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Sample records for methylene chloride extracts

  1. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon in the treatment of diabetes. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by a ...

  2. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  5. Analgesic effects of the methylene chloride/methanol extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CH2Cl2/CH3OH) extract of Laportea ovalifolia (Urticaceae) were evaluated using acetic acid and formalin test. The anticonvulsant effects of the same extract were also investigated on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and picrotoxin.

  6. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been used...

  7. Methylene chloride exposure and carboxyhemoglobin levels in cabinetmakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjoko, Sunny O.; Sridhar Mynapelli, K. C.; Ogunkola, Isiah O.; Masheyi, Olatunde O.

    2007-01-01

    Methylene chloride (MeCl2) is a clear colorless volatile sweet smelling lipophilic solvent used as a constituent of wood vanishes and paints. Human exposure is mainly due to inhalation and its biotransformation by the hepatic mixed function oxidases (MFO) leads to formation of carbon monoxide (CO). Simultaneous exposure to MeCl2 and increased ambient CO results in undesirably increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) formation, which predisposes to carboxyhemoglobinaemia with the central nervous system as the primary target organ of toxicity. In this study, ambient CO levels were determined using a CO personal monitor in different pasts of Ibadan Nigeria and work place microenvironment of 50 Cabinet makers (test group) and 50 volunteer (control) in non-furniture making occupations. Mann Whitney U and Kruskaal Wallis were the statistical methods of analysis used. Questionnaires were administered to both groups carboxyhaemoglobin levels were determined in venous blood drawn from individuals in the two groups by differential spectrophotometric method. Ambient CO levels in Ibadan were observed to be between 4 and 52 ppm with a mean of 20 ppm. Work environment CO levels were significantly higher in test subjects than controls at 5.2 ± 1.08 ppm and 2.08 ± 0.91 ppm respectively (P 0.05). It is therefore imperative to substitute MeCl2 for safer chemicals in wood vanish and paints and the use of protective gas masks and adequate ventilation should be mandatory whenever MeCl2 is used. PMID:21938216

  8. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE EMISSIONS FROM EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulo...

  9. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  10. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenbecker Michael J

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective

  11. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  12. EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CATION OF ALKYLDIMETHYLBENZYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE AT THE PHASE BOUNDARY WATER-MEMBRANE SOLVENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Luganska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction coefficients of the cation of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride at the phase boundary water-tricresylphosphate, water-dioctylphthalate, water-dibutylphtalate have been determined by the potentiometric titration of the aqueous phase with a silver electrode. The correctness of the obtained results has been proved by the titrimetric method with visual fixation of the equivalence point using methylene blue indicator.

  13. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-22

    TiO2 9.5 Isobutyl ketone 0.1 Iron oxide hydrate 2.5 n-Butyl acid phosphate 0.1 Carbazole dioxazine violet ɘ.1 Bentone 0.5 Table 3: MIL-PRF-85285...partial formulation films, with pigments and no fillers, and full formulation films of current military polyurethane coatings were analyzed in this...time of the solvents. 22-01-2014 Memorandum Report Paint stripper Methylene chloride Phenol Polyurethane 7 June 2012 – 6 June 2013 SERDP WP-2244

  14. Comparing toxicologic and epidemiologic studies: methylene chloride--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayner, L T; Bailer, A J

    1993-12-01

    Exposure to methylene chloride induces lung and liver cancers in mice. The mouse bioassay data have been used as the basis for several cancer risk assessments. The results from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to methylene chloride have been mixed with respect to demonstrating an increased cancer risk. The results from a negative epidemiologic study of Kodak workers have been used by two groups of investigators to test the predictions from the EPA risk assessment models. These two groups used very different approaches to this problem, which resulted in opposite conclusions regarding the consistency between the animal model predictions and the Kodak study results. The results from the Kodak study are used to test the predictions from OSHA's multistage models of liver and lung cancer risk. Confidence intervals for the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) from the Kodak study are compared with the predicted confidence intervals derived from OSHA's risk assessment models. Adjustments for the "healthy worker effect," differences in length of follow-up, and dosimetry between animals and humans were incorporated into these comparisons. Based on these comparisons, we conclude that the negative results from the Kodak study are not inconsistent with the predictions from OSHA's risk assessment model.

  15. Derivation of an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for methylene chloride based on acute CNS effects and relative potency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J E; Rozman, K K

    1998-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) or 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is based on an acute human lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 200 ppm for subtle central nervous system (CNS) depression. Steep, parallel exposure-response curves for anesthetic and subanesthetic CNS effects associated with compounds mechanistically and structurally related to methylene chloride are shown to support a safety factor of two to account for inter-individual variability in response. LOAEL/no-observed-adverse-effect ratios for subtle CNS effects associated with structurally related solvents are shown to support a safety factor range of two to four to account for uncertainty in identifying a subthreshold exposure level. Anesthetic relative potencies and anesthetic/subanesthetic effect level ratios are shown to be constant for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating that subanesthetic relative potencies are also constant. Relative potencies among similarly derived occupational exposure limits (OELs) for solvents structurally related to methylene chloride are therefore used to validate the derived methylene chloride OEL range of 25-50 ppm. Because this safety assessment is based on human (rather than rodent) data and empirical (rather than theoretical) exposure-response relationships and is supported by relative potency analysis, it is a defensible alternative to to the OSHA risk assessment and should positively contribute to the debate regarding the appropriate basis and value for a methylene chloride PEL.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Hap-Free Paint Strippers vs. Methylene-Chloride-Based Strippers for Removing Army Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings (CARC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, John; Considine, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ...). The purpose of this effort is to investigate HAP-free alternative chemical paint strippers as potential replacements for the methylene-chloride- based chemical strippers currently used in both processes...

  17. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by a daily dose of STZ (45 mg kg-1 body weight i.p.) for 5 days. From one day ... alterations in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism ... overnight prior to blood sugar determination and randomly ...

  18. Study of extraction-spectrophotometric micro-determination of boron with methylene blue and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Daohong

    1990-08-01

    A sensitive extraction-spectrophotometric method for microdetermination of boron with methylene blue was investigated. The method was based on the extraction of a BF 4 - -methylene blue complex into dichloroethane. Boron was determined directly by measuring the absorbance at 658 nm. The calibration graph was linear over the range of 2.5 x 10 -9 to 8 x 10 -8 g/mL. The blank, mechanism of the reactions, interference of other ions and some optimum conditions of the method were studied in detail. The main source of the blank resulted from methylene blue and the complex of F - -methylene blue. In order to reduce the blank, the amounts of methylene blue, H 2 SO 4 and HF were used as less as possible. Only one to one complex BF 4 - -methylene blue was formed in the medium of H 2 SO 4 . About 90% of methylene blue and F - -methylene blue complex was removre with 5 ml of water and only a little amount of BF 4 -methylene blue complex was decomposed. The extraction-spectrophotometric method with methylene blue was first applied to the microdetermination of boron in sodium metal and UF 6 . The sample of sodium metal was taken and weighed in the glovebox filled with argon. Then sodium metal was oxidized, hydrolyzed, netralized and fluorizated with H 2 O, H 2 SO 4 and HF, respectively. The 0.5 ppm of boron in sodium metal was determined with a relative error about ±4%. This method can be applied to the determination of boron in sodium metal, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide at diffeent grades. The species of boron in the hydrolysate of UF 6 is BF 4 - anion, so the sample can be directly analyzed. Boron contents in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 ppm was determined with a relative error about ±3%. Six samples could be analysed in 2h

  19. Kinetics of pyridine degradation along with toluene and methylene chloride with Bacillus sp. in packed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma, B.; Sandhya, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, CSIR-Complex, Madras (India)

    1998-04-01

    Bacillus coagulans strain isolated from contaminated soil was immobilised on activated carbon for degradation of pyridine, toluene and methylene chloride containing synthetic wastewaters. Pyridine was supplied as the only source of nitrogen in the wastewaters. Continuous runs in a packed bed laboratory reactor showed that immobilized B. coagulans can degrade pyridine along with other organics rapidly and the effluent ammonia is also controlled in presence of ``organic carbon``. About 644 mg/l of influent TOC was efficiently degraded (82.85%) at 64.05 mg/l/hr loading. (orig.) With 2 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs.

  20. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  1. Laboratory investigation of electro-chemical chloride extraction from concrete with penetrated chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Hondel, A.W.M. van den

    2002-01-01

    Chloride extraction of concrete is a short-term electrochemical treatment against corrosion of reinforcing steel. The aim is to remove chloride ions from the concrete cover in order to reinstate passive behaviour. Physically sound concrete is left in place. To make this method more predictable and

  2. Effect of ultrasound on electrochemical chloride extraction from mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Yao, Wu; Zuo, Junqing

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of auxiliary ultrasound on electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) was studied. The chloride removal efficiency was investigated by examining the chloride content with ultrasound-assisted ECE and changing the introducing time of ultrasound. The experimental results showed that removal of chloride ions was noted to be more effective in ECE treatment assisted with ultrasound treatment (UT). In addition, the lower w/c ratio led to more distinct effect of ultrasonic cavitation on chloride removal. Electrochemical behaviors measured with different treatment revealed that UT treatment was effective on moderating the corrosion condition. Microstructural analyses revealed a significant alteration in composition and morphology of cementitious phases with UT treatment. Pull-out tests indicated that ultrasound had a certain negative impact on the bond strength. Although the effect of introducing ultrasound in the first 2 weeks or the last 2 weeks on the extraction efficiency was not obvious, intermittent ultrasound could not only ensure the chloride extraction efficiency, but also reduce the adverse effect of ultrasound on the bond strength.

  3. Extraction of actinides from chloride medium using pentaalkylpropanediamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.

    1991-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical processes for the purification of plutonium create waste solutions containing actinides, mainly americium, in chloride medium. Studies have been undertaken to study the extraction of actinides in chloride medium (hydrochloric acid mixed with concentrated salts such as LiCl, CaCl 2 , MgCl 2 , KCl) using pentaalkylpropanediamides as extractants. Plutonium (IV) is very easily extracted, Am (III) needs a salting out agent such as LiCl. Back extraction of trivalent cations is easy in HCl <5M. Plutonium(IV) and (VI) can be stripped by reduction either with ascorbic acid or hydroxylammonium salts in weak acid medium. Several diluents can be used (aromatic, chlorinated or even aliphatic) with addition of decanol to prevent third phase formation. In conclusion diamides can be used for various wastes declassification, they are potentially completely incinerable, and, as the synthesis has been optimized, they appear to be promising extractants

  4. Zirconium and hafnium tetrachloride separation by extractive distillation with molten zinc chloride lead chloride solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    In an extractive distillation method for separating hafniuim tetrachloride from zirconium tetrachloride of the type wherein a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides is introduced into an extractive distillation column, which extractive distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a molten salt solvent is circulated into the reflux condenser and through the column to provide a liquid phase, and wherein molten salt solvent containing zirconium tetrachloride is taken from the reboiler and run through a stripper to remove zirconium tetrachloride product from the molten salt solvent and the stripped molten salt solvent is returned to the reflux condenser and hafnium tetrachloride enriched vapor is taken as product from the reflux condenser, the improvement is described comprising: the molten salt having a composition of at least 30 mole percent zinc chloride and at least 10 mole percent of lead chloride

  5. Calcium phosphate stabilization of fly ash with chloride extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator by products include fly ash and air pollution control residues. In order to transform these incinerator wastes into reusable mineral species, soluble alkali chlorides must be separated and toxic trace elements must be stabilized in insoluble form. We show that alkali chlorides can be extracted efficiently in an aqueous extraction step combining a calcium phosphate gel precipitation. In such a process, sodium and potassium chlorides are obtained free from calcium salts, and the trace metal ions are immobilized in the calcium phosphate matrix. Moderate calcination of the chemically treated fly ash leads to the formation of cristalline hydroxylapatite. Fly ash spiked with copper ions and treated by this process shows improved stability of metal ions. Leaching tests with water or EDTA reveal a significant drop in metal ion dissolution. Hydroxylapatite may trap toxic metals and also prevent their evaporation during thermal treatments. Incinerator fly ash together with air pollution control residues, treated by the combined chloride extraction and hydroxylapatite formation process may be considered safe to use as a mineral filler in value added products such as road base or cement blocks.

  6. Continuous extraction of molten chloride salts with liquid cadmium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    A pyrochemical method is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide contnuous multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and liquid cadmium alloys at 500 degrees C. The extraction method will be used to recover transuranic (TRU) elements from the process salt in the electroretiner used in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR is one of the Department of Energy's advanced power reactor concepts. The recovered TRU elements are returned to the electrorefiner. The extracted salt undergoes further processing to remove rare earths and other fission products so that most of the purified salt can also be returned to the electrorefiner, thereby extending the useful life of the process salt many times

  7. Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by sugar extracted spent rice biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur Rehman, Muhammad Saif; Kim, Ilgook; Han, Jong-In

    2012-10-15

    This study was aimed at using sugar extracted spent rice biomass (SRB) as a potential adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The SRB was used without any modification. A three factor full factorial experimental design (2(3)) was employed to investigate the effect of factors (adsorbent dose, dye concentration, temperature) and their interaction on the adsorption capacity and color removal. Two levels for each factor were used; adsorbent dose (0.25-0.5g/100mL), dye concentration (25-50mg/L), and temperature (25-45°C). Initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage were found as significant factors for the adsorption of MB dye. Langmuir isotherm (R(2)>0.998) best explained the equilibrium of MB adsorption on SRB with monolayer adsorption capacity of 8.13mg/g. The pseudo-second order model (R(2)>0.999) was best fitted to explain the adsorption kinetics. Thermodynamic investigation revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic, and was feasible to treat dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between magnesium extracted by 0.01 M calcium chloride extraction procedure and conventional procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van P.J.; Houba, V.J.G.; Reijneveld, J.A.; Beusichem, van M.L.

    2001-01-01

    A multinutrient soil extraction procedure in routine soil testing is attractive. Therefore, it has been suggested to convert conventional soil testing programs into a 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) multinutrient soil testing program using the relationship between test values of the 0.01 M CaCl2

  9. Selective and Efficient Solvent Extraction of Copper(II Ions from Chloride Solutions by Oxime Extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kaboli Tanha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxime extractants 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde oxime (HL1 and 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzaldehyde oxime (HL2 were synthesized and characterized by conventional spectroscopic methods. Suitable lipophilic nature of the prepared extractants allowed examining the ability of these molecules for extraction-separation of copper from its mixture with normally associated metal ions by performing competitive extraction experiments of Cu(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Pb(II ions from chloride solutions. Both ligands transfer selectively the copper ions into dichloromethane by a cation exchange mechanism. Conventional log-log analysis and isotherm curves showed that Cu(II ions are extracted as the complexes with 1:2 metal to ligand ratio by both extractants. Verification of the effect of the organic diluent used in the extraction of copper ions by HL1 and HL2 demonstrated that the extraction efficiency varies as: dichloromethane ~ dichloroethane > toluene > xylene > ethylacetate. Time dependency investigation of the extraction processes revealed that the kinetics of the extraction of copper by HL2 is more rapid than that of HL1. The application of the ligands for extraction-separation of copper ions from leach solutions of cobalt and nickel-cadmium filter-cakes of a zinc production plants was evaluated.

  10. The isolation of beryllium and mercury from lithium chloride solution by means of gas extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevast'yanov, A.I.; Chepovoj, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility and optimal conditions of beryllium and mercury extraction using acetylacetone (HAA) from lithium chloride solution by argon blowing through the solution are determined. Dependences of extraction degrees and distribution coefficients on different parameters of liquid phase: initial pH value, lithium chloride concentration and initial content of HAA, are presented. The degree of beryllium extraction reaches the maximum at liquid phase pH of 4.4-5.25 and concentration of lithium chloride of 8.5 mol/l. Distribution coefficient changes in inverse proportion to the extraction degree

  11. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillejo, Y.; Fernandez, P.; Medina, J.; Hernandez, P.; Barrado, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) ↔ Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al 3 Sm and Al 2 Sm.

  12. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  13. Structure of methylene chloride addition product to zirconium tetrachloride complex with 1-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-2-thio-trimethylsilyl-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusilovets, A.I.; Rusanov, Eh.B.; Chernega, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    Complex of zirconium tetrachloride with 1-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl--2-thio-3-trimethyl-silyl-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedine interacts with methylene chloride with formation of bis[3-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-1--trimethylsilyl-2-chloremethylthio-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedinium] decachlorodizirconate. Specific features of crystal and molecular structure of the compound prepared have been studied by X-ray diffraction method. 21 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  15. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  16. Separation of beryllium and mercury from lithium chloride solution by gaseous extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevast'yanov, A.I.; Chepovol, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility is shown of extracting beryllium and mercury by acetylacetone (HAA) from lithium chloride solution by passing argon through the solution and the optimum conditions have been determined. The dependence of the degree of extraction and the distribution coefficients on various parameters of the liquid phase are presented, viz. the initial pH value, the lithium chloride concentration, and the initial HAA content

  17. on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of Moringa stenopetala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-04

    Dec 4, 2006 ... coordination or complex formation between the metal cations and pH dependent oxygen and nitrogen anionic sites of the ... iron hydroxide, iron chloride, soda ash and synthetic polymers .... o u n d. Zn adsorption by. MSC-SC. Zn adsorption by. MOC-SC .... Okuda T, Baes AU, Nishijima W, Okada M (2001).

  18. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure

  19. Extraction atomic absorption determination of Cu, Ca, Mg and In in potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.F.; Chaplygin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Determination of microadmixtures of Cu, Ca, Mg, and In in potassium chloride by means of extraction separation of hydroxyquinolines of the elements determined by isoamyl alcohol from the sample basis is described. In is extracted in 10 min at pH 1.5-2.5% (100%). The extract is sprayed in the acetylene-air flame. Lower limits of the concentrations determined are 10 -5 -10 -7 %

  20. The uptake of silver(I from chloride solutions by amine extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wejman Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The amine extractants, bis(2-ethylhexylamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, and trioctylamine were used to recover silver(I ions from chloride solutions. The effect of the pH, contact time, extractant concentration and reextraction were studied. It was found that extraction of silver(I depended on the pH, extractant concentration and strongly on the contact time. Reextraction of Ag(I ions from the loaded organic phase showed that the metal can be removed in over 50% for the three extractant using sodium hydroxide. The recovery of silver from the chloride leaching solutions were above 85% for bis(2-ethylhexylamine, above 58% for N,N-dimethylethanolamine, and above 70% for trioctylamine.

