlands, the authors show that a short questionnaire on giving not only

  1. To Give or Not to Give, That Is the Question : How Methodology Is Destiny in Dutch Giving Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Wiepking, Pamala

    2006-01-01

    In research on giving, methodology is destiny. The volume of donations estimated from sample surveys strongly depends on the length of the questionnaire used to measure giving. By comparing two giving surveys from the Netherlands, the authors show that a short questionnaire on giving not only

  2. Inheritance of graft compatibility in Douglas fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Copes

    1973-01-01

    Graft compatibility of genetically related and unrelated rootstock-scion combinations was compared. Scion clones were 75% compatible when grafted on half-related rootstocks but only 56% compatible when grafted on unrelated rootstocks. Most variance associated with graft incompatibility in Douglas-fir appears to be caused by multiple genes.

  3. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  4. Scalar-metric and scalar-metric-torsion gravitational theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldersley, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    The techniques of dimensional analysis and of the theory of tensorial concomitants are employed to study field equations in gravitational theories which incorporate scalar fields of the Brans-Dicke type. Within the context of scalar-metric gravitational theories, a uniqueness theorem for the geometric (or gravitational) part of the field equations is proven and a Lagrangian is determined which is uniquely specified by dimensional analysis. Within the context of scalar-metric-torsion gravitational theories a uniqueness theorem for field Lagrangians is presented and the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are given. Finally, an example of a scalar-metric-torsion theory is presented which is similar in many respects to the Brans-Dicke theory and the Einstein-Cartan theory

  5. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  6. Regge calculus from discontinuous metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Regge calculus is considered as a particular case of the more general system where the linklengths of any two neighbouring 4-tetrahedra do not necessarily coincide on their common face. This system is treated as that one described by metric discontinuous on the faces. In the superspace of all discontinuous metrics the Regge calculus metrics form some hypersurface defined by continuity conditions. Quantum theory of the discontinuous metric system is assumed to be fixed somehow in the form of quantum measure on (the space of functionals on) the superspace. The problem of reducing this measure to the Regge hypersurface is addressed. The quantum Regge calculus measure is defined from a discontinuous metric measure by inserting the δ-function-like phase factor. The requirement that continuity conditions be imposed in a 'face-independent' way fixes this factor uniquely. The term 'face-independent' means that this factor depends only on the (hyper)plane spanned by the face, not on it's form and size. This requirement seems to be natural from the viewpoint of existence of the well-defined continuum limit maximally free of lattice artefacts

  7. METRICS FOR DYNAMIC SCALING OF DATABASE IN CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Boichenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main methods of scaling databases (replication, sharding and their support at the popular relational databases and NoSQL solutions with different data models: a document-oriented, key-value, column-oriented, graph. The article provides an assessment of the capabilities of modern cloud-based solution and gives a model for the organization of dynamic scaling in the cloud infrastructure. In the article are analyzed different types of metrics and are included the basic metrics that characterize the functioning parameters and database technology, as well as sets the goals of the integral metrics, necessary for the implementation of adaptive algorithms for dynamic scaling databases in the cloud infrastructure. This article was prepared with the support of RFBR grant № 13-07-00749.

  8. Algorithms for Planar Graphs and Graphs in Metric Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    structural properties that can be exploited. For instance, a road network or a wire layout on a microchip is typically (near-)planar and distances in the network are often defined w.r.t. the Euclidean or the rectilinear metric. Specialized algorithms that take advantage of such properties are often orders...... of magnitude faster than the corresponding algorithms for general graphs. The first and main part of this thesis focuses on the development of efficient planar graph algorithms. The most important contributions include a faster single-source shortest path algorithm, a distance oracle with subquadratic...... for geometric graphs and graphs embedded in metric spaces. Roughly speaking, the stretch factor is a real value expressing how well a (geo-)metric graph approximates the underlying complete graph w.r.t. distances. We give improved algorithms for computing the stretch factor of a given graph and for augmenting...

  9. Nonlinear metric perturbation enhancement of primordial gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastero-Gil, M; Macias-Pérez, J; Santos, D

    2010-08-20

    We present the evolution of the full set of Einstein equations during preheating after inflation. We study a generic supersymmetric model of hybrid inflation, integrating fields and metric fluctuations in a 3-dimensional lattice. We take initial conditions consistent with Einstein's constraint equations. The induced preheating of the metric fluctuations is not large enough to backreact onto the fields, but preheating of the scalar modes does affect the evolution of vector and tensor modes. In particular, they do enhance the induced stochastic background of gravitational waves during preheating, giving an energy density in general an order of magnitude larger than that obtained by evolving the tensor fluctuations in an homogeneous background metric. This enhancement can improve the expectations for detection by planned gravitational wave observatories.

  10. Symmetries of Taub-NUT dual metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.; Codoban, S.

    1998-01-01

    Recently geometric duality was analyzed for a metric which admits Killing tensors. An interesting example arises when the manifold has Killing-Yano tensors. The symmetries of the dual metrics in the case of Taub-NUT metric are investigated. Generic and non-generic symmetries of dual Taub-NUT metric are analyzed

  11. A Kerr-NUT metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, P.C.; Patel, L.K.; Bhatt, P.V.

    1976-01-01

    Using Galilean time and retarded distance as coordinates the usual Kerr metric is expressed in form similar to the Newman-Unti-Tamburino (NUT) metric. The combined Kerr-NUT metric is then investigated. In addition to the Kerr and NUT solutions of Einstein's equations, three other types of solutions are derived. These are (i) the radiating Kerr solution, (ii) the radiating NUT solution satisfying Rsub(ik) = sigmaxisub(i)xisub(k), xisub(i)xisup(i) = 0, and (iii) the associated Kerr solution satisfying Rsub(ik) = 0. Solution (i) is distinct from and simpler than the one reported earlier by Vaidya and Patel (Phys. Rev.; D7:3590 (1973)). Solutions (ii) and (iii) gave line elements which have the axis of symmetry as a singular line. (author)

  12. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  13. The uniqueness of the Fisher metric as information metric

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2017), s. 879-896 ISSN 0020-3157 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Chentsov’s theorem * mixed topology * monotonicity of the Fisher metric Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.049, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10463-016-0562-0

  14. Thermodynamic metrics and optimal paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David A; Crooks, Gavin E

    2012-05-11

    A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.

  15. Generalization of Vaidya's radiation metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleiser, R J; Kozameh, C N [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Instituto de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica

    1981-11-01

    In this paper it is shown that if Vaidya's radiation metric is considered from the point of view of kinetic theory in general relativity, the corresponding phase space distribution function can be generalized in a particular way. The new family of spherically symmetric radiation metrics obtained contains Vaidya's as a limiting situation. The Einstein field equations are solved in a ''comoving'' coordinate system. Two arbitrary functions of a single variable are introduced in the process of solving these equations. Particular examples considered are a stationary solution, a nonvacuum solution depending on a single parameter, and several limiting situations.

  16. Technical Privacy Metrics: a Systematic Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Isabel; Eckhoff, David

    2018-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version The goal of privacy metrics is to measure the degree of privacy enjoyed by users in a system and the amount of protection offered by privacy-enhancing technologies. In this way, privacy metrics contribute to improving user privacy in the digital world. The diversity and complexity of privacy metrics in the literature makes an informed choice of metrics challenging. As a result, instead of using existing metrics, n...

  17. Remarks on G-Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessem Samet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, Mustafa and Sims (2006 introduced and studied a new class of generalized metric spaces, which are called G-metric spaces, as a generalization of metric spaces. We establish some useful propositions to show that many fixed point theorems on (nonsymmetric G-metric spaces given recently by many authors follow directly from well-known theorems on metric spaces. Our technique can be easily extended to other results as shown in application.

  18. DLA Energy Biofuel Feedstock Metrics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    moderately/highly in- vasive  Metric 2: Genetically modified organism ( GMO ) hazard, Yes/No and Hazard Category  Metric 3: Species hybridization...4– biofuel distribution Stage # 5– biofuel use Metric 1: State inva- siveness ranking Yes Minimal Minimal No No Metric 2: GMO hazard Yes...may utilize GMO microbial or microalgae species across the applicable biofuel life cycles (stages 1–3). The following consequence Metrics 4–6 then

  19. The compatibility approach in the classical theory of thermoelectricity seen from the perspective of variational calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, Wolfgang [Institute of Physics, Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Zabrocki, Knud; Mueller, Eckhard [Institute of Materials Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), 51170 Koeln (Germany); Snyder, G.J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The compatibility approach introduced by Snyder and Ursell opens a new pathway for the improvement of thermoelectric (TE) device performance. It has been shown that sufficient compatibility is - besides an increase of the averaged figure of merit Z - essential for efficient operation of a TE device, and that compatibility will facilitate rational materials selection, device design, and the engineering of functionally graded materials (FGMs). In this paper, the authors give an overview of the fundamental results and present a new approach from the perspective of variational calculus. A particular focus is on the role of ideal self-compatibility, i.e., adjusting compatibility locally at any position along a TE leg. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Molecular cooperativity and compatibility via full atomistic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan Yang, Kenny

    Civil engineering has customarily focused on problems from a large-scale perspective, encompassing structures such as bridges, dams, and infrastructure. However, present day challenges in conjunction with advances in nanotechnology have forced a re-focusing of expertise. The use of atomistic and molecular approaches to study material systems opens the door to significantly improve material properties. The understanding that material systems themselves are structures, where their assemblies can dictate design capacities and failure modes makes this problem well suited for those who possess expertise in structural engineering. At the same time, a focus has been given to the performance metrics of materials at the nanoscale, including strength, toughness, and transport properties (e.g., electrical, thermal). Little effort has been made in the systematic characterization of system compatibility -- e.g., how to make disparate material building blocks behave in unison. This research attempts to develop bottom-up molecular scale understanding of material behavior, with the global objective being the application of this understanding into material design/characterization at an ultimate functional scale. In particular, it addresses the subject of cooperativity at the nano-scale. This research aims to define the conditions which dictate when discrete molecules may behave as a single, functional unit, thereby facilitating homogenization and up-scaling approaches, setting bounds for assembly, and providing a transferable assessment tool across molecular systems. Following a macro-scale pattern where the compatibility of deformation plays a vital role in the structural design, novel geometrical cooperativity metrics based on the gyration tensor are derived with the intention to define nano-cooperativity in a generalized way. The metrics objectively describe the general size, shape and orientation of the structure. To validate the derived measures, a pair of ideal macromolecules

  1. A Three-Dimensional Receiver Operator Characteristic Surface Diagnostic Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly applied as metrics for quantifying the performance of binary fault detection systems. An ROC curve provides a visual representation of a detection system s True Positive Rate versus False Positive Rate sensitivity as the detection threshold is varied. The area under the curve provides a measure of fault detection performance independent of the applied detection threshold. While the standard ROC curve is well suited for quantifying binary fault detection performance, it is not suitable for quantifying the classification performance of multi-fault classification problems. Furthermore, it does not provide a measure of diagnostic latency. To address these shortcomings, a novel three-dimensional receiver operator characteristic (3D ROC) surface metric has been developed. This is done by generating and applying two separate curves: the standard ROC curve reflecting fault detection performance, and a second curve reflecting fault classification performance. A third dimension, diagnostic latency, is added giving rise to 3D ROC surfaces. Applying numerical integration techniques, the volumes under and between the surfaces are calculated to produce metrics of the diagnostic system s detection and classification performance. This paper will describe the 3D ROC surface metric in detail, and present an example of its application for quantifying the performance of aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. Metric limitations and potential enhancements are also discussed

  2. Separable metrics and radiating stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the junction condition relating the pressure to heat flux at the boundary of an accelerating and expanding spherically symmetric radiating star. We transform the junction condition to an ordinary differential equation by making a separability assumption on the metric functions in the space–time variables.

  3. Socio-technical security metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gollmann, D.; Herley, C.; Koenig, V.; Pieters, W.; Sasse, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Report from Dagstuhl seminar 14491. This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14491 “Socio-Technical Security Metrics”. In the domain of safety, metrics inform many decisions, from the height of new dikes to the design of nuclear plants. We can state, for example, that

  4. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  5. COSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta Dana Duda Daianu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The team leader is the author of vision, mentor, guide, motivator, source of encouragement and supportive team. The leader helps team members to focus on the big picture of the project, to give the best of them, to follow the right path and stay united. Leader qualities must necessarily include its ability to work together, to be folded on the processes that describe functional and structural developments in embedded team. The issue of the leader development includes the necessity to concurrently form the skills of tem working. The working paper underlines that these two formative desiderate are compatible, correlative and complementary. So, in the study that we undertake we proposed to determine the degree of compatibility between the two demands of education, as follows: the training of leader capable to exercise also the specific activities of teamwork

  6. Role of value compatibility in IT adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunker, Deborah; Kautz, Karlheinz; Nguyen, Anne Luu Thanh

    2007-01-01

    Compatibility has been recognised as an important element in the adoption of IT innovations in organisations but as a concept it has been generally limited to technical or functional factors. Compatibility is also significant, however, with regard to value compatibility between the organisation......, and the adopted IT innovation. We propose a framework to determine value compatibility analysing the organisation's and information system's structure, practices and culture, and explore the value compatibility of an organisation with its adopted self-service computer-based information system. A case study......-service acceptance and training issues experienced by the case organisation. These findings add insight into the problems experienced with value compatibility and the adoption of the information systems, and show the potential use of the proposed framework in the detection of such problems.Journal of Information...

  7. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Computer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitai, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Computers and the Internet have gradually penetrated into every aspect of people’s daily work. But with the improvement of electronic equipment as well as electrical system, the electromagnetic environment becomes much more complex. Electromagnetic interference has become an important factor to hinder the normal operation of electronic equipment. In order to analyse the computer circuit compatible with the electromagnetic compatibility, this paper starts from the computer electromagnetic and the conception of electromagnetic compatibility. And then, through the analysis of the main circuit and system of computer electromagnetic compatibility problems, we can design the computer circuits in term of electromagnetic compatibility. Finally, the basic contents and methods of EMC test are expounded in order to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment.

  8. Another extension of Orlicz-Sobolev spaces to metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Aïssaoui

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose another extension of Orlicz-Sobolev spaces to metric spaces based on the concepts of the Φ-modulus and Φ-capacity. The resulting space NΦ1 is a Banach space. The relationship between NΦ1 and MΦ1 (the first extension defined in Aïssaoui (2002 is studied. We also explore and compare different definitions of capacities and give a criterion under which NΦ1 is strictly smaller than the Orlicz space LΦ.

  9. Whether and How Much to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovski, Erik

    This study evaluates whether factors known to foster charitable giving have a uniform influence on both (1) the decision to give and (2) the decision of how much to give. I establish that these two decisions are independent by dismissing the widely used Tobit model, which assumes a singe decision...

  10. Some Fixed Point Results for Caristi Type Mappings in Modular Metric Spaces with an Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Turkoglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give Caristi type fixed point theorem in complete modular metric spaces. Moreover we give a theorem which can be derived from Caristi type. Also an application for the bounded solution of funcional equations is investigated.

  11. A composite efficiency metrics for evaluation of resource and energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Siyu; Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Polygeneration systems are commonly found in chemical and energy industry. These systems often involve chemical conversions and energy conversions. Studies of these systems are interdisciplinary, mainly involving fields of chemical engineering, energy engineering, environmental science, and economics. Each of these fields has developed an isolated index system different from the others. Analyses of polygeneration systems are therefore very likely to provide bias results with only the indexes from one field. This paper is motivated from this problem to develop a new composite efficiency metrics for polygeneration systems. This new metrics is based on the second law of thermodynamics, exergy theory. We introduce exergy cost for waste treatment as the energy penalty into conventional exergy efficiency. Using this new metrics could avoid the situation of spending too much energy for increasing production or paying production capacity for saving energy consumption. The composite metrics is studied on a simplified co-production process, syngas to methanol and electricity. The advantage of the new efficiency metrics is manifested by comparison with carbon element efficiency, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency. Results show that the new metrics could give more rational analysis than the other indexes. - Highlights: • The composite efficiency metric gives the balanced evaluation of resource utilization and energy utilization. • This efficiency uses the exergy for waste treatment as the energy penalty. • This efficiency is applied on a simplified co-production process. • Results show that the composite metrics is better than energy efficiencies and resource efficiencies

  12. Steganalysis based on JPEG compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Jessica; Goljan, Miroslav; Du, Rui

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new forensic tool that can reliably detect modifications in digital images, such as distortion due to steganography and watermarking, in images that were originally stored in the JPEG format. The JPEG compression leave unique fingerprints and serves as a fragile watermark enabling us to detect changes as small as modifying the LSB of one randomly chosen pixel. The detection of changes is based on investigating the compatibility of 8x8 blocks of pixels with JPEG compression with a given quantization matrix. The proposed steganalytic method is applicable to virtually all steganongraphic and watermarking algorithms with the exception of those that embed message bits into the quantized JPEG DCT coefficients. The method can also be used to estimate the size of the secret message and identify the pixels that carry message bits. As a consequence of our steganalysis, we strongly recommend avoiding using images that have been originally stored in the JPEG format as cover-images for spatial-domain steganography.

  13. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Mapping the imaginary of charitable giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2012-01-01

    The meaningfulness of charitable giving is largely owed to the imaginary conceptions that underpin this form of giving. Building on Taylor's notion of “social imaginary” and Godelier's work on “gift imaginary,” we theorize the imaginary of charitable giving. Through a combination of qualitative m...... across relatively stable assemblages of conceptions of poverty, donors, end-recipients and charitable giving. These assemblages are suggested to form a multifaceted imaginary that is both cultural (shared) and personal (individually performed).......The meaningfulness of charitable giving is largely owed to the imaginary conceptions that underpin this form of giving. Building on Taylor's notion of “social imaginary” and Godelier's work on “gift imaginary,” we theorize the imaginary of charitable giving. Through a combination of qualitative...

  15. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  16. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Cocyclic Mappings in Complex Valued Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present fixed point results of mappings satisfying generalized contractive conditions in complex valued metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of generalized contractive-type mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a complex valued metric space are also obtained. Some examples are also presented to support the results proved herein. These results extend and generalize many results in the existing literature.

  17. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Rational Type Cocyclic Mappings in Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point result of mappings satisfying a generalized rational contractive condition in the setup of multiplicative metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of pair of rational contractive types mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a multiplicative metric space are also obtained. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature.

  18. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60 degrees C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals

  19. The metrics and correlates of physician migration from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arah Onyebuchi A

    2007-05-01

    which gives a different but proportionate picture of which African countries stand to lose relatively more of its physicians with unchecked migration. The nature of health policies geared at health-worker migration can be expected to depend on the choice of migration metrics.

  20. General relativity: An erfc metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Réjean

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes an erfc potential to incorporate in a symmetric metric. One key feature of this model is that it relies on the existence of an intrinsic physical constant σ, a star-specific proper length that scales all its surroundings. Based thereon, the new metric is used to study the space-time geometry of a static symmetric massive object, as seen from its interior. The analytical solutions to the Einstein equation are presented, highlighting the absence of singularities and discontinuities in such a model. The geodesics are derived in their second- and first-order differential formats. Recalling the slight impact of the new model on the classical general relativity tests in the solar system, a number of facts and open problems are briefly revisited on the basis of a heuristic definition of σ. A special attention is given to gravitational collapses and non-singular black holes.

  1. Construction of self-dual codes in the Rosenbloom-Tsfasman metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisnawati, Vira Hari; Nisa, Anzi Lina Ukhtin

    2017-12-01

    Linear code is a very basic code and very useful in coding theory. Generally, linear code is a code over finite field in Hamming metric. Among the most interesting families of codes, the family of self-dual code is a very important one, because it is the best known error-correcting code. The concept of Hamming metric is develop into Rosenbloom-Tsfasman metric (RT-metric). The inner product in RT-metric is different from Euclid inner product that is used to define duality in Hamming metric. Most of the codes which are self-dual in Hamming metric are not so in RT-metric. And, generator matrix is very important to construct a code because it contains basis of the code. Therefore in this paper, we give some theorems and methods to construct self-dual codes in RT-metric by considering properties of the inner product and generator matrix. Also, we illustrate some examples for every kind of the construction.

  2. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process

  3. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  4. New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers different options for quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments from the standpoint of their technical compatibility with emissions trading. These are dynamic targets, binding targets with price caps, non-binding targets, sector-wide targets/mechanisms, action targets, allowances and endowments, and long-term permits. This paper considers these options from the standpoint of their compatibility with emissions trading.

  5. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  6. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compatible grouping. 3.7 Section 3.7... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (c) Puppies or kittens 4 months of age or less may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with...

  7. Mycelial compatibility groups and pathogenicity of Sclerotinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG) and isolate aggressiveness comparisons. MCG, host specificity and aggressiveness of S. sclerotiorum isolates were assessed. Isolate pairs were designated compatible when no barrage zone formed at sites of contact. They were designated incompatible when a ...

  8. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process

  9. hdm: High-dimensional metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Chernozhukov, Victor; Hansen, Christian; Spindler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this article the package High-dimensional Metrics (\\texttt{hdm}) is introduced. It is a collection of statistical methods for estimation and quantification of uncertainty in high-dimensional approximately sparse models. It focuses on providing confidence intervals and significance testing for (possibly many) low-dimensional subcomponents of the high-dimensional parameter vector. Efficient estimators and uniformly valid confidence intervals for regression coefficients on target variables (e...

  10. Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, Shannon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Munoz, David [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-12-01

    A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

  11. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    Today digital sources supply a historically unprecedented component of human sensorimotor data, the consumption of which is correlated with poorly understood maladies such as Internet addiction disorder and Internet gaming disorder. Because both natural and digital sensorimotor data share common mathematical descriptions, one can quantify our informational sensorimotor needs using the signal processing metrics of entropy, noise, dimensionality, continuity, latency, and bandwidth. Such metrics describe in neutral terms the informational diet human brains require to self-calibrate, allowing individuals to maintain trusting relationships. With these metrics, we define the trust humans experience using the mathematical language of computational models, that is, as a primitive statistical algorithm processing finely grained sensorimotor data from neuromechanical interaction. This definition of neuromechanical trust implies that artificial sensorimotor inputs and interactions that attract low-level attention through frequent discontinuities and enhanced coherence will decalibrate a brain's representation of its world over the long term by violating the implicit statistical contract for which self-calibration evolved. Our hypersimplified mathematical understanding of human sensorimotor processing as multiscale, continuous-time vibratory interaction allows equally broad-brush descriptions of failure modes and solutions. For example, we model addiction in general as the result of homeostatic regulation gone awry in novel environments (sign reversal) and digital dependency as a sub-case in which the decalibration caused by digital sensorimotor data spurs yet more consumption of them. We predict that institutions can use these sensorimotor metrics to quantify media richness to improve employee well-being; that dyads and family-size groups will bond and heal best through low-latency, high-resolution multisensory interaction such as shared meals and reciprocated touch; and

  12. Metric reconstruction from Weyl scalars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, Bernard F; Price, Larry R [Department of Physics, PO Box 118440, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2005-08-07

    The Kerr geometry has remained an elusive world in which to explore physics and delve into the more esoteric implications of general relativity. Following the discovery, by Kerr in 1963, of the metric for a rotating black hole, the most major advance has been an understanding of its Weyl curvature perturbations based on Teukolsky's discovery of separable wave equations some ten years later. In the current research climate, where experiments across the globe are preparing for the first detection of gravitational waves, a more complete understanding than concerns just the Weyl curvature is now called for. To understand precisely how comparatively small masses move in response to the gravitational waves they emit, a formalism has been developed based on a description of the whole spacetime metric perturbation in the neighbourhood of the emission region. Presently, such a description is not available for the Kerr geometry. While there does exist a prescription for obtaining metric perturbations once curvature perturbations are known, it has become apparent that there are gaps in that formalism which are still waiting to be filled. The most serious gaps include gauge inflexibility, the inability to include sources-which are essential when the emitting masses are considered-and the failure to describe the l = 0 and 1 perturbation properties. Among these latter properties of the perturbed spacetime, arising from a point mass in orbit, are the perturbed mass and axial component of angular momentum, as well as the very elusive Carter constant for non-axial angular momentum. A status report is given on recent work which begins to repair these deficiencies in our current incomplete description of Kerr metric perturbations.

