WorldWideScience

Sample records for methylene chloride mrr

  1. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  4. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon in the treatment of diabetes. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by a ...

  5. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been used...

  6. Methylene chloride exposure and carboxyhemoglobin levels in cabinetmakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjoko, Sunny O.; Sridhar Mynapelli, K. C.; Ogunkola, Isiah O.; Masheyi, Olatunde O.

    2007-01-01

    Methylene chloride (MeCl2) is a clear colorless volatile sweet smelling lipophilic solvent used as a constituent of wood vanishes and paints. Human exposure is mainly due to inhalation and its biotransformation by the hepatic mixed function oxidases (MFO) leads to formation of carbon monoxide (CO). Simultaneous exposure to MeCl2 and increased ambient CO results in undesirably increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) formation, which predisposes to carboxyhemoglobinaemia with the central nervous system as the primary target organ of toxicity. In this study, ambient CO levels were determined using a CO personal monitor in different pasts of Ibadan Nigeria and work place microenvironment of 50 Cabinet makers (test group) and 50 volunteer (control) in non-furniture making occupations. Mann Whitney U and Kruskaal Wallis were the statistical methods of analysis used. Questionnaires were administered to both groups carboxyhaemoglobin levels were determined in venous blood drawn from individuals in the two groups by differential spectrophotometric method. Ambient CO levels in Ibadan were observed to be between 4 and 52 ppm with a mean of 20 ppm. Work environment CO levels were significantly higher in test subjects than controls at 5.2 ± 1.08 ppm and 2.08 ± 0.91 ppm respectively (P 0.05). It is therefore imperative to substitute MeCl2 for safer chemicals in wood vanish and paints and the use of protective gas masks and adequate ventilation should be mandatory whenever MeCl2 is used. PMID:21938216

  7. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE EMISSIONS FROM EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulo...

  8. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  9. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenbecker Michael J

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective

  10. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-22

    TiO2 9.5 Isobutyl ketone 0.1 Iron oxide hydrate 2.5 n-Butyl acid phosphate 0.1 Carbazole dioxazine violet ɘ.1 Bentone 0.5 Table 3: MIL-PRF-85285...partial formulation films, with pigments and no fillers, and full formulation films of current military polyurethane coatings were analyzed in this...time of the solvents. 22-01-2014 Memorandum Report Paint stripper Methylene chloride Phenol Polyurethane 7 June 2012 – 6 June 2013 SERDP WP-2244

  11. Comparing toxicologic and epidemiologic studies: methylene chloride--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayner, L T; Bailer, A J

    1993-12-01

    Exposure to methylene chloride induces lung and liver cancers in mice. The mouse bioassay data have been used as the basis for several cancer risk assessments. The results from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to methylene chloride have been mixed with respect to demonstrating an increased cancer risk. The results from a negative epidemiologic study of Kodak workers have been used by two groups of investigators to test the predictions from the EPA risk assessment models. These two groups used very different approaches to this problem, which resulted in opposite conclusions regarding the consistency between the animal model predictions and the Kodak study results. The results from the Kodak study are used to test the predictions from OSHA's multistage models of liver and lung cancer risk. Confidence intervals for the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) from the Kodak study are compared with the predicted confidence intervals derived from OSHA's risk assessment models. Adjustments for the "healthy worker effect," differences in length of follow-up, and dosimetry between animals and humans were incorporated into these comparisons. Based on these comparisons, we conclude that the negative results from the Kodak study are not inconsistent with the predictions from OSHA's risk assessment model.

  12. Derivation of an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for methylene chloride based on acute CNS effects and relative potency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J E; Rozman, K K

    1998-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) or 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is based on an acute human lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 200 ppm for subtle central nervous system (CNS) depression. Steep, parallel exposure-response curves for anesthetic and subanesthetic CNS effects associated with compounds mechanistically and structurally related to methylene chloride are shown to support a safety factor of two to account for inter-individual variability in response. LOAEL/no-observed-adverse-effect ratios for subtle CNS effects associated with structurally related solvents are shown to support a safety factor range of two to four to account for uncertainty in identifying a subthreshold exposure level. Anesthetic relative potencies and anesthetic/subanesthetic effect level ratios are shown to be constant for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating that subanesthetic relative potencies are also constant. Relative potencies among similarly derived occupational exposure limits (OELs) for solvents structurally related to methylene chloride are therefore used to validate the derived methylene chloride OEL range of 25-50 ppm. Because this safety assessment is based on human (rather than rodent) data and empirical (rather than theoretical) exposure-response relationships and is supported by relative potency analysis, it is a defensible alternative to to the OSHA risk assessment and should positively contribute to the debate regarding the appropriate basis and value for a methylene chloride PEL.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Hap-Free Paint Strippers vs. Methylene-Chloride-Based Strippers for Removing Army Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings (CARC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, John; Considine, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ...). The purpose of this effort is to investigate HAP-free alternative chemical paint strippers as potential replacements for the methylene-chloride- based chemical strippers currently used in both processes...

  14. Kinetics of pyridine degradation along with toluene and methylene chloride with Bacillus sp. in packed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma, B.; Sandhya, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, CSIR-Complex, Madras (India)

    1998-04-01

    Bacillus coagulans strain isolated from contaminated soil was immobilised on activated carbon for degradation of pyridine, toluene and methylene chloride containing synthetic wastewaters. Pyridine was supplied as the only source of nitrogen in the wastewaters. Continuous runs in a packed bed laboratory reactor showed that immobilized B. coagulans can degrade pyridine along with other organics rapidly and the effluent ammonia is also controlled in presence of ``organic carbon``. About 644 mg/l of influent TOC was efficiently degraded (82.85%) at 64.05 mg/l/hr loading. (orig.) With 2 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs.

  15. Structure of methylene chloride addition product to zirconium tetrachloride complex with 1-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-2-thio-trimethylsilyl-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusilovets, A.I.; Rusanov, Eh.B.; Chernega, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    Complex of zirconium tetrachloride with 1-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl--2-thio-3-trimethyl-silyl-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedine interacts with methylene chloride with formation of bis[3-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-1--trimethylsilyl-2-chloremethylthio-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedinium] decachlorodizirconate. Specific features of crystal and molecular structure of the compound prepared have been studied by X-ray diffraction method. 21 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NASA MICRO RAIN RADAR (MRR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA Micro Rain Radar (MRR) MC3E dataset was collected by a Micro Rain Radar (MRR), which is a vertically pointing Doppler radar which...

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) MICRO RAIN RADAR (MRR) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environment Canada (EC) collected data from the Micro Rain Radar (MRR) during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) in Ontario, Canada during the...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., erythema, cracked skin, or skin burns; and cardiac effects such as chest pain or shortness of breath. This... treatment and decontamination of the exposed employee; (ii) Comprehensive physical examination with special... good solvent for oils, fats, waxes, resins, bitumen, rubber and cellulose acetate and is a useful paint...

  19. Comparison of optimization techniques for MRR and surface roughness in wire EDM process for gear cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Mohapatra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to use a suitable method that can optimize the process parameters like pulse on time (TON, pulse off time (TOFF, wire feed rate (WF, wire tension (WT and servo voltage (SV to attain the maximum value of MRR and minimum value of surface roughness during the production of a fine pitch spur gear made of copper. The spur gear has a pressure angle of 20⁰ and pitch circle diameter of 70 mm. The wire has a diameter of 0.25 mm and is made of brass. Experiments were conducted according to Taguchi’s orthogonal array concept with five factors and two levels. Thus, Taguchi quality loss design technique is used to optimize the output responses carried out from the experiments. Another optimization technique i.e. desirability with grey Taguchi technique has been used to optimize the process parameters. Both the optimized results are compared to find out the best combination of MRR and surface roughness. A confirmation test was carried out to identify the significant improvement in the machining performance in case of Taguchi quality loss. Finally, it was concluded that desirability with grey Taguchi technique produced a better result than the Taguchi quality loss technique in case of MRR and Taguchi quality loss gives a better result in case of surface roughness. The quality of the wire after the cutting operation has been presented in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM figure.

  20. Candida albicans Swi/Snf and Mediator Complexes Differentially Regulate Mrr1-Induced MDR1 Expression and Fluconazole Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2017-11-01

    Long-term azole treatment of patients with chronic Candida albicans infections can lead to drug resistance. Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the transcription factor Mrr1 and the consequent transcriptional activation of MDR1 , a drug efflux coding gene, is a common pathway by which this human fungal pathogen acquires fluconazole resistance. This work elucidates the previously unknown downstream transcription mechanisms utilized by hyperactive Mrr1. We identified the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex as a key coactivator for Mrr1, which is required to maintain basal and induced open chromatin, and Mrr1 occupancy, at the MDR1 promoter. Deletion of snf2 , the catalytic subunit of Swi/Snf, largely abrogates the increases in MDR1 expression and fluconazole MIC observed in MRR1 GOF mutant strains. Mediator positively and negatively regulates key Mrr1 target promoters. Deletion of the Mediator tail module med3 subunit reduces, but does not eliminate, the increased MDR1 expression and fluconazole MIC conferred by MRR1 GOF mutations. Eliminating the kinase activity of the Mediator Ssn3 subunit suppresses the decreased MDR1 expression and fluconazole MIC of the snf2 null mutation in MRR1 GOF strains. Ssn3 deletion also suppresses MDR1 promoter histone displacement defects in snf2 null mutants. The combination of this work with studies on other hyperactive zinc cluster transcription factors that confer azole resistance in fungal pathogens reveals a complex picture where the induction of drug efflux pump expression requires the coordination of multiple coactivators. The observed variations in transcription factor and target promoter dependence of this process may make the search for azole sensitivity-restoring small molecules more complicated. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride): In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. This document presents background information and justification for the Intergrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Summary of the hazard and dose-response assessment of dichloromethane. IRIS Summaries may include oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for chronic and other exposure durations, and a carcinogencity assessment. Internet/NCEA web site

  2. Radioiodinated methylene blue for melanoma targeting: Chemical characterisation and tumour selectivity of labelled components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blower, Philip J.; Clark, Katherine; Link, Eva M.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodinated methylene blue contains a mixture of components showing selective uptake in human pigmented melanoma, and it has potential for imaging and therapy. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic studies show that the majority of the radioactivity (85%) is in the form of monoiodinated methylene blue, 4-iodo-3-methylamino-7-dimethylaminophenaza thionium chloride. The amino group ortho-to iodine has become demethylated to a mono-methylamino group. The remainder (15%) of the mixture is the doubly labelled 4,5-diiodo-3,7-bis(methylamino) phenazathionium chloride. The separated components show similar tumour selectivity in athymic mice bearing human pigmented melanomas

  3. Improvement of MRR and surface roughness during electrical discharge machining (EDM) using aluminum oxide powder mixed dielectric fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. A.; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Latif, M. A. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of aluminium oxide (Al203) addition to dielectric fluid during electrical discharge machining (EDM). Aluminium oxide was added to the dielectric used in the EDM process to improve its performance when machining the stainless steel AISI 304, while copper was used as the electrode. Effect of the concentration of Al203 (0.3 mg/L) in dielectric fluid was compared with EDM without any addition of Al203. Surface quality of stainless steel and the material removal rate were investigated. Design of the experiment (DOE) was used for the experimental plan. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and then appropriate model was designated. The experimental results show that with dispersing of aluminium oxide in dielectric fluid surface roughness was improved while the material removal rate (MRR) was increased to some extent. These indicate the improvement of EDM performance using aluminium oxide in dielectric fluid. It was also found that with increase in pulse on time both MRR and surface roughness increase sharply.

  4. MRR and TWR evaluation on electrical discharge machining of Ti-6Al-4V using tungsten : copper composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, J.; Rajamanickam, S.; Amith Kumar, O.; Karthick Raj, G.; Sathya Narayanan, P. V. V.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper Ti-6Al-4V used as workpiece material and it is keenly seen in variety of field including medical, chemical, marine, automotive, aerospace, aviation, electronic industries, nuclear reactor, consumer products etc., The conventional machining of Ti-6Al-4V is very difficult due to its distinctive properties. The Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is right choice of machining this material. The tungsten copper composite material is employed as tool material. The gap voltage, peak current, pulse on time and duty factor is considered as the machining parameter to analyze the machining characteristics Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Tool Wear Rate (TWR). The Taguchi method is provided to work for finding the significant parameter of EDM. It is found that for MRR significant parameters rated in the following order Gap Voltage, Pulse On-Time, Peak Current and Duty Factor. On the other hand for TWR significant parameters are listed in line of Gap Voltage, Duty Factor, Peak Current and Pulse On-Time.

  5. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  6. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by a daily dose of STZ (45 mg kg-1 body weight i.p.) for 5 days. From one day ... alterations in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism ... overnight prior to blood sugar determination and randomly ...

  7. 25-Gb/s transmission over 2.5-km SSMF by silicon MRR enhanced 1.55-μm III-V/SOI DML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco; Ozolins, Oskars

    2017-01-01

    The use of a micro-ring resonator (MRR) to enhance the modulation extinction ratio and dispersion tolerance of a directly modulated laser (DML) is experimentally investigated with a bit rate of 25 Gb/s as proposed for the next generation data center communications. The investigated system combines...

  8. 25-Gb/s Transmission Over 2.5-km SSMF by Silicon MRR Enhanced 1.55-mu m III-V/SOI DML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco; Ozolins, Oskars

    2017-01-01

    The use of a micro-ring resonator (MRR) to enhance the modulation extinction ratio and dispersion tolerance of a directly modulated laser is experimentally investigated with a bit rate of 25 Gb/s as proposed for the next generation data center communications. The investigated system combines a 11...

  9. Methylene blue doped polymers: efficient media for optical recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, R.

    2004-05-01

    Polymer materials find application in optical storage technology, namely in the development of high information density and fast access type memories. A new polymer blend of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) in methanol is prepared and characterized and its comparison with methylene blue sensitized PVA in methanol and complexed methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride (CMBPVC) is presented. The optical absorption spectra of the thin films of these polymers showed a strong and broad absorption region at 670-650 nm, matching the wavelength of the laser used. A very slow recovery of the dye on irradiation was observed when a 7:3 blend of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid at a pH of 3.8 and a sensitizer concentration of 4.67 · 10-5 g/ml were used. A diffraction efficiency of up to 20% was observed for the MBPVA/alcohol system and an energetic sensitivity of 2000 mJ/cm2 was obtained in the photosensitive films with a spatial frequency of 588 lines/mm.

  10. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Ciura, Sorana; Maios, Claudia; Therrien, Martine; Drapeau, Pierre; Kabashi, Edor; Parker, J Alex

    2012-01-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C) or FUS (S57Δ or R521H) that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  11. A study on the effect of tool electrode thickness on MRR, and TWR in electrical discharge turning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Vikas; Puri, YM

    2018-04-01

    Turning by electrical discharge machining (EDM) is an emerging area of research. Generally, wire-EDM is used in EDM turning because it is not concerned with electrode tooling cost. In EDM turning wire electrode leaves cusps on the machined surface because of its small diameters and wire breakage which greatly affect the surface finish of the machined part. Moreover, one of the limitations of the process is low machining speed as compared to constituent processes. In this study, conventional EDM was employed for turning purpose in order to generate free-form cylindrical geometries on difficult-to-cut materials. Therefore, a specially designed turning spindle was mounted on a conventional die-sinking EDM machine to rotate the work piece. A conductive preshaped strip of copper as a forming tool is fed (reciprocate) continuously against the rotating work piece; thus, a mirror image of the tool is formed on the circumference of the work piece. In this way, an axisymmetric work piece can be made with small tools. The developed process is termed as the electrical discharge turning (EDT). In the experiments, the effect of machining parameters, such as pulse-on time, peak current, gap voltage and tool thickness on the MRR, and TWR were investigated and practical machining was carried out by turning of SS-304 stainless steel work piece.

  12. Citrus pectin derived porous carbons as a superior adsorbent toward removal of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenlin; Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-01-01

    An adsorbent, citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of methylene blue, was synthesized by a facile zinc chloride activation approach in this study. The materials hold a great potential for treatment of dye wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward methylene blue removal. - Highlights: • Citrus pectin derived porous carbons (CPPCs) were synthesized a facile zinc chloride activation approach. • CPPCs had abundant macro/meso/micropores for trapping MB molecules. • CPPCs exhibited ultrahigh adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of MB.

  13. Citrus pectin derived porous carbons as a superior adsorbent toward removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenlin [College of Horticulture and landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Zhang, Lian Ying [Institute for Clean Energy & Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhao, Xi Juan [College of Horticulture and landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountainous Regions, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhou, Zhiqin, E-mail: zhouzhiqin@swu.edu.cn [College of Horticulture and landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountainous Regions, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2016-11-15

    An adsorbent, citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of methylene blue, was synthesized by a facile zinc chloride activation approach in this study. The materials hold a great potential for treatment of dye wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward methylene blue removal. - Highlights: • Citrus pectin derived porous carbons (CPPCs) were synthesized a facile zinc chloride activation approach. • CPPCs had abundant macro/meso/micropores for trapping MB molecules. • CPPCs exhibited ultrahigh adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of MB.

  14. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  15. Process for crosslinking methylene-containing aromatic polymers with ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process for crosslinking aromatic polymers containing radiation-sensitive methylene groups (-CH2-) by exposing the polymers to ionizing radiation thereby causing crosslinking of the polymers through the methylene groups is described. Crosslinked polymers are resistant to most organic solvents such as acetone, alcohols, hydrocarbons, methylene, chloride, chloroform, and other halogenated hydrocarbons, to common fuels and to hydraulic fluids in contrast to readily soluble uncrosslinked polymers. In addition, the degree of crosslinking of the polymers depends upon the percentage of the connecting groups which are methylene which ranges from 5 to 50 pct and preferably from 25 to 50 pct of the connecting groups, and is also controlled by the level of irradiation which ranges from 25 to 1000 Mrads and preferably from 25 to 250 Mrads. The temperature of the reaction conditions ranges from 25 to 200 C and preferably at or slightly above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The crosslinked polymers are generally more resistant to degradation at elevated temperatures such as greater than 150 C, have a reduced tendency to creep under load, and show no significant embrittlement of parts fabricated from the polymers.

  16. Investigation of material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) for alloy Ti6Al4 V exposed to heat treatment processing in WEDM and optimization of parameters using Grey relational analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altug, Mehmet [Inonu Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Dept. of Machine and Metal Technologies

    2016-11-01

    The study examines the changes of the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4 V as a result of heat treatment using wire electrical discharge machining, and their effect on machinability. By means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analyses have been performed to determine various characteristics and additionally, microhardness and conductivity measurements have been conducted. Material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) values have been determined by using L18 Taguchi test design. The microstructures of the samples have been changed by thermal procedures. Results have been obtained by using the Grey relational analysis (GRA) optimization technique to solve the maximum MRR and minimum WWR values. The best (highest) MRR value is obtained from sample E which was water quenched in dual phase processing. The microstructure of this sample is composed of primary α and α' phases. The best (lowest) WWR value is obtained from sample A.

  17. Investigation of material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) for alloy Ti6Al4 V exposed to heat treatment processing in WEDM and optimization of parameters using Grey relational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altug, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The study examines the changes of the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4 V as a result of heat treatment using wire electrical discharge machining, and their effect on machinability. By means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analyses have been performed to determine various characteristics and additionally, microhardness and conductivity measurements have been conducted. Material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) values have been determined by using L18 Taguchi test design. The microstructures of the samples have been changed by thermal procedures. Results have been obtained by using the Grey relational analysis (GRA) optimization technique to solve the maximum MRR and minimum WWR values. The best (highest) MRR value is obtained from sample E which was water quenched in dual phase processing. The microstructure of this sample is composed of primary α and α' phases. The best (lowest) WWR value is obtained from sample A.

  18. EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CATION OF ALKYLDIMETHYLBENZYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE AT THE PHASE BOUNDARY WATER-MEMBRANE SOLVENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Luganska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction coefficients of the cation of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride at the phase boundary water-tricresylphosphate, water-dioctylphthalate, water-dibutylphtalate have been determined by the potentiometric titration of the aqueous phase with a silver electrode. The correctness of the obtained results has been proved by the titrimetric method with visual fixation of the equivalence point using methylene blue indicator.

  19. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    Full Text Available The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C or FUS (S57Δ or R521H that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  20. Allene functionalization via bicyclic methylene aziridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boralsky, Luke A; Marston, Dagmara; Grigg, R David; Hershberger, John C; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2011-04-15

    The oxidative functionalization of olefins is a common method for the formation of vicinal carbon-heteroatom bonds. However, oxidative methods to transform allenes into synthetic motifs containing three contiguous carbon-heteroatom bonds are much less developed. This paper describes the use of bicyclic methylene aziridines (MAs), prepared via intramolecular allene aziridination, as scaffolds for functionalization of all three allene carbons. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Radiolysis of methylene blue studied by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contineau, M.; Iliescu, C.; Ciureanu, M.

    1983-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra have been used to gain information on the mechanism of radiolysis of aqueous solutions of methylene blue. The identity and behaviour of the semiquinone radicals formed as intermediate reduction products were discussed for strongly acid and for alcaline solutions. In order to obtain information on the radiolytic mechanism in strongly acidic media, irradiation was performed in the presence of various types of scavengers: sodium formate, glucose, succinic acid, hydroquinone and D,L-α alanine. (author)

  2. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  3. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  4. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  5. 110 GHz hybrid mode-locked fiber laser with enhanced extinction ratio based on nonlinear silicon-on-insulator micro-ring-resonator (SOI MRR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Hsu, Yung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yang, Ling-Gang; Lai, Yin-Chieh; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Tsang, Hon-Ki

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new 110 GHz high-repetition-rate hybrid mode-locked fiber laser using a silicon-on-insulator microring-resonator (SOI MRR) acting as the optical nonlinear element and optical comb filter simultaneously. By incorporating a phase modulator (PM) that is electrically driven at a fraction of the harmonic frequency, an enhanced extinction ratio (ER) of the optical pulses can be produced. The ER of the optical pulse train increases from 3 dB to 10 dB. As the PM is only electrically driven by the signal at a fraction of the harmonic frequency, in this case 22 GHz (110 GHz/5 GHz), a low bandwidth PM and driving circuit can be used. The mode-locked pulse width and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth of the proposed mode-locked fiber laser are measured, showing that the optical pulses are nearly transform limited. Moreover, stability evaluation for an hour is performed, showing that the proposed laser can achieve stable mode-locking without the need for optical feedback or any other stabilization mechanism. (letter)

  6. Compound list: methylene dianiline [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available methylene dianiline DAPM 00155 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/methyle...es/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/methylene_dianiline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc....jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/methylene_dianiline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ... ...ne_dianiline.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggat

  7. The use of chemical modified chitosan with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ilauro S.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of a-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically in L class and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methylene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 ± 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 ± 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 ± 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 ± 0.4 and -21.5 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. (author)

  8. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  9. Characterization of Antimicrobial Substances Produced by Enterococcus faecalis MRR 10-3, Isolated from the Uropygial Gland of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; Valdivia, Eva; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The uropygial gland (preen gland) is a holocrine secretory gland situated at the base of the tail in birds which produces a hydrophobic fatty secretion. In certain birds, such as the hoopoe, Upupa epops, the composition of this secretion is influenced by both seasonal and sexual factors, becoming darker and more malodorous in females and in their nestlings during the nesting phase. The secretion is spread throughout the plumage when the bird preens itself, leaving its feathers flexible and waterproof. It is also thought to play a role in defending the bird against predators and parasites. We have isolated from the uropygial secretion of a nestling a bacterium that grows in monospecific culture which we have identified unambiguously by phenotypic and genotypic means as Enterococcus faecalis. The strain in question produces antibacterial substances that are active against all gram-positive bacteria assayed and also against some gram-negative strains. Its peptide nature identifies it as a bacteriocin within the group known as enterocins. Two peptides were purified to homogeneity (MR10A and MR10B), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (mass spectrometry) analysis showed masses of 5201.58 and 5207.7 Da, respectively. Amino acid sequencing of both peptides revealed high similarity with enterocin L50A and L50B (L. M. Cintas, P. Casaus, H. Holo, P. E. Hernández, I. F. Nes, and L. S. Håvarstein, J. Bacteriol. 180:1988-1994, 1998). PCR amplification of total DNA from strain MRR10-3 with primers for the L50A/B structural genes and sequencing of the amplified fragment revealed almost identical sequences, except for a single conservative change in residue 38 (Glu→Asp) in MR10A and two changes in residues 9 (Thr→Ala) and 15 (Leu→Phe) in MR10B. This is the first time that the production of bacteriocins by a bacterium isolated from the uropygial gland has been described. The production of these broad-spectrum antibacterial substances by an

  10. Characterization of antimicrobial substances produced by Enterococcus faecalis MRR 10-3, isolated from the uropygial gland of the hoopoe (Upupa epops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Platero, Antonio M; Valdivia, Eva; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2006-06-01

    The uropygial gland (preen gland) is a holocrine secretory gland situated at the base of the tail in birds which produces a hydrophobic fatty secretion. In certain birds, such as the hoopoe, Upupa epops, the composition of this secretion is influenced by both seasonal and sexual factors, becoming darker and more malodorous in females and in their nestlings during the nesting phase. The secretion is spread throughout the plumage when the bird preens itself, leaving its feathers flexible and waterproof. It is also thought to play a role in defending the bird against predators and parasites. We have isolated from the uropygial secretion of a nestling a bacterium that grows in monospecific culture which we have identified unambiguously by phenotypic and genotypic means as Enterococcus faecalis. The strain in question produces antibacterial substances that are active against all gram-positive bacteria assayed and also against some gram-negative strains. Its peptide nature identifies it as a bacteriocin within the group known as enterocins. Two peptides were purified to homogeneity (MR10A and MR10B), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (mass spectrometry) analysis showed masses of 5201.58 and 5207.7 Da, respectively. Amino acid sequencing of both peptides revealed high similarity with enterocin L50A and L50B (L. M. Cintas, P. Casaus, H. Holo, P. E. Hernández, I. F. Nes, and L. S. Håvarstein, J. Bacteriol. 180:1988-1994, 1998). PCR amplification of total DNA from strain MRR10-3 with primers for the L50A/B structural genes and sequencing of the amplified fragment revealed almost identical sequences, except for a single conservative change in residue 38 (Glu-->Asp) in MR10A and two changes in residues 9 (Thr-->Ala) and 15 (Leu-->Phe) in MR10B. This is the first time that the production of bacteriocins by a bacterium isolated from the uropygial gland has been described. The production of these broad-spectrum antibacterial substances by an

  11. Combined Exposure of Methylene Chloride and Carbon Monoxide in Smoking and Nonsmoking Paint Strippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    colorless volatile liquid whose solubility in water is minimal. It is completely miscible with most organic solvents (1). It is nonflammable and has a...University oi Utah will provide you, without charge, emergency and temporary medical tratament not otherwise covered by Insurance. Furthermore, if your

  12. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping Mechanism for Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    NS neutron scattering OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PALS positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy PhOH phenol PI... annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS)10, which can be used to identify microstructures and free volume properties of organic coatings and, thus...4-3 4.2.1.3 Application Methods

  13. Analgesic effects of the methylene chloride/methanol extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CH2Cl2/CH3OH) extract of Laportea ovalifolia (Urticaceae) were evaluated using acetic acid and formalin test. The anticonvulsant effects of the same extract were also investigated on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and picrotoxin.

  14. Health risk assessment of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in California ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; Wright, K.; McKone, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to dichloromethane (DCM) dissolved in California drinking water, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential cancer risk that may be associated with such exposures to DCM. This assessment is being provided to the California Environmental Protection Agency for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of DCM exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with DCM. The primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate scientifically plausible dose-response relationships for observed and potential DCM-induced cancer in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that win protect members of the general public from this chronic toxicity endpoint resulting solely from groundwater-based exposures to DCM, based on information obtained from the scientific literature. The document consists of seven sections, plus one supporting appendix. Each section provides information that can be used to develop DCM drinking-water standards that will safeguard human health. Evaluation of this information in support of specific groundwater safety standards for DCM was not conducted in this report; rather, the basis for selection of alternative standards, along with a narrative description of certain key sources of underlying uncertainty, are presented for evaluation through the regulatory risk-management process

  15. Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    observing NMR of the solvent molecules themselves, 1H NMR can be useful in more highly swollen cases such as chloroform in copolymer gel beads,14 or in...Polyurethane Topcoat. Part A Raw Material Wt % Part B Raw Material Wt % Methyl N- propyl ketone 1 Polyurethane resin 43 Methyl N-amyl ketone 7 N-Butyl...2 5.5 N-Butyl acetate 2 Methyl N-amyl ketone 8.9 Methyl N- propyl ketone 1.3 Anti-oxidant 0.4 UV absorber 0.6 UV Stabilizer 1.3

  16. Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in setting acute exposure guideline levels for methylene chloride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Peter Martinus Jozef; Zeilmaker, Marco Jacob; Eijkeren, Jan Cornelis Henri van

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) are derived to protect the human population from adverse health effects in case of single exposure due to an accidental release of chemicals into the atmosphere. AEGLs are set at three different levels of increasing toxicity for exposure durations ranging from

  17. Adsorption of methylene blue onto treated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin Yasin; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Faujan Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    The potential feasibility of treated and untreated activated carbon for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of various experimental parameters such as contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dosage were investigated. The extent of methylene blue removal increased with the increased in contact time, solution pH and amount of adsorbent used. Adsorption data was better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The results in this study indicated that the treated activated carbon was an attractive candidate for removing organic dye of methylene blue which shows great reduction of colour while reducing the time contact to achieve equilibrium. (author)

  18. POLY[3-(METHACRYLOYLAMINO)PROPYL]TRIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE HYDROGEL. SYNTHESIS AND WATER-ABSORPTION CAPACITY.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Bernabé L.; Canessa, Guido S.; Martínez, Esteban

    2000-01-01

    The radical polymerization of [3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride by using ammonium persulfate as initiator and N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide as crosslinker reagent was carried out. The polymers were completely insoluble in water and characterized by FT IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The effect of the crosslinker reagent on the water sorption capacity was investigated. The highest water-absorption (46.6 g of water/ g of xerogel) was observed with the lowest mol% of c...

  19. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Batch Adsorption Study of Methylene Blue in Aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    of methylene blue (azo dye) from the synthetic industrial wastewater was investigated in a batch system. Rice husk and coconut shell were ... the textiles, rubber, paper, plastics, cosmetic, and .... wastewater by. Fenton's oxidation: Kinetic study.

  1. Photodynamic action of the methylene blue: mutagenesis and sinergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two aspects of photodynamic therapy were studied: the associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents, in order to increase its biological effects. The photodynamic action with methylene blue in the mutagenesis and sinergism is studied. (L.M.J.)

  2. INTERACTION MODE BETWEEN METHYLENE BLUE-Sm(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange .... the complex was recorded as KBr pellets on Spectrum One FTIR system (PE Company, USA), ..... mechanism of drugs and drug design.

  3. DNA Electrochemistry with Tethered Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheeney, Catrina G.

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB′), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C12 alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB′ is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB′–DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)–DNA, indicating that MB′ is even more strongly coupled to the π-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB′ on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB′ at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

  4. The Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C): a potential rover mission for 2018. Final report of the Mars Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) October 14, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report documents the work of the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG), which was assigned to formulate a concept for a potential rover mission that could be launched to Mars in 2018. Based on programmatic and engineering considerations as of April 2009, our deliberations assumed that the potential mission would use the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sky-crane landing system and include a single solar-powered rover. The mission would also have a targeting accuracy of approximately 7 km (semimajor axis landing ellipse), a mobility range of at least 10 km, and a lifetime on the martian surface of at least 1 Earth year. An additional key consideration, given recently declining budgets and cost growth issues with MSL, is that the proposed rover must have lower cost and cost risk than those of MSL--this is an essential consideration for the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG). The MRR-SAG was asked to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps toward the potential return of samples to Earth. The proposed means of achieving these two goals while balancing the trade-offs between them are described here in detail. We propose the name Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher(MAX-C) to reflect the dual purpose of this potential 2018 rover mission.

  5. Methylene Blue for Vasoplegic Syndrome Postcardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Aly Makram; Elsherbeny, Ahmed Galal; Almehizia, Rayd Abdelaziz

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can be complicated by vasoplegia that is refractory to vasopressors. Methylene blue (MB) represents an alternative in such cases. Patients and Methods: Retrospective observational historical control-matched study. From 2010 to 2015, all patients who received MB for vasoplegia post-CPB were included in this study. Historical controls from the period of 2004 to 2009 were matched. End-points were the time till improvement of vasoplegia (Ti), 30-day mortality, cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU) morbidity, and length of stay (LOS). Results: Twenty-eight patients were matched in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in demographic, laboratory data on admission, or hemodynamic profile before use of MB. Ti and time to complete discontinuation of vasopressors were statistically significant less in MB group (8.2 ± 2.6 vs. 29.7 ± 6.4, P = 0.00 and 22.6 ± 5.2 vs. 55.3 ± 9.4, P = 0.00) respectively. Mortality at day 30 was significantly higher in controls compared to MB (1 patient [3.6%] vs. 6 patients [21.4%], long rank P = 0.04). CSICU, hospital LOS, and incidence of renal failure was significantly higher in control group (12.4 ± 3.7 vs. 7 ± 1.4, P = 0.03), (19.5 ± 2.4 vs. 10.9 ± 3.2, P = 0.05) and (9 patients [32.1%] vs. 2 patients [7.1%], P = 0.04), respectively. Duration of mechanical ventilation was less in MB patients; however, did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: the use of MB for vasoplegia postcardiac surgery was associated with rapid recovery of hemodynamics, shorter need for vasopressors, less ICU mortality, less incidence of renal failure, and shorter LOS. PMID:29657374

  6. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  7. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  8. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  9. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  10. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  11. Effect of halideions on the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of methylene blue for borohydride-reduced silver colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiao; Gu Huaimin; Liu Fang

    2011-01-01

    The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of methylene blue (MB) was studied when adding a range of halideions to borohydride-reduced silver colloid. The halideions such as chloride, bromide and iodide were added as aggregating agents to study the effects of halideions on SERS spectroscopy of MB and observe which halideion gives the greatest enhancement for borohydride-reduced silver colloids. The SERS spectra of MB were also detected over a wide range of concentrations of halideions to find the optimum concentration of halideions for SERS enhancement. From the results of this study, the intensity of SERS signal of MB was enhanced significantly when adding halideions to the colloid. Among the three kinds of halideions, chloride gives the greatest enhancement on SERS signal. The enhancement factors for MB with optimal concentration of chloride, bromide and iodide are 3.44x10 4 , 2.04x10 4 , and 1.0x10 4 , respectively. The differences of the SERS spectra of MB when adding different kinds and concentrations of halideions to the colloid may be attributed to the both effects of extent of aggregation of the colloid and the modification of silver surface chemistry. The purpose of this study is to further investigate the effect of halideions on borohydride-reduced silver colloid and to make the experimental conditions suitable for detecting some analytes in high efficiency on rational principles.

  12. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the removal of textile dye methylene blue was studied by adsorption technique using adsorbents such as, alumina, Ulva lactuca and Sargassum (Maine algae). The batch technique was adopted under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, stay time, concentration, temperature and pH. By using ...

  13. Methylene blue adsorption from glycerol solution onto the acicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α-goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the Langmuir, ...

  14. Interaction mode between methylene blue-Sm(III) complex and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectroscopic and viscosity methods were applied to investigate the interaction between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange as a spectral probe in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.40). By means of molar ratio method, the binding ratios between MB-Sm(III)and DNA were determined ...

  15. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk. On inhalation, it can cause difficulty in breathing, while on direct contact, it may cause permanent injury of the eyes of human and animals, burning sensations, nausea, worming, profuse sweating, mental confusion and ...

  16. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of dye methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface of sheep wool and cotton fibers was accomplished under the optimize conditions of temperature, concentration, pH, stay time duration and quantity of adsorbent. Spectrometric technique was used for the measurements of concentration of dye before ...

  17. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  18. Sorption characteristics of methylene blue onto Nypa fruiticans lignin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorption characteristics of soda lignin extracted from Nypa fruiticans for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution was investigated in this study, as an ethically sound way of utilizing this unexploited abundant natural resource. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm ...