  1. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  2. Extraction of gold(I) cyanide by the methyl tri-n-alkyl ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianxi; Yan Wenfei; Wu Jinguang

    2000-01-01

    The solvent extraction of KAu(CN) 2 from alkaline solution by the tri-n-alkyl ammonium chloride (N263) using 198 Au tracer has been investigated. The effects of various parameters, such as gold (I) concentration in aqueous phase, cosolvent, phase ratio on the extraction of gold (I) are studied. The results demonstrate that almost all of gold (I) in aqueous phase can be extracted into the organic phase. Water concentration decreases significantly with the increase of gold (I) concentration in the organic phase. No water molecule could be involved in the extraction of gold (I)

  3. Extraction and separation of zinc and cadmium chlorides by TOPO from mixed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Mousa, S.; Altakrory, A.; Abdel Raouf, M.W.; Alian, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of water-miscible alcohols and acetone on the extraction and separation of Cd and Zn chlorides by TOPO was systematically investigated. The maximum extraction of Zn chloride with 0.1 M TOPO decreases in the order: acetone> methanol> ethanol> 2-propanol> 2-butanol. For alcohols, the sequence of decreasing extractability is thus parallel to the order of their dielectric constants. This can be explained by the increase of HCl extraction by TOPO in the same direction. The presence of additives in the polar phase prevents the formation of a bulky white precipitate encountered during extraction of Zn Cl 2 from pure aqueous solutions. A decrease of Cd chloride extraction was generally noticed in presence of additives; this is more noticeable for the longer chain alcohols. The highest separation factor (E) for Zn Cl 2 and Cd Cl 2 in 0.4 M HCl is obtained from 30% methanol (13.8 compared to about 3.8 in absence of methanol) and from 10-20% acetone where it reaches 30

  4. Extraction of lithium from β-spodumene using chlorination roasting with calcium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Lucía I., E-mail: lbarbosa@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Facultad de Química Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco 17, CP 5700 San Luis (Argentina); González, Jorge A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Facultad de Química Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco 17, CP 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Padre Jorge Contreras 1300, Parque General San Martín, CP M5502JMA Mendoza (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Facultad de Química Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco 17, CP 5700 San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-04-10

    Highlights: • β-Spodumene was roasted with calcium chloride to extract lithium. • The optimal conditions of the chlorination process are 900 °C and 120 min. • The products of the reaction are lithium chloride, anorthite, and silica. - Abstract: Chlorination roasting was used to extract lithium as lithium chloride from β-spodumene. The roasting was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using calcium chloride as chlorinating agent. The mineral was mixed with CaCl{sub 2} on a molar ratio of 1:2. Reaction temperature and time were investigated. The reactants and roasted materials were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The mineral starts to react with CaCl{sub 2} at around 700 °C. The optimal conditions of lithium extraction were found to be 900 °C and 120 min of chlorination roasting, under which it is attained a conversion degree of 90.2%. The characterization results indicate that the major phases present in the chlorinating roasting residue are CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}, SiO{sub 2}, and CaSiO{sub 3}.

  5. Extraction of lithium from β-spodumene using chlorination roasting with calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Lucía I.; González, Jorge A.; Ruiz, María del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • β-Spodumene was roasted with calcium chloride to extract lithium. • The optimal conditions of the chlorination process are 900 °C and 120 min. • The products of the reaction are lithium chloride, anorthite, and silica. - Abstract: Chlorination roasting was used to extract lithium as lithium chloride from β-spodumene. The roasting was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using calcium chloride as chlorinating agent. The mineral was mixed with CaCl 2 on a molar ratio of 1:2. Reaction temperature and time were investigated. The reactants and roasted materials were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The mineral starts to react with CaCl 2 at around 700 °C. The optimal conditions of lithium extraction were found to be 900 °C and 120 min of chlorination roasting, under which it is attained a conversion degree of 90.2%. The characterization results indicate that the major phases present in the chlorinating roasting residue are CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 , SiO 2 , and CaSiO 3

  6. Mutual effect of zinc (2) and cadmium (2) during extraction with tributil phosphate from lithium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Mutual effect of zinc and cadmium chlorides during extraction with tributyl phosphate at 5, 25 and 45 deg C from LiCl solutions is studied. The conclusion about the suppression of zinc and cadmium extraction by extracting macroelement (cadmium and zinc correspondingly) as the result of manifestation of general ion effect (lithium ion) in the extraction systems is made. It is established that the suppression of zink and cadmium extraction increases with the temperature decrease. On the base of the obtained experimental data the different type of extraction element distribution curves at the extraction from the muriatic solutions and lithium chloride solutions with tributyl phosphate is discussed

  7. Comparison of Water Turbidity Removal Efficiencies of Descurainia Sophia Seed Extract and Ferric chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Peyda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Turbidity removal using inorganic coagulants such as iron and aluminum salts in water treatment processes causes environmental and human health concern. Historically, the use of natural coagulant to purify turbid water has been practiced for a long time. Recent research indicates that Descurainia Sophia seed can be effectively used as a natural coagulant to remove water turbidity. Method: In this work, turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract was compared with Ferric chloride. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale. The coagulation experiments were done with kaolin as a model soil to produce turbidity in distilled water. The turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract and Ferric chloride were conducted with jar test apparatus. In all experiments, initial turbidity was kept constant 100(NTU. Optimum combination of independent variables was used to compare two different types of coagulants. Result: The obtained results showed that Ferric chloride could remove 89.75% of the initial turbidity, while in case of Descurainia Sophia this value was 43.13%. The total organic carbon (TOC analysis of the treated water using seed extract showed an increased concentration of TOC equal to 0.99 mg/L. Conclusions: This research has shown that Descurainia Sophia seed extract has an acceptable potential in the coagulation/flocculation process to treat turbid water.

  8. Extraction of uranium(6), transuranium elements and europium by bidentate neutral phosphorus- and phosphorus-nitrogen-containing reagents with substituent in methylene bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.E.; Kojro, O.Eh.; Nesterova, N.P.; Medved', T.Ya.; Chmutova, M.K.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Kabachnik, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of substituents in methylene bridge on solubility, extractivity and selectivity of bidentate neutral phosphorus- and phosphorus-nitrogen-containing reagents in the process of U(6), TUE, Eu extraction has been studied. It is ascertained that hydrogen substitution in the bridge of tetraphenylmethylenediphosphine dioxide (1) causes a decrease in the extractivity of reagent as to TPE, uranium (6) and europium. There is no visible regular relation between basicity and extractivity of substituted reagents. Hydrogen substitution in the bridge of diphenyl[diethylcarbamoylmethyl]phosphine oxide (2) causes a decrease in extractivity of the reagent as to TPE, uranium (6) and europium. In contrast to monodentate neutral reagents, when bidentate neutral reagents are used, sometimes no increase in the reagent extractivity with an increase in its basicity is observed. When fragments restricting the conformation mobility of bidentate reagent molecule are introduced in it (here substituents in methylene bridge), it may result in the violation of the regularity, since of all the factors affecting the reagent extractivity the spatial factor may become the prevailing one. On hydrogen substitution in the bridge of 1 separation factors of practically all (with few exceptions) studied pairs of elements increase. Hydrogen substitution in the bridge of 2 causes an increase in separation factor of U (6) /Am pair and it does not affect the separation factor of Am/Eu pair. Hydrogen substitution in the bridge of 1 and 2 does not result in the preparation of more efficient and considerably more selective reagents for extractive isolation and separation of the elements, but some of the substituted reagents (Cl-substituted 1, for instance) may turn out useful for the element separation

  9. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fats. The alkaline alcohol or aqueous extracts may be treated with food-grade acids to precipitate..., methyl alcohol, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.30 Section 73.30 Food and...

  10. Effect of alkaline earth metal and magnesium cations on cadmium extraction from chloride solutions by tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    At 298 K thermodynamic constants of cadmium (2) extraction from chloride solutions of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium by tributyl phosphate are calculated. It is established, that logarithm of the thermodynamic extraction constant is in a linear dependence from the change in the cation hydration enthalpy in agqueous solution. It is shown, that activity coefficient of neutral complex CdVCl 2 differs from one, and it is the higher the more stable the complex is in alkaline earth metal chloride solutions

  11. The effect of pulse current on energy saving during Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Geiker, Mette R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is a factor influencing the cost of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction (ECE) in concrete. The aims of this work were to investigate the possibility for energy saving when using a pulsed electric field during ECE and the effect of the pulsed current on removal of chloride. Four...... experiments with artificially polluted concrete under same charge transfer were conducted. Results showed that the energy consumption was decreased 15% by pulse current in experiments with 0.2 mA/cm2 current density, which was higher than that of 0.1 mA/cm2 experiments with a decrease of 9.6%. When comparing...... the voltage drop at different parts of the experimental cells, it was found that the voltage drop of the area across the concrete was the major contributor to energy consumption, and results indicated that the pulse current could decrease the voltage drop of this part by re-distribution of ions in pore fluid...

  12. The extraction of vanadium (IV) from hydrochloric acid solutions by tricaprylmethylammonium chloride and trioctylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takato; Sato, Taichi

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of vanadium (IV) from hydrochloric acid solutions by tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (R 3 RNCl, Aliquat-336) and trioctylamine (R 3 N, TOA) in benzene has been investigated under various conditions. In addition, the extraction behaviour of vanadium into the organic phase has been examined by spectrophotometry and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. From the distribution data, it is concluded that the extractions of vanadium (IV) from hydrochloric acid solutions by Aliquat-336 and TOA are expressed as VOCl 3 - (aq) + R 3 R'NCl(org) reversible R 3 R'NVOCl 3 (org) + Cl - (aq) and VOCl 2 (aq) + R 3 NHCl(org) reversible R 3 NHVOCl 3 (org) The electronic spectral and ESR results suggest that the complexes, R 3 R'NVOCl 3 and R 3 NH.VOCl 3 , formed in the organic phase are not always stable, but easily hydrolized or oxidized. (author)

  13. The solvent extraction of zinc, iron, and indium from chloride solutions by neutral organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.S.; Du Preez, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The preparation of several neutral organophosphorus compounds and their evaluation as selective extractants for zinc in chloride media are described. The compounds belong to the series trialkyl phosphates (RO) 3 PO, dialkyl alkylphosphonates R'PO(OR) 2 , alkyl dialkylphosphinates R 2 'PO(OR), and trialkyl-phosphine oxides R 3 'PO. They were characterized by measurement of their physical properties (melting and boiling points, refractive indices, and densities), and their purities were confirmed by osmometric determination of their molecular masses; by carbon and hydrogen microanalysis; by the titrimetric determination of acidic impurities; and, for liquid products, by comparison of their experimental molar refractivities with empirical values. Metal-distribution equilibria were determined for solutions of the extractants in xylene and aqueous phase containing 0,5 to 5,0 M sodium chloride. Moderately good selectivities were shown for zinc(II) over iron(III), and excellent selectivities were shown for zinc(II) over iron(II), copper(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II). The extraction of indium(III) was similar to that of zinc(II). The extraction of zinc(III), iron(III), and indium(III) increased markedly through the series. (RO) 3 PO 2 2 'PO(OR) 3 'PO. The incorporation of phenyl groups into the compounds led to weaker extraction. The extracted complexes of zinc(II), iron(III), and indium(III) have the stoichiometries ZnCl 2 L 2 ,FeCl 3 L 2 (H 2 O), and InCl 3 L 2 (H 2 O) respectively, where L represents the neutral organophosphorus compound

  14. Solid-phase extraction of cobalt(II) from lithium chloride solutions using a poly(vinyl chloride)-based polymer inclusion membrane with Aliquat 336 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of cobalt(II) from solutions containing various concentrations of lithium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and mixtures of lithium chloride plus hydrochloric acid is reported using a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing 40% (w/w) Aliquat 336 as a carrier. The extraction from lithium chloride solutions and mixtures with hydrochloric acid is shown to be more effective than extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions alone. The solution concentrations giving the highest amounts of extraction are 7 mol L(-1) for lithium chloride and 8 mol L(-1) lithium chloride plus 1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for mixed solutions. Cobalt(II) is easily stripped from the membrane using deionized water. The cobalt(II) species extracted into the membrane are CoCl(4)(2-) for lithium chloride solutions and HCoCl(4)(-) for mixed solutions; these form ion-pairs with Aliquat 336. It is also shown that both lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid are extracted by the PIM and suppress the extraction of cobalt(II) by forming ion-pairs in the membrane (i.e. R(3)MeN(+)·HCl(2)(-) for hydrochloric acid and R(3)MeN(+)·LiCl(2)(-) for lithium chloride). 2011 © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

  15. Recovery of plutonium and americium from chloride salt wastes by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium and americium can be recovered from aqueous waste solutions containing a mixture of HCl and chloride salt wastes by the coupling of two solvent extraction systems: tributyl phosphate (TBP) in tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in TCE. In the flowsheet developed, the salt wastes are dissolved in HCl, the Pu(III) is oxidized to the IV state with NaClO 2 and recovered in the TBP-TCE cycle, and the Am is then removed from the resultant raffinate by the CMPO-TCE cycle. The consequences of the feed solution composition and extraction behavior of these species on the process flowsheet design, the Pu-product purity, and the decontamination of the aqueous raffinate from transuranic elements are discussed. 16 refs., 6 figs

  16. Green Soap: An Extraction and Saponification of Avocado Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutheimer, Susan; Caster, Jacqueline M.; Smith, Simone H.

    2015-01-01

    An introductory level green chemistry experiment is described that places a new twist on soap-making in lab. In this experiment, oil is extracted from an avocado, after which the oil is saponified to produce bars of green craft soap. Commonly used extraction solvents, such as petroleum ether, methylene chloride, and hexane, are replaced with safer…

  17. Comparison of Water Turbidity Removal Efficiencies of Moringa oleifera Seed Extract and Poly-aluminum Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Bina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in water treatment plants. Metal salts such as aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride are commonly used in the coagulation process in Iran. Poly-aluminum chloride (PAC has been used recently in Baba-Sheykhali Water Treatment Plant in Isfahan. Synthetic coagulants have health problems associated with them and are additionally uneconomical for use in developing countries. In this study, PAC and Moringa oleifera seed extract were compared for their efficiency as coagulants. Moringa oleifera, locally called “oil gaz” in Iran, grows in southern parts of Iran. One variety of this tree, Moringa progeria, is indigenous to Iran. For the purposes of this study, lab experiments were performed using distilled water containing synthetic caoline. Four turbidity levels of 10, 50, 500, and1000 (NTU and four pH levels of 5, 6, 7, and 8 were used for the jar test. It was found that oleifera seed extract was capable of removing 98, 97, 89, and 55% of the turbidity in the four experiments at optimum concentration levels of 10-30 (mg/l for all four pH levels of 6 to 8, respectively. PAC, in contrast, removed 99, 98, 95, and 89% of the turbidity at optimum concentrations of 20-30 (mg/l for a pH level of 8. The results indicate that Moringa oleifera seed extract has little effect on pH level and enjoys higher removal efficiency for higher turbidity levels. Reducing pH level decreased PAC turbidity removal efficiency.

  18. Electrochemical extraction of chlorides from reinforced concrete: variables affecting treatment efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Climent, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of applying electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE to a series of chloride-contaminated concrete specimens. Experimental conditions were varied to study the efficiency of this technique under different circumstances. The survey covered the possible relationship between efficiency and the location of the sampling point, current density, type of concrete and treatment intermittence. Experiments were also conducted with different reinforcement configurations used in standard structural members such as columns and beams to ascertain the impact of rebar geometry.Este documento aporta los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en diferentes estudios en los que se aplicó la técnica de Extracción Electroquímica de Cloruros (EEC a diferentes estructuras de hormigón contaminado con cloruros. Se cambiaron las condiciones experimentales con el fin de estudiar la eficiencia de la misma en cada una de ellas. Se estudió la dependencia con la posición del punto de toma de las muestras, con la densidad de corriente aplicada, con el tipo de hormigón utilizado y con las paradas realizadas en etapas intermedias del tratamiento. Para ver la influencia de la disposición geométrica de las armaduras,se realizó una experiencia con tipos diferentes de disposiciones de las armaduras, correspondiente a componentes estructurales típicos como los pilares y las vigas.

  19. Separation of Ce and La from Synthetic Chloride Leach Solution of Monazite Sand by Precipitation and Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Raju; Jeon, Ho Seok; Lee, Man Seung

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation and solvent extraction experiments have been performed to recover light rare earths from simulated monazite sand chloride leach solutions. Precipitation conditions were obtained to recover Ce by adding NaClO as an oxidant. Among some cationic extractants (PC 88A, D2EHPA, Cyanex 272, LIX 63), PC 88A showed the best performance to separate La from the resulting chloride solution. Furthermore, the mixture of PC 88A with other solvating (TBP, TOPO) and amine extractants (Alamine 336, Aliquat 336) was tested to increase the separation factor of La from Pr and Nd. The use of mixed extractants greatly enhanced the separation of La from the two other metals. McCabe-Thiele diagrams for the extraction of Pr and Nd with the PC 88A/Alamine 336 mixture were constructed.

  20. High-performance polymeric photovoltaic cells with a gold chloride-treated polyacrylonitrile hole extraction interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji-Ho; Noh, Yong-Jin; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kwon, Sung-Nam; Na, Seok-In

    2018-03-01

    We introduce a high efficiency polymeric photovoltaic cell (PPV) to be obtained by polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hole extraction layer (HEL) modification with gold chloride (AuCl3). The role of PAN HELs with AuCl3 and their effects on solar cell performances were studied with ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, internal resistances in PPVs, and current-voltage power curves. The resultant PPVs with AuCl3-treated PAN HELs showed improved cell efficiency compared to PSCs with no interlayer and PAN without AuCl3. Furthermore, with AuCl3-treated PAN, we finally achieved a high efficiency of 6.91%, and a desirable PPV-stability in poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophe-ne-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-thylhexyl)carbonyl]-thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  1. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanan, Muthupillai; Krishnan, Manigandan; Padarthi, Pavankumar; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2014-01-01

    To explore the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic Mangifera indica (EMI) and methanolic Mangifera indica (MMI) leaf extracts in mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Toxicity in mice was induced with HgCl 2 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by oral intervention with EMI and MMI extracts (25 mg and 50 mg/kg. body wt.) for 30 days. The extent of liver damage was assessed from the extents of histopathological, morphological, antioxidant and liver enzymes. Mercuric chloride-induced mice showed an increased cellular damage whereas leaf extracts of EMI and MMI-treated mice showed recovery of damaged hepatocytes. Mercuric chloride intoxicated mice exhibited a significant (p Mangifera indica extract remarkably reduces hepatotoxicity in mice possibly through its antioxidant potentials. How to cite this article: Karuppanan M, Krishnan M, Padarthi P, Namasivayam E. Hepatoprotec-tive and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):18-24.

  2. Usability of cement paste containing carbon nanofibres as an anode in electrochemical chloride extraction from concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral, B. del

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the application of the electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE technique, traditionally, the Ti-RuO2 wire netting has been used as the external anode. This article provides the results of the research based on the use of conductive cement paste with addition of carbon nanofibers (CNF as anodes and its application in ECE. The tests were developed in concrete specimens previously contaminated with chloride. The efficiencies achieved were compared with those obtained using a traditional anode (Ti-RuO2 and cement pastes with the addition of other carbonaceous materials. The results show the feasibility of using conductive cement paste with CNF as the anode in the electrochemical extraction of chlorides in concrete, finding similar efficiencies to those obtained with traditional Ti-RuO2 wire netting but with the added advantage that it can be adapted to complex structural geometries as it can be applied as a paste.

    En la aplicación de la técnica de extracción electroquímica de cloruros (EEC, tradicionalmente se ha venido empleando como ánodo externo una malla de Ti-RuO2. En este artículo se aportan los resultados de investigaciones basadas en la utilización de ánodos formados por pasta de cemento conductora con adición de nanofibras de carbono (NFC y su aplicación en EEC. Las experiencias se desarrollaron en probetas de hormigón contaminado previamente con cloruro. Las eficiencias alcanzadas se compararon con las obtenidas empleando un ánodo tradicional (Ti-RuO2 así como pastas de cemento con adición de otros materiales carbonosos. Los resultados muestran la viabilidad en la utilización de la pasta de cemento conductora con NFC como ánodo en la aplicación en EEC en hormigón, encontrándose eficiencias similares a las obtenidas con la tradicional malla de Ti-RuO2 pero teniendo la ventaja añadida sobre ésta de que es posible adaptarla a geometrías estructurales complejas al ser aplicada en forma de pasta.

  3. The extraction of zinc from chloride solutions using dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP in Exxsol D100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of zinc chloride with dibutyl butylphosphonate in Exxsol D100 has been studied. The distribution coefficient of zinc is independent of equilibrium pH, thus, suggesting a solvation extraction reaction. Experimental data indicate that this reaction is exothermic (AH°=-28.4 kJ/mol. Slope analysis for the system at various DBBP concentrations reveals the formation in the loaded organic phases of species which probable 1:2 (Zn:DBBP stoichiometries. This was confirmed by results obtained at full DBBP Zn-loading capacity. The stoichiometric factor of water in the extraction reaction is found to be 4, whereas experimental data also indicated that two chloride ions are involved for each metal extracted, resulting in a ZnCl2∙2L∙4H2O stoichiometry (L represents the extractant.