  13. Metric reconstruction from Weyl scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiting, Bernard F; Price, Larry R

    2005-01-01

    The Kerr geometry has remained an elusive world in which to explore physics and delve into the more esoteric implications of general relativity. Following the discovery, by Kerr in 1963, of the metric for a rotating black hole, the most major advance has been an understanding of its Weyl curvature perturbations based on Teukolsky's discovery of separable wave equations some ten years later. In the current research climate, where experiments across the globe are preparing for the first detection of gravitational waves, a more complete understanding than concerns just the Weyl curvature is now called for. To understand precisely how comparatively small masses move in response to the gravitational waves they emit, a formalism has been developed based on a description of the whole spacetime metric perturbation in the neighbourhood of the emission region. Presently, such a description is not available for the Kerr geometry. While there does exist a prescription for obtaining metric perturbations once curvature perturbations are known, it has become apparent that there are gaps in that formalism which are still waiting to be filled. The most serious gaps include gauge inflexibility, the inability to include sources-which are essential when the emitting masses are considered-and the failure to describe the l = 0 and 1 perturbation properties. Among these latter properties of the perturbed spacetime, arising from a point mass in orbit, are the perturbed mass and axial component of angular momentum, as well as the very elusive Carter constant for non-axial angular momentum. A status report is given on recent work which begins to repair these deficiencies in our current incomplete description of Kerr metric perturbations

  14. Sustainability Metrics: The San Luis Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability is about promoting humanly desirable dynamic regimes of the environment. Metrics: ecological footprint, net regional product, exergy, emergy, and Fisher Information. Adaptive management: (1) metrics assess problem, (2) specific problem identified, and (3) managemen...

  15. Hybrid metric-Palatini stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilǎ, Bogdan; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mak, M. K.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the internal structure and the physical properties of specific classes of neutron, quark and Bose-Einstein condensate stars in the recently proposed hybrid metric-Palatini gravity theory, which is a combination of the metric and Palatini f (R ) formalisms. It turns out that the theory is very successful in accounting for the observed phenomenology, since it unifies local constraints at the Solar System level and the late-time cosmic acceleration, even if the scalar field is very light. In this paper, we derive the equilibrium equations for a spherically symmetric configuration (mass continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) in the framework of the scalar-tensor representation of the hybrid metric-Palatini theory, and we investigate their solutions numerically for different equations of state of neutron and quark matter, by adopting for the scalar field potential a Higgs-type form. It turns out that the scalar-tensor definition of the potential can be represented as an Clairaut differential equation, and provides an explicit form for f (R ) given by f (R )˜R +Λeff, where Λeff is an effective cosmological constant. Furthermore, stellar models, described by the stiff fluid, radiation-like, bag model and the Bose-Einstein condensate equations of state are explicitly constructed in both general relativity and hybrid metric-Palatini gravity, thus allowing an in-depth comparison between the predictions of these two gravitational theories. As a general result it turns out that for all the considered equations of state, hybrid gravity stars are more massive than their general relativistic counterparts. Furthermore, two classes of stellar models corresponding to two particular choices of the functional form of the scalar field (constant value, and logarithmic form, respectively) are also investigated. Interestingly enough, in the case of a constant scalar field the equation of state of the matter takes the form of the bag model equation of state describing

  16. Metrics for Evaluation of Student Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelanek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Researchers use many different metrics for evaluation of performance of student models. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of commonly used metrics, to discuss properties, advantages, and disadvantages of different metrics, to summarize current practice in educational data mining, and to provide guidance for evaluation of student…

  17. Context-dependent ATC complexity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Borst, C.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated Air Traffic Control (ATC) complexity metrics in a search for a metric that could best capture workload. These studies have shown how daunting the search for a universal workload metric (one that could be applied in different contexts: sectors, traffic patterns,

  18. Properties of C-metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Anca; Apreutesei, Gabriela; Mastorakis, Nikos E.

    2017-09-01

    The subject of this paper belongs to the theory of approximate metrics [23]. An approximate metric on X is a real application defined on X × X that satisfies only a part of the metric axioms. In a recent paper [23], we introduced a new type of approximate metric, named C-metric, that is an application which satisfies only two metric axioms: symmetry and triangular inequality. The remarkable fact in a C-metric space is that a topological structure induced by the C-metric can be defined. The innovative idea of this paper is that we obtain some convergence properties of a C-metric space in the absence of a metric. In this paper we investigate C-metric spaces. The paper is divided into four sections. Section 1 is for Introduction. In Section 2 we recall some concepts and preliminary results. In Section 3 we present some properties of C-metric spaces, such as convergence properties, a canonical decomposition and a C-fixed point theorem. Finally, in Section 4 some conclusions are highlighted.

  19. Three journal similarity metrics and their application to biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Jennifer L; Smalheiser, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have created several novel journal similarity metrics. The MeSH odds ratio measures the topical similarity of any pair of journals, based on the major MeSH headings assigned to articles in MEDLINE. The second metric employed the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard for estimating the author odds ratio. This gives a straightforward, intuitive answer to the question: Given two articles in PubMed that share the same author name (lastname, first initial), how does knowing only the identity of the journals (in which the articles were published) predict the relative likelihood that they are written by the same person vs. different persons? The article pair odds ratio detects the tendency of authors to publish repeatedly in the same journal, as well as in specific pairs of journals. The metrics can be applied not only to estimate the similarity of a pair of journals, but to provide novel profiles of individual journals as well. For example, for each journal, one can define the MeSH cloud as the number of other journals that are topically more similar to it than expected by chance, and the author cloud as the number of other journals that share more authors than expected by chance. These metrics for journal pairs and individual journals have been provided in the form of public datasets that can be readily studied and utilized by others.

  20. SERVICE PROVISIONING IN MANETS USING SERVICE PROVIDER’S METRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ponmozhi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Service discovery technologies are exploited to enable services to advertise their existence in a dynamic way and can be discovered, configured and used by other devices with minimum of manual efforts. Automatic service discovery plays an important role in future network scenarios. Service discovery in distributed environment is difficult that too if the availability information of the services cannot be in a centralized node. The complexity is increased even further in the case of MANETs in which there will not be central intelligence also, the nodes involved may be on the move. The mobility issue leads to the situation of uncertainty about the service availability of the service provider. In this paper we propose a decentralized discovery mechanism. The basic idea is, distributing service information along with the availability metrics to the nodes. The metrics will give us the information to evaluate the goodness of the service provider. Every node will form multi-layered overlays of service providers sorted based on the metrics. When we send a query, each node will identify the service provider from the overlay with the good metric among the available providers (i.e. the one in the first position in the overlay. We define the message structures and methods needed for this proposal. The simulation result shows that in the high mobile environment too we could have a better convergence. We believe that the architecture presented here is a necessary component of any service provision framework.

  1. Three Journal Similarity Metrics and Their Application to Biomedical Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    D′Souza, Jennifer L.; Smalheiser, Neil R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have created several novel journal similarity metrics. The MeSH odds ratio measures the topical similarity of any pair of journals, based on the major MeSH headings assigned to articles in MEDLINE. The second metric employed the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard for estimating the author odds ratio. This gives a straightforward, intuitive answer to the question: Given two articles in PubMed that share the same author name (lastname, first initial), how does knowing only the identity of the journals (in which the articles were published) predict the relative likelihood that they are written by the same person vs. different persons? The article pair odds ratio detects the tendency of authors to publish repeatedly in the same journal, as well as in specific pairs of journals. The metrics can be applied not only to estimate the similarity of a pair of journals, but to provide novel profiles of individual journals as well. For example, for each journal, one can define the MeSH cloud as the number of other journals that are topically more similar to it than expected by chance, and the author cloud as the number of other journals that share more authors than expected by chance. These metrics for journal pairs and individual journals have been provided in the form of public datasets that can be readily studied and utilized by others. PMID:25536326

  2. How to Give a Good Talk?

    OpenAIRE

    Legout , Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Why should you give great talks? How to make great slides? How to give a talk? How to make good presentations?; 3rd cycle; Warning: download the powerpoint version to get animations. Animated slides in the PDF version may look cluttered.

  3. Whether and How Much to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovski, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Charitable giving involves two seemingly distinct decisions: whether to give and how much to give. However, many researchers methodologically assume that these decisions are one and the same. The present study supports the argument that this is an incorrect assumption that is likely to generate...... misleading conclusions, in part, since the second decision is much more financial in nature than the first. The argument that charitable giving entails two distinct decisions is validated by empirically dismissing the prevailing Tobit model, which assumes a single decision, in favor of less restrictive two......-stage approaches: Cragg’s model and the Heckman model. Most importantly, it is shown that only by adopting a two-stage approach may it be uncovered that common determinants of charitable giving such as income and gender affect the two decisions at hand very differently. Data comes from a high-quality 2012 Danish...

  4. On characterizations of quasi-metric completeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dag, H.; Romaguera, S.; Tirado, P.

    2017-07-01

    Hu proved in [4] that a metric space (X, d) is complete if and only if for any closed subspace C of (X, d), every Banach contraction on C has fixed point. Since then several authors have investigated the problem of characterizing the metric completeness by means of fixed point theorems. Recently this problem has been studied in the more general context of quasi-metric spaces for different notions of completeness. Here we present a characterization of a kind of completeness for quasi-metric spaces by means of a quasi-metric versions of Hu’s theorem. (Author)

  5. Ranking metrics in gene set enrichment analysis: do they matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyla, Joanna; Marczyk, Michal; Weiner, January; Polanska, Joanna

    2017-05-12

    -Weiss-Schindler test statistic gives better outcomes. Also, it finds more enriched pathways than other tested metrics, which may induce new biological discoveries.

  6. The Metric of Colour Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    and found the MacAdam ellipses which are often interpreted as defining the metric tensor at their centres. An important question is whether it is possible to define colour coordinates such that the Euclidean distance in these coordinates correspond to human perception. Using cubic splines to represent......The space of colours is a fascinating space. It is a real vector space, but no matter what inner product you put on the space the resulting Euclidean distance does not correspond to human perception of difference between colours. In 1942 MacAdam performed the first experiments on colour matching...

  7. Product Operations Status Summary Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Atsuya; Toole, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The Product Operations Status Summary Metrics (POSSUM) computer program provides a readable view into the state of the Phoenix Operations Product Generation Subsystem (OPGS) data pipeline. POSSUM provides a user interface that can search the data store, collect product metadata, and display the results in an easily-readable layout. It was designed with flexibility in mind for support in future missions. Flexibility over various data store hierarchies is provided through the disk-searching facilities of Marsviewer. This is a proven program that has been in operational use since the first day of the Phoenix mission.

  8. Web metrics for library and information professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, David

    2014-01-01

    This is a practical guide to using web metrics to measure impact and demonstrate value. The web provides an opportunity to collect a host of different metrics, from those associated with social media accounts and websites to more traditional research outputs. This book is a clear guide for library and information professionals as to what web metrics are available and how to assess and use them to make informed decisions and demonstrate value. As individuals and organizations increasingly use the web in addition to traditional publishing avenues and formats, this book provides the tools to unlock web metrics and evaluate the impact of this content. The key topics covered include: bibliometrics, webometrics and web metrics; data collection tools; evaluating impact on the web; evaluating social media impact; investigating relationships between actors; exploring traditional publications in a new environment; web metrics and the web of data; the future of web metrics and the library and information professional.Th...

  9. DOD Offshore Wind Mission Compatibility Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the results of analyses conducted by the Department of Defense to assess the compatibility of offshore wind development with military assets...

  10. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff). Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti. Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were.

  11. Metrics for building performance assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koles, G.; Hitchcock, R.; Sherman, M.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents part of the work performed in phase I of a Laboratory Directors Research and Development (LDRD) funded project entitled Building Performance Assurances (BPA). The focus of the BPA effort is to transform the way buildings are built and operated in order to improve building performance by facilitating or providing tools, infrastructure, and information. The efforts described herein focus on the development of metrics with which to evaluate building performance and for which information and optimization tools need to be developed. The classes of building performance metrics reviewed are (1) Building Services (2) First Costs, (3) Operating Costs, (4) Maintenance Costs, and (5) Energy and Environmental Factors. The first category defines the direct benefits associated with buildings; the next three are different kinds of costs associated with providing those benefits; the last category includes concerns that are broader than direct costs and benefits to the building owner and building occupants. The level of detail of the various issues reflect the current state of knowledge in those scientific areas and the ability of the to determine that state of knowledge, rather than directly reflecting the importance of these issues; it intentionally does not specifically focus on energy issues. The report describes work in progress and is intended as a resource and can be used to indicate the areas needing more investigation. Other reports on BPA activities are also available.

  12. Partner symmetries of the complex Monge-Ampere equation yield hyper-Kaehler metrics without continuous symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malykh, A A; Nutku, Y; Sheftel, M B

    2003-01-01

    We extend the Mason-Newman Lax pair for the elliptic complex Monge-Ampere equation so that this equation itself emerges as an algebraic consequence. We regard the function in the extended Lax equations as a complex potential. Their differential compatibility condition coincides with the determining equation for the symmetries of the complex Monge-Ampere equation. We shall identify the real and imaginary parts of the potential, which we call partner symmetries, with the translational and dilatational symmetry characteristics, respectively. Then we choose the dilatational symmetry characteristic as the new unknown replacing the Kaehler potential. This directly leads to a Legendre transformation. Studying the integrability conditions of the Legendre-transformed system we arrive at a set of linear equations satisfied by a single real potential. This enables us to construct non-invariant solutions of the Legendre transform of the complex Monge-Ampere equation. Using these solutions we obtained explicit Legendre-transformed hyper-Kaehler metrics with a anti-self-dual Riemann curvature 2-form that admit no Killing vectors. They satisfy the Einstein field equations with Euclidean signature. We give the detailed derivation of the solution announced earlier and present a new solution with an added parameter. We compare our method of partner symmetries for finding non-invariant solutions to that of Dunajski and Mason who use 'hidden' symmetries for the same purpose

  13. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalar O.G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  14. Stationary metrics and optical Zermelo-Randers-Finsler geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Warnick, C. M.; Herdeiro, C. A. R.; Werner, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a triality between the Zermelo navigation problem, the geodesic flow on a Finslerian geometry of Randers type, and spacetimes in one dimension higher admitting a timelike conformal Killing vector field. From the latter viewpoint, the data of the Zermelo problem are encoded in a (conformally) Painleve-Gullstrand form of the spacetime metric, whereas the data of the Randers problem are encoded in a stationary generalization of the usual optical metric. We discuss how the spacetime viewpoint gives a simple and physical perspective on various issues, including how Finsler geometries with constant flag curvature always map to conformally flat spacetimes and that the Finsler condition maps to either a causality condition or it breaks down at an ergo surface in the spacetime picture. The gauge equivalence in this network of relations is considered as well as the connection to analogue models and the viewpoint of magnetic flows. We provide a variety of examples.

  15. Growth Modeling of Human Mandibles using Non-Euclidean Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Wrobel, Mark

    2003-01-01

    From a set of 31 three-dimensional CT scans we model the temporal shape and size of the human mandible. Each anatomical structure is represented using 14851 semi-landmarks, and mapped into Procrustes tangent space. Exploratory subspace analyses are performed leading to linear models of mandible...... shape evolution in Procrustes space. The traditional variance analysis results in a one-dimensional growth model. However, working in a non-Euclidean metric results in a multimodal model with uncorrelated modes of biological variation. The applied non-Euclidean metric is governed by the correlation...... structure of the estimated noise in the data. The generative models are compared, and evaluated on the basis of a cross validation study. The new non-Euclidean analysis is completely data driven. It not only gives comparable results w.r.t. to previous studies of the mean modelling error, but in addition...

  16. On degenerate metrics, dark matter and unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searight, Trevor P.

    2017-12-01

    A five-dimensional theory of relativity is presented which suggests that gravitation and electromagnetism may be unified using a degenerate metric. There are four fields (in the four-dimensional sense): a tensor field, two vector fields, and a scalar field, and they are unified with a combination of a gauge-like invariance and a reflection symmetry which means that both vector fields are photons. The gauge-like invariance implies that the fifth dimension is not directly observable; it also implies that charge is a constant of motion. The scalar field is analogous to the Brans-Dicke scalar field, and the theory tends towards the Einstein-Maxwell theory in the limit as the coupling constant tends to infinity. As there is some scope for fields to vary in the fifth dimension, it is possible for the photons to have wave behaviour in the fifth dimension. The wave behaviour has two effects: it gives mass to the photons, and it prevents them from interacting directly with normal matter. These massive photons still act as a source of gravity, however, and therefore they are candidates for dark matter.

  17. Children are sensitive to norms of giving

    OpenAIRE

    McAuliffe, K.; Raihani, N. J.; Dunham, Y.

    2017-01-01

    People across societies engage in costly sharing, but the extent of such sharing shows striking cultural variation, highlighting the importance of local norms in shaping generosity. Despite this acknowledged role for norms, it is unclear when they begin to exert their influence in development. Here we use a Dictator Game to investigate the extent to which 4- to 9-year-old children are sensitive to selfish (give 20%) and generous (give 80%) norms. Additionally, we varied whether children were ...

  18. System for the chemical professing and evaluation gives the residual thickness the gives detecting for gives appearances LR115 type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrazana Gonzalez, J.A.; Tomas Zerquera, J.; Prendes Alonso, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the system is described built in the CPHR for the homogeneous chemical processing gives detecting gives nuclear appearances. A new developed method is exposed, based on the application gives the technique optical densitometry, for the precise estimate gives the residual thickness, gives detecting, gives nuclear appearances LR115 type 2 after the process gives chemical engraving

  19. Metric approach to quantum constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Hughston, Lane P; Gustavsson, Anna C T

    2009-01-01

    A framework for deriving equations of motion for constrained quantum systems is introduced and a procedure for its implementation is outlined. In special cases, the proposed new method, which takes advantage of the fact that the space of pure states in quantum mechanics has both a symplectic structure and a metric structure, reduces to a quantum analogue of the Dirac theory of constraints in classical mechanics. Explicit examples involving spin-1/2 particles are worked out in detail: in the first example, our approach coincides with a quantum version of the Dirac formalism, while the second example illustrates how a situation that cannot be treated by Dirac's approach can nevertheless be dealt with in the present scheme.

  20. Metrics for Business Process Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Jan

    Up until now, there has been little research on why people introduce errors in real-world business process models. In a more general context, Simon [404] points to the limitations of cognitive capabilities and concludes that humans act rationally only to a certain extent. Concerning modeling errors, this argument would imply that human modelers lose track of the interrelations of large and complex models due to their limited cognitive capabilities and introduce errors that they would not insert in a small model. A recent study by Mendling et al. [275] explores in how far certain complexity metrics of business process models have the potential to serve as error determinants. The authors conclude that complexity indeed appears to have an impact on error probability. Before we can test such a hypothesis in a more general setting, we have to establish an understanding of how we can define determinants that drive error probability and how we can measure them.

  1. The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2012-01-01

    Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

  2. The giving standard: conditional cooperation in the case of charitable giving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Wiepking (Pamala); M. Heijnen (Merijn)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, we make a first attempt to investigate the mechanisms of conditional cooperation in giving outside experiments, using retrospective survey data on charitable giving (the Giving the Netherlands Panel Study 2005 (GINPS05, 2005 ; N  = 1474)). Our results show that in the case

  3. Active Metric Learning for Supervised Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran, Krishnan; Papageorgiou, Dimitri; Chang, Yutong; Li, Minhan; Takáč, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Clustering and classification critically rely on distance metrics that provide meaningful comparisons between data points. We present mixed-integer optimization approaches to find optimal distance metrics that generalize the Mahalanobis metric extensively studied in the literature. Additionally, we generalize and improve upon leading methods by removing reliance on pre-designated "target neighbors," "triplets," and "similarity pairs." Another salient feature of our method is its ability to en...

  4. On Nakhleh's metric for reduced phylogenetic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente Feruglio, Gabriel Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    We prove that Nakhleh’s metric for reduced phylogenetic networks is also a metric on the classes of tree-child phylogenetic networks, semibinary tree-sibling time consistent phylogenetic networks, and multilabeled phylogenetic trees. We also prove that it separates distinguishable phylogenetic networks. In this way, it becomes the strongest dissimilarity measure for phylogenetic networks available so far. Furthermore, we propose a generalization of that metric that separates arbitrary phyl...

  5. Generalized tolerance sensitivity and DEA metric sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Neralić, Luka; E. Wendell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between Tolerance sensitivity analysis in optimization and metric sensitivity analysis in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Herein, we extend the results on the generalized Tolerance framework proposed by Wendell and Chen and show how this framework includes DEA metric sensitivity as a special case. Further, we note how recent results in Tolerance sensitivity suggest some possible extensions of the results in DEA metric sensitivity.

  6. The definitive guide to IT service metrics

    CERN Document Server

    McWhirter, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Used just as they are, the metrics in this book will bring many benefits to both the IT department and the business as a whole. Details of the attributes of each metric are given, enabling you to make the right choices for your business. You may prefer and are encouraged to design and create your own metrics to bring even more value to your business - this book will show you how to do this, too.

  7. Generalized tolerance sensitivity and DEA metric sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Neralić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the relationship between Tolerance sensitivity analysis in optimization and metric sensitivity analysis in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Herein, we extend the results on the generalized Tolerance framework proposed by Wendell and Chen and show how this framework includes DEA metric sensitivity as a special case. Further, we note how recent results in Tolerance sensitivity suggest some possible extensions of the results in DEA metric sensitivity.

  8. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  9. Chaotic inflation with metric and matter perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, H.A.; Brandenberger, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A perturbative scheme to analyze the evolution of both metric and scalar field perturbations in an expanding universe is developed. The scheme is applied to study chaotic inflation with initial metric and scalar field perturbations present. It is shown that initial gravitational perturbations with wavelength smaller than the Hubble radius rapidly decay. The metric simultaneously picks up small perturbations determined by the matter inhomogeneities. Both are frozen in once the wavelength exceeds the Hubble radius. (orig.)