  19. Borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P T; Russo, A; Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-07-01

    Borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 C. At 30 C polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. At 35 C, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. At 60 C polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. When the pH of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to pH 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated at 60 C for extended periods. When used as a blood stain 0.4 ml borax methylene blue (1% methylene blue in 1% borax), 4 ml acetone, 2 ml borax-acid phosphate buffer to bring the solution to pH 6.5, and distilled water to make 40 ml, with 0.2 ml 1% eosin added just before using, an excellent Nocht-Giemsa type stain is achieved after 30 minutes staining. The material plasmodia P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei stain moderate blue with dark red chromatin and green to black pigment granules. The study confirms Malachowski's 1891 results and explains Gautier's 1896-98 failure to duplicate it.

  20. 21 CFR 558.76 - Bacitracin methylene disalicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.76 Bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (a) Approvals. Type A.... (b) Special considerations. The quantities of antibiotics are expressed in terms of the equivalent...

  1. Use of Aspergillus wentii for biosorption of methylene blue from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Aspergillus wentii was used as a biosorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on biosorption were investigated. The contact time required (that is, the equilibrium time) for maximum dye biosorption was ...

  2. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  3. Products of the reaction between methylene iodide and tertiary arsines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigauri, R.D.; Arabuli, L.G.; Machaidze, Z.I.; Rusiya, M.Sh.

    2005-01-01

    Iodides of iodomethylenetrialkyl(aryl) arsonium were synthesized with high yields as a result of interaction between methylene iodide and tertiary arsines. Exchange reactions of the iodides prepared with lead(II) nitrate in water-alcohol solutions gave rise to formation of iodomethylenetrialkyl(aryl) arsonium nitrates. All the products prepared were characterized by data of elementary analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductometry and melting points measurements [ru

  4. Extraosseous uptake of 99sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Kun, L.; Casper, J.; Babbitt, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of 99 sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphate ( 99 sup(m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of 99 sup(m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor. (orig.) [de

  5. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud; Joseph Y. Farah; Taha E. Farrag

    2013-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liqui...

  6. Photodynamic action of methylene blue: mutagenesis and synergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents in order to potencialize its biological effects are studied. The induction of mutation in bacterias due to photodynamic action of methylene blue is presented as well as the induction of single breaks in bacterial DNA and the relationship between the repair systems, especially the SOS one. The interaction of the photodynamic therapy with low intensity electric current is discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe 3 O 4 -GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe 3 O 4 enabled the magnetic separation of Fe 3 O 4 -GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe 3 O 4 -GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -GS. The facile regeneration of Fe 3 O 4 -GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed

  8. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by dehydrated peanut hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Dursun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Dursun, Guelbeyi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: gdursun@firat.edu.tr; Ozer, Ahmet [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    Dyes are colour organic compounds which can colorize the other substances. These substances usually presents in the effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing and cosmetics. To observe the potential feasibility of removing colour, peanut hull as an agricultural by-product was dehydrated with sulphuric acid (DPH) and used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as initial methylene blue concentrations, temperatures and particle sizes were examined and optimal experimental conditions were determined. Adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model, although they could be modelled by the Freundlich model as well. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The mass transfer model as intraparticle diffusion was applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of rate controlling step. It was found that at the higher initial MB concentration, intraparticle diffusion is becoming significant controlling step. The thermodynamic constants of the adsorption process were also evaluated by using the Langmuir constants related to the equilibrium of adsorption at different temperatures. The results in this study indicated that dehydrated peanut hull was a good adsorbent for removing methylene blue.

  9. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  10. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  11. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  12. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao, E-mail: yangst@pku.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} enabled the magnetic separation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS. The facile regeneration of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed.

  13. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  14. Nanomolar determination of 4-nitrophenol based on a poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Munusamy, Settu; Kumar, Sivakumar Praveen; Muthamizh, Selvamani; Narayanan, Vengidusamy

    2013-10-07

    A poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PMB/GCE) was fabricated by electropolymerisation of methylene blue on a GCE and further utilized to investigate the electrochemical determination of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The morphology of the PMB on GCE was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An oxidation peak of 4-NP at the PMB modified electrode was observed at 0.28 V, and in the case of bare GCE, no oxidation peak was observed, which indicates that PMB/GCE exhibits a remarkable effect on the electrochemical determination of 4-NP. Due to this remarkable effect of PMB/GCE, a sensitive and simple electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of 4-NP. The effect of the scan rate and pH was investigated to determine the optimum conditions at which the PMB/GCE exhibits a higher sensitivity with a lower detection limit. Moreover, kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer number, proton transfer number and standard heterogeneous rate constant were calculated. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 4-NP is proportional to its concentration in the range of 15-250 nM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9963. The detection limit was found to be 90 nM (S/N = 3). The proposed method based on PMB/GCE is simple, easy and cost effective. To further confirm its possible application, the proposed method was successfully used for the determination of 4-NP in real water samples with recoveries ranging from 97% to 101.6%. The interference due to sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, sulphate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate and phosphate was found to be almost negligible.

  15. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  16. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, O L

    1921-02-25

    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  18. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  1. Redox reactions of methylene blue: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Guha, S.N.; Mahadevan, J.; Moorthy, P.N.; Mittal, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    One-electron oxidation of methylene blue (MB - has been studied using specific oxidizing radicals such as Cl 2 - , Br 2 - , N 3 and Tl(II) in acidic and neutral aqueous solutions). The transient spectrum showed absorption maxima at 525 nm and 360 nm in the acidic pH region. At neutral pH also the absorption maxima were at 525 and 360 nm but the extinction coefficients were lower by 30%. A pK a of ∼4.3 was observed for the equilibrium MBH 3+ MB 2+ + H + . In the case of N 3 radical as the oxidant, the equilibrium: N 3 + MB = N 3 - + MB 2+ was observed for which an equilibrium constant of 120 was estimated from the experimental data. From this as well as from cyclic voltammetric experiments, the redox potential for the MB 2+ /MB + couple was calculated as 1.25 V vs NHE. The transient species produced by the reaction of OH radicals with methylene blue gave a very different spectrum with λ m = 400nm and a pK a of ∼ 8.6, and hence it is inferred that OH radicals do not bring about one-electron oxidation of the molecule. (author)

  2. Nuclear overhauser spectroscopy of chiral CHD methylene groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, Rafal [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Stanek, Jan [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Colaux, Henri; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Koźmiński, Wiktor [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Herrmann, Torsten [Université de Lyon/UMR 5280 CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs (France); Ferrage, Fabien, E-mail: Fabien.Ferrage@ens.fr [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France)

    2016-01-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) can provide a great deal of information about structure and dynamics of biomolecules. The quality of an NMR structure strongly depends on the number of experimental observables and on their accurate conversion into geometric restraints. When distance restraints are derived from nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), stereo-specific assignments of prochiral atoms can contribute significantly to the accuracy of NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids. Here we introduce a series of NOESY-based pulse sequences that can assist in the assignment of chiral CHD methylene protons in random fractionally deuterated proteins. Partial deuteration suppresses spin-diffusion between the two protons of CH{sub 2} groups that normally impedes the distinction of cross-relaxation networks for these two protons in NOESY spectra. Three and four-dimensional spectra allow one to distinguish cross-relaxation pathways involving either of the two methylene protons so that one can obtain stereospecific assignments. In addition, the analysis provides a large number of stereospecific distance restraints. Non-uniform sampling was used to ensure optimal signal resolution in 4D spectra and reduce ambiguities of the assignments. Automatic assignment procedures were modified for efficient and accurate stereospecific assignments during automated structure calculations based on 3D spectra. The protocol was applied to calcium-loaded calbindin D{sub 9k}. A large number of stereospecific assignments lead to a significant improvement of the accuracy of the structure.

  3. Methylene blue adsorption in clay mineral dealt with organic cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.L.; Lemos, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction among organic cations, as the methylene blue (AM) and benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA), and clay minerals of the group of the smectite they result in the formation of applied materials in the adsorption of organic pollutant presents in waters, soils and you cultivate. In this work they were prepared the adsorbents (organic-clays) smectite - AM and smectite-BTMA. The precursory sample of smectite was collected in Rio Branco-Acre. We were also used an smectite sample collected in Sena Madureira (SM)-Acre already characterized in previous work and a sample of standard smectite Swy-2-Na-Montmorillonite (SWy-2) of Wymong - USA. The organic agents selected for this study they were: Blue of Methylene, denominated AM and Benzyltrimethylammonium, denominated BTMA. They were appraised the capacities adsorptive of the treated samples with BTMA being used AM as adsorbate. The results of these evaluations detected that ran total adsorption of AM (concentrations varying from 1 to 10 ppm) for the treated samples with BTMA. The organic cation, BTMA, interacting with the surfaces of the natural clay was more efficient in the adsorption of AM than the clay without the previous treatment with this salt. (author)

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF METHYLENE BLUE IN NON-AQUEOUS SOLVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caram, J.A.; Suárez, J.F. Martínez; Gennaro, A.M.; Mirífico, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The dye is electro-reduced in two separated monoelectronic charge transfers. • Solvent/supporting electrolyte/acid/base modifies the electrochemical parameters. • A dissociation equilibrium of the dye in non-aqueous solvent is proposed. • The electro-generated and stable dye-radical is also chemically produced in EDA or KOH/DMF. • A new species is reversibly formed in KOH/EtOH or ACN. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of methylene blue in solution of non-aqueous solvents with different supporting electrolytes was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Dye electro-reduction presents two well-defined processes of monoelectronic charge transfer yielding a free radical in the first process and an anion in the second electron transfer. Free radical and anion are long living species in some of the studied media. Effects of supporting electrolyte and solvent on the peak potentials, the peak current functions and the reversibility of the charge transfer processes are reported. A dissociation equilibrium of the dye in solution of non-aqueous solvents and the acid or base added determine markedly the electrochemical responses. In the particular cases of KOH/DMF or EDA basic media the chemical formation of the stable methylene blue radical was detected and it was characterized by EPR spectroscopy. A general reaction scheme is proposed

  5. Calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids as promising effectors of biochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Komisarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study, performed with participation of research workers of Palladin Institute of Biochemistry and Institute of Organic Chemist­ry of NAS of Ukraine, is devoted to analysis of biochemical effects of some calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids (cyclic phenol oligomers on two well-known biological phenomenons – Mg2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis (myosin subfragment-1 of myometrium smooth muscle was used as an example and fibrin polymerization. Calix[4]arene С-97 (calix[4]arene methylene bisphosphonic acids is a macrocyclic substance, which contains intramolecular highly ordered lipophilic cavity formed by four aromatic rings, one of which is functionalized at the upper rim with methylene bisphosphonic group. At concentration of 100 µM, this substance was shown to effectively inhibit ATPase activity of pig myometrium myosin subfragment-1 (inhibition coefficient І0.5 = 83 ± 7 µM. At the same time, this calix[4]arene causes significant (vs. control increase of myosin subfragment-1 hydrodynamic diameter, which may indicate formation of an intermolecular complex between calixa­rene and myosin head. Computer simulation methods (docking and molecular dynamics with addition of grid technologies enabled to elucidate the grounds of intermolecular interactions between calix[4]arene С-97 and myometrium myosin subfragment-1, that involve hydrophobic, electrostatic and π-π-stacking interactions, some of which are close to the ATPase active centre. In view of the ability of calixarenes to penetrate into the cell and their low toxicity, the results obtained may be used as a basis for further development of a new generation of supramolecular effectors (starting from the above mentioned substances, in particular calix[4]arene С-97 for regulation of smooth muscle contractile activity at the level of ATP dependent actin-myosin interaction. Calix[4]arenes bearing two or four methylenebisphosphonic acid groups at the macrocyclic upper

  6. Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, W.H.; Miller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents...

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  8. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  9. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  10. 75 FR 24509 - Notice of Availability of the Regulatory Flexibility Act Review of the Methylene Chloride Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Register Notice and any news releases will become available at the OSHA Webpage at http://www.OSHA.gov... stripping, metal cleaning and the manufacture of plastics and adhesives. Without proper ventilation or...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride...

  12. Preparation of pure anhydrous rare earth chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kova, N.L.; Slastenova, N.M.; Batyaev, I.M.; Solov'ev, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been suggested for obtaining extra-pure anhydrous REE chlorides by chloridizing corresponding oxalates by chlorine in a fluid bed, the chloridizing agents being diluted by an inert gas in a ratio of 2-to-1. The method is applicable to the manufacture of quality chlorides not only of light, but also of heavy REE. Neodymium chloride has an excited life of tau=30 μs, this evidencing the absence of the damping impurities

  13. Study of extraction-spectrophotometric micro-determination of boron with methylene blue and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Daohong

    1990-08-01

    A sensitive extraction-spectrophotometric method for microdetermination of boron with methylene blue was investigated. The method was based on the extraction of a BF 4 - -methylene blue complex into dichloroethane. Boron was determined directly by measuring the absorbance at 658 nm. The calibration graph was linear over the range of 2.5 x 10 -9 to 8 x 10 -8 g/mL. The blank, mechanism of the reactions, interference of other ions and some optimum conditions of the method were studied in detail. The main source of the blank resulted from methylene blue and the complex of F - -methylene blue. In order to reduce the blank, the amounts of methylene blue, H 2 SO 4 and HF were used as less as possible. Only one to one complex BF 4 - -methylene blue was formed in the medium of H 2 SO 4 . About 90% of methylene blue and F - -methylene blue complex was removre with 5 ml of water and only a little amount of BF 4 -methylene blue complex was decomposed. The extraction-spectrophotometric method with methylene blue was first applied to the microdetermination of boron in sodium metal and UF 6 . The sample of sodium metal was taken and weighed in the glovebox filled with argon. Then sodium metal was oxidized, hydrolyzed, netralized and fluorizated with H 2 O, H 2 SO 4 and HF, respectively. The 0.5 ppm of boron in sodium metal was determined with a relative error about ±4%. This method can be applied to the determination of boron in sodium metal, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide at diffeent grades. The species of boron in the hydrolysate of UF 6 is BF 4 - anion, so the sample can be directly analyzed. Boron contents in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 ppm was determined with a relative error about ±3%. Six samples could be analysed in 2h

  14. Reaction of calcium chloride with alkali metal chlorides in melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermochemical characteristics of CaCl 2 reaction with sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in melts at 890 deg C are determined. The values of formation enthalpies of infinitely diluted by CaCl 2 solutions (ΔH) in the chloride row increase from -22 in NaCl to -47 kJ/mol of CaCl 2 in CsCl. With increasing the concentration of calcium chloride in the solution the ΔH values decrease. The regularities of separation from the solution of the CaCl 2 -CsCl system at 890 deg C of the CaCl 2 x CsCl in solid are studied. Formation enthalpies under the given conditions constitutes -70+-3 kJ/mol

  15. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  16. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scanning in osteoarthritic hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Macfarlane, D.G.; Homoeopathic Hospital, Tunbridge; Fogelman, I.; Emery, P.

    1991-01-01

    In this prospective study, the radiological features characteristic of osteoarthritis of the hand were compared with the radionuclide bone scan images. A total of 32 patients was assessed at 6-monthly intervals for 18 months. Microfocal radiographs were taken at each visit. The high magnification and resolution of this technique permitted direct measurement of joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte number and area and juxta-articular radiolucency area for each joint in the hand. Four-hour technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with each X-radiographic feature at every visit and the changes between visits analysed. The scan scores did not correlate with any of the X-radiographic features other than osteophyte size. During the study the size of growing and remodelling osteophytes increased significantly at joints with raised or increased isotope uptake. (orig.)

  17. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scanning in osteoarthritic hands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; Lynch, J.A. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Macfarlane, D.G. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Anatomy Homoeopathic Hospital, Tunbridge (UK). Dept. of Rheumatology); Fogelman, I. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Emery, P. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Rheumatology)

    1991-01-01

    In this prospective study, the radiological features characteristic of osteoarthritis of the hand were compared with the radionuclide bone scan images. A total of 32 patients was assessed at 6-monthly intervals for 18 months. Microfocal radiographs were taken at each visit. The high magnification and resolution of this technique permitted direct measurement of joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte number and area and juxta-articular radiolucency area for each joint in the hand. Four-hour technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with each X-radiographic feature at every visit and the changes between visits analysed. The scan scores did not correlate with any of the X-radiographic features other than osteophyte size. During the study the size of growing and remodelling osteophytes increased significantly at joints with raised or increased isotope uptake. (orig.).

  18. New diphosphonate compounds for skeletal imaging: comparison with methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Feld, T.A.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.

    1983-01-01

    Three-hour biodistribution of Tc-99m complexes of six diphosphonates was compared in rabbits with tibial lesions to determine which was best for detection of focal bone lesions. Sr-85 was used as a standard. N,N-dimethylaminomethylene diphosphonate (DMAD) was the only agent with a higher lesion/normal bone ratio than methylene diphosphonate (MDP), attributable to lower concentration in normal bone. Hydroxymethane diphosphonate (HDP) and 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate (DPD) demonstrated higher concentration than MDP in normal bone without improving lesion contrast. They also exhibited much higher uptake in the liver and kidney, as well as muscle and red marrow in the case of DPD. None was superior to MDP as an all-purpose skeletal agent, though others may be better for specific applications

  19. Obtaining multifunctional composites using styrofoam recycling: methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.H. da; Ferreira, B.F.; Faria, E.H. de; Ciuffi, K.J.; Calefi, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    There is high risk of environmental contamination by the textile industry if the generated waste is disposed into water streams and rivers. Another sector responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste is the styrofoam industry, since styrofoam is employed in various areas for packaging production. Therefore, today there is constant search for sustainable economic growth by means of materials recycling and reduction of residual pollutants. In this context, the present work aims to promote styrofoam recycling with its further utilization in the production of a kaolin-styrofoam composite for application as adsorbent of methylene blue originated from textile industry effluents. This adsorption is investigated in a column system, by exploiting the adsorptive properties of kaolin, such as large surface area and chemical and structural characteristics. The obtained materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Wiring of heme enzymes by methylene-blue labeled dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh; Ferapontova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Redox-modified branched 3D dendrimeric nanostructures may be considered as perspective wires for electrical connection between redox enzymes and electrodes. Here, we studied electron transfer (ET) reactions and bioelectrocatalysis of heme-containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and heme- and moli......Redox-modified branched 3D dendrimeric nanostructures may be considered as perspective wires for electrical connection between redox enzymes and electrodes. Here, we studied electron transfer (ET) reactions and bioelectrocatalysis of heme-containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and heme......- and molibdopterin-containing sulfite oxidase (SOx), wired to gold by the methylene blue (MB)-labeled polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. The enzymes’ electrochemical transformation and bioelectrocatalytic function could be followed at both unlabeled and MB-labeled dendrimer-modified electrodes with the formal redox......, optimization of bioelectrocatalysis of complex intermembrane and, possibly, membrane enzymes....

  1. Solvent mimicry with methylene carbene to probe protein topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Gabriela Elena; Monti, José Luis E; Mundo, Mariana Rocío; Delfino, José María

    2015-10-06

    The solvent accessible surface area (SASA) of the polypeptide chain plays a key role in protein folding, conformational change, and interaction. This fundamental biophysical parameter is elusive in experimental measurement. Our approach to this problem relies on the reaction of the minimal photochemical reagent diazirine (DZN) with polypeptides. This reagent (i) exerts solvent mimicry because its size is comparable to water and (ii) shows scant chemical selectivity because it generates extremely reactive methylene carbene. Methylation gives rise to the EM (extent of modification) signal, which is useful for scrutinizing the conformational change triggered by Ca(2+) binding to calmodulin (CaM). The increased EM observed for the full protein is dominated by the enhanced exposure of hydrophobic area in Ca(2+)-CaM. Fragmentation allowed us to quantify the methylene incorporation at specific sites. Peptide 91-106 reveals a major reorganization around the calcium 151 binding site, resulting in local ordering and a greater exposure of the hydrophobic surface. Additionally, this technique shows a high sensitivity to probe recognition between CaM and melittin (Mel). The large decrease in EM indicates the occlusion of a significant hydrophobic area upon complexation. Protection from labeling reveals a larger involvement of the N-terminal and central regions of CaM in this interaction. Despite its smaller size, Mel's differential exposure can also be quantified. Moreover, MS/MS fragmentation realizes the goal of extending the resolution of labeled sites at the amino acid level. Overall, DZN labeling emerges as a useful footprinting method capable of shedding light on physiological conformational changes and interactions.

  2. Concentration determination of methyl magnesium chloride and other Grignard reagents by potentiometric titration with in-line characterization of reaction species by FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yadan; Wang, Tao; Helmy, Roy; Zhou, George X; LoBrutto, Rosario

    2002-07-01

    A potentiometric titration method for methyl magnesium chloride and other Grignard reagents based on the reaction with 2-butanol in THF has been developed and validated. The method employs a commercially available platinum electrode, using an electrolyte compatible with non-aqueous solvents. Well-defined titration curves were obtained, along with excellent method precision. The endpoint was precisely determined based on the first derivative of the titration curve. Different solvents such as THF, diethyl ether and methylene chloride provided similar results with regard to sharpness of the endpoint and method precision. The method was applied to a wide array of Grignard reagents including methyl magnesium bromide, ethyl magnesium chloride, propyl magnesium chloride, vinyl magnesium chloride, phenyl magnesium chloride, and benzyl magnesium chloride with similar precision and accuracy. Application of in-line FTIR was demonstrated for in situ monitoring of the titration reaction, allowing characterization of the reaction species. An authentic spectrum of the MeMgCl-THF complex was obtained using spectral subtraction and the vibrational absorbance bands were identified. FTIR also provided an alternative for detecting the titration endpoint, and the titration results so obtained, provided a cross-validation of the accuracy of the potentiometric titration.

  3. Complications of Methylene Blue Dye in Breast Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FJ Reyes, MB Noelck, C Valentino, L Grasso-LeBeau, JE Lang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methylene blue dye has been used worldwide successfully with few complications in breast surgery. We present two different complications involving methylene blue: 1 skin and parenchymal necrosis when dye was injected in a subdermal fashion and 2 Mycoplasma infection caused by contaminated methylene blue in breast reduction surgery.Methods: We present two cases seen at the University of Arizona during 2008 and referred to a breast surgeon for management. We evaluated and managed complications of methylene blue dye injected by 2 referring surgeons for different indications. A review of the literature was performed.Results: The first case is a 67 year old female diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast for which she was treated by her initial surgeon with left segmental mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy. The operating surgeon injected methylene blue in a subareolar subdermal fashion (distant from the primary tumor; unfortunately the patient suffered skin and breast necrosis requiring multiple surgical debridements and finally achieving delayed primary closure. The second case is a 45 year old female with infiltrating lobular carcinoma with a history of Mycoplasma infection secondary to methylene blue injected for breast reduction surgery. She required multiple debridements and had granulomas masquerading as cancer on MRI that confounded her extent of disease.Conclusions: The use of methylene blue dye in breast surgery is not without risk. In both cases methylene blue was responsible for complications requiring surgical debridement for local wound problems. In each case severe necrosis and infection were present. Methylene blue may cause not only significant morbidity, but may also produce cosmetically unsatisfactory results.

  4. Methylene Blue for Vasoplegia When on Cardiopulmonary Bypass During Double-Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Michelle; Schaff, Jacob; Lai, Terrance; Poppers, Jeremy

    2015-10-15

    Vasoplegia syndrome, characterized by hypotension refractory to fluid resuscitation or high-dose vasopressors, low systemic vascular resistance, and normal-to-increased cardiac index, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after cardiothoracic surgery. Methylene blue inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase, and has been used to treat vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, because methylene blue is associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, its use in patients undergoing lung transplantion has been limited. Herein, we report the use of methylene blue to treat refractory vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient undergoing double-lung transplantation.

  5. A Stereoselective [3+1] Ring Expansion for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Methylene Azetidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Steven C; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-09-25

    The reaction of rhodium-bound carbenes with strained bicyclic methylene aziridines results in a formal [3+1] ring expansion to yield highly substituted methylene azetidines with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity. The reaction appears to proceed through an ylide-type mechanism, where the unique strain and structure of the methylene aziridine promotes a ring-opening/ring-closing cascade that efficiently transfers chirality from substrate to product. The resultant products can be elaborated into new azetidine scaffolds containing vicinal tertiary-quaternary and even quaternary-quaternary stereocenters. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency plasmas in water under ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, Tsunehiro, E-mail: maehara@phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nishiyama, Kyohei; Onishi, Shingo; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kuramoto, Makoto [Integrated Center for Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nomura, Shinfuku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kawashima, Ayato [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8566 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency (RF) plasmas in water under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied experimentally. When the methylene blue solution was exposed to RF plasma, UV irradiation from a mercury vapor lamp enhanced degradation significantly. A lamp without power supply also enhanced degradation since weak UV light was emitted weakly from the lamp due to the excitation of mercury vapor by stray RF power. Such an enhancement is explained by the fact that after hydrogen peroxide is produced via the recombination process of OH radicals around the plasma, OH radicals reproduced from hydrogen peroxide via the photolysis process degrade methylene blue.

  7. Preoperative Localization of Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma with Intra-arterial Methylene Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, Rida; Sebaaly, Mikhael G. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon); Wehbe, Mohammad Rachad; Sfeir, Pierre; Khalife, Mohamad [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of General Surgery (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad, E-mail: mk00@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon)

    2017-06-15

    Ectopic parathyroid is found in 16% of patients with hyperparathyroidism. 2% of ectopic parathyroid adenomas are not accessible to standard cervical excision. In such cases, video-assisted thoracoscopic resection is the recommended definitive treatment. We present a case of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma localized preoperatively by injecting methylene blue within a branch of the internal mammary artery that is supplying the adenoma. Intra-arterial methylene blue injection facilitated visualization and resection of the adenoma. The preoperative intra-arterial infusion of methylene blue appears to be an effective and safe method for localization of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas and allows rapid identification during thoracoscopic resection.

  8. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  9. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    : On the basis of five included studies, the ED10 values of aqueous cobalt chloride ranged between 0.0663 and 1.95 µg cobalt/cm(2), corresponding to 30.8-259 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides an overview of the doses of cobalt that are required to elicit allergic cobalt contactdermatitis in sensitized...

  10. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  11. Pharmacokinetics of vinyl chloride in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.M.; Laib, R.J.; Kappus, H.; Buchter, A.

    1977-01-01

    When rats are exposed to [ 14 C]vinyl chloride in a closed system, the vinyl chloride present in the atmosphere equilibrates with the animals' organism within 15 min. The course of equilibration could be determined using rats which had been given 6-nitro-1,2,3-benzothiadiazole. This compound completely blocks metabolism of vinyl chloride. The enzymes responsible for metabolism of vinyl chloride are saturated at an atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride of 250 ppm. Pharmacokinetic analysis shows that no significant cumulation of vinyl chloride or its major metabolites is to be expected on repeated administration of vinyl chlorides. This may be consistent with the theory that a reactive, shortly living metabolite which occurs in low concentration only, may be responsible for the toxic effects of vinyl chloride

  12. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C., E-mail: zuhra_kadirova@yahoo.com [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Mirzo Ulugbek Str. 77a, Tashkent 100170 (Uzbekistan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Katsumata, Ken-ichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Isobe, Toshihiro [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9–10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (S{sub BET} 50 m{sup 2}/g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (S{sub BET} 4 and 111 m{sup 2}/g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA < BAU-CL < BAU-HA sample and the adsorption followed Langmuir model. The apparent MB photodegradation rate constant (k{sub app}) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015–0.025 mM; sample content – 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration – 0.43 mM; pH 3–4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  13. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C.; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9–10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (S BET 50 m 2 /g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe 2 O 3 phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (S BET 4 and 111 m 2 /g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA app ) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015–0.025 mM; sample content – 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration – 0.43 mM; pH 3–4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  15. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  16. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color...

  4. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  9. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a...

  10. Intrauterine Methylene Blue Injection Influences the Accuracy of Pulse Oximetry Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Cheng Yeh

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: Intraoperative administration of methylene blue may induce false low readings on pulse oximetry. The patient was not hypoxemic. If there is any doubt, arterial blood gas analysis should be done to ensure that the patient is well oxygenated.

  11. Novel management of methylene blue extravasation: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Saeed Khokhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue is a highly irritant drug and has been used intraoperatively. Its accidental extravasation can lead to tissue necrosis. In this report, a unique management is described, and the patient recovered without any morbidity.

  12. A nonradioactive assay for poly(a)-specific ribonuclease activity by methylene blue colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Wei-Feng; Yan, Yong-Bin; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2006-01-01

    A simple nonradioactive assay, which was based on the specific shift of the absorbance maximum of methylene blue induced by its intercalation into poly(A) molecules, was developed for poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN). A good linear relationship was found between the absorbance at 662 nm and the poly(A) concentration. The assay conditions, including the concentration of methylene blue, the incubation temperature and time, and the poly(A) concentration were evaluated and optimized.

  13. Methylene Blue to Treat Protamine-induced Anaphylaxis Reactions. An Experimental Study in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Afrodite S. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To examine if methylene blue (MB can counteract or prevent protamine (P cardiovascular effects. Methods: The protocol included five heparinized pig groups: Group Sham -without any drug; Group MB - MB 3 mg/kg infusion; Group P - protamine; Group P/MB - MB after protamine; Group MB/P - MB before protamine. Nitric oxide levels were obtained by the nitric oxide/ozone chemiluminescence method, performed using the Nitric Oxide Analizer 280i (Sievers, Boulder, CO, USA. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were estimated using the thiobarbiturate technique. Results: 1 Groups Sham and MB presented unchanged parameters; 2 Group P - a Intravenous protamine infusion caused mean arterial pressure decrease and recovery trend after 25-30 minutes, b Cardiac output decreased and remained stable until the end of protamine injection, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased until the end of protamine injection; 3 Methylene blue infusion after protamine (Group P/MB - a Marked mean arterial pressure decreased after protamine, but recovery after methylene blue injection, b Cardiac output decreased after protamine infusion, recovering after methylene blue infusion, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased after protamine infusion and methylene blue injections; 4 Methylene blue infusion before protamine (Group MB/P - a Mean arterial pressure decrease was less severe with rapid recovery, b After methylene blue, there was a progressive cardiac output increase up to protamine injection, when cardiac output decreased, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance decreased after protamine, followed by immediate Sustained systemic vascular resistance increase; 5 Plasma nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde values did not differ among the experimental groups. Conclusion: Reviewing these experimental results and our clinical experience, we suggest methylene blue safely prevents and treats hemodynamic protamine complications, from the

  14. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modified methylene blue injection improves lymph node harvest in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianpei; Huang, Pinjie; Zheng, Zongheng; Chen, Tufeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nodal metastases in rectal cancer plays an important role in accurate staging and prognosis, which depends on adequate lymph node harvest. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the feasibility and survival benefit of improving lymph node harvest by a modified method with methylene blue injection in rectal cancer specimens. One hundred and thirty-one patients with rectal cancer were randomly assigned to the control group in which lymph nodes were harvested by palpation and sight, or to the methylene blue group using a modified method of injection into the superior rectal artery with methylene blue. Analysis of clinicopathologic records, including a long-term follow-up, was performed. In the methylene blue group, 678 lymph nodes were harvested by simple palpation and sight. Methylene blue injection added 853 lymph nodes to the total harvest as well as 32 additional metastatic lymph nodes, causing a shift to node-positive stage in four patients. The average number of lymph nodes harvested was 11.7 ± 3.4 in the control group and 23.2 ± 4.7 in the methylene blue group, respectively. The harvest of small lymph nodes (rectal cancer, especially small node and metastatic node retrieval, which provided more accurate staging. However, it was not associated with overall survival. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liquid separation easier during the next stage. The electrocoagulation stages must be optimized in order to design an economically feasible process. The results showed that the optimum electrolysis was 10–20 min at a current density of 8 mA/cm2, while the optimum concentration of the electrolyte (NaOH was found to be 2 wt.% when the dye concentration was 50 mg/L. The utilization of an electromagnetic field enhanced the dye removal due to the induced motion of paramagnetic ions inside the solution. The power consumption required to remove the dye was reduced by 45% in the case of applying an electromagnetic field.

  17. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dabrzalska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer—methylene blue (MB. As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  18. Acid-base catalysis of N-[(morpholine)methylene]daunorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anna; Jelińska, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Klawitter, Maria; Zalewski, Przemysław; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Wąsowska, Małgorzata

    2012-08-01

    The stability of N-[(morpholine)methylene]-daunorubicin hydrochloride (MMD) was investigated in the pH range 0.44-13.54, at 313, 308, 303 and 298 K. The degradation of MMD as a result of hydrolysis is a pseudo-first-order reaction described by the following equation: ln c = ln c(0) - k(obs)• t. In the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, borate, acetate and phosphate buffers, k(obs) = k(pH) because general acid-base catalysis was not observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of MMD comprises the following reactions: hydrolysis of the protonated molecules of MMD catalyzed by hydrogen ions (k(1)) and spontaneous hydrolysis of MMD molecules other than the protonated ones (k(2)) under the influence of water. The total rate of the reaction is equal to the sum of partial reactions: k(pH) = k(1) • a(H)+ • f(1) + k(2) • f(2) where: k(1) is the second-order rate constant (mol(-1) l s(-1)) of the specific hydrogen ion-catalyzed degradation of the protonated molecules of MMD; k(2) is the pseudo-first-order rate constant (s(-1)) of the water-catalyzed degradation of MMD molecules other than the protonated ones, f(1) - f(2) are fractions of the compound. MMD is the most stable at approx. pH 2.5.

  19. Cytologic and radiosensibilizer action of the methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, P.C.N.

    1989-01-01

    This work was designed with the aim of studying the use of Methylene Blue as a possible cellular sensitizer to heat and X-rays effects. We were able to show that MB can sensitize bacteria to these two agents. This sensitization is dependent on factors that can interfere with the penetration of the dye through the cellular membrane, like temperature, concentration and permeability. On the other hand, the sensitization is dependent on repair systems. In this work, we show that damages induced by heat and MB are repaired chiefly by the excision repair system, since mutants deficient in UVR ABC endonuclease or in DNA polimerase I are very sensitive to this treatment. This was confirmed by measuring the excision of sup(3)H labeled thymidine from the DNA after treatment of bacteria with heat and MB. Repair of damage produced by X-rays depends on the DNA polimerase I enzyme. It seems that MB can interfere with this enzyme inhibiting the repair of X-rays produced lesions. It is shown too that MB alone, in alkaline conditions, can induce single-strand-breaks in DNA. This means that in the cells, MB probably induces alkali labilizations that become SSB in alkaline conditions. Since X rays are used in cancer therapy, and MB penetrates preferably in malignant cells, our aim was to determine the possibility of using these two agents to improve the discrimination of the lethal effects of X-rays between malignant and normal cells. (author)

  20. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  1. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  2. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  4. Photodynamic action of methylene blue in osteosarcoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiemin; Lai, Xiaoping; Wang, Xinna; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Chuanshan

    2014-03-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor which threatens the life of young people worldwide. To explore alternative strategy for combating osteosarcoma, a light-emitting diode (LED) that activates methylene blue (MB) was used in the present study to investigate cell death of osteosarcoma-derived UMR106 cells. Photocytotoxicity in UMR106 cells was investigated 24h after photodynamic activation of MB using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and light microscopy. Apoptosis induction was observed 24h after photodynamic treatment using a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with Hoechst 33342 staining. The change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was analyzed using a flow cytometry with rhodamine 123 staining. MB under red light irradiation caused a drug-concentration (0-100μM) and light-dose (0-32J/cm(2)) dependent cytotoxicity in UMR106 cells. The SRB assay and light microscopy observed a significant decrease in the number of UMR106 cells attached to the bottom of culture well after LED light-activated MB (100μM, 32J/cm(2)). Nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation were found in the treated cells by nuclear staining. In addition, flow cytometry showed that the MMP in UMR106 cells was rapidly reduced by photo-activated MB (100μM, 32J/cm(2)). Photodynamic action of MB under LED irradiation could remarkably kill osteosarcoma cells and induce cell apoptosis as well as MMP collapse. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Methylene blue for clinical anaphylaxis treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Moreira Rodrigues

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in modulating systemic changes associated with anaphylaxis. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may exacerbate bronchospasm in anaphylaxis and worsen clinical conditions, with limited roles in anaphylactic shock treatment. The aim here was to report an anaphylaxis case (not anaphylactic shock, reversed by methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old female suddenly presented urticaria and pruritus, initially on her face and arms, then over her whole body. Oral antihistamine was administered initially, but without improvement in symptoms and signs until intravenous methylprednisolone 500 mg. Recurrence occurred after two hours, plus vomiting. Associated upper respiratory distress, pulmonary sibilance, laryngeal stridor and facial angioedema (including erythema and lip edema marked the evolution. At sites with severe pruritus, petechial lesions were observed. The clinical situation worsened, with dyspnea, tachypnea, peroral cyanosis, laryngeal edema with severe expiratory dyspnea and deepening unconsciousness. Conventional treatment was ineffective. Intubation and ventilatory support were then considered, because of severe hypoventilation. But, before doing that, based on our previous experience, 1.5 mg/kg (120 mg bolus of 4% MB was infused, followed by one hour of continuous infusion of another 120 mg diluted in dextrose 5% in water. Following the initial intravenous MB dose, the clinical situation reversed completely in less than 20 minutes, thereby avoiding tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Although the nitric oxide hypothesis for MB effectiveness discussed here remains unproven, our intention was to share our accumulated cohort experience, which strongly suggests MB is a lifesaving treatment for anaphylactic shock and/or anaphylaxis and other vasoplegic conditions.