    Se estudia la extracción de zinc, en medio cloruro, con el dibutil butilfosfonato disuelto en Exxsol D100. El coeficiente de distribución del metal es independiente del pH de equilibrio de la fase acuosa, lo que sugiere un mecanismo de extracción por solvatación. Los resultados experimentales indican que la reacción es exotérmica (AH°=-28,4 kJ/mol. Mediante análisis de la pendiente obtenida cuando se emplean distintas concentraciones de DBBP en la extracción de zinc se deduce la formación de una especie con estequiometría 1:2 (Zn:DBBP en la fase orgánica. Este hecho se confirma con los resultados obtenidos cuando se satura completamente la fase orgánica. En esta fase, el factor estequiométrico para el agua es 4, mientras que para el ion cloruro es 2, por lo que la especie extraída tiene una estequiometría final representada por ZnCl2∙2L∙4H2O (L representa al agente de extracción.

  4. Amniotic membrane extract ameliorates benzalkonium chloride-induced dry eye in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinye; Luo, Pingping; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jingyao; He, Hui; Xu, Yuxue; Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Yueping; Xu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zuguo

    2013-10-01

    Human amniotic membrane (AM) is avascular but contains various beneficial bioactive factors, its extract (AE) is also effective in treating many ocular surface disorders. In this study, we for the first time evaluated the therapeutic effects of AE on dry eye induced by benzalkonium chloride in a BALB/c mouse model. Topical application of AE (1.5 and 3 μg/eye/day) resulted in significantly longer tear break-up time on Day 3 and 6, lower fluorescein staining scores on Day 3, and lower inflammatory index on Day 6. AE reduced corneal epithelial K10 expression, inflammatory infiltration, and levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in BAC treated mice than that in the control mice. Moreover, decreased TUNEL positive cells in cornea and increased goblet cells in conjunctiva were also observed in AE treated corneas. Finally, AE induced more Ki-67 positive cells in corneal epithelium of dry eye mouse. Taken together, our data provide further support for BAC induced dry eye model as a valuable for dry eye study and suggest a great potential for AE as a therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., erythema, cracked skin, or skin burns; and cardiac effects such as chest pain or shortness of breath. This... treatment and decontamination of the exposed employee; (ii) Comprehensive physical examination with special... good solvent for oils, fats, waxes, resins, bitumen, rubber and cellulose acetate and is a useful paint...

  6. Contribution to the study of the mechanism of extraction of uranyl chloride by long chain aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, G.R.

    1965-06-01

    After having studied and developed the mechanisms which may 'a priori' explain the extraction process (co-ordination, ion association or intermediate mechanism), experience shows that ion association only should be taken into consideration. The structure of the organic complex of uranyl chloride has been defined on the basis of the study of the variation of the distribution coefficient of uranium between the two phases at the equilibrium as a function of successively the activity of Cl - ions in the aqueous phase, the concentration of amine salt in the organic phase and finally of the concentration of uranium in the aqueous phase. The plotting of the results in bi-logarithmic co-ordinates enables us to propose the following formula for the extracted compound: UO 2 Cl 4 -- (NR 3 H + ) 2 . The calculation of the equilibrium constant of formation of the organic compound of uranyl chloride has been possible in the case of diluted solutions of uranium only. (author) [fr

  7. Investigation of the extraction equilibrium of ternary ionassociation complex of thallium(III) with iodo-nitro-tetrazolium chlorid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Dimitrov, A.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction equilibrium of the ternary ion-association complex of iodo-nitro-tetrazolium [3-(4-iodophenyl)2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride] with the chlorocomplex of thallium(III) is investigated radiochemically. The molar ratio of the ion-associate is found to be 1:1, the association constant has a value of 3.2x10 3 in aqueous solution and the distribution constant is 8.9. The extraction constant which gives a quantitative characterization of the equilibrium is 2.3x10 4 . From the investigation performed it can be concluded that a quite satisfactory extraction of thallium(III) by means of iodo-nitro-tetrazole in benzene can be carried out. The extraction constant has a relatively high value which allows to use this system conveniently for the extraction-photometric determination of thallium(III). (T.C.)

  8. Shape Effect of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction in Structural Reinforced Concrete Elements Using a New Cement-Based Anodic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Carmona

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the research carried out by the authors focused on how the shape of structural reinforced concrete elements treated with electrochemical chloride extraction can affect the efficiency of this process. Assuming the current use of different anode systems, the present study considers the comparison of results between conventional anodes based on Ti-RuO2 wire mesh and a cement-based anodic system such as a paste of graphite-cement. Reinforced concrete elements of a meter length were molded to serve as laboratory specimens, to closely represent authentic structural supports, with circular and rectangular sections. Results confirm almost equal performances for both types of anode systems when electrochemical chloride extraction is applied to isotropic structural elements. In the case of anisotropic ones, such as rectangular sections with no uniformly distributed rebar, differences in electrical flow density were detected during the treatment. Those differences were more extreme for Ti-RuO2 mesh anode system. This particular shape effect is evidenced by obtaining the efficiencies of electrochemical chloride extraction in different points of specimens.

  9. Shape Effect of Electrochemical Chloride Extraction in Structural Reinforced Concrete Elements Using a New Cement-Based Anodic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Jesús; Climent, Miguel-Ángel; Antón, Carlos; de Vera, Guillem; Garcés, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    This article shows the research carried out by the authors focused on how the shape of structural reinforced concrete elements treated with electrochemical chloride extraction can affect the efficiency of this process. Assuming the current use of different anode systems, the present study considers the comparison of results between conventional anodes based on Ti-RuO2 wire mesh and a cement-based anodic system such as a paste of graphite-cement. Reinforced concrete elements of a meter length were molded to serve as laboratory specimens, to closely represent authentic structural supports, with circular and rectangular sections. Results confirm almost equal performances for both types of anode systems when electrochemical chloride extraction is applied to isotropic structural elements. In the case of anisotropic ones, such as rectangular sections with no uniformly distributed rebar, differences in electrical flow density were detected during the treatment. Those differences were more extreme for Ti-RuO2 mesh anode system. This particular shape effect is evidenced by obtaining the efficiencies of electrochemical chloride extraction in different points of specimens.

  10. Purification of Gold from Chloride Leach Liquor of Copper Anode Slime by Octanol-Kerosene Organic Extractant

    OpenAIRE

    N. Sadeghi; E. Keshavarz Alamdari

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the copper anode slime was leached in chloride media. Then, pregnant leach solution (PLS) was purified using solvent extraction method and Octanol-kerosene solution. HAuCl4.2L was determined as the extracted macromolecule, and separation of impurities, such as copper, iron and selenium was done in the presence of gold. McCabe-Thiele diagram of Au–HCl (3 M)– Octanol (40% v/v) in O/A=3/4 showed that Au concentration in aqueous phase decreased from the initial value of 200 ...

  11. Solvent effect on the extraction and transport of lithium ions by polyethylene glycols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D; Sharma, U

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of lithium picrate, 2,4-dinitrophenolate and 2-nitrophenolate and their transport through membranes by di-, tri- and tetraethylene glycols as carriers are studied. Organic solvents considered as extractants and liquid membranes in terms of lithium ions extraction and transfer are arranged in the following series: methylene chloride ≥ dichloroethane ≥ chloroform ≥ carbon tetrachloride. Diethylene glycol proved the most effective solvent for lithium ions extraction and transport [ru

  12. Chloride channel inhibition by a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule prevents rotaviral secretory diarrhoea in neonatal mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun-A; Jin, Byung-Ju; Namkung, Wan; Ma, Tonghui; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Verkman, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe secretory diarrhoea in infants and young children globally. The rotaviral enterotoxin, NSP4, has been proposed to stimulate calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) on the apical plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. We previously identified red wine and small molecule CaCC inhibitors. Objective To investigate the efficacy of a red wine extract and a synthetic small molecule, CaCCinh-A01, in inhibiting intestinal CaCCs and rotaviral diarrhoea. Design Inhibition of CaCC-dependent current was measured in T84 cells and mouse ileum. The effectiveness of an orally administered wine extract and CaCCinh-A01 in inhibiting diarrhoea in vivo was determined in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral infection. Results Screening of ~150 red wines revealed a Cabernet Sauvignon that inhibited CaCC current in T84 cells with IC50 at a ~1:200 dilution, and higher concentrations producing 100% inhibition. A >1 kdalton wine extract prepared by dialysis, which retained full inhibition activity, blocked CaCC current in T84 cells and mouse intestine. In rotavirus-inoculated mice, oral administration of the wine extract prevented diarrhoea by inhibition of intestinal fluid secretion without affecting rotaviral infection. The wine extract did not inhibit the cystic fibrosis chloride channel (CFTR) in cell cultures, nor did it prevent watery stools in neonatal mice administered cholera toxin, which activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion. CaCCinh-A01 also inhibited rotaviral diarrhoea. Conclusions Our results support a pathogenic role for enterocyte CaCCs in rotaviral diarrhoea and demonstrate the antidiarrhoeal action of CaCC inhibition by an alcohol-free, red wine extract and by a synthetic small molecule. PMID:24052273

  13. Separation of Pr and Nd from La in chloride solution by extraction with a mixture of Cyanex 272 and Alamine 336

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Jeon, Ho Seok; Lee, Man Seung

    2015-09-01

    The possibility of separation of Pr and Nd from La in a chloride leaching solution of monazite sand has been investigated by using a binary mixture of Cyanex 272 (bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid) and Alamine 336 (tri-octyl/decyl amine). The binary mixture showed synergism on the extraction of the three metals and led to an increase in the separation factor between Pr/Nd and La compared to Cyanex 272 alone. Although the addition of chloride ion into aqueous increased the extraction of the metals, this addition had negative effect on the separation of Nd/Pr and La. McCabe-Thiele diagrams for the extraction of Pr and Nd with the binary mixture were constructed. Stripping of metals from the loaded organic phase was achieved with 0.7 M HCl. The difference in the solvent extraction of the rare earth elements from chloride solution between the binary mixture and saponified extractants was also discussed.

  14. Magnetic graphene oxide modified with choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvent for the solid-phase extraction of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanhua; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Pan, Qi; Wang, Ying; Ding, Xueqin; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-06-02

    Highlights: • A strategy for extraction of protein based on DES-coated magnetic graphene oxide. • The deep eutectic solvents were based on choline chloride. • Bovine serum albumin was used as the analyte. • The material prepared works for the acidic but not the basic or the neutral proteins. - Abstract: Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) have been synthesized and coated on the surface of magnetic graphene oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO) to form Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein. X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES, and the results indicated the successful preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES. The UV–vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of protein after extraction. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction amount was influenced by the types of DESs, solution temperature, solution ionic strength, extraction time, protein concentration and the amount of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES. Comparison of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES was carried out by extracting bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme. The experimental results showed that the proposed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES performs better than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO in the extraction of acidic protein. Desorption of protein was carried out by eluting the solid extractant with 0.005 mol L{sup −1} Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} contained 1 mol L{sup −1} NaCl. The obtained elution efficiency was about 90.9%. Attributed to the convenient magnetic separation, the solid extractant could be easily recycled.

  15. Liquid-liquid extraction/separation of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) from acidic chloride solutions using tri-iso-octylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Young, E-mail: jinlee@kigam.re.kr [Metals Recovery Department, Minerals Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gahangno, Yuesong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Rajesh Kumar, J., E-mail: rajeshkumarphd@rediffmail.com [Metals Recovery Department, Minerals Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gahangno, Yuesong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon-Soo; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Sung [Metals Recovery Department, Minerals Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gahangno, Yuesong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-30

    Liquid-liquid extraction/separation of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) from acidic chloride solutions was carried out using tri-iso-octylamine (Alamine 308) as an extractant diluted in kerosene. The percentage extraction of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) increased with increase in acid concentration up to 8 mol L{sup -1}. However, at 10 mol L{sup -1} HCl concentration, the extraction behavior was reversed, indicating the solvation type mechanism during extraction. The quantitative extraction of {approx}98% platinum(IV) and 36% rhodium(III) was achieved with 0.01 mol L{sup -1} Alamine 308. The highest separation factor (S.F. = 184.7) of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) was achieved with 0.01 mol L{sup -1} Alamine 308 at 1.0 mol L{sup -1} of hydrochloric acid concentration. Alkaline metal salts like sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium thiocyanate, lithium chloride, lithium nitrate, potassium chloride and potassium thiocyanate used for the salting-out effect. LiCl proved as best salt for the extraction of platinum(IV). Temperature effect demonstrates that the extraction process is exothermic. Hydrochloric acid and thiourea mixture proved to be better stripping reagents when compared with other mineral acids and bases.

  16. Extraction of zirconium and hafnium thiocyanates by CH3COCH2CH.(CH3)2-HSCN solvent from chloride medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    A zirconium-hafnium separation process for application in nuclear industry is presented. The extraction of zirconium and hafnium thiocyanates in chloride medium by hexone-HSCN solvent was studied. The extraction process was developed, varying the parameters, such as, concentrations of the metals, the thiocyanate ion, the sulphate ion and free acidity in aqueous phase. (Author) [pt

  17. CHEMOMETRICS IN BIOANALYTICAL SAMPLE PREPARATION - A FRACTIONATED COMBINED MIXTURE AND FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR THE MODELING OF THE RECOVERY OF 5 TRICYCLIC AMINES FROM PLASMA AFTER LIQUID-LIQUID-EXTRACTION PRIOR TO HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIELING, J; MENSINK, CK; JONKMAN, JHG; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; DUINEVELD, CAA; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    A general systematic approach is described for the chemometric modelling of liquid-liquid extraction data of drugs from biological fluids. Extraction solvents were selected from Snyder's solvent selectivity triangle: methyl tert.-butyl ether, methylene chloride and chloroform. The composition of a

  18. Purification of Gold from Chloride Leach Liquor of Copper Anode Slime by Octanol-Kerosene Organic Extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sadeghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the copper anode slime was leached in chloride media. Then, pregnant leach solution (PLS was purified using solvent extraction method and Octanol-kerosene solution. HAuCl4.2L was determined as the extracted macromolecule, and separation of impurities, such as copper, iron and selenium was done in the presence of gold. McCabe-Thiele diagram of Au–HCl (3 M– Octanol (40% v/v in O/A=3/4 showed that Au concentration in aqueous phase decreased from the initial value of 200 to 7 mg/L, after 5 stages. Ammonia solution was proposed as the stripper and McCabe-Thiele diagram was presented to obtain the number of gold stripping steps by ammonia solution

  19. Magnetic graphene oxide modified with choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvent for the solid-phase extraction of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanhua; Wang, Yuzhi; Pan, Qi; Wang, Ying; Ding, Xueqin; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-06-02

    Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) have been synthesized and coated on the surface of magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4@GO) to form Fe3O4@GO-DES for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein. X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize Fe3O4@GO-DES, and the results indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4@GO-DES. The UV-vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of protein after extraction. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction amount was influenced by the types of DESs, solution temperature, solution ionic strength, extraction time, protein concentration and the amount of Fe3O4@GO-DES. Comparison of Fe3O4@GO and Fe3O4@GO-DES was carried out by extracting bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme. The experimental results showed that the proposed Fe3O4@GO-DES performs better than Fe3O4@GO in the extraction of acidic protein. Desorption of protein was carried out by eluting the solid extractant with 0.005 mol L(-1) Na2HPO4 contained 1 mol L(-1) NaCl. The obtained elution efficiency was about 90.9%. Attributed to the convenient magnetic separation, the solid extractant could be easily recycled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The extraction of zinc and other minor metals from concentrated ammonium chloride solutions with D2EHPA and Cyanex 272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer, S.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study is made of the extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 for the zinc and minor metal extraction from aqueous concentrated ammonium chloride solutions, as those of the leaching liquors of the CENIM-LNETI process. Extraction equilibrium data for zinc are presented as extraction isotherms at constant pH and at a temperature of 50 °C. Zinc extraction and coextraction of minor metal ions as Cu, Ca, Pb, Mg, Cd, Co, Ni and Hg are studied. Mercury does not extract from concentrated ammonium chloride solutions. Cyanex 272 shows a better selectivity for zinc with regard to the minor metals than D2EHPA, which is especially remarkable for calcium, the most coextracted element by D2EHPA. Nickel and cadmium coextraction is negligible for both extractants. The possible use of the Cyanex 272 as an alternative to D2EHPA is considered.

    Se realiza un estudio comparativo del comportamiento del D2EHPA y del Cyanex 272 durante la extracción del cinc y otros metales minoritarios de soluciones acuosas concentradas de cloruro amónico, como las de las soluciones de lixiviación del proceso CENIM-LNETI. Se presentan los datos de equilibrio de extracción del cinc en forma de isotermas de extracción a una temperatura de 50 °C y pH constante y se estudia la coextracción de los metales minoritarios Cu, Ca, Pb, Mg, Cd, Co, Ni y Hg. El mercurio no se extrae de las soluciones concentradas de cloruro amónico. La selectividad del Cyanex 272 para el cinc respecto de esos metales minoritarios es mejor que la del D2EHPA, siendo verdaderamente notable para el calcio, que es la impureza que más se coextrae con el D2EHPA. La coextracción de níquel y de cadmio es muy pequeña para ambos extractantes. Se considera la posibilidad del uso alternativo del Cyanex 272 en lugar del D2EHPA.

  1. Pitting corrosion resistance of a novel duplex alloy steel in alkali-activated slag extract in the presence of chloride ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin-jie; Ming, Jing; Liu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    In this study, two types of reinforcing steels (conventional low-carbon steel and a novel duplex alloy steel with Cr and Mo) were exposed to chloride-contaminated extract solutions (ordinary Portland cement (OPC) extract and alkali-activated slag (AAS) extract) to investigate their pitting corrosion resistance. The results confirm that the pitting corrosion resistance of the alloy steel is much higher than that of the low-carbon steel in both extract solutions with various NaCl concentrations. Moreover, for each type of steel, the AAS extract contributes to a higher pitting corrosion resistance compared with the OPC extract in the presence of chloride ions, likely because of the formation of flocculent precipitates on the steel surface.

  2. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  3. Extraction of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash using hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Kulik, Dmitrii A; Hummel, Wolfgang; Schlumberger, Stefan; Klink, Waldemar; Fisch, Martin; Mäder, Urs K

    2018-03-17

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration contains a large potential for recyclable metals such as Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd. The Swiss Waste Ordinance prescribes the treatment of fly ash and recovery of metals to be implemented by 2021. More than 60% of the fly ash in Switzerland is acid leached according to the FLUWA process, which provides the basis for metal recovery. The investigation and optimization of the FLUWA process is of increasing interest and an industrial solution for direct metal recovery within Switzerland is in development. With this work, a detailed laboratory study on different filter cakes from fly ash leaching using HCl 5% (represents the FLUWA process) and concentrated sodium chloride solution (300 g/L) is described. This two-step leaching of fly ash is an efficient combination for the mobilization of a high percentage of heavy metals from fly ash (Pb, Cd ≥ 90% and Cu, Zn 70-80%). The depletion of these metals is mainly due to a combination of redox reaction and metal-chloride-complex formation. The results indicate a way forward for an improved metal depletion and recovery from fly ash that has potential for application at industrial scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Crude Extracts and Essential Oils of Syzygium cumini Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amal A.; Ali, Sami I.; El-Baz, Farouk K.