  10. Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, Mauro

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity is discussed. I introduce a generalized approximate metric element, inclusive of both post-post-Newtonian contributions and a gravitomagnetic field. Following Fermat's principle and standard hypotheses, I derive the time delay function and deflection angle caused by an isolated mass distribution. Several astrophysical systems are considered. In most of the cases, the gravitomagnetic correction offers the best perspectives for an observational detection. Actual measurements distinguish only marginally different metric theories from each other

  11. About the possibility of a generalized metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Ladik, J.

    1991-10-01

    The metric (the structure of the space-time) may be dependent on the properties of the object measuring it. The case of size dependence of the metric was examined. For this dependence the simplest possible form of the metric tensor has been constructed which fulfils the following requirements: there be two extremal characteristic scales; the metric be unique and the usual between them; the change be sudden in the neighbourhood of these scales; the size of the human body appear as a parameter (postulated on the basis of some philosophical arguments). Estimates have been made for the two extremal length scales according to existing observations. (author) 19 refs

  12. Thinkers and feelers: Emotion and giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Katie E

    2015-07-01

    Voluntary organizations, such as religious congregations, ask their members to contribute money as a part of membership and rely on these contributions for their survival. Yet often only a small cadre of members provides the majority of the contributions. Past research on congregational giving focuses on cognitive rational processes, generally neglecting the role of emotion. Extending Collins' (2004) interaction ritual theory, I predict that individuals who experience positive emotions during religious services will be more likely to give a higher proportion of their income to their congregation than those who do not. Moreover, I argue that this effect will be amplified in congregational contexts characterized by high aggregate levels of positive emotion, strictness, dense congregational networks, and expressive rituals. Using data from the 2001 U.S. Congregational Life Survey and multilevel modeling, I find support for several of these hypotheses. The findings suggest that both cognitive and emotional processes underlie congregational giving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ion implantation and bio-compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Masahiro [Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Corporate Research Labs.; Iwaki, Masaya

    1992-07-01

    Surface modification of polymers by ion implantation has been carried out to control surface properties such as conductivity, wettability, blood and tissue compatibility. Ion implantation into silicone rubber, polystyrene and segmented polyurethane was performed at 150 keV with doses ranging from 1 x 10[sup 15] to 3 x 10[sup 17] ions/cm[sup 2] to improve bio-compatibility. The platelet accumulation on ion implanted silicone rubber decreased and non-thrombogenicity of ion implanted specimens were improved. The ion implanted polystyrene and segmented polyurethane have been found to exhibit remarkably higher adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells compared to the non-implanted case. It is concluded that ion implantation into polymers is effective in controlling their bio-compatibility. (author).

  15. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether or not t...

  16. Children are sensitive to norms of giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Raihani, Nichola J; Dunham, Yarrow

    2017-10-01

    People across societies engage in costly sharing, but the extent of such sharing shows striking cultural variation, highlighting the importance of local norms in shaping generosity. Despite this acknowledged role for norms, it is unclear when they begin to exert their influence in development. Here we use a Dictator Game to investigate the extent to which 4- to 9-year-old children are sensitive to selfish (give 20%) and generous (give 80%) norms. Additionally, we varied whether children were told how much other children give (descriptive norm) or what they should give according to an adult (injunctive norm). Results showed that children generally gave more when they were exposed to a generous norm. However, patterns of compliance varied with age. Younger children were more likely to comply with the selfish norm, suggesting a licensing effect. By contrast, older children were more influenced by the generous norm, yet capped their donations at 50%, perhaps adhering to a pre-existing norm of equality. Children were not differentially influenced by descriptive or injunctive norms, suggesting a primacy of norm content over norm format. Together, our findings indicate that while generosity is malleable in children, normative information does not completely override pre-existing biases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. They Make Space and Give Time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. They Make Space and Give Time The Engineer as Poet. Gangan Prathap. Book Review Volume 3 ... Author Affiliations. Gangan Prathap1. National Aerospace Laboratories and the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research in Bangalore.

  18. Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, Sander; Schram, Arthur J. H. C.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to

  19. Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Soetevent, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to

  20. Why healthcare workers give prelacteal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuse, R M; Obinya, E A

    2002-08-01

    Because prelacteal feeds can adversely affect breastfeeding, UNICEF/WHO discourage their use unless medically indicated. The study was carried out to determine the proportion of healthcare workers who routinely give prelacteal feeds, and their reasons for doing so; further, to determine whether any differences exist between medically and non-medically trained healthcare workers in their administration of prelacteal feeds. Survey. Primary, secondary and tertiary health facilities in Kaduna township Nigeria. Of 1100 healthcare workers sampled, 747 (68%) responded. Of these 80% had received medical training, 20% had not. Use of a pretested validated questionnaire. Large proportions of both medical and non-medically trained healthcare workers stated they routinely give prelacteal feeds (doctors, 68.2%; nurses, 70.2%; and non-medical, 73.6%). However their reasons for doing so differed significantly (P=0.00001). Nurses gave mainly for perceived breast milk insufficiency, doctors for prevention of dehydration, hypoglycaemia and neonatal jaundice and non-medical staff to prepare the gastrointestinal tract for digestion and to quench thirst. Most healthcare workers (medical and non-medical) routinely and unnecessarily give prelacteal feeds. Therefore training and retraining programmes in lactation management are necessary and must include non-medical staff. These programmes, while emphasizing the danger of giving prelacteal feeds, must deal with the misconceptions of each group. Deliberate efforts have to be made to incorporate clinical training in breastfeeding in curricula of Schools of Medicine and Nursing.

  1. Asian American Giving to US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Kozue

    2010-01-01

    Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

  2. Compatibility and testing of electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, C E

    2013-01-01

    Compatibility and Testing of Electronic Components outlines the concepts of component part life according to thresholds of failure; the advantages that result from identifying such thresholds; their identification; and the various tests used in their detection. The book covers topics such as the interconnection of miniature passive components; the integrated circuit compatibility and its components; the semiconductor joining techniques; and the thin film hybrid approach in integrated circuits. Also covered are topics such as thick film resistors, conductors, and insulators; thin inlays for el

  3. Electromagnetic compatibility methods, analysis, circuits, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2016-01-01

    Revised, updated, and expanded, Electromagnetic Compatibility: Methods, Analysis, Circuits, and Measurement, Third Edition provides comprehensive practical coverage of the design, problem solving, and testing of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in electrical and electronic equipment and systems. This new edition provides novel information on theory, applications, evaluations, electromagnetic computational programs, and prediction techniques available. With sixty-nine schematics providing examples for circuit level electromagnetic interference (EMI) hardening and cost effective EMI problem solving, this book also includes 1130 illustrations and tables. Including extensive data on components and their correct implementation, the myths, misapplication, misconceptions, and fallacies that are common when discussing EMC/EMI will also be addressed and corrected.

  4. [Compatibility of family and medical profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, B D; Bellemann, N; Weber, M-A

    2011-09-01

    The compatibility of family and profession is especially difficult for employees in medical professions because of shift work and overtime. It seems that in the future women are going to represent the majority of medical professionals. Hence, with the manifest lack of physicians social aspects will also play a bigger role in the choice of the place of employment. In most families the classic role model prevails although women are well educated and men also set a high value on the compatibility of family and profession and would like to take parental leave and work in flexible working hours. This represents a chance, especially for radiology.

  5. Compatibility Between Electric Components in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana Aristi, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for investigation of the compatibility between electric components in wind farms by identifying critical resonances at different points of an offshore wind farm (OWF), based on systematic variation of critical parameters. In this way, the design of future OWF can...... be improved at a very early stage of the process. It is also revealed what parameters are the most important ones when considering compatibility. It was observed that a change of capacitance in the collection grid shifts the resonance peaks. A change in WT transformer capacitances influences the admittance...

  6. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  7. Evaluation of Absorbents for Compatibility with Site Generated Hazardous and Mixed Liquid Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    SRS Solid Waste requested SRTC to perform a literature-based evaluation of sorbents, which are compatible with hazardous mixed waste being generated on site. Polypropylene-based materials and ground corn cob (Toxi-dry), because of their compatibility with the Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) process, are the only two spill stabilization agents which are recommended for use on site (IS manual, Waste Acceptance Criteria 3.18). While ensuring minimal potential for undesired reactions between spills and spill control agents, Solid Waste wants to increase the number of site approved absorbents to give waste generators more flexibility in choosing liquid spill immobilization agents

  8. The positive action conjecture and asymptotically euclidean metrics in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Pope, C.N.

    1979-01-01

    The positive action conjecture requires that the action of any asymptotically Euclidean 4-dimensional Riemannian metric be positive, vanishing if and only if the space is flat. Because any Ricci flat, asymptotically Euclidean metric has zero action and is local extremum of the action which is a local minimum at flat space, the conjecture requires that there are no Ricci flat asymptotically Euclidean metrics other than flat space, which would establish that flat space is the only local minimum. We prove this for metrics on R 4 and a large class of more complicated topologies and for self-dual metrics. We show that if Rsupμsubμ >= 0 there are no bound states of the Dirac equation and discuss the relevance to possible baryon non-conserving processes mediated by gravitational instantons. We conclude that these are forbidden in the lowest stationary phase approximation. We give a detailed discussion of instantons invariant under an SU(2) or SO(3) isometry group. We find all regular solutions, none of which is asymptotically Euclidean and all of which possess a further Killing vector. In an appendix we construct an approximate self-dual metric on K3 - the only simply connected compact manifold which admits a self-dual metric. (orig.) [de

  9. Enhancing Authentication Models Characteristic Metrics via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, we derive the universal characteristic metrics set for authentication models based on security, usability and design issues. We then compute the probability of the occurrence of each characteristic metrics in some single factor and multifactor authentication models in order to determine the effectiveness of these ...

  10. Gravitational Metric Tensor Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The covariant and contravariant metric tensors exterior to a homogeneous spherical body rotating uniformly about a common φ axis with constant angular velocity ω is constructed. The constructed metric tensors in this gravitational field have seven non-zero distinct components.The Lagrangian for this gravitational field is ...

  11. Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we construct an invariant metric in the space of homogeneous polynomials of a given degree (≥ 3). The homogeneous polynomials specify a nonlinear symplectic map which in turn represents a Hamiltonian system. By minimizing the norm constructed out of this metric as a function of system parameters, we ...

  12. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...

  13. Fixed point theory in metric type spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; O’Regan, Donal; Roldán-López-de-Hierro, Antonio Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this volume presents a self-contained account of the theory, techniques and results in metric type spaces (in particular in G-metric spaces); that is, the text approaches this important area of fixed point analysis beginning from the basic ideas of metric space topology. The text is structured so that it leads the reader from preliminaries and historical notes on metric spaces (in particular G-metric spaces) and on mappings, to Banach type contraction theorems in metric type spaces, fixed point theory in partially ordered G-metric spaces, fixed point theory for expansive mappings in metric type spaces, generalizations, present results and techniques in a very general abstract setting and framework. Fixed point theory is one of the major research areas in nonlinear analysis. This is partly due to the fact that in many real world problems fixed point theory is the basic mathematical tool used to establish the existence of solutions to problems which arise natur...

  14. Metric solution of a spinning mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on a particular class of asymptotically flat and stationary metric solutions called the Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato class are reviewed about its derivation and properties. For a further study, an almost complete list of the papers worked on the Tomimatsu-Sato metrics is given. (Auth.)

  15. On Information Metrics for Spatial Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Bryan C; Pavão, Rodrigo; Belchior, Hindiael; Tort, Adriano B L

    2018-04-01

    The hippocampal formation is involved in navigation, and its neuronal activity exhibits a variety of spatial correlates (e.g., place cells, grid cells). The quantification of the information encoded by spikes has been standard procedure to identify which cells have spatial correlates. For place cells, most of the established metrics derive from Shannon's mutual information (Shannon, 1948), and convey information rate in bits/s or bits/spike (Skaggs et al., 1993, 1996). Despite their widespread use, the performance of these metrics in relation to the original mutual information metric has never been investigated. In this work, using simulated and real data, we find that the current information metrics correlate less with the accuracy of spatial decoding than the original mutual information metric. We also find that the top informative cells may differ among metrics, and show a surrogate-based normalization that yields comparable spatial information estimates. Since different information metrics may identify different neuronal populations, we discuss current and alternative definitions of spatially informative cells, which affect the metric choice. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of Metrics for Collaborative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describe the new concepts of collaborative systems metrics validation. The paper define the quality characteristics of collaborative systems. There are proposed a metric to estimate the quality level of collaborative systems. There are performed measurements of collaborative systems quality using a specially designed software.

  17. Validation of Metrics for Collaborative Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ion IVAN; Cristian CIUREA

    2008-01-01

    This paper describe the new concepts of collaborative systems metrics validation. The paper define the quality characteristics of collaborative systems. There are proposed a metric to estimate the quality level of collaborative systems. There are performed measurements of collaborative systems quality using a specially designed software.

  18. Software Power Metric Model: An Implementation | Akwukwuma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the execution time (TIME) in each case was recorded. We then obtain the application functions point count. Our result shows that the proposed metric is computable, consistent in its use of unit, and is programming language independent. Keywords: Software attributes, Software power, measurement, Software metric, ...

  19. Efficient FPT Algorithms for (Strict) Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Julien; Paul, Christophe; Sau, Ignasi; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-04-01

    In phylogenetics, a central problem is to infer the evolutionary relationships between a set of species X; these relationships are often depicted via a phylogenetic tree-a tree having its leaves labeled bijectively by elements of X and without degree-2 nodes-called the "species tree." One common approach for reconstructing a species tree consists in first constructing several phylogenetic trees from primary data (e.g., DNA sequences originating from some species in X), and then constructing a single phylogenetic tree maximizing the "concordance" with the input trees. The obtained tree is our estimation of the species tree and, when the input trees are defined on overlapping-but not identical-sets of labels, is called "supertree." In this paper, we focus on two problems that are central when combining phylogenetic trees into a supertree: the compatibility and the strict compatibility problems for unrooted phylogenetic trees. These problems are strongly related, respectively, to the notions of "containing as a minor" and "containing as a topological minor" in the graph community. Both problems are known to be fixed parameter tractable in the number of input trees k, by using their expressibility in monadic second-order logic and a reduction to graphs of bounded treewidth. Motivated by the fact that the dependency on k of these algorithms is prohibitively large, we give the first explicit dynamic programming algorithms for solving these problems, both running in time [Formula: see text], where n is the total size of the input.

  20. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  1. Emission metrics for quantifying regional climate impacts of aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Lund

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impacts of emissions from aviation in six source regions on global and regional temperatures. We consider the NOx-induced impacts on ozone and methane, aerosols and contrail-cirrus formation and calculate the global and regional emission metrics global warming potential (GWP, global temperature change potential (GTP and absolute regional temperature change potential (ARTP. The GWPs and GTPs vary by a factor of 2–4 between source regions. We find the highest aviation aerosol metric values for South Asian emissions, while contrail-cirrus metrics are higher for Europe and North America, where contrail formation is prevalent, and South America plus Africa, where the optical depth is large once contrails form. The ARTP illustrate important differences in the latitudinal patterns of radiative forcing (RF and temperature response: the temperature response in a given latitude band can be considerably stronger than suggested by the RF in that band, also emphasizing the importance of large-scale circulation impacts. To place our metrics in context, we quantify temperature change in four broad latitude bands following 1 year of emissions from present-day aviation, including CO2. Aviation over North America and Europe causes the largest net warming impact in all latitude bands, reflecting the higher air traffic activity in these regions. Contrail cirrus gives the largest warming contribution in the short term, but remain important at about 15 % of the CO2 impact in several regions even after 100 years. Our results also illustrate both the short- and long-term impacts of CO2: while CO2 becomes dominant on longer timescales, it also gives a notable warming contribution already 20 years after the emission. Our emission metrics can be further used to estimate regional temperature change under alternative aviation emission scenarios. A first evaluation of the ARTP in the context of aviation suggests that further work to account

  2. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonopoulos, Chrissi A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clements, Samuel L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorrissen, Willy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ruiz, Kathleen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, David L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, Chris [APQC, Houston, TX (United States); Varney, Jeff [APQC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

  3. Metrics for Polyphonic Sound Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Mesaros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses various metrics proposed for evaluation of polyphonic sound event detection systems used in realistic situations where there are typically multiple sound sources active simultaneously. The system output in this case contains overlapping events, marked as multiple sounds detected as being active at the same time. The polyphonic system output requires a suitable procedure for evaluation against a reference. Metrics from neighboring fields such as speech recognition and speaker diarization can be used, but they need to be partially redefined to deal with the overlapping events. We present a review of the most common metrics in the field and the way they are adapted and interpreted in the polyphonic case. We discuss segment-based and event-based definitions of each metric and explain the consequences of instance-based and class-based averaging using a case study. In parallel, we provide a toolbox containing implementations of presented metrics.

  4. Multi-damping earthquake design spectra-compatible motion histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Two iterative methods of developing time histories compatible with multi-damping spectra are presented. The common method of forcing agreement among design and calculated spectral values at several frequencies and multiple damping values may give poor, even meaningless results. The two simple iterative techniques presented here use acceleration impulse functions for 'correcting' the time histories. In the first method the correction is calculated separately for each frequency and damping value and the maximum corresponding coefficient is used to correct the time history for the iteration. In the second method the solution is further improved by introducing a scale factor at each iteration. The effectiveness of the proposed techniques is illustrated by a comparison of a set of six multi-damping design spectra with spectral responses of a time history

  5. Testing the statistical compatibility of independent data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a goodness-of-fit method which tests the compatibility between statistically independent data sets. The method gives sensible results even in cases where the χ 2 minima of the individual data sets are very low or when several parameters are fitted to a large number of data points. In particular, it avoids the problem that a possible disagreement between data sets becomes diluted by data points which are insensitive to the crucial parameters. A formal derivation of the probability distribution function for the proposed test statistics is given, based on standard theorems of statistics. The application of the method is illustrated on data from neutrino oscillation experiments, and its complementarity to the standard goodness-of-fit is discussed

  6. A Contraction Fixed Point Theorem in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces and Application to Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize a fixed point theorem in partially ordered complete metric spaces in the study of A. Amini-Harandi and H. Emami (2010. We also give an application on the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution of a multipoint boundary value problem with fractional derivatives.

  7. Coal use in Italy and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Fossil fuels have in Italy great importance. In Italy, in terms of environmental protection and for social acceptance, coal has had a real opposition not verified in other countries. Environmental compatibility of coal cycle and related technologies are discussed also consequently at the Kyoto protocol [it

  8. Conflicting Multi-Objective Compatible Optimization Control

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lihong; Hu, Qingsong; Hu, Haigen; Goodman, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Based on ideas developed in addressing practical greenhouse environmental control, we propose a new multi-objective compatible control method. Several detailed algorithms are proposed to meet the requirements of different kinds of problem: 1) A two-layer MOCC framework is presented for problems with a precise model; 2) To deal with situations

  9. A low-cost MRI compatible keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Snejbjerg; Heggli, Ole Adrian; Alves da Mota, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    , presenting a challenging environment for playing an instrument. Here, we present an MRI-compatible polyphonic keyboard with a materials cost of 850 $, designed and tested for safe use in 3T (three Tesla) MRI-scanners. We describe design considerations, and prior work in the field. In addition, we provide...

  10. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  11. Automatic kelvin probe compatible with ultrahigh vacuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baikie, I.D.; van der Werf, Kees; Oerbekke, H.; Broeze, J.; van Silfhout, Arend

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a new type of in situ ultrahigh‐vacuum compatible kelvin probe based on a voice‐coil driving mechanism. This design exhibits several advantages over conventional mechanical feed‐through and (in situ) piezoelectric devices in regard to the possibility of multiple probe

  12. Are Naturalism and Moral Realism Compatible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper, Alvin Plantinga has argued that there is good reason to think that naturalism and moral realism are incompatible. He has done so by arguing that the most important argument for the compatibility of these two theses, which has been provided by Frank Jackson, fails and that any

  13. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  14. Alternative Work Schedules: Designing Compatible Work Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Pamela L.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to improve the quality of working life through changes in environmental factors, such as flexible hours, are likely to bring limited and short-term advantages unless the work process itself is well-designed and compatible with the environmental changes. (Author/LBH)

  15. Globalisation and international compatibility - a challenge to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contexts of institutions for higher education are in flux with consequent learning challenges. One of these challenges is that of globalisation and the need for international compatibility. Another challenge is that Mode 2 learning programmes, material and methods need to be relevant to the specific context in which they ...

  16. The Construal (In)compatibility Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Ringberg, Torsten; Mao, Huifang

    2011-01-01

    incompatible with their mental construal, while ad claims construed at a level compatible with consumers' mental construal are more effective for those who possess a less creative mindset. We document that such differences in persuasion are driven by the fact that consumers with a creative (less creative) mind...

  17. Compatibility of Motion Facilitates Visuomotor Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J.; Spivey, Michael J.; Krumhansl, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that synchronized tapping performance is very poor with flashing visual stimuli compared with auditory stimuli. Three finger-tapping experiments compared flashing visual metronomes with visual metronomes containing a spatial component, either compatible, incompatible, or orthogonal to the tapping action. In Experiment 1,…

  18. How to give a good talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Uri

    2009-10-23

    We depend on talks to communicate our work, and we spend much of our time as audience members in talks. However, few scientists are taught the well-established principles of giving good talks. Here, I describe how to prepare, present, and answer questions in a scientific talk. We will see how a talk prepared with a single premise and delivered with good eye contact is clear and enjoyable.

  19. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzika Aria

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. Methods This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device. A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a an ERF based resistive element; b a gearbox; c two handles and d two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Results Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed

  20. Computing the Gromov hyperbolicity of a discrete metric space

    KAUST Repository

    Fournier, Hervé

    2015-02-12

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for computing the Gromov hyperbolicity of an n-point discrete metric space. We observe that computing the Gromov hyperbolicity from a fixed base-point reduces to a (max,min) matrix product. Hence, using the (max,min) matrix product algorithm by Duan and Pettie, the fixed base-point hyperbolicity can be determined in O(n2.69) time. It follows that the Gromov hyperbolicity can be computed in O(n3.69) time, and a 2-approximation can be found in O(n2.69) time. We also give a (2log2⁡n)-approximation algorithm that runs in O(n2) time, based on a tree-metric embedding by Gromov. We also show that hyperbolicity at a fixed base-point cannot be computed in O(n2.05) time, unless there exists a faster algorithm for (max,min) matrix multiplication than currently known.

  1. Eckart frame vibration-rotation Hamiltonians: Contravariant metric tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesonen, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Eckart frame is a unique embedding in the theory of molecular vibrations and rotations. It is defined by the condition that the Coriolis coupling of the reference structure of the molecule is zero for every choice of the shape coordinates. It is far from trivial to set up Eckart kinetic energy operators (KEOs), when the shape of the molecule is described by curvilinear coordinates. In order to obtain the KEO, one needs to set up the corresponding contravariant metric tensor. Here, I derive explicitly the Eckart frame rotational measuring vectors. Their inner products with themselves give the rotational elements, and their inner products with the vibrational measuring vectors (which, in the absence of constraints, are the mass-weighted gradients of the shape coordinates) give the Coriolis elements of the contravariant metric tensor. The vibrational elements are given as the inner products of the vibrational measuring vectors with themselves, and these elements do not depend on the choice of the body-frame. The present approach has the advantage that it does not depend on any particular choice of the shape coordinates, but it can be used in conjunction with all shape coordinates. Furthermore, it does not involve evaluation of covariant metric tensors, chain rules of derivation, or numerical differentiation, and it can be easily modified if there are constraints on the shape of the molecule. Both the planar and non-planar reference structures are accounted for. The present method is particular suitable for numerical work. Its computational implementation is outlined in an example, where I discuss how to evaluate vibration-rotation energies and eigenfunctions of a general N-atomic molecule, the shape of which is described by a set of local polyspherical coordinates

  2. Local adjacency metric dimension of sun graph and stacked book graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulisda Badri, Alifiah; Darmaji

    2018-03-01

    A graph is a mathematical system consisting of a non-empty set of nodes and a set of empty sides. One of the topics to be studied in graph theory is the metric dimension. Application in the metric dimension is the navigation robot system on a path. Robot moves from one vertex to another vertex in the field by minimizing the errors that occur in translating the instructions (code) obtained from the vertices of that location. To move the robot must give different instructions (code). In order for the robot to move efficiently, the robot must be fast to translate the code of the nodes of the location it passes. so that the location vertex has a minimum distance. However, if the robot must move with the vertex location on a very large field, so the robot can not detect because the distance is too far.[6] In this case, the robot can determine its position by utilizing location vertices based on adjacency. The problem is to find the minimum cardinality of the required location vertex, and where to put, so that the robot can determine its location. The solution to this problem is the dimension of adjacency metric and adjacency metric bases. Rodrguez-Velzquez and Fernau combine the adjacency metric dimensions with local metric dimensions, thus becoming the local adjacency metric dimension. In the local adjacency metric dimension each vertex in the graph may have the same adjacency representation as the terms of the vertices. To obtain the local metric dimension of values in the graph of the Sun and the stacked book graph is used the construction method by considering the representation of each adjacent vertex of the graph.