  6. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  7. Melting in trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; Scamehorn, C.; Tosi, M.P.

    1990-11-01

    We report a neutron diffraction study of the liquid structure of YCl 3 and combine the structural data with macroscopic melting and transport data to contrast the behaviour of this molten salt with those of SrCl 2 , ZnCl 2 and AlCl 3 as prototypes of different melting mechanisms for ionic materials. A novel melting mechanism for trivalent metal chlorides, leading to a loose disordered network of edge-sharing octahedral units in the liquid phase, is thereby established. The various melting behaviours are related to bonding character with the help of Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  9. Corneal edema and permanent blue discoloration of a silicone intraocular lens by methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Scott; Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    To report a silicone intraocular lens (IOL) stained blue by inadvertent intraoperative use of methylene blue instead of trypan blue and the results of experimental staining of various lens materials with different concentrations of the same dye. A "blue dye" was used to enhance visualization during capsulorhexis in a patient undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of a three-piece silicone lens. Postoperatively, the patient presented with corneal edema and a discolored IOL. Various IOL materials were experimentally stained using methylene blue. Sixteen lenses (4 silicone, 4 hydrophobic acrylic, 4 hydrophilic acrylic, and 4 polymethylmethacrylate) were immersed in 0.5 mL of methylene blue at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. These lenses were grossly and microscopically evaluated for discoloration 6 and 24 hours after immersion. The corneal edema resolved within 1 month after the initial surgical procedure. After explantation, gross and microscopic analyses of the explanted silicone lens revealed that its surface and internal substance had been permanently stained blue. In the experimental study, all of the lenses except the polymethylmethacrylate lenses were permanently stained by methylene blue. The hydrophilic acrylic lenses showed the most intense blue staining in all dye concentrations. This is the first clinicopathological report of IOL discoloration due to intraocular use of methylene blue. This and other tissue dyes may be commonly found among surgical supplies in the operating room and due diligence is necessary to avoid mistaking these dyes for those commonly used during ocular surgery.

  10. In Vitro Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes Using New Methylene Blue as the Photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Chicón, P; Gulías, Ò; Nonell, S; Agut, M

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combines the use of a photosensitizing drug with light and oxygen to eradicate pathogens. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a dermatophytic fungus able to invade the skin and keratinized tissues. We have investigated the use of new methylene blue as the photosensitizing agent for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to produce the in vitro inactivation of T mentagrophytes. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the parameters for photoinactivation of the dermatophyte. The parameters studied were new methylene blue concentration, contact time between the photosensitizing agent and the fungus prior to light treatment, and the fluence of red light (wavelength, 620-645nm) applied. The minimum concentration of new methylene blue necessary to induce the death of all T. mentagrophytes cells in the initial suspension (approximate concentration, 10 6 colony forming units per milliliter) was 50μM for a fluence of 81J/cm 2 after a contact time of 10minutes with the photosensitizing-agent. Increasing the concentration to 100μM allowed the fluence to be decreased to 9J/cm 2 . Comparison of our data with other published data shows that the susceptibility of T. mentagrophytes to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with new methylene blue is strain-dependent. New methylene blue is a photosensitizing agent that should be considered for the treatment of fungal skin infections caused by this dermatophyte. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of NiO-Decorated ZnO Nanowhiskers for Methylene Blue Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowhiskers were used for photodecomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The rate of methylene blue degradation increased linearly with time of UV irradiation. 54% of degradation rate was observed when the ZnO nanowhiskers were used as photocatalysts for methylene blue degradation for 80 min under UV irradiation. The decoration of p-type NiO nanoparticles on n-type ZnO nanowhiskers significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and reached 72% degradation rate of methylene blue by using the same method. NiO-decorated ZnO was recycled for second test and shows 66% degradation from maximal peak of methylene blue within the same period. The increment of photocatalytic activity of NiO-decorated ZnO nanowhiskers was explained by the extension of the electron depletion layer due to the formation of nanoscale p-n junctions between p-type NiO and n-type ZnO. Hence, these products provide new alternative proficient photocatalysts for wastewater treatment.

  12. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled ethyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanski, R.

    1976-01-01

    A new efficient method of synthesis of ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C), based on the Ba 14 CO 3 and dry hydrogen chloride as starting materials has been developed and described. Addition of the hydrogen chloride to ethylene (1,2- 14 C), obtained from Ba 14 CO 3 , has been carried out in the presence of the AlCl 3 as catalyst. The outlined method leads to ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C) of high specific activity. The radiochemical yield of the reaction based on the activity of barium carbonate used was 72%. (author)

  13. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Tsunashima, Mikiyasu; Horie, Masaaki; Koyama, Masafumi; Sudo, Minoru; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Ogasawara, Tadashi.

    1991-01-01

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  14. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  15. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (ΔH=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (ΔG=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (ΔS=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and molar adsorption coefficient (μa) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when

  16. Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase contributes to allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Eyring

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors in modifying allergic airway disease.We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms.Allergic airway disease was induced in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice through house dust mite (HDM exposure. Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR were measured between the two groups. Gene expression and methylation profiles were generated for whole lung tissue. Disease and molecular outcomes were evaluated in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice supplemented with betaine.Loss of Mthfr alters single carbon metabolite levels in the lung and serum including elevated homocysteine and cystathionine and reduced methionine. HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice demonstrated significantly less airway hyperreactivity (AHR compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice have reduced whole lung lavage (WLL cellularity, eosinophilia, and Il-4/Il-5 cytokine concentrations. Betaine supplementation reversed parts of the HDM-induced allergic airway disease that are modified by Mthfr loss. 737 genes are differentially expressed and 146 regions are differentially methylated in lung tissue from HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice and HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, analysis of methylation/expression relationships identified 503 significant correlations.Collectively, these findings indicate that the loss of folate as a methyl donor is a modifier of

  17. Thermochemistry of alkali chloride - lanthanoide(III) chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachnik, R.; Selle, D.

    1979-01-01

    The phase diagrams of the mixtures KCl + GdCl 3 resp. DyCl 3 and of CsCl + PrCl 3 (DyCl 3 , ErCl 3 , and YbCl 3 ) were investigated by differential thermal analysis. In the mixtures of lanthanoide(III) chlorides with CsCl resp. KCl three different stoichiometries of the compounds were found, namely A 3 MCl 6 , A 2 MCl 5 , and AM 2 Cl 7 . Debyeograms of the compounds A 3 MCl 6 and AM 2 Cl 7 reveal, that in the case of the latter type all compounds with the same alkali halide have identical structure, whereas in the A 3 MCl 6 compounds three different types of X-ray patterns were observed. The stabilities of the congruently melting compounds can be estimated by comparing the melting point of the compound with the temperature of an extrapolated eutectic point. (author)

  18. Assessing Urinary Tract Junction Obstruction Defects by Methylene Blue Dye Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kangsun

    2017-10-12

    Urinary tract junction obstruction defects are congenital anomalies inducing hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Murine urinary tract junction obstruction defects can be assessed by tracking methylene blue dye flow within the urinary system. Methylene blue dye is injected into the renal pelvis of perinatal embryonic kidneys and dye flow is monitored from the renal pelvis of the kidney through the ureter and into the bladder lumen after applying hydrostatic pressure. Dye accumulation will be evident in the bladder lumen of the normal perinatal urinary tract, but will be constrained between the renal pelvis and the end point of an abnormal ureter, if urinary tract obstructions occur. This method facilitates the confirmation of urinary tract junction obstructions and visualization of hydronephrosis and hydroureter. This manuscript describes a protocol for methylene blue dye injection into the renal pelvis to confirm urinary tract junction obstructions.

  19. Potential adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using green macroalgaePosidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, F.-N.; Yassaa, N.

    2018-03-01

    The use of inexpensive biological materials, such as marine algae for removing dyes from contaminated industrial effluents appears as a potential alternative method. The aim of this study is to investigate the aptitude of marine macroalgae Posidonia Oceanica local biomass abundant on the coasts of Algeria for selective sorption of methylene blue (MB) from an aqueous solution in batch experiments at 20 °C. A maximum percentage removal of Posidonia oceanica occurs at pH 5. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption equilibrium of methylene blue was best describe by Langmuir model than the Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity was 357 mgg-1at pH 5. The sorption data were very well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Keywords: Posidonia oceanica, Methylene blue (MB), Biosorption, Isotherm Equilibrium, Kinetics; Modelling.

  20. Removal of congo red and methylene blue from waste water using coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffar, S.; Nosheen, S.; Ahmad, N.

    2011-01-01

    The textile industry has been condemned as being one of the world's worst offenders in terms of pollution Because of increasing population and industrial developments, a huge amount of wastewater is discharged to the environment above the level that the nature can eliminate. Many techniques like oxidation, reduction, physical treatment and biological method are available for removal of colored dyes from wastewater. The work presented here involved the decolorisation of wastewater containing congo red and methylene blue using various coagulants such as alum, bentonite and lime. The effect of various experimental factors such as dosage of coagulants, contact time between coagulant and dye and concentration of dyes and working environment like shaking and static was studied. Under static condition alum give almost 43% removal of congo red while with 10 minutes shaking 74 % removal of 80 dye was achieved with same coagulant. The highest removal of congo red was found to be 99.5 % by using alum after 30 minutes of shaking but in case of methylene blue it intensified the color and gave negative results. Lime gave only 33 % color removal of congo red under static conditions while 57% color was removed under shaking conditions. Maximum color removal achieved by lime was 89% at 40 minutes with shaking condition. Lime gave 60% removal of methylene blue in static condition and 90% removal in shaking condition and maximum absorbance at 80 ppm was 90%. Bentonite also used for the removal of methylene blue and gave 89% removal in shaking condition. By increasing shaking time %age removal increased to 100% at 40 min. And amount of coagulant increased the removal efficiency it attained 100% in both lime and bentonite coagulant for methylene blue Overall alum was found to be better coagulant for the removal of congo red from its aqueous solution. Lime and bentonite both proved better and economical for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution at lab scale. (author)

  1. Estimation of surface area and pore volume of activated carbons by methylene blue and iodine numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton A. Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of methylene blue number and iodine number of activated carbons samples were calibrated against the respective surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume using multiple regression. The models obtained from the calibrations were used in predicting these physical properties of a test group of activated carbon samples produced from several raw materials. In all cases, the predicted values were in good agreement with the expected values. The method allows extracting more information from the methylene blue and iodine adsorption studies than normally obtained with this type of material.

  2. Photodynamic Therapy With Methylene Blue for Skin Ulcers Infected With Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiroz, C; Sevil, M; Toyas, C; Gilaberte, Y

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality with significant antimicrobial activity. We present 2 cases of chronic lower limb ulcers in which fungal and bacterial superinfection complicated management. PDT with methylene blue as the photosensitizer led to clinical and microbiological cure with no significant adverse effects. PDT with methylene blue is a valid option for the management of superinfected chronic ulcers, reducing the use of antibiotics and the induction of resistance. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Removal of Methylene Blue from aqueous solution using spent bleaching earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, E.; Saputra, R.; Nugraha, M. W.; Irianty, R. S.; Utama, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    The waste from industrial textile waste is one of the environmental problems, it is required effective and efficient processing. In this study spent bleaching earth was used as absorbent. It was found that the absorbent was effective to remove methylene blue from aqueous solution with removal efficiency 99.97 % in 120 min. Several parameters such as pH, amount of absorbent loading, stirring speed are found as key factor influencing removal of methylene blue. The mechanism of adsorption was also studied, and it was found that Langmuir isotherm fitted to data of experiment with adsorption capacity 0.5 mg/g.

  4. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  5. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  6. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  7. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  8. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  9. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those...

  11. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, V.D.; Kocherov, N.P.; Novikova, N.R.; Perfilov, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.) [de

  12. Evaluation of anticancer properties of a new α-methylene-δ-lactone DL-249 on two cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomorska Dorota K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer activity of a new synthetic α-methylene-δ-lactone DL-249 was reported in leukemia HL-60 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells and compared with the activity of a natural α-methylene-γ-lactone from Tanacetum parthenium, parthenolide.

  13. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Kihara, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Ohuchi, Misao

    1996-06-01

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl{sub 2} and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} were formed. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl{sub 2}, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH{sub 3}{sup +} and CH{sub 4} were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  14. Indium-111-chloride and three-phase bone scintigraphy: A comparison for imaging experimental osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskinson, J.J.; Daniel, G.B.; Patton, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the utility of indium-111-chloride ( 111 In-Cl) imaging in detecting osteomyelitis complicating surgical or fracture sites, the proximal tibia of 11 dogs were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus after creation of a cortical defect. The contralateral limb served as a sham-operated control. Animals were serially imaged by radiography, three-phase technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) scintigraphy, and 111 In-Cl scintigraphy. There was a significant difference between infected (1.93) and noninfected (1.32) limb's tibia/femur count density ratios on 24-hr (p = 0.0001) and 72-hr (p = 0.0001) 111 In-Cl images. A smaller difference was found for 99mTc-MDP bone-phase tibia/femur ratios (p = 0.0199). Using receiver operator characteristic analysis of tibia/femur ratios, a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 88%, and positive (75%) and negative (79%) predictive values were determined for the 24-hr 111 In-Cl images. Indium-111-chloride was superior to 99mTc-MDP in differentiating infected and noninfected operative sites

  15. ON THE CHEMISTRY AND STAINING PROPERTIES OF CERTAIN DERIVATIVES OF THE METHYLENE BLUE GROUP WHEN COMBINED WITH EOSIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.

    1907-01-01

    1. Eosinate of thionin gives very satisfactory staining for blood smears. It is easily prepared and dissolves readily in methylated spirits. 2. In the methods heretofore employed for making mixtures of eosin and methylene blue derivatives, the eosinates of methylene violet and methylene azure are present in very small quantities or are altogether absent. 3. Thionol and thionin are probably formed in methylene blue which has been long boiled with dilute alkalies and silver oxide. 4. Good stains of eosin and methylene blue derivatives can be obtained by a variety of manipulations. 5. Methylated spirits is more economical as a solvent for this stain and better adapted for the simple technique above described than is methyl alcohol. There is some evidence that the staining act is of a chemical nature. PMID:19867116

  16. Chloride Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the ...

  17. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  18. Continuous adsorption of methylene blue dye on the maize stem ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Predrag S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions onto maize stem ground tissue in column mode was investigated. The study encompassed the effects of important parameters such as flow rate, initial concentration of methylene blue, and bed depth on methylene blue removal from model solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity of the maize stem was 45.9 mg/g at the initial methylene blue concentration of 20 mg/L, bed height of 6.5 cm and flow rate of 8 mL/min. It was found that the breakthrough time for reaching saturation increased with a decrease in the flow rate, and also occurred earlier for a higher influent concentration. The breakthrough times increased with the bed depth, thus allowing a larger volume to be treated. The Adams-Bohart, Yoon-Nelson, Clark and artificial neural network models were used to predict the breakthrough curves. These models gave excellent approximations of the experimental behavior.[Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172025

  19. Increased uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in muscles in the course of polymyositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemir, Z.; Oleksa, R.; Czepczynski, R.; Sowinski, J.

    2005-01-01

    A case of a woman aged 46 years with signs of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure is presented. Coxsackie serum test was positive. Increased uptake of Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ( 99mT c-MDP) by muscles of thighs and calves was observed. After 1 year no increased accumulation of radiotracer in the muscles was found

  20. The Adsorption Efficiency of Chemically Prepared Activated Carbon from Cola Nut Shells by on Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Ndi Nsami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from cola nut shell has been investigated under batch mode. The influence of major parameters governing the efficiency of the process such as, solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, and contact time on the removal process was investigated. The time-dependent experimental studies showed that the adsorption quantity of methylene blue increases with initial concentration and decreasing adsorbent dosage. The equilibrium time of 180 min was observed and maximum adsorption was favoured at pH 3.5. The dye removal using 0.1 g of adsorbent was more than 90%. This dosage (0.1 g was considered as the optimum dosage to remove methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The kinetics of methylene blue solution was discussed by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich models. The adsorption process follows the Elovich rate kinetic model, having a correlation coefficient in the range between 0.9811 and 1.

  1. Methylene blue adsorption by algal biomass based materials: biosorbents characterization and process behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-08-17

    Dead algal biomass is a natural material that serves as a basis for developing a new family of sorbent materials potentially suitable for many industrial applications. In this work an algal industrial waste from agar extraction process, algae Gelidium and a composite material obtained by immobilization of the algal waste with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were physical characterized and used as biosorbents for dyes removal using methylene blue as model. The apparent and real densities and the porosity of biosorbents particles were determined by mercury porosimetry and helium picnometry. The methylene blue adsorption in the liquid phase was the method chosen to calculate the specific surface area of biosorbent particles as it seems to reproduce better the surface area accessible to metal ions in the biosorption process than the N2 adsorption-desorption dry method. The porous texture of the biosorbents particles was also studied. Equilibrium isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equation, giving maximum uptake capacities of 171, 104 and 74 mg g(-1), respectively for algae, algal waste and composite material. Kinetic experiments at different initial methylene blue concentrations were performed to evaluate the equilibrium time and the importance of the driving force to overcome mass transfer resistances. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models adequately describe the kinetic data. The biosorbents used in this work proved to be promising materials for removing methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

  2. Synthesis of /sup 14/C-labeled felbamate from phenylacetic-(methylene-/sup 14/C) acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.M.; Kucharczyk, N.; Sofia, R.D.

    1986-05-01

    A synthetic procedure for the preparation of 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol-2-/sup 14/C dicarbamate, starting with phenylacetic-(methylene-/sup 14/C) acid was developed. The procedure from phenylacetic acid to 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate has four steps via phenylmalonic acid and 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol. The overall yield of all four steps was 28%.

  3. Extended Fenske-Hall LCAO MO Calculations for Mixed Methylene Dihalides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Hartmut; Paulun, Manfred

    1988-10-01

    The electronic structure of mixed methylene dihalides CH2XY (X, Y = F, Cl, Br. I) has been studied using extended Fenske-Hall LCAO MO method. The comparison with available photoelec­tron spectra confirmes previous assignments of all bands with binding energies <100 eV. The electronic structure changes occurring upon varying the halogen substituents are discussed.

  4. Breakdown of methylene blue and methyl orange by pulsed corona discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabowski, L.R.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Rutgers, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    The recently developed corona above water technique is applied to water containing 10 mg l-1 methylene blue (MB) or methyl orange (MO). The corona discharge pulses are created with a spark gap switched capacitor followed by a transmission line transformer. The pulse amplitude is 40 kV; its duration

  5. Chemical composition effects of methylene containing polymers on gas emission under γ-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, M., E-mail: muriel.ferry@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dannoux-Papin, A. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dély, N. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, LIDYL, PCR, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legand, S.; Durand, D.; Roujou, J.L.; Lamouroux, C.; Dauvois, V. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coignet, P.; Cochin, F. [AREVA NC DOR/RDP, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 La Défense (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, LIDYL, PCR, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-09-01

    The presence of different chemical groups in methylene containing polymers can lead to very different behaviors under ionizing radiation. To better understand the effect of these groups on gas production under γ-irradiation, especially on hydrogen formation, and to study the efficiency of energy transfer between chemical groups, several methylene containing polymers with different controlled group concentrations were studied in inert atmosphere. We analyzed the influence of the nature and position of the chemical group using methylene containing copolymers with aliphatic side-chains (different lengths), ester groups in the side-chains (different concentrations) and ester groups in the polymer backbone (different concentrations). Radiation chemical yields of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were determined at room temperature by high resolution mass spectrometry. On the basis of these results, we attempt to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. It can be observed that crystallinity and aliphatic side-chain have no effect on hydrogen formation. On contrary, esters on side-chain and in the backbone have an important influence on hydrogen formation, with the most important effect when esters groups are in the backbone. In these two kind of materials, energy fraction transferred from methylene to ester groups has been quantified and only 10 wt% (or less) of ester groups are sufficient to protect effectively the aliphatic moiety.

  6. Liver metastases of breast carcinoma detected on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.; Horning, S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    The accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported in liver metastases from colon carcinoma and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Two patients with breast carcinoma in whom hepatic metastases were visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone images are described. This has not been previously reported

  7. Retrograde Instillation of Methylene Blue in the Difficult Diagnosis of BPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ravenna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases in which we were able to diagnose bronchopleural fistula through retrograde methylene blue instillation during bronchoscopy. In the first case, methylene blue was injected through an abdominal drain, followed by air instillation and detected in the left bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the lingula’s bronchus. In the second case, methylene blue was injected into a pleural drain, through a breach on a surgical suture and detected in the right bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the right inferior bronchus. The retrograde instillation of methylene blue, through a drain in the abdomen or the thoracic wall, is a safe, cheap, and practical method that allows the bronchoscopist to identify the presence of a fistula and, more importantly, to identify the exact point on the bronchial tree where a fistula is located. This provides the possibility of sealing the fistula with a variety of devices. It is our opinion that this procedure should be considered a primary method of diagnosis when a bronchopleural fistula is suspected and a drain on the thoracic or abdominal wall is positioned such that effusions are able to drain.

  8. Microfluidics-based microbubbles in methylene blue solution for photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman; Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Yang, Chun; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Contrast agents which can be used for more than one bio-imaging technique has gained a lot of attention from researchers in recent years. In this work, a microfluidic device employing a flow-focusing junction, is used for the continuous generation of monodisperse nitrogen microbubbles in methylene blue, an optically absorbing organic dye, for dual-modal photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. Using an external phase of polyoxyethylene glycol 40 stearate (PEG 40), a non-ionic surfactant, and 50% glycerol solution at a flow rate of 1 ml/hr and gas pressure at 1.75 bar, monodisperse nitrogen microbubbles of diameter 7 microns were obtained. The external phase also contained methylene blue hydrate at a concentration of 1 gm/litre. The monodisperse microbubbles produced a strong ultrasound signal as expected. It was observed that the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the photoacoustic signal for the methylene blue solution in the presence of the monodisperse microbubbles was 68.6% lower than that of methylene blue solution in the absence of microbubbles. This work is of significance because using microfluidics, we can precisely control the bubbles' production rate and bubble size which increases ultrasound imaging efficiency. A uniform size distribution of the bubbles will have narrower resonance frequency bandwidth which will respond well to specific ultrasound frequencies.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C 3 N 4 /ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photocatalytic activities of prepared samples were investigated under the illumination of blacklight and fluorescent lamps as the low wattage light source. The C 3 N 4 /ZnO showed a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO to degrade a methylene blue (MB) dye solution using blacklight lamps, but there is no significant ...

  10. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  11. [Sensitive determination of Bi3+ by spectrofluorimetry based on graphene oxide-methylene blue system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qiu-ge; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yan-ming

    2014-08-01

    Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummers method and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The interaction of graphene with methylene blue was studied by UV absorption, the intensity of two main absorption peaks of methylene blue decreased significantly after the fluorescence was quenched, and the energy transfer didn't occur because the overlap of the absorption spectrum of GO and the emission spectrum of MB is too small. Therefore, the fluorescence quenching of MB and GO was static. When adding a certain amount of Bi3+ in the graphene-methylene blue system, Bi3+ replaces the methylene blue from the graphene-methylene blue complexes because Bi3+ has the smaller volume and is more positively charged. The methylene blue therefore dissociates from the GO-MB complexes, resulting in the recovery of fluorescence of the system. Furthermore, the fluorescence of the system increases with the increase in the amount of Bi3+ due to the enhanced amount of MB in the system. A novel spectrofluorimetric method was therefore developed for the sensitive determination of Bi3+. Some parameters including the concentration of methylene blue, the amount of graphene oxide, the amount of nitric acid and the sequence of reagent adding were optimized to obtain higher sensitivity. The fluorescence of the system was detected at an emission wavelength of 667 nm with excitation at 690 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the concentration of Bi3+ showed good linear relationships with the fluorescence intensity in the range of 0.5-100 micromol x L(-1), with correlation coefficients of r = 0.9955. The limits of detection for Bi3+ was 1.0 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1) (S/N=3). The selectivity of the proposed method was evaluated and the results showed that 1000-fold K+, Ca+, Na+, Mg2+, Cu2+; 100-fold Fe3+, Be2+, SiO2- Al3+, Ni2+, Sb3+, NO3-, Cl-, F-, and 20-fold Pb2+, Hg2+, Cd2+ had negligible interference with the determination of Bi3+. The method has advantages of

  12. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  13. Occupational methaemoglobinaemia. Mechanisms of production, features, diagnosis and management including the use of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M

    2003-01-01

    unreliable in the presence of methaemoglobinaemia. Arterial blood gas analysis is mandatory in severe poisoning and reveals normal partial pressures of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2,), a normal 'calculated' haemoglobin oxygen saturation, an increased methaemoglobin concentration and possibly a metabolic acidosis. Following decontamination, high-flow oxygen should be given to maximise oxygen carriage by remaining ferrous haem. No controlled trial of the efficacy of methylene blue has been performed but clinical experience suggests that methylene blue can increase the rate of methaemoglobin conversion to haemoglobin some 6-fold. Patients with features and/or methaemoglobin concentrations of 30-50%, should be administered methylene blue 1-2 mg/kg/bodyweight intravenously (the dose depending on the severity of the features), whereas those with methaemoglobin concentrations exceeding 50% should be given methylene blue 2 mg/kg intravenously. Symptomatic improvement usually occurs within 30 minutes and a second dose of methylene blue will be required in only very severe cases or if there is evidence of ongoing methaemoglobin formation. Methylene blue is less effective or ineffective in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency since its antidotal action is dependent on nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). In addition, methylene blue is most effective in intact erythrocytes; efficacy is reduced in the presence of haemolysis. Moreover, in the presence of haemolysis, high dose methylene blue (20-30 mg/kg) can itself initiate methaemoglobin formation. Supplemental antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N-acetylcysteine and tocopherol (vitamin E) have been used as adjuvants or alternatives to methylene blue with no confirmed benefit. Exchange transfusion may have a role in the management of severe haemolysis or in G-6-P-D deficiency associated with life-threatening methaemoglobinaemia where methylene blue is relatively contraindicated.

  14. The use of chemical modified chitosan with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption; O emprego de quitosana quimicamente modificada com anidrido succinico na adsorcao de azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ilauro S.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.; Airoldi, Claudio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br

    2006-05-15

    The adsorption capacity of a-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically iclass and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methylene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 {+-} 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 {+-} 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 {+-} 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 {+-} 0.4 and -21.5 {+-} 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. (author)

  15. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  16. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  17. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  18. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  19. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  20. Inert Reassessment Document for Cerous Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rare earth chlorides have a wide variety of scientific applications. They a re used in superconductors, lasers, magnets, catalytic converters, fertilizes, supper alloys, cigarette lighters and as catalysts in the production of petroleum products.

  1. Process for making rare earth metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruesi, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An uncombined metal or a metal compound such as a sulfide, oxide, carbonate or sulfate is converted in a liquid salt bath to the corresponding metal chloride by reacting it with chlorine gas or a chlorine donor. The process applies to metals of groups 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 5a and 8 of the periodic table and to the rare earth metals. The chlorine donor may be ferric or sulfur chloride. The liquid fused salt bath is made up of chlorides of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, ammonia, zinc and ferric iron. Because the formed metal chlorides are soluble in the liquid fused salt bath, they can be recovered by various conventional means

  2. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  3. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  4. Atmospheric chloride: Its implication for foliar uptake and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, E. L.; Sealy, R. L.

    Atmospheric chloride is inversely related to distance from the Texas coast; r2 = 0.86. Levels of atmospheric chloride are higher in the early summer than in the winter because of salt storms. Leaf chloride l'evels of Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) reflect the atmospheric chloride levels; r2 = 0.78. The importance of considering the effect of atmospheric chloride on leaf damage to horticultural crops is discussed.

  5. Sorption study of methylene blue on activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Olalekan Saheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets the effectiveness of the prepared activated carbon from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats for the sorption of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution. The prepared Jatropha activated carbon (JAC and Terminalia activated carbon (TAC were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Branauer- Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis. Effect of initial concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption experiments were studied and the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents were found to be 37.84 mg/g and 17.44 mg/g for methylene blue uptake by JAC and TAC respectively. The experimental data were analysed using Langmuir, Fruendlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data fitted best into Langmuir isotherm for Methylene blue-JAC and Methylene blue-TAC systems. The kinetic studies fitted into pseudo second order kinetics model. The process chemistry was exothermic.

  6. Post-operative outcomes following the excision of dorsal wrist ganglions with/without the use of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Tas

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The recurrence of cysts is rare after complete excision, particularly when rupture is prevented. Methylene blue injection is useful for ensuring complete excision and, therefore, to prevent recurrence. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  7. Homogeneous photosensitized degradation of pharmaceuticals by using red light LED as light source and methylene blue as photosensitizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Y.; Bruning, H.; Yntema, D.; Mayer, M.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2017-01-01

    Research on employing advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for pharmaceuticals removal is gaining interests. However, detrimental effects of background water constituents in complex water matrices are limiting their implementation. In this study, we report red light induced methylene blue

  8. Removal of methylene blue dye from wastewater by using supported liquid memberane technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Waqar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the application of Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM technology towards the removal and recovery of a cationic dye (Methylene Blue from aqueous solutions. Natural and non-toxic vegetable oils have been impregnated on microporous polymeric films of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF to constitute a liquid membrane. Different parameters affecting the transport, like pH of feed solution, acid concentration in the strip solution, initial dye concentration, oil types and stirring speeds have been investigated. Highest value of flux (1.7 × 10−5 mg/cm2/sec1 for methylene blue dye was achieved with sunflower oil impregnated on the PVDF support, with pH maintained at 12 in the feed solution and 0.3 M hydrochloric acid concentration in the strip solution. It took 6 hours to transport maximum amount of dye under optimum conditions.

  9. Application of Spent Li-Ion Batteries Cathode in Methylene Blue Dye Discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the mechanism study of methylene blue (MB discoloration using spent Li-ion battery cathode tape and hydrogen peroxide. The recycled cathode used in this work is composed of 72% of LiCoO2, 18% of carbon, and 10% of Al. The value found for surface area is 8.9 m2/g and the ZCP value occurs in pH = 2.95. Different from what is proposed in the literature, the most likely mechanism of methylene blue discoloration is the oxidation/delitiation of LiCoO2 and the reduction of H2O2 forming OH∙. Thus, in this paper, an important and promising alternative for discoloration of textile industry dyes using spent Li-ion battery cathode is presented.

  10. Determination of chloride in MOX samples using chloride ion selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindan, R; Das, D K; Mallik, G K; Sumathi, A; Patil, Sangeeta; Raul, Seema; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1997-09-01

    The chloride present in the MOX fuel is separated from the matrix by pyrohydrolysis at a temperature of 950 {+-} 50 degC and is then analyzed by chloride ion selective electrode (Cl-ISE). The range covered is 0.4-4 ppm with a precision of better than {+-}5% R.S.D. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Study on the chloride migration coefficient obtained following different Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Uzoegbo, H.C.; Schmidt, W.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the differences in the available Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines, and their influence on the values of the chloride migration coefficients DRCM, obtained following these guidelines. It is shown that the differences between the guidelines are significant and concern

  12. Laboratory investigation of electro-chemical chloride extraction from concrete with penetrated chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Hondel, A.W.M. van den

    2002-01-01

    Chloride extraction of concrete is a short-term electrochemical treatment against corrosion of reinforcing steel. The aim is to remove chloride ions from the concrete cover in order to reinstate passive behaviour. Physically sound concrete is left in place. To make this method more predictable and

  13. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F.; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A.; Pressly, Eric D.; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J.; Lynd, Nathaniel A.

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxi...

  14. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delport, Anzelle; Harvey, Brian H.; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P.

    2017-01-01

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, the present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC 50 = 0.0037 μM), Nile blue (IC 50 = 0.0077 μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC 50 = 0.018 μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC 50 = 0.07 μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC 50 value of 0.012 μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. - Highlights: • MB analogues, cresyl violet and Nile blue, are high potency MAO-A inhibitors. • Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor. • Potent MAO-A inhibition should alert to potential serotonin toxicity.

  15. A New Property of Conjugated Polymer PFP: Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new property of conjugated polymer poly(furancarbinol-co-phenol)(PFP) was studied.The target copolymer was used as a catalyst after proper heating treatment. And dye methylene blue (MB) could be fully degraded and largely mineralized on PFP, under natural light or even in dark, in a few minutes. Furthermore, the catalytic activity could be preserved after several runs and the catalyst was readily separated. The effect of calcination temperature was also observed.

  16. Effective photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue utilizing ZnO/rectorite nanocomposite under simulated solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shi-qian, E-mail: shiqianli04@tom.com [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Biomass-resource Chemical and Environment Bio-technology, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering, FuQing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Zhou, Pei-jiang; Zhang, Wan-shun [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Biomass-resource Chemical and Environment Bio-technology, Wuhan 430079 (China); Chen, Sheng [Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering, FuQing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Peng, Hong [State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Preparation of ZnO inserted in rectorite as photocatalyst in methylene blue photodegradation. • The ZnO/rectorite can be used as adsorbents and photocatalysts. • The ZnO/rectorite system was easy to be gathered and recycled. • Inferred ZnO/rectorite the photocatalytic degradation methylene blue of aqueous micro mechanism. - Abstract: Preparation of a nanometer zinc oxide/rectorite (ZnO/REC) composites photocatalyst based on natural rectorite was conducted using a hydrothermal intercalation method. The structure, thermal property, and surface morphology of ZnO/REC were characterized by X-ray diffractor (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO/REC was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution as a model pollutant under simulated sunlight irradiation. The HRTEM results revealed that well-dispersed and uniform ZnO/REC nanocomposites with diameters of 10 nm were embedded in rectorite. The ZnO/REC nanocomposite exhibited high photocatalytic activity under simulated solar irradiation. After 2 h of irradiation by simulated solar light, over 99% of methylene blue solution (15 mg/L) was decolorized with 0.9 g/L of the photocatalyst. The ZnO/REC was reusable, which meant that the adsorption photocatalytic decolorization process could be operated at a relatively low cost. Since this process does not require the addition of hydrogen peroxide but uses sunlight, it can be developed as an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method to decolorize or treat dye wastewater using solar.

  17. An improved synthesis of 2,2−-((4-substituted phenyl methylene difurans by Ultrasound irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naween M. Yonis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 2,2−((4-substituted phenyl methylene difuran was synthesized by one-pot cyclocondensation of aldehyde with excess furan at room temperature using trifluoro acetic acid as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation in the absence of solvent. The products were compared with the classical condensation reactions. This method consistently enjoys the advantages of mild reaction conditions, excellent yields, easy work up and short time.

  18. Extraosseous uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate: Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Kun, L.; Casper, J.; Babbitt, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor. (orig.) [de

  19. Extraosseous uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphonate. Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J R; Kun, L; Casper, J; Babbitt, D P

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphate (/sup 99/sup(m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor.

  20. Extraosseous uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate: Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J R; Kun, L; Casper, J; Babbitt, D P [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor.