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23593183

  5. Extraction of iron(III) with diphenyl-2-pyridylmethane dissolved in benzene from aqueous chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhail Ahmed; Shamas-Ud-Zuha; Abdul Ghafoor; Ejaz, M.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of extraction has been investigated by partition, slope analysis and loading-ratio data. The results obtained give a picture of the mechanism of extraction of FeCl 4 - ions in relation to the hydration and solvation of the compound extracted. The possible formula of the extracted species is (DPPM)sub(3)Hsub(3)Osup(+)(Hsub(2)O)sub(n)-FeClsub(4)sup(-). In dilute aqueous hydrochloric acid systems the influence of the concentration of a number of salts with cations of different electrical potentials (Ze/r), on iron(III) extraction, has been studied. Splitting of the organic phases occurs at high acid and/or high salt concentrations. The phenomenon is explained on the basis of the variability of the hydration number. Investigations have been made to understand the parameters controlling the extraction of the metal and it is shown that the extraction offers a simple, fast and selective separation method of iron from solutions. (author)

  6. Experiments comparing the uptake of americium from chloride media using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Schulte, L.D.; Martinez, B.T.; Salazar, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Clean-up of actinide effluent waste steams is of increasing importance at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, TA-55, and removing the actinide elements to very low levels allows less radioactivity to go the Los Alamos National Laboratory Water Treatment Facility, TA-50, thus reducing the number of drums of TRU waste. Americium (Am) is a difficult element to remove from chloride media because the +3 state is difficult to oxidize and chelating resins work better with elements such as plutonium which are more readily oxidized to the +4 and/or +6 state. Currently in hydrochloric acid (HC1) media, the acidic liquid waste is neutralized with potassium hydroxide to precipitate the metal hydroxides, before disposal to TA-50. This process is not very efficient. The removal of Am from chloride media was compared using a series of resins, some commercial and some made in our laboratory, using different percentages by weight of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diiso- butylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO ) along with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) or tributyl phosphate (TBP) as diluents. Resins were also made with no added diluent. Early comparisons using small-scale contact studies with 0.5 grams of resin in 0.1M-12M HC1, and subsequent small-scale flow experiments show a trend in which Am uptake is proportional to the amount of CMPO on the resins and the diluent plays a minor role in the uptake of Am from these solutions. Redox chemistry effects were also investigated. From these studies, it is possible to determine the best conditions for the removal of Am from HC1 media thus reducing the gross alpha content of the waste stream by a factor of 10-100 which reduces the number of barrels of waste produced at the Water Treatment Facility

  7. Selective extraction of palladium with caffeine from acidic chloride media; Sansei enkabutsu yoeki karano kafuein ni yoru parajiumu no sentakuteki chushutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikake, K.; Baba, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-06-10

    In order to examine the possibility of caffeine as an extractant, the extraction of metal ions from acidic chloride media was studied at 298 K using the mixture solvent of chloroform and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Caffeine has exhibited a high selectivity for palladium (2) over base metals such as copper (2), nickel (2), and iron (3), and over precious metal such as platinum (4). The stoichiometric relation in the extraction of palladium (2) with caffeine was elucidated by examining the effects of chloride ion, hydrogen ion, and caffeine concentrations on its extractability. In addition, palladium (2) was found to be extracted selectively with caffeine from the mixture containing a 25-fold amount of platinum (4) or copper (2). The stripping of palladium (2) was performed to an extent of 80% by a single batchwise treatment with an aqueous mixture solution of hydrochloric acid and thiourea. (author)

  8. Simultaneous identification and quantification by liquid chromatography of benzethonium chloride, methyl paraben and triclosan in commercial products labeled as grapefruit seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, B; Dentali, S; Khan, I A

    2007-08-01

    A HPLC method has been developed which permits the quantification of methyl paraben, benzethonium chloride and triclosan in various samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). The best results were obtained with a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column using gradient mobile phase of water (0.1% acetic acid) and acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) with a flow rate of 1.0 mL per minute. The detection wavelength was 254 nm for methyl paraben, and 275 nm for benzethonium chloride and triclosan. The main synthetic antimicrobial agent identified in commercial GSE samples was benzethonium chloride in concentrations from 0.29-21.84%. Positive ion electrospray MS of a commercial GSE sample showed a molecular ion at m/z 412 [M+], which matched that of a standard of benzethonium chloride. Triclosan was detected in two samples at 0.009 and 1.13%concentrations; while methyl paraben was not detected in the samples analyzed.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride): In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. This document presents background information and justification for the Intergrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Summary of the hazard and dose-response assessment of dichloromethane. IRIS Summaries may include oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for chronic and other exposure durations, and a carcinogencity assessment. Internet/NCEA web site

  10. Validation of a quantitative NMR method for suspected counterfeit products exemplified on determination of benzethonium chloride in grapefruit seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiroglu, Somer; Myrberg, Olle; Ostman, Kristina; Ek, Marianne; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Rundlöf, Torgny; Hakkarainen, Birgit

    2008-08-05

    A 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method for quantitative determination of benzethonium chloride (BTC) as a constituent of grapefruit seed extract was developed. The method was validated, assessing its specificity, linearity, range, and precision, as well as accuracy, limit of quantification and robustness. The method includes quantification using an internal reference standard, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and regarded as simple, rapid, and easy to implement. A commercial grapefruit seed extract was studied and the experiments were performed on spectrometers operating at two different fields, 300 and 600 MHz for proton frequencies, the former with a broad band (BB) probe and the latter equipped with both a BB probe and a CryoProbe. The concentration average for the product sample was 78.0, 77.8 and 78.4 mg/ml using the 300 BB probe, the 600MHz BB probe and CryoProbe, respectively. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation (R.S.D., in parenthesis) for the average concentrations was 0.2 (0.3%), 0.3 (0.4%) and 0.3mg/ml (0.4%), respectively.

  11. The extraction of uranyl nitrate and chloride in octaethyltetraamidopyrophosphate (OETAPP)-HCl, HNO3 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowska, M.; Kulawik, J.; Mikulski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The extraction of uranium was studied in the system of 0.1 M OETAPP in CHCl 3 /HCl or HNO 3 . The distribution coefficients of HCl and HNO 3 were calculated as a function of OETAPP concentration. The amount of OETAPP in the aqueous phase containing HCl and HNO 3 was found from the measurements of surface tension of this phase. The distribution of HCl or HNO 3 between the organic and aqueous phases was studied as a function of the concentration of the acid used in the aqueous phase. The solvation energy of the extracted complexes was calculated from the measured potential differences. Cohesion and adhesion energies of the studied systems are also given. (author)

  12. Equilibrium Studies on the Extraction of Yttrium from Chloride Medium by Mono (2-Ethylhexyl) 2-Ethylhexyl Phosphonic Acid (Ion quest 801)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, E.E.; Ismail, Z.H.; Aly, H.F.; Sabet, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Since 90 Y is one of the useful radioisotopes in nuclear medicine, liquid-liquid extraction of yttrium from chloride medium has been studied under various conditions using neutralized and un-neutralized mono (2-ethylhexyl) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid (EHEHPA) as an extractant. Effect of reagent concentration, ph of the aqueous medium, metal ion concentration and nature of the diluent on the extraction process has been carried out. Effect of temperature was studied and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. Yttrium extracted in organic phase was stripped with various reagents. The stoichiometry of the extracted species of yttrium was determined on the basis of slope analysis of experimental results. Equilibrium equations of the extraction process have been estimated and verified

  13. Migration of plasticizers from poly(vinyl chloride) and multilayer infusion bags using selective extraction and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haned, Zohra; Moulay, Saad; Lacorte, Silvia

    2018-04-12

    Flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture of medical devices (tubes, probes, bags, primary packaging, etc.). The objective of the present study was to develop a procedure to evaluate the migration potential of nine plastic additives in aqueous infusion bags (NaCl 0.9% and glucose 5%): five phthalates, one adipate, two alkylphenols, and benzophenone. Two types of materials were analyzed: (i) new and outdated plasticized PVC (containing 40% of diethylhexyl phthalate DEHP); and (ii) tri-laminate polyethylene-polyamide-polypropylene, a multilayer material presumably exempt from DEHP. In addition, we evaluated the migration of plasticizers from PVC raw materials (film and grain) under controlled conditions to compare the migration levels according to Regulation 2011/10. Solid phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction with gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry were used in all tests. The migration of DEHP in PVC grain exceeded the maximum regulated level of 5000 μg/kg, whereas the levels were much lower in films. In new PVC bags, DEHP was the only compound detected at 4.31 ± 0.5 μg/L in NaCl 0.9% and 4.29 ± 0.25 μg/L in glucose 5% serums, whereas the levels increased 10 times in three-year shelf-life bags. In multilayer bags, DEHP was not found but instead, two plasticizers were detected namely dibuthylphthalate (DBP) and diethylphthalate (DEP) at 0.7 ± 0.1 μg/L and 4.14 ± 0.6 μg/L, respectively. These plasticizers are not mentioned as additives allowed in materials intended for parenteral use (European Pharmacopoeia 8.0, 3.1.5. and 3.1.6.). Caprolactam was tentatively identified and could have stemmed from the polyamide of the multilayer composite. The levels of phthalates remained low but not negligible and might constitute a risk to public health in the case of reiterative infusions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Radioiodinated methylene blue for melanoma targeting: Chemical characterisation and tumour selectivity of labelled components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blower, Philip J.; Clark, Katherine; Link, Eva M.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodinated methylene blue contains a mixture of components showing selective uptake in human pigmented melanoma, and it has potential for imaging and therapy. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic studies show that the majority of the radioactivity (85%) is in the form of monoiodinated methylene blue, 4-iodo-3-methylamino-7-dimethylaminophenaza thionium chloride. The amino group ortho-to iodine has become demethylated to a mono-methylamino group. The remainder (15%) of the mixture is the doubly labelled 4,5-diiodo-3,7-bis(methylamino) phenazathionium chloride. The separated components show similar tumour selectivity in athymic mice bearing human pigmented melanomas

  15. Chloride pyrometallurgy of uranium ore. 2. Selective extraction of uranium using the mixed gas of chlorine and oxygen in the presence of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Tomihiro; Komoto, Shigetoshi; Otomura, Keiichiro; Takenaka, Toshihide; Sato, Nobuaki; Fujino, Takeo.

    1996-01-01

    Selective extraction of uranium from a phosphate ore was studied by using the mixed gas of Cl 2 and O 2 . On heating the ore and carbon mixture in Cl 2 , the volatilized chloride of uranium is accompanied by iron, aluminum, phosphorus and silicon chlorides. The addition of O 2 gas effectively lowered the volatilization ratios of aluminum, phosphorus and silicon. The ratio decreased with increasing oxygen flow rate up to 50 ml/min at 1,223 K (Cl 2 : 100 ml/min, O 2 +N 2 : 400 ml/min). The volatilization ratio of uranium was almost unchanged at 90% up to 50 ml/min O 2 (carbon amount: 15 wt%). The effect of the other parameters, i.e. Cl 2 flow rate, carbon amount, reaction temperature and time was examined. (author)

  16. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, Renil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Stuart, Ben, E-mail: stuart@ohio.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2015-01-20

    Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates, and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (University of Texas at Austin LB2396). Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the extraction solvents. The lipid extracts were derivatized and analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. All solvent extracts contained hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid; accounting for 70% of total lipid content with a proportional wt% composition of the three fatty acids, except for the hexane extracts that showed only hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid. While not statistically differentiated, methylene chloride proved to be the most effective solvent for Oocystis sp. among the four solvents tested with a total average neutral lipid recovery of 0.25% of dry weight followed by diethyl ether (0.18%), cyclohexane (0.14%), and hexane (0.11%). This research presents a simple methodology to optimize the selection of lipid specific extraction solvents for the microalgal strain selected.

  17. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Renil; Stuart, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates, and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (University of Texas at Austin LB2396). Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the extraction solvents. The lipid extracts were derivatized and analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. All solvent extracts contained hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid; accounting for 70% of total lipid content with a proportional wt% composition of the three fatty acids, except for the hexane extracts that showed only hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid. While not statistically differentiated, methylene chloride proved to be the most effective solvent for Oocystis sp. among the four solvents tested with a total average neutral lipid recovery of 0.25% of dry weight followed by diethyl ether (0.18%), cyclohexane (0.14%), and hexane (0.11%). This research presents a simple methodology to optimize the selection of lipid specific extraction solvents for the microalgal strain selected.

  18. Solution-phase synthesis of a hindered N-methylated tetrapeptide using Bts-protected amino acid chlorides: efficient coupling and methylation steps allow purification by extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedejs, E; Kongkittingam, C

    2000-04-21

    N-Benzothiazole-2-sulfonyl (Bts)-protected amino acid chlorides were used to prepare the hindered cyclosporin 8-11 tetrapeptide subunit 1. The synthesis was performed via 3a and the deprotected amines 5a, 13, and 19, including three repeated cycles involving N-methylation using iodomethane/potassium carbonate, deprotection of the Bts group, and N-acylation with a N-Bts-amino acid chloride such as 9b or 9c. Among three Bts cleavage methods compared (H3PO2/THF; NaBH4/EtOH; PhSH/K2CO3), the third gave somewhat higher overall yields. N-Acylation of 5a with the Bts-protected N-methylamino acid chloride 10b followed by deprotection was also highly efficient and could be used as an alternative route to 11. Each of the deprotected amines was isolated without chromatography using simple extraction methods to remove neutral byproducts. The tetrapeptide 1 was obtained in analytically pure form as the monohydrate.

  19. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renil eAnthony

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (UTEX LB2396. Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the extraction solvents. All solvent extracts contained hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid; accounting for 70% of total lipid content with a proportional wt% composition of the three fatty acids, except for the hexane extracts that showed only hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid. While not statistically differentiated, methylene chloride proved to be the most effective solvent for Oocystis sp. among the four solvents tested with a total average neutral lipid recovery of 0.25% of dry weight followed by diethyl ether (0.18%, cyclohexane (0.14% and hexane (0.11%. This research presents a simple methodology to optimize the selection of lipid specific extraction solvents for the microalgal strain selected.

  20. Sorption characteristics of methylene blue onto Nypa fruiticans lignin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorption characteristics of soda lignin extracted from Nypa fruiticans for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution was investigated in this study, as an ethically sound way of utilizing this unexploited abundant natural resource. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm ...

  1. Application of low current intensity electrolytic treatment for the chlorides extraction in underwater archaeological objects of iron. Observation of the mineralogical phases evolution through XRD-Rietveld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethencourt, M.; Gil, M. L. A.; Fernandez-Lorenzo, C.; Santos, A.

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of optimising a suitable methodology for the conservation of an archaeological object of iron, a low current intensities electrolytic treatment has been applied, to a piece of cast iron, proving to be effective in the extraction of chloride ions from the structure of akaganeite, principal corrosion product of iron in the marine medium. The monitoring of the electrolytic treatment has been proven by applying the Rietveld method to the patterns XRD of samples extracted from the corroded surface before and after the treatment. This method has permitted the unequivocal determination of the akaganeite and its chemical composition. This identification has been corroborated by means of SEM and EDS. After the electrolytic treatment, akaganeite was not present in the sample. (Author) 9 refs

  2. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  3. Comparison of supercritical fluid and Soxhlet extractions for the quantification of hydrocarbons from Euphorbia macroclada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Adnan; Ozcan, Asiye Safa

    2004-10-08

    This study compares conventional Soxhlet extraction and analytical scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for their yields in extracting of hydrocarbons from arid-land plant Euphorbia macroclada. The plant material was firstly sequentially extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide, modified with 10% methanol (v/v) in the optimum conditions that is a pressure of 400atm and a temperature of 50 degrees C and then it was sonicated in methylene chloride for an additional 4h. E. macroclada was secondly extracted by using a Soxhlet apparatus at 30 degrees C for 8h in methylene chloride. The validated SFE was then compared to the extraction yield of E. macroclada with a Soxhlet extraction by using the Student's t-test at the 95% confidence level. All of extracts were fractionated with silica-gel in a glass column to get better hydrocarbon yields. Thus, the highest hydrocarbons yield from E. macroclada was achieved with SFE (5.8%) when it compared with Soxhlet extractions (1.1%). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis was performed to determine the quantitative hydrocarbons from plant material. The greatest quantitative hydrocarbon recovery from GC was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extract (0.6mgg(-1)).

  4. Biological effects of an aqueous extract of Salix alba on the survival of Escherichia coli AB1157 cultures submitted to the action of stannous chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAPHAEL S S SOUZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stannous chloride (SnC12 is used in nuclear medicine as a reducing agent to obtain technetium-99m-radiopharmaceuticals. It have been reported that natural products might reduce the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects related to SnC12. This work evaluated the biological effects of an aqueous extract of Salix alba on the survival of Escherichia coli (E. coli AB1157 (wild type cultures submitted to the action of SnC12. E. coli AB1157 cultures (exponential growth phase were collected by centrifugation, washed and resuspended in 0.9%NaCl. Samples were incubated in water bath shaker with: (a SnC12 (25mg/ml, (bSalix alba extract(11.6mg/ml and (cSnC12(25mg/ml + Salix alba extract (11.6mg/ml. Incubation with 0.9% NaCl was also carried out (control. At 60 min intervals, aliquots were withdrawn, diluted, spread onto Petri dishes with solid LB medium and incubated overnight. The colonies formed were counted and the survival fractions calculated. The extract was not able to protect the E. coli cultures against the lesive action of SnC12. The extract also did not interfere with the survival of the cultures. It suggested that the substances present in the Salix alba aqueous extract did not interfere strongly with cellular metabolism and did not alter the survival fractions of E. coli AB 1157. It is speculated that this extract cannot interfere with the generation of free radicals, the possible main agent responsible for SnC12 lesive action.

  5. Solvent Extraction of Tellurium from Chloride Solutions Using Tri-n-butyl Phosphate: Conditions and Thermodynamic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongchan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extractive separation of tellurium (IV from hydrochloric acid media with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP in kerosene was investigated. The dependence on the extraction of tellurium species, concentrations of tellurium and TBP, extraction time and stage, organic/aqueous ratio, and interferences from coexist metallic ions were examined and are discussed. Besides, the stripping agent and stripping time were also studied. It was found that the extraction reaction corresponds to the neutral complex formation mechanism and the extracted species is TeCl4·3TBP and that the extraction process is exothermic. The thermodynamic parameters of enthalpy ΔH, entropy ΔS, and free energy ΔG of the extraction process were evaluated at −26.2 kJ·mol−1, −65.6 J·mol−1·K−1, and −7.0 kJ·mol−1, respectively at 293 K.

  6. Extraction And Separation Of GALLIUM With Tributyl Phosphate From The Chloride Leach Liquor Of GATTAR Granite, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAHDY, M.A.; MAHMOUD, K.F.; ABD EL-HAMEED, A.M.; ZAHRAN, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The studied optimum conditions for gallium extraction have confirmed that more than 98.5% of the gallium present in HCl leach liquor of Gattar granite was extracted using 10 % tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent concentration (v/v) in kerosene as diluent, 15 min shaking time and 1 : 3 organic/ aqueous ratio. About 96 % of the extracted gallium has been stripped from the organic solvent using 0.04 M HCl as aqueous stripping solution. The obtained data clarify that the optimum stripping conditions include 4 min shaking time and 2 : 1 organic/ aqueous ratio.

  7. Extraction of UO22+ by two highly sterically hindered (X1) (X2) PO(OH) extractants from an aqueous chloride phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.W.; Lewey, S.M.; Gilles, D.M.; Peppard, D.F.