  3. Partial rectangular metric spaces and fixed point theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Satish

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of partial rectangular metric spaces as a generalization of rectangular metric and partial metric spaces. Some properties of partial rectangular metric spaces and some fixed point results for quasitype contraction in partial rectangular metric spaces are proved. Some examples are given to illustrate the observed results.

  4. Role-modeling and conversations about giving in the socialization of adolescent charitable giving and volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring Information Security: Guidelines to Build Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Faber, Eberhard

    Measuring information security is a genuine interest of security managers. With metrics they can develop their security organization's visibility and standing within the enterprise or public authority as a whole. Organizations using information technology need to use security metrics. Despite the clear demands and advantages, security metrics are often poorly developed or ineffective parameters are collected and analysed. This paper describes best practices for the development of security metrics. First attention is drawn to motivation showing both requirements and benefits. The main body of this paper lists things which need to be observed (characteristic of metrics), things which can be measured (how measurements can be conducted) and steps for the development and implementation of metrics (procedures and planning). Analysis and communication is also key when using security metrics. Examples are also given in order to develop a better understanding. The author wants to resume, continue and develop the discussion about a topic which is or increasingly will be a critical factor of success for any security managers in larger organizations.

  6. Characterising risk - aggregated metrics: radiation and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.

    1998-01-01

    The characterisation of risk is an important phase in the risk assessment - risk management process. From the multitude of risk attributes a few have to be selected to obtain a risk characteristic or profile that is useful for risk management decisions and implementation of protective measures. One way to reduce the number of attributes is aggregation. In the field of radiation protection such an aggregated metric is firmly established: effective dose. For protection against environmental noise the Health Council of the Netherlands recently proposed a set of aggregated metrics for noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. The presentation will discuss similarities and differences between these two metrics and practical limitations. The effective dose has proven its usefulness in designing radiation protection measures, which are related to the level of risk associated with the radiation practice in question, given that implicit judgements on radiation induced health effects are accepted. However, as the metric does not take into account the nature of radiation practice, it is less useful in policy discussions on the benefits and harm of radiation practices. With respect to the noise exposure metric, only one effect is targeted (annoyance), and the differences between sources are explicitly taken into account. This should make the metric useful in policy discussions with respect to physical planning and siting problems. The metric proposed has only significance on a population level, and can not be used as a predictor for individual risk. (author)

  7. Metrics Are Needed for Collaborative Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mohtashami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for metrics for inter-organizational collaborative software development projects, encompassing management and technical concerns. In particular, metrics are needed that are aimed at the collaborative aspect itself, such as readiness for collaboration, the quality and/or the costs and benefits of collaboration in a specific ongoing project. We suggest questions and directions for such metrics, spanning the full lifespan of a collaborative project, from considering the suitability of collaboration through evaluating ongoing projects to final evaluation of the collaboration.

  8. Indefinite metric fields and the renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, T.N.

    1976-11-01

    The renormalization group equations are derived for the Green functions of an indefinite metric field theory. In these equations one retains the mass dependence of the coefficient functions, since in the indefinite metric theories the masses cannot be neglected. The behavior of the effective coupling constant in the asymptotic and infrared limits is analyzed. The analysis is illustrated by means of a simple model incorporating indefinite metric fields. The model scales at first order, and at this order also the effective coupling constant has both ultra-violet and infra-red fixed points, the former being the bare coupling constant

  9. Metric learning for DNA microarray data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Masao; Seto, Masao

    2009-01-01

    In many microarray studies, gene set selection is an important preliminary step for subsequent main task such as tumor classification, cancer subtype identification, etc. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using metric learning as an alternative to gene set selection. We develop a simple metric learning algorithm aiming to use it for microarray data analysis. Exploiting a property of the algorithm, we introduce a novel approach for extending the metric learning to be adaptive. We apply the algorithm to previously studied microarray data on malignant lymphoma subtype identification.

  10. Software metrics a rigorous and practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Norman

    2014-01-01

    A Framework for Managing, Measuring, and Predicting Attributes of Software Development Products and ProcessesReflecting the immense progress in the development and use of software metrics in the past decades, Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to software metrics. Like its popular predecessors, this third edition discusses important issues, explains essential concepts, and offers new approaches for tackling long-standing problems.New to the Third EditionThis edition contains new material relevant

  11. Give and Take in Dictator Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen; Sørensen, Erik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that participants in the dictator game are less willing to give money to the other participant when their choice set also includes the option to take money. We examine whether this effect is due to the choice set providing a signal about entitlements in a setting where...... entitlements initially may be considered unclear. We find that the share of positive transfers depends on the choice set even when there is no uncertainty about entitlements, and that this choice-set effect is robust across a heterogenous group of participants recruited from the general adult population...

  12. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    In 1976, Jungck [4] proved a common fixed point theorem for commuting maps generalizing the Banach's fixed point theorem, which states that, 'let (X, d) be a complete metric space. If T satisfies d(Tx,Ty) ≤ kd(x,y) for each x,y ∈ X where 0 ≤ k < 1, then T has a unique fixed point in X'. This theorem has many applications, ...

  13. Automation of electromagnetic compatability (EMC) test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Efforts to automate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed. The present facility is used to accomplish a battery of nine standard tests (with limited variations) deigned to certify EMC of Shuttle payload equipment. Prior to this project, some EMC tests were partially automated, but others were performed manually. Software was developed to integrate all testing by means of a desk-top computer-controller. Near real-time data reduction and onboard graphics capabilities permit immediate assessment of test results. Provisions for disk storage of test data permit computer production of the test engineer's certification report. Software flexibility permits variation in the tests procedure, the ability to examine more closely those frequency bands which indicate compatibility problems, and the capability to incorporate additional test procedures.

  14. Metrics, Media and Advertisers: Discussing Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio de Souza Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how Brazilian advertisers are adapting to new media and its attention metrics. In-depth interviews were conducted with advertisers in 2009 and 2011. In 2009, new media and its metrics were celebrated as innovations that would increase advertising campaigns overall efficiency. In 2011, this perception has changed: New media’s profusion of metrics, once seen as an advantage, started to compromise its ease of use and adoption. Among its findings, this study argues that there is an opportunity for media groups willing to shift from a product-focused strategy towards a customer-centric one, through the creation of new, simple and integrative metrics

  15. Networks and centroid metrics for understanding football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonçalo Dias

    games. However, it seems that the centroid metric, supported only by the position of players in the field ...... the strategy adopted by the coach (Gama et al., 2014). ... centroid distance as measures of team's tactical performance in youth football.

  16. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  17. Metric Guidelines Inservice and/or Preservice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Dolores

    1978-01-01

    Guidelines are given for designing teacher training for going metric. The guidelines were developed from existing guidelines, journal articles, a survey of colleges, and the detailed reactions of a panel. (MN)

  18. Science and Technology Metrics and Other Thoughts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harman, Wayne; Staton, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This report explores the subject of science and technology metrics and other topics to begin to provide Navy managers, as well as scientists and engineers, additional tools and concepts with which to...

  19. Using Activity Metrics for DEVS Simulation Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzy A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity metrics can be used to profile DEVS models before and during the simulation. It is critical to get good activity metrics of models before and during their simulation. Having a means to compute a-priori activity of components (analytic activity may be worth when simulating a model (or parts of it for the first time. After, during the simulation, analytic activity can be corrected using dynamic one. In this paper, we introduce McCabe cyclomatic complexity metric (MCA to compute analytic activity. Both static and simulation activity metrics have been implemented through a plug-in of the DEVSimPy (DEVS Simulator in Python language environment and applied to DEVS models.

  20. Evaluating and Estimating the WCET Criticality Metric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    a programmer (or compiler) from targeting optimizations the right way. A possible resort is to use a metric that targets WCET and which can be efficiently computed for all code parts of a program. Similar to dynamic profiling techniques, which execute code with input that is typically expected...... for the application, based on WCET analysis we can indicate how critical a code fragment is, in relation to the worst-case bound. Computing such a metric on top of static analysis, incurs a certain overhead though, which increases with the complexity of the underlying WCET analysis. We present our approach...... to estimate the Criticality metric, by relaxing the precision of WCET analysis. Through this, we can reduce analysis time by orders of magnitude, while only introducing minor error. To evaluate our estimation approach and share our garnered experience using the metric, we evaluate real-time programs, which...

  1. 16 CFR 1511.8 - Metric references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric references. 1511.8 Section 1511.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS... parentheses for convenience and information only. ...

  2. Flight Crew State Monitoring Metrics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — eSky will develop specific crew state metrics based on the timeliness, tempo and accuracy of pilot inputs required by the H-mode Flight Control System (HFCS)....

  3. Supplier selection using different metric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omosigho S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important component of supply chain management in today’s global competitive environment. Hence, the evaluation and selection of suppliers have received considerable attention in the literature. Many attributes of suppliers, other than cost, are considered in the evaluation and selection process. Therefore, the process of evaluation and selection of suppliers is a multi-criteria decision making process. The methodology adopted to solve the supplier selection problem is intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution. Generally, TOPSIS is based on the concept of minimum distance from the positive ideal solution and maximum distance from the negative ideal solution. We examine the deficiencies of using only one metric function in TOPSIS and propose the use of spherical metric function in addition to the commonly used metric functions. For empirical supplier selection problems, more than one metric function should be used.

  4. Compatibility of refractory materials with boiling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The program employed to determine the compatibility of commercially available refractories with boiling sodium is described. The effects of impurities contained within the refractory material, and their relations with the refractory's physical stability are discussed. Also, since consideration of refractories for use as an insulating material within Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Plants (LMFBR's) is currently under investigation; recommendations, based upon this program, are presented

  5. Electromagnetic compatibility design and cabling system rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbourg, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report is devoted to establish EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) design and cabling system rules. It is intended for hardware designers in charge of designing electronic maps or integrating existing materials into a comprehensive system. It is a practical guide. The rules described in this document do not require enhanced knowledge of advanced mathematical or physical concepts. The key point is to understand phenomena with a pragmatic approach to highlight the design and protection rules. (author)

  6. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation i...... for integration with existing insulator-metal-insu lator plasmonic waveguides as well as novel photonic/electronic hybrid circuits...

  7. A low-cost MRI compatible keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Snejbjerg; Heggli, Ole Adrian; Alves da Mota, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    , presenting a challenging environment for playing an instrument. Here, we present an MRI-compatible polyphonic keyboard with a materials cost of 850 $, designed and tested for safe use in 3T (three Tesla) MRI-scanners. We describe design considerations, and prior work in the field. In addition, we provide...... recommendations for future designs and comment on the possibility of using the keyboard in magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems. Preliminary results indicate a comfortable playing experience with no disturbance of the imaging process....

  8. Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.E.; Heschel, M.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    . The feedthrough technology employs a simple solution to the well-known CMOS compatibility issue of KOH by protecting the CMOS side of the wafer using sputter deposited TiW/Au. The fabricated feedthroughs exhibit excellent electrical performance having a serial resistance of 40 mOmega and a parasitic capacitance...... of 2.5 pF. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented

  10. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-07-01

    To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost.

  11. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Justin A., E-mail: jabriggs@stanford.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  12. Classroom reconstruction of the Schwarzschild metric

    OpenAIRE

    Kassner, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A promising way to introduce general relativity in the classroom is to study the physical implications of certain given metrics, such as the Schwarzschild one. This involves lower mathematical expenditure than an approach focusing on differential geometry in its full glory and permits to emphasize physical aspects before attacking the field equations. Even so, in terms of motivation, lacking justification of the metric employed may pose an obstacle. The paper discusses how to establish the we...

  13. Marketing communication metrics for social media

    OpenAIRE

    Töllinen, Aarne; Karjaluoto, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for measuring the effectiveness of social media marketing communications. Specifically, we study whether the existing marketing communications performance metrics are still valid in the changing digitalised communications landscape, or whether it is time to rethink them, or even to devise entirely new metrics. Recent advances in information technology and marketing bring a need to re-examine measurement models. We combine two im...

  14. Some observations on a fuzzy metric space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, V.

    2017-07-01

    Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space. In this paper we provide some observations about the fuzzy metric space in the sense of Kramosil and Michalek $(Y,N,/wedge)$, where $Y$ is the set of non-negative real numbers $[0,/infty[$ and $N(x,y,t)=1$ if $d(x,y)/leq t$ and $N(x,y,t)=0$ if $d(x,y)/geq t$. (Author)

  15. Area Regge calculus and discontinuous metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, Chris; Williams, Ruth M

    2004-01-01

    Taking the triangle areas as independent variables in the theory of Regge calculus can lead to ambiguities in the edge lengths, which can be interpreted as discontinuities in the metric. We construct solutions to area Regge calculus using a triangulated lattice and find that on a spacelike or timelike hypersurface no such discontinuity can arise. On a null hypersurface however, we can have such a situation and the resulting metric can be interpreted as a so-called refractive wave

  16. Newton gauge cosmological perturbations for static spherically symmetric modifications of the de Sitter metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Vélez, Camilo; Enea Romano, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Static coordinates can be convenient to solve the vacuum Einstein's equations in presence of spherical symmetry, but for cosmological applications comoving coordinates are more suitable to describe an expanding Universe, especially in the framework of cosmological perturbation theory (CPT). Using CPT we develop a method to transform static spherically symmetric (SSS) modifications of the de Sitter solution from static coordinates to the Newton gauge. We test the method with the Schwarzschild de Sitter (SDS) metric and then derive general expressions for the Bardeen's potentials for a class of SSS metrics obtained by adding to the de Sitter metric a term linear in the mass and proportional to a general function of the radius. Using the gauge invariance of the Bardeen's potentials we then obtain a gauge invariant definition of the turn around radius. We apply the method to an SSS solution of the Brans-Dicke theory, confirming the results obtained independently by solving the perturbation equations in the Newton gauge. The Bardeen's potentials are then derived for new SSS metrics involving logarithmic, power law and exponential modifications of the de Sitter metric. We also apply the method to SSS metrics which give flat rotation curves, computing the radial energy density profile in comoving coordinates in presence of a cosmological constant.

  17. The experience gives the Cuban program with children gives territories affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Llanes, R.

    1998-01-01

    From 1990 it works in Cuba a program destined to offer medical attention you specialize and to develop a plan sanatoria gives rehabilitation with children provided the different areas affected by the contamination radioactive resultant to the Chernobyl accident

  18. Relaxed metrics and indistinguishability operators: the relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.

    2017-07-01

    In 1982, the notion of indistinguishability operator was introduced by E. Trillas in order to fuzzify the crisp notion of equivalence relation (/cite{Trillas}). In the study of such a class of operators, an outstanding property must be pointed out. Concretely, there exists a duality relationship between indistinguishability operators and metrics. The aforesaid relationship was deeply studied by several authors that introduced a few techniques to generate metrics from indistinguishability operators and vice-versa (see, for instance, /cite{BaetsMesiar,BaetsMesiar2}). In the last years a new generalization of the metric notion has been introduced in the literature with the purpose of developing mathematical tools for quantitative models in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence (/cite{BKMatthews,Ma}). The aforementioned generalized metrics are known as relaxed metrics. The main target of this talk is to present a study of the duality relationship between indistinguishability operators and relaxed metrics in such a way that the aforementioned classical techniques to generate both concepts, one from the other, can be extended to the new framework. (Author)

  19. The Luxury of Igniting Change by Giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Rosa; Uth Thomsen, Thyra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the phenomenon of luxury from a consumer perspective, by means of multisited phenomenological inquiry. The findings expand the pervasive view of luxury as accumulation of highly valued goods by offering a transformative perspective of luxury as transforming the life...... the giver with a sense of luxury in terms of pleasure, purpose, and connection with humankind. Thus, the findings not only extend the traditional conceptualization of luxury from having to giving, but also challenge current conceptualizations of sharing out as a non-reciprocal pro-social behavior...... by illustrating how ‘the luxury of giving’ relies on both pro-social and pro-ego consumption rationales, which implicitly include circular reciprocation....

  20. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Keeley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.

  1. Giving up nuclear energy. Obstacles, conditions, consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegel-Dorfs, H.

    1990-01-01

    Life on this earth is not possible without using energy. The resources of the energies used so far are limited and their utilization carries certain risks which have now become obvious: climatic problems on the one hand, safety problems on the other. Chernobyl, Wackersdorf, tornados and population growth are issues mentioned all the time in the fight for the best solution. Even church synodes have spoken up and demanded to give up nuclear energy. The energy issue, however, has become a question of survival. This study, worked out by a group of scientists (natural science, energy science, lawyers, theologians) analyses the obstacles, conditions and consequences of such a step. The possible solution of rational energy utilization and substitution of energy services and regenerative energies is discussed in depth. The book concludes that problems can only be coped with if there is a feeling of joint responsibility and global social consensus. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Compatibility of Segments of Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Ursell, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    A method of calculating (usually for the purpose of maximizing) the power-conversion efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator is based on equations derived from the fundamental equations of thermoelectricity. Because it is directly traceable to first principles, the method provides physical explanations in addition to predictions of phenomena involved in segmentation. In comparison with the finite-element method used heretofore to predict (without being able to explain) the behavior of a segmented thermoelectric generator, this method is much simpler to implement in practice: in particular, the efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator can be estimated by evaluating equations using only hand-held calculator with this method. In addition, the method provides for determination of cascading ratios. The concept of cascading is illustrated in the figure and the definition of the cascading ratio is defined in the figure caption. An important aspect of the method is its approach to the issue of compatibility among segments, in combination with introduction of the concept of compatibility within a segment. Prior approaches involved the use of only averaged material properties. Two materials in direct contact could be examined for compatibility with each other, but there was no general framework for analysis of compatibility. The present method establishes such a framework. The mathematical derivation of the method begins with the definition of reduced efficiency of a thermoelectric generator as the ratio between (1) its thermal-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and (2) its Carnot efficiency (the maximum efficiency theoretically attainable, given its hot- and cold-side temperatures). The derivation involves calculation of the reduced efficiency of a model thermoelectric generator for which the hot-side temperature is only infinitesimally greater than the cold-side temperature. The derivation includes consideration of the ratio (u) between the

  3. Baby universe metric equivalent to an interior black-hole metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the maximally extended metric corresponding to a large wormhole is the unique possible wormhole metric whose baby universe sector is conformally equivalent ot the maximal inextendible Kruskal metric corresponding to the interior region of a Schwarzschild black hole whose gravitational radius is half the wormhole neck radius. The physical implications of this result in the black hole evaporation process are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Preformulation compatibility screening of dika fat-drug mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as screening technique for assessing compatibility between dika fat and drug substances. Dika fat was found to be compatible with aspirin, ascorbic acid, paracetamol, sulphanilamide, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, bromopheniramine maleate, chlorpheniramire ...

  5. The dynamics of metric-affine gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Liberati, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The role and the dynamics of the connection in metric-affine theories is explored. → The most general second order action does not lead to a dynamical connection. → Including higher order invariants excites new degrees of freedom in the connection. → f(R) actions are also discussed and shown to be a non- representative class. - Abstract: Metric-affine theories of gravity provide an interesting alternative to general relativity: in such an approach, the metric and the affine (not necessarily symmetric) connection are independent quantities. Furthermore, the action should include covariant derivatives of the matter fields, with the covariant derivative naturally defined using the independent connection. As a result, in metric-affine theories a direct coupling involving matter and connection is also present. The role and the dynamics of the connection in such theories is explored. We employ power counting in order to construct the action and search for the minimal requirements it should satisfy for the connection to be dynamical. We find that for the most general action containing lower order invariants of the curvature and the torsion the independent connection does not carry any dynamics. It actually reduces to the role of an auxiliary field and can be completely eliminated algebraically in favour of the metric and the matter field, introducing extra interactions with respect to general relativity. However, we also show that including higher order terms in the action radically changes this picture and excites new degrees of freedom in the connection, making it (or parts of it) dynamical. Constructing actions that constitute exceptions to this rule requires significant fine tuned and/or extra a priori constraints on the connection. We also consider f(R) actions as a particular example in order to show that they constitute a distinct class of metric-affine theories with special properties, and as such they cannot be used as representative toy

  6. COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL LC MS/MS COMPATIBLE DETERGENTS WITH SODIUM DEOXYCHOLATE FOR SHOTGUN PROTEOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb J. Porter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the performance of sodium deoxycholate (SDC with several commercially available LC MS/MS compatible detergents for digestion of complex proteomic mixtures. First, the parameters affecting in-solution digestion using SDC were investigated with a full factorial experimental design. Metrics explored were trypsin ratio, digestion time, and concentration of SDC. These parameters were not found to be statistically associated with total peptide identifications in the experimental space investigated. However, in terms of digestion efficiency, digestion time was highly significant (p = 0.0095 as determined by the percent of peptides identified with missed cleavages. The optimized protocol for peptide identification and throughput was used to compare the performance of SDC with various commercially available LC MS/MS compatible surfactants namely Invitrosol, RapiGest, and PPS Silent Surfactant. The detergents were found to be similar through comparisons of the total identified peptides and the hydrophobicity of recovered peptides. We found suitable recovery across a large range of SDC concentrations determined from a bicinchoninic acid (BCA assay. In a spike down experiment, no distinct differences in total number of peptide identifications were discovered when comparing PPS (Silent Surfactant and SDC for preparation of peptide samples derived from low protein amounts (< 20 µg. Combined, these results indicate that SDC is a cost effective alternative to other commonly used LC MS/MS compatible surfactants

  7. A proof that Witten's open string theory gives a single cover of moduli space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiebach, B.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1991-01-01

    We show that Witten's open string diagrams are surfaces with metrics of minimal area under the condition that all nontrivial open Jordan curves be longer or equal to π. The minimal area property is used together with a mini-max problem to establish a new existence and uniqueness theorem for quadratic differentials in open Riemann surfaces with or without punctures on the boundaries. This theorem implies that the Feynman rules of open string theory give a single cover of the moduli of open Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  8. Maintaining clinical governance when giving telephone advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazawi, William; Agarwal, Kosh; Suddle, Abid; Aluvihare, Varuna; Heneghan, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Delivering excellent healthcare depends on accurate communication between professionals who may be in different locations. Frequently, the first point of contact with the liver unit at King's College Hospital (KCH) is through a telephone call to a specialist registrar or liver fellow, for whom no case notes are available in which to record information. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical governance of telephone referrals and to generate contemporaneous records that could be easily retrieved and audited. An electronic database for telephone referrals and advice was designed and made securely available to registrars in our unit. Service development in a tertiary liver centre that receives referrals from across the UK and Europe. Demographic and clinical data were recorded prospectively and analysed retrospectively. Data from 350 calls were entered during 5 months. The information included the nature and origin of the call (200 from 75 different institutions), disease burden and severity of disease among the patients discussed with KCH, and outcome of the call. The majority of cases were discussed with consultants or arrangements were made for formal review at KCH. A telephone referrals and advice database provides clinical governance, serves as a quality indicator and forms a contemporaneous record at the referral centre. Activity data and knowledge of disease burden help to tailor services to the needs of referrers and commissioners. We recommend implementation of similar models in other centres that give extramural verbal advice.