  1. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  2. Temperature dependence of diffusion coefficients of trivalent uranium ions in chloride and chloride-fluoride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.E.; Borodina, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of U 3+ ions are measured by chronopotentiometric method in chloride 3LiCl-2KCl and in mixed chloride fluoride 3LiCl(LiF)-2KCl melts in the temperature range 633-1235 K. It is shown It is shown that experimental values of diffusion-coefficients are approximated in a direct line in lg D-1/T coordinate in chloride melt in the whole temperature range and in chloride-fluoride melt in the range of 644-1040 K. Experimental values of diffusion coefficients diviate from Arrhenius equation in the direction of large values in chloride-fluoride melt at further increase of temperature up to 1235 K. Possible causes of such a diviation are considered [ru

  3. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erçarıkcı, Elif; Dağcı, Kader; Topçu, Ezgi; Alanyalıoğlu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. • Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. • Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. • XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. • Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene

  4. Synthesis and properties of Co-doped titanate nanotubes and their optical sensitization with methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, V.C.; Nunes, M.R.; Silvestre, A.J.; Monteiro, O.C.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on a novel chemical route to synthesize homogenous cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes (CoTNT), using an amorphous Co-doped precursor. The influence of the synthesis temperature, autoclave dwell time and metal doping on the structural and microstructural as well as on the optical properties of the synthesized titanate nanotubes is studied and discussed. The optical band gaps of the CoTNT samples are red shifted in comparison with the values determined for the undoped samples, such red shifts bringing the absorption edge of the CoTNT samples into the visible region. CoTNT materials also demonstrate particular high adsorption ability for methylene blue, the amount of the adsorbed dye being higher than the one predictable for a monolayer formation. This suggests the possibility of intercalation of the dye molecule between the TiO 6 layers of the TNT structure. It is also shown that the methylene blue sensitized Co-doped nanostructures are highly stable under UV radiation and present a strong and broad absorption in the visible region. - Highlights: • New hydrothermal chemical route to synthesize cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes. • The Co-doping stabilizes the TNTs morphology in a temperature range of 160–200 °C. • Optical band gaps of CoTNTs are red shifted compared to the TNT samples. • Methylene blue sensitized CoTNTs are highly stable under UV–vis irradiation

  5. Intraoperative use of fibrin glue dyed with methylene blue in surgery for branchial cleft anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioni, Michela; Bottazzoli, Marco; Nassif, Nader; Stefini, Stefania; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-09-01

    We present a new method of optimizing the results of surgery for branchial cleft anomalies based on the intraoperative injection of fibrin glue combined with methylene blue dye. Retrospective single-center cohort study. The method was applied in 17 patients suffering from branchial anomalies. Six (35.29%) had a preauricular lesion; three (17.65%) had lesions derived from the first arch/pouch/groove (type I), four (23.53%) had lesions derived from the first (type II), one (5.88%) had lesions derived from the second, one (5.88%) had lesions derived from the third, and two (11.76%) had lesions derived from the fourth. The median and mean age at surgery were 10 and 10.6 years, respectively. All patients were followed by periodic clinical and ultrasonographic examination. The combination of fibrin glue with methylene blue facilitated the correct assessment of the extension of the lesions and their intraoperative manipulation. After a mean follow-up of 47.8 months, all patients were free of disease. Intraoperative injection of branchial fistulae and cysts by a mixture of fibrin glue and methylene blue is an effective, easy, and safe tool to track lesions and achieve radical resection. The technique requires a definitive validation on a large cohort with adequate stratification of patients. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2147-2150, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Microwave atmospheric pressure plasma jets for wastewater treatment: Degradation of methylene blue as a model dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María C; Mora, Manuel; Esquivel, Dolores; Foster, John E; Rodero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution as a model dye using a non thermal microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. Argon has been used as feed gas and aqueous solutions with different concentrations of the dye were treated using the effluent from plasma jet in a remote exposure. The removal efficiency increased as the dye concentration decreased from 250 to 5 ppm. Methylene blue degrades after different treatment times, depending on the experimental plasma conditions. Thus, kinetic constants up to 0.177 min -1 were obtained. The higher the Ar flow, the faster the degradation rate. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to gather information about the species present in the gas phase, specifically excited argon atoms. Argon excited species and hydrogen peroxide play an important role in the degradation of the dye. In fact, the conversion of methylene blue was directly related to the density of argon excited species in the gas phase and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous liquid phase. Values of energy yield at 50% dye conversion of 0.296 g/kWh were achieved. Also, the use of two plasma applicators in parallel has been proven to improve energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel methylene-blue-sensitized photopolymers for holographic recording: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushamani, Mythili; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, Rani

    2004-06-01

    Polymer matrices like PVC and a blend of PVA/PAA is introduced as new holographic media that cause red sensitivity with methylene blue. Unlike methylene blue sensitized polymers like PVA, PMMA, gelatin etc, the change of state occurring for methylene blue on laser irradiation on PVC matrix was found to be permanent. No recovery of dye on the irradiated spot was observed on storage. The outstanding properties of this material are its excellent optical clarity, insensitive to humidity, economical, ease of fabrication, absence of dark room storage etc. The recovery of dye in conventional MBPVA matrix can be delayed by blending PVA with PAA. Optimization of the ratio of PVA/PAA, the sensitizer concentration, pH, energy, diffraction efficiency measurements etc are done. pH is found to have a great influence on the recovery of the dye in this matrix. The effect of monomers in improving the diffraction efficiency on these dye doped polymer system is also evaluated. A comparative study is done on these polymer matrices and holographic gratings were recorded on these films from a He- Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm.

  8. Ag-ligand modified tungstovandates and their efficient catalysis degradation properties for methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ran; Zhang, Huixia; Liu, Yunping; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Han, Zhangang, E-mail: hanzg116@126.com

    2017-02-15

    Two polytungstovandates [Ag(mbpy){sub 2}][Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}][VW{sub 5}O{sub 19}]·H{sub 2}O (1) and [Ag(mbpy)]{sub 2}[Ag(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 4}[VW{sub 12}O{sub 40}] (2) (mbpy =4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridyl), had been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR, TG, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Single-crystal structural analysis revealed that the polyanionic clusters in two compounds are different: Lindqvist-type in 1 and α-Keggin-type in 2, respectively, while the cationic moieties in them are Ag-mbpy units. The experiments showed that this kind of hybrid crystal materials possesses more efficiently catalytic performance for the degradation of organic dye methylene blue (MB) in water solution under the UV irradiation. The significant degradation rate of MB can reach 89.9%, 94.9% by crystals 1 and 2 (40 mg) in the course of about 5 min. - Graphical abstract: Two Ag-ligand modified polytungstovandates had been synthesized and characterized, which were active in the catalytic degradation of organic dye methylene blue under the UV irradiation. - Highlights: • Two Ag-ligand modified tungstovandates were synthesized and characterized. • Weak interactions play important roles in constructing crystal frameworks. • Compounds are active to catalyze the degradation of methylene blue.

  9. Functional elastic hydrogel as recyclable membrane for the adsorption and degradation of methylene blue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Bao

    Full Text Available Developing the application of high-strength hydrogels has gained much attention in the fields of medical, pharmacy, and pollutant removal due to their versatility and stimulus-responsive properties. In this presentation, a high-strength freestanding elastic hydrogel membrane was constructed by clay nanosheets, N, N-dimethylacrylamide and 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid for adsorption of methylene blue and heavy metal ions. The maximum values of elongation and Young's modulus for 0.5% AMPSNa hydrogel were 1901% and 949.4 kPa, respectively, much higher than those of traditional hydrogels. The adsorptions were confirmed to follow pseudo-second kinetic equation and Langmuir isotherm model fits the data well. The maximum adsorption capacity of hydrogel towards methylene blue was 434.8 mg g(-1. The hydrogel also exhibited higher separation selectivity to Pb(2+ than Cu(2+. The methylene blue adsorbed onto the hydrogel membrane can be photocatalytically degraded by Fenton agent and the hydrogel membrane could be recycled at least five times without obvious loss in mechanical properties. In conclusion, this presentation demonstrates a convenient strategy to prepare tough and elastic clay nanocomposite hydrogel, which can not only be applied as recyclable membrane for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dye, but also for the recovery of valuables.

  10. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif [Applied Chemistry Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ubaid-ur-Rehman [Applied Chemistry Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ghaffar, Abdul; Ahmed, Kurshid [Electronics Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2002-08-01

    The effect of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 M{omega} resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l{sup -1} methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O{sub 2} at 10 ml min{sup -1} through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O{sub 2} containing 1500 {mu}mol O{sub 3} l{sup -1} at 10 ml min{sup -1} reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O{sub 3} was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O{sub 3} generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O{sub 3} production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in 30 min by corona discharge with O{sub 2} bubbling, and in 11 min by corona discharge with bubbling of O{sub 2} containing 1500 {mu}mol O{sub 3} l{sup -1}.

  11. Synthesis and properties of Co-doped titanate nanotubes and their optical sensitization with methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, V.C. [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CQB, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, M.R. [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CCMM, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Silvestre, A.J. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Department of Physics and ICEMS, R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Monteiro, O.C., E-mail: ocmonteiro@fc.ul.pt [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CQB, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-01

    Here we report on a novel chemical route to synthesize homogenous cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes (CoTNT), using an amorphous Co-doped precursor. The influence of the synthesis temperature, autoclave dwell time and metal doping on the structural and microstructural as well as on the optical properties of the synthesized titanate nanotubes is studied and discussed. The optical band gaps of the CoTNT samples are red shifted in comparison with the values determined for the undoped samples, such red shifts bringing the absorption edge of the CoTNT samples into the visible region. CoTNT materials also demonstrate particular high adsorption ability for methylene blue, the amount of the adsorbed dye being higher than the one predictable for a monolayer formation. This suggests the possibility of intercalation of the dye molecule between the TiO{sub 6} layers of the TNT structure. It is also shown that the methylene blue sensitized Co-doped nanostructures are highly stable under UV radiation and present a strong and broad absorption in the visible region. - Highlights: • New hydrothermal chemical route to synthesize cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes. • The Co-doping stabilizes the TNTs morphology in a temperature range of 160–200 °C. • Optical band gaps of CoTNTs are red shifted compared to the TNT samples. • Methylene blue sensitized CoTNTs are highly stable under UV–vis irradiation.

  12. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Ubaid-ur-Rehman; Ghaffar, Abdul; Ahmed, Kurshid

    2002-01-01

    The effect of O 2 and O 3 bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 MΩ resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l -1 methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O 2 at 10 ml min -1 through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O 2 containing 1500 μmol O 3 l -1 at 10 ml min -1 reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O 3 was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O 3 generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O 3 production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in 30 min by corona discharge with O 2 bubbling, and in 11 min by corona discharge with bubbling of O 2 containing 1500 μmol O 3 l -1

  13. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, M A; Ghaffar, A; Ahmed, K

    2002-01-01

    The effect of O sub 2 and O sub 3 bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 M OMEGA resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l sup - sup 1 methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O sub 2 at 10 ml min sup - sup 1 through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O sub 2 containing 1500 mu mol O sub 3 l sup - sup 1 at 10 ml min sup - sup 1 reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O sub 3 was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O sub 3 generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O sub 3 production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in...

  14. Effect of some pre-treatments on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, S.; Guerses, A.; Bayrak, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments, such as HCl treatment, demineralization and pyrolysis, under a CO 2 atmosphere at different temperatures on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite were investigated. The adsorption capacities of the samples were determined before and after these pre-treatments. In addition, the removals of pyritic and organic sulfur and ash contents for the same coal samples were also defined. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the samples decreased after these pre-treatments. The decrease in adsorption capacity with pyrolysis can be attributed to the changes in surface morphology and/or pore size distribution of the coal samples. On the other hand, the observed decrease in adsorption capacity with removal of carbonates and silicates shows that these minerals have an important effect on methylene blue adsorption, and the adsorption considerably occurs through electrostatic interactions. In addition, the obtained results showed that the organic sulfur presence in the coal matrix have a positive effect on the methylene blue adsorption

  15. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  16. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl 3 liquid + H 2 O → FeOCl solid + 2 HCl gas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl solid + H 2 O → Fe 2 O 3 solid + 2 HCl gas . The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  17. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  18. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... concentrations over longer periods. The signal was seen to be stable, with regular drift in both laboratory and field test. In the field application, the sensor signal was corrected for drift, and errors were observed to be under 7% of that of conductivity measurements. The study also found that the chloride...

  19. Methylene blue improves mitochondrial respiration and decreases oxidative stress in a substrate-dependent manner in diabetic rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duicu, Oana M; Privistirescu, Andreea; Wolf, Adrian; Petruş, Alexandra; Dănilă, Maria D; Raţiu, Corina D; Muntean, Danina M; Sturza, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been systematically associated with compromised mitochondrial energetics and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that underlie its progression to heart failure. Methylene blue is a redox drug with reported protective effects mainly on brain mitochondria. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute administration of methylene blue on mitochondrial respiration, H 2 O 2 production, and calcium sensitivity in rat heart mitochondria isolated from healthy and 2 months (streptozotocin-induced) diabetic rats. Mitochondrial respiratory function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry. H 2 O 2 production and calcium retention capacity were measured spectrofluorimetrically. The addition of methylene blue (0.1 μmol·L -1 ) elicited an increase in oxygen consumption of mitochondria energized with complex I and II substrates in both normal and diseased mitochondria. Interestingly, methylene blue elicited a significant increase in H 2 O 2 release in the presence of complex I substrates (glutamate and malate), but had an opposite effect in mitochondria energized with complex II substrate (succinate). No changes in the calcium retention capacity of healthy or diabetic mitochondria were found in the presence of methylene blue. In conclusion, in cardiac mitochondria isolated from diabetic and nondiabetic rat hearts, methylene blue improved respiratory function and elicited a dichotomic, substrate-dependent effect on ROS production.

  20. Determination of chloride content in crystalline silicotitanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is one of three options under evaluation to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process. This Salt Disposition Alternatives team identified three options for pretreatment of High Level Waste supernate: non-elutable ion exchange, precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate or direct disposal in grout. The ion exchange option would use crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Researchers at Texas A and M and Sandia National Laboratory developed CST. The engineered form of CST was procured from UOP LLC under the trade name IONSIVreg s ign IE-911. Review of vendor literature and discussions with UOP personnel led to speculation concerning the fate of chloride ion during the manufacture process of IE-911. Walker proposed tests to examine the chloride content of CST and removal methods. This report describes the results of tests to determine the chloride levels in as received CST and washed CST

  1. Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride after metabolic activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannug, U; Johansson, A; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1974-01-01

    Vinyl chloride has recently been shown to cause a malignant liver tumor disease in man after occupational exposure in PVC plants. This actualizes the problem of whether such hazards could be avoided or at least diminished in the future by a screening for mutagenicity of chemicals used in industries. The basis for such a screening procedure is the close correlation between carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of chemicals. Experiments with Salmonella bacteria showed that the carcinogenic hazard of vinyl chloride could have been traced by means of mutagenicity tests. The data indicate that vinyl chloride is not mutagenic per se but becomes mutagenic after a metabolic activation in the liver. 24 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  2. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient......; the higher the volume of gel solid relative to the space available for it, the lower the chloride migration coefficient, because the pore system becomes more tortuous and the porosity becomes less....

  3. Carbon and TiO{sub 2} synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes, E-mail: evelynalvesnunes@yahoo.com.br; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio

    2016-07-01

    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO{sub 2} structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO{sub 2} structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO{sub 2} phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO{sub 2} during the sol-gel step, with a TiO{sub 2} structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO{sub 2} based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO{sub 2}-Carbon

  4. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Caffarel-Salvador

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed “photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy” (PACT. In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1–2.5 mg/mL and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96

  5. Carbon and TiO_2 synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio

    2016-01-01

    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO_2 structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO_2/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO_2 structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO_2-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO_2 phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO_2 during the sol-gel step, with a TiO_2 structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO_2 based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO_2-Carbon composite. • The sol-gel synthesis was efficient

  6. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  7. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  8. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...... desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 k...

  9. Evaluation of the protein biomarkers and the analgesic response to systemic methylene blue in patients with refractory neuropathic pain: a double-blind, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miclescu AA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adriana A Miclescu,1 Martin Svahn,1 Torsten E Gordh1,2 1Multidisciplinary Pain Clinic, Uppsala University Hospital, 2Pain Research, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Aim: This study was carried out in patients with neuropathic pain in order to assess the analgesic effects and changes in protein biomarkers after the administration of methylene blue (MB, a diaminophenothiazine with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide.Materials and methods: Ten patients with chronic refractory neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either MB (10 mg/mL Methylthioninium chloride 2 mg/kg (MB group or MB 0.02 mg/kg (control group infused over 60 minutes. Sensory function and pain (Numerical Rating Scale were evaluated at baseline and at 60 minutes after the start of the infusion. The patients kept a pain diary during the next 24 hours and for the following 4 days. Plasma and urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α and plasma protein biomarkers prior to and after the infusions were measured with radioimmunoassay and with proximity extension assay.Results: A decrease of the Numerical Rating Scale at 60 minutes in comparison with baseline was observed in the MB (P=0.047 group. The decrease was significant between the MB and the control group on the day of and day after MB infusion (P=0.04 and P=0.008, respectively. There was no difference in systemic protein expressions between groups except for prolactin (PRL (P=0.02. Three patients demonstrated diminished dynamic mechanical allodynia.Conclusion: MB decreased the pain levels in patients with chronic therapy-resistant neuropathic pain on the first 2 days after administration. Known as an endocrine modulator on the anterior pituitary gland, MB infusion produced a decrease of PRL. The detailed role of PRL effects in chronic neuropathic pain remains undetermined.Keywords: methylene blue, nitric oxide

  10. Crystal field influence on vibration spectra: anhydrous uranyl chloride and dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Andre; Caillet, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Vibrational spectra of anhydrous uranyl chloride UO 2 Cl 2 and so called basic uranyl chloride: dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate /UO 2 (OH) 2 UO 2 /Cl 2 (H 2 O) 4 are reported. Factor group method analysis leads for the first time to complete and comprehensive interpretation of their spectra. Two extreme examples of crystal field influence on vibrational spectra are pointed out: for UO 2 Cl 2 , one is unable to explain spectra without taking into account all the elements of primitive crystalline cell, whilst for dihydroxodiuranyl dichloride tetrahydrate the crystal packing has very little effect on vibrational spectra [fr

  11. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...

  12. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  13. Control Technology for Depainting Operations: Estimation of Life-Cycle Costs of Controlling Methylene Chloride in Aircraft-Depainting Operations Versus Alternative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-24

    2343 Calle Del Mundo Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008 Tel.: (408)727-8282 POC: J. A. Gotterba Durr Industries Environmental Systems Division 40600...1) LESS THAN 1 IV. FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA FLASH POINT (TEST METHOD) ABOVE 200*P AUTO IGNITION ABOVE TEMPERATURE iJfJO’P...IST METHOD, ?oo.._r T,CCT CxriNOUISHINO Mt 01A WATER AUTO IGNITION ABOVB I rLAM**BLt »•’•’"’• TEMPERATURE ^QQly | IN AIR

  14. Fabrication and characterization of a novel hydrophobic CaCO{sub 3} grafted by hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Lixia [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University (China); School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Yang, Simei; Luo, Xin [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Lei, Jingxin [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University (China); Cao, Qiue [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Wang, Jiliang, E-mail: jlwang@ynu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-OH) with different molecular weight and hydroxyl value was successfully prepared by the suspension copolymerization. • PVC-OH was grafted onto the surface of CaCO{sub 3} particles by the urethane formation reaction. • The modified CaCO{sub 3} particles show excellent hydrophobicity. - Abstract: The hydroxylated PVC (PVC-OH) was successfully synthesized by a suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC), butyl acrylate (BA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Novel hydrophobic CaCO{sub 3} was then prepared by a urethane formation reaction between methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and the −OH groups both in the PVC-OH chains and on the surface of pristine CaCO{sub 3} particles. The effect of the PVC-OH content on the grafting ratio of treated CaCO{sub 3} particles was extensively investigated. Combining the result of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) with that of water contact angle, it can be concluded that the hydrophobicity of CaCO{sub 3} had been efficiently improved by the PVC-OH segments grafted on the surface of CaCO{sub 3} particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were also used to study crystalline behaviors, thermal stability and surface morphology of the modified CaCO{sub 3} particles, respectively. The change of specific surface area implying surface modification was investigated as well.

  15. Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffleben, George; Goods, Steven H.; Shepodd, Timothy; Wheeler, David R.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy

    2002-01-01

    Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

  16. Detection of chloride ion concentration using chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions using chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with respect to another identical Ag/AgCl electrode in the bulk electrolyte.

  17. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  18. Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Chloride Hexahydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar; Šolcová, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 17 (2005), s. 6591-6598 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aluminum chloride hexahydrate * thermal decomposition * reaction kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2005

  19. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is bas...

  20. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  1. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Sherman (202-205-3289...

  2. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... contained in USITC Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014. (2) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl... this section by engineering, work practice, and personal protective controls as follows: (1) Feasible...

  4. Niobium interaction with chloride-carbonate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Kuznetsova, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    Niobium interaction with chloride-carbonate melt NaCl-KCl-K 2 CO 3 (5 mass %) in the temperature range of 973-1123 K has been studied. The products and niobium corrosion rate have been ascertained, depending on the temperature of melt and time of allowance. Potentials of niobium corrosion have been measured. Refs. 11, figs. 3, tabs. 2

  5. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  6. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  7. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation is one of the fundamental and essential molecular cloning techniques. In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride ...

  8. Analysis of the Rapid Chloride Migration test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Ferreira, R. M.; Gulikers, J.; Andrade, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study the Rapid Chloride Migration test (RCM) standardized as NT Build 492 and BAW-Merkblatt is reviewed. Since the traditional natural diffusion tests are laborious, time consuming and costly, they are not always preferred from a practical point of view. To overcome these disadvantages,

  9. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  10. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  11. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM. PMID:27873832

  12. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-09-15

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO₃, a solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO₃, solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM.

  13. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  14. Determination of Critical Micellar Concentration of Homologous 2-Alkoxyphenylcarbamoyloxyethyl-Morpholinium Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Stopková

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The critical micellar concentrations of selected alkyloxy homologues of local anesthetic 4-(2-{[(2-alkoxyphenylcarbamoyl]oxy}ethylmorpholin-4-ium chloride with nc = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 carbons in alkyloxy tail were determined by absorption spectroscopy in the UV–vis spectral region with the use of a pyrene probe. Within the homologous series of the studied amphiphilic compounds, the ln(cmc was observed to be dependent linearly on the number of carbon atoms nc in the hydrophobic tail: ln(cmc = 0.705–0.966 nc. The Gibbs free energy, necessary for the transfer of the methylene group of the alkoxy chain from the water phase into the inner part of the micelle at the temperature of 25 °C and pH ≈ 4.5–5.0, was found to be −2.39 kJ/mol. The experimentally determined cmc values showed good correlations with the predicted values of the bulkiness of the alkoxy tail expressed as the molar volume of substituent R, as well as with the surface tension of the compounds.

  15. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  16. Improved electrolyte for lithium-thionyl chloride battery. [Patent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, W.H.; McCartney, J.F.

    1980-12-17

    A lithium, thionyl chloride battery is provided with an electrolyte which makes it safe under a reverse voltage condition. The electrolyte is niobium pentachloride which is dissolved in the thionyl chloride.

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride (Final Report, 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Vinyl Chloride and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  18. Thallium-201 chloride dynamic analysis using thallium-201 chloride and sodium iodide-131 thyroid subtraction scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Setsuo; Hiraki, Yoshio; Togami, Izumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-10-01

    The mechanism of /sup 201/Tl chloride accumulation is unclear in thyroid gland and thyroid tumor. This report examines 108 patients that received thyroid scintigraphy examinations with both /sup 201/Tl chloride and sodium /sup 131/I. The patients were diagnosed clinically and histologically whenever possible. The ROI were obtained by subtraction imaging with both isotopes and by subtraction positive and negative areas of imaging. Dynamic curves were obtained for /sup 201/Tl chloride per square unit of each ROI. The dynamic curve in the radioiodide-accumulated area was examined. The data indicate that the clearance rate of /sup 201/Tl chloride (T/sub 15/) was correlated with the sodium /sup 131/I uptake rate at 24 h (r=0.70).

  19. Conformational analysis of the chemical shifts for molecules containing diastereotopic methylene protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Quantum chemistry SCF/GIAO calculations were carried out on a set of compounds containing diastereotopic protons. Five molecules, including recently synthesized 1,3-di(2,3-epoxypropoxy)benzene, containing the chiral or pro-chiral center and the neighboring methylene group, were chosen. The rotational averages (i.e. normalized averages with respect to the rotation about the torsional angle τ with the exponential energy weight at temperature T) calculated individually for each of the methylene protons in 1,3-di(2,3-epoxypropoxy)benzene differ by ca. 0.6 ppm, which is significantly less than the value calculated for the lowest energy conformer. This value turned out to be low enough to guarantee the proper ordering of theoretical chemical shifts, supporting the interpretation of the 1H NMR spectrum of this important compound. The rotational averages of chemical shifts for methylene protons for a given type of conformer are shown to be essentially equal to the Boltzmann averages (here, the population-weighted averages for the individual conformers representing minima on the E( τ) cross-section). The calculated Boltzmann averages in the representative conformational space may exhibit completely different ordering as compared to the chemical shifts calculated for the lowest-energy conformer. This is especially true in the case of molecules, for which no significant steric effects are present. In this case, only Boltzmann averages account for the experimental pattern of proton signals. In addition, better overall agreement with experiment (lower value of the root-mean-square deviation between calculated and measured chemical shifts) is typically obtained when Boltzmann averages are used.

  20. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  1. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  2. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  3. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this analytical technique has been checked against a certified reference material, Merck sodium chloride solution. Confidence levels (CL0.95), of 0.03 and relative standard deviations of 0.2 % for chloride were determined for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) chloride binding ...

  4. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, D.O.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl 3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl 3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  5. Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

  6. Spinal meningeal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in meningeal seeding by malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, T.; Or, R.; Matzner, Y.; Samuels, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Definite diagnosis of meningeal seeding by systemic cancer relies on the presence of malignant cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the absence of such cells in the CSF, only two other tests strongly suggest the diagnosis - a CT scan and a myelogram. This paper reports a case in which the diagnosis was strongly suggested by an unusual uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate by the leptomeninges during a skeletal scan and later established by the presence of malignant cells in the CSF. The radionuclide scan may be an additional diagnostic test in some cases with meningeal seeding by systemic cancer

  7. Performance of zeolite ceramic membrane synthesized by wet mixing method as methylene blue dye wastewater filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masturi; Widodo, R. D.; Edie, S. S.; Amri, U.; Sidiq, A. L.; Alighiri, D.; Wulandari, N. A.; Susilawati; Amanah, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    Problem of pollution in water continues in Indonesia, with its manufacturing sector as biggest contributor to economic growth. One out of many technological solutions is post-treating industrial wastewater by membrane filtering technology. We presented a result of our fabrication of ceramic membrane made from zeolite with simple mixing and he. At 5% of (poring agent):(total weight), its permeability stays around 2.8 mD (10‑14m2) with slight variance around it, attributed to the mixture being in far below percolating threshold. All our membranes achieve remarkable above 90% rejection rate of methylene blue as solute waste in water solvent.

  8. Antibacterial activity of berberine-NorA pump inhibitor hybrids with a methylene ether linking group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosorn, Siritron; Tanwirat, Bongkot; Muhamad, Nussara; Casadei, Gabriele; Tomkiewicz, Danuta; Lewis, Kim; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Prammananan, Therdsak; Gornall, Karina C; Beck, Jennifer L; Bremner, John B

    2009-06-01

    Conjugation of the NorA substrate berberine and the NorA inhibitor 5-nitro-2-phenyl-1H-indole via a methylene ether linking group gave the 13-substituted berberine-NorA inhibitor hybrid, 3. A series of simpler arylmethyl ether hybrid structures were also synthesized. The hybrid 3 showed excellent antibacterial activity (MIC Staphylococcus aureus, 1.7 microM), which was over 382-fold more active than the parent antibacterial berberine, against this bacterium. This compound was also shown to block the NorA efflux pump in S. aureus.

  9. Utilization of zeolites synthesized from coal ash for methylene blue removal from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution was carried out using zeolites synthesized from coal ash as low-cost adsorbents. The coal ash sample was converted to zeolites by hydrothermal treatment using different synthesis parameters. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, XRD and SEM studies. The adsorption isotherms can be fitted by Freundlich model. The values of the adsorption capacity of adsorbents were similar for adsorbents. Kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  10. Is Cytox 3522 (10% methylene-bis-thiocyanate) a human skin sensitizer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Methylene-bis-thiocyanate is an antimicrobial agent in Cytox 3522 (American Cyanamid Corporation) and Nalco 206 (Nalco Chemical Company). Both are wide-spectrum industrial biocides. Cytox 3522 showed a strong sensitization potential in guineau pigs using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test and the O...... and the Open Epicutaneous Test procedures. In spite of this, human sensitization has not been reported. This may be explained by several factors such as limited exposure, low-use concentration and a lack of diagnostic patch tests in selected patients....

  11. Methylene blue as a lignin surrogate in manganese peroxidase reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goby, Jeffrey D; Penner, Michael H; Lajoie, Curtis A; Kelly, Christine J

    2017-11-15

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is associated with lignin degradation and is thus relevant to lignocellulosic-utilization technologies. Technological applications require reaction mixture optimization. A surrogate substrate can facilitate this if its susceptibility to degradation is easily monitored and mirrors that of lignin. The dye methylene blue (MB) was evaluated in these respects as a surrogate substrate by testing its reactivity in reaction mixtures containing relevant redox mediators (dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids). Relative rates of MB degradation were compared to available literature reports of lignin degradation under similar conditions, and suggest that MB can be a useful lignin surrogate in MnP systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of plasma after methylene blue and white light treatment in four Chinese blood centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Yang; Guohui, Bian; Hong, Yang; Xiaopu, Xiao; Zherong, Bai; Mingyuan, Wang; Xinsheng, Zhang; Juanjuan, Wang; Changqing, Li; Wuping, Li

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen reduction technology is an important process in the blood safety system, including solvent/detergent treatment, filtration and methylene blue-photochemical technology (MB-PCT). To investigate the quality of MB-PCT-treated plasma, plasma samples from four Chinese blood centers were analyzed over 12 months of storage to determine the recovery of activities and levels of various plasma proteins. Ten plasma units each from the Suzhou, Yancheng, Chongqing and Shandong blood centers were divided into two aliquots. One was subjected to treatment with one of two methylene blue-photochemical technology instruments and the other was used as control. The treated and untreated sample pairs were stored at -30°C. The recovery rates of coagulation factors, inhibitor proteins, total protein, immunoglobulins, and complement proteins were measured at different time points after storage. The mean recovery of most proteins exceeded 80% after MB treatment. The exceptions were factor XI and fibrinogen, of which only 71.3-74% and 69.0-92.3% were retained during storage. The two equipment types differed in terms of residual MB concentration in the plasma samples (0.18 μM and 0.29 μM, respectively). They had similar protein recovery rates at 0.5 month but differed at later time points. The four blood centers differed significantly with regard to factor II, V, VIII and fibrinogen activities. Only the samples from the Shandong blood center met the methylene blue treated fresh frozen plasma requirement. The major factor that influenced the quality of the MB-FFP samples was the time taken between blood collection and storage. Methylene blue treated plasma showed reduced coagulation factor (CF) activity and protein levels. The MB treatment-induced damage to the proteins was acceptable at the four Chinese blood centers, but the quality of the MB-treated plasma in general was not satisfactory. The main factor affecting plasma quality may be the duration of the collection and

  13. Role of methylene spacer in the excitation energy transfer in europium 1- and 2- naphthylcarboxylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, K. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Tsaryuk, V., E-mail: vit225@ire216.msk.s [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Kudryashova, V.; Pekareva, I. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Sokolnicki, J. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of WrocLaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie str., WrocLaw 50-383 (Poland); Yakovlev, Yu. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15

    A series of compounds Ln(RCOO){sub 3}.Phen (Ln=Eu, Gd, Tb; RCOO{sup -}-1- and 2-naphthoate, 1- and 2-naphthylacetate, 1- and 2-naphthoxyacetate anions, Phen-1,10-phenanthroline) was investigated by methods of optical spectroscopy. Compounds of composition Ln(RCOO){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O with the same carboxylate ligands are also considered. Results of studies of the effects of methylene spacer decoupling the {pi}-{pi}- or p-{pi}-conjugation in the naphthylcarboxylate ligand on the structure of Eu{sup 3+} coordination centre, on the lifetime of {sup 5}D{sub 0} (Eu{sup 3+}) state, and on processes of the excitation energy transfer to Eu{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} ions are presented. Introduction of the methylene bridge in the ligand weakens the influence of the steric hindrances in forming of a crystal lattice and results in lowering the distortion of the Eu{sup 3+} luminescence centre, and in elongation of the observed {sup 5}D{sub 0} lifetime {tau}{sub obs}. The latter is caused by decrease in contribution of the radiative processes rate 1/{tau}{sub r}. This is confirmed by the correlation between the lifetimes {tau}{sub obs} and the quantities '{tau}{sub r}.const' inversely proportional to the total integral intensities of Eu(RCOO){sub 3}.Phen luminescence spectra. The methylene spacer performs a role of regulator of sensitization of the Ln{sup 3+} luminescence efficiency by means of an influence on mutual location of lowest triplet states of the ligands, the ligand-metal charge transfer (LMCT) states, and the emitting states of Ln{sup 3+} ions. The lowest triplet state in lanthanide naphthylcarboxylate adducts with Phen is related to carboxylate anion. A presence of the methylene spacer in naphthylcarboxylate ligand increases the triplet state energy. At the same time, the energy of 'carboxylic group-Eu{sup 3+} ion' charge transfer states falls, which can promote the degradation of excitation energy. In naphthylcarboxylates investigated a range of the

  14. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delport, Anzelle [Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Harvey, Brian H. [Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Petzer, Anél [Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Petzer, Jacobus P., E-mail: jacques.petzer@nwu.ac.za [Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2017-06-15

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, the present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC{sub 50} = 0.0037 μM), Nile blue (IC{sub 50} = 0.0077 μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC{sub 50} = 0.018 μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC{sub 50} = 0.07 μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC{sub 50} value of 0.012 μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. - Highlights: • MB analogues, cresyl violet and Nile blue, are high potency MAO-A inhibitors. • Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor. • Potent MAO-A inhibition should alert to potential serotonin toxicity.

  15. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...

  16. Determination of Chloride Content in Cementitious Materials : From Fundamental Aspects to Application of Ag/AgCl Chloride Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pargar, F.; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the advantages and drawbacks of available test methods for the determination of chloride content in cementitious materials in general, and the application of Ag/AgCl chloride sensors in particular. The main factors that affect the reliability of a chloride sensor are presented.

  17. Methylene blue microbubbles as a model dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound and activatable photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Song, Wentao; Huynh, Elizabeth; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Jeesu; Helfield, Brandon L.; Leung, Ben Y. C.; Goertz, David E.; Zheng, Gang; Oh, Jungtaek; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Kim, Chulhong

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging are highly complementary modalities since both use ultrasonic detection for operation. Increasingly, photoacoustic and ultrasound have been integrated in terms of hardware instrumentation. To generate a broadly accessible dual-modality contrast agent, we generated microbubbles (a standard ultrasound contrast agent) in a solution of methylene blue (a standard photoacoustic dye). This MB2 solution was formed effectively and was optimized as a dual-modality contrast solution. As microbubble concentration increased (with methylene blue concentration constant), photoacoustic signal was attenuated in the MB2 solution. When methylene blue concentration increased (with microbubble concentration held constant), no ultrasonic interference was observed. Using an MB2 solution that strongly attenuated all photoacoustic signal, high powered ultrasound could be used to burst the microbubbles and dramatically enhance photoacoustic contrast (>800-fold increase), providing a new method for spatiotemporal control of photoacoustic signal generation.