    1978-01-01

    The comparative extraction behaviour of tracer-level UO 2 2+ into benzene solutions of two highly sterically hindered extractants, di(2,6-di-iso-propylphenyl) phosphoric acid, HD(2,6-i-PPHI)P and di-tertiary-butyl phosphinic acid, H[Dt-BP], vs an aqueous 1.0 F (NaCl + HCl) phase was studied. The extraction of UO 2 2+ in both systems is directly second-power dependent upon extractant concentration and inversely second-power dependent upon hydrogen ion concentration, the stoichiometry of extraction being UOsub(2A) 2+ + 2(HY)sub(2O) = UO 2 (HY 2 )sub(2O) + 2Hsub(A) + . The expression for the distribution ratio, K is K = Ksub(s)F 2 /[H + ] 2 the general expression for the extraction of any metallic species being K - Ksub(s)Fsup(a)/[H + ]sup(b) where Ksub(s) is a constant characteristic of the system, F the concentration in formality units of extractant in the organic phase, [H + ] the concentration of hydrogen ion in the aqueous phase, and a and b the respective extractant and hydrogen-ion dependencies. Both extractants have a high degree of steric hindrance. The HD(2,6-i-PPHI)P is the more highly acidic, the pKsub(A) value, in 75% ethanol, being 3.2. The pKsub(A), previously reported, for H[Dt-BP] is 6.26. The Ksub(s) for UO 2 2+ in the system HY in benzene diluent vs an aqueous 1.0 F (NaCl + HCl) phase is 2 x 10 4 for H[Dt-BP] and 3 x 10 -1 for HD(2,6-i-PPHI)P; the ratio of the Ksub(s) values nearly 7 x 10 3 , favours the less acidic extractant. For comparative purposes, the Ksub(s) values for UO 2 2+ and for Am 3+ and Eu 3+ in other (X 1 )(X 2 )PO(OH), in benzene diluent, vs 1.0 F (NaCl + HCl) systems are presented. The variations are discussed in terms of the pKsub(A) of the extractant and the steric hindrance within the extractant. (author)

  8. Methylene blue doped polymers: efficient media for optical recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, R.

    2004-05-01

    Polymer materials find application in optical storage technology, namely in the development of high information density and fast access type memories. A new polymer blend of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) in methanol is prepared and characterized and its comparison with methylene blue sensitized PVA in methanol and complexed methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride (CMBPVC) is presented. The optical absorption spectra of the thin films of these polymers showed a strong and broad absorption region at 670-650 nm, matching the wavelength of the laser used. A very slow recovery of the dye on irradiation was observed when a 7:3 blend of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid at a pH of 3.8 and a sensitizer concentration of 4.67 · 10-5 g/ml were used. A diffraction efficiency of up to 20% was observed for the MBPVA/alcohol system and an energetic sensitivity of 2000 mJ/cm2 was obtained in the photosensitive films with a spatial frequency of 588 lines/mm.

  9. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Chakraborty, Biswajit

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.

  10. Extraction of lanthanide elements and bismuth in molten lithium chloride-liquid bismuth-lithium alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Makoto; Adachi, Motonari; Kai, Yuichi; Koike, Kenichi

    1987-01-01

    The equilibrium distributions of neodymium and samarium between molten LiCl and liquid Bi-Li alloy were measured in a wide range of Li-mole fraction in the alloy phase, X Li . These lanthanide elements were extracted through redox reactions. In high X Li range, X Li > 0.03, the distributions of neodymium and bismuth in the salt phase increased markedly. The anomalous increase is attributed to the formation of the compound comprized of Nd, Li, Bi and oxygen in the salt phase. The reaction processes in samarium and neodymium were very fast and the extraction rates are controlled by the diffusion processes of the solutes and metallic lithium. (author)

  11. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  12. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  13. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Ciura, Sorana; Maios, Claudia; Therrien, Martine; Drapeau, Pierre; Kabashi, Edor; Parker, J Alex

    2012-01-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C) or FUS (S57Δ or R521H) that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  14. Curcuma longa Linn. extract and curcumin protect CYP 2E1 enzymatic activity against mercuric chloride-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress: A protective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepmala; Mittal, Deepak Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta; Srivastav, Sunil Kumar; Dixit, Vaibhav A

    2017-07-05

    The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Curcuma longa (200mgkg -1 , po) and curcumin (80mgkg -1 , po) for their hepatoprotective efficacy against mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 : 12μmolkg -1 , ip; once only) hepatotoxicity. The HgCl 2 administration altered various biochemical parameters, including transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and cholesterol contents with a concomitant decline in protein and albumin concentration in serum which were restored towards control by therapy of Curcuma longa or curcumin. On the other hand, both treatments showed a protective effect on drug metabolizing enzymes viz. aniline hydroxylase (AH) and amidopyrine-N-demethylase (AND), hexobarbitone induced sleep time and BSP retention. Choleretic, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH)-free radical scavenging activities and histological studies also supported the biochemical findings. The present study concludes that Curcuma longa extract or curcumin has the ability to alleviate the hepatotoxic effects caused by HgCl 2 in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of nanoparticles composed of silver and silver chloride for a plasmonic photocatalyst using an extract from a weed Solidago altissima (goldenrod)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vemu Anil; Uchida, Takashi; Mizuki, Toru; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2016-03-01

    Phytosynthesis of nanomaterials is advantageous since it is economical, ecofriendly, and simple, and, what is more, in the synthetic protocols, nontoxic chemicals and biocompatible materials are used. Here, a green synthetic methodology of nanoparticles (NPs) composed of silver (Ag) and silver chloride (AgCl) NPs is developed using a leaf extract of Solidago altissima as a reducing agent for the first time. Utilization of a terrestrial weed for the synthesis of Ag and AgCl NPs is a novel environmentally friendly approach considering that no toxic chemicals, external halide source, or elaborate experimental procedures are included in the process. The optical properties and elemental compositions of as-synthesized Ag and AgCl NPs are well characterized, and the degradation of an organic dye, i.e., rhodamine B (RhB), is investigated using the Ag and AgCl NPs. We find that degradation of RhB is effectively achieved thanks to both surface plasmon resonance and semiconductor properties of Ag and AgCl NPs. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering and antibacterial activities are also examined. The present approach to the synthesis of NPs using a weed may encourage the utilization of hazardous plants for the creation of novel nanomaterials.

  16. Synthesis of nanoparticles composed of silver and silver chloride for a plasmonic photocatalyst using an extract from a weed Solidago altissima (goldenrod)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vemu Anil; Uchida, Takashi; Mizuki, Toru; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Phytosynthesis of nanomaterials is advantageous since it is economical, ecofriendly, and simple, and, what is more, in the synthetic protocols, nontoxic chemicals and biocompatible materials are used. Here, a green synthetic methodology of nanoparticles (NPs) composed of silver (Ag) and silver chloride (AgCl) NPs is developed using a leaf extract of Solidago altissima as a reducing agent for the first time. Utilization of a terrestrial weed for the synthesis of Ag and AgCl NPs is a novel environmentally friendly approach considering that no toxic chemicals, external halide source, or elaborate experimental procedures are included in the process. The optical properties and elemental compositions of as-synthesized Ag and AgCl NPs are well characterized, and the degradation of an organic dye, i.e., rhodamine B (RhB), is investigated using the Ag and AgCl NPs. We find that degradation of RhB is effectively achieved thanks to both surface plasmon resonance and semiconductor properties of Ag and AgCl NPs. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering and antibacterial activities are also examined. The present approach to the synthesis of NPs using a weed may encourage the utilization of hazardous plants for the creation of novel nanomaterials. (paper)

  17. Citrus pectin derived porous carbons as a superior adsorbent toward removal of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenlin; Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-01-01

    An adsorbent, citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of methylene blue, was synthesized by a facile zinc chloride activation approach in this study. The materials hold a great potential for treatment of dye wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward methylene blue removal. - Highlights: • Citrus pectin derived porous carbons (CPPCs) were synthesized a facile zinc chloride activation approach. • CPPCs had abundant macro/meso/micropores for trapping MB molecules. • CPPCs exhibited ultrahigh adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of MB.

  18. Citrus pectin derived porous carbons as a superior adsorbent toward removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenlin [College of Horticulture and landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Zhang, Lian Ying [Institute for Clean Energy & Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhao, Xi Juan [College of Horticulture and landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountainous Regions, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhou, Zhiqin, E-mail: zhouzhiqin@swu.edu.cn [College of Horticulture and landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountainous Regions, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2016-11-15

    An adsorbent, citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of methylene blue, was synthesized by a facile zinc chloride activation approach in this study. The materials hold a great potential for treatment of dye wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward methylene blue removal. - Highlights: • Citrus pectin derived porous carbons (CPPCs) were synthesized a facile zinc chloride activation approach. • CPPCs had abundant macro/meso/micropores for trapping MB molecules. • CPPCs exhibited ultrahigh adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of MB.

  19. Contribution to the study of the mechanism of extraction of uranyl chloride by long chain aliphatic amines; Contribution a l'etude du mecanisme d'extraction du chlorure d'uranyle par les amines aliphatiques a longues chaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, G R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    After having studied and developed the mechanisms which may 'a priori' explain the extraction process (co-ordination, ion association or intermediate mechanism), experience shows that ion association only should be taken into consideration. The structure of the organic complex of uranyl chloride has been defined on the basis of the study of the variation of the distribution coefficient of uranium between the two phases at the equilibrium as a function of successively the activity of Cl{sup -} ions in the aqueous phase, the concentration of amine salt in the organic phase and finally of the concentration of uranium in the aqueous phase. The plotting of the results in bi-logarithmic co-ordinates enables us to propose the following formula for the extracted compound: UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup --}(NR{sub 3}H{sup +}){sub 2}. The calculation of the equilibrium constant of formation of the organic compound of uranyl chloride has been possible in the case of diluted solutions of uranium only. (author) [French] Apres avoir expose et developpe les mecanismes qui a priori pouvaient expliquer le processus d'extraction (coordination, association d'ions ou mecanisme intermediaire), le recours a l'experience a finalement permis de ne retenir que l'association d'ions. La structure du complexe organique de chlorure d'uranyle a ete definie a partir de l'etude de la variation du coefficient de partage de l'uranium entre les deux phases a l'equilibre en fonction successivement de l'activite des ions Cl{sup -} en phase aqueuse, de la concentration de sel d'amine en phase organique et enfin de la concentration d'uranium de la phase aqueuse. La representation bilogarithmique des resultats de ces essais a permis de proposer la formule suivante pour le compose extrait: UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup --}(NR{sub 3}H{sup +}){sub 2}. Le calcul de la constante d'equilibre de formation du compose organique de chlorure d'uranyle a ete seulement possible pour les solutions diluees en uranium. (auteur)

  20. Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanita, Sergio C; Padivitage, Nilusha L T

    2013-03-20

    A sample extraction and purification procedure that uses ammonium-salt-induced acetonitrile/water phase separation was developed and demonstrated to be compatible with the recently reported method for pesticide residue analysis based on fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS). The ammonium salts evaluated were chloride, acetate, formate, carbonate, and sulfate. A mixture of NaCl and MgSO4, salts used in the well-known QuEChERS method, was also tested for comparison. With thermal decomposition/evaporation temperature of salts resulted in negligible ion source residual under typical electrospray conditions, leading to consistent method performance and less instrument cleaning. Although all ammonium salts tested induced acetonitrile/water phase separation, NH4Cl yielded the best performance, thus it was the preferred salting out agent. The NH4Cl salting out method was successfully coupled with FI/MS/MS and tested for fourteen pesticide active ingredients: chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, chlorimuron ethyl, oxamyl, methomyl, sulfometuron methyl, chlorsulfuron, triflusulfuron methyl, azimsulfuron, flupyrsulfuron methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminocyclopyrachlor methyl, diuron and hexazinone. A validation study was conducted with nine complex matrices: sorghum, rice, grapefruit, canola, milk, eggs, beef, urine and blood plasma. The method is applicable to all analytes, except aminocyclopyrachlor. The method was deemed appropriate for quantitative analysis in 114 out of 126 analyte/matrix cases tested (applicability rate=0.90). The NH4Cl salting out extraction/cleanup allowed expansion of FI/MS/MS for analysis in food of plant and animal origin, and body fluids with increased ruggedness and sensitivity, while maintaining high-throughput (run time=30s/sample). Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm), the 'well-accepted standard' in pesticide residue analysis, were achieved in >80% of cases tested; while limits of detection

  1. Evaluation of urinary cortisol excretion by radioimmunoassay through two methods (extracted and non-extracted)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Kohek, M.B. da; Mendonca, B.B. de; Nicolau, W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of both methods (extracted versus non-extracted) in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. It used Gamma Coat 125 cortisol Kit provided by Clinical Assays, Incstar, USA, for both methods extracting it with methylene chloride in order to measure the extracted cortisol. It was performed 32 assays from which it was obtained from 0.1 to 0.47 u g/d l of sensitivity. The intra-run precision was varied from 8.29 +- 3.38% and 8.19 +-4.72% for high and low levels, respectively for non-extracted cortisol, and 9.72 +- 1.94% and 9.54 +- 44% for high and low levels, respectively, for extracted cortisol. The inter-run precision was 15.98% and 16.15% for high level of non-extracted cortisol, respectively. For the low level it obtained 17.25% and 18.59% for non-extracted and extracted cortisol respectively. It was evaluated 24-hour urine basal samples from 43 normal subjects, and 53 obese (body mass index > 30) and 53 Cushing's syndrome patients. The sensitivity of the methods were similar (100% and 98.1% for non-extracted and extracted methods, respectively) and the specificity was the same for both methods (100%). It was noticed a positive correlation between the two methods in all the groups studied (p s syndrome. (author)

  2. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, D.O.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl 3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl 3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  3. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of Crude Extract, Fractions and 4-Nerolidylcathecol from Aerial Parts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey P. Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. (Piperaceae and fractions obtained by partitions sequentially among water-methanol, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate, as well as the major constituent, 4-nerolidylcatechol, were, respectively, evaluated and evidenced for antioxidant and cytotoxic effects through fluorometric microplate and microculture tetrazolium assays in HL-60 cells. The crude ethanolic extract demonstrated the preeminent antioxidant activity (IC50=1.2 μg/mL against exogenous cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species, followed by the water-methanolic (IC50=4.5 μg/mL, methylene chloride (IC50=5.9 μg/mL, ethyl acetate (IC50=8.0 μg/mL, 4-nerolidylcatechol (IC50=8.6 μg/mL, and the sterol fractions (IC50>12.5 μg/mL. Vitamin C, the positive control used in this assay, presented IC50 value equivalent to 1.7 μg/mL. 4-Nerolidylcatechol (IC50=0.4 μg/mL and methylene chloride fraction (IC50=2.3 μg/mL presented considerable cytotoxicity probably because of the presence of an o-quinone, an auto-oxidation by product of the catechol. Polar compounds, present in the ethanol extract, appear to increase the solubility and stability of the major active constituent, acting synergistically with 4-nerolidylcatechol, improving its pharmacokinetic parameters and increasing significantly its antioxidant activity which, in turn, suggests that the aqueous-ethanolic extract, used in folklore medicine, is safe and effective.

  4. Cetylpyridinium chloride functionalized silica-coated magnetite microspheres for the solid-phase extraction and pre-concentration of ochratoxin A from environmental water samples with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meihua; Huang, Pengcheng; Suo, Lili; Wu, Fangying

    2017-06-01

    A new method based on cetylpyridinium chloride coated ferroferric oxide/silica magnetic microspheres as an efficient solid-phase adsorbent was developed for the extraction and enrichment of ochratoxin A. The determination of ochratoxin A was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride, the adsorption capacity of ferroferric oxide/silica microspheres was 5.95 mg/g for ochratoxin A. The experimental parameters were optimized, including the amounts of ferroferric oxide/silica microspheres (20 mg) and cetylpyridinium chloride (0.18 mL, 0.5 mg/mL), pH value of media (9), ultrasonic time (5 min), elution solvent and volume [2(1 + 1) mL (washed twice, 1 mL each time) 1% acetic acid acetonitrile]. Under optimal experiment conditions, ochratoxin A had good linearity in the range of 2.5-250.0 ng/L in water samples with correlation coefficient of the calibration curve 0.9995. The limit of detection for ochratoxin A was 0.83 ng/L, and the recoveries were 89.8-96.8% with the relative standard deviation of 1.5-3.5% in environmental water samples. Furthermore, ferroferric oxide/silica microspheres show excellent reusability during extraction procedures for no less than six times. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  6. Evaluation of urinary excretion of cortisol by radioimmunoassay through two methods (extracted and non-extracted)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Kohek, M.B. da.

    1992-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of urinary cortisol extracted by organic solvent (free cortisol) has been used for along time in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. With the development of more specific antisera it became possible to measure urinary cortisol without extracting it. The objective of this paper is to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of both methods (extracted versus non-extracted) in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. It was used Gamma Coat 125 I - cortisol kit provided by Clinical Assay, Incstar, US, for both methods extracting it with methylene chloride in order to measure the extracted cortisol. The sensitivity of the methods were similar (100% and 98,1%, for non-extracted and extracted methods, respectively). A positive correlation between the two methods was noticed in all groups studied (p < 0.05). It was concluded that both methods are efficient for the investigation of hypercortisolism. However, it's suggested that non-extracted urinary cortisol measurement should be the method of choice since it's an easy-to-perform and affordable method to diagnose Cushing's syndrome. (author)

  7. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  8. Process for crosslinking methylene-containing aromatic polymers with ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process for crosslinking aromatic polymers containing radiation-sensitive methylene groups (-CH2-) by exposing the polymers to ionizing radiation thereby causing crosslinking of the polymers through the methylene groups is described. Crosslinked polymers are resistant to most organic solvents such as acetone, alcohols, hydrocarbons, methylene, chloride, chloroform, and other halogenated hydrocarbons, to common fuels and to hydraulic fluids in contrast to readily soluble uncrosslinked polymers. In addition, the degree of crosslinking of the polymers depends upon the percentage of the connecting groups which are methylene which ranges from 5 to 50 pct and preferably from 25 to 50 pct of the connecting groups, and is also controlled by the level of irradiation which ranges from 25 to 1000 Mrads and preferably from 25 to 250 Mrads. The temperature of the reaction conditions ranges from 25 to 200 C and preferably at or slightly above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The crosslinked polymers are generally more resistant to degradation at elevated temperatures such as greater than 150 C, have a reduced tendency to creep under load, and show no significant embrittlement of parts fabricated from the polymers.

  9. Estimation of surface area and pore volume of activated carbons by methylene blue and iodine numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton A. Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of methylene blue number and iodine number of activated carbons samples were calibrated against the respective surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume using multiple regression. The models obtained from the calibrations were used in predicting these physical properties of a test group of activated carbon samples produced from several raw materials. In all cases, the predicted values were in good agreement with the expected values. The method allows extracting more information from the methylene blue and iodine adsorption studies than normally obtained with this type of material.