  9. Cultivating gratitude and giving through experiential consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jesse; Kumar, Amit; Gilovich, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Gratitude promotes well-being and prompts prosocial behavior. Here, we examine a novel way to cultivate this beneficial emotion. We demonstrate that 2 different types of consumption-material consumption (buying for the sake of having) and experiential consumption (buying for the sake of doing)-differentially foster gratitude and giving. In 6 studies we show that reflecting on experiential purchases (e.g., travel, meals out, tickets to events) inspires more gratitude than reflecting on material purchases (e.g., clothing, jewelry, furniture), and that thinking about experiences leads to more subsequent altruistic behavior than thinking about possessions. In Studies 1-2b, we use within-subject and between-subjects designs to test our main hypothesis: that people are more grateful for what they've done than what they have. Study 3 finds evidence for this effect in the real-world setting of online customer reviews: Consumers are more likely to spontaneously mention feeling grateful for experiences they have bought than for material goods they have bought. In our final 2 studies, we show that experiential consumption also makes people more likely to be generous to others. Participants who contemplated a significant experiential purchase behaved more generously toward anonymous others in an economic game than those who contemplated a significant material purchase. It thus appears that shifting spending toward experiential consumption can improve people's everyday lives as well as the lives of those around them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Frequency of Extreme Heat Event as a Surrogate Exposure Metric for Examining the Human Health Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Romeo Upperman

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigation of the impact of climate change on human health, particularly chronic diseases, is hindered by the lack of exposure metrics that can be used as a marker of climate change that are compatible with health data. Here, we present a surrogate exposure metric created using a 30-year baseline (1960-1989 that allows users to quantify long-term changes in exposure to frequency of extreme heat events with near unabridged spatial coverage in a scale that is compatible with national/state health outcome data. We evaluate the exposure metric by decade, seasonality, area of the country, and its ability to capture long-term changes in weather (climate, including natural climate modes. Our findings show that this generic exposure metric is potentially useful to monitor trends in the frequency of extreme heat events across varying regions because it captures long-term changes; is sensitive to the natural climate modes (ENSO events; responds well to spatial variability, and; is amenable to spatial/temporal aggregation, making it useful for epidemiological studies.

  11. Rust transformation/rust compatible primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeric, Dario A.; Miller, Christopher E.

    1993-01-01

    Proper surface preparation has been the key to obtain good performance by a surface coating. The major obstacle in preparing a corroded or rusted surface is the complete removal of the contaminants and the corrosion products. Sandblasting has been traditionally used to remove the corrosion products before painting. However, sandblasting can be expensive, may be prohibited by local health regulations and is not applicable in every situation. To get around these obstacles, Industry developed rust converters/rust transformers and rust compatible primers (high solids epoxies). The potential use of these products for military equipment led personnel of the Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center (BRDEC) to evaluate the commercially available rust transformers and rust compatible primers. Prior laboratory experience with commercially available rust converters, as well as field studies in Hawaii and Puerto Rico, revealed poor performance, several inherent limitations, and lack of reliability. It was obvious from our studies that the performance of rust converting products was more dependent on the amount and type of rust present, as well as the degree of permeability of the coating, than on the product's ability to form an organometallic complex with the rust. Based on these results, it was decided that the Military should develop their own rust converter formulation and specification. The compound described in the specification is for use on a rusted surface before the application of an organic coating (bituminous compounds, primer or topcoat). These coatings should end the need for sandblasting or the removing of the adherent corrosion products. They also will prepare the surface for the application of the organic coating. Several commercially available rust compatible primers (RCP) were also tested using corroded surfaces. All of the evaluated RCP failed our laboratory tests for primers.

  12. Giving what one should: explanations for the knowledge-behavior gap for altruistic giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter R

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have shown that children struggle to give what they believe that they should: the so-called knowledge-behavior gap. Over a dozen recent Dictator Game studies find that, although young children believe that they should give half of a set of resources to a peer, they typically give less and often keep all of the resources for themselves. This article reviews recent evidence for five potential explanations for the gap and how children close it with age: self-regulation, social distance, theory of mind, moral knowledge and social learning. I conclude that self-regulation, social distance, and social learning show the most promising evidence for understanding the mechanisms that can close the gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  14. Quadratic Poisson brackets compatible with an algebra structure

    OpenAIRE

    Balinsky, A. A.; Burman, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Quadratic Poisson brackets on a vector space equipped with a bilinear multiplication are studied. A notion of a bracket compatible with the multiplication is introduced and an effective criterion of such compatibility is given. Among compatible brackets, a subclass of coboundary brackets is described, and such brackets are enumerated in a number of examples.

  15. 47 CFR 76.1622 - Consumer education program on compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consumer education program on compatibility. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1622 Consumer education program on compatibility. Cable system operators shall provide a consumer education program on compatibility matters to...

  16. Military electronic equipment shelter electrical wiring design of electromagnetic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility is the military electronics shelter design is an important indicator of the shelter's electrical wiring is the key to the design of electromagnetic compatibility. Introduces the basic concepts of electromagnetic compatibility, and focusing on the shelter layout design problems that need attention, and to solve these problems. (authors)

  17. The radiation destruction of blood compatible blockcopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, B.A.; Raygorodsky, I.M.; Dubinskaya, O.V.; Goldberg, E.Sh.; Listvoyb, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Among the blood compatible polymers such blockcopolymers as polyurethanes and polycarbonatesiloxanes the main problem of the production is the method of sterilization. It is considered that the radiation sterilization promising for articles like catheters made from these polymers. There are some data in the literature about radiation stability of polycarbonates and polysiloxane, but the influence of ionizing irradiation on polycarbonatesiloxane was not studied until now. The irradiation was carried out by γ-cell RHM-γ-20 in air. (author) 4 refs.; 5 figs

  18. Rate-Compatible Protograph LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods resulting in rate-compatible low density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. Described digital coding methods start with a desired code rate and a selection of the numbers of variable nodes and check nodes to be used in the protograph. Constraints are set to satisfy a linear minimum distance growth property for the protograph. All possible edges in the graph are searched for the minimum iterative decoding threshold and the protograph with the lowest iterative decoding threshold is selected. Protographs designed in this manner are used in decode and forward relay channels.

  19. Martensitic textures: Multiscale consequences of elastic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    2001-03-01

    We show that a free energy entirely in the order-parameter strain variable(s), rather than the displacement field, provides a unified understanding of martensitic textures. We use compatibility equations, linking the strain tensor components in the bulk and at interfaces, that induce anisotropic order-parameter strain interactions. These two long-range bulk/interface potentials, together with local compositional fluctuations, drive the formation of global elastic textures. Relaxational simulations show the spontaneous formation (and evolution under stress/temperature quenches) of equal width parallel twins, branched twins, and tweed, including characteristic scaling of twin width with twin length. (author)

  20. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants

  1. Testing quantum contextuality. The problem of compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szangolies, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Jochen Szangolies contributes a novel way of dealing with the problem of the experimental testability of the Kochen-Specker theorem posed by realistic, that is, noisy, measurements. Such noise spoils perfect compatibility between successive measurements, which however is a necessary requirement to test the notion of contextuality in usual approaches. To overcome this difficulty, a new, extended notion of contextuality that reduces to Kochen-Specker contextuality in the limit of perfect measurement implementations is proposed by the author, together with a scheme to test this notion experimentally. Furthermore, the behaviour of these tests under realistic noise conditions is investigated.

  2. Evaluation metrics for biostatistical and epidemiological collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Doris McGartland; Del Junco, Deborah J; Bhore, Rafia; Lindsell, Christopher J; Oster, Robert A; Wittkowski, Knut M; Welty, Leah J; Li, Yi-Ju; Demets, Dave

    2011-10-15

    Increasing demands for evidence-based medicine and for the translation of biomedical research into individual and public health benefit have been accompanied by the proliferation of special units that offer expertise in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design (BERD) within academic health centers. Objective metrics that can be used to evaluate, track, and improve the performance of these BERD units are critical to their successful establishment and sustainable future. To develop a set of reliable but versatile metrics that can be adapted easily to different environments and evolving needs, we consulted with members of BERD units from the consortium of academic health centers funded by the Clinical and Translational Science Award Program of the National Institutes of Health. Through a systematic process of consensus building and document drafting, we formulated metrics that covered the three identified domains of BERD practices: the development and maintenance of collaborations with clinical and translational science investigators, the application of BERD-related methods to clinical and translational research, and the discovery of novel BERD-related methodologies. In this article, we describe the set of metrics and advocate their use for evaluating BERD practices. The routine application, comparison of findings across diverse BERD units, and ongoing refinement of the metrics will identify trends, facilitate meaningful changes, and ultimately enhance the contribution of BERD activities to biomedical research. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A Metric on Phylogenetic Tree Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colijn, C; Plazzotta, G

    2018-01-01

    The shapes of evolutionary trees are influenced by the nature of the evolutionary process but comparisons of trees from different processes are hindered by the challenge of completely describing tree shape. We present a full characterization of the shapes of rooted branching trees in a form that lends itself to natural tree comparisons. We use this characterization to define a metric, in the sense of a true distance function, on tree shapes. The metric distinguishes trees from random models known to produce different tree shapes. It separates trees derived from tropical versus USA influenza A sequences, which reflect the differing epidemiology of tropical and seasonal flu. We describe several metrics based on the same core characterization, and illustrate how to extend the metric to incorporate trees' branch lengths or other features such as overall imbalance. Our approach allows us to construct addition and multiplication on trees, and to create a convex metric on tree shapes which formally allows computation of average tree shapes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  4. Future of the PCI Readmission Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Jason H; Yeh, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    Between 2013 and 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the National Cardiovascular Data Registry publically reported risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a pilot project. A key strength of this public reporting effort included risk adjustment with clinical rather than administrative data. Furthermore, because readmission after PCI is common, expensive, and preventable, this metric has substantial potential to improve quality and value in American cardiology care. Despite this, concerns about the metric exist. For example, few PCI readmissions are caused by procedural complications, limiting the extent to which improved procedural technique can reduce readmissions. Also, similar to other readmission measures, PCI readmission is associated with socioeconomic status and race. Accordingly, the metric may unfairly penalize hospitals that care for underserved patients. Perhaps in the context of these limitations, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has not yet included PCI readmission among metrics that determine Medicare financial penalties. Nevertheless, provider organizations may still wish to focus on this metric to improve value for cardiology patients. PCI readmission is associated with low-risk chest discomfort and patient anxiety. Therefore, patient education, improved triage mechanisms, and improved care coordination offer opportunities to minimize PCI readmissions. Because PCI readmission is common and costly, reducing PCI readmission offers provider organizations a compelling target to improve the quality of care, and also performance in contracts involve shared financial risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. CMOS compatible thin-film ALD tungsten nanoelectromechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bradley Darren

    This research focuses on the development of a novel, low-temperature, CMOS compatible, atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) enabled NEMS fabrication process for the development of ALD Tungsten (WALD) NEMS devices. The devices are intended for use in CMOS/NEMS hybrid systems, and NEMS based micro-processors/controllers capable of reliable operation in harsh environments not accessible to standard CMOS technologies. The majority of NEMS switches/devices to date have been based on carbon-nano-tube (CNT) designs. The devices consume little power during actuation, and as expected, have demonstrated actuation voltages much smaller than MEMS switches. Unfortunately, NEMS CNT switches are not typically CMOS integrable due to the high temperatures required for their growth, and their fabrication typically results in extremely low and unpredictable yields. Thin-film NEMS devices offer great advantages over reported CNT devices for several reasons, including: higher fabrication yields, low-temperature (CMOS compatible) deposition techniques like ALD, and increased control over design parameters/device performance metrics, i.e., device geometry. Furthermore, top-down, thin-film, nano-fabrication techniques are better capable of producing complicated device geometries than CNT based processes, enabling the design and development of multi-terminal switches well-suited for low-power hybrid NEMS/CMOS systems as well as electromechanical transistors and logic devices for use in temperature/radiation hard computing architectures. In this work several novel, low-temperature, CMOS compatible fabrication technologies, employing WALD as a structural layer for MEMS or NEMS devices, were developed. The technologies developed are top-down nano-scale fabrication processes based on traditional micro-machining techniques commonly used in the fabrication of MEMS devices. Using these processes a variety of novel WALD NEMS devices have been successfully fabricated and characterized. Using two different

  6. a tensor theory of gravitation in a curved metric on a flat background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A theory of gravity is proposed using a tensor potential for the field on a flat metric. This potential cannot be isolated by local observations, but some details can be deduced from measurements at a distance. The requirement that the field equations for the tensor potential shall be deducible from an action integral, that the action and field equations are gauge invariant, and, conversely, that the Lagrangian in the action integral can be integrated from the field equations leads to Einstein's field equations. The requirement that the field energy-momentum tensor exists leads to a constraint on the tensor potential. If the constraint is a differential gauge condition, then it can only be the Hilbert condition giving a unique background tensor, metric tensor and tensor potential. For a continuous field inside a solid sphere the metric must be homogeneous in the spatial coordinates, and the associated field energy-momentum tensor has properties consistent with Newtonian dynamics. (author)

  7. g-Weak Contraction in Ordered Cone Rectangular Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove some common fixed-point theorems for the ordered g-weak contractions in cone rectangular metric spaces without assuming the normality of cone. Our results generalize some recent results from cone metric and cone rectangular metric spaces into ordered cone rectangular metric spaces. Examples are provided which illustrate the results.

  8. Defining a Progress Metric for CERT RMM Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    REV-03.18.2016.0 Defining a Progress Metric for CERT-RMM Improvement Gregory Crabb Nader Mehravari David Tobar September 2017 TECHNICAL ...fendable resource allocation decisions. Technical metrics measure aspects of controls implemented through technology (systems, soft- ware, hardware...implementation metric would be the percentage of users who have received anti-phishing training . • Effectiveness/efficiency metrics measure whether

  9. NASA education briefs for the classroom. Metrics in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of metric measurement in space is summarized for classroom use. Advantages of the metric system over the English measurement system are described. Some common metric units are defined, as are special units for astronomical study. International system unit prefixes and a conversion table of metric/English units are presented. Questions and activities for the classroom are recommended.

  10. Some Early Ideas on the Metric Geometry of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppeiner, George

    2016-11-01

    It is a pleasure to write for this 90th anniversary volume of Journal of Low Temperature Physics dedicated to Horst Meyer at Duke University. I was a PhD student with Horst in the period 1975-1980, working in experimental low temperature physics. While in Horst's group, I also did a theoretical physics project on the side. This project in the metric geometry of thermodynamics was motivated by my work in Horst's lab, and helped me to understand the theory of critical phenomena, very much in play in Horst's lab. In this paper, I explain the essence of my theory project and give a few accounts of its future development, focussing on topics where I interacted with Horst. I pay particular attention to the pure fluid critical point.

  11. Extremal Kähler metrics and Bach-Merkulov equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Caner

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we study a coupled system of equations on oriented compact 4-manifolds which we call the Bach-Merkulov equations. These equations can be thought of as the conformally invariant version of the classical Einstein-Maxwell equations. Inspired by the work of C. LeBrun on Einstein-Maxwell equations on compact Kähler surfaces, we give a variational characterization of solutions to Bach-Merkulov equations as critical points of the Weyl functional. We also show that extremal Kähler metrics are solutions to these equations, although, contrary to the Einstein-Maxwell analogue, they are not necessarily minimizers of the Weyl functional. We illustrate this phenomenon by studying the Calabi action on Hirzebruch surfaces.

  12. Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric

    CERN Document Server

    Colistete, R J; Kerner, R

    2002-01-01

    Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a general relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric spacetime. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial geodesic, we obtain finite eccentricity orbits in the form of Taylor series with the eccentricity playing the role of a small parameter. The explicit expressions of these higher-order geodesic deviations are derived using successive systems of linear equations with constant coefficients, whose solutions are of harmonic oscillator type. This scheme gives best results when applied to orbits with low eccentricities, but with arbitrary possible values of (GM/Rc sup 2).

  13. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  14. Studies of environmental compatability. Umweltbundesamt - Texte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The evaluation of the methodical quality of the examples by means of a verification pattern had the result that approaches using quantitative methods - as for example the value in use analysis obtained better results: The representation of the state of the environment and of possible impairments of the environment, which had bejudged, achieved a higher degree of representativeness and completeness. Furthermore the concreteness of the used criteria for the description of the repercussions of a plan and the possibility to quantify same had to be judged more favourable. It must critically be remarked that by using quantitative methods difficulties may appear if impairments of the environment overlap or if there are correlations between the media respectively if there are non-linear repercussions of measures causing environmental damages. The present level of research should be developed to a strenghtened inclusion of complex and dynamic correlations of effects. More exacting investigations concerning environmental compatability are on the long term integrated in administrative procedures only at few authorities. With the demand for an extension of environmental compatability assessment to all steps of planning and procedure for the realization of a plan an early and more intensive participation of the public should be connected.

  15. SOCIAL METRICS APPLIED TO SMART TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cervantes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a strategy to make productive use of semantically-related social data, from a user-centered semantic network, in order to help users (tourists and citizens in general to discover cultural heritage, points of interest and available services in a smart city. This data can be used to personalize recommendations in a smart tourism application. Our approach is based on flow centrality metrics typically used in social network analysis: flow betweenness, flow closeness and eccentricity. These metrics are useful to discover relevant nodes within the network yielding nodes that can be interpreted as suggestions (venues or services to users. We describe the semantic network built on graph model, as well as social metrics algorithms used to produce recommendations. We also present challenges and results from a prototypical implementation applied to the case study of the City of Puebla, Mexico.

  16. Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, R. V.; Riitters, K.H.; Wickham, J.D.; Jones, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of remote imagery data, geographic information systems software, and landscape ecology theory provides a unique basis for monitoring and assessing large-scale ecological systems. The unique feature of the work has been the need to develop and interpret quantitative measures of spatial pattern-the landscape indices. This article reviews what is known about the statistical properties of these pattern metrics and suggests some additional metrics based on island biogeography, percolation theory, hierarchy theory, and economic geography. Assessment applications of this approach have required interpreting the pattern metrics in terms of specific environmental endpoints, such as wildlife and water quality, and research into how to represent synergystic effects of many overlapping sources of stress.

  17. Metrical and dynamical aspects in complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The central theme of this reference book is the metric geometry of complex analysis in several variables. Bridging a gap in the current literature, the text focuses on the fine behavior of the Kobayashi metric of complex manifolds and its relationships to dynamical systems, hyperbolicity in the sense of Gromov and operator theory, all very active areas of research. The modern points of view expressed in these notes, collected here for the first time, will be of interest to academics working in the fields of several complex variables and metric geometry. The different topics are treated coherently and include expository presentations of the relevant tools, techniques and objects, which will be particularly useful for graduate and PhD students specializing in the area.

  18. Social Metrics Applied to Smart Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, O.; Gutiérrez, E.; Gutiérrez, F.; Sánchez, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    We present a strategy to make productive use of semantically-related social data, from a user-centered semantic network, in order to help users (tourists and citizens in general) to discover cultural heritage, points of interest and available services in a smart city. This data can be used to personalize recommendations in a smart tourism application. Our approach is based on flow centrality metrics typically used in social network analysis: flow betweenness, flow closeness and eccentricity. These metrics are useful to discover relevant nodes within the network yielding nodes that can be interpreted as suggestions (venues or services) to users. We describe the semantic network built on graph model, as well as social metrics algorithms used to produce recommendations. We also present challenges and results from a prototypical implementation applied to the case study of the City of Puebla, Mexico.

  19. Validation of Metrics as Error Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendling, Jan

    In this chapter, we test the validity of metrics that were defined in the previous chapter for predicting errors in EPC business process models. In Section 5.1, we provide an overview of how the analysis data is generated. Section 5.2 describes the sample of EPCs from practice that we use for the analysis. Here we discuss a disaggregation by the EPC model group and by error as well as a correlation analysis between metrics and error. Based on this sample, we calculate a logistic regression model for predicting error probability with the metrics as input variables in Section 5.3. In Section 5.4, we then test the regression function for an independent sample of EPC models from textbooks as a cross-validation. Section 5.5 summarizes the findings.

  20. Metric Learning for Hyperspectral Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Brian D.; Thompson, David R.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Castano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We present a metric learning approach to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. Unsupervised spatial segmentation can assist both user visualization and automatic recognition of surface features. Analysts can use spatially-continuous segments to decrease noise levels and/or localize feature boundaries. However, existing segmentation methods use tasks-agnostic measures of similarity. Here we learn task-specific similarity measures from training data, improving segment fidelity to classes of interest. Multiclass Linear Discriminate Analysis produces a linear transform that optimally separates a labeled set of training classes. The defines a distance metric that generalized to a new scenes, enabling graph-based segmentation that emphasizes key spectral features. We describe tests based on data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) in which learned metrics improve segment homogeneity with respect to mineralogical classes.

  1. Giving in Europe : The state of research on giving in 20 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoolwerf, L.K.; Schuyt, T.N.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study is in intitial attempt to map philanthropy in Europe and presents a first overall estimation of the European philanthropic sector. Containing an overview of what we know about research on the philanthropy sector, it provides data and and assesment of the data on giving by households,

  2. Active Metric Learning from Relative Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Sicheng; Rosales, Rómer; Pei, Yuanli; Fern, Xiaoli Z.

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on active learning of distance metrics from relative comparison information. A relative comparison specifies, for a data point triplet $(x_i,x_j,x_k)$, that instance $x_i$ is more similar to $x_j$ than to $x_k$. Such constraints, when available, have been shown to be useful toward defining appropriate distance metrics. In real-world applications, acquiring constraints often require considerable human effort. This motivates us to study how to select and query the most useful ...

  3. Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here `almost every' is with respect to Haar measure...... of the coefficients of the homogeneous part when the number of variables is at least two (singly metric case), and with respect to the Haar measure of all coefficients for any number of variables (doubly metric case). As consequences, we derive zero-one laws in the spirit of the Khintchine-Groshev Theorem and zero...

  4. Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.

    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here 'almost every' is with respect to Haar measure...... of the coefficients of the homogeneous part when the number of variables is at least two (singly metric case), and with respect to the Haar measure of all coefficients for any number of variables (doubly metric case). As consequences, we derive zero-one laws in the spirit of the Khintchine--Groshev Theorem and zero...

  5. Jacobi-Maupertuis metric and Kepler equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sumanto; Gibbons, Gary William; Guha, Partha

    This paper studies the application of the Jacobi-Eisenhart lift, Jacobi metric and Maupertuis transformation to the Kepler system. We start by reviewing fundamentals and the Jacobi metric. Then we study various ways to apply the lift to Kepler-related systems: first as conformal description and Bohlin transformation of Hooke’s oscillator, second in contact geometry and third in Houri’s transformation [T. Houri, Liouville integrability of Hamiltonian systems and spacetime symmetry (2016), www.geocities.jp/football_physician/publication.html], coupled with Milnor’s construction [J. Milnor, On the geometry of the Kepler problem, Am. Math. Mon. 90 (1983) 353-365] with eccentric anomaly.