  18. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, I.A.; Zamorani, E.; Serrini, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 50 0 C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  19. Thermochemistry of certain rare earth and ammonium double chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubaliev, D.U.; Abramtsev, V.A.; Kydynov, M.K.; Vilyaev, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    In a calorimeter with isothermal casing at 25 deg C dissolution enthalpies of double chlorides of rare earths and ammonium LnCl 3 x2NH 4 Cl (Ln=La, Sm) and LnCl 3 x3NH 4 Cl (Ln=Gd, Tb, Ho) in water, as well as dissolution enthalpy of rare earth chlorides in solution of ammonium chloride and NH 4 Cl in solution of rare earth chloride, have been measured. Formation enthalpies, standard formation enthalpies, dissociation enthalpies of the above-mentioned double chlorides are calculated

  20. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  1. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

  2. Magnetic interactions in iron (III) porphyrin chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, J.; Subramanian, Japyesan; Fuhrhop, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Intermolecular exchange interactions in iron(III) porphyrin chlorides (porphyrin = OEP, proto, TPP) have been studied by X-ray structure, EPR and magnetic susceptibility studies. The crystal structure of Fe(III)OEP-Cl was found to be different from that of the other two. Different types of exchange broadened EPR-spectra are obtained which are attributable to the arrangement in the crystals. The EPR results correlate well with magnetic susceptibility data. (orig.) [de

  3. Methylene-Cycloalkylacetate (MCA) Scaffold-Based Compounds as Novel Neurotropic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankri, David; Haham, Dikla; Lahiani, Adi; Lazarovici, Philip; Tsvelikhovsky, Dmitry

    2018-04-18

    One of the main symptoms in degenerative diseases is death of neuronal cell followed by the loss of neuronal pathways. In neuronal cultures, neurite outgrowths are cell sprouts capable of transforming into either axons or dendrites, to further form functional neuronal synaptic connections. Such connections have an important role in brain cognition, neuronal plasticity, neuronal survival, and regeneration. Therefore, drugs that stimulate neurite outgrowth may be found beneficial in ameliorating neural degeneration. Here, we establish the existence of a unique family of methylene-cycloalkylacetate-based molecules (MCAs) that interface with neuronal cell properties and operate as acceptable pharmacophores for a novel neurotropic (neurite outgrowth inducing) lead compounds. Using an established PC12 cell bioassay, we investigated the neurotropic effect of methylene-cycloalkylacetate compounds by comparison to NGF, a known neurotropic factor. Micrographs of the cells were collected by using a light microscope camera, and digitized photographs were analyzed for compound-induced neurotropic activity using an NIH image protocol. The results indicate that the alkene element, integrated within the cycloalkylacetate core, is indispensable for neurotropic activity. The discovered lead compounds need further mechanistic investigation and may be improved toward development of a neurotropic drug.

  4. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks: An Efficient Adsorbent for Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Deb, Madhurima; Tiwari, Shreya; Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2018-04-01

    Extraordinary properties of graphene and its derivatives have found application in varied areas such as energy, electronics, optical devices and sensors, to name a few. Large surface area along with specialized functional groups make these materials attractive for removal of dye molecules in solution via adsorption. Industrial effluents contain large amounts of toxic chemicals resulting in pollution of water bodies, which pose environmental hazards in general. Here we report application of 3D oxidized graphene frameworks in the efficient removal of cationic dye molecules such as methylene blue via adsorption. Systematic parametric studies investigating the effect of the initial dye concentration, pH and contact time have been performed. Spectroscopic analysis of the filtrate suggests that tortuous paths in 3D oxidized graphene frameworks result in efficient removal of dye molecules due to enhanced interaction. The hydroxyl groups retained in these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks facilitate adsorption of the dye molecules while passing through the adsorbent. pH studies suggest that maximum removal efficiency for methylene blue was achieved at pH value of 9. The results suggest that these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks can be used for purification of large volumes of contaminated water from cationic dyes in waste water treatment plants.

  5. Methylene Blue Dye-Induced Skin Necrosis in Immediate Breast Reconstruction: Evaluation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hwan Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background For early breast cancer patients, skin-sparing mastectomy or nipple-sparing mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the mainstream treatment for immediate breast reconstruction in possible cases. However, a few cases of skin necrosis caused by methylene blue dye (MBD used for sentinel lymph node localization have been reported. Methods Immediate breast reconstruction using a silicone implant was performed on 35 breasts of 34 patients after mastectomy. For sentinel lymph node localization, 1% MBD (3 mL was injected into the subareolar area. The operation site was inspected in the postoperative evaluation. Results Six cases of immediate breast reconstruction using implants were complicated by methylene blue dye. One case of local infection was improved by conservative treatment. In two cases, partial necrosis and wound dehiscence of the incision areas were observed; thus, debridement and closure were performed. Of the three cases of wide skin necrosis, two cases underwent removal of the dead tissue and implants, followed by primary closure. In the other case, the breast implant was salvaged using latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap reconstruction. Conclusions The complications were caused by MBD toxicity, which aggravated blood disturbance and skin tension after implant insertion. When planning immediate breast reconstruction using silicone implants, complications of MBD should be discussed in detail prior to surgery, and appropriate management in the event of complications is required.

  6. Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R 2) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution. PMID:25705714

  7. Use of ZnO:Mn particles for degradation of methylene blue by photocatalysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldi, T. R.; Swerts, J. P.; Vicente, M. A.; Paris, E.C.; Ribeiro, C.

    2016-01-01

    The management of water use in the agricultural environment is a key factor to build new environmentally sustainable productive methods. Photocatalysis is a promising method for water decontamination. This research paper aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic potential of pure and Mn-doped ZnO particles. The materials were obtained by the polymeric precursor method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, N_2 adsorption in low temperature, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. In order to evaluate ZnO:Mn particles photo efficiency, experiments were carried out by applying the methylene blue dye solution to photodegradation under UVC exposure. The particles had ZnO single-phase, but low specific surface area. The sample ZnO:0.25% Mn presented higher efficiency in the methylene blue photocatalytic degradation test. This efficiency was related to a higher band gap energy value and a lower rate of electron recombination, which allows greater formation of hydroxyl radicals, which are responsible for dye degradation. (author)

  8. Electrochemical behavior of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukkitgar, Shikandar D.; Shetti, Nagaraj P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel sensor for the determination of 5-fluorouracil was constructed by electrochemical deposition of methylene blue on surface of carbon paste electrode. The electrode surface morphology was studied using Atomic force microscopy and XRD. The electrochemical activity of modified electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse method. The developed sensor shows impressive enlargement in sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil determination. The peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry was linear with concentration of 5-fluorouracil in the range 4 × 10 −5 –1 × 10 −7 M and detection limit and quantification limit were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM respectively. Further, the sensor was successfully applied in pharmaceutical and biological fluid sample analysis. - Highlights: • Electrochemical oxidation of 5-fluorouracil has been investigated for first time at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode • The electrode process was irreversible and diffusion controlled • Probable electrochemical mechanism was proposed which involved two proton and two electron transfer reaction • The LOD and LOQ values were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM, respectively, with good selectivity and sensitivity. • Proposed method was applied to 5-Fluorouracil determination in pharmaceutical and spiked human urine samples

  9. Combination photodynamic therapy of human breast cancer using salicylic acid and methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Jahanshiri, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination therapy with methylene blue (MB) assisted photodynamic therapy (PDT) and salicylic acid (SA) as chemo-therapy anticancer agent. The binding of salicylic acid to methylene blue was studied using spectrophotometric method. The results show the 1:2 complex formation between SA and MB. The binding constants and related Gibbs free energies o are obtained (Kb1 = 183.74, Kb2 = 38.13 and ∆ Gb1° = 12.92 kJ·mol- 1, ∆ Gb2° =9.02 kJ·mol- 1). The spectrophotometric results show the improvement in solubilization and reduction prevention for SA and MB in the complex form. These results are in agreements with cellular experiments. The dark toxicity measurements represent the improve efficacy of chemotherapy using combination of SA and MB. The photodynamic therapy results (using red LED as light source (630 nm; power density: 30 mW cm- 2)) show that the cancer cell killing efficiency of MB increases in the combination with SA due to reduction prevention and stabilization of monomeric form of MB.

  10. Graphene quantum dot synthesis using nanosecond laser pulses and its comparison to Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, Khomidkhodza; Thomas, Zachary; Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Smith, Skylar

    A biocompatible photodynamic therapy agent that generates a high amount of singlet oxygen with high water dispersibility and excellent photostability is desirable. In this work, a graphene based biomaterial which is a promising alternative to a standard photosensitizers was produced. Methylene blue was used as a reference photosensitizer. Bacteria deactivation by methylene blue was shown to be inhibited inside human blood due to protein binding. Graphene quantum dots (GQD) were synthesized by irradiating benzene and nickel oxide mixture using nanosecond laser pulses. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used for characterization of GQDs. Initial results show graphene quantum dots whose size less than 5 nm were successfully obtained. UV-VIS spectra shows absorption peak around 310 nm. The results of these studies can potentially be used to develop therapies for the eradication of pathogens in open wounds, burns, or skin cancers. New therapies for these conditions are particularly needed when antibiotic-resistant infections are present. NIH KBRIN.

  11. Adsorption capacity of methylene blue, an organic pollutant, by montmorillonite clay

    KAUST Repository

    Feddal, I.; Ramdani, Amina; Taleb, Safia; Gaigneaux, E. M.; Batis, Narjè s Harrouch; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2013-01-01

    The isotherms and kinetics of the adsorption of a cationic dye in aqueous solution, methylene blue, on a local Algerian montmorillonite clay mineral (raw, sodium and thermally activated at 300 and 500°C) were determined experimentally. Various parameters influencing the adsorption were optimized, mainly solid-liquid contact time, mass of adsorbent, initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution and temperature. Results showed that the adsorption kinetics were fast: 30 min for the raw clay mineral, and 20 min for sodium clay mineral (SC) and thermally activated at 300°C, whereas with the clay mineral calcined at 500°C, the equilibrium was reached after 150 min only. The maximum adsorption capacity was reached at pH 6.6. Results deducted from the adsorption isotherms also showed that the retention follows the Langmuir model. In addition, it was found that the kinetics were in the order of 2 (K = 2.457 × 106 g/mg.h) for sodium clay and were limited by an intra-particle diffusion. SC was found to be a better adsorbent to remove methylene blue from industrial wastewater. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by adsorption onto pineapple leaf powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chih-Huang; Lin, Yao-Tung; Tzeng, Tai-Wei

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an unconventional bio-adsorbent, pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was studied. It was observed that intra-particle diffusion was involved in the adsorption process and that the kinetic data fitted well with a pseudo-second-order equation. Fitting parameters revealed that the rate of adsorption increased with decrease in dye concentration and decrease in ionic strength while the mixing speed did not have a significant effect on adsorption. The adsorption was favorable at higher pH and lower temperature, and the equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 4.68 x 10 -4 to 9.28 x 10 -4 mol/g when pH increases from 3.5 to 9.5. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption is a typical physical process, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature. The results revealed that this agricultural waste has potential to be used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.

  13. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by adsorption onto pineapple leaf powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chih-Huang, E-mail: chweng@isu.edu.tw [Department of Civil and Ecological Engineering, I-Shou University, Da-Hsu Township, Kaohsiung 84008, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yao-Tung; Tzeng, Tai-Wei [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, TaiChung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    The ability of an unconventional bio-adsorbent, pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was studied. It was observed that intra-particle diffusion was involved in the adsorption process and that the kinetic data fitted well with a pseudo-second-order equation. Fitting parameters revealed that the rate of adsorption increased with decrease in dye concentration and decrease in ionic strength while the mixing speed did not have a significant effect on adsorption. The adsorption was favorable at higher pH and lower temperature, and the equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 4.68 x 10{sup -4} to 9.28 x 10{sup -4} mol/g when pH increases from 3.5 to 9.5. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption is a typical physical process, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature. The results revealed that this agricultural waste has potential to be used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.

  14. A Novel ZnO-Methylene Blue Nanocomposite Matrix for Biosensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid matrix of zinc oxide-methylene blue (ZnO-MB has been successfully developed for biosensing application. The introduction of methylene blue into the ZnO thin film leads to reduction in the charge transfer resistance and suggests an increase in the electron transfer capacity of the composite. Glucose oxidase (GOx was chosen as the model enzyme and effectively immobilized on the surface of hybrid ZnO-MB nanocomposite matrix. Electrochemical measurements were employed to study biosensing response of the GOx/ZnO-MB/ITO bioelectrode as a function of glucose concentration. The low oxidation potential (−0.23 V of the hybrid bioelectrode, in a mediatorless electrolyte, makes it resistant against interference from other bio-molecules. The low value of Michaelis-Menten constant (2.65 mM indicates that immobilized GOx retains its enzymatic activity significantly on the surface of nanocomposite hybrid matrix that results in an enhanced affinity towards its substrate (glucose. The ZnO-MB nanocomposite hybrid matrix, exhibiting enhanced sensing response (0.2 μAmM−1cm−2 with long shelf-life (>10 weeks, has potential for the realization of an integrated biosensing device.

  15. High-pressure homogenization associated hydrothermal process of palygorskite for enhanced adsorption of Methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhifang [Center of Eco-materials and Green Chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Wenbo [Center of Eco-materials and Green Chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); R& D Center of Xuyi Attapulgite Applied Technology, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xuyi 211700 (China); Wang, Aiqin, E-mail: aqwang@licp.cas.cn [Center of Eco-materials and Green Chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); R& D Center of Xuyi Attapulgite Applied Technology, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xuyi 211700 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Palygorskite was modified by a homogenization associated hydrothermal process. • The crystal bundles of PAL were disaggregated efficiently after modification. • The adsorption of palygorskite for Methylene blue was greatly enhanced. • MB-loaded palygorskite exhibits excellent resistance to acid and alkali solution. - Abstract: Palygorskite (PAL) was modified by a high-pressure homogenization assisted hydrothermal process. The effects of modification on the morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of PAL were systematically investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential analysis techniques, and the adsorption properties were systematically evaluated using Methylene blue (MB) as the model dye. The results revealed that the crystal bundles were disaggregated and the PAL nanorods became more even after treated via associated high-pressure homogenization and hydrothermal process, and the crystal bundles were dispersed as nanorods. The intrinsic crystal structure of PAL was remained after hydrothermal treatment, and the pore size calculated by the BET method was increased. The adsorption properties of PAL for MB were evidently improved (from 119 mg/g to 171 mg/g) after modification, and the dispersion of PAL before hydrothermal reaction is favorable to the adsorption. The desorption evaluation confirms that the modified PAL has stronger affinity with MB, which is benefit to fabricate a stable organic–inorganic hybrid pigment.

  16. Adsorption capacity of methylene blue, an organic pollutant, by montmorillonite clay

    KAUST Repository

    Feddal, I.

    2013-11-19

    The isotherms and kinetics of the adsorption of a cationic dye in aqueous solution, methylene blue, on a local Algerian montmorillonite clay mineral (raw, sodium and thermally activated at 300 and 500°C) were determined experimentally. Various parameters influencing the adsorption were optimized, mainly solid-liquid contact time, mass of adsorbent, initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution and temperature. Results showed that the adsorption kinetics were fast: 30 min for the raw clay mineral, and 20 min for sodium clay mineral (SC) and thermally activated at 300°C, whereas with the clay mineral calcined at 500°C, the equilibrium was reached after 150 min only. The maximum adsorption capacity was reached at pH 6.6. Results deducted from the adsorption isotherms also showed that the retention follows the Langmuir model. In addition, it was found that the kinetics were in the order of 2 (K = 2.457 × 106 g/mg.h) for sodium clay and were limited by an intra-particle diffusion. SC was found to be a better adsorbent to remove methylene blue from industrial wastewater. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural characteristics of mixed oxides MOx/SiO2 affecting photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun’ko, V.M.; Blitz, J.P.; Bandaranayake, B.; Pakhlov, E.M.; Zarko, V.I.; Sulym, I.Ya.; Kulyk, K.S.; Galaburda, M.V.; Bogatyrev, V.M.; Oranska, O.I.; Borysenko, M.V.; Leboda, R.; Skubiszewska-Zięba, J.; Janush, W.

    2012-01-01

    A series of photocatalysts based on silica (nanoparticulate) supported titania, ceria, and ceria/zirconia were synthesized and characterized by a variety of techniques including surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential, surface charge density, and photocatalytic behavior toward methylene blue decomposition. Thermal treatment at 600 °C increases the anatase content of the titania based catalysts detected by XRD. Changes in the infrared spectra before and after thermal treatment indicate that at low temperature there are more ≡Si-O-Ti≡ bonds than at high temperature. As these bonds break upon heating the SiO 2 and TiO 2 separate, allowing the TiO 2 anatase phase to form. This results in an increased catalytic activity for the thermally treated samples. Nearly all titania based samples exhibit a negative surface charge density at pH 7 (initial pH of photocatalytic studies) which aids adsorption of methylene blue. The crystallinity of ceria and ceria/zirconia based catalysts are in some cases limited, and in others non-existent. Even though the energy band gap (E g ) can be lower for these catalysts than for the titania based catalysts, their photocatalytic properties are inferior.

  18. Methylene Blue-Aided In Vivo Staining of Central Airways during Flexible Bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Zirlik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The early diagnosis of malignant and premalignant changes of the bronchial mucosa remains a major challenge during bronchoscopy. Intravital staining techniques are not new. Previous small case series suggested that analysis of the bronchial mucosal surface using chromoendoscopy allows a prediction between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chromobronchoscopy as a method to identify malignant and premalignant lesions in the central airways in a prospective manner. Methods. In 26 patients we performed chromoendoscopy with 0.1% methylene blue during ongoing flexible white light bronchoscopy. Circumscribed lesions in central airways were further analyzed by biopsies and histopathologic examination. Results. In the majority of cases neither flat nor polypoid lesions in the central airways were stained by methylene blue. In particular, exophytic growth of lung cancer did not show any specific pattern in chromobronchoscopy. However, a specific dye staining was detected in one case where exophytic growth of metastatic colorectal cancer was present in the right upper lobe. In two other cases, a circumscribed staining was noted in unsuspicious mucosa. But histology revealed inflammation only. Conclusions. In contrast to previous studies, the present findings clearly indicate that chromobronchoscopy is not useful for early detection of malignant or premalignant lesions of the central airways.

  19. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... antagonist diltiazem (10(-6) mol/L) abolished K+-induced contractions. Bicarbonate did not modify the sensitivity to chloride. Norepinephrine (10(-6) mol/L) induced full contraction in depolarized vessels even in the absence of chloride. Iodide and nitrate were substituted for chloride with no inhibitory...

  20. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  1. Radiochemical determination of methylmercury chloride Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Prasilova, J.

    1976-01-01

    The isotope exchange between methylmercury species and an excess of inorganic radiomercury in sulphuric acid medium has been used for the simple determination of methylmercury chloride down to 0.01 ppm. The determination is not influenced by the presence of a great excess of other metals, however, chlorides, bromides and iodides interfere in higher concentrations. It has been found that the isotope exchange between CH 3 HgCl and 203 HgCl 4 2- (or 203 HgCl 2 ) in 0.01-3M hydrochloric acid is extremely slow, for the bimolecular reaction the rate constant is lower than 10 -3 mol -1 s -1 at 25 deg C. The isotope exchange rate between methylmercury chloride and mercuric-nitrate 0n on 0.5M sulphuric acid is higher. The isotope exchange is a bimolecular reaction with a rate constant k=0.050+-0.004 mol -1 s -1 at 25 deg C. (T.I.)

  2. Capillary gas chromatography of alkylbenzenes II. Correlations between the structures and methylene group increments and differences in retention indices of isomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sojak, L.; Janak, J.; Rijks, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution to gas chromatographic retention behaviour of methylene group increments and differences in the retention indices (dI) of isomers of alkylbenzenes up to C16 on squalane and acetyltri-n-butyl citrate was studied. The methylene group increments appear to vary over a wide range (60–100

  3. Analysis of lithium/thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukul

    The lithium/thionyl chloride battery (Li/SOClsb2) has received considerable attention as a primary energy source due to its high energy density, high operating cell voltage, voltage stability over 95% of the discharge, large operating temperature range (-55sp°C to 70sp°C), long storage life, and low cost of materials. In this dissertation, a one-dimensional mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed. Mathematical models can be used to tailor a battery design to a specific application, perform accelerated testing, and reduce the amount of experimental data required to yield efficient, yet safe cells. The Model was used in conjunction with the experimental data for parameter estimation and to obtain insights into the fundamental processes occurring in the battery. The diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode are obtained as a function of temperature by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49sp°C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells at Sandia National Laboratories. The model is also used to study the effect of cathode thickness and current and temperature pulsing on the cell capacity. Thionyl chloride reduction in the porous cathode is accompanied with a volume reduction. The material balance used previously in one-dimensional mathematical models of porous electrodes is invalid when the volume occupied by the reactants and the products is not equal. It is shown here how the material balance has to be modified to either account for the loss in volume, or to account for the inflow of electrolyte from the header into the active pores. The one-dimensional mathematical model of lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery is used to illustrate the effect of this material balance

  4. Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea synthesis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, S; Fujiwara, T; Ito, R; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nitrogen recovery and pharmaceutical removal processes for livestock urine treatment were investigated to suppress the discharge of pollutants and recover nitrogen as resources. We combined methylene urea synthesis from urea and adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfonamide antibiotic using rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) contained for obtaining both safe fertilizer and reclaimed water. The methylene urea synthesis could recover urea in synthetic urine, however, almost all sulfonamide antibiotic was also incorporated, which is unfavorable from a safety aspect if the methylene urea is to be used as fertilizer. Conversely, RAOC could remove sulfonamide antibiotic without consuming urea. It was also confirmed that the methylene urea could be synthesized from synthetic urine treated by RAOC. Thus, we concluded that RAOC should be inserted prior to the nitrogen recovery process for effective treatment of urine and safe use of methylene urea as fertilizer.

  5. Crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride and its copper(II) and cobalt(III) chloride complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Shova, S. G.; Gulea, A. P.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of salicylideneguanylhydrazinium chloride hydrate hemiethanol solvate (I), salicylideneguanylhydrazinium trichloroaquacuprate(II) (II), and bis(salicylideneguanylhydrazino)cobalt(III) chloride trihydrate (III) are determined using X-ray diffraction. The structures of compounds I, II, and III are solved by direct methods and refined using the least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation for the non-hydrogen atoms to the final factors R = 0.0597, 0.0212, and 0.0283, respectively. In the structure of compound I, the monoprotonated molecules and chlorine ions linked by hydrogen bonds form layers aligned parallel to the (010) plane. In the structure of compound II, the salicylaldehyde guanylhydrazone cations and polymer chains consisting of trichloroaquacuprate(II) anions are joined by an extended three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds. In the structure of compound III, the [Co(LH) 2 ] + cations, chloride ions, and molecules of crystallization water are linked together by a similar network

  6. Growth and characterization of magnesium chloride and lanthanum chloride doped strontium tartrate crystals - gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiarasi, S.; Jaikumar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Growth of single crystals of doped strontium tartrate by controlled diffusion of strontium chloride into the silica gel charged with tartaric acid at room temperature is narrated. In this study, we synthesized magnesium chloride (5% and 10%) doped strontium tartrate crystals and Lanthanum chloride (5%, 10% and 15%) doped strontium tartrate crystals are grown. The crystal structure of the compound crystals was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of pure and doped crystals are recorded and analyzed. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum analysis reveals that the optical study of the grown crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by using Kurtz powder technique with Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm. (author)

  7. Sorption of sulphur dioxide in calcium chloride and nitrate chloride liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzepierczynska, I.; Gostomczyk, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Flue gas desulphurization via application of suspensions has one inherent disadvantage: fixation of sulphur dioxide is very poor. This should be attributed to the low content of calcium ions which results from the solubility of the sorbing species. The solubility of sparingly soluble salts (CaO, CaCO 3 ) may be increased by decreasing the pH of the solution; yet, there is a serious limitation in this method: the corrosivity of the scrubber. The objective of this paper was to assess the sorbing capacity of two soluble calcium salts, calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, as a function of calcium ion concentration in the range of 20 to 82 kg/m 3 . It has been found that sorbing capacity increases with the increasing calcium ion concentration until the calcium concentration in the calcium chloride solution reaches the level of 60 kg/m 3 which is equivalent to the chloride ion content of ∼ 110 kg/m 3 . Addition of calcium hydroxide to the solutions brings about an increase in the sorbing capacity up to 1.6 kg/m 3 and 2.2 kg/m 3 for calcium chloride and calcium nitrate, respectively, as a result of the increased sorbent alkalinity. The sorption capacity of the solutions is considerably enhanced by supplementing them by acetate ions (2.8 to 13.9 kg/m 3 ). Increase in the sorption capacity of calcium nitrate solutions enriched with calcium acetate was approximately 30% as high as that of the chloride solutions enriched with calcium acetate was approximately 30% as high as that of the chloride solutions supplemented in the same way. (author). 12 refs, 7 refs, 4 tabs

  8. NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride for oral solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, M L

    1992-02-01

    NuLYTELY (PEG 3350, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Potassium Chloride for Oral Solution), a product from Braintree Laboratories, Inc. is a modification of GoLYTELY (PEG 3350 and Electrolytes for Oral Solution) that has been found to have the same therapeutic advantages in terms of safety, efficacy, speed and patient acceptance. This product was developed to improve upon the taste of GoLYTELY. NuLYTELY represents an effective alternative for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy that may be more acceptable to some patients.

  9. Stereoselectivity in metallocene-catalyzed coordination polymerization of renewable methylene butyrolactones: From stereo-random to stereo-perfect polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xia; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene You Xian

    2012-01-01

    Coordination polymerization of renewable α-methylene-γ-(methyl) butyrolactones by chiral C 2-symmetric zirconocene catalysts produces stereo-random, highly stereo-regular, or perfectly stereo-regular polymers, depending on the monomer and catalyst structures. Computational studies yield a fundamental understanding of the stereocontrol mechanism governing these new polymerization reactions mediated by chiral metallocenium catalysts. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Removal efficiency of methylene blue using activated carbon from waste banana stem: Study on pH influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misran, E.; Bani, O.; Situmeang, E. M.; Purba, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    The effort to remove methylene blue in artificial solution had been conducted using adsorption process. The abundant banana stem waste was utilized as activated carbon precursor. This study aimed to analyse the influence of solution pH to removal efficiency of methylene blue using activated carbon from banana stem as adsorbent. Activated carbon from banana stem was obtained by chemical activation using H3PO4 solution. Proximate analysis result showed that the activated carbon has 47.22% of fixed carbon. This value exhibited that banana stem was a potential adsorbent precursor. Methylene blue solutions were prepared at initial concentration of 50 ppm. The influence of solution pH was investigated with the use of 0.2 g adsorbent for 100 mL dye solution. The adsorption was conducted using shaker with at a constant rate of 100 rpm at room temperature for 90 minutes. The results showed that solution pH influenced the adsorption. The activated carbon from banana stem demonstrated satisfying performance since removal efficiencies of methylene blue were higher than 99%.

  11. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue; Viabilidade do dosimetro Fricke dopado com azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  12. A study on the adsorption of methylene blue onto gum ghatti/TiO2nanoparticles-based hydrogel nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, Hemant

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the isotherm and kinetic models for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto a TiO(sub2) nanoparticle (TiO(sub2)NP)-containing hydrogel nanocomposite (HNC) of polyacrylamide-grafted gum ghatti (PAAm...

  13. Kinetics analysis for development of a rate constant estimation model for ultrasonic degradation reaction of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Honma, Chiemi; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kuroda, Chiaki; Otake, Katsuto; Shono, Atsushi

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasound has been used as an advanced oxidation method for wastewater treatment. Sonochemical degradation of organic compounds in aqueous solution occurs by pyrolysis and/or reaction with hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, kinetics of sonochemical degradation has been proposed. However, the effect of ultrasonic frequency on degradation rate has not been investigated. In our previous study, a simple model for estimating the apparent degradation rate of methylene blue was proposed. In this study, sonochemical degradation of methylene blue was performed at various frequencies. Apparent degradation rate constant was evaluated assuming that sonochemical degradation of methylene blue was a first-order reaction. Specifically, we focused on effects of ultrasonic frequency and power on rate constant, and the applicability of our proposed model was demonstrated. Using this approach, maximum sonochemical degradation rate was observed at 490 kHz, which agrees with a previous investigation into the effect of frequency on the sonochemical efficiency value evaluated by KI oxidation dosimetry. Degradation rate increased with ultrasonic power at every frequency. It was also observed that threshold power must be reached for the degradation reaction to progress. The initial methylene blue concentration and the apparent degradation rate constant have a relation of an inverse proportion. Our proposed model for estimating the apparent degradation rate constant using ultrasonic power and sonochemical efficiency value can apply to this study which extended the frequency and initial concentration range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Desorption and photodegradation of methylene blue from modified sugarcane bagasse surface by acid TiO2 hydrosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Junxia; Chi Ruan; Guo Jia; Zhang Yuefei; Xu Zhigao; Xiao Chunqiao

    2012-01-01

    Waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was modified by pyromellitic dianhydride to improve its adsorption capacity for cationic dyes. Results showed that the adsorption capacity of the modified SCB for methylene blue was 564 mg g -1 , which was about 12 times than that obtained on the unmodified SCB. Methylene blue loaded modified SCB was regenerated by a self-clean eluent: TiO 2 hydrosol with pH ranged from 1 to 4, and HNO 3 solution with the same pH range was tested at the same time for comparison. Results showed that desorption kinetics of methylene blue in the hydrosol systems fit two-step kinetic model and controlled mainly by the slow step. As a self-clean eluent, acid hydrosol could firstly desorb and then photodegrade methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. After five desorption-photodegradation cycles, 78.3% of the absorbed dyes could be desorbed by using hydrosol (pH 2) as eluent. The hydrosol could be continuously used in desorption and photodegradation process, which would economize large volume of the eluent and moreover it would not bring secondary pollution.

  15. Stereoselectivity in metallocene-catalyzed coordination polymerization of renewable methylene butyrolactones: From stereo-random to stereo-perfect polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xia

    2012-05-02

    Coordination polymerization of renewable α-methylene-γ-(methyl) butyrolactones by chiral C 2-symmetric zirconocene catalysts produces stereo-random, highly stereo-regular, or perfectly stereo-regular polymers, depending on the monomer and catalyst structures. Computational studies yield a fundamental understanding of the stereocontrol mechanism governing these new polymerization reactions mediated by chiral metallocenium catalysts. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. A selective C-H insertion/olefination protocol for the synthesis of α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Matthew G; D'Acunto, Mariantonietta; Taylor, Richard J K; Unsworth, William P

    2016-02-07

    A regio- and stereoselective one-pot C-H insertion/olefination protocol has been developed for the late stage installation of α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones into conformationally restricted cyclohexanol-derivatives. The method has been successfully applied in the total synthesis of eudesmanolide natural product frameworks, including α-cyclocostunolide.

  17. Mapping the spatial distribution of chloride deposition across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. J.; Crosbie, R. S.

    2018-06-01

    The high solubility and conservative behaviour of chloride make it ideal for use as an environmental tracer of water and salt movement through the hydrologic cycle. For such use the spatial distribution of chloride deposition in rainfall at a suitable scale must be known. A number of authors have used point data acquired from field studies of chloride deposition around Australia to construct relationships to characterise chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast; these relationships have allowed chloride deposition to be interpolated in different regions around Australia. In this paper we took this a step further and developed a chloride deposition map for all of Australia which includes a quantification of uncertainty. A previously developed four parameter model of chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast for Australia was used as the basis for producing a continental scale chloride deposition map. Each of the four model parameters were made spatially variable by creating parameter surfaces that were interpolated using a pilot point regularisation approach within a parameter estimation software. The observations of chloride deposition were drawn from a literature review that identified 291 point measurements of chloride deposition over a period of 80 years spread unevenly across all Australian States and Territories. A best estimate chloride deposition map was developed from the resulting surfaces on a 0.05 degree grid. The uncertainty in the chloride deposition map was quantified as the 5th and 95th percentile of 1000 calibrated models produced via Null Space Monte Carlo analysis and the spatial variability of chloride deposition across the continent was consistent with landscape morphology. The temporal variability in chloride deposition on a decadal scale was investigated in the Murray-Darling Basin, this highlighted the need for long-term monitoring of chloride deposition if the uncertainty of the continental scale map is

  18. Kinetics of tissue distribution and elimination of 4,4'-methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobes, M.C.; Brown, L.E.; Chin, B.; Marsh, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The tissue distribution kinetics and elimination of 4,4'-methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) in rats was studied after a single dose of [ 14 C]MBOCA (0.49 mg/kg body weight, i.v.). The highest concentrations of radioactivity were in the small intestine, liver, adipose, lung, kidney, skin, and adrenals. For most tissues, a rapid decrease in radioactivity was followed by a slower decrease except for the small intestine, adipose and skin which demonstrated transient increases. Subcellular distribution in liver at 1 h showed radioactivity in all cell fractions. Although very lipophilic, [ 14 C]MBOCA was completely eliminated within 48 h with the major route via the feces (73.4%). (Auth.)

  19. Graphene-SnO2 composites for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Humaira; Christian Kemp, K; Chandra, Vimlesh; Kim, Kwang S

    2012-09-07

    Graphene sheets decorated with SnO(2) nanoparticles (RGO-SnO(2)) were prepared via a redox reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and SnCl(2). Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced to graphene (RGO) and Sn(2+) was oxidized to SnO(2) during the redox reaction, leading to a homogeneous distribution of SnO(2) nanoparticles on RGO sheets. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show uniform distribution of the nanoparticles on the RGO surface and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows an average particle size of 3-5 nm. The RGO-SnO(2) composite showed an enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity for the organic dye methylene blue under sunlight compared to bare SnO(2) nanoparticles. This result leads us to believe that the RGO-SnO(2) composite could be used in catalytic photodegradation of other organic dyes.

  20. Nanostructure CdS/ZnO heterojunction configuration for photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velanganni, S.; Pravinraj, S.; Immanuel, P.; Thiruneelakandan, R.

    2018-04-01

    In the present manuscript, thin films of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) have been deposited on a FTO substrate using a simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles are sensitized over ZnO thin films using SILAR method. The synthesized nanostructured CdS/ZnO heterojunction thin films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles over ZnO nanostructure was found to be about 3.20 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the deposited CdS/ZnO thin films were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution under sun light irradiation.

  1. Equilibrium models and kinetic for the adsorption of methylene blue on Co-hectorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jun; Jia Yongzhong; Jing Yan; Sun Jinhe; Yao Ying; Wang Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto the surface of cobalt doping hectorite (Co-hectorite) was systematically studied. The physical properties of Co-hectorites were investigated, where characterizations were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron Diffraction Spectrum (EDS) techniques, and morphology was examined by nitrogen adsorption. The sample with a Co content 5% (m/m) had a higher specific surface area than other Co-hectorites. The pore diameters were distributed between 2.5 and 5.0 nm. The adsorption results revealed that Co-hectorite surfaces possessed effective interactions with MB and bases, and greatest adsorption capacity achieved with Co content 5%, where the best-fit isotherm model was the Langmuir adsorption model. Kinetic studies were fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion was not the rate-limiting step for the whole reaction.

  2. THE DEGRADATION OF METHYLENE BLUE OVER M2TiO4 SPINEL PHOTOCATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N FODIL CHERIF

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation process (AOP which has been widely studied by numerous researchers in the world and is used to degrade or remove a wide range of pollutants in water and air. In this study, the photocatalytic oxidation and mineralization of methylene blue in aqueous catalyst suspensions of coprecipitated cobalt titanium oxide has been carried out in a helical reactor. The photodegradation was investigated using two kinds of irradiation lamps one emitting at 254 nm and the other emitting at 365 nm. Results showed that photodegradation is an effective method for the removal of MB from wastewaters. The efficiency of the process depends strongly on the experimental conditions of synthesis. We observed that 40 % of pollutant was degraded after 3 hours of UV irradiation.