  10. Extraction of silver by gels of sodium poly-acrylic-polyacrylate acid. Application: elimination of chloride anions; Extraction de l'argent par des gels d'acide polyacrylique-polyacrylate de sodium. Application a l'elimination des ions chlorures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rifi, E.H. [Universite Ibn-Tofail, Lab. de Synthese Organique et Pocedes d' Extraction, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Lakkis, D.; Leroy, J.F.M. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Lab. de Chimie Analytique et Minerale, Ecole Europeenne de Chimie, Polymeres et Materiaux, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2005-05-01

    The extraction of silver from diluted aqueous solutions by gels of sodium poly-acrylic-polyacrylate acid was studied. The study of pH variations shows that the extraction is done by cation-cation exchange process. The highest loading of the gel by silver is obtained at R(moles of Ag{sup +} fixed by the gel/moles of -COO(H, Na))=0.75. The silver gel loaded allows the recovery of ions chlorides from the aqueous solutions. (authors)

  11. Determination of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in agricultural soil samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after simple and rapid solvent extraction using choline chloride-oxalic acid deep eutectic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matong, Joseph M; Nyaba, Luthando; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2017-01-01

    A rapid, simple and green ultrasound-assisted extraction method using deep eutectic solvents (DES) for extraction of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in soil samples, has been developed. Choline chloride-oxalic acid based DES was used as a solvent. The target analytes were subsequently quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP OES). The parameters that affect the extraction of the target analytes was optimized using standard reference material of San Joaquin soil (SRM 2709a). In the optimization step, a two-level full factorial experimental design was used. The factors under investigation include extraction time, sample mass and acid concentration. Under optimized conditions, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.009 to 0.1 and 0.03-0.3µgg -1 , respectively. The repeatability (n=20) estimated in terms of relative standard deviation (%RSD) ranged from 0.9% to 3.7%. The accuracy of the proposed method was carried out using SRM 2709a. The obtained and certified/ indicative values were statistically in good agreement at 95% confidence level. The proposed method applied for quantification of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in real soil samples. For comparison, the analytes of interest were also determined using a conventional acid digestion method. According to the paired t-test, the analytical results were not significant differences at 95% confidence level. The method was found to be accurate, precise and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of Cd(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) from Chloride Medium by Solvent Extraction Using CYANEX 923 and CYANEX 272 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; El Dessouky, S.I.; El-Nadi, Y.A.; Daoud, J.A.; Saad, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to study the extraction and separation of Cd(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) from their mixtures in hydrochloric acid medium with CYANEX 923 in kerosene. Preliminary investigations showed that only Cd(II) is extracted with CYANEX 923 while Co(II) and Ni(II) are not extracted. Different parameters affecting the extraction of Cd(II) with CYANEX 923 such as hydrochloric acid, hydrogen ion, extractant and metal concentrations, temperature investigations were also investigated. The stoichiometry of the extracted metal species investigated was found to be HCdCl 3 . 2 CYANEX 923. The stripping of the extracted Cd(II) species is obtained with 0.1 M HCl solution. Co(II) was found to be extracted with CYANEX 272 at ph 5.8 leaving Ni(II) in the solution. A developed process for the sequential of Cd(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) from their mixture in hydrochloric acid medium is proposed

  13. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of extracts from the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Nana, P; Atsamo, A D; Dimo, T; Watcho, P; Dongmo, A B; Tapondjou, L A; Njamen, D; Wansi, S L; Kamanyi, A

    2006-06-15

    Kalanchoe crenata Andr. (Crassulaceae) is a fleshy herbaceous plant used in the African traditional medicine as remedies against otitis, headache, inflammations, convulsions and general debility. In the present work, the analgesic effects of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) (CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH) extract and its hexane, methylene chloride (CH(2)Cl(2)), ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and aqueous residue have been evaluated using acetic acid, formalin and pressure test. The anticonvulsant effects of the CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract were also investigated on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ 70 mg/kg), strychnine sulphate (STN 2.5 mg/kg) and thiosemicarbazide (TSC 50 mg/kg). CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its fractions, administered orally at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, exhibited protective effect of at least 30% on the pain induced by acetic acid. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at 300 mg/kg showed a maximal effect of 78.49%. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract and its CH(2)Cl(2) fraction at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the first phase of pain induced by formalin while the second phase was completely inhibited. The CH(2)Cl(2) fraction produced more than 45% reduction in the sensitivity to pain induced by pressure. The CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)OH extract of Kalanchoe crenata significantly increased the latency period in seizures induced by PTZ and significantly reduced the duration of seizures induced by the three convulsant agents. The extract protected 20% of animals against death in seizures induced by TSC and STN. These results suggest a peripheral and central analgesic activities as well as an anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata.

  14. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    Full Text Available The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C or FUS (S57Δ or R521H that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  15. Allene functionalization via bicyclic methylene aziridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boralsky, Luke A; Marston, Dagmara; Grigg, R David; Hershberger, John C; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2011-04-15

    The oxidative functionalization of olefins is a common method for the formation of vicinal carbon-heteroatom bonds. However, oxidative methods to transform allenes into synthetic motifs containing three contiguous carbon-heteroatom bonds are much less developed. This paper describes the use of bicyclic methylene aziridines (MAs), prepared via intramolecular allene aziridination, as scaffolds for functionalization of all three allene carbons. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Radiolysis of methylene blue studied by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contineau, M.; Iliescu, C.; Ciureanu, M.

    1983-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra have been used to gain information on the mechanism of radiolysis of aqueous solutions of methylene blue. The identity and behaviour of the semiquinone radicals formed as intermediate reduction products were discussed for strongly acid and for alcaline solutions. In order to obtain information on the radiolytic mechanism in strongly acidic media, irradiation was performed in the presence of various types of scavengers: sodium formate, glucose, succinic acid, hydroquinone and D,L-α alanine. (author)

  17. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  18. Methylene blue adsorption by algal biomass based materials: biosorbents characterization and process behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-08-17

    Dead algal biomass is a natural material that serves as a basis for developing a new family of sorbent materials potentially suitable for many industrial applications. In this work an algal industrial waste from agar extraction process, algae Gelidium and a composite material obtained by immobilization of the algal waste with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were physical characterized and used as biosorbents for dyes removal using methylene blue as model. The apparent and real densities and the porosity of biosorbents particles were determined by mercury porosimetry and helium picnometry. The methylene blue adsorption in the liquid phase was the method chosen to calculate the specific surface area of biosorbent particles as it seems to reproduce better the surface area accessible to metal ions in the biosorption process than the N2 adsorption-desorption dry method. The porous texture of the biosorbents particles was also studied. Equilibrium isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equation, giving maximum uptake capacities of 171, 104 and 74 mg g(-1), respectively for algae, algal waste and composite material. Kinetic experiments at different initial methylene blue concentrations were performed to evaluate the equilibrium time and the importance of the driving force to overcome mass transfer resistances. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models adequately describe the kinetic data. The biosorbents used in this work proved to be promising materials for removing methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

  19. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  20. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  1. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  2. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  3. Compound list: methylene dianiline [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available methylene dianiline DAPM 00155 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/methyle...es/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/methylene_dianiline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc....jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/methylene_dianiline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ... ...ne_dianiline.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggat

  4. Evaluating the potential cancer chemopreventive efficacy of two different solvent extracts of Seriphidium herba-alba in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohamed Mokhtar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death world-wide. One of the most important medical practices of the 21st century is the chemoprevention of cancer. For a long history, it has been accepted that plants could prevent and exert suitable anti-carcinogenic effects for multiple types of cancers. Seriphidium herba-alba family Asteraceae has been used in the folk medicine by many cultures for treatment of various ailments since ancient times. In the current research we were aimed to evaluate the cancer chemopreventive activity of two crude extracts of S. herba-alba, methylene chloride extract and methanol extract on two cell lines: Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep-G2. Assessment of cytotoxicity using methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT assay indicated that both extracts exhibit poor cytotoxicity with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 >20 µg/mL. Assessment of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs activity (spectrophotometrically showed statistically significant enhancement of enzyme activity after treatment with three different doses of methylene chloride extract and glutathione (GSH concentrations were decreased. Analysis of cell mode of death by Ethidium bromide/Acridine orange (EB/AO staining revealed that the dominant mode of death in MCF-7 cells was apoptosis. Assessment of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and platelets derived growth factor (PDGFBB using ELISA showed that VEGF and PDGFBB levels were statistically significant decreased. In Conclusion: both extracts may be cancer chemopreventive agents since they had tumor anti-initiating, and anti-promoting activity.

  5. Liquid-liquid extraction of cadmium(II by TIOACl (tri-iso-octylammonium chloride ionic liquid and its application to a TIOACl impregnated carbon nanotubes system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, Francisco J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of cadmium(II by the ionic liquid (R3NH+Cl- (R: tri-iso-octyl in Exxsol D100 from hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated. The extraction reaction is exothermic. The numerical analysis of metal distribution data suggests the formation of R3NH+CdCl3− and (R3NH+2CdCl42− species in the organic phase. The results obtained for cadmium(II distribution have been implemented in an impregnated multi-walled carbon nanotubes system. The influence of aqueous solution stirring speed (250–2000 min−1, adsorbent dosage (0.05–0.2 g and temperature (20 °C–60 °C on cadmium adsorption have been investigated.Se ha estudiado la extracción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio HCl, por el líquido iónico (R3NH+Cl- (R: tri-iso-octyl disuelto en Exxsol D100. La reacción de extracción tiene un carácter exotérmico. El análisis numérico de la distribución del metal sugiere la formación de las especies R3NH+CdCl3− y (R3NH+2CdCl42− en la fase orgánica. Estos resultados se han implementado en un sistema que utiliza nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple impregnados con este líquido iónico. Se han investigado diversas variables experimentales: velocidad de agitación de la disolución acuosa (250–2000 min−1, adición del adsorbente (0,05–0,2 g y temperatura (20–60 °C.

  6. Stability constants of the Europium complexes with the chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A.

    2000-01-01

    The stability constants of lanthanides complexes with chloride ions which were determined at the same ionic force but in different media, are significantly different. It does not exist a systematic study over these stability constants. The purpose of this work is to determine the stability constants of the europium complexes with chloride ions at 303 K, by the solvents extraction method. (Author)

  7. The use of chemical modified chitosan with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ilauro S.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of a-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically in L class and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methylene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 ± 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 ± 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 ± 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 ± 0.4 and -21.5 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. (author)

  8. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  9. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    isotopes methods to investigate groundwater recharge ... and isotopic characterization of groundwater, rainfall and the unsaturated zone were also carried out using a ..... Chloride concentrations in soil water extracted by lixiviation from.

  10. Combined Exposure of Methylene Chloride and Carbon Monoxide in Smoking and Nonsmoking Paint Strippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    colorless volatile liquid whose solubility in water is minimal. It is completely miscible with most organic solvents (1). It is nonflammable and has a...University oi Utah will provide you, without charge, emergency and temporary medical tratament not otherwise covered by Insurance. Furthermore, if your

  11. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping Mechanism for Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    NS neutron scattering OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PALS positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy PhOH phenol PI... annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS)10, which can be used to identify microstructures and free volume properties of organic coatings and, thus...4-3 4.2.1.3 Application Methods

  12. Health risk assessment of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in California ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; Wright, K.; McKone, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to dichloromethane (DCM) dissolved in California drinking water, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential cancer risk that may be associated with such exposures to DCM. This assessment is being provided to the California Environmental Protection Agency for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of DCM exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with DCM. The primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate scientifically plausible dose-response relationships for observed and potential DCM-induced cancer in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that win protect members of the general public from this chronic toxicity endpoint resulting solely from groundwater-based exposures to DCM, based on information obtained from the scientific literature. The document consists of seven sections, plus one supporting appendix. Each section provides information that can be used to develop DCM drinking-water standards that will safeguard human health. Evaluation of this information in support of specific groundwater safety standards for DCM was not conducted in this report; rather, the basis for selection of alternative standards, along with a narrative description of certain key sources of underlying uncertainty, are presented for evaluation through the regulatory risk-management process

  13. Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    observing NMR of the solvent molecules themselves, 1H NMR can be useful in more highly swollen cases such as chloroform in copolymer gel beads,14 or in...Polyurethane Topcoat. Part A Raw Material Wt % Part B Raw Material Wt % Methyl N- propyl ketone 1 Polyurethane resin 43 Methyl N-amyl ketone 7 N-Butyl...2 5.5 N-Butyl acetate 2 Methyl N-amyl ketone 8.9 Methyl N- propyl ketone 1.3 Anti-oxidant 0.4 UV absorber 0.6 UV Stabilizer 1.3

  14. Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in setting acute exposure guideline levels for methylene chloride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Peter Martinus Jozef; Zeilmaker, Marco Jacob; Eijkeren, Jan Cornelis Henri van

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) are derived to protect the human population from adverse health effects in case of single exposure due to an accidental release of chemicals into the atmosphere. AEGLs are set at three different levels of increasing toxicity for exposure durations ranging from

  15. Adsorption of methylene blue onto treated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin Yasin; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Faujan Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    The potential feasibility of treated and untreated activated carbon for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of various experimental parameters such as contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dosage were investigated. The extent of methylene blue removal increased with the increased in contact time, solution pH and amount of adsorbent used. Adsorption data was better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The results in this study indicated that the treated activated carbon was an attractive candidate for removing organic dye of methylene blue which shows great reduction of colour while reducing the time contact to achieve equilibrium. (author)

  16. POLY[3-(METHACRYLOYLAMINO)PROPYL]TRIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE HYDROGEL. SYNTHESIS AND WATER-ABSORPTION CAPACITY.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Bernabé L.; Canessa, Guido S.; Martínez, Esteban

    2000-01-01

    The radical polymerization of [3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride by using ammonium persulfate as initiator and N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide as crosslinker reagent was carried out. The polymers were completely insoluble in water and characterized by FT IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The effect of the crosslinker reagent on the water sorption capacity was investigated. The highest water-absorption (46.6 g of water/ g of xerogel) was observed with the lowest mol% of c...

  17. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  19. Batch Adsorption Study of Methylene Blue in Aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    of methylene blue (azo dye) from the synthetic industrial wastewater was investigated in a batch system. Rice husk and coconut shell were ... the textiles, rubber, paper, plastics, cosmetic, and .... wastewater by. Fenton's oxidation: Kinetic study.

  20. Photodynamic action of the methylene blue: mutagenesis and sinergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two aspects of photodynamic therapy were studied: the associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents, in order to increase its biological effects. The photodynamic action with methylene blue in the mutagenesis and sinergism is studied. (L.M.J.)

  1. INTERACTION MODE BETWEEN METHYLENE BLUE-Sm(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange .... the complex was recorded as KBr pellets on Spectrum One FTIR system (PE Company, USA), ..... mechanism of drugs and drug design.

  2. Hydrocracking mechanisms in molten zinc chloride. Isotope scrambling and pyrolysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, J.W.; Earnest, S.

    1979-01-01

    Bruceton coal was hydrocracked in molten zinc chloride using H 2 -D 2 mixtures. No H-D was observed. The pyrolysis of Bruceton coal and a lignite in molten zinc chloride and an inert salt was carried out and the tetrahydrofuran and pyridine extractability of the products determined. In the absence of H 2 , zinc chloride is not an effective cracking catalyst. It is tentatively concluded that the catalytically active species is formed from zinc chloride and something in the coal and H 2 . The interactions between zinc chloride and the lignite appear to be significantly different than the interactions between zinc chloride and the bituminous coal. (Auth.)

  3. Optimisation of supercritical fluid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitrated derivatives adsorbed on highly sorptive diesel particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portet-Koltalo, F.; Oukebdane, K.; Dionnet, F.; Desbene, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was performed to extract complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated derivatives (nitroPAHs) and heavy n-alkanes from spiked soot particulates that resulted from the incomplete combustion of diesel oils. This polluted material, resulting from combustion in a light diesel engine and collected at high temperature inside the particulate filter placed just after the engine, was particularly resistant to conventional extraction techniques, such as soxhlet extraction, and had an extraction behaviour that differed markedly from certified reference materials (SRM 1650). A factorial experimental design was performed, simultaneously modelling the influence of four SFE experimental factors on the recovery yields, i.e.: the temperature and the pressure of the supercritical fluid, the nature and the percentage of the organic modifier added to CO 2 (chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, methylene chloride), as a means to reach the optimal extraction yields for all the studied target pollutants. The results of modelling showed that the supercritical fluid pressure had to be kept at its maximum level (30 MPa) and the temperature had to be kept relatively low (75 o C). Under these operating conditions, adding 15% of methylene chloride to the CO 2 permitted quantitative extraction of not only light PAHs and their nitrated derivatives, but also heavy n-alkanes from the spiked soots. However, heavy polyaromatics were not quantitatively extracted from the refractory carbonaceous solid surface. As such, original organic modifiers were tested, including pyridine, which, as a strong electron donor cosolvent (15% into CO 2 ), was the most successful. The addition of diethylamine to pyridine, which enhanced the electron donor character of the cosolvent, even increased the extraction yields of the heaviest PAHs, leading to a quantitative extraction of all PAHs (more than 79%) from the diesel particulate matter, with detection limits

  4. DNA Electrochemistry with Tethered Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheeney, Catrina G.

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB′), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C12 alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB′ is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB′–DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)–DNA, indicating that MB′ is even more strongly coupled to the π-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB′ on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB′ at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

  5. Contribution to the study of the mechanism of extraction of uranyl chloride by long chain aliphatic amines; Contribution a l'etude du mecanisme d'extraction du chlorure d'uranyle par les amines aliphatiques a longues chaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, G.R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    After having studied and developed the mechanisms which may 'a priori' explain the extraction process (co-ordination, ion association or intermediate mechanism), experience shows that ion association only should be taken into consideration. The structure of the organic complex of uranyl chloride has been defined on the basis of the study of the variation of the distribution coefficient of uranium between the two phases at the equilibrium as a function of successively the activity of Cl{sup -} ions in the aqueous phase, the concentration of amine salt in the organic phase and finally of the concentration of uranium in the aqueous phase. The plotting of the results in bi-logarithmic co-ordinates enables us to propose the following formula for the extracted compound: UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup --}(NR{sub 3}H{sup +}){sub 2}. The calculation of the equilibrium constant of formation of the organic compound of uranyl chloride has been possible in the case of diluted solutions of uranium only. (author) [French] Apres avoir expose et developpe les mecanismes qui a priori pouvaient expliquer le processus d'extraction (coordination, association d'ions ou mecanisme intermediaire), le recours a l'experience a finalement permis de ne retenir que l'association d'ions. La structure du complexe organique de chlorure d'uranyle a ete definie a partir de l'etude de la variation du coefficient de partage de l'uranium entre les deux phases a l'equilibre en fonction successivement de l'activite des ions Cl{sup -} en phase aqueuse, de la concentration de sel d'amine en phase organique et enfin de la concentration d'uranium de la phase aqueuse. La representation bilogarithmique des resultats de ces essais a permis de proposer la formule suivante pour le compose extrait: UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup --}(NR{sub 3}H{sup +}){sub 2}. Le calcul de la constante d'equilibre de formation du compose organique de chlorure d

  6. Methylene Blue for Vasoplegic Syndrome Postcardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Aly Makram; Elsherbeny, Ahmed Galal; Almehizia, Rayd Abdelaziz

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can be complicated by vasoplegia that is refractory to vasopressors. Methylene blue (MB) represents an alternative in such cases. Patients and Methods: Retrospective observational historical control-matched study. From 2010 to 2015, all patients who received MB for vasoplegia post-CPB were included in this study. Historical controls from the period of 2004 to 2009 were matched. End-points were the time till improvement of vasoplegia (Ti), 30-day mortality, cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU) morbidity, and length of stay (LOS). Results: Twenty-eight patients were matched in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in demographic, laboratory data on admission, or hemodynamic profile before use of MB. Ti and time to complete discontinuation of vasopressors were statistically significant less in MB group (8.2 ± 2.6 vs. 29.7 ± 6.4, P = 0.00 and 22.6 ± 5.2 vs. 55.3 ± 9.4, P = 0.00) respectively. Mortality at day 30 was significantly higher in controls compared to MB (1 patient [3.6%] vs. 6 patients [21.4%], long rank P = 0.04). CSICU, hospital LOS, and incidence of renal failure was significantly higher in control group (12.4 ± 3.7 vs. 7 ± 1.4, P = 0.03), (19.5 ± 2.4 vs. 10.9 ± 3.2, P = 0.05) and (9 patients [32.1%] vs. 2 patients [7.1%], P = 0.04), respectively. Duration of mechanical ventilation was less in MB patients; however, did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: the use of MB for vasoplegia postcardiac surgery was associated with rapid recovery of hemodynamics, shorter need for vasopressors, less ICU mortality, less incidence of renal failure, and shorter LOS. PMID:29657374

  7. Analysis of cesium extracting solvent using GCMS and HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Herman, C.C.; Crump, S.L.; Marinik, A.R.; Lambert, D.P.; Eibling, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    A high-level waste (HLW) remediation process scheduled to begin in 2007 at the Savannah River Site is the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The MCU will use a hydrocarbon solvent (diluent) containing a cesium extractant, a calix[4]arene compound, to extract radioactive cesium from caustic HLW. The resulting decontaminated HLW waste or raffinate will be processed into grout at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The cesium containing CSSX stream will undergo washing with dilute nitric acid followed by stripping of the cesium nitrate into a very dilute nitric acid or the strip effluent stream and the CSSX solvent will be recycled. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will receive the strip effluent stream and immobilize the cesium into borosilicate glass. Excess CSSX solvent carryover from the MCU creates a potential flammability problem during DWPF processing. Bench-scale DWPF process testing was performed with simulated waste to determine the fate of the CSSX solvent components. A simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to identify the modifier (which is used to increase Cs extraction and extractant solubility) and extractant within the DWPF process. The diluent and trioctylamine (which is used to suppress impurity effect and ion-pair disassociation) were determined using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS). To close the organic balance, two types of sample preparation methods were needed. One involved extracting aqueous samples with methylene chloride or hexane, and the second was capturing the off gas of the DWPF process using carbon tubes and rinsing the tubes with carbon disulfide for analysis. This paper addresses the development of the analytical methods and the bench-scale simulated waste study results. (author)

  8. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  9. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  10. In vivo assessment of plant extracts for control of plant diseases: A sesquiterpene ketolactone isolated from Curcuma zedoaria suppresses wheat leaf rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Woo; Shim, Sang Hee; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Choi, Yong Ho; Dang, Quang Le; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja

    2018-02-01

    As an alternative to synthetic pesticides, natural materials such as plant extracts and microbes have been considered to control plant diseases. In this study, methanol extracts of 120 plants were explored for in vivo antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia triticina, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Of the 120 plant extracts, eight plant extracts exhibited a disease control efficacy of more than 90% against at least one of five plant diseases. In particular, a methanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes exhibited strong activity against wheat leaf rust caused by P. triticina. When the C. zedoaria methanol extracts were partitioned with various solvents, the layers of n-hexane, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate showed disease control values of 100, 80, and 43%, respectively, against wheat leaf rust. From the C. zedoaria rhizome extracts, an antifungal substance was isolated and identified as a sesquiterpene ketolactone based on the mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. The active compound controlled the development of rice sheath blight, wheat leaf rust, and tomato late blight. Considering the in vivo antifungal activities of the sesquiterpene ketolactone and the C. zedoaria extracts, these results suggest that C. zedoaria can be used as a potent fungicide in organic agriculture.