  6. A metric for characterizing the effectiveness of thermal mass in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talyor, Robert A.; Miner, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposes a metric for interior thermal mass materials (floors, walls, counters). • Simple, yet effective, metric composed of easily calculated ‘local’ and ‘global’ variables. • Like Energy Star, the proposed metric gives a single number to aid consumer choice. • The metric is calculated and compared for selected, readily available data. • Drywall, concrete flooring, and wood paneling are quite effective thermal mass. - Abstract: Building energy use represents approximately 25% of the average total global energy consumption (for both residential and commercial buildings). Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) – in most climates – embodies the single largest draw inside our buildings. In many countries around the world a concerted effort is being made towards retrofitting existing buildings to improve energy efficiency. Better windows, insulation, and ducting can make drastic differences in the energy consumption of a building HVAC system. Even with these improvements, HVAC systems are still required to compensate for daily and seasonal temperature swings of the surrounding environment. Thermal mass inside the thermal envelope can help to alleviate these swings. While it is possible to add specialty thermal mass products to buildings for this purpose, commercial uptake of these products is low. Common building interior building materials (e.g. flooring, walls, countertops) are often overlooked as thermal mass products, but herein we propose and analyze non-dimensional metrics for the ‘benefit’ of selected commonly available products. It was found that location-specific variables (climate, electricity price, material price, insolation) can have more than an order of magnitude influence in the calculated metrics for the same building material. Overall, this paper provides guidance on the most significant contributors to indoor thermal mass, and presents a builder- and consumer-friendly metric to inform decisions about

  7. Sing to the Lord a New Song: John Calvin and the Spiritual Discipline of Metrical Psalmody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Bellanti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to evaluate the way that psalmody - specifically metrical psalmody - serves as a sort of spiritual discipline. In other words, this essay seeks to demonstrate how the singing of psalms can be a tool to aid in spiritual growth. Much of the research for this essay focuses on the theological writings of the Protestant reformer John Calvin, as well as the way in which he incorporated metrical psalmody into his liturgical framework. The research also comprises primary writings from Aristotle, Plato, Saint John Chrysostom, Saint Basil, and Saint Augustine - all of whom influenced Calvin’s own philosophy regarding the use of art, music, and psalmody in worship. Additional areas examined in this research include the historical musical development of psalmody and the collection and arrangement of metrical psalms into psalters. For reference, specific examples of metrical psalms and psalters have been added. These additional areas and examples help to give a more holistic understanding of the nature of metrical psalmody, and they help to show how it may accurately be considered a spiritual discipline.

  8. Collective coordinates and an accompanying metric force in structural isomerization dynamics of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanao, Tomohiro; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    Structural isomerization dynamics of three- and four-atom clusters of vanishing total angular momentum is studied in terms of internal coordinates of n-body systems on the basis of a gauge theory. The so-called principal-axis hyperspherical coordinates are employed effectively as collective variables for the study of isomerization reactions. It turns out that the non-Euclidean metric on the internal space gives rise to a force, which works in response to internal motions called the democratic (kinematic) rotations in the internal space. This metric force generally tends to induce an asymmetry in mass balance of a system, and is coupled with the usual potential force to give rise to trapped motions in the vicinity of the transition states of the cluster. This observation provides a different perspective for the so-called recrossing problem in chemical reaction dynamics

  9. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC-- Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-01

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO 2 as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO 2 -based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined

  10. [Compatibility of different quality control systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Enrico

    2002-01-01

    Management of the good laboratory practice (GLP) quality system presupposes its linking to a basic recognized and approved quality system, from which it can draw on management procedures common to all quality systems, such as the ISO 9000 set of norms. A quality system organized in this way can also be integrated with other dedicated quality systems, or parts of them, to obtain principles or management procedures for specific topics. The aim of this organization is to set up a reliable, recognized quality system compatible with the principles of GLP and other quality management systems, which provides users with a simplified set of easily accessible management tools and answers. The organization of this quality system is set out in the quality assurance programme, which is actually the document in which the test facility incorporates the GLP principles into its own quality organization.

  11. fMRI-Compatible Electromagnetic Haptic Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, R; Villgrattner, T; Kleiser, R; Nef, T; Kollias, S

    2005-01-01

    A new haptic interface device is suggested, which can be used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The basic component of this 1 DOF haptic device are two coils that produce a Lorentz force induced by the large static magnetic field of the MR scanner. A MR-compatible optical angular encoder and a optical force sensor enable the implementation of different control architectures for haptic interactions. The challenge was to provide a large torque, and not to affect image quality by the currents applied in the device. The haptic device was tested in a 3T MR scanner. With a current of up to 1A and a distance of 1m to the focal point of the MR-scanner it was possible to generate torques of up to 4 Nm. Within these boundaries image quality was not affected.

  12. Chemical compatibility of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require that the contents of the canistered waste form are compatible with one another and the stainless steel canister. The canistered waste form is a closed system comprised of a stainless steel vessel containing waste glass, air, and condensate. This system will experience a radiation field and an elevated temperature due to radionuclide decay. This report discusses possible chemical reactions, radiation interactions, and corrosive reactions within this system both under normal storage conditions and after exposure to temperatures up to the normal glass transition temperature, which for DWPF waste glass will be between 440 and 460 degrees C. Specific conclusions regarding reactions and corrosion are provided. This document is based on the assumption that the period of interim storage prior to packaging at the federal repository may be as long as 50 years

  13. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  14. Incentive compatibility in kidney exchange problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Silvia; Patrone, Fioravante

    2009-12-01

    The problem of kidney exchanges shares common features with the classical problem of exchange of indivisible goods studied in the mechanism design literature, while presenting additional constraints on the size of feasible exchanges. The solution of a kidney exchange problem can be summarized in a mapping from the relevant underlying characteristics of the players (patients and their donors) to the set of matchings. The goal is to select only matchings maximizing a chosen welfare function. Since the final outcome heavily depends on the private information in possess of the players, a basic requirement in order to reach efficiency is the truthful revelation of this information. We show that for the kidney exchange problem, a class of (in principle) efficient mechanisms does not enjoy the incentive compatibility property and therefore is subject to possible manipulations made by the players in order to profit of the misrepresentation of their private information.

  15. An overview of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, M.; Qadeer, S.; Anwar, M.

    1998-01-01

    The world is becoming increasingly dependent upon the use of electrical and electronic equipment. In the recent years, introduction of semiconductor based devices, microprocessor and micro computer have brought about a technological revolution that has had far reaching effects in the home, in industry, in commerce and in defense. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the discipline which attempts to over come or, at least, minimize the effects of mismatch between equipment and the operating environment in accordance with agreed specifications, standards and regulations. Increased electromagnetic pollution in the environment has caused tremendous concern in the electronic industry and among users. Designers of the electronic products and systems want to be sure that their products do not emit excessive, unintentional radiation to interfere with the operation of the other systems, nor should these products be susceptible to electromagnetic interference which may degrade their performance. (author)

  16. Quantitative properties of the Schwarzschild metric

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Křížek, Filip

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 2018, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-10 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : exterior and interior Schwarzschild metric * proper radius * coordinate radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics http://astro.shu-bg.net/pasb/index_files/Papers/2018/SCHWARZ8.pdf

  17. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  18. lakemorpho: Calculating lake morphometry metrics in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jeffrey; Stachelek, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Metrics describing the shape and size of lakes, known as lake morphometry metrics, are important for any limnological study. In cases where a lake has long been the subject of study these data are often already collected and are openly available. Many other lakes have these data collected, but access is challenging as it is often stored on individual computers (or worse, in filing cabinets) and is available only to the primary investigators. The vast majority of lakes fall into a third category in which the data are not available. This makes broad scale modelling of lake ecology a challenge as some of the key information about in-lake processes are unavailable. While this valuable in situ information may be difficult to obtain, several national datasets exist that may be used to model and estimate lake morphometry. In particular, digital elevation models and hydrography have been shown to be predictive of several lake morphometry metrics. The R package lakemorpho has been developed to utilize these data and estimate the following morphometry metrics: surface area, shoreline length, major axis length, minor axis length, major and minor axis length ratio, shoreline development, maximum depth, mean depth, volume, maximum lake length, mean lake width, maximum lake width, and fetch. In this software tool article we describe the motivation behind developing lakemorpho , discuss the implementation in R, and describe the use of lakemorpho with an example of a typical use case.

  19. Contraction theorems in fuzzy metric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoosh, R.; Aghajani, A.; Azhdari, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the results on fuzzy contractive mapping proposed by Dorel Mihet will be proved for B-contraction and C-contraction in the case of George and Veeramani fuzzy metric space. The existence of fixed point with weaker conditions will be proved; that is, instead of the convergence of subsequence, p-convergence of subsequence is used.

  20. Inferring feature relevances from metric learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander; Mokbel, Bassam; Biehl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Powerful metric learning algorithms have been proposed in the last years which do not only greatly enhance the accuracy of distance-based classifiers and nearest neighbor database retrieval, but which also enable the interpretability of these operations by assigning explicit relevance weights...

  1. DIGITAL MARKETING: SUCCESS METRICS, FUTURE TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Abstract – Business Marketing is one of the prospective which has been tremendously affected by digital world in last few years. Digital marketing refers to doing advertising through digital channels. This paper provides detailed study of metrics to measure success of digital marketing platform and glimpse of future of technologies by 2020.

  2. Metric propositional neighborhood logics on natural numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...

  3. Calabi–Yau metrics and string compactification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Yau proved an existence theorem for Ricci-flat Kähler metrics in the 1970s, but we still have no closed form expressions for them. Nevertheless there are several ways to get approximate expressions, both numerical and analytical. We survey some of this work and explain how it can be used to obtain physical predictions from superstring theory.

  4. Goedel-type metrics in various dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerses, Metin; Karasu, Atalay; Sarioglu, Oezguer

    2005-01-01

    Goedel-type metrics are introduced and used in producing charged dust solutions in various dimensions. The key ingredient is a (D - 1)-dimensional Riemannian geometry which is then employed in constructing solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations with a dust distribution in D dimensions. The only essential field equation in the procedure turns out to be the source-free Maxwell's equation in the relevant background. Similarly the geodesics of this type of metric are described by the Lorentz force equation for a charged particle in the lower dimensional geometry. It is explicitly shown with several examples that Goedel-type metrics can be used in obtaining exact solutions to various supergravity theories and in constructing spacetimes that contain both closed timelike and closed null curves and that contain neither of these. Among the solutions that can be established using non-flat backgrounds, such as the Tangherlini metrics in (D - 1)-dimensions, there exists a class which can be interpreted as describing black-hole-type objects in a Goedel-like universe

  5. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  6. Language Games: University Responses to Ranking Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Troy A.; Heffernan, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    League tables of universities that measure performance in various ways are now commonplace, with numerous bodies providing their own rankings of how institutions throughout the world are seen to be performing on a range of metrics. This paper uses Lyotard's notion of language games to theorise that universities are regaining some power over being…

  7. A new universal colour image fidelity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated colour space. The resulting colour image fidelity metric quantifies the distortion of a processed colour image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new colour image

  8. Standardised metrics for global surgical surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Thomas G; Makary, Martin A; Haynes, Alex B; Dziekan, Gerald; Berry, William R; Gawande, Atul A

    2009-09-26

    Public health surveillance relies on standardised metrics to evaluate disease burden and health system performance. Such metrics have not been developed for surgical services despite increasing volume, substantial cost, and high rates of death and disability associated with surgery. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative of WHO's Patient Safety Programme has developed standardised public health metrics for surgical care that are applicable worldwide. We assembled an international panel of experts to develop and define metrics for measuring the magnitude and effect of surgical care in a population, while taking into account economic feasibility and practicability. This panel recommended six measures for assessing surgical services at a national level: number of operating rooms, number of operations, number of accredited surgeons, number of accredited anaesthesia professionals, day-of-surgery death ratio, and postoperative in-hospital death ratio. We assessed the feasibility of gathering such statistics at eight diverse hospitals in eight countries and incorporated them into the WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery, in which methods for data collection, analysis, and reporting are outlined.

  9. A Lagrangian-dependent metric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahir, A.

    1989-08-01

    A generalized Lagrangian-dependent metric of the static isotropic spacetime is derived. Its behaviour should be governed by imposing physical constraints allowing to avert the pathological features of gravity at the strong field domain. This would restrict the choice of the Lagrangian form. (author). 10 refs

  10. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  11. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  12. Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansell, Narelle K; Halford, Graeme S; Andrews, Glenda; Shum, David H K; Harris, Sarah E; Davies, Gail; Franic, Sanja; Christoforou, Andrea; Zietsch, Brendan; Painter, Jodie; Medland, Sarah E; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Steen, Vidar M; Lundervold, Astri J; Reinvang, Ivar; Montgomery, Grant W; Espeseth, Thomas; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Starr, John M; Martin, Nicholas G; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Boomsma, Dorret I; Deary, Ian J; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Relational complexity (RC) is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using

  13. Genetic Basis of a Cognitive Complexity Metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansell, N.K.; Halford, G.S.; Andrews, G.; Shum, D.H.K.; Harris, S.E.; Davies, G.; Franic, S.; Christoforou, A.; Zietsch, B.; Painter, J.; Medland, S.E.; Ehli, E.A.; Davies, G.E.; Steen, V.M.; Lundervold, A.J.; Reinvang, I.; Montgomery, G.W.; Espeseth, T.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Starr, J.M.; Martin, N.G.; Le Hellard, S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Deary, I.J.; Wright, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Relational complexity (RC) is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using

  14. Business model metrics : An open repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkila, M.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.; Heikkila, J.; Solaimani, S.; Janssen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Development of successful business models has become a necessity in turbulent business environments, but compared to research on business modeling tools, attention to the role of metrics in designing business models in literature is limited. Building on existing approaches to business models and

  15. Software quality metrics aggregation in industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mordal, K.; Anquetil, N.; Laval, J.; Serebrenik, A.; Vasilescu, B.N.; Ducasse, S.

    2013-01-01

    With the growing need for quality assessment of entire software systems in the industry, new issues are emerging. First, because most software quality metrics are defined at the level of individual software components, there is a need for aggregation methods to summarize the results at the system

  16. Invariance group of the Finster metric function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    An invariance group of the Finsler metric function is introduced and studied that directly generalized the respective concept (a group of Euclidean rolations) of the Rieman geometry. A sequential description of the isotopic invariance of physical fields on the base of the Finsler geometry is possible in terms of this group

  17. Sigma Routing Metric for RPL Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sanmartin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptation of a specific metric for the RPL protocol in the objective function MRHOF. Among the functions standardized by IETF, we find OF0, which is based on the minimum hop count, as well as MRHOF, which is based on the Expected Transmission Count (ETX. However, when the network becomes denser or the number of nodes increases, both OF0 and MRHOF introduce long hops, which can generate a bottleneck that restricts the network. The adaptation is proposed to optimize both OFs through a new routing metric. To solve the above problem, the metrics of the minimum number of hops and the ETX are combined by designing a new routing metric called SIGMA-ETX, in which the best route is calculated using the standard deviation of ETX values between each node, as opposed to working with the ETX average along the route. This method ensures a better routing performance in dense sensor networks. The simulations are done through the Cooja simulator, based on the Contiki operating system. The simulations showed that the proposed optimization outperforms at a high margin in both OF0 and MRHOF, in terms of network latency, packet delivery ratio, lifetime, and power consumption.

  18. Moment-based metrics for global sensitivity analysis of hydrological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dell'Oca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose new metrics to assist global sensitivity analysis, GSA, of hydrological and Earth systems. Our approach allows assessing the impact of uncertain parameters on main features of the probability density function, pdf, of a target model output, y. These include the expected value of y, the spread around the mean and the degree of symmetry and tailedness of the pdf of y. Since reliable assessment of higher-order statistical moments can be computationally demanding, we couple our GSA approach with a surrogate model, approximating the full model response at a reduced computational cost. Here, we consider the generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE, other model reduction techniques being fully compatible with our theoretical framework. We demonstrate our approach through three test cases, including an analytical benchmark, a simplified scenario mimicking pumping in a coastal aquifer and a laboratory-scale conservative transport experiment. Our results allow ascertaining which parameters can impact some moments of the model output pdf while being uninfluential to others. We also investigate the error associated with the evaluation of our sensitivity metrics by replacing the original system model through a gPCE. Our results indicate that the construction of a surrogate model with increasing level of accuracy might be required depending on the statistical moment considered in the GSA. The approach is fully compatible with (and can assist the development of analysis techniques employed in the context of reduction of model complexity, model calibration, design of experiment, uncertainty quantification and risk assessment.

  19. Compatibility of stainless steels and lithiated ceramics with beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, T.; Fauvet, P.; Sannier, J.

    1988-07-01

    The introduction of beryllium as a neutron multiplier in ceramic blankets of thermonuclear fusion reactors may give rise to the following compatibility problems: (i) oxidation of Be by ceramics (lithium aluminate and silicates) or by water vapour; (ii) interaction between beryllium and austenitic and martensitic steels. The studies were done in contact tests under vacuum and in tests under wet sweeping helium. The contact tests under vacuum have revealed that the interaction of beryllium with ceramics seems to be low up to 700°C, the interaction of beryllium with steels is significant and is characterized by the formation of a diffusion layer and of a brittle Be-Fe-Ni compound. With type 316 L austenitic steel, this interaction appears quite large at 600°C whereas it is noticeable only at 700°C with martensitic steels. The experiments carried out with sweeping wet helium at 600°C have evidenced a slight oxidation of beryllium due to water vapour which can be enhanced in the front of uncompletely dehydrated ceramics.

  20. Compatibility of global environmental assessment methods of buildings with an Egyptian energy code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental assessment methods of buildings had emerged over the world to set environmental classifications for buildings, such as the American method “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” (LEED the most widespread one. Several countries decided to put their own assessment methods to catch up with the previous orientation, such as Egypt. The main goal of putting the Egyptian method was to impose the voluntary local energy efficiency codes. Through a local survey, it was clearly noted that many of the construction makers in Egypt do not even know the local method, and whom are interested in the environmental assessment of buildings seek to apply LEED rather than anything else. Therefore, several questions appear about the American method compatibility with the Egyptian energy codes – that contain the most exact characteristics and requirements and give the outmost credible energy efficiency results for buildings in Egypt-, and the possibility of finding another global method that gives closer results to those of the Egyptian codes, especially with the great variety of energy efficiency measurement approaches used among the different assessment methods. So, the researcher is trying to find the compatibility of using non-local assessment methods with the local energy efficiency codes. Thus, if the results are not compatible, the Egyptian government should take several steps to increase the local building sector awareness of the Egyptian method to benefit these codes, and it should begin to enforce it within the building permits after a proper guidance and feedback.

  1. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-11-30

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  2. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, Frauke; Weischer, Lutz; Thomae, Jakob; Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  3. Compatibility testing of vitrified waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1978-01-01

    The compatibility of vitrified radioactive waste with candidate canister materials will be evaluated with both cast and in-can melted vitrified waste. Both real and simulated sludges will be used. In addition, the compatibility of these materials with salt from a possible final storage location will be determined. Cast vitrified waste will be tested with ASTM A 333 and ASTM A 516 low-carbon steels and Type 304L stainless steel at 100, 600 and 800 0 C. Cast vitrified waste that has been devitrified by heat treatment will be tested at 100 0 C. Two types of test specimens will be used with either simulated or real sludges: (1) unsealed capsules made of pieces of mill-finished pipe into which vitrified waste is cast, and (2) sealed capsules containing a small container of vitrified waste identical to the ones in the unsealed capsule. In-can melted vitrified waste will be tested with synthetic sludge only and with ASTM A 333 and ASTM A 516 low-carbon steels, Type 304L stainless steel and Inconel 600. Two types of tests will be carried out: (1) melting vitrified waste in miniature metal canisters and (2) exposure of small (carefully measured) metal coupons to molten glass. The air oxidation rates of candidate canister materials will be determined, and specimens will also be exposed to salt from Drill Hole AEC-8 in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Sealed capsules containing an ASTM A 516 low-carbon steel or Type 304L stainless steel specimen partially embedded in a small block of salt will be heated

  4. Rethinking the social and cultural dimensions of charitable giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2009-01-01

    -giving and focuses on charitable gifts as an emblem of postmodern gift-giving to distant others. Historical evidence and sociological theory on postmodern solidarity are combined to shed light on the fluid duality of contemporary giving and the importance of the imaginary in charitable giving. The outlined socially...... symbolic dimensions of charitable giving are critically examined in light of postmodern consumer culture and the recent social corporate responsibility trends. By openly engaging the proposed complexities of gift-giving, our vocabulary and understanding of postmodern giving can be revised so as to invite...

  5. Statistical versus Musical Significance: Commentary on Leigh VanHandel's 'National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin London

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In “National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song” Leigh Van Handel gives a sympathetic critique of William Rothstein’s claim that in western classical music of the late 18th and 19th centuries there are discernable differences in the phrasing and metrical practice of German versus French and Italian composers. This commentary (a examines just what Rothstein means in terms of his proposed metrical typology, (b questions Van Handel on how she has applied it to a purely melodic framework, (c amplifies Van Handel’s critique of Rothstein, and then (d concludes with a rumination on the reach of quantitative (i.e., statistically-driven versus qualitative claims regarding such things as “national metrical types.”

  6. Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalabušić S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation , where satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.

  7. Equivalence of the AdS-metric and the QCD running coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirner, H. J.; Galow, B.

    2009-08-01

    We use the functional form of the QCD running coupling to modify the conformal metric in AdS/CFT mapping the fifth-dimensional z-coordinate to the energy scale in the four-dimensional QCD. The resulting type-0 string theory in five dimensions is solved with the Nambu-Goto action giving good agreement with the Coulombic and confinement QQbar potential.

  8. General Rotational Surfaces in Pseudo-Euclidean 4-Space with Neutral Metric

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksieva, Yana; Milousheva, Velichka; Turgay, Nurettin Cenk

    2016-01-01

    We define general rotational surfaces of elliptic and hyperbolic type in the pseudo-Euclidean 4-space with neutral metric which are analogous to the general rotational surfaces of C. Moore in the Euclidean 4-space. We study Lorentz general rotational surfaces with plane meridian curves and give the complete classification of minimal general rotational surfaces of elliptic and hyperbolic type, general rotational surfaces with parallel normalized mean curvature vector field, flat general rotati...

  9. Observable traces of non-metricity: New constraints on metric-affine gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhom-Latorre, Adrià; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Ronco, Michele

    2018-05-01

    Relaxing the Riemannian condition to incorporate geometric quantities such as torsion and non-metricity may allow to explore new physics associated with defects in a hypothetical space-time microstructure. Here we show that non-metricity produces observable effects in quantum fields in the form of 4-fermion contact interactions, thereby allowing us to constrain the scale of non-metricity to be greater than 1 TeV by using results on Bahbah scattering. Our analysis is carried out in the framework of a wide class of theories of gravity in the metric-affine approach. The bound obtained represents an improvement of several orders of magnitude to previous experimental constraints.

  10. Conformal and related changes of metric on the product of two almost contact metric manifolds.

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper studies conformal and related changes of the product metric on the product of two almost contact metric manifolds. It is shown that if one factor is Sasakian, the other is not, but that locally the second factor is of the type studied by Kenmotsu. The results are more general and given in terms of trans-Sasakian, α-Sasakian and β-Kenmotsu structures.

  11. Convergence of an implicit iteration process for a finite family of asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings in convex metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurucharan Singh Saluja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give some necessary and sufficient conditions for an implicit iteration process with errors for a finite family of asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings converging to a common fixed of the mappings in convex metric spaces. Our results extend and improve some recent results of Sun, Wittmann, Xu and Ori, and Zhou and Chang.

  12. Large curvature and background scale independence in single-metric approximations to asymptotic safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Tim R. [STAG Research Centre & Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-25

    In single-metric approximations to the exact renormalization group (RG) for quantum gravity, it has been not been clear how to treat the large curvature domain beyond the point where the effective cutoff scale k is less than the lowest eigenvalue of the appropriate modified Laplacian. We explain why this puzzle arises from background dependence, resulting in Wilsonian RG concepts being inapplicable. We show that when properly formulated over an ensemble of backgrounds, the Wilsonian RG can be restored. This in turn implies that solutions should be smooth and well defined no matter how large the curvature is taken. Even for the standard single-metric type approximation schemes, this construction can be rigorously derived by imposing a modified Ward identity (mWI) corresponding to rescaling the background metric by a constant factor. However compatibility in this approximation requires the space-time dimension to be six. Solving the mWI and flow equation simultaneously, new variables are then derived that are independent of overall background scale.