  3. 2-(Hetero(aryl)methylene)hydrazine-1-carbothioamides as potent urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Imran, Aqeel; Channar, Pervaiz A; Shahid, Mohammad; Mahmood, Wajahat; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2015-02-01

    A small series of 2-(hetero(aryl)methylene) hydrazine-1-carbothioamides including two aryl derivatives was synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity against urease. Compound (E)-2-(Furan-2-ylmethylene) hydrazine-1-carbothioamide (3f), having a furan ring, was the most potent inhibitor of urease with an IC50 value of 0.58 μM. Molecular modeling was carried out through docking the designed compounds into the urease binding site to predict whether these derivatives have analogous binding mode to the urease inhibitors. The study revealed that all of the tested compounds bind with both metal atoms at the active site of the enzyme. The aromatic ring of the compounds forms ionic interactions with the residues, Ala(440), Asp(494), Ala(636), and Met(637). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto activated carbon developed from Ficus carica bast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Pathania

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated carbon was developed from Ficus carica bast (FCBAC. The experiments were carried out to explore methylene blue (MB uptake by FCBAC. The influence of various experimental factors such as contact time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, temperature and pH of dye solution was investigated. The adsorption equilibrium was represented with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir and Tempkin equations were found to have the correlation coefficient value in good agreement. Adsorption of MB onto FCBAC followed pseudo second order kinetics. The calculated values of ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° were found to be 21.55 kJ/mol, 76.24 J/mol K and −1.55 kJ/mol, respectably. Adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  5. Modeling Heat Transfer and Pressurization of Polymeric Methylene Diisocyanate (PMDI) Polyurethane Foam in a Sealed Container.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Sarah Nicole

    2018-01-01

    Polymer foam encapsulants provide mechanical, electrical, and thermal isolation in engineered systems. It can be advantageous to surround objects of interest, such as electronics, with foams in a hermetically sealed container to protect the electronics from hostile en vironments, such as a crash that produces a fire. However, i n fire environments, gas pressure from thermal decomposition of foams can cause mechanical failure of the sealed system . In this work, a detailed study of thermally decomposing polymeric methylene diisocyanate (PMDI) - polyether - polyol based polyurethane foam in a sealed container is presented . Both experimental and computational work is discussed. Three models of increasing physics fidelity are presented: No Flow, Porous Media, and Porous Media with VLE. Each model us described in detail, compared to experiment , and uncertainty quantification is performed. While the Porous Media with VLE model matches has the best agreement with experiment, it also requires the most computational resources.

  6. Uptake and localization of sup(99m)technetium-methylene-diphosphonate in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelkoul, T.J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The author investigated the uptake and localization of 99m-technetium-methylene-diphosphonate (99m-Tc-MDP) in bone, to develop a sensitive mean for the detection of early osseous disease. In an electrolysis procedure without the presence of contaminating reductants a 99m-Tc-MDP complex is formed with clear bone-seeking properties. The scans performed in experimental animals are comparable in quality with 99m-Tc(Sn)-MDP scans. The uptake of 99m-Tc-MDP is faster and higher than the uptake of reduced hydrolyzed 99m-Tc. Uptake of 99m-Tc(Sn)-MDP in bone can only take place after decomposition of the complex. As 99m-Tc-MDP is taken up as a unit, this may be a better agent to evaluate the osteoblastic activity in the skeleton. (Auth./R.B.)

  7. Pseudopeptide-Based Hydrogels Trapping Methylene Blue and Eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milli, Lorenzo; Zanna, Nicola; Merlettini, Andrea; Di Giosia, Matteo; Calvaresi, Matteo; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Tomasini, Claudia

    2016-08-16

    We present herein the preparation of four different hydrogels based on the pseudopeptide gelator Fmoc-l-Phe-d-Oxd-OH (Fmoc=fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl), either by changing the gelator concentration or adding graphene oxide (GO) to the water solution. The hydrogels have been analysed by rheological studies that demonstrated that pure hydrogels are slightly stronger compared to GO-loaded hydrogels. Then the hydrogels efficiency to trap the cationic methylene blue (MB) and anionic eosin Y (EY) dyes has been analyzed. MB is efficiently trapped by both the pure hydrogel and the GO-loaded hydrogel through π-π interactions and electrostatic interactions. In contrast, the removal of the anionic EY is achieved in less satisfactory yields, due to the unfavourable electrostatic interactions between the dye, the gelator and GO. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Investigation on effect of methylene spacer in holographic grating formation in eosin containing polymethacrylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manickasundaram, S. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Sardar Vallabai Patel Road, Chennai 600025 (India); Kannan, P. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Sardar Vallabai Patel Road, Chennai 600025 (India)]. E-mail: pakannan@annauniv.edu; Deepa, S. [Centre for Laser Technology, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Palanisamy, P.K. [Centre for Laser Technology, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2007-01-15

    A new series of eosin dye based poly(alkyloxymethacrylate)s was synthesized with an even number of side-chain methylene spacers by a free radical addition polymerization method for holographic optical data storage applications. These polymers were characterized by UV, IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the polymers were investigated by DSC and TGA, respectively. As the spacer length increases in the side-chain, Tg, Tm and thermal stability of the polymers decrease, while a reverse trend was observed with film forming ability of the polymers. The optical characterization of the polymers was investigated by forming holographic grating using an Argon ion laser. The grating diffraction efficiency was found to depend not only on the concentration of polymeric film but also on the spacer length of the polymers.

  9. Investigation on effect of methylene spacer in holographic grating formation in eosin containing polymethacrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manickasundaram, S.; Kannan, P.; Deepa, S.; Palanisamy, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    A new series of eosin dye based poly(alkyloxymethacrylate)s was synthesized with an even number of side-chain methylene spacers by a free radical addition polymerization method for holographic optical data storage applications. These polymers were characterized by UV, IR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the polymers were investigated by DSC and TGA, respectively. As the spacer length increases in the side-chain, Tg, Tm and thermal stability of the polymers decrease, while a reverse trend was observed with film forming ability of the polymers. The optical characterization of the polymers was investigated by forming holographic grating using an Argon ion laser. The grating diffraction efficiency was found to depend not only on the concentration of polymeric film but also on the spacer length of the polymers

  10. Oxygen Vacancy-Mediated ZnO Nanoparticle Photocatalyst for Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles (NPs are synthesized by deoxidizing ZnO powder in a vacuum drying process. This process reduces the size of the NPs and increases the concentration of oxygen vacancies on their surfaces. ZnO NPs with sufficient oxygen vacancies are highly effective for the photodecomposition of methylene blue (MB dye in water under ultraviolet irradiation. The MB degradation efficiency exceeds 99 percent after 50 min of light irradiation, and the catalytic property of the NPs remains stable over several complete degradation cycles. It is revealed that the concentration of oxygen vacancies on the surface, and the photocatalytic activity, are both higher for smaller NPs. Oxygen vacancies reduce the recombination rate of photo-generated charge carriers by capturing the electrons and hence, improve the efficiency of redox reactions. In addition, a smaller particle size leads to a larger specific surface area and a higher photonic efficiency for the ZnO NPs.

  11. Blood schizontocidal activity of methylene blue in combination with antimalarials against Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garavito G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue (MB is the oldest synthetic antimalarial. It is not used anymore as antimalarial but should be reconsidered. For this purpose we have measured its impact on both chloroquine sensitive and resistant Plasmodium strains. We showed that around 5 nM of MB were able to inhibit 50% of the parasite growth in vitro and that late rings and early trophozoites were the most sensitive stages; while early rings, late trophozoites and schizonts were less sensitive. Drug interaction study following fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC method showed antagonism with amodiaquine, atovaquone, doxycycline, pyrimethamine; additivity with artemether, chloroquine, mefloquine, primaquine and synergy with quinine. These results confirmed the interest of MB that could be integrated in a new low cost antimalarial combination therapy.

  12. Synthesis of 4-Methylene-2-cyclohexenones and Their Aromatization Reaction toward para-Methoxylmethyl Anisole Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Mi; Lee, Ka Young; Kim, Jae Nyoung

    2004-01-01

    We and other groups have reported the selective introduction of nucleophiles at the secondary benzylic position of the Baylis-Hillman acetates via the corresponding DABCO salts. Thus, we envisioned that we could prepare 4-methylene- 2-cyclohexenone skeleton and para-methoxymethyl anisoles by combining the DABCO salt concept and the aromatization reaction with iodine in methanol. Suitably substituted anisoles are useful as the starting materials for the fragrances, dyes and pesticides, as antioxidants in oils and fats, or as stabilizers of plastics. Moreover, paramethoxymethyl anisoles have been used for the kinetic acetalization of diol or amino alcohol systems in the presence of DDQ5 during the synthesis of (+)-FR900482, taxotere side chain,5c cyclopropyl lactone oxylipins, and erythromycin A.

  13. Photocatalysis of methylene blue contaminated water using titania fiber doped with silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarteche, C.V.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, titania fibers doped with silicon were synthesized by electro spinning methodology, using titanium propoxide, silicon tetra propoxide and a solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone as precursors. The non-tissue material obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction to determine the phase and crystallite size, BET method to determine the surface and SEM to analyze the microstructure of the fibers. The photo catalytic activity of the fibers in comparison with the standard TiO 2 Degussa P25 was evaluated using a 20ppm methylene blue solution. The composition containing 30% of silicon kept the anatase phase stable until the heat treatment temperature of 800 deg C. In the other compositions there was a formation of the rutile phase, which is less photoactive. The compositions containing silicon were photo catalytic efficient and some of them were more active that the standard P25. (author)

  14. Photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue over Zn1-xCoxO under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Qi; Zhang Jiang; Xiao Chong; Tan Xiaoke

    2007-01-01

    Co-doped ZnO photocatalysts were prepared by hydrothermal method. The obtained Co-doped ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The prepared Co-doped ZnO photocatalysts showed high photocatalytic activities for methylene blue decolorization at pH 10.5 under visible light irradiation. It was found that there were certain relationships between PL spectra and photocatalytic activity, namely, the stronger the PL intensity, the larger the content of oxygen vacancies and defects, the higher the photocatalytic activity. Therefore, in this study 3.0 mol% was the most suitable content of Co 2+ in ZnO, at which the recombination of photoinduced electrons and holes could be effectively inhibited and thereby the highest photocatalytic activity was formed

  15. Life-threatening intoxication with methylene bis(thiocyanate: clinical picture and pitfalls. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnuelle Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylene bis(thiocyanate (MBT is a microbiocidal agent mainly used in industrial water cooling systems and paper mills as an inhibitor of algae, fungi, and bacteria. Case presentation We describe the first case of severe intoxication following inhalation of powder in an industrial worker. Profound cyanosis and respiratory failure caused by severe methemoglobinemia developed within several minutes. Despite immediate admission to the intensive care unit, where mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis for toxin elimination were initiated, multi-organ failure involving liver, kidneys, and lungs developed. While liver failure was leading, the patient was successfully treated with the MARS (molecular adsorbent recirculating system procedure. Conclusion Intoxication with MBT is a potentially life-threatening intoxication causing severe methemoglobinemia and multi-organ failure. Extracorporeal liver albumin dialysis (MARS appears to be an effective treatment to allow recovery of hepatic function.

  16. Nanoengineering of methylene blue loaded silica encapsulated magnetite nanospheres and nanocapsules for photodynamic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andhariya, Nidhi [Bhavnagar University, Department of Physics (India); Chudasama, Bhupendra, E-mail: bnchudasama@gmail.com [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science (India); Mehta, R. V. [Bhavnagar University, Department of Physics (India); Upadhyay, R. V. [Charotar University of Science and Technology, P.D. Patel Institute of Applied Sciences (India)

    2011-09-15

    Core-shell nanostructures have emerged as an important class of functional materials with potential applications in diverse fields, especially in health sciences. In this article, nanoengineering of novel magnetic colloidal dispersion containing surface modifiable silica with a core of single domain magnetite nanoparticles loaded with photosensitizer (PS) drug 'Methylene blue' (MB) has been described. Magnetite core is produced by the well-established chemical coprecipitation technique and silica shell is formed over it by the modified hydrolysis and condensation of TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate). Conditions for reaction kinetics have been established to tailor the core-shell structures in the form of nanospheres and nanocapsules. MB is loaded into the nanostructures by demethylation reaction. The major conclusion drawn from this study is that the synthesis route yields stable, non-aggregated MB loaded superparamagnetic magnetite-silica nanostructures with tailored morphology, tunable loading, and excellent magnetic properties.

  17. Complexes between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A.A. da.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of addition compounds between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand were described. The adducts were prepared in the molar relation 1 (salt): 3(ligand) in ethanol. They are microcrystalline with more intense color than those of their respective hydrated salts. At room temperature conditions they are non hygroscopic and do not present perceptible alterations. They became slightly opalescent, when heated between 363 and 423 K. At higher temperatures under several heating ratios, the behavior shown is the same: melting between 439 and 472 K. The characterization of the compounds was made by elemental analysis, electrolytic conductance measurements, X-ray powder patterns, infrared spectroscopy, visible electronic absorption and emission spectra of the neodymium (III) and europium (III), respectively. (author). 116 refs., 17 tabs., 11 figs

  18. Buried chloride stereochemistry in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugo, Oliviero

    2014-09-23

    Despite the chloride anion is involved in fundamental biological processes, its interactions with proteins are little known. In particular, we lack a systematic survey of its coordination spheres. The analysis of a non-redundant set (pairwise sequence identity chloride anion shows that the first coordination spheres of the chlorides are essentially constituted by hydrogen bond donors. Amongst the side-chains positively charged, arginine interacts with chlorides much more frequently than lysine. Although the most common coordination number is 4, the coordination stereochemistry is closer to the expected geometry when the coordination number is 5, suggesting that this is the coordination number towards which the chlorides tend when they interact with proteins. The results of these analyses are useful in interpreting, describing, and validating new protein crystal structures that contain chloride anions.

  19. Kinetic and Thermodynamics of Methylene Blue Adsorption onto Zero Valent Iron Supported on Mesoporous Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atyaf Khalid Hameed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zero valent iron supported on mesoporous silicanano particles (NZVI/MSNs was prepared by the aqueous phase borohydride reduction methods. Prior to the reduction, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs were prepared through the activation of fumed silica with concentrated HCl by refluxing at 90 °C. FTIR, XRD, FESEM, EDX and BET were used to characterize theadsorbents prepared. BET surface areas of MSNs, NZVI, and NZVI/MSNs were 126, 41, and 72 m2/g for, respectively. The performance of NZVI/MSNs as adsorbent was examined by adsorption of methylene blue (MB, performed in series of batch experiments. In the kinetic studies, pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetic models were examined. The pseudo second order equation provided the best fit with the experimental data. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption process is endothermic with ΔH° was 90.53 kJ/mol. Positive ΔS° (300 J/mol and negative ΔG° (-6.42 kJ/mol was recorded, indicating the spontaneous of the adsorption process and naturally favorable. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 5th March 2016; Revised: 18th March 2016; Accepted: 18th March 2016 How to Cite: Hameed, A.K., Dewayanto, N., Dongyun, D., Nordin, M.R., Mohd Hasbi Ab. Rahim, M.H.A. (2016. Kinetic and Thermodynamics of Methylene Blue Adsorption onto Zero Valent Iron Supported on Mesoporous Silica. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 250-261 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.443.250-261 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.443.250-261

  20. Experimental and kinetic studies on methylene blue adsorption by coir pith carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, D; Namasivayam, C

    2007-01-01

    Varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature carried out the potential feasibility of thermally activated coir pith carbon prepared from coconut husk for removal of methylene blue. Greater percentage of dye was removed with decrease in the initial concentration of dye and increase in amount of adsorbent used. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye on coir pith carbon was a gradual process. Lagergren first-order, second-order, intra particle diffusion model and Bangham were used to fit the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherms were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubnin-Radushkevich, and Tempkin isotherm. The adsorption capacity was found to be 5.87 mg/g by Langmuir isotherm for the particle size 250-500 microm. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 and 60 min for 10 and 20 mg/L and 100 min for 30, 40 mg/L dye concentrations, respectively. A maximum removal of 97% was obtained at natural pH 6.9 for an adsorbent dose of 100 mg/50 mL and 100% removal was obtained for an adsorbent dose of 600 mg/50 mL of 10 mg/L dye concentration. The pH effect and desorption studies suggest that chemisorption might be the major mode of the adsorption process. The change in entropy (DeltaS0) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH0) of coir pith carbon was estimated as 117.20 J/mol/K and 30.88 kJ/mol, respectively. The high negative value of change in Gibbs free energy indicates the feasible and spontaneous adsorption of methylene blue on coir pith carbon.

  1. Adsorption mechanism of microcrystalline cellulose as green adsorbent for the removal of cationic methylene blue dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.B.; Salamatinia, B.

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption mechanism of pure cellulose is yet to be explored. Thus, in this study, the adsorption mechanism of Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC), a polysaccharide which is renewable, low cost and non-toxic, was studied on the adsorption of model dye Methylene blue (MB). It was found that the main adsorption mechanism of MB on MCC was due to the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged MB dye and negatively charged MCC. Thus, physical adsorption was the dominant effect, since electrostatic attraction is categorized as physical adsorption. This was verified by Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm, whereby mean free energy adsorption value was found to be less than 8 kJ/mol. The values of Gibbs free energy for thermodynamics studies were found to be within the range of -20 kJ/mol and 0 kJ/mol, which also indicated physical adsorption. It was due to the electrostatic attraction as adsorption mechanism of this adsorption process which resulted rapid adsorption of MB dye. It was found that equilibrium dye concentration was achieved between 1-3 minutes, depending on the adsorption temperature. The rapid adsorption, as compared to a lot of materials, showed the potential of MCC as the future of green adsorbent. The adsorption of Methylene Blue on MCC fitted well in Langmuir Isotherm, with R2 values of higher than 0.99, while fitted moderately in Freundlich Isotherm, with R2 values between 0.9224 and 0.9223. Comparatively, the adsorption of MB on MCC fitted best Langmuir Isotherm as compared to Freundlich Isotherm which monolayer adsorption occurred at the homogenous surface of MCC. This also indicated adsorbed MB molecules do not interact with each other at neighboring adsorption sites. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir Isotherm was found to be 4.95 mg/g. Despite the potential of MCC as green adsorbent, the challenge of low adsorption capacity has to be addressed in the future. (author)

  2. Novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Song, E-mail: niusong84@163.com; Yan, Hongxia, E-mail: hongxiayan@nwpu.edu.cn

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • A novel silicone-based polymer with active methylene was explored. • Surface tension of liquid paints could be lowered using the polymer. • The polymer was easy to migrate toward the air-coating interface. • Free HCHO could effectively be removed using the polymer. • A lights on HCHO reduction without complicated preparation procedure was shielded. - Abstract: Indoor air pollution is caused inevitably due to complicated home decoration, in which formaldehyde is one of the most typical pollutants. It will be a convenient, economical and effective strategy to remove indoor formaldehyde if imparting a feature of formaldehyde removal to decorative coatings. We have successfully explored a novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene used as a formaldehyde absorbent in coatings via a straightforward transesterification process using inexpensive and easily available chemicals. The polymer has been characterized by {sup 13}C NMR, FTIR, GC and GPC. Formaldehyde removal capacity of the coating films containing different contents of the polymer has been investigated. The results indicated that coatings incorporating 4 wt% of the polymer could make the coating films exhibit significant improvement on formaldehyde removal including purificatory performance (>85%) and durability of purificatory effect (>60%), compared to those consisting of absorbents without any silicon, and improve yellowing resistance performance, while other properties, such as gloss, adhesion, pencil hardness, flexibility and impact resistance, were kept almost unaffected. The chemical absorption process of the silicone-based polymer filled in interior decorative coatings is demonstrated as a promising technology to purify indoor formaldehyde and thus can reduce the harm to individuals.

  3. Decolorization of methylene blue in layered manganese oxide suspension with H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lili; Nie Yulun; Hu Chun; Hu Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Layered birnessite-type manganese oxides exhibited a well-crystallized octahedral layer (OL) structure with β-MnOOH, α-MnOOH and γ-Mn 3 O 4 . → The catalyst was highly effective for the decolorization and degradation of methylene blue in the presence of H 2 O 2 at neutral pH. → The 1 O 2 and O 2 · - were the main reactive oxygen species in the reaction. - Abstract: Layered birnessite-type manganese oxides (Na-OL-1) were prepared via a redox reaction involving MnO 4 - and Mn 2+ under markedly alkaline conditions. According to the XRD analysis, the resulting material exhibited a well-crystallized octahedral layer (OL) structure with several different phases, including β-MnOOH, α-MnOOH and γ-Mn 3 O 4 . The catalyst was highly effective for the decolorization and degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H 2 O 2 at neutral pH. The tested MB was completely decolorized in Na-OL-1 suspension by the fraction dosing of H 2 O 2 (556.5 mM at the beginning and then 183.8 mM at 40 min). Based on the studies of electron spin resonance and the effect of radical scavengers, the 1 O 2 and O 2 · - were the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the reaction. It was found that both oxygen and ROS were generated from the decomposition of H 2 O 2 in Na-OL-1 suspension, wherein the decomposition pathways were proposed. The generation of H 2 O 2 in Na-OL-1 suspension at air atmosphere indicated that the existence of multivalent manganese oxides greatly enhanced the interfacial electron transfer, leading to the high activity of Na-OL-1.

  4. Pyrite-enhanced methylene blue degradation in non-thermal plasma water treatment reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetoli, Luis Otavio de Brito, E-mail: luskywalcker@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cadorin, Bruno Mena; Baldissarelli, Vanessa Zanon [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Geremias, Reginaldo [Departamento de Ciencias Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Curitibanos, SC (Brazil); Goncalvez de Souza, Ivan [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, Nito Angelo, E-mail: debacher@qmc.ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use O{sub 2} as the feed gas and pyrite was added to the non-thermal plasma reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The methylene blue removal by NTP increased in the presence of pyrite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The total organic carbon content decreased substantially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acute toxicity test showed that the treated solution is not toxic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dye degradation occurs via electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation. - Abstract: In this study, methylene blue (MB) removal from an aqueous phase by electrical discharge non-thermal plasma (NTP) over water was investigated using three different feed gases: N{sub 2}, Ar, and O{sub 2}. The results showed that the dye removal rate was not strongly dependent on the feed gas when the electrical current was kept the same for all gases. The hydrogen peroxide generation in the water varied according to the feed gas (N{sub 2} < Ar < O{sub 2}). Using O{sub 2} as the feed gas, pyrite was added to the reactor in acid medium resulting in an accentuated increase in the dye removal, which suggests that pyrite acts as a Fenton-like catalyst. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the dye solution decreased slightly as the plasma treatment time increased, but in the presence of the pyrite catalyst the TOC removal increased substantially. The acute toxicity test using Artemia sp. microcrustaceans showed that the treated solution is not toxic when Ar, O{sub 2} or O{sub 2}-pyrite is employed. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-MS) of the treated samples indicated that the dye degradation occurs via high energy electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation in the benzene rings of the dye molecules.

  5. Methylene Blue in Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury after Pneumonectomy: an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V Suborov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the expediency and efficiency of using methylene blue (MB on a model of pneumectomy (PE and subsequent ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI in sheep. Materials and methods. The study was conducted at the Research Laboratory of University of Tromse. The experiment included 23 sheep weighing 41.0±4.9 kg. Thoracotomy and right-sided pneumonectomy were performed in the animals under general anesthesia and controlled artificial ventilation. After measurement of the parameters of systemic hemodynamics and extravascular water of the lung (EVWL, the animals were divided into 3 groups: 1 a control group (CG, n=7 with a tidal volume (TV of 6 ml/kg and an end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP of 2 cm H2O; 2 a VILI group (n=9 with a TV of 12 ml/kg and a PEEP of 0 cm H2O; 3 a group of MB (n=7 that was given in parallel with a damaging ventilation mode. The thermodilution technique (using a Cold Z-021 monitor, (Pulsion, Germany was employed to measure volumetric parameters and EVWL. The parameters of pulmonary hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics, and blood gas composition were recorded. Results: After its reduction at PE, EVWL index increased during damaging ventilation in the VILI and MB groups. In addition, there was an increase in pulmonary artery wedge pressure after PE in the MB and VILI groups. In the latter group, arterial hypoxemia was observed at the end of the experiment. Along with this, after PE pulmonary compliance decreased and airway pressure elevated in the VILI and MB groups. Conclusion: In the presented model of VILI, MB does not prevent the development of postp-neumectomic edema of the lung. Key words: thermochromodilution, acute lung injury, pneumectomy, ventilator-induced lung injury, postpneumectomic edema of the lung, methylene blue.

  6. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.J.; Day, S.D.; Ilevbare, G.O.; Whalen, M.T.; King, K.J.; Hust, G.A.; Wong, L.L.; Estill, J.C.; Rebak, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl 2 at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy

  7. Chloride channels as tools for developing selective insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2003-12-01

    Ligand-gated chloride channels underlie inhibition in excitable membranes and are proven target sites for insecticides. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(1)) receptor/chloride ionophore complex is the primary site of action for a number of currently used insecticides, such as lindane, endosulfan, and fipronil. These compounds act as antagonists by stabilizing nonconducting conformations of the chloride channel. Blockage of the GABA-gated chloride channel reduces neuronal inhibition, which leads to hyperexcitation of the central nervous system, convulsions, and death. We recently investigated the mode of action of the silphinenes, plant-derived natural compounds that structurally resemble picrotoxinin. These materials antagonize the action of GABA on insect neurons and block GABA-mediated chloride uptake into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes in a noncompetitive manner. In mammals, avermectins have a blocking action on the GABA-gated chloride channel consistent with a coarse tremor, whereas at longer times and higher concentrations, activation of the channel suppresses neuronal activity. Invertebrates display ataxia, paralysis, and death as the predominant signs of poisoning, with a glutamate-gated chloride channel playing a major role. Additional target sites for the avermectins or other chloride channel-directed compounds might include receptors gated by histamine, serotonin, or acetylcholine.The voltage-sensitive chloride channels form another large gene family of chloride channels. Voltage-dependent chloride channels are involved in a number of physiological processes including: maintenance of electrical excitability, chloride ion secretion and resorption, intravesicular acidification, and cell volume regulation. A subset of these channels is affected by convulsants and insecticides in mammals, although the role they play in acute lethality in insects is unclear. Given the wide range of functions that they mediate, these channels are also potential targets for

  8. Modifikasi Limbah Tulang Sapi Bali dan Pemanfaatannya untuk Adsorpsi Methylene Blue (MODIFICATION OF BALI COW BONE WASTE AND ITS APPLICATION TO ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Simpen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of modification, characterization, and application of nano-porous adsorbent base onBali cow bone waste to methylene blue (MB adsorption has been carried out. The modification was carriedout through extraction of hydroxyapatite (HA from cow bone, then its activated by 0.4 M NaOH solutionand coating to form active sites of Fe and Fe-Al oxides. The adsorbent was applied to know quantitativelyadsorption capacity coated-HA (CHA to MB as wastewaters simulation. Compound of CHA wascharacterized amount of active sites by base-acid titration, Bronsted-Lewis acid sites by FTIR spectroscopy,specific surface area by MB method and pore size by surface area analyzer gasorption nitrogen. While,amount of coated-Fe and Al by LIBS. Amount of MB adsorbed was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer.The results showed that coating of Fe and Fe-Al oxides increased amount of active sites, sites distributionof new Lewis acid site, everage nano pore size with pore volume is microporous (less than 2 nm, and Fe andFe-Al oxides was into HA crystal structure. The amount of active sites was the higest of T1-Fe-Al2O3 andall pores diameter less than 58.182 nm.While, the specific surface area increased T3-Fe2O3>T3-Fe-Al2O3>T2-Fe2O3 respectively. In the adsorption isotherm, coating on HA significantly increased ability of adsorbentand through Freundlich model (R2 > 0.77 with the higest adsorption capacity on T3-Fe2O3 (3.2019 mg/gthen T2-Fe-Al2O3 (2.7921 mg/g. Results of this research indicate that Fe and Fe-Al oxides HA-modifiedincreased adsorption ability.

  9. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  10. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-01-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl 2 -NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl 2 -MCl systems.

  11. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  13. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.

  15. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  16. Different Methods for Conditioning Chloride Salt Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Fedeli, C.; Capone, M.; Marzo, G.A.; Mariani, M.; Da Ros, M.; Giacobbo, F.; Macerata, E.; Giola, M.

    2015-01-01

    Three different methods have been used to condition chloride salt wastes coming from pyro-processes. Two of them allow to synthesise sodalite, a naturally occurring mineral containing chlorine: the former, starting from Zeolite 4A, which transforms the zeolite into sodalite; the latter, which starts from kaolinite, giving sodalite as well. In addition, a new matrix, termed SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ), has been synthesised. It is able to form different mineral phases which occlude fission metals. The products from the different processes have been fully characterised. In particular the chemical durability of the final waste forms has been determined using the standard product consistency test. According to the results obtained, SAP seems to be a promising matrix for the incorporation of chloride salt wastes from pyro-processes. Financial support from the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Union (projects ACSEPT, contract FP7-CP-2007- 211 267, and SACSESS, Collaborative Project 323282), as well as from Italian Ministry for Economic Development (Accordo di Programma: Piano Annuale di Realizzazione 2008-2009) is gratefully acknowledged. (authors)

  17. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  18. Degradation of fly ash concrete under the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jun; Qiu, Qiwen; Chen, Xiaochi; Wang, Xiaodong; Xing, Feng; Han, Ningxu; He, Yijian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonation affects the chloride profile in concrete under chloride aerosol attack. • The chloride binding capacity can be reduced by the presence of carbonation. • Carbonation increases the rate of chloride diffusion for chloride aerosol ingress. • Chloride aerosol ingress reduces the carbonation depth and increases the pH value. • The use of fly ash in concrete enhances the resistance of chloride aerosol ingress. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress on the durability performance of fly ash concrete. Test results demonstrate that carbonation significantly affects the chloride ingress profile, reduces the chloride binding capacity, and accelerates the rate of chloride ion diffusion. On the other hand, the carbonation rate of fly ash concrete is reduced by the presence of chlorides aerosol. The interaction nature between concrete carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress is also demonstrated by the microscopic analysis results obtained from scanning electron microscope and mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  19. Kinetics and equilibrium studies on removal of methylene blue and methyl orange by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from date pits-A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Khaled; Hosni, Khaled; Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of Methylene blue and Methyl orange by date pits carbon was carried out by varying parameters such as agitation time, pH and dye concentration. Equilibrium adsorption data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics. The adsorption capacity was found to be 434 and 455mg of methyl orange and methylene blue, respectively, per g of the date pits carbon. Acidic pH is favorable for the adsorption of methyl orange against a basic medium which is favorable for the adsorption of MB. An opposite result was found for the methylene blue adsorption

  20. Preparation of crosslinked poly (acryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) microsphere and its adsorption and mechanism towards shikimic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Jiying, E-mail: menjiying@nuc.edu.cn; Wang, Ruixin; Li, Huan; Li, Xinyan; Yang, Shanshan; Liu, Haisi; Gao, Baojiao

    2017-02-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) is a key raw material for the synthesis of the antiviral drug, but its extraction and separation from plants is still limited. Crosslinked poly (acryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, DAC) microspheres were synthesized via inverse-phase suspension polymerization. In the synthesizing, N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) was used as crosslinker, cyclohexane as dispersed medium and span-60 as dispersants, obtaining CPDAC gel microspheres. The effect of polymerization condition on balling performance and the characteristics of CPDAC were examined. The adsorption properties of CPDAC towards SA were mainly explored and the data of adsorption isotherm were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Sips and Toth models. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism was analyzed in depth, and the adsorption thermodynamics was also investigated. The results show that in order to prepare CPDAC, water phase must be added dropwise to oil phase, and the volume ratio of oil-water is more than 2:1. The mean diameter of CPDAC decreases with increasing span-60 and accelerating agitating rate. The strong electrostatic interaction is formed between quaternary ammonium nitrogen of CPDAC and −COO{sup –} of SA. The adsorption kinetic data is fitted well with pseudo-first-order model. The adsorption ability is higher in aqueous water than ethanol, reaching 108 mg/g, and Toth model is more suitable for describing the actual adsorption process. The adsorption of CPDAC towards SA is dependent on the pH value of the medium. The adsorption process is exothermic, the adsorption amount decreases with the increase of temperature, and the process is driven by enthalpy. The adsorption amount decreases with the increase of salinity. The reusability of CPDAC towards SA can keep 86.1% at the sixth cycle. - Highlights: • CPDAC microspheres were synthesized via inverse-phase suspension polymerization. • SA was adsorbed strongly by strong electrostatic interaction.

  1. O emprego de quitosana quimicamente modificada com anidrido succínico na adsorção de azul de metileno The use of chemical modified chitosam with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilauro S. Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption capacity of alpha-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically in L class and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methyene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 ± 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 ± 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 ± 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 ± 0.4 and -21.5 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable.

  2. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl 2 , and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl 2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al 2 O 3 .CaCl 2 ) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl 2 . Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl 2 .

  3. Interaction of calcium oxide with molten alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Ermakov, D.S.; Magurina, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium oxide solubility in molten lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium chlorides and their binary mixtures is determined in a temperature range of 973-1173 K by the method of isothermal saturation. Mechanisms of calcium oxide interaction with molten alkali metal chlorides are proposed

  4. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete as protection against chloride penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Hydrophobic treatment was studied as a protection agninst chloride penetration from deicing salts. Test methods were designed. Nine hydrophobic products were tested, of which three complied to the requirements on

  5. Aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride in groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Carpenter, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the biodegradation of 14 C-labeled vinyl chloride in samples taken from a shallow aquifer. Under aerobic conditions, vinyl chloride was readily degraded, with greater than 99% of the labeled material being degraded after 108 days and approximately 65% being mineralized to 14 CO 2

  6. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some electrical and mechanical properties for pure polyvinyl alcohol. A B Elaydy M Hafez ... Keywords. Polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA); granular strontium chloride, SrCl2; a.c. electrical conductivity; dielectric constant; dielectric loss; Young's modulus; creep relaxation curve.

  7. Chloride penetration into cementitious mortar at early age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero, J.; Polder, R.B.; Leegwater, G.A.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern service life design methods for concrete structures use chloride diffusion data as an input parameter. Abundant data exist for concrete at 28 days and, to a lesser extent, at later ages. This paper presents chloride diffusion data for mortar at ages between 1 day and 28 days age. Rapid

  8. Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulat...

  9. Determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in blended cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfmarkova, V.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid chloride migration test (RCM) is a commonly used accelerated test for the determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete. Nevertheless, the initial development and further experience with the RCM test concern mainly the ordinary Portland cement system. Therefore, the

  10. [Forensic Analysis for 54 Cases of Suxamethonium Chloride Poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y F; Zhao, B Q; Ma, K J; Zhang, J; Chen, F Y

    2017-08-01

    To observe and analyze the performance of forensic science in the cases of suxa- methonium chloride poisoning, and to improve the identification of suxamethonium chloride poisoning. Fifty-four cases of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were collected. The rules of determination of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were observed by the retrospective analysis of pathological and toxicological changes as well as case features. The pathological features of suxamethonium chloride poisoning were similar to the general changes of sudden death, which mainly included acute pulmonary congestion and edema, and partly showed myocardial disarray and fracture. Suxamethonium chloride could be detected in the heart blood of all cases and in skin tissue of part cases. Suxa-methonium chloride poisoning has the characteristics with fast death and covert means, which are difficult to rescue and easily miss inspection. For the cases of sudden death or suspicious death, determination of suxamethonium chloride should be taken as a routine detection index to prevent missing inspection. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  11. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  12. Stability constants of the Europium complexes with the chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A.