  11. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  12. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  13. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  14. Effect of halideions on the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of methylene blue for borohydride-reduced silver colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiao; Gu Huaimin; Liu Fang

    2011-01-01

    The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of methylene blue (MB) was studied when adding a range of halideions to borohydride-reduced silver colloid. The halideions such as chloride, bromide and iodide were added as aggregating agents to study the effects of halideions on SERS spectroscopy of MB and observe which halideion gives the greatest enhancement for borohydride-reduced silver colloids. The SERS spectra of MB were also detected over a wide range of concentrations of halideions to find the optimum concentration of halideions for SERS enhancement. From the results of this study, the intensity of SERS signal of MB was enhanced significantly when adding halideions to the colloid. Among the three kinds of halideions, chloride gives the greatest enhancement on SERS signal. The enhancement factors for MB with optimal concentration of chloride, bromide and iodide are 3.44x10 4 , 2.04x10 4 , and 1.0x10 4 , respectively. The differences of the SERS spectra of MB when adding different kinds and concentrations of halideions to the colloid may be attributed to the both effects of extent of aggregation of the colloid and the modification of silver surface chemistry. The purpose of this study is to further investigate the effect of halideions on borohydride-reduced silver colloid and to make the experimental conditions suitable for detecting some analytes in high efficiency on rational principles.

  15. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the removal of textile dye methylene blue was studied by adsorption technique using adsorbents such as, alumina, Ulva lactuca and Sargassum (Maine algae). The batch technique was adopted under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, stay time, concentration, temperature and pH. By using ...

  16. Methylene blue adsorption from glycerol solution onto the acicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α-goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the Langmuir, ...

  17. Interaction mode between methylene blue-Sm(III) complex and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectroscopic and viscosity methods were applied to investigate the interaction between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange as a spectral probe in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.40). By means of molar ratio method, the binding ratios between MB-Sm(III)and DNA were determined ...

  18. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk. On inhalation, it can cause difficulty in breathing, while on direct contact, it may cause permanent injury of the eyes of human and animals, burning sensations, nausea, worming, profuse sweating, mental confusion and ...

  19. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of dye methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface of sheep wool and cotton fibers was accomplished under the optimize conditions of temperature, concentration, pH, stay time duration and quantity of adsorbent. Spectrometric technique was used for the measurements of concentration of dye before ...

  20. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  1. Borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P T; Russo, A; Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-07-01

    Borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 C. At 30 C polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. At 35 C, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. At 60 C polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. When the pH of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to pH 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated at 60 C for extended periods. When used as a blood stain 0.4 ml borax methylene blue (1% methylene blue in 1% borax), 4 ml acetone, 2 ml borax-acid phosphate buffer to bring the solution to pH 6.5, and distilled water to make 40 ml, with 0.2 ml 1% eosin added just before using, an excellent Nocht-Giemsa type stain is achieved after 30 minutes staining. The material plasmodia P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei stain moderate blue with dark red chromatin and green to black pigment granules. The study confirms Malachowski's 1891 results and explains Gautier's 1896-98 failure to duplicate it.

  2. 21 CFR 558.76 - Bacitracin methylene disalicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.76 Bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (a) Approvals. Type A.... (b) Special considerations. The quantities of antibiotics are expressed in terms of the equivalent...

  3. Use of Aspergillus wentii for biosorption of methylene blue from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Aspergillus wentii was used as a biosorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on biosorption were investigated. The contact time required (that is, the equilibrium time) for maximum dye biosorption was ...

  4. Preparation of crosslinked poly (acryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) microsphere and its adsorption and mechanism towards shikimic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Jiying, E-mail: menjiying@nuc.edu.cn; Wang, Ruixin; Li, Huan; Li, Xinyan; Yang, Shanshan; Liu, Haisi; Gao, Baojiao

    2017-02-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) is a key raw material for the synthesis of the antiviral drug, but its extraction and separation from plants is still limited. Crosslinked poly (acryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, DAC) microspheres were synthesized via inverse-phase suspension polymerization. In the synthesizing, N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) was used as crosslinker, cyclohexane as dispersed medium and span-60 as dispersants, obtaining CPDAC gel microspheres. The effect of polymerization condition on balling performance and the characteristics of CPDAC were examined. The adsorption properties of CPDAC towards SA were mainly explored and the data of adsorption isotherm were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Sips and Toth models. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism was analyzed in depth, and the adsorption thermodynamics was also investigated. The results show that in order to prepare CPDAC, water phase must be added dropwise to oil phase, and the volume ratio of oil-water is more than 2:1. The mean diameter of CPDAC decreases with increasing span-60 and accelerating agitating rate. The strong electrostatic interaction is formed between quaternary ammonium nitrogen of CPDAC and −COO{sup –} of SA. The adsorption kinetic data is fitted well with pseudo-first-order model. The adsorption ability is higher in aqueous water than ethanol, reaching 108 mg/g, and Toth model is more suitable for describing the actual adsorption process. The adsorption of CPDAC towards SA is dependent on the pH value of the medium. The adsorption process is exothermic, the adsorption amount decreases with the increase of temperature, and the process is driven by enthalpy. The adsorption amount decreases with the increase of salinity. The reusability of CPDAC towards SA can keep 86.1% at the sixth cycle. - Highlights: • CPDAC microspheres were synthesized via inverse-phase suspension polymerization. • SA was adsorbed strongly by strong electrostatic interaction.

  5. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  6. Determination of submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Soliven, P.P.; Werner, S.L.; Vaught, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for determining submicrogram-per-liter concentrations of caffeine in surface water and groundwater samples has been developed. Caffeine is extracted from a 1 L water sample with a 0.5 g graphitized carbon-based solid-phase cartridge, eluted with methylene chloride-methanol (80 + 20, v/v), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. The single-operator method detection limit for organic-free water samples was 0.02 ??g/L. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations were 93 ?? 13% for organicfree water samples fortified at 0.04 ??g/L and 84 ?? 4% for laboratory reagent spikes fortified at 0.5 ??g/L. Environmental concentrations of caffeine ranged from 0.003 to 1.44 ??g/L in surface water samples and from 0.01 to 0.08 ??g/L in groundwater samples.

  7. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

  8. Extractive metallurgy. Recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed technical information derived from patents issued since 1975 on extractive metallurgy is presented. In part one, concerning copper, the major areas covered are: smelting and roasting; acid leaching; ammonia leach processes; cuprous chloride and ferric chloride; and recovery of copper values from solution. Part two covers other metals, including: nickel and cobalt; ocean floor nodules; lead, zinc, molybdenum and manganese; precious metals; and uranium titanium, tantalum, rhenium, gallium, and other metals

  9. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  10. Extração simultânea de alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sódio do solo com solução de cloreto de amônio Simultaneous extraction of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium with ammonium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Boeira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, alguns laboratórios de análise de solo determinam Al, Ca e Mg trocáveis em extratos de KCl 1 mol L-1 e K e Na na solução extratora Mehlich-1, também usada na extração de fósforo. Outros laboratórios, que empregam a resina trocadora de ânions para P, avaliam também Ca, Mg e K no extrato, não sendo possível determinar Al e Na. Dessa forma, achou-se oportuno avaliar a extração com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 na determinação simultânea dos cinco cátions trocáveis: Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na, em comparação aos extratores KCl e Mehlich-1. Utilizaram-se amostras coletadas em áreas de cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas da região Nordeste e na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente em Jaguariúna (SP. Os métodos utilizados foram: (a extração simultânea dos cinco cátions com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1, e (b extração de Ca, Mg e Al com KCl 1 mol L-1, e de K e Na com o extrator Mehlich-1. A solução de NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 apresentou maior capacidade de extração de Mg do solo do que a solução de KCl 1 mol L-1; as duas soluções se equivaleram quanto à capacidade de extração de Ca e de Al. A solução de NH4Cl extraiu mais K e Na do que a solução Mehlich-1. Conclui-se que a solução de NH4Cl é uma opção conveniente para a extração de Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na trocáveis do solo.Currently, part of the soil testing laboratories of Brazil determine exchangeable Al, Ca, and Mg in a 1 mol L-1 KCl soil extract and exchangeable sodium and potassium in the Mehlich-1 soil extract, which is also used for phosphorus extraction. Other laboratories use an anion exchange resin for P and also determine Ca, Mg and K in the same extract, while Al and Na cannot be determined. For this reason, it was considered a good opportunity to evaluate the simultaneous extraction of the five exchangeable cations: Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na in a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl solution, and compare the results with those obtained with potassium chloride and Mehlich-1 extractants. The soil

  11. Traditionally used medicinal plants against uncomplicated urinary tract infections: Are unusual, flavan-4-ol- and derhamnosylmaysin derivatives responsible for the antiadhesive activity of extracts obtained from stigmata of Zea mays L. against uropathogenic E. coli and Benzethonium chloride as frequent contaminant faking potential antibacterial activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjany, Nasli; Sendker, Jandirk; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Petereit, Frank; Scharf, Birte; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The dried stigmata from Zea mays L. are used traditionally for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. A recent screening has indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of the herbal material inhibits the adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to T24 bladder cells. For verification of these data EtOH-water (1:1) extracts from 4 different batches of Maydis stigmata were investigated. Within an in vitro adhesion assay (UPEC strain 2980 and human T24 bladder cells) a dose-dependent antiadhesive activity against UPEC was verified (IC50 1040μg/mL). Bioassay guided fractionation of M. stigmata, batch S1, by EtOH-water extraction, followed by chromatography on Sephadex LH20 revealed two active fractions (I and XI). Further purification of fraction I and structure elucidation of the isolated compound revealed the presence of significant amounts of the biocide benzethonium chloride as contaminant. Benzethonium chloride was also identified in subsequent investigations in 2 different batches of M. stigmata. The presence of such nondeclared and illegal contaminants in the herbal raw material market has to be discussed intensively. From benzethonium-free raw material (batch S2) as well as from batch S1 fraction XI was further fractionated by MPLC and preparative HPLC, leading to a still complex subfraction XIG, which was analyzed by UHPLC/+ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. Advanced data processing and species-metabolite relationship database revealed the tentatively existence of the unusual C-glycosidic flavones derhamnosylmaysin (6), 3'-deoxyrhamnosylmaysin (4), 3'-O-methylderhamnosylmaysin (3), apiferol (2) and alternanthin (8) which might be related to the antiadhesive activity of this subfraction against UPEC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction and recovery of 2-butoxyethanol from aqueous phases containing high saline concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Manz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE, also known as 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE, has been identified as a contaminant in hydraulic fracturing fluids. In order to determine the presence of 2-BE in hydraulic fracturing chemical additives, a reliable method for recovering 2-BE from aqueous phases by liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS was established. The liquid-liquid extraction method was applied to samples matrices containing various amounts of salt. Using methylene chloride for liquid-liquid extraction in a sample to solvent ratio of 1:3, ≥99% 2-BE recovery may be achieved with less than 5% standard error. The limit of detection was determined to be 0.957 mg L−1 2-BE. Accuracy was determined to be 2.58% and precision was determined using the coefficient of variation, which was 3.5%. The method was used to recover 2-BE in a hydraulic fracturing chemical additive called Revert Flow and to quantify the weight percent of 2-BE in the chemical additive. Weight percent of two additional components of Revert Flow, D-limonene and 1-butoxy-2-propanol, were also determined. We also used the method to determine the abiotic of 2-BE in water, which was 5.55 days. The persistence of 2-BE in hydraulic fracturing fluid was also investigated and determined that 2-BE is more persistent in this environment.

  13. Products of the reaction between methylene iodide and tertiary arsines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigauri, R.D.; Arabuli, L.G.; Machaidze, Z.I.; Rusiya, M.Sh.

    2005-01-01

    Iodides of iodomethylenetrialkyl(aryl) arsonium were synthesized with high yields as a result of interaction between methylene iodide and tertiary arsines. Exchange reactions of the iodides prepared with lead(II) nitrate in water-alcohol solutions gave rise to formation of iodomethylenetrialkyl(aryl) arsonium nitrates. All the products prepared were characterized by data of elementary analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductometry and melting points measurements [ru

  14. Extraosseous uptake of 99sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Kun, L.; Casper, J.; Babbitt, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of 99 sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphate ( 99 sup(m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of 99 sup(m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor. (orig.) [de

  15. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud; Joseph Y. Farah; Taha E. Farrag

    2013-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liqui...

  16. Photodynamic action of methylene blue: mutagenesis and synergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents in order to potencialize its biological effects are studied. The induction of mutation in bacterias due to photodynamic action of methylene blue is presented as well as the induction of single breaks in bacterial DNA and the relationship between the repair systems, especially the SOS one. The interaction of the photodynamic therapy with low intensity electric current is discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, Markus; Kappe, C. Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. ► Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 °C/20 bar). ► Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. ► Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5–1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 °C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC–MS or LC–MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 ± 11 μg caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 ± 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 °C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of ∼150 μg caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee extracts and the headspace volatiles was performed, placing special emphasis on headspace analysis using solid-phase microextraction (SPME

  18. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damm, Markus [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kappe, C. Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kappe@uni-graz.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 {+-} 11 {mu}g caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 {+-} 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 Degree-Sign C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of {approx}150 {mu}g caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee

  19. Application of a genetic algorithm in the conformational analysis of methylene-acetal-linked thymine dimers in DNA: Comparison with distance geometry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Mischa L.M.; Buydens, Lutgarde M.C.; Pikkemaat, Jeroen A.; Altona, Cornelis

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional spatial structure of a methylene-acetal-linked thymine dimer present in a 10 base-pair (bp) sense-antisense DNA duplex was studied with a genetic algorithm designed to interpret NOE distance restraints. Trial solutions were represented by torsion angles. This means that bond angles for the dimer trial structures are kept fixed during the genetic algorithm optimization. Bond angle values were extracted from a 10 bp sense-antisense duplex model that was subjected to energy minimization by means of a modified AMBER force field. A set of 63 proton-proton distance restraints defining the methylene-acetal-linked thymine dimer was available. The genetic algorithm minimizes the difference between distances in the trial structures and distance restraints. A large conformational search space could be covered in the genetic algorithm optimization by allowing a wide range of torsion angles. The genetic algorithm optimization in all cases led to one family of structures. This family of the methylene-acetal-linked thymine dimer in the duplex differs from the family that was suggested from distance geometry calculations. It is demonstrated that the bond angle geometry around the methylene-acetal linkage plays an important role in the optimization

  20. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe 3 O 4 -GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe 3 O 4 enabled the magnetic separation of Fe 3 O 4 -GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe 3 O 4 -GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -GS. The facile regeneration of Fe 3 O 4 -GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed

  1. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by dehydrated peanut hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Dursun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Dursun, Guelbeyi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: gdursun@firat.edu.tr; Ozer, Ahmet [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    Dyes are colour organic compounds which can colorize the other substances. These substances usually presents in the effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing and cosmetics. To observe the potential feasibility of removing colour, peanut hull as an agricultural by-product was dehydrated with sulphuric acid (DPH) and used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as initial methylene blue concentrations, temperatures and particle sizes were examined and optimal experimental conditions were determined. Adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model, although they could be modelled by the Freundlich model as well. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The mass transfer model as intraparticle diffusion was applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of rate controlling step. It was found that at the higher initial MB concentration, intraparticle diffusion is becoming significant controlling step. The thermodynamic constants of the adsorption process were also evaluated by using the Langmuir constants related to the equilibrium of adsorption at different temperatures. The results in this study indicated that dehydrated peanut hull was a good adsorbent for removing methylene blue.

  2. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  3. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide using Psidium guajava and its application in SERS for the detection of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Prajwal; Vendamani, V. S.; Tripathi, Ajay; Singh, Manish Kumar; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2017-06-01

    Here we present the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide and silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composites using aqueous extract of dry leaves of Psidium guajava by one pot reflux method. Psidium guajava extract simultaneously reduces silver nitrate and graphene oxide in the reaction mixture which is confirmed by various spectroscopic techniques. Variable concentrations of silver nitrate solution are used to obtain reduced graphene oxide with different dosage of silver nanoparticles and the resultant composites are examined using surface enhanced Raman scattering measurements. Considering methylene blue as a probe molecule, it is found that the surface enhanced Raman scattering activity increases with the increase in the dose of silver nanoparticles. Our as-synthesised silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite shows remarkable performance in detecting methylene blue with concentration as low as 10-8 M for which the enhancement factor is 4.6 × 105. In addition, we report that the reduced graphene oxide quenches the photoluminescence of methylene blue more efficiently than silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite. The charge transfer states have been extracted which are mainly responsible for the quenching processes.

  5. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera and Polyaluminium Chloride for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The viability of using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a plant based coagulant in comparison to Polyaluminium Chloride a commonly used chemical coagulant for the thickening of activated sludge was investigated. Moringa oleifera also known as the drumstick tree or horseradish is widely found throughout Mauritius.

  6. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  7. Filaricidal activities on Onchocerca ochengi and Loa loa, toxicity and phytochemical screening of extracts of Tragia benthami and Piper umbellatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Monya, Elvis; Azantsa, Boris K; Manfo, Faustin Pascal T; Babiaka, Smith B; Mbah, James A; Samje, Moses

    2016-08-30

    Onchocerciasis is the world's second leading infectious cause of blindness. Its control is currently hampered by the lack of a macrofilaricidal drug and by severe adverse events observed when the lone recommended microfilaricide, ivermectin is administered to individuals co-infected with Loa loa. Therefore, there is the need for a safe and effective macrofilaricidal drug that will be able to cure the infection and break transmission cycles, or at least, an alternative microfilaricide that does not kill L. loa microfilariae (mf). Fourteen extracts from two medicinal plants, Tragia benthami and Piper umbellatum were screened in vitro against Onchocerca ochengi parasite and L. loa mf. Activities of extracts on male worms and microfilariae were assessed by motility reduction, while MTT/Formazan assay was used to assess biochemically the death of female worms. Cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of active extracts were tested on monkey kidney cells and Balb/c mice, respectively. At 500 μg/mL, all extracts showed 100 % activity on Onchocerca ochengi males and microfilariae, while 9 showed 100 % activity on female worms. The methylene chloride extract of Piper umbellatum leaves was the most active on adult male and female worms (IC50s: 16.63 μg/mL and 35.65 μg/mL, respectively). The three most active extracts on Onchocerca ochengi females were also highly active on Loa loa microfilariae, with IC50s of 35.12 - 13.9 μg/mL. Active extracts were generally more toxic to the worms than to cells and showed no acute toxicity to Balb/c mice. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, tannins and flavanoids in the promising extracts. These results unfold potential sources of novel anti-Onchocerca lead compounds and validate the traditional use of the plants in onchocerciasis treatment.