  13. Overall Environmental Equipment Effectiveness as a Metric of a Lean and Green Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Domingo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new metric for describing the sustainability improvements achieved, relative to the company’s initial situation, after implementing a lean and green manufacturing system. The final value of this metric is identified as the Overall Environmental Equipment Effectiveness (OEEE, which is used to analyze the evolution between two identified states of the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE and the sustainability together, and references, globally and individually, the production steps. The OEE is a known measure of equipment utilization, which includes the availability, quality and performance of each production step, In addition to these factors, the OEEE incorporates the concept of sustainability based on the calculated environmental impact of the complete product life cycle. Action research based on the different manufacturing processes of a tube fabrication company is conducted to assess the potential impact of this new indicator. The case study demonstrates the compatibility between green and lean manufacturing, using a common metric. The OEEE allows sustainability to be integrated into business decisions, and compares the environmental impact of two states, by identifying the improvements undertaken within the company’s processes.

  14. Polyurethane Organosilicate Nanocomposites as Blood Compatible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson H. Y. Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer clay nanocomposites (NCs show remarkable potential in the field of drug delivery due to their enhanced barrier properties. It is hypothesised that well dispersed clay particles within the polymer matrix create a tortuous pathway for diffusing therapeutic molecules, thereby resulting in more sustained release of the drug. As coatings for medical devices, these materials can simultaneously modulate drug release and improve the mechanical performance of an existing polymer system without introducing additional materials with new chemistries that can lead to regulatory concerns. In this study, polyurethane organosilicate nanocomposites (PUNCs coated onto stainless steel wires were evaluated for their feasibility as blood compatible coatings and as drug delivery systems. Heparin was selected as the model drug to examine the impact of silicate loading and modifier chain length in modulating release. Findings revealed that better dispersion was achieved from samples with lower clay loadings and longer alkyl chains. The blood compatibility of PUNCs as assessed by thrombin generation assays showed that the addition of silicate particles did not significantly decrease the thrombin generation lag time (TGT, p = 0.659 or the peak thrombin (p = 0.999 of polyurethane (PU. PUNC coatings fabricated in this research were not cytotoxic as examined by the cell growth inhibition assay and were uniformly intact, but had slightly higher growth inhibition compared to PU possibly due to the presence of organic modifiers (OM. The addition of heparin into PUNCs prolonged the TGT, indicating that heparin was still active after the coating process. Cumulative heparin release profiles showed that the majority of heparin released was from loosely attached residues on the surface of coils. The addition of heparin further prolonged the TGT as compared to coatings without added heparin, but a slight decrease in heparin activity was observed in the NCs

  15. Magnetic field compatibility of components for ITER electrical distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourtoule, J.; Van Houtte, D.; Hertout, P.; Fejoz, P.

    2004-01-01

    The electrical distribution boards and control cubicles, installed inside the ITER Tokamak building, can be subject to a constant or slowly variable magnetic field up to 70 mT, 10 mT/s induced by ITER coils. This is a very unusual environmental condition and there are almost no data available on static magnetic field compatibility for the standard industrial electrical and electronic components that might be used inside standard low voltage distribution boards and standard control boards. CEA has especially taken in charge the test of electronic, control and signal conditioning units. For this purpose a test bed composed of a solenoid and a 30 V, 800 A power supply, has been developed at CEA Cadarache. Its characteristics are the following: - Magnetic field capability: 40 mT; - Variation of field: up to 10 mT/s. Useful dimensions for equipment under test: 500 x 500 x 500 mm. The list of the components to be tested has been identified trying to find common and recent components of different manufacturers. Test procedures have been written following the most relevant IEC standards and manufacturing recommendations and procedures. Magnetic compatibility tests on the basic components of standard low voltage control boards has been performed. All components tested are more or less sensitive to magnetic fields and the effect varies from the simple perturbation of the output signals to the partial destruction of some electronic card. The most sensitive are the ferromagnetic components like small power supplies transformers, relays, on inductors. For power supplies the most important consequence is the increase of the consumption (primary current). For most of the conditioning units the operational limits were found in the range of 30 mT (destruction of materials and overload of the supply) For PLC (Programme Logic Control) central units tested, the limit is in the order of 40 mT (components permanently out of service) Relays are limited to 15 mT (outputs oscillations, no

  16. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAURICELLA, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility

  17. [Magnetic resonance compatibility research for coronary mental stents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Li; Wang, Shuo; Shang, Ruyao; Wang, Chunren

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to research magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents, and to evaluate the magnetic resonance compatibility based on laboratory testing results. Coronary stents magnetic resonance compatibility test includes magnetically induced displacement force test, magnetically induced torque test, radio frequency induced heating and evaluation of MR image. By magnetic displacement force and torque values, temperature, and image distortion values to determine metal coronary stent demagnetization effect. The methods can be applied to test magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents and evaluate its demagnetization effect.

  18. Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Ali; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Goedecker, Stefan; Lill, Markus A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices

  19. A perceptual metric for photo retouching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Eric; Farid, Hany

    2011-12-13

    In recent years, advertisers and magazine editors have been widely criticized for taking digital photo retouching to an extreme. Impossibly thin, tall, and wrinkle- and blemish-free models are routinely splashed onto billboards, advertisements, and magazine covers. The ubiquity of these unrealistic and highly idealized images has been linked to eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. In response, several countries have considered legislating the labeling of retouched photos. We describe a quantitative and perceptually meaningful metric of photo retouching. Photographs are rated on the degree to which they have been digitally altered by explicitly modeling and estimating geometric and photometric changes. This metric correlates well with perceptual judgments of photo retouching and can be used to objectively judge by how much a retouched photo has strayed from reality.

  20. Metric-Aware Secure Service Orchestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Secure orchestration is an important concern in the internet of service. Next to providing the required functionality the composite services must also provide a reasonable level of security in order to protect sensitive data. Thus, the orchestrator has a need to check whether the complex service is able to satisfy certain properties. Some properties are expressed with metrics for precise definition of requirements. Thus, the problem is to analyse the values of metrics for a complex business process. In this paper we extend our previous work on analysis of secure orchestration with quantifiable properties. We show how to define, verify and enforce quantitative security requirements in one framework with other security properties. The proposed approach should help to select the most suitable service architecture and guarantee fulfilment of the declared security requirements.

  1. Machine Learning for ATLAS DDM Network Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario; The ATLAS collaboration; Vamosi, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The increasing volume of physics data is posing a critical challenge to the ATLAS experiment. In anticipation of high luminosity physics, automation of everyday data management tasks has become necessary. Previously many of these tasks required human decision-making and operation. Recent advances in hardware and software have made it possible to entrust more complicated duties to automated systems using models trained by machine learning algorithms. In this contribution we show results from our ongoing automation efforts. First, we describe our framework for distributed data management and network metrics, automatically extract and aggregate data, train models with various machine learning algorithms, and eventually score the resulting models and parameters. Second, we use these models to forecast metrics relevant for network-aware job scheduling and data brokering. We show the characteristics of the data and evaluate the forecasting accuracy of our models.

  2. Beyond Lovelock gravity: Higher derivative metric theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisostomi, M.; Noui, K.; Charmousis, C.; Langlois, D.

    2018-02-01

    We consider theories describing the dynamics of a four-dimensional metric, whose Lagrangian is diffeomorphism invariant and depends at most on second derivatives of the metric. Imposing degeneracy conditions we find a set of Lagrangians that, apart form the Einstein-Hilbert one, are either trivial or contain more than 2 degrees of freedom. Among the partially degenerate theories, we recover Chern-Simons gravity, endowed with constraints whose structure suggests the presence of instabilities. Then, we enlarge the class of parity violating theories of gravity by introducing new "chiral scalar-tensor theories." Although they all raise the same concern as Chern-Simons gravity, they can nevertheless make sense as low energy effective field theories or, by restricting them to the unitary gauge (where the scalar field is uniform), as Lorentz breaking theories with a parity violating sector.

  3. Electromagnetic compatibility in railways. Analysis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunsola, Ade [Parsons Group International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Mariscotti, Andrea [Genoa Univ. (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applied to railway systems. Focuses on the principles and application of EMC concepts to railway signalling, communications, power/traction and rolling stocks. Written by leading experts in the field. A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process from the beginning. The link is represented by standards and their correct application, as a support to analysis, testing and demonstration.

  4. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels, coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT levels and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  5. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF 2 was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.)

  6. Studies of waste-canister compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Compatibility studies were conducted between 7 waste forms and 15 potential canister structural materials. The waste forms were Al-Si and Pb-Sn matrix alloys, FUETAP, glass, Synroc D, and waste particles coated with carbon or carbon plus silicon carbide. The canister materials included carbon steel (bare and with chromium or nickel coatings), copper, Monel, Cu-35% Ni, titanium (grades 2 and 12), several Inconels, aluminum alloy 5052, and two stainless steels. Tests of either 6888 or 8821 h were conducted at 100 and 300 0 C, which bracket the low and high limits expected during storage. Glass and FUETAP evolved sulfur, which reacted preferentially with copper, nickel, and alloys of these metals. The Pb-Sn matrix alloy stuck to all samples and the carbon-coated particles to most samples at 300 0 C, but the extent of chemical reaction was not determined. Testing for 0.5 h at 800 0 C was included because it is representative of a transportation accident and is required of casks containing nuclear materials. During these tests (1) glass and FUETAP evolved sulfur, (2) FUETAP evolved large amounts of gas, (3) Synroc stuck to titanium alloys, (4) glass was molten, and (5) both matrix alloys were molten with considerable chemical interactions with many of the canister samples. If this test condition were imposed on waste canisters, it would be design limiting in many waste storage concepts

  7. Maduramicin and tiamulin compatibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiola, J J; Luco, D F; Perez, V; Vargas, M A; Lujan, L; Marin, J F

    1994-03-01

    A total of 480 1-day-old Hybro broiler chickens were divided into five treatment groups (A: unmedicated control, B: maduramicin, C: maduramicin + tiamulin, D: monensin + tiamulin and E: tiamulin) to study the effect on performance parameters, organ weights, blood haematology and biochemistry, and histopathology of liver and selected striated muscles, when maduramicin at 5 parts/10(6) and monensin at 100 parts/10(6) were included in feed in starter and grower periods, and tiamulin 9 in water at 270 parts/10(6) the recommended therapeutic level, from day 28 to 31. Performance parameters were significantly and negatively affected by monensin but not by maduramicin after treatment with tiamulin. Histopathological examination of striated muscles showed no incompatibility of maduramicin + tiamulin, while lesions were found in the monensin + tiamulin treated group. It is concluded that the use of tiamulin to a therapeutic level for 3 consecutive days is compatible with the simultaneous presence of maduramicin in the feed of broilers.

  8. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I ampersand C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I ampersand C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper

  9. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Igor; Lindh, Jonas; Hong, Jaan; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2018-03-07

    Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  10. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Masahiro [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2} was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.).

  12. High-Dimensional Metrics in R

    OpenAIRE

    Chernozhukov, Victor; Hansen, Chris; Spindler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The package High-dimensional Metrics (\\Rpackage{hdm}) is an evolving collection of statistical methods for estimation and quantification of uncertainty in high-dimensional approximately sparse models. It focuses on providing confidence intervals and significance testing for (possibly many) low-dimensional subcomponents of the high-dimensional parameter vector. Efficient estimators and uniformly valid confidence intervals for regression coefficients on target variables (e.g., treatment or poli...

  13. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand

    2013-06-18

    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  14. A Metrics Approach for Collaborative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian CIUREA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents different types of collaborative systems, their structure and classification. This paper defines the concept of virtual campus as a collaborative system. It builds architecture for virtual campus oriented on collaborative training processes. It analyses the quality characteristics of collaborative systems and propose techniques for metrics construction and validation in order to evaluate them. The article analyzes different ways to increase the efficiency and the performance level in collaborative banking systems.

  15. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  16. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Alliez, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  17. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  18. Metrics in Keplerian orbits quotient spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, Danila V.

    2018-03-01

    Quotient spaces of Keplerian orbits are important instruments for the modelling of orbit samples of celestial bodies on a large time span. We suppose that variations of the orbital eccentricities, inclinations and semi-major axes remain sufficiently small, while arbitrary perturbations are allowed for the arguments of pericentres or longitudes of the nodes, or both. The distance between orbits or their images in quotient spaces serves as a numerical criterion for such problems of Celestial Mechanics as search for common origin of meteoroid streams, comets, and asteroids, asteroid families identification, and others. In this paper, we consider quotient sets of the non-rectilinear Keplerian orbits space H. Their elements are identified irrespective of the values of pericentre arguments or node longitudes. We prove that distance functions on the quotient sets, introduced in Kholshevnikov et al. (Mon Not R Astron Soc 462:2275-2283, 2016), satisfy metric space axioms and discuss theoretical and practical importance of this result. Isometric embeddings of the quotient spaces into R^n, and a space of compact subsets of H with Hausdorff metric are constructed. The Euclidean representations of the orbits spaces find its applications in a problem of orbit averaging and computational algorithms specific to Euclidean space. We also explore completions of H and its quotient spaces with respect to corresponding metrics and establish a relation between elements of the extended spaces and rectilinear trajectories. Distance between an orbit and subsets of elliptic and hyperbolic orbits is calculated. This quantity provides an upper bound for the metric value in a problem of close orbits identification. Finally the invariance of the equivalence relations in H under coordinates change is discussed.

  19. Metrics and Its Function in Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zhong-qiong; CHEN Min-jie

    2013-01-01

    Poetry is a special combination of musical and linguistic qualities-of sounds both regarded as pure sound and as mean-ingful speech. Part of the pleasure of poetry lies in its relationship with music. Metrics, including rhythm and meter, is an impor-tant method for poetry to express poetic sentiment. Through the introduction of poetic language and typical examples, the writer of this paper tries to discuss the relationship between sound and meaning.

  20. Image characterization metrics for muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weidong; Lehovich, Andre; Anashkin, Edward; Bai, Chuanyong; Kindem, Joel; Sossong, Michael; Steiger, Matt

    2014-05-01

    Muon tomography uses naturally occurring cosmic rays to detect nuclear threats in containers. Currently there are no systematic image characterization metrics for muon tomography. We propose a set of image characterization methods to quantify the imaging performance of muon tomography. These methods include tests of spatial resolution, uniformity, contrast, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and vertical smearing. Simulated phantom data and analysis methods were developed to evaluate metric applicability. Spatial resolution was determined as the FWHM of the point spread functions in X, Y and Z axis for 2.5cm tungsten cubes. Uniformity was measured by drawing a volume of interest (VOI) within a large water phantom and defined as the standard deviation of voxel values divided by the mean voxel value. Contrast was defined as the peak signals of a set of tungsten cubes divided by the mean voxel value of the water background. SNR was defined as the peak signals of cubes divided by the standard deviation (noise) of the water background. Vertical smearing, i.e. vertical thickness blurring along the zenith axis for a set of 2 cm thick tungsten plates, was defined as the FWHM of vertical spread function for the plate. These image metrics provided a useful tool to quantify the basic imaging properties for muon tomography.

  1. A Fundamental Metric for Metal Recycling Applied to Coated Magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, C.E.M.; Reuter, M.A.; Boin, U.; Kvithyld, A.

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental metric for the assessment of the recyclability and, hence, the sustainability of coated magnesium scrap is presented; this metric combines kinetics and thermodynamics. The recycling process, consisting of thermal decoating and remelting, was studied by thermogravimetry and differential

  2. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  3. 43 CFR 12.915 - Metric system of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... procurements, grants, and other business-related activities. Metric implementation may take longer where the... recipient, such as when foreign competitors are producing competing products in non-metric units. (End of...

  4. The Jacobi metric for timelike geodesics in static spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G. W.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the free motion of massive particles moving in static spacetimes is given by the geodesics of an energy-dependent Riemannian metric on the spatial sections analogous to Jacobi's metric in classical dynamics. In the massless limit Jacobi's metric coincides with the energy independent Fermat or optical metric. For stationary metrics, it is known that the motion of massless particles is given by the geodesics of an energy independent Finslerian metric of Randers type. The motion of massive particles is governed by neither a Riemannian nor a Finslerian metric. The properies of the Jacobi metric for massive particles moving outside the horizon of a Schwarschild black hole are described. By constrast with the massless case, the Gaussian curvature of the equatorial sections is not always negative.

  5. Factor structure of the Tomimatsu-Sato metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.

    1989-02-01

    Based on an earlier result stating that δ = 3 Tomimatsu-Sato (TS) metrics can be factored over the field of integers, an analogous representation for higher TS metrics was sought. It is shown that the factoring property of TS metrics follows from the structure of special Hankel determinants. A set of linear algebraic equations determining the factors was defined, and the factors of the first five TS metrics were tabulated, together with their primitive factors. (R.P.) 4 refs.; 2 tabs

  6. What can article-level metrics do for you?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Article-level metrics (ALMs) provide a wide range of metrics about the uptake of an individual journal article by the scientific community after publication. They include citations, usage statistics, discussions in online comments and social media, social bookmarking, and recommendations. In this essay, we describe why article-level metrics are an important extension of traditional citation-based journal metrics and provide a number of example from ALM data collected for PLOS Biology.

  7. [Gift giving and the ethics of the caregiver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassin, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Modern societies establish relationships on a contract basis, but the caregiver relationship invariably involves the notion of a gift. Caring engages the giving / receiving / giving back circle of reciprocity. The caregiving relationship requires a gift ethic which gives meaning to the nurse/patient contract.

  8. A convergence theory for probabilistic metric spaces | Jäger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We develop a theory of probabilistic convergence spaces based on Tardiff's neighbourhood systems for probabilistic metric spaces. We show that the resulting category is a topological universe and we characterize a subcategory that is isomorphic to the category of probabilistic metric spaces. Keywords: Probabilistic metric ...

  9. Understanding Acceptance of Software Metrics--A Developer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarji, Medha

    2009-01-01

    Software metrics are measures of software products and processes. Metrics are widely used by software organizations to help manage projects, improve product quality and increase efficiency of the software development process. However, metrics programs tend to have a high failure rate in organizations, and developer pushback is one of the sources…

  10. Modified intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces and some fixed point theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadati, R.; Sedghi, S.; Shobe, N.

    2008-01-01

    Since the intuitionistic fuzzy metric space has extra conditions (see [Gregori V, Romaguera S, Veereamani P. A note on intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;28:902-5]). In this paper, we consider modified intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces and prove some fixed point theorems in these spaces. All the results presented in this paper are new

  11. Tide or Tsunami? The Impact of Metrics on Scholarly Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Australian universities are increasingly resorting to the use of journal metrics such as impact factors and ranking lists in appraisal and promotion processes, and are starting to set quantitative "performance expectations" which make use of such journal-based metrics. The widespread use and misuse of research metrics is leading to…

  12. The universal connection and metrics on moduli spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massamba, Fortune; Thompson, George

    2003-11-01

    We introduce a class of metrics on gauge theoretic moduli spaces. These metrics are made out of the universal matrix that appears in the universal connection construction of M. S. Narasimhan and S. Ramanan. As an example we construct metrics on the c 2 = 1 SU(2) moduli space of instantons on R 4 for various universal matrices. (author)

  13. ST-intuitionistic fuzzy metric space with properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sahil; Kumar, Tanuj

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we define ST-intuitionistic fuzzy metric space and the notion of convergence and completeness properties of cauchy sequences is studied. Further, we prove some properties of ST-intuitionistic fuzzy metric space. Finally, we introduce the concept of symmetric ST Intuitionistic Fuzzy metric space.

  14. Term Based Comparison Metrics for Controlled and Uncontrolled Indexing Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, B. M.; Tennis, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We define a collection of metrics for describing and comparing sets of terms in controlled and uncontrolled indexing languages and then show how these metrics can be used to characterize a set of languages spanning folksonomies, ontologies and thesauri. Method: Metrics for term set characterization and comparison were identified and…

  15. Otherwise Engaged : Social Media from Vanity Metrics to Critical Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.

    2018-01-01

    Vanity metrics is a term that captures the measurement and display of how well one is doing in the “success theater” of social media. The notion of vanity metrics implies a critique of metrics concerning both the object of measurement as well as their capacity to measure unobtrusively or only to

  16. Meter Detection in Symbolic Music Using Inner Metric Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Volk, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present PRIMA: a new model tailored to symbolic music that detects the meter and the first downbeat position of a piece. Given onset data, the metrical structure of a piece is interpreted using the Inner Metric Analysis (IMA) model. IMA identifies the strong and weak metrical

  17. Regional Sustainability: The San Luis Basin Metrics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are a number of established, scientifically supported metrics of sustainability. Many of the metrics are data intensive and require extensive effort to collect data and compute. Moreover, individual metrics may not capture all aspects of a system that are relevant to sust...

  18. Blood compatibility of magnesium and its alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2015-10-01

    Blood compatibility analysis in the field of biomaterials is a highly controversial topic. Especially for degradable materials like magnesium and its alloys no established test methods are available. The purpose of this study was to apply advanced test methodology for the analysis of degrading materials to get a mechanistic insight into the corrosion process in contact with human blood and plasma. Pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys were analysed in a modified Chandler-Loop setup. Standard clinical parameters were determined, and a thorough analysis of the resulting implant surface chemistry was performed. The contact of the materials to blood evoked an accelerated inflammatory and cell-induced osteoconductive reaction. Corrosion products formed indicate a more realistic, in vivo like situation. The active regulation of corrosion mechanisms of magnesium alloys by different cell types should be more in the focus of research to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo observations and to understand the mechanism of action. This in turn could lead to a better acceptance of these materials for implant applications. The presented study deals with the first mechanistic insights during whole human blood contact and its influence on a degrading magnesium-based biomaterial. The combination of clinical parameters and corrosion layer analysis has been performed for the first time. It could be of interest due to the intended use of magnesium-based stents and for orthopaedic applications for clinical applications. An interest for the readers of Acta Biomaterialia may be given, as one of the first clinically approved magnesium-based devices is a wound-closure device, which is in direct contact with blood. Moreover, for orthopaedic applications also blood contact is of high interest. Although this is not the focus of the manuscript, it could help to rise awareness for potential future applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. HLW Flexible jumper materials compatibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    H-Tank Farm Engineering tasked SRNL/Materials Science & Technology (MS&T) to evaluate the compatibility of Goodyear Viper® chemical transfer hose with HLW solutions. The hose is proposed as a flexible Safety Class jumper for up to six months service. SRNL/MS&T performed various tests to evaluate the effects of radiation, high pH chemistry and elevated temperature on the hose, particularly the inner liner. Test results suggest an upper dose limit of 50 Mrad for the hose. Room temperature burst pressure values at 50 Mrad are estimated at 600- 800 psi, providing a safety factor of 4.0-5.3X over the anticipated operating pressure of 150 psi and a safety factor of 3.0-4.0X over the working pressure of the hose (200 psi), independent of temperature effects. Radiation effects are minimal at doses less than 10 Mrad. Doses greater than 50 Mrad may be allowed, depending on operating conditions and required safety factors, but cannot be recommended at this time. At 250 Mrad, burst pressure values are reduced to the hose working pressure. At 300 Mrad, burst pressures are below 150 psi. At a bounding continuous dose rate of 57,870 rad/hr, the 50 Mrad dose limit is reached within 1.2 months. Actual dose rates may be lower, particularly during non-transfer periods. Refined dose calculations are therefore recommended to justify longer service. This report details the tests performed and interpretation of the results. Recommendations for shelf-life/storage, component quality verification, and post-service examination are provided.