    2000-01-01

    The stability constants of lanthanides complexes with chloride ions which were determined at the same ionic force but in different media, are significantly different. It does not exist a systematic study over these stability constants. The purpose of this work is to determine the stability constants of the europium complexes with chloride ions at 303 K, by the solvents extraction method. (Author)

  13. Free and bound chloride contents in cementitious materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Fischer, G.; Geiker, M.; Hededal, O.; Ottoson, L.; Stang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Chloride attack is the main cause of structural damage in reinforced concrete buildings exposed to marine environments. When a certain threshold concentration of chlorides is reached at the concrete-reinforcement interface, the corrosion of the steel rebars is initiated. A part of the intruding

  14. Chloride transport in mortar at low moisture concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taher, A.; Zanden, van der A.J.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride penetration into cementitious structures with a steel reinforcement results in corrosion of the steel. Concrete columns of bridges, which are in frequent contact with sea water, are an example of these structures. Understanding the chloride transport in cementitious materials can lead to

  15. Process for the preparation of a vinylidene chloride polymer composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Process for the preparation of a vinylidene chloride polymer composite comprising a solid particulate encapsulated in the vinylidene chloride polymer. The process comprises providing a dispersion of a solid particulate material in a liquid phase, said dispersion comprising a RAFT/MADIX agent;

  16. Mass transport and chloride ion complexes in occluded cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Nishikata, A.; Haruyama, S.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the transport and the concentration of ions in a model occluded cell are traced during galvanostatic anodic polarization of a mild steel and a stainless steel. Apparent transport numbers of anions and cations, which were estimated from chemical analysis of solution, were different from those calculated from known mobility data. At the initial stage of the polarization, the transport number of chloride ion was almost unity, and then decreased gradually. For the mild steel, the concentration of total chloride ion accumulated in the occluded compartment increased with the anodic charge passed, and the amount of chloride ion complexed with cations also increased. The chloride complex was estimated as FeCl + . For SUS304 stainless steel, the total chloride ion increased, however, the free chloride ion, which responded to an Ag/AgCl electrode remained approximately 2 mol/dm 3 . Therefore, most of the chloride ions transferred into the occluded cell formed complex ions, such as CrCl n 3-n . The number of chloride ion coordinated to ferrous and chromic ions was estimated from the data fo mass transport for the case of the mild steel and the stainless steel. (author) 9 refs., 14 figs

  17. Probabilistic Models and Computational Methods for Chloride Ingress in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.

    Within the last decades it has been recognized that reinforced concrete structures are subject to a number of destructive mechanisms which might affect the structure in such a way that it is not able to fulfil its purpose efficiently. The present report focuses on chloride ingress and chloride...

  18. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  19. [Jejunal myenteric denervation induced by benzalkonium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, F S; Santos, G C; Ramalho, L N; Kajiwara, J K; Zucoloto, S

    1994-01-01

    The effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the number of myenteric neurons, muscle thickness and external perimeter after acute (until 10 days after BAC application) and chronic (30 and 60 days after BAC application) denervation of the proximal jejunum were determined in rats. There was a significant reduction in the number of myenteric neurons of all segments treated with BAC. The extent of denervation varied along the time, and it was reduced in the denervated segments of the chronic group in comparison with the acute group. This may be due to the neuroplasticity phenomenon appearing during the chronic phase. Myenteric denervation increased the thickness of the propria muscle layer, especially in the longitudinal muscle layer, suggesting a higher sensitivity of this layer to myenteric denervation.

  20. The dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, T.; Velasquez, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to determinate the effects of parameters and additives on the kinetics of dissolution of chalcopyrite on moderated conditions by means of dissolutions test with chalcopyrite concentrate and pure chalcopyrite in shake flasks and instrumented stirred reactors. A study of the dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride solutions has demonstrated that the rate of dissolution of chalcopyrite is strongly dependent on the potential of the solution within a range of 540 to 630 mV (versus SHE). Leaching at pH around 2.5 results in increased rates of copper dissolution suggesting the possibility to keep the solution potential within the range. Both pyrite and silver ions enhance the dissolution of chalcopyrite and this effect increases when both species are present. The MnO 2 has a negative effect on the dissolution increasing the solution potential to values where the rate decreases considerably. (Author)

  1. Some reactions of uranium chloride pentafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, A.J.; Gardner, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The molecule UF 5 Cl has been isolated, together with an excess of UF 6 , in a solid matrix of Ar, N 2 , or CO and characterised by its i.r. spectrum. Under these conditions it dissociates under the action of radiation having wavelengths close to 500 nm to give UF 5 ; OCCl and OCClF are also formed on photolysis in a solid CO matrix, whereas a species believed to be U 2 F 11 is formed on photolysis in a solid N 2 matrix. CCl 3 F solutions of fluoride-rich mixtures of uranium(VI) chloride fluorides have been shown to function as chlorinating, fluorinating, or chlorofluorinating reagents in their reactions with various unsaturated molecules at temperatures low enough to preclude thermal decomposition of the mixed halides ( 0 C). (author)

  2. Aspects of the magnetism of ferrous chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrara, P.

    1968-01-01

    This work is a critical review of the existing work on ferrous chloride and presents, as well, a number of new experimental results. First, a careful analysis of the level structure of ferrous ions in the crystalline field shows that the crystalline anisotropy is of the same order of magnitude as the exchange interactions, a feature which gives rise to some particular effects, such as an upward curvature of the magnetization curve at 0 K in a perpendicular magnetic field. Further, the very low temperature (T > 0.4 K) thermal variation of both the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility evidences a magnetic component in elementary excitations. This result suggests the presence of a large magneto-elastic coupling. Finally, an experimental study of the H-T phase diagram near T N and of the critical behaviour of the specific heat and parallel susceptibility was performed. (author) [fr

  3. Electrochemical properties of actinides in molten chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertin, D.; Lacquement, J.; Sanchez, S.; Picard, G.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical properties of plutonium and cerium chlorides have been studied in the fused CaCl 2 -NaCl equimolar mixture at 550 deg. C using a tungsten working electrode and a pO 2- indicator electrode. The standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu was determined using cyclic voltammetry. The solubility product of Pu 2 O 3 was calculated by potentiometric titration. The standard potential of Ce(III)/Ce have been determined by a potentiometry method. Potentiometric titrations of Ce(III) have been shown the existence of a soluble cerium oxychloride. All these data allowed us to draw the potential-pO 2- diagram which summarises the properties of plutonium and cerium compounds in the melt. (authors)

  4. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  5. Facile Preparation of Chloride-Conducting Membranes : First Step towards a Room-Temperature Solid-State Chloride-Ion Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gschwind, Fabienne; Steinle, Dominik; Sandbeck, Daniel; Schmidt, Celine; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Three types of chloride-conducting membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, commercial gelatin, and polyvinyldifluoride-hexafluoropolymer are introduced in this report. The polymers are mixed with chloride-containing salts, such as tetrabutylammonium chloride, and cast to form membranes. We studied

  6. Formation of mixed hydroxides in the thorium chloride-iron chloride-sodium hydroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Prokudina, A.F.; Sapozhnikova, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    The process of formation of mixed hydroxides in the system thorium chloride-iron chloride-NaOH was studied at commensurate concentrations of Th and Fe in solution (1:1 and 1:10 mole fractions, respectively) with ionic strength 0.3, 2.1, and 4.1, created with the electrolyte NaCl, at room temperature 22+-1degC. By the methods of chemical, potentiometric, thermographic, and IR-spectrometric analyses, it was shown that all the synthesized precipitates are mechanical mixtures of two phases - thorium hydroxide and iron hydroxide - and not a new hydrated compound. The formal solubility of the precipitates of mixed hydroxides was determined. It was shown that the numerical value of the formal solubility depends on the conditions of formation and age of the precipitates

  7. Zirconium and hafnium tetrachloride separation by extractive distillation with molten zinc chloride lead chloride solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    In an extractive distillation method for separating hafniuim tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride of the type wherein a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides is introduced into an extractive distillation column, which extractive distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a molten salt solvent is circulated into the reflux condenser and through the column to provide a liquid phase, and wherein molten salt solvent containing zirconium tetrachloride is taken from the reboiler and run through a stripper to remove zirconium tetrachloride product from the molten salt solvent and the stripped molten salt solvent is returned to the reflux condenser and hafnium tetrachloride enriched vapor is taken as product from the reflux condenser, the improvement is described comprising: the molten salt having a composition of at least 30 mole percent zinc chloride and at least 10 mole percent of lead chloride

  8. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs

  9. Anodic solution of alkali earth alloys in potassium chloride-sodium chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Generalized results of studying the process of anodic dissolution of alkaline-earth metal alloys with zinc, aluminium and copper in the melts of KCl-NaCl equimolar mixture containing alkaline-earth metal chlorides, are presented. It is shown that during dissolution of both pure liquid metals and their alloys there is no electrode polarization in the range of the current densities lower or comparable in their values to corrosion current

  10. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-12-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  11. The interactions of azure B, a metabolite of methylene blue, with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzer, Anél; Harvey, Brian H.; Petzer, Jacobus P.

    2014-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is reported to possess diverse pharmacological actions and is attracting increasing attention for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Among the pharmacological actions of MB, is the significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). These activities may, at least in part, underlie MB's beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease. MB is metabolized to yield N-demethylated products of which azure B, the monodemethyl metabolite, is the predominant species. Azure B has been shown to be pharmacologically active and also possesses a variety of biological actions. Azure B therefore may contribute to the pharmacological profile of MB. Based on these considerations, the present study investigates the possibility that azure B may, similar to MB, act as an inhibitor of human AChE and BuChE. The results document that azure B inhibits AChE and BuChE with IC 50 values of 0.486 μM and 1.99 μM, respectively. The results further show that azure B inhibits AChE and BuChE reversibly, and that the modes of inhibition are most likely competitive. Although the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities of azure B are twofold and fivefold, respectively, less potent than those recorded for MB [IC 50 (AChE) = 0.214 μM; IC 50 (BuChE) = 0.389 μM] under identical conditions, azure B may be a contributor to MB's in vivo activation of the cholinergic system and beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease. - Highlights: • Methylene blue (MB) is a known inhibitor of AChE and BuChE. • Azure B, the major metabolite of MB, also is an inhibitor of AChE and BuChE. • Azure B may be a contributor to MB's in vivo activation of the cholinergic system. • Azure B may contribute to MB's potential in Alzheimer's disease therapy

  12. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  13. Radiation fixation of vinyl chloride in an insecticide aerosol container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, V.T.; Takemoto, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a large quantity of vinyl chloride has been used as spraying additive for insecticide aerosols. Since January 1974 when the Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America announced that vinyl chloride causes liver cancer, it has been forbidden in Japan and the United States of America to market insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride. In Japan, following a government order, about 20 million insecticide aerosol containers have been collected and put into storage. A report is given on the radiation fixation of vinyl chloride as polyvinylchloride powder by gamma-ray-induced polymerization in the aerosol container. Insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride were irradiated by gamma rays from 60 Co at room temperature. Vinyl chloride polymerized to form powdered polymer in the container. Polymerization conversion increased with the irradiation dose, and after 10 Mrad irradiation, vinyl chloride was not found in the sprayed gas. This establishes that vinyl chloride can be fixed by gamma-ray irradiation in the aerosol container. To accelerate the reaction rate, the effect of various additives on the reaction was investigated. It was found that halogenated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, accelerated the initiation of the polymerization, and that a vinyl monomer such as vinyl acetate accelerated the reaction rate due to the promotion of the initiation and the high reactivity of the polyvinylacetate radical to vinyl chloride. Consequently, the required irradiation dose for the fixation of vinyl chloride was decreased to less than 5 Mrad by the addition of various kinds of additives. Following the request of the Ministry of Public Welfare, various technical problems for large-scale treatment are being studied with the co-operation of the Federation of Insecticide Aerosols. (author)

  14. Estimating Anthropogenic Emissions of Hydrogen Chloride and Fine Particulate Chloride in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, T.; Wang, S.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) can significantly impact the atmospheric photochemistry via photolysis and subsequent reactions of chlorine radical with other gases. The formation of ClNO2 in the atmosphere is sensitive to the emissions of chlorine-containing particulates from oceanic and anthropogenic sources. For China, the only available anthropogenic chlorine emission inventory was compiled for the year 1990 with a coarse resolution of 1 degree. In this study, we developed an up-to-date anthropogenic inventory of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and fine particulate chloride (Cl-) emissions in China for the year 2014, including coal burning, industrial processes, biomass burning and waste burning. Bottom-up and top-down methodologies were combined. Detailed local data (e.g. Cl content in coal, control technologies, etc.) were collected and applied. In order to improve the spatial resolution of emissions, detailed point source information were collected for coal-fired power plants, cement factories, iron & steel factories and waste incineration factories. Uncertainties of this emission inventory and their major causes were analyzed using the Monte Carlo method. This work enables better quantification of the ClNO2 production and impact over China.

  15. Graphene supported silver@silver chloride & ferroferric oxide hybrid, a magnetically separable photocatalyst with high performance under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Suting; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com; Han, Mei; Liu, Gongzong; Zhang, Na; Lu, Yue

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The composites were synthesized via a facile and effective process. • Plenty of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ag@AgCl nanoparticles are deposited on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. • The catalyst exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic performance and magnetic property. • The catalyst is stable under the visible light irradiation. - Abstract: A stable magnetic separable plasmonic photocatalyst was successfully fabricated by grafting silver@silver chloride (Ag@AgCl) and ferroferric oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The composite exhibited high activity degrading methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB) under visible light irradiation: decomposition 97.4% of MB in 100 min and 97.9% of RB in 120 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activities can be attributed to synergistic effect between Ag@AgCl and graphene: the effective charge transfer from Ag@AgCl to graphene thus promotes the separation of electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the excellent magnetic property gives a more convenient way to recycle the photocatalysts.

  16. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A; Pressly, Eric D; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J; Lynd, Nathaniel A

    2012-11-20

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)] was pH-sensitive, with degradation at pH 5 being significantly faster than at pH 7.4 at 37 °C in PBS buffer while long-term stability could be obtained in either the solid-state or at pH 7.4 at 6 °C.

  17. Adsorption of methylene blue on raw and MTZ/imogolite hybrid surfaces: Effect of concentration and calorimetric investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Denis L., E-mail: dlguerra@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, DRM, UFMT, Mato Grosso 78060 900 (Brazil); Batista, Adriano C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, UENF, Rio de Janeiro 28013 02 (Brazil); Viana, Rubia R. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, DRM, UFMT, Mato Grosso 78060 900 (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio [Chemistry Institute, State University of Campinas, PO Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The synthetic imogolite sample was used for organofunctionalization process with 2-mercaptothiazoline (MTZ). The compound 2-mercaptothiazoline was anchored onto imogolite surface by heterogeneous route. Due to the increment of basic centers attached to the pendant chains the dye adsorption capability of the final chelating material, was found to be higher than is precursor. The ability of these materials to remove methylene blue from aqueous solution was followed by a series of adsorption isotherms at room temperature and pH 4.0. The maximum number of moles adsorbed was determined to be 40.32 x 10{sup -2} and 65.13 x 10{sup -2} mmol g{sup -1} for IMO and IMO{sub MTZ}, respectively. The energetic effects caused by dye cations adsorption were determined through calorimetric titrations. Thermodynamics indicated the existence of favorable conditions for such methylene blue-nitrogen and sulfur interactions.

  18. Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea synthesis process

    OpenAIRE

    Fukahori, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Ito, R.; Funamizu, N.

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nitrogen recovery and pharmaceutical removal processes for livestock urine treatment were investigated to suppress the discharge of pollutants and recover nitrogen as resources. We combined methylene urea synthesis from urea and adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfonamide antibiotic using rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) contained for obtaining both safe fertilizer and reclaimed water. The methylene urea synthesis could recover urea in synthetic u...

  19. Uniform Cu2Cl(OH)3 hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin; Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

    2013-01-01

    Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 1–2 µm and 76.61 m 2 g −1 , respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: The single-crystalline hierarchical Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 spheres can be prepared for the first time by using a template-free process through freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the hierarchical spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity to methylene blue. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a freeze drying process. • A possible formation mechanism of hierarchical microspheres was presented. • The Cu 2 Cl(OH) 3 microspheres have high methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Methylene blue adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. • The adsorption mechanism of microspheres onto dye was proposed in detail

  20. Solubility limit of methyl red and methylene blue in microemulsions and liquid crystals of water, sds and pentanol systems

    OpenAIRE

    Beri, D.; Pratami, A.; Gobah, P. L.; Dwimala, P.; Amran, A.

    2017-01-01

    Solubility of dyes in amphiphilic association structures of water, SDS and penthanol system (i.e. in the phases of microemulsions and liquid crystals) was attracted much interest due to its wide industrial and technological applications. This research was focused on understanding the solubility limitation of methyl red and methylene blue in microemulsion and liquid crystal phases. Experimental results showed that the highest solubility of methyl red was in LLC, followed by w/o microemulsion a...

  1. The use of intravenous hydroxocobalamin as a rescue in methylene blue-resistant vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasoplegic syndrome is a well-recognized complication during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially when refractory to conventional vasoconstrictor therapy. This is the first reported case of vasoplegia on CPB unresponsive to methylene blue whereas responsive to hydroxocobalamin, which indicates that the effect of hydroxocobalamin outside of the nitric oxide system is significant or that the two drugs have a synergistic effect in one or multiple mechanisms.

  2. Modified chloride diffusion model for concrete under the coupling effect of mechanical load and chloride salt environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mingfeng; Lin, Dayong; Liu, Jianwen; Shi, Chenghua; Ma, Jianjun; Yang, Weichao; Yu, Xiaoniu

    2018-03-01

    For the purpose of investigating lining concrete durability, this study derives a modified chloride diffusion model for concrete based on the odd continuation of boundary conditions and Fourier transform. In order to achieve this, the linear stress distribution on a sectional structure is considered, detailed procedures and methods are presented for model verification and parametric analysis. Simulation results show that the chloride diffusion model can reflect the effects of linear stress distribution of the sectional structure on the chloride diffusivity with reliable accuracy. Along with the natural environmental characteristics of practical engineering structures, reference value ranges of model parameters are provided. Furthermore, a chloride diffusion model is extended for the consideration of multi-factor coupling of linear stress distribution, chloride concentration and diffusion time. Comparison between model simulation and typical current research results shows that the presented model can produce better considerations with a greater universality.

  3. Determine the Intensity of UV Radiation and H2O2 on the Removal of Methylene Blue from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hosseini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a tremendous amount of color in textile wastewater that discharge it to the environment can cause a lot of environmental problems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the photocatalytic process UV/H2O2 to remove methylene blue dye from synthetic wastewater. Methods: UVC lamp was used as light source. In this study the effect of UV light intensity, irradiation distance, hydrogen peroxide concentration, and reaction time on the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions were studied. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 and excel software. Results: The result showed that with increasing concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the color removal increases. Color removal changes were negligible at H2O2 concentration more than 5 mM. After 10 minutes reaction time at H2O2 concentration of 1 mm, efficiency of UVC/H2O2 is equal to 36.6%. Whilst at 5 mM concentration, removal efficiency is 89.2%. By increasing intensity of UV radiation, dye removal measure is also was increased, as the highest percentage of dye removal was obtained at 24 W radiation intensity. Conclusion: in present study, type of radiation and measure of hydrogen peroxide were the main factors in removal of methylene blue. Due to high efficiency of UVC/H2O2 process in removal of dye from aqueous solution, this method can use as an efficient process for removal of dye.

  4. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by F-doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wei [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Liu, Xinjuan, E-mail: lxj669635@126.com [Shanghai Nanotechnlogy Promotion Center, Shanghai 200237 (China); Center for Coordination Bond and Electronic Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Pan, Likun, E-mail: lkpan@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Li, Jinliang; Liu, Junying [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Chen [Shanghai Nanotechnlogy Promotion Center, Shanghai 200237 (China); Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: F-doped TiO2 is synthesized using a modified sol–gel method for visible photocatalytic degradation of MB with a high degradation rate of 91%. - Highlights: • F-doped TiO{sub 2} are synthesized using a modified sol–gel method. • The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by F-doped TiO{sub 2} is investigated. • A high methylene blue degradation rate of 91% is achieved under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: F-doped TiO{sub 2} (F-TiO{sub 2}) were successfully synthesized using a modified sol–gel method. The morphologies, structures, and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectra, respectively. The results show that F-TiO{sub 2} exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MB with a maximum degradation rate of 91% under visible light irradiation as compared with pure TiO{sub 2} (32%). The excellent photocatalytic activity is due to the contribution from the increased visible light absorption, promoted separation of photo-generated electrons and holes as well as enhanced photocatalytic oxidizing species with the doping of F in TiO{sub 2}.

  5. Ionic imbalance and lack of effect of adjuvant treatment with methylene blue in the hamster model of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis in humans usually involves hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia and the putative mechanism underlying such ionic imbalances may be related to nitric oxide (NO production. We previously demonstrated the correlation between serum levels of NO and the severity of renal disease in patients with severe leptospirosis. Methylene blue inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase (downstream of the action of any NO synthase isoforms and was recently reported to have beneficial effects on clinical and experimental sepsis. We investigated the occurrence of serum ionic changes in experimental leptospirosis at various time points (4, 8, 16 and 28 days in a hamster model. We also determined the effect of methylene blue treatment when administered as an adjuvant therapy, combined with late initiation of standard antibiotic (ampicillin treatment. Hypokalaemia was not reproduced in this model: all of the groups developed increased levels of serum potassium (K. Furthermore, hypermagnesaemia, rather than magnesium (Mg depletion, was observed in this hamster model of acute infection. These findings may be associated with an accelerated progression to acute renal failure. Adjuvant treatment with methylene blue had no effect on survival or serum Mg and K levels during acute-phase leptospirosis in hamsters.

  6. Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery. Methods: A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE. Results: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1 MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg; 2 MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3 The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4 MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5 The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6 There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1 Observations about side effects; 2 The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3 The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans. Conclusion: MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

  7. Removal of methylene blue and rhodamine B from water by zirconium oxide/graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumita Rani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue (MB and rhodamine B dyes (RB were degraded from water using zirconium oxide (ZrO2 and zirconium oxide/graphene composites (ZrO2/GR as photocatalyst. The photocatalytic efficiency was calculated from absorption spectra obtained using UV–visible spectroscopy. It has been observed that photodegradation time as well as photocatalytic efficiency increase with the concentration of catalyst up to a certain limit after which effect was reversed. The degradation was studied as a function of pH also. It was found that photocatalytic efficiency was more in alkaline medium than acidic medium. Degradation of RB takes place at higher value of pH as compared to MB. The degradation time for MB was 1 h using ZrO2 which get reduced to 32 min using ZrO2/GR composite and for RB it reduced to 40 min (using ZrO2/GR from 80 min (ZrO2.

  8. Methylene blue biosorption by pericarp of corn, alfalfa, and agave bagasse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Castor, José M; Garza-González, María T; García-Reyes, Refugio B; Soto-Regalado, Eduardo; Cerino-Córdova, Felipe J; García-González, Alcione; Loredo-Medrano, José A

    2014-01-01

    The presence of dyes in effluent is a matter of concern due to their toxicologic and aesthetical effects. In this research, locally available agro-industrial wastes (Zea mays pericarp, ZMP; Agave tequilana bagasse, ATB; and Medicago sativa waste, MSW) were used as alternative low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterized physically and chemically by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, potentiometric titrations, and N2 physisorption. MB adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems and experimental data were used to calculate the adsorption isotherm model parameters (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin) and the adsorption kinetic model parameters (pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models). MB-loaded biosorbents were desorbed with deionized water, ethanol (10% and 50% v/v), hydrochloric acid (0.01 and 0.05 N), and sodium hydroxide (0.1 N) at room temperature, and the best eluent was used in various adsorption-desorption cycles. The selected agricultural wastes can be considered as promising adsorbents for dye uptake from water since they exhibit considerable MB adsorption capacity (MSW 202.6 mg g(-1), ATB 156.2mg g(-1), and ZMP 110.9mg g(-1)), but it is lower than that reported for activated carbon; however, the biosorbents show higher adsorption rate than powdered activated carbon. Furthermore, the adsorbents can be economically regenerated with HCl solutions and reused for seven adsorption-desorption cycles.

  9. Photodynamic effects of methylene blue-loaded polymeric nanoparticles on dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Patel, Niraj; Song, Xiaoqing; Holewa, Colleen; Patel, Chitrang; Kent, Ralph; Amiji, Mansoor M; Soukos, Nikolaos S

    2011-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of oral infections. Here, we investigate the effect of PDT on human dental plaque bacteria in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles with a positive or negative charge and red light at 665 nm. Dental plaque samples were obtained from 14 patients with chronic periodontitis. Suspensions of plaque microorganisms from seven patients were sensitized with anionic, cationic PLGA nanoparticles (50 µg/ml equivalent to MB) or free MB (50 µg/ml) for 20 min followed by exposure to red light for 5 min with a power density of 100 mW/cm2 . Polymicrobial oral biofilms, which were developed on blood agar in 96-well plates from dental plaque inocula obtained from seven patients, were also exposed to PDT as above. Following the treatment, survival fractions were calculated by counting the number of colony-forming units. The cationic MB-loaded nanoparticles exhibited greater bacterial phototoxicity in both planktonic and biofilm phase compared to anionic MB-loaded nanoparticles and free MB, but results were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Cationic MB-loaded PLGA nanoparticles have the potential to be used as carriers of MB for PDT systems. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Decolorization of Methylene Blue with TiO2 Sol via UV Irradiation Photocatalytic Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 sol was prepared for the degradation of methylene blue (MB solution under ultraviolet (UV irradiation. The absorption spectra of MB indicated that the maximum wavelength, 663 nm, almost kept the same. The performance of 92.3% for color removal was reached after 160 min. The particle size of TiO2 sol was about 22.5 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that TiO2 consisted of a single anatase phase. The small size and anatase phase probably resulted in high photocatalytic activity of TiO2 sol. The degradation ratio decreased as the initial concentration of MB increased. The photodegradation efficiency decreased in the order of pH 2>pH 9>pH 7. Regarding catalyst load, the degradation increased with the mass of catalyst up to an amount of 1.5 g⋅L−1 then decreased as the mass continued to increase. The addition of H2O2 to TiO2 sol resulted in an increase on the degradation ratio.

  11. Biosorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by fallen phoenix tree's leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Runping; Zou Weihua; Yu Weihong; Cheng Shujian; Wang Yuanfeng; Shi Jie

    2007-01-01

    A new adsorbent, the fallen phoenix tree's leaf, has been investigated in order to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Variables of the system, including contact time, leaf dose, solution pH, salt concentration and initial MB concentration, were adopted to study their effects on MB biosorption. The results showed that as the dose of leaf increased, the percentage of MB sorption increased accordingly. There was no significant difference about the quantity of MB adsorbed onto leaf as the pH was within the range 4.5-10.0. The salt concentration has negative effect on MB removal. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. The results of non-linear regressive analysis are that the Langmuir isotherm is better fit than the Freundlich isotherm at different temperature according to the values of determined coefficients (R 2 ) and χ 2 -statistic (SS). The Langmuir monolayer saturation capacities of MB adsorbed onto leaf are 80.9, 83.8, 89.7 mg g -1 at 295, 309 and 323 K, respectively. Using the equilibrium concentration contents obtained at different temperatures, various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o , have been calculated. The thermodynamics parameters of MB/leaf system indicate spontaneous and endothermic process. It was concluded that an increase in temperature be advantage to adsorb MB onto leaf

  12. A sensitive resveratrol assay with a simple probe methylene blue by resonance light scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Haiyan; Dai, Kaijin; Luo, Qizhi; Duan, Wenjun; Xie, Yang

    2011-01-01

    A novel resonance light scattering (RLS) method was developed for the determination of resveratrol based on the interaction between resveratrol and methylene blue (MB). It was found that at pH 8.69, the weak RLS intensity of MB was remarkably enhanced by the addition of trace amount of resveratrol with the maximum peak located at 385.0 nm. Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship between the enhanced RLS intensities and the concentrations of resveratrol was obtained over the range of 2.0-14.0 μg ml -1 with the detection limit (3 σ) of 0.63 μg ml -1. The results of the analysis of resveratrol in synthetic samples and human urine are satisfactory, which showed it may provide a more sensitive, convenient, rapid and reproducible method for the detection of resveratrol, especially in biological and pharmaceutical field. In this work, the characteristics of RLS, absorption and fluorescence spectra of the resveratrol-MB system, the influencing factors and the optimum conditions of the reaction were investigated.

  13. First Study of Poly(3-Methylene-2-Pyrrolidone) as a Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Eirin; Heyns, Ingrid Marié; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Formation of gas hydrates is a problem in the petroleum industry where the gas hydrates can cause blockage of the flowlines. Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) are water-soluble polymers, sometimes used in combination synergistically or with non-polymeric synergists, that are used to prevent gas h...... are preferable in KHI polymers as long as they are water-soluble at hydrate-forming temperatures.......Formation of gas hydrates is a problem in the petroleum industry where the gas hydrates can cause blockage of the flowlines. Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) are water-soluble polymers, sometimes used in combination synergistically or with non-polymeric synergists, that are used to prevent gas...... hydrate blockages. They have been used in the field successfully since 1995. In this paper, we present the first KHI results for the polymer, poly(3-methylene-2-pyrrolidone) (P(3M2P)), which is structurally similar to poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), one of the first KHIs to be discovered. 3M2P polymers...

  14. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue on TiO{sub 2}-halloysite adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Pengwu [Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang (China)

    2014-11-15

    TiO{sub 2}-halloysite (TiO{sub 2}-HNT) composites were fabricated by depositing anatase TiO{sub 2} on the halloysite (HNT) surfaces with calcination treatment at 100, 200, 300 and 500 .deg. C. The obtained composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). HNT was attached with TiO{sub 2} particles or clusters in sizes of 10-30 nm. With the increasing of calcination temperature, the crystalline of anatase became more perfect, but the structure of HNT could be destroyed at 500 .deg. C. The adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) by TiO{sub 2}-HNTs were investigated. The kinetic adsorption fit the pseudo second-order, and the isotherm data followed the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities of MB were in the range of 38.57 to 54.29 mg/g. TiO{sub 2}-HNTs exhibited an efficient photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of MB. For TiO{sub 2}-HNT calcined at 300 .deg. C, 81.6% MB were degraded after 4 h treatment of UV irradiation.

  15. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue on TiO_2-halloysite adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Pengwu

    2014-01-01

    TiO_2-halloysite (TiO_2-HNT) composites were fabricated by depositing anatase TiO_2 on the halloysite (HNT) surfaces with calcination treatment at 100, 200, 300 and 500 .deg. C. The obtained composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). HNT was attached with TiO_2 particles or clusters in sizes of 10-30 nm. With the increasing of calcination temperature, the crystalline of anatase became more perfect, but the structure of HNT could be destroyed at 500 .deg. C. The adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) by TiO_2-HNTs were investigated. The kinetic adsorption fit the pseudo second-order, and the isotherm data followed the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities of MB were in the range of 38.57 to 54.29 mg/g. TiO_2-HNTs exhibited an efficient photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of MB. For TiO_2-HNT calcined at 300 .deg. C, 81.6% MB were degraded after 4 h treatment of UV irradiation

  16. Green synthesis of halloysite nanotubes supported Ag nanoparticles for photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Meiling; Zhu Han; Xu Congsheng; Du Mingliang; Fu Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    Using tea polyphenols (TPs) as a reductant, Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) supported on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were simply and greenly synthesized for the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue (MB). HNTs were initially functionalized by N-β-aminoethyl-γ-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS) to introduce amino groups to form N-HNTs to fasten the AgNPs; then AgNPs were synthesized and ‘anchored’ on the surface of the HNTs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to testify the amino groups on the surface of the HNTs. Transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize the structure and morphology of the synthesized HNTs supported by the AgNPs (AgNPs-N-HNTs). The results showed that the AgNPs had been synthesized and ‘anchored’ onto the surface of the HNTs with a diameter of about 20-30 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed the chelating interaction between the AgNPs and N atoms together with the TP molecular. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared AgNPs-N-HNTs catalyst was evaluated by decomposition of MB; the results showed that the prepared catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity and high adsorption capability to MB. (paper)

  17. High-speed organocatalytic polymerization of a renewable methylene butyrolactone by a phosphazene superbase

    KAUST Repository

    Schmitt, Meghan L.; Falivene, Laura; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Chen, Eugene You Xian

    2014-01-01

    The organic phosphazene superbase, 1-tert-butyl-4,4,4-tris(dimethylamino)- 2,2-bis[tris(dimethylamino)phosphoranylid-enamino]-2λ5, 4λ5-catenadi(phosphazene) (t-Bu-P4), is found to directly initiate high-speed polymerization of the biomass-derived renewable γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MMBL), in contrast to other polymerization systems using t-Bu-P4 which typically require addition of an organic acid or a nucleophile as a co-initiating component. This MMBL polymerization by t-Bu-P4 alone is extremely rapid; even with a low t-Bu-P4 loading of 0.1 mol% or 0.02 mol%, quantitative monomer conversion is achieved in 20 s or 1 min, respectively, affording medium to high molecular weight PMMBL bioplastics in a catalytic fashion. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational studies have yielded mechanisms of chain initiation through abstraction of a proton from a monomer by t-Bu-P 4, essentially barrier-less chain propagation through rapid conjugate addition of the enolate anion stabilized by the nano-size cation [t-Bu-P 4H]+ to the monomer, and chain termination through chain transfer to the monomer which generates a saturated termination chain end and the [t-Bu-P4H]+-stabilized anionic active species that starts a new chain. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  18. Methylene blue adsorption of GMZ bentonite and the effect of hyper-alkaline solution erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bao; Zhang Huixin; Zhu Chunming; Chen Ping

    2012-01-01

    The method of combining the halo method with the spectrometer method, was used to study on the Methylene blue (MB) adsorption of Gaomiaozi (GMZ) bentonite, which had been eroded by hyper-alkaline solution, to investigate the mechanism of the effect of hyper-alkaline pore water on the buffer/backfill properties of GMZ bentonite. Results present, method employed in this article is brief and feasible, and high accuracy; The total specific surface area calculated by the test of MB adsorption is more accurate than the method of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGIVIE). The MB adsorption of samples, which had been eroded by hyper-alkaline solution, decreases with the increase of the concentration of hyper-alkaline solution, and the change law agrees with the variation of the mass percentage of montmorillonite in bentonite tested by X- Ray diffraction (XRD). Therefore, the erosion of hyper-alkaline pore water might dissolve montmorillonite, which is the effective composition of bentonite, and destroy the tetrahedron- octahedron-tetrahedron (T-O-T) structure of montmorillonite, then lead to the decrease of cation exchange capability and the specific surface area of montmorillonite, and the the macroscopic expressions are the decrease of MB adsorption, the swelling potential and the increase of permeability. (authors)

  19. Coconut Husk Adsorbent for the Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasfalina Che bt Man

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study to assess the efficiency of coconut husks (CHs in removing methylene blue (MB dye from wastewaters in Malaysia was carried out. A fixed bed column adsorber was set up using flow rates of 40 and 80 mL/min, and the adsorbent (CH was prepared using the base treatment method with NaOH as activating agent. Three different column bed depths (10, 20, and 25 cm and unit weights of adsorbent (103, 213, and 260 g were used. Two models, the bed depth service time (BDST and Thomas models, were used to validate the adsorption capacity results and breakthrough curve. Changing the bed depth from 20 to 25 cm did not result in a significant change in adsorption capacity, therefore a 20-cm bed depth is recommended as the most efficient. Similarly, adsorption capacity increased as flow rates increased from 40 to 80 mL/min, indicating that a flow rate of 80 mL/min yielded optimum efficiency. The two models also provided predictions with good fits of the bed depth effect, the adsorption capacity, and the breakthrough curve of CH for MB removal.

  20. A randomized multicenter clinical trial of 99 Tc-methylene diphosphonate in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Rong; Liang, Jun; Sun, Lingyun; Zhang, Zhuoli; Liu, Xiangyuan; Huang, Cibo; Zhu, Ping; Zuo, Xiaoxia; Gu, Jieruo; Li, Xiangpei; Li, Xingfu; Liu, Yi; Feng, Ping; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of technetium-99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate ( 99 Tc-MDP, Yunke Pharmaceutical industry) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 120 patients with active RA were randomly divided into three groups: Group A (receiving oral meloxicam tablets); Group B (receiving intravenous drip of 99 TC-MDP); Group C (receiving combination treatment of intravenous drip of 99 Tc-MDP and oral meloxicam tablets). The main clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated at baseline and after 14 days of therapy. After 14 days of treatment, American College of Rheumatology 20 response was 15.62%, 34.04% and 48.78% in the three groups, respectively. The incidence of adverse events in three groups were 3.13%, 8.51% and 9.76% respectly, and has no significant difference. In addition, biochemical markers of bone metabolism including bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), all improved in the three groups, although more significant in Group B than Group A, and more significant in the combination group than monotherapy groups. 99 Tc-MDP has good efficacy and safety in the treatment of active RA patients; the benefit was more remarkable when 99 Tc-MDP was combined with NSAIDs. 99 Tc-MDP may also have potential to improve bone metabolism. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Use of rice husk for the removal of methylene blue in fixed-bed columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurany A. Villada-Villada

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the use of rice husk in the removal of cationic dye methylene blue on continuous system. A factorial design 23 with center points and random distribution was implemented to evaluate the correlation of the experimental factors in the adsorption process. The considered variables were pH, particle size, salt presence, flow rate, dye initial concentration, and bed depth. The samples were analyzed in defined time intervals. The amount of removed dye was quantified by UV spectroscopy - Visible. Adams-Bohart, Thomas and BDST (Bed-depht/service time analysis models were used to predict the breakthrough curves using non-linear regression and establish the characteristic parameters of the process. It was found that the transference of dye toward the adsorbent is favored by a basic pH, a small particle size, low flow rate and dye concentration, and high bed depth. The design of experiments established that the initial dye concentration and the bed depth were the most significant factors. Regarding the models, the Thomas provided the best fit to describe the breakthrough curves in experimental conditions and Adams-Bohart was found suitable for dynamic behavior limited to the initial part. Finally, BDST model exhibited a good correlation and allowed to establish that bed depth is a determinant factor for scaling process.