  8. Toxicological studies of stem bark extract from Schefflera barteri Harms (Araliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsafack, Serge Secco; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Koanga Mogtomo, Martin Luther; Tchinda, Alembert Tiabou; De Dieu, Tamokou Jean; Magnifouet Nana, Huguette; Ebelle Etame, Rébecca Madeleine; Biyiti, Lucie; Ngono Ngane, Rosalie Annie

    2015-03-07

    The use of herbal medicines as complements or alternatives to orthodox medicines has been on the increase. There has been the erroneous belief that these medicines are free from adverse effects. Schefflera barteri is popularly used in the West region of Cameroon for the treatment of various diseases such as diarrhea, spasm, pneumonia and animals bite. Considering the ethnopharmacological relevance of this plant, this study was designed to investigate the possible toxic effects of the stem bark extract of S. barteri. The extract was prepared by maceration of stem bark dry powder in methylene chloride/methanol mixture. Phytochemical analysis was performed by chemical reaction method. Oral acute toxicity study was carried out by administering single geometric increasing doses (2 to 16 g/kg body weight) of plant extract to Swiss albino mice. For sub-acute toxicity study, repeated doses (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw) of plant extract were given to Wistar albino rats for 28 consecutive days by oral route. At the end of the treatment period, hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed, as well as histopathological studies. Phytochemical analysis of stem bark extract of S. barteri revealed the presence of anthocyanins, anthraquinons and saponins. Acute toxicity results showed that the LD50 was greater than 16000 mg/kg. Sub-acute treatment significantly (P congestion, inflammation of peri-portal and vacuolization of hepatocytes at the level of the liver. Leucocytes infiltration of peri-portal veins were noticed on lungs and liver cells as well as inflammatory peri-bronchial and basal membranes seminar tube merely joined on lungs and testis respectively. The results suggest that acute administration of the stem bark extract of S. barteri is associated with signs of toxicity, administration over a long duration provokes hepatotoxicity, testes and lungs toxicities.

  9. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao, E-mail: yangst@pku.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} enabled the magnetic separation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS. The facile regeneration of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed.

  10. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  11. Muscarinic and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor binding characteristics of saw palmetto extract in rat lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Oki, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Tomomi; Umegaki, Keizo; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo

    2007-06-01

    To elucidate the in vitro and ex vivo effects of saw palmetto extract (SPE) on autonomic receptors in the rat lower urinary tract. The in vitro binding affinities for alpha 1-adrenergic, muscarinic, and purinergic receptors in the rat prostate and bladder were measured by radioligand binding assays. Rats received vehicle or SPE (0.6 to 60 mg/kg/day) orally for 4 weeks, and alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor binding in tissues of these rats were measured. Saw palmetto extract inhibited specific binding of [3H]prazosin and [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride (NMS) but not alpha, beta-methylene adenosine triphosphate [2,8-(3)H]tetrasodium salt in the rat prostate and bladder. The binding activity of SPE for muscarinic receptors was four times greater than that for alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Scatchard analysis revealed that SPE significantly reduced the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for each radioligand in the prostate and bladder under in vitro condition. Repeated oral administration of SPE to rats brought about significant alteration in Bmax for prostatic [3H]prazosin binding and for bladder [3H]NMS binding. Such alteration by SPE was selective to the receptors in the lower urinary tract. Saw palmetto extract exerts significant binding activity on autonomic receptors in the lower urinary tract under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  12. Solid-phase extraction sorbent consisting of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants immobilized onto strong cation-exchange polystyrene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kendra R; Kennedy, Lonnie J; Crick, Eric W; Conte, Eric D

    2002-10-25

    Presented is a solid-phase extraction sorbent material composed of cationic alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants attached to a strong cation-exchange resin via ion-exchange. The original hydrophilic cation-exchange resin is made hydrophobic by covering the surface with alkyl chains from the hydrophobic portion of the surfactant. The sorbent material now has a better ability to extract hydrophobic molecules from aqueous samples. The entire stationary phase (alkyltrimethylammonium surfactant) is removed along with the analyte during the elution step. The elution step requires a mild elution solvent consisting of 0.25 M Mg2+ in a 50% 2-propanol solution. The main advantage of using a removable stationary phase is that traditionally utilized toxic elution solvents such as methylene chloride, which are necessary to efficiently release strongly hydrophobic species from SPE stationary phases, may now be avoided. Also, the final extract is directly compatible with reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The performance of this procedure is presented using pyrene as a test molecule.

  13. Nanomolar determination of 4-nitrophenol based on a poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Munusamy, Settu; Kumar, Sivakumar Praveen; Muthamizh, Selvamani; Narayanan, Vengidusamy

    2013-10-07

    A poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PMB/GCE) was fabricated by electropolymerisation of methylene blue on a GCE and further utilized to investigate the electrochemical determination of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The morphology of the PMB on GCE was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An oxidation peak of 4-NP at the PMB modified electrode was observed at 0.28 V, and in the case of bare GCE, no oxidation peak was observed, which indicates that PMB/GCE exhibits a remarkable effect on the electrochemical determination of 4-NP. Due to this remarkable effect of PMB/GCE, a sensitive and simple electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of 4-NP. The effect of the scan rate and pH was investigated to determine the optimum conditions at which the PMB/GCE exhibits a higher sensitivity with a lower detection limit. Moreover, kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer number, proton transfer number and standard heterogeneous rate constant were calculated. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 4-NP is proportional to its concentration in the range of 15-250 nM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9963. The detection limit was found to be 90 nM (S/N = 3). The proposed method based on PMB/GCE is simple, easy and cost effective. To further confirm its possible application, the proposed method was successfully used for the determination of 4-NP in real water samples with recoveries ranging from 97% to 101.6%. The interference due to sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, sulphate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate and phosphate was found to be almost negligible.

  14. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  15. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, O L

    1921-02-25

    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  17. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  20. Redox reactions of methylene blue: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Guha, S.N.; Mahadevan, J.; Moorthy, P.N.; Mittal, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    One-electron oxidation of methylene blue (MB - has been studied using specific oxidizing radicals such as Cl 2 - , Br 2 - , N 3 and Tl(II) in acidic and neutral aqueous solutions). The transient spectrum showed absorption maxima at 525 nm and 360 nm in the acidic pH region. At neutral pH also the absorption maxima were at 525 and 360 nm but the extinction coefficients were lower by 30%. A pK a of ∼4.3 was observed for the equilibrium MBH 3+ MB 2+ + H + . In the case of N 3 radical as the oxidant, the equilibrium: N 3 + MB = N 3 - + MB 2+ was observed for which an equilibrium constant of 120 was estimated from the experimental data. From this as well as from cyclic voltammetric experiments, the redox potential for the MB 2+ /MB + couple was calculated as 1.25 V vs NHE. The transient species produced by the reaction of OH radicals with methylene blue gave a very different spectrum with λ m = 400nm and a pK a of ∼ 8.6, and hence it is inferred that OH radicals do not bring about one-electron oxidation of the molecule. (author)

  1. Nuclear overhauser spectroscopy of chiral CHD methylene groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, Rafal [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Stanek, Jan [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Colaux, Henri; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Koźmiński, Wiktor [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Herrmann, Torsten [Université de Lyon/UMR 5280 CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs (France); Ferrage, Fabien, E-mail: Fabien.Ferrage@ens.fr [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France)

    2016-01-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) can provide a great deal of information about structure and dynamics of biomolecules. The quality of an NMR structure strongly depends on the number of experimental observables and on their accurate conversion into geometric restraints. When distance restraints are derived from nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), stereo-specific assignments of prochiral atoms can contribute significantly to the accuracy of NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids. Here we introduce a series of NOESY-based pulse sequences that can assist in the assignment of chiral CHD methylene protons in random fractionally deuterated proteins. Partial deuteration suppresses spin-diffusion between the two protons of CH{sub 2} groups that normally impedes the distinction of cross-relaxation networks for these two protons in NOESY spectra. Three and four-dimensional spectra allow one to distinguish cross-relaxation pathways involving either of the two methylene protons so that one can obtain stereospecific assignments. In addition, the analysis provides a large number of stereospecific distance restraints. Non-uniform sampling was used to ensure optimal signal resolution in 4D spectra and reduce ambiguities of the assignments. Automatic assignment procedures were modified for efficient and accurate stereospecific assignments during automated structure calculations based on 3D spectra. The protocol was applied to calcium-loaded calbindin D{sub 9k}. A large number of stereospecific assignments lead to a significant improvement of the accuracy of the structure.

  2. Methylene blue adsorption in clay mineral dealt with organic cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.L.; Lemos, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction among organic cations, as the methylene blue (AM) and benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA), and clay minerals of the group of the smectite they result in the formation of applied materials in the adsorption of organic pollutant presents in waters, soils and you cultivate. In this work they were prepared the adsorbents (organic-clays) smectite - AM and smectite-BTMA. The precursory sample of smectite was collected in Rio Branco-Acre. We were also used an smectite sample collected in Sena Madureira (SM)-Acre already characterized in previous work and a sample of standard smectite Swy-2-Na-Montmorillonite (SWy-2) of Wymong - USA. The organic agents selected for this study they were: Blue of Methylene, denominated AM and Benzyltrimethylammonium, denominated BTMA. They were appraised the capacities adsorptive of the treated samples with BTMA being used AM as adsorbate. The results of these evaluations detected that ran total adsorption of AM (concentrations varying from 1 to 10 ppm) for the treated samples with BTMA. The organic cation, BTMA, interacting with the surfaces of the natural clay was more efficient in the adsorption of AM than the clay without the previous treatment with this salt. (author)

  3. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF METHYLENE BLUE IN NON-AQUEOUS SOLVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caram, J.A.; Suárez, J.F. Martínez; Gennaro, A.M.; Mirífico, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The dye is electro-reduced in two separated monoelectronic charge transfers. • Solvent/supporting electrolyte/acid/base modifies the electrochemical parameters. • A dissociation equilibrium of the dye in non-aqueous solvent is proposed. • The electro-generated and stable dye-radical is also chemically produced in EDA or KOH/DMF. • A new species is reversibly formed in KOH/EtOH or ACN. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of methylene blue in solution of non-aqueous solvents with different supporting electrolytes was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Dye electro-reduction presents two well-defined processes of monoelectronic charge transfer yielding a free radical in the first process and an anion in the second electron transfer. Free radical and anion are long living species in some of the studied media. Effects of supporting electrolyte and solvent on the peak potentials, the peak current functions and the reversibility of the charge transfer processes are reported. A dissociation equilibrium of the dye in solution of non-aqueous solvents and the acid or base added determine markedly the electrochemical responses. In the particular cases of KOH/DMF or EDA basic media the chemical formation of the stable methylene blue radical was detected and it was characterized by EPR spectroscopy. A general reaction scheme is proposed

  4. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash University, Physics Department (Australia)

    1998-12-15

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed.

  5. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed

  6. Calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids as promising effectors of biochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Komisarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study, performed with participation of research workers of Palladin Institute of Biochemistry and Institute of Organic Chemist­ry of NAS of Ukraine, is devoted to analysis of biochemical effects of some calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids (cyclic phenol oligomers on two well-known biological phenomenons – Mg2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis (myosin subfragment-1 of myometrium smooth muscle was used as an example and fibrin polymerization. Calix[4]arene С-97 (calix[4]arene methylene bisphosphonic acids is a macrocyclic substance, which contains intramolecular highly ordered lipophilic cavity formed by four aromatic rings, one of which is functionalized at the upper rim with methylene bisphosphonic group. At concentration of 100 µM, this substance was shown to effectively inhibit ATPase activity of pig myometrium myosin subfragment-1 (inhibition coefficient І0.5 = 83 ± 7 µM. At the same time, this calix[4]arene causes significant (vs. control increase of myosin subfragment-1 hydrodynamic diameter, which may indicate formation of an intermolecular complex between calixa­rene and myosin head. Computer simulation methods (docking and molecular dynamics with addition of grid technologies enabled to elucidate the grounds of intermolecular interactions between calix[4]arene С-97 and myometrium myosin subfragment-1, that involve hydrophobic, electrostatic and π-π-stacking interactions, some of which are close to the ATPase active centre. In view of the ability of calixarenes to penetrate into the cell and their low toxicity, the results obtained may be used as a basis for further development of a new generation of supramolecular effectors (starting from the above mentioned substances, in particular calix[4]arene С-97 for regulation of smooth muscle contractile activity at the level of ATP dependent actin-myosin interaction. Calix[4]arenes bearing two or four methylenebisphosphonic acid groups at the macrocyclic upper

  7. Field and laboratory determination of a poly(vinyl/vinylidene chloride) additive in brick mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, S L; Newman, J H; Ptak, F L

    1990-02-01

    A polymerized vinyl/vinylidene chloride additive, used in brick mortar during the 60s and 70s, is detected at the building site by the field method, which employs a commercially available chloride test strip. The field test results can then be verified by the laboratory methods. In one method, total chlorine in the mortar is determined by an oxygen-bomb method and the additive chloride is determined by difference after water-soluble chlorides have been determined on a separate sample. In the second method, the polymerized additive is extracted directly from the mortar with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The difference in weight before and after extraction of the additive gives the weight of additive in the mortar. Evaporation of the THF from the extract leaves a thin film of the polymer, which gives an infrared "fingerprint" spectrum characteristic of the additive polymer.

  8. Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, W.H.; Miller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  10. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  11. 75 FR 24509 - Notice of Availability of the Regulatory Flexibility Act Review of the Methylene Chloride Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Register Notice and any news releases will become available at the OSHA Webpage at http://www.OSHA.gov... stripping, metal cleaning and the manufacture of plastics and adhesives. Without proper ventilation or...

  12. Novel types of tripodal CMPO ligands: synthesis and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janczewski, D. [Twente Univ., Enschede (Netherlands). Lab. of Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology; Inst. of Materials Research and Engineering, Research Link (Singapore); Rawdanowicz, M.; Reinhoudt, D.N.; Verboom, W. [Twente Univ., Enschede (Netherlands). Lab. of Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology; Hill, C.; Martinez, I. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA-Valrho, DRCP/SCPS/LCSE, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    Novel tripodal CMPO ligands having either aryl groups at the N-atom or alkyl groups at the CMPO methylene bridge were prepared in good yields. In the latter case one alkyl group per CMPO moiety was selectively introduced. Extraction studies with Am{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} show that there is an influence of the electronic character of the aryl groups on the extraction. Alkylation of the CMPO methylene group gives rise to a considerable decrease of the D-values (about 100-1000 times), dependent on the bulkiness of the alkyl substituent. (orig.)

  13. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride...

  14. Preparation of pure anhydrous rare earth chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kova, N.L.; Slastenova, N.M.; Batyaev, I.M.; Solov'ev, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been suggested for obtaining extra-pure anhydrous REE chlorides by chloridizing corresponding oxalates by chlorine in a fluid bed, the chloridizing agents being diluted by an inert gas in a ratio of 2-to-1. The method is applicable to the manufacture of quality chlorides not only of light, but also of heavy REE. Neodymium chloride has an excited life of tau=30 μs, this evidencing the absence of the damping impurities

  15. Reaction of calcium chloride with alkali metal chlorides in melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermochemical characteristics of CaCl 2 reaction with sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in melts at 890 deg C are determined. The values of formation enthalpies of infinitely diluted by CaCl 2 solutions (ΔH) in the chloride row increase from -22 in NaCl to -47 kJ/mol of CaCl 2 in CsCl. With increasing the concentration of calcium chloride in the solution the ΔH values decrease. The regularities of separation from the solution of the CaCl 2 -CsCl system at 890 deg C of the CaCl 2 x CsCl in solid are studied. Formation enthalpies under the given conditions constitutes -70+-3 kJ/mol

  16. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scanning in osteoarthritic hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Macfarlane, D.G.; Homoeopathic Hospital, Tunbridge; Fogelman, I.; Emery, P.

    1991-01-01

    In this prospective study, the radiological features characteristic of osteoarthritis of the hand were compared with the radionuclide bone scan images. A total of 32 patients was assessed at 6-monthly intervals for 18 months. Microfocal radiographs were taken at each visit. The high magnification and resolution of this technique permitted direct measurement of joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte number and area and juxta-articular radiolucency area for each joint in the hand. Four-hour technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with each X-radiographic feature at every visit and the changes between visits analysed. The scan scores did not correlate with any of the X-radiographic features other than osteophyte size. During the study the size of growing and remodelling osteophytes increased significantly at joints with raised or increased isotope uptake. (orig.)

  17. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scanning in osteoarthritic hands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; Lynch, J.A. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Macfarlane, D.G. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Anatomy Homoeopathic Hospital, Tunbridge (UK). Dept. of Rheumatology); Fogelman, I. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Emery, P. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Rheumatology)

    1991-01-01

    In this prospective study, the radiological features characteristic of osteoarthritis of the hand were compared with the radionuclide bone scan images. A total of 32 patients was assessed at 6-monthly intervals for 18 months. Microfocal radiographs were taken at each visit. The high magnification and resolution of this technique permitted direct measurement of joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte number and area and juxta-articular radiolucency area for each joint in the hand. Four-hour technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with each X-radiographic feature at every visit and the changes between visits analysed. The scan scores did not correlate with any of the X-radiographic features other than osteophyte size. During the study the size of growing and remodelling osteophytes increased significantly at joints with raised or increased isotope uptake. (orig.).

  18. New diphosphonate compounds for skeletal imaging: comparison with methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Feld, T.A.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.

    1983-01-01

    Three-hour biodistribution of Tc-99m complexes of six diphosphonates was compared in rabbits with tibial lesions to determine which was best for detection of focal bone lesions. Sr-85 was used as a standard. N,N-dimethylaminomethylene diphosphonate (DMAD) was the only agent with a higher lesion/normal bone ratio than methylene diphosphonate (MDP), attributable to lower concentration in normal bone. Hydroxymethane diphosphonate (HDP) and 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate (DPD) demonstrated higher concentration than MDP in normal bone without improving lesion contrast. They also exhibited much higher uptake in the liver and kidney, as well as muscle and red marrow in the case of DPD. None was superior to MDP as an all-purpose skeletal agent, though others may be better for specific applications

  19. Obtaining multifunctional composites using styrofoam recycling: methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.H. da; Ferreira, B.F.; Faria, E.H. de; Ciuffi, K.J.; Calefi, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    There is high risk of environmental contamination by the textile industry if the generated waste is disposed into water streams and rivers. Another sector responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste is the styrofoam industry, since styrofoam is employed in various areas for packaging production. Therefore, today there is constant search for sustainable economic growth by means of materials recycling and reduction of residual pollutants. In this context, the present work aims to promote styrofoam recycling with its further utilization in the production of a kaolin-styrofoam composite for application as adsorbent of methylene blue originated from textile industry effluents. This adsorption is investigated in a column system, by exploiting the adsorptive properties of kaolin, such as large surface area and chemical and structural characteristics. The obtained materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Wiring of heme enzymes by methylene-blue labeled dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh; Ferapontova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Redox-modified branched 3D dendrimeric nanostructures may be considered as perspective wires for electrical connection between redox enzymes and electrodes. Here, we studied electron transfer (ET) reactions and bioelectrocatalysis of heme-containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and heme- and moli......Redox-modified branched 3D dendrimeric nanostructures may be considered as perspective wires for electrical connection between redox enzymes and electrodes. Here, we studied electron transfer (ET) reactions and bioelectrocatalysis of heme-containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and heme......- and molibdopterin-