  20. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable system... offer to supply each subscriber with special equipment that will enable the simultaneous reception of...

  1. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. 76.630 Section 76.630 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or otherwise...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400...

  4. The compatibility between extension aims of staff and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot investigation was done to investigate the compatibility between extension aims of extension staff and those of their employer. It shows that only 50 percent of respondents have an acceptable understanding of the official aims (vision), and that none of the components of the official vision has sufficient compatibility ...

  5. To Give Good Science: Doing Qualitative Research in the Afterward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lather, Patti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the "afterward" for qualitative research in the ruins of NCLB and its failure to deliver. In the space opened up "after" the dominance of the gold standard bullying and "metric mania" of neo-positivism, I articulate a post-retirement project on the weight of sports in U.S. secondary schools out…

  6. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  7. Who gives? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable giving, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Ethics of trial drug use: to give or not to give?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebunoluwa, Oduwole O; Kareem, Fayemi A

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola viral disease in some West African countries, which later spread to the USA and Spain, has continued to be a subject of global public health debate. While there is no approved vaccine or drug for Ebola cure yet, moral questions of bioethical significance are emerging even as vaccine studies are at different clinical trial phases. This paper, through a normative and critical approach, focuses on the question of whether it is ethical to give any experimental drugs to Ebola victims in West Africa or not. Given the global panic and deadly contagious nature of Ebola, this paper argues on three major compassionate grounds that it is ethical to use experimental drugs on the dying African victims of Ebola. Besides respecting patients and family consent in the intervention process, this paper argues that the use of Ebola trial drugs on West African population will be ethical if it promotes the common good, and does not violate the fundamental principles of transparency and integrity in human research ethics. Using Kantian ethical framework of universality as a basis for moral defense of allowing access to yet approved drugs. This paper provides argument to strengthen the compassionate ground provisional recommendation of the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) on Ebola vaccines and vaccination.

  9. Cosmological perturbations of non-minimally coupled quintessence in the metric and Palatini formalisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yize; Wu, Puxun; Yu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations of the non-minimally coupled scalar field dark energy in both the metric and Palatini formalisms are studied in this paper. We find that on the large scales with the energy density of dark energy becoming more and more important in the low redshift region, the gravitational potential becomes smaller and smaller, and the effect of non-minimal coupling becomes more and more apparent. In the metric formalism the value of the gravitational potential in the non-minimally coupled case with a positive coupling constant is less than that in the minimally coupled case, while it is larger if the coupling constant is negative. This is different from that in the Palatini formalism where the value of gravitational potential is always smaller. Based upon the quasi-static approximation on the sub-horizon scales, the linear growth of matter is also analyzed. We obtain that the effective Newton's constants in the metric and Palatini formalisms have different forms. A negative coupling constant enhances the gravitational interaction, while a positive one weakens it. Although the metric and Palatini formalisms give different linear growth rates, the difference is very small and the current observation cannot distinguish them effectively

  10. A PEG Construction of LDPC Codes Based on the Betweenness Centrality Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHURTAH-SEEWOOSUNGKUR, I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressive Edge Growth (PEG constructions are usually based on optimizing the distance metric by using various methods. In this work however, the distance metric is replaced by a different one, namely the betweenness centrality metric, which was shown to enhance routing performance in wireless mesh networks. A new type of PEG construction for Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC codes is introduced based on the betweenness centrality metric borrowed from social networks terminology given that the bipartite graph describing the LDPC is analogous to a network of nodes. The algorithm is very efficient in filling edges on the bipartite graph by adding its connections in an edge-by-edge manner. The smallest graph size the new code could construct surpasses those obtained from a modified PEG algorithm - the RandPEG algorithm. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper produces the best regular LDPC column-weight two graphs. In addition, the technique proves to be competitive in terms of error-correcting performance. When compared to MacKay, PEG and other recent modified-PEG codes, the algorithm gives better performance over high SNR due to its particular edge and local graph properties.

  11. Adapting observationally based metrics of biogeophysical feedbacks from land cover/land use change to climate modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang; Dirmeyer, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    To assess the biogeophysical impacts of land cover/land use change (LCLUC) on surface temperature, two observation-based metrics and their applicability in climate modeling were explored in this study. Both metrics were developed based on the surface energy balance, and provided insight into the contribution of different aspects of land surface change (such as albedo, surface roughness, net radiation and surface heat fluxes) to changing climate. A revision of the first metric, the intrinsic biophysical mechanism, can be used to distinguish the direct and indirect effects of LCLUC on surface temperature. The other, a decomposed temperature metric, gives a straightforward depiction of separate contributions of all components of the surface energy balance. These two metrics well capture observed and model simulated surface temperature changes in response to LCLUC. Results from paired FLUXNET sites and land surface model sensitivity experiments indicate that surface roughness effects usually dominate the direct biogeophysical feedback of LCLUC, while other effects play a secondary role. However, coupled climate model experiments show that these direct effects can be attenuated by large scale atmospheric changes (indirect feedbacks). When applied to real-time transient LCLUC experiments, the metrics also demonstrate usefulness for assessing the performance of climate models and quantifying land–atmosphere interactions in response to LCLUC. (letter)

  12. Extremal limits of the C metric: Nariai, Bertotti-Robinson, and anti-Nariai C metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2003-01-01

    In two previous papers we have analyzed the C metric in a background with a cosmological constant Λ, namely, the de-Sitter (dS) C metric (Λ>0), and the anti-de Sitter (AdS) C metric (Λ 0, Λ=0, and Λ 2 xS-tilde 2 ) to each point in the deformed two-sphere S-tilde 2 corresponds a dS 2 spacetime, except for one point which corresponds to a dS 2 spacetime with an infinite straight strut or string. There are other important new features that appear. One expects that the solutions found in this paper are unstable and decay into a slightly nonextreme black hole pair accelerated by a strut or by strings. Moreover, the Euclidean version of these solutions mediate the quantum process of black hole pair creation that accompanies the decay of the dS and AdS spaces

  13. Principle of space existence and De Sitter metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, V.K.

    1990-01-01

    The selection principle for the solutions of the Einstein equations suggested in a series of papers implies the existence of space (g ik ≠ 0) only in the presence of matter (T ik ≠0). This selection principle (principle of space existence, in the Markov terminology) implies, in the general case, the absence of the cosmological solution with the De Sitter metric. On the other hand, the De Sitter metric is necessary for describing both inflation and deflation periods of the Universe. It is shown that the De Sitter metric is also allowed by the selection principle under discussion if the metric experiences the evolution into the Friedmann metric

  14. Pragmatic security metrics applying metametrics to information security

    CERN Document Server

    Brotby, W Krag

    2013-01-01

    Other books on information security metrics discuss number theory and statistics in academic terms. Light on mathematics and heavy on utility, PRAGMATIC Security Metrics: Applying Metametrics to Information Security breaks the mold. This is the ultimate how-to-do-it guide for security metrics.Packed with time-saving tips, the book offers easy-to-follow guidance for those struggling with security metrics. Step by step, it clearly explains how to specify, develop, use, and maintain an information security measurement system (a comprehensive suite of metrics) to

  15. Classification in medical images using adaptive metric k-NN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Chernoff, K.; Karemore, G.; Lo, P.; Nielsen, M.; Lauze, F.

    2010-03-01

    The performance of the k-nearest neighborhoods (k-NN) classifier is highly dependent on the distance metric used to identify the k nearest neighbors of the query points. The standard Euclidean distance is commonly used in practice. This paper investigates the performance of k-NN classifier with respect to different adaptive metrics in the context of medical imaging. We propose using adaptive metrics such that the structure of the data is better described, introducing some unsupervised learning knowledge in k-NN. We investigated four different metrics are estimated: a theoretical metric based on the assumption that images are drawn from Brownian Image Model (BIM), the normalized metric based on variance of the data, the empirical metric is based on the empirical covariance matrix of the unlabeled data, and an optimized metric obtained by minimizing the classification error. The spectral structure of the empirical covariance also leads to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed on it which results the subspace metrics. The metrics are evaluated on two data sets: lateral X-rays of the lumbar aortic/spine region, where we use k-NN for performing abdominal aorta calcification detection; and mammograms, where we use k-NN for breast cancer risk assessment. The results show that appropriate choice of metric can improve classification.

  16. THE ROLE OF ARTICLE LEVEL METRICS IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging metrics based on article-level does not exclude traditional metrics based on citations to the journal, but complements them. Article-level metrics (ALMs provide a wide range of metrics about the uptake of an individual journal article by the scientific community after publication. They include citations, statistics of usage, discussions in online comments and social media, social bookmarking, and recommendations. In this editorial, the role of article level metrics in publishing scientific papers has been described. Article-Level Metrics (ALMs are rapidly emerging as important tools to quantify how individual articles are being discussed, shared, and used. Data sources depend on the tool, but they include classic metrics indicators depending on citations, academic social networks (Mendeley, CiteULike, Delicious and social media (Facebook, Twitter, blogs, and Youtube. The most popular tools used to apply this new metrics are: Public Library of Science - Article-Level Metrics, Altmetric, Impactstory and Plum Analytics. Journal Impact Factor (JIF does not consider impact or influence beyond citations count as this count reflected only through Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science® database. JIF provides indicator related to the journal, but not related to a published paper. Thus, altmetrics now becomes an alternative metrics for performance assessment of individual scientists and their contributed scholarly publications. Macedonian scholarly publishers have to work on implementing of article level metrics in their e-journals. It is the way to increase their visibility and impact in the world of science.

  17. Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    . Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying......This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example...

  18. New Metrics from a Fractional Gravitational Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Agop et al. proved in Commun. Theor. Phys. (2008) that, a Reissner–Nordstrom type metric is obtained, if gauge gravitational field in a fractal spacetime is constructed by means of concepts of scale relativity. We prove in this short communication that similar result is obtained if gravity in D-spacetime dimensions is fractionalized by means of the Glaeske–Kilbas–Saigo fractional. Besides, non-singular gravitational fields are obtained without using extra-dimensions. We present few examples to show that these gravitational fields hold a number of motivating features in spacetime physics. (paper)

  19. Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Trevor

    Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation

  20. Multi-Robot Assembly Strategies and Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARVEL, JEREMY A.; BOSTELMAN, ROGER; FALCO, JOE

    2018-01-01

    We present a survey of multi-robot assembly applications and methods and describe trends and general insights into the multi-robot assembly problem for industrial applications. We focus on fixtureless assembly strategies featuring two or more robotic systems. Such robotic systems include industrial robot arms, dexterous robotic hands, and autonomous mobile platforms, such as automated guided vehicles. In this survey, we identify the types of assemblies that are enabled by utilizing multiple robots, the algorithms that synchronize the motions of the robots to complete the assembly operations, and the metrics used to assess the quality and performance of the assemblies. PMID:29497234

  1. Metric preheating and limitations of linearized gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.; Tamburini, Fabrizio; Kaiser, David I.; Maartens, Roy

    1999-01-01

    During the preheating era after inflation, resonant amplification of quantum field fluctuations takes place. Recently it has become clear that this must be accompanied by resonant amplification of scalar metric fluctuations, since the two are united by Einstein's equations. Furthermore, this 'metric preheating' enhances particle production, and leads to gravitational rescattering effects even at linear order. In multi-field models with strong preheating (q>>1), metric perturbations are driven non-linear, with the strongest amplification typically on super-Hubble scales (k→0). This amplification is causal, being due to the super-Hubble coherence of the inflaton condensate, and is accompanied by resonant growth of entropy perturbations. The amplification invalidates the use of the linearized Einstein field equations, irrespective of the amount of fine-tuning of the initial conditions. This has serious implications on all scales - from large-angle cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies to primordial black holes. We investigate the (q,k) parameter space in a two-field model, and introduce the time to non-linearity, t nl , as the timescale for the breakdown of the linearized Einstein equations. t nl is a robust indicator of resonance behavior, showing the fine structure in q and k that one expects from a quasi-Floquet system, and we argue that t nl is a suitable generalization of the static Floquet index in an expanding universe. Backreaction effects are expected to shut down the linear resonances, but cannot remove the existing amplification, which threatens the viability of strong preheating when confronted with the CMB. Mode-mode coupling and turbulence tend to re-establish scale invariance, but this process is limited by causality and for small k the primordial scale invariance of the spectrum may be destroyed. We discuss ways to escape the above conclusions, including secondary phases of inflation and preheating solely to fermions. The exclusion principle

  2. Alternative kinetic energy metrics for Lagrangian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlet, W.; Prince, G.

    2010-11-01

    We examine Lagrangian systems on \\ {R}^n with standard kinetic energy terms for the possibility of additional, alternative Lagrangians with kinetic energy metrics different to the Euclidean one. Using the techniques of the inverse problem in the calculus of variations we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such Lagrangians. We illustrate the problem in two and three dimensions with quadratic and cubic potentials. As an aside we show that the well-known anomalous Lagrangians for the Coulomb problem can be removed by switching on a magnetic field, providing an appealing resolution of the ambiguous quantizations of the hydrogen atom.

  3. Differential geometry bundles, connections, metrics and curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Taubes, Clifford Henry

    2011-01-01

    Bundles, connections, metrics and curvature are the 'lingua franca' of modern differential geometry and theoretical physics. This book will supply a graduate student in mathematics or theoretical physics with the fundamentals of these objects. Many of the tools used in differential topology are introduced and the basic results about differentiable manifolds, smooth maps, differential forms, vector fields, Lie groups, and Grassmanians are all presented here. Other material covered includes the basic theorems about geodesics and Jacobi fields, the classification theorem for flat connections, the

  4. Multi-Robot Assembly Strategies and Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Jeremy A; Bostelman, Roger; Falco, Joe

    2018-02-01

    We present a survey of multi-robot assembly applications and methods and describe trends and general insights into the multi-robot assembly problem for industrial applications. We focus on fixtureless assembly strategies featuring two or more robotic systems. Such robotic systems include industrial robot arms, dexterous robotic hands, and autonomous mobile platforms, such as automated guided vehicles. In this survey, we identify the types of assemblies that are enabled by utilizing multiple robots, the algorithms that synchronize the motions of the robots to complete the assembly operations, and the metrics used to assess the quality and performance of the assemblies.

  5. Indefinite metric and regularization of electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, M.

    1984-06-01

    The invariant regularization of Pauli and Villars in quantum electrodynamics can be considered as deriving from a local and causal lagrangian theory for spin 1/2 bosons, by introducing an indefinite metric and a condition on the allowed states similar to the Lorentz condition. The consequences are the asymptotic freedom of the photon's propagator. We present a calcultion of the effective charge to the fourth order in the coupling as a function of the auxiliary masses, the theory avoiding all mass divergencies to this order [fr

  6. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  7. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  8. Decision Analysis for Metric Selection on a Clinical Quality Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Rebecca M; Storey, Patricia E; Vitale, Michael; Markan-Aurora, Sumita; Gordon, Randolph; Prevost, Traci Q; Dunagan, Wm Claiborne; Woeltje, Keith F

    2016-09-01

    Clinical quality scorecards are used by health care institutions to monitor clinical performance and drive quality improvement. Because of the rapid proliferation of quality metrics in health care, BJC HealthCare found it increasingly difficult to select the most impactful scorecard metrics while still monitoring metrics for regulatory purposes. A 7-step measure selection process was implemented incorporating Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis, which is a systematic process that considers key criteria that must be satisfied in order to make the best decision. The decision analysis process evaluates what metrics will most appropriately fulfill these criteria, as well as identifies potential risks associated with a particular metric in order to identify threats to its implementation. Using this process, a list of 750 potential metrics was narrowed to 25 that were selected for scorecard inclusion. This decision analysis process created a more transparent, reproducible approach for selecting quality metrics for clinical quality scorecards. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Balanced metrics for vector bundles and polarised manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Fernandez, Mario; Ross, Julius

    2012-01-01

    leads to a Hermitian-Einstein metric on E and a constant scalar curvature Kähler metric in c_1(L). For special values of α, limits of balanced metrics are solutions of a system of coupled equations relating a Hermitian-Einstein metric on E and a Kähler metric in c1(L). For this, we compute the top two......We consider a notion of balanced metrics for triples (X, L, E) which depend on a parameter α, where X is smooth complex manifold with an ample line bundle L and E is a holomorphic vector bundle over X. For generic choice of α, we prove that the limit of a convergent sequence of balanced metrics...

  10. Construction of Einstein-Sasaki metrics in D≥7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, H.; Pope, C. N.; Vazquez-Poritz, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    We construct explicit Einstein-Kaehler metrics in all even dimensions D=2n+4≥6, in terms of a 2n-dimensional Einstein-Kaehler base metric. These are cohomogeneity 2 metrics which have the new feature of including a NUT-type parameter, or gravomagnetic charge, in addition to..' in addition to mass and rotation parameters. Using a canonical construction, these metrics all yield Einstein-Sasaki metrics in dimensions D=2n+5≥7. As is commonly the case in this type of construction, for suitable choices of the free parameters the Einstein-Sasaki metrics can extend smoothly onto complete and nonsingular manifolds, even though the underlying Einstein-Kaehler metric has conical singularities. We discuss some explicit examples in the case of seven-dimensional Einstein-Sasaki spaces. These new spaces can provide supersymmetric backgrounds in M theory, which play a role in the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence

  11. National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh VanHandel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available William Rothstein’s article “National metrical types in music of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries” (2008 proposes a distinction between the metrical habits of 18th and early 19th century German music and those of Italian and French music of that period. Based on theoretical treatises and compositional practice, he outlines these national metrical types and discusses the characteristics of each type. This paper presents the results of a study designed to determine whether, and to what degree, Rothstein’s characterizations of national metrical types are present in 19th century French and German art song. Studying metrical habits in this genre may provide a lens into changing metrical conceptions of 19th century theorists and composers, as well as to the metrical habits and compositional style of individual 19th century French and German art song composers.

  12. Metrication: An economic wake-up call for US industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, G. P.

    1993-03-01

    As the international standard of measurement, the metric system is one key to success in the global marketplace. International standards have become an important factor in international economic competition. Non-metric products are becoming increasingly unacceptable in world markets that favor metric products. Procurement is the primary federal tool for encouraging and helping U.S. industry to convert voluntarily to the metric system. Besides the perceived unwillingness of the customer, certain regulatory language, and certain legal definitions in some states, there are no major impediments to conversion of the remaining non-metric industries to metric usage. Instead, there are good reasons for changing, including an opportunity to rethink many industry standards and to take advantage of size standardization. Also, when the remaining industries adopt the metric system, they will come into conformance with federal agencies engaged in similar activities.

  13. Fanpage metrics analysis. "Study on content engagement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zoha; Suberamanian, Kumaran; Zanuddin, Hasmah Binti; Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam Bin Md

    2016-08-01

    Social Media is now determined as an excellent communicative tool to connect directly with consumers. One of the most significant ways to connect with the consumers through these Social Networking Sites (SNS) is to create a facebook fanpage with brand contents and to place different posts periodically on these fanpages. In measuring social networking sites' effectiveness, corporate houses are now analyzing metrics in terms of calculating engagement rate, number of comments/share and likings in fanpages. So now, it is very important for the marketers to know the effectiveness of different contents or posts of fanpages in order to increase the fan responsiveness and engagement rate in the fan pages. In the study the authors have analyzed total 1834 brand posts from 17 international brands of Electronics companies. Data of 9 months (From December 2014 to August 2015) have been collected for analyses, which were available online in the Brand' fan pages. An econometrics analysis is conducted using Eviews 9, to determine the impact of different contents on fanpage engagement. The study picked the four most frequently posted content to determine their impact on PTA (people Talking About) metrics and Fanpage engagement activities.

  14. Network Community Detection on Metric Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Saha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Community detection in a complex network is an important problem of much interest in recent years. In general, a community detection algorithm chooses an objective function and captures the communities of the network by optimizing the objective function, and then, one uses various heuristics to solve the optimization problem to extract the interesting communities for the user. In this article, we demonstrate the procedure to transform a graph into points of a metric space and develop the methods of community detection with the help of a metric defined for a pair of points. We have also studied and analyzed the community structure of the network therein. The results obtained with our approach are very competitive with most of the well-known algorithms in the literature, and this is justified over the large collection of datasets. On the other hand, it can be observed that time taken by our algorithm is quite less compared to other methods and justifies the theoretical findings.

  15. Value of the Company and Marketing Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking marketing strategies from a resource-based perspective (Barney, 1991, proposing assets as either tangible, organizational and human, and from Constantin and Luch’s vision (1994, where strategic resources can be tanbigle or intangible, internal or external to the firm, raises a research approach on Marketing and Finance. According to Srivastava, Shervani and Fahey (1998 there are 3 market assets types, which generate firm value. Firm value can be measured by discounted cashflow, compromising marketing activities with value generation forcasts (Anderson, 1982; Day, Fahey, 1988; Doyle, 2000; Rust et al., 2004a. The economic value of marketing strategies and marketing metrics are calling strategy researchers’ and marketing managers’ attention, making clear the need for building a bridge able to articulate marketing and finance form a strategic perspective. This article proposes an analytical framework based on different scientific approaches envolving risk and return promoted by marketing strategies and points out advances concerning both methodological approaches and marketing strategies and its impact on firm metrics and value, usgin Srinivasan and Hanssens (2009 as a start point.

  16. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO 2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  17. Defining a standard metric for electricity savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, Jonathan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Stanford University, PO Box 20313, Oakland, CA 94620-0313 (United States); Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Brown, Marilyn; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B; Greenberg, Steve, E-mail: JGKoomey@stanford.ed

    2010-01-15

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T and D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question-Dr Arthur H Rosenfeld.

  18. Covariant electrodynamics in linear media: Optical metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert T.

    2018-03-01

    While the postulate of covariance of Maxwell's equations for all inertial observers led Einstein to special relativity, it was the further demand of general covariance—form invariance under general coordinate transformations, including between accelerating frames—that led to general relativity. Several lines of inquiry over the past two decades, notably the development of metamaterial-based transformation optics, has spurred a greater interest in the role of geometry and space-time covariance for electrodynamics in ponderable media. I develop a generally covariant, coordinate-free framework for electrodynamics in general dielectric media residing in curved background space-times. In particular, I derive a relation for the spatial medium parameters measured by an arbitrary timelike observer. In terms of those medium parameters I derive an explicit expression for the pseudo-Finslerian optical metric of birefringent media and show how it reduces to a pseudo-Riemannian optical metric for nonbirefringent media. This formulation provides a basis for a unified approach to ray and congruence tracing through media in curved space-times that may smoothly vary among positively refracting, negatively refracting, and vacuum.

  19. Axisymmetric plasma equilibria in a Kerr metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsässer, Klaus

    2001-10-01

    Plasma equilibria near a rotating black hole are considered within the multifluid description. An isothermal two-component plasma with electrons and positrons or ions is determined by four structure functions and the boundary conditions. These structure functions are the Bernoulli function and the toroidal canonical momentum per mass for each species. The quasi-neutrality assumption (no charge density, no toroidal current) allows to solve Maxwell's equations analytically for any axisymmetric stationary metric, and to reduce the fluid equations to one single scalar equation for the stream function \\chi of the positrons or ions, respectively. The basic smallness parameter is the ratio of the skin depth of electrons to the scale length of the metric and fluid quantities, and, in the case of an electron-ion plasma, the mass ratio m_e/m_i. The \\chi-equation can be solved by standard methods, and simple solutions for a Kerr geometry are available; they show characteristic flow patterns, depending on the structure functions and the boundary conditions.

  20. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.