  2. Novel methylene bridged ethylenediamine-type ligands: Synthesis and spectral characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović-Lalić Ljiljana E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report the synthesis of two new organic compounds, diisobutyl- and diisopentyl N,N′-methylene-(S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(3-cyclohexylpropanoate. A one-pot procedure was carried out by adding the reducing agent and carbonyl compound into the methanol solution of the parent compounds (iso-butyl and iso-pentyl esters of (S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid in appropriate stoichiometric ratios. The compounds were fully characterized by infrared, ESI-MS, 1D (1H, 13C and 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The spectral data confirm the presence of -CH2- group introduced between nitrogen atoms of the ethylenediamine moiety revealing neutral form of potential bidentate ligand. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172035. The authors also acknowledge the support of the FP7 RegPot project FCUB ERA GA No. 256716. The EC does not share responsibility for the content of the article

  3. Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Pea Shells (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal Geçgel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An activated carbon was prepared from pea shells and used for the removal of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solutions. The influence of various factors such as adsorbent concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature, contact time, pH, and surfactant was studied. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm was found to follow the Langmuir model. The monolayer sorption capacity of activated carbon prepared from pea shell for MB was found to be 246.91 mg g−1 at 25 ∘C. Two simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equation were selected to follow the adsorption processes. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as , , and were evaluated. The results in this study indicated that activated carbon prepared from pea shell could be employed as an adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  4. Methylene blue 1% solution on the prevention of intraperitoneal adhesion formation in a dog model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Augusto Machado Silva

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal adhesions usually are formed after abdominal surgeries and may cause technical difficulties during surgical intervention, chronic abdominal pain and severe obstructions of the gastrointestinal tract. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of methylene blue (MB 1% solution on the prevention of intraperitoneal postsurgical adhesion formation in a canine surgical trauma model. Twenty bitches were submitted to falciform ligament resection, omentectomy, ovariohysterectomy and scarification of a colonic segment. Prior to abdominal closure, 10 bitches received 1mg kg-1 MB intraperitoneally (MB group and 10 bitches received no treatment (control group, CT. On the 15th postoperative day the bitches were submitted to laparoscopy to assess adhesions. The mean adhesion scores were 13.9 (±5.6 for MB group and 20.5 (±6.4 for the CT group (P=0,043. In conclusion, the 1% MB solution was efficient on the prevention of intraperitoneal postoperative adhesion formation in bitches, especially those involving the colonic serosa.

  5. Breakdown of methylene blue and methyl orange by pulsed corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, L R; Veldhuizen, E M van; Pemen, A J M; Rutgers, W R

    2007-01-01

    The recently developed corona above water technique is applied to water containing 10 mg l -1 methylene blue (MB) or methyl orange (MO). The corona discharge pulses are created with a spark gap switched capacitor followed by a transmission line transformer. The pulse amplitude is 40 kV; its duration is 50 ns. At a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz this leads to an average power of 0.6 W into the discharge. MB and MO are completely decolourized in ∼20 min. This corresponds to a yield of ∼4.5 gr kW -1 h -1 , which is much higher than obtained with other discharge techniques or sonoluminescence. The high yield is reflected in the observed temperature increase of only ∼1 K. Tests with additional chemicals show that the initial speed of the conversion can be influenced but the total time required for total decolourization is constant. Further, it follows that the main oxidation path of the dyes is by direct ozone attack and the conversion products are strong acids

  6. High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate beads for efficient removal of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Asma; Bhat, A H; Naeem, Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Danish, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate (AC-alginate) beads were successfully synthesized by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from Mangosteen fruit peel into calcium-alginate beads for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The structure and surface characteristics of AC-alginate beads were analyzed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface area analysis (S BET ), while thermal properties were tested using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of AC-alginate dose, pH of solution, contact time, initial concentration of MB solution and temperature on MB removal was elucidated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of 230mg/g was achieved for 100mg/L of MB solution at pH 9.5 and temperature 25°C. Furthermore, the adsorption of MB on AC-alginate beads followed well pseudo-second order equation and equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. The findings reveal the feasibility of AC-alginate beads composite to be used as a potential and low cost adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Photophysical and antibacterial properties of complex systems based on smectite, a cationic surfactant and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donauerová, Alena; Bujdák, Juraj; Smolinská, Miroslava; Bujdáková, Helena

    2015-10-01

    Solid or colloidal materials with embedded photosensitizers are promising agents from the medical or environmental perspective, where the direct use of photoactive solutions appears to be problematic. Colloids based on layered silicates of the saponite (Sap) and montmorillonite (Mon) type, including those modified with dodecylammonium cations (C12) and photosensitizer--methylene blue (MB) were studied. Two representatives of bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli, were selected for this work. A spectral study showed that MB solutions and also colloids with Sap including C12 exhibited the highest photoactivities. The antimicrobial properties of the smectite colloids were not directly linked to the photoactivity of the adsorbed MB cations. They were also influenced by other parameters, such as light vs. dark conditions, the spectrum, power and duration of the light used for the irradiation; growth phases, and the pre-treatment of microorganisms. Both the photoactivity and antimicrobial properties of the colloids were improved upon pre-modification with C12. Significantly higher antimicrobial properties were observed for the colloids based on Mon with MB in the form of molecular aggregates without significant photoactivities. The MB/Mon colloids, both modified and non-modified with C12 cations, exhibited higher antimicrobial effects than pure MB solution. Besides the direct effect of photosensitization, the surface properties of the silicate particles likely played a crucial role in the interactions with microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using TiO2 Impregnated Diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranfang Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-TiO2 showed a good catalytic activity, but it is easy to agglomerate, resulting in the reduction or even complete loss of photocatalytic activity. The dispersion of TiO2 particles on porous materials was a potential solution to this problem. Diatomite has high specific surface and absorbability because of its particular shell structure. Thus, TiO2/diatomite composite, prepared by loading TiO2 on the surface of diatomite, was a good photocatalyst, through absorbing organic compounds with diatomite and degrading them with TiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, chemical analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR indicated that TiO2 was impregnated well on the surface of diatomite. Furthermore, TiO2/diatomite was more active than nano-TiO2 for the degradation of methylene blue (MB in solution. MB at concentrations of 15 and 35 ppm can be completely degraded in 20 and 40 min, respectively.

  9. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, W.-T.; Hsu, H.-C.; Su, T.-Y.; Lin, K.-Y.; Lin, C.-M.

    2008-01-01

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater

  10. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Hsu, Hsin-Chieh; Su, Ting-Yi; Lin, Keng-Yu; Lin, Chien-Ming

    2008-06-15

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater.

  11. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, W.-T. [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wttsai@mail.npust.edu.tw; Hsu, H.-C.; Su, T.-Y.; Lin, K.-Y.; Lin, C.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)

    2008-06-15

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater.

  12. Decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous suspensions of gold nanoparticles using parallel nanosecond pulsed laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yan P; Liu, Xian H; Du, Xi W; Lu, Yi R; Wang, Mei Y; Wang, Guang Y

    2013-01-01

    Using 532 nm parallel nanosecond pulsed laser, the decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous suspensions of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was studied. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, laser energy, and initial MB concentration on the decolorization rate were investigated. Experiments using real samples of textile dyeing wastewater were also carried out to examine the effectiveness of the method in more complex samples. From the results, the following conclusions may be drawn: (i) Under the optimum conditions (pH 7.19, 135 mJ laser energy, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 11.6 mg/L GNP concentration), the rate of MB decolorization could reach 94% in 15 min. The decolorization follows pseudo-first-order kinetics; (ii) The amount of MB decreased rapidly during the decolorization. No intermediates of the decolorization could be detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. These observations indicate that MB was decolorized through a very rapid degradation mechanism; (iii) The rate of MB decolorization increased with the increase in laser energy (at laser energies of 0 to 135 mJ); and, (iv) The efficient decolorization of MB in real samples of textile dyeing wastewater was achieved at a decolorization rate of about 85% in 15 min.

  13. Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by sugar extracted spent rice biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur Rehman, Muhammad Saif; Kim, Ilgook; Han, Jong-In

    2012-10-15

    This study was aimed at using sugar extracted spent rice biomass (SRB) as a potential adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The SRB was used without any modification. A three factor full factorial experimental design (2(3)) was employed to investigate the effect of factors (adsorbent dose, dye concentration, temperature) and their interaction on the adsorption capacity and color removal. Two levels for each factor were used; adsorbent dose (0.25-0.5g/100mL), dye concentration (25-50mg/L), and temperature (25-45°C). Initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage were found as significant factors for the adsorption of MB dye. Langmuir isotherm (R(2)>0.998) best explained the equilibrium of MB adsorption on SRB with monolayer adsorption capacity of 8.13mg/g. The pseudo-second order model (R(2)>0.999) was best fitted to explain the adsorption kinetics. Thermodynamic investigation revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic, and was feasible to treat dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of Congo Red and Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Vermicompost-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Wu, Lin; Xian, Qiming; Shen, Fei; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Yanzong

    2016-01-01

    Biochars, produced by pyrolyzing vermicompost at 300, 500, and 700°C were characterized and their ability to adsorb the dyes Congo red (CR) and Methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution was investigated. The physical and chemical properties of biochars varied significantly based on the pyrolysis temperatures. Analysis of the data revealed that the aromaticity, polarity, specific surface area, pH, and ash content of the biochars increased gradually with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, while the cation exchange capacity, and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The adsorption kinetics of CR and MB were described by pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Both of Langmuir and Temkin model could be employed to describe the adsorption behaviors of CR and MB by these biochars. The biochars generated at higher pyrolysis temperature displayed higher CR adsorption capacities and lower MB adsorption capacities than those compared with the biochars generated at lower pyrolysis temperatures. The biochar generated at the higher pyrolytic temperature displayed the higher ability to adsorb CR owing to its promoted aromaticity, and the cation exchange is the key factor that positively affects adsorption of MB. PMID:27144922

  15. Optimization of microwave-assisted rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon preparation conditions for methylene blue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasri, Azduwin; Ahmad, Mohd Azmier

    2017-10-01

    Optimum preparation conditions of rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon (RSAC) for methylene blue (MB) dye removal was studied. RSAC was produced by applying physiochemical activation method by using potassium hydroxide as a chemical agent which accompanied by carbon dioxide gasification under microwave heating. The effects of microwave power, irradiation time and impregnation ratio on two types of responses namely MB removal and RSAC yield using the center composite design (CCD) were also included in this study. The preparation variables correlation for responses was developed by two quadratic models. Optimum preparation conditions of RSAC were obtained at microwave power, irradiation time and IR of 354 W, 4.5 minutes and 0.98, respectively, which resulted MB removal and yield of 83.79% and 28%, respectively. The average pore diameter, surface area and total pore volume of optimized RSAC were 4.12 nm, 796.33 m2/g and 0.4219 cm3/g, respectively. This sample was found to has well-developed pores on its surface and can be a promising adsorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  16. Adsorption of Methylene Blue Malachite Green from aqueous solution on the surface of Wool Carbonizing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Tahir, H.; Fahimuddin; Waqar, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    With ever increasing environmental pollution problems, the present day study was related to the removal of colorants. Synthetic colorants represented a relatively large group of organic chemicals. Such chemicals have undesirable effects not only on the environment but also on human beings. Present study is related with the removal of basic dyes methylene blue and malachite green using wool carbonizing waste materials as adsorbent. Adsorption of dyes is carried out as a function of temperature, amount of adsorbent, pH and duration. Spectrophotomeric technique was adopted for measuring the extent of adsorption. The data are fitted in Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations and their corresponding constants are calculated. Thermodynamic study is also carried out by calculating the values of thermodynamic parameters such as, enthalpy change (delta H), free energy change (delta G) and entropy change (delta S). The values of percent removal and KD for each dye system is also calculated at the range of temperatures ranging from 293-323K with the intervals of 10C+-0.2C. (author)

  17. Photodegradation of Methylene Blue by TiO2-Fe3O4-Bentonite Magnetic Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4-bentonite nanoparticles have been prepared by a coprecipitation technique under a nitrogen atmosphere. An aqueous suspension of bentonite was first modified with FeCl2 and FeCl3. TiO2 was then loaded onto the surface of the Fe3O4-bentonite by a sol-gel method. After sufficient drying, the colloidal solution was placed in a muffle furnace at 773 K to obtain the TiO2-Fe3O4-bentonite composite. The material has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. Morphological observation showed that Fe3O4 and TiO2 nanoparticles had been adsorbed on the surface of bentonite nanoneedles. The material was then applied for the photodegradation of the azo dye methylene blue (MB. It was found that the removal efficiency of MB exceeded 90% under UV illumination, and that only a 20% mass loss was incurred after six cycles. The composite material thus showed good photocatalytic performance and recycling properties.

  18. Potential biosorbent, Haloxylon recurvum plant stems, for the removal of methylene blue dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda Hassan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technologies for the removal of dyes from the waste water are proving expensive due to non-regenerable materials used and their high costs. The use of dried biomass from Haloxylon recurvum plant stems (HRS was studied for the removal of methylene blue, a textile dye, from its aqueous solution. FTIR studies revealed a variety of functional groups on the plant surface including carboxyl and amino groups. The pH at the point of zero charge (pHpzc was found to be 6.3. The dye uptake by the plant increased with increasing pH, time of contact and dye concentration. Lagergren Pseudo first order and the Ho’s pseudo second order models were used to study the kinetics. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium models were studied and the qmax was 22.93 mg/g. The changes in the values of free energy (ΔGo and enthalpy (ΔHo indicated the spontaneous, feasible and exothermic nature of the sorption process. H. recurvum plant is locally available in large quantities, so the powdered stems can act as a cost-effective and ecofriendly biosorbent for the removal of the dye from its aqueous solutions.

  19. Characterizing the discoloration of methylene blue in Fe0/H2O systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noubactep, C

    2009-07-15

    Methylene blue (MB) was used as a model molecule to characterize the aqueous reactivity of metallic iron in Fe(0)/H(2)O systems. Likely discoloration mechanisms under used experimental conditions are: (i) adsorption onto Fe(0) and Fe(0) corrosion products (CP), (ii) co-precipitation with in situ generated iron CP, (iii) reduction to colorless leukomethylene blue (LMB). MB mineralization (oxidation to CO(2)) is not expected. The kinetics of MB discoloration by Fe(0), Fe(2)O(3), Fe(3)O(4), MnO(2), and granular activated carbon were investigated in assay tubes under mechanically non-disturbed conditions. The evolution of MB discoloration was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of availability of CP, Fe(0) source, shaking rate, initial pH value, and chemical properties of the solution were studied. The results present evidence supporting co-precipitation of MB with in situ generated iron CP as main discoloration mechanism. Under high shaking intensities (>150 min(-1)), increased CP generation yields a brownish solution which disturbed MB determination, showing that a too high shear stress induced the suspension of in situ generated corrosion products. The present study clearly demonstrates that comparing results from various sources is difficult even when the results are achieved under seemingly similar conditions. The appeal for an unified experimental procedure for the investigation of processes in Fe(0)/H(2)O systems is reiterated.

  20. Breakdown of methylene blue and methyl orange by pulsed corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, L. R.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.; Pemen, A. J. M.; Rutgers, W. R.

    2007-05-01

    The recently developed corona above water technique is applied to water containing 10 mg l-1 methylene blue (MB) or methyl orange (MO). The corona discharge pulses are created with a spark gap switched capacitor followed by a transmission line transformer. The pulse amplitude is 40 kV; its duration is 50 ns. At a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz this leads to an average power of 0.6 W into the discharge. MB and MO are completely decolourized in ~20 min. This corresponds to a yield of ~4.5 gr kW-1h-1, which is much higher than obtained with other discharge techniques or sonoluminescence. The high yield is reflected in the observed temperature increase of only ~1 K. Tests with additional chemicals show that the initial speed of the conversion can be influenced but the total time required for total decolourization is constant. Further, it follows that the main oxidation path of the dyes is by direct ozone attack and the conversion products are strong acids.

  1. Breakdown of methylene blue and methyl orange by pulsed corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, L R [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, E M van [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pemen, A J M [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rutgers, W R [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    The recently developed corona above water technique is applied to water containing 10 mg l{sup -1} methylene blue (MB) or methyl orange (MO). The corona discharge pulses are created with a spark gap switched capacitor followed by a transmission line transformer. The pulse amplitude is 40 kV; its duration is 50 ns. At a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz this leads to an average power of 0.6 W into the discharge. MB and MO are completely decolourized in {approx}20 min. This corresponds to a yield of {approx}4.5 gr kW{sup -1}h{sup -1}, which is much higher than obtained with other discharge techniques or sonoluminescence. The high yield is reflected in the observed temperature increase of only {approx}1 K. Tests with additional chemicals show that the initial speed of the conversion can be influenced but the total time required for total decolourization is constant. Further, it follows that the main oxidation path of the dyes is by direct ozone attack and the conversion products are strong acids.

  2. The hemodynamic effects of methylene blue when administered at the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew D; Stearns, Gary; Butala, Parag; Batula, Parag; Schwartz, Carl S; Gough, Jeffrey; Singh, Arun K

    2006-07-01

    Hypotension occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), in part because of induction of the inflammatory response, for which nitric oxide and guanylate cyclase play a central role. In this study we examined the hemodynamic effects of methylene blue (MB), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, administered during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Thirty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized to receive either MB (3 mg/kg) or saline (S) after institution of CPB and cardioplegic arrest. CPB was managed similarly for all study patients. Hemodynamic data were assessed before, during, and after CPB. The use of vasopressors was recorded. All study patients experienced a similar reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) with the onset of CPB and cardioplegic arrest. MB increased MAP and SVR and this effect lasted for 40 minutes. The saline group demonstrated a persistently reduced MAP and SVR throughout CPB. The saline group received phenylephrine more frequently during CPB, and more norepinephrine after CPB to maintain a desirable MAP. The MB group recorded significantly lower serum lactate levels despite equal or greater MAP and SVR. In conclusion, administration of MB after institution of CPB for patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increased MAP and SVR and reduced the need for vasopressors. Furthermore, serum lactate levels were lower in MB patients, suggesting more favorable tissue perfusion.

  3. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under UV Light Irradiation on Prepared Carbonaceous TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatil Amali Che Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC, TiO2/carbon (C, and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m2 g−1. The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples.

  4. Flexible graphene composites for removal of methylene blue dye-contaminant from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, J.; Martinez, A. I.; Oliva, A. I.; Garcia, C. R.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Garcia-Lobato, M.; Ochoa-Valiente, R.; Berlanga, A.

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the use of flexible graphene composites (FGCs) fabricated by a casting method for the removal of Methylene blue (MB) dye from water. Those FGCs with elastic modulus of 15 MPa had enough mechanical resistance to support the Al2O3:Eu3+ and SrAl2O4:Bi3+ photocatalytic powders. After the incorporation of those powders in the FGCs, their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of MB dye under solar irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrate that the surface of FGCs with catalysts powders presents pores with sizes in the range of 15-40 μm, which favored the sunlight absorption by scattering effects. Moreover, X-Ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the composites by displacements of their diffraction peaks. The MB dye was completely removed (by photocatalysis and by physical adsorption) from the water after 180 min and 270 min by using the FGCs with Al2O3:Eu3+ and SrAl2O4:Bi3+ catalysts respectively. Hence, the results of photocatalytic activity suggest that our FGCs could be used as an effective support of catalyst powders for the easy removal of dye contaminants in wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Designing metallic iron based water filters: Light from methylene blue discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Btatkeu-K, B D; Tchatchueng, J B; Noubactep, C; Caré, S

    2016-01-15

    Available water filtration systems containing metallic iron (Fe(0) filters) are pragmatically designed. There is a lack of sound design criteria to exploit the full potential of Fe(0) filters. A science-based design relies on valuable information on processes within a Fe(0) filter, including chemical reactions, hydrodynamics and their relation to the performance of the filter. The aim of this study was to establish a simple method to evaluate the initial performance of Fe(0) filters. The differential adsorptive affinity of methylene blue (MB) onto sand and iron oxide is exploited to characterize the evolution of a Fe(0)/sand system using the pure sand system as operational reference. Five systems were investigated for more than 70 days: pure sand, pure Fe(0), Fe(0)/sand, Fe(0)/pumice and Fe(0)/sand/pumice. Individual systems were characterized by the extent of changes in pH value, iron breakthrough, MB breakthrough and hydraulic conductivity. Results showed that for MB discoloration (i) pure sand was the most efficient system, (ii) hybrid systems were more sustainable than the pure Fe(0) system, and (iii) the pores of used pumice are poorly interconnected. Characterizing the initial reactivity of Fe(0) filters using MB discoloration has introduced a powerful tool for the exploration of various aspects of filter design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scavenging behaviour of meranti sawdust in the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Rafatullah, M.; Sulaiman, O.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Hashim, R.

    2009-01-01

    Meranti (Philippine mahogany) sawdust, an inexpensive material, showed strong scavenging behaviour through adsorption for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Batch studies were performed to evaluate and optimize the effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, initial dye concentrations and adsorbent dosage. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. The experimental data fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating thereby the mono layer adsorption of the dye. The monolayer sorption capacity of meranti sawdust for MB was found to be 120.48, 117.64, 149.25 and 158.73 mg/g at 30, 40, 50 and 60 deg. C, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the MB adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results indicated that the meranti sawdust could be an alternative material in place of more costly adsorbents used for dye removal.

  7. Decolorization of Methylene Blue by Ag/SrSnO3 Composites under Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharanan Junploy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SrSn(OH6 precursors synthesized by a cyclic microwave radiation (CMR process were calcined at 900°C for 3 h to form rod-like SrSnO3. Further, the rod-like SrSnO3 and AgNO3 in ethylene glycol (EG were ultrasonically vibrated to form rod-like Ag/SrSnO3 composites, characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electron microscopy (EM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and UV-visible analysis. The photocatalyses of rod-like SrSnO3, 1 wt%, 5 wt%, and 10 wt% Ag/SrSnO3 composites were studied for degradation of methylene blue (MB, C16H18N3SCl dye under ultraviolet (UV radiation. In this research, the 5 wt% Ag/SrSnO3 composites showed the highest activity, enhanced by the electron-hole separation process. The photoactivity became lower by the excessive Ag nanoparticles due to the negative effect caused by reduction in the absorption of UV radiation.

  8. Evaluation of workers' exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in an automobile manufacturing company, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Karbasi, Hossein-Ali

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of personal inhalation exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among 39 employees, working in the window fixation and window glue processes in an automobile manufacturing company was performed. This study was conducted for both case and control groups. After sampling and sample preparation processes, MDI was determined with a UV-VIS spectrophotometer at 590 nm; the lung function was assessed with a digital spirometer, too. The average concentration of MDI in the window fixation, and window glue workplaces were 34.53 and 27.37 micro g/m3, respectively, which was lower than the threshold limit value (TLV) recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (51 micro g/m3). Respiratory symptoms in the exposed group were significantly different compared to the unexposed group (p < .05). Lung capacities in the case group were lower than in the control group (p < .05). Therefore, MDI can be easily measured making it possible to evaluate the adverse effects caused by occupational exposure.

  9. High-pressure homogenization associated hydrothermal process of palygorskite for enhanced adsorption of Methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifang; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-02-01

    Palygorskite (PAL) was modified by a high-pressure homogenization assisted hydrothermal process. The effects of modification on the morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of PAL were systematically investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential analysis techniques, and the adsorption properties were systematically evaluated using Methylene blue (MB) as the model dye. The results revealed that the crystal bundles were disaggregated and the PAL nanorods became more even after treated via associated high-pressure homogenization and hydrothermal process, and the crystal bundles were dispersed as nanorods. The intrinsic crystal structure of PAL was remained after hydrothermal treatment, and the pore size calculated by the BET method was increased. The adsorption properties of PAL for MB were evidently improved (from 119 mg/g to 171 mg/g) after modification, and the dispersion of PAL before hydrothermal reaction is favorable to the adsorption. The desorption evaluation confirms that the modified PAL has stronger affinity with MB, which is benefit to fabricate a stable organic-inorganic hybrid pigment.

  10. Reversal by methylene blue of tetanic fade induced in cats by nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Ambiel

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous data from our laboratory have indicated that nitric oxide (NO acting at the presynaptic level increases the amplitude of muscular contraction (AMC of the phrenic-diaphragm preparations isolated from indirectly stimulated rats, but, by acting at the postsynaptic level, it reduces the AMC when the preparations are directly stimulated. In the present study we investigated the effects induced by NO when tetanic frequencies of stimulation were applied to in vivo preparations (sciatic nerve-anterior tibial muscle of the cat. Intra-arterial injection of NO (0.75-1.5 mg/kg induced a dose-dependent increase in the Wedensky inhibition produced by high frequencies of stimulation applied to the motor nerve. Intra-arterial administration of 7.2 µg/kg methylene blue did not produce any change in AMC at low frequencies of nerve stimulation (0.2 Hz, but antagonized the NO-induced Wedensky inhibition. The experimental data suggest that NO-induced Wedensky inhibition may be mediated by the guanylate cyclase-cGMP pathway

  11. Adsorption behaviour of methylene blue onto Jordanian diatomite: a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Khraisheh, Majeda A M; Ahmad, Mohammad N M; Allen, Stephen

    2009-06-15

    The effect of initial concentration, particle size, mass of the adsorbent, pH and agitation speed on adsorption behaviour of methylene blue (MB) onto Jordanian diatomite has been investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity, q, increased from 75 to 105 mg/g when pH of the dye solution increased from 4 to 11. It is clear that the ionisable charge sites on the diatomite surface increased when pH increased from 4 to 11. When the solution pH was above the pH(ZPC), the diatomite surface had a negative charge, while at low pH (pHdiatomite did not follow the pseudo-first order model and had low correlation coefficients (R(2)diatomite when the particle size distribution is less than 250-500 microm. While at larger particle size 250-500 microm, the maximum uptake capacity was dependent on the particle size. It would imply that the MB adsorption is limited by the external surface and that intraparticle diffusion is reduced. The effect of the agitation speeds on the removal of MB from aqueous solution using the diatomite is quite low. The MB removal increased from 43 to 100% when mass of the diatomite increased from 0.3 to 1.7 g.

  12. Laccase immobilized on methylene blue modified mesoporous silica MCM-41/PVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xinhua; Lu Ping; Zhou Yumei; Zhao Zhenzhen; Guo Meiqing

    2009-01-01

    The mesoporous silica sieve MCM-41 containing methylene blue (MB) provides a suitable immobilization of biomolecule matrix due to its uniform pore structure, high surface areas, good biocompatibility and nice conductivity. Based on this, a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor by entrapping laccase into the MB modified MCM-41/PVA composite film has been developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor is assembled on a composite film of MCM-41 containing MB/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrode is characterized with respect to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM), Cyclic voltammetry (CV), response time, detection limit, linear range and activity of laccase. The laccase modified electrode remains good redox behavior in pH 4.95 acetate buffer solution, at room temperature in present of 0.1 mM catechol. The response time (t 90% ) of the modified electrode is less than 4 s for catechol. The detection limit is 0.331 μM and the linear detect range is about from 4.0 μM to 87.98 μM for catechol with a correlation coefficient of 0.99913(S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten (K M app ) is estimated using the Lineweaver-Burk equation and the K M app value is about 0.256 mM. This work demonstrated that the mesoporous silica MCM-41 containing MB provides a novel support for laccase immobilization and the construction of biosensors with a faster response and better bioactivity.

  13. Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Methylene Blue by Carbonized Plant Leaf Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gunasekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon synthesized from plant leaf powder was employed for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous effluent. Effects of pH (2, 4, 6, 8, and 9, dye concentration (50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/dm3, adsorbent dosage (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/dm3, and temperature (303, 313, and 323 K were studied. The process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equilibrium data was examined with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and Langmuir model was found to be the best fitting model with high R2 and low chi2 values. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was found to be 61.22 mg/g. From the thermodynamic analysis, ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS values for the adsorption of MB onto the plant leaf carbon were found out. From the values of free energy change, the process was found out to be feasible process. From the magnitude of ΔH, the process was found to be endothermic physisorption.

  14. Decolorization of Methylene Blue by Persulfate Activated with FeO Magnetic Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang-Mao; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Liu, Yi-Yuan; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the degradation of methylene blue (MB) was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using persulfate oxidation activated with iron oxide (FeO) magnetic particles. The results demonstrated that the decolorization rate of MB increased with increasing FeO concentration, exhibiting maximum efficiency at pH0 3.0. The kinetics of MB was studied in the binary FeO catalyst and persulfate oxidation system. The surface properties of FeO before and after reaction was analyzed using cyclic voltammogram (CV), three-dimensional excitation-emission fluorescence matrix (EEFM) spectroscopy, zeta potential, particle size distribution measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (ESEM-EDS). The CV data indicated that a reversible redox reaction holds the key to explaining the significant activity of the catalyst. EEFM was used to evaluate the catalyst yield of FeO by fluorescence intensity plots with excitation/emission at 220/300 nm and 260/300 nm. The XRD and ESEM-EDS results confirmed the presence of FeO in the catalyst.

  15. Studies on Biosorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Powdered Palm Tree Flower (Borassus flabellifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srinivas Kini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption experiments were carried out for the removal of methylene blue (MB using palm tree male flower (PTMF as the biosorbent at various pH, temperature, biosorbent, and adsorbate concentration. The optimum pH was found to be 6.0. The kinetic data were fitted in pseudofirst-order and second-order models. The equilibrium data were well-fitted in Langmuir isotherm and the maximum equilibrium capacities of the biosorbent were found to be 143.6, 153,9, 157.3 mg/g at 303, 313, and 323 K, respectively. Thermodynamic data for the adsorption system indicated spontaneous and endothermic process. The enthalpy and entropy values for adsorption were obtained as 15.06 KJ/mol and 0.129 KJ/mol K, respectively, in the temperature range of 303–323 K. A mathematical model for MB transported by molecular diffusion from the bulk of the solution to the surface of PTMF was derived and the values of liquid phase diffusivity and external mass transfer coefficient were estimated.

  16. Crystal Violet and Methylene Green as Low-Dose Liquid Dosimetry Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraheem, S.; Beshir, W.B.; Hassan, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate aim of the present work is studying of the possibility of using some organic solutions for gamma radiation monitors and to evaluate and characterize the dosimetric properties of these compounds. Crystal violet (CV) and methylene green (MG) aqueous solutions with different concentrations have been prepared and irradiated to different absorbed doses. The solutions were readout using absorption spectrophotometry technique at λ m ax 592 nm and 614 nm for CV and MG respectively. The maximum useful dose range was investigated and found to be concentration dependent. It was found that the useful dose range was from 10-160 Gy for CV and from 10-200 Gy for MG. The radiation chemical yield, G-value, was calculated for the studied solutions. The ph effect and the effect of different additives, chloral hydrate and ethanol have been also investigated. The pre- and post- irradiation stabilities of these solutions under different storage conditions were studied and the results showed different significant dependence on the storage condition

  17. Deconvolution analysis of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate kinetics in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knop, J.; Kroeger, E.; Stritzke, P.; Schneider, C.; Kruse, H.P.

    1981-02-01

    The kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and /sup 47/Ca were studied in three patients with osteoporosis, three patients with hyperparathyroidism, and two patients with osteomalacia. The activities of sup(99m)Tc-MDP were recorded in the lumbar spine, paravertebral soft tissues, and in venous blood samples for 1 h after injection. The results were submitted to deconvolution analysis to determine regional bone accumulation rates. /sup 47/Ca kinetics were analysed by a linear two-compartment model quantitating short-term mineral exchange, exchangeable bone calcium, and calcium accretion. The sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates were small in osteoporosis, greater in hyperparathyroidism, and greatest in osteomalacia. No correlations were obtained between sup(99m)Tc-MDP bone accumulation rates and the results of /sup 47/Ca kinetics. However, there was a significant relationship between the level of serum alkaline phosphatase and bone accumulation rates (R = 0.71, P < 0.025). As a result deconvolution analysis of regional sup(99m)Tc-MDP kinetics in dynamic bone scans might be useful to quantitate osseous tracer accumulation in metabolic bone disease. The lack of correlation between the results of sup(99m)Tc-MDP kinetics and /sup 47/Ca kinetics might suggest a preferential binding of sup(99m)Tc-MDP to the organic matrix of the bone, as has been suggested by other authors on the basis of experimental and clinical investigations.

  18. Deconvolution analysis of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate kinetics in metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, J.; Kroeger, E.; Stritzke, P.; Schneider, C.; Kruse, H.P.; Hamburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and 47 Ca were studied in three patients with osteoporosis, three patients with hyperparathyroidism, and two patients with osteomalacia. The activities of sup(99m)Tc-MDP were recorded in the lumbar spine, paravertebral soft tissues, and in venous blood samples for 1 h after injection. The results were submitted to deconvolution analysis to determine regional bone accumulation rates. 47 Ca kinetics were analysed by a linear two-compartment model quantitating short-term mineral exchange, exchangeable bone calcium, and calcium accretion. The sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates were small in osteoporosis, greater in hyperparathyroidism, and greatest in osteomalacia. No correlations were obtained between sup(99m)Tc-MDP bone accumulation rates and the results of 47 Ca kinetics. However, there was a significant relationship between the level of serum alkaline phosphatase and bone accumulation rates (R = 0.71, P 47 Ca kinetics might suggest a preferential binding of sup(99m)Tc-MDP to the organic matrix of the bone, as has been suggested by other authors on the basis of experimental and clinical investigations. (orig.)

  19. Organotrichlorogermane synthesis by the reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chloride via dichlorogermylene intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masaki; Asano, Takuya; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2004-08-07

    Organotrichlorogermanes were synthesized by the reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chlorides, methyl, propyl, isopropyl and allyl chlorides. Dichlorogermylene formed by the reaction of elemental germanium with tetrachlorogermane was the reaction intermediate, which was inserted into the carbon-chlorine bond of the organic chloride to give organotrichlorogermane. When isopropyl or allyl chloride was used as an organic chloride, organotrichlorogermane was formed also in the absence of tetrachlorogermane. These chlorides were converted to hydrogen chloride, which subsequently reacted with elemental germanium to give the dichlorogermylene intermediate. The reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chlorides provides a simple and easy method for synthesizing organotrichlorogermanes, and all the raw materials are easily available.

  20. Studies on the mercuric chloride resistance of Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaczi, L; Fodor, M; Milch, H; Rethy, A

    1962-01-01

    Among 409 pathogenic Staph. aureus strains 34% have been found to be sensitive, and 66% resistant, to mercuric chloride. The incidence of mercuric chloride resistant cultures among antibiotic sensitive staphylococci was 20%; among strains resistant to penicillin or to more than one antibiotic, 70%. Mercuric chloride resistant organisms occurred chiefly among phage group I and untypable strains; they were especially common among the so called epidemic strains of phage group I, and among cultures resistant to 4-6 antibiotics. In mercuric chloride sensitivity a thirtyfold, in merthiolate sensitivity only a two-fold difference has been revealed among the strains. The sulfydryl group content of mercuric chloride resistant organisms was only 1 1/2 times higher than that of sensitive bacteria. As to p-chlor mercuric benzoate binding capacity, a twofold difference was found between mercuric chloride sensitive and resistant staphylococci. The differences in the mercuric chloride resistance of various staphylococcal strains might be due to differences in the chemical structure of the cell surface. 9 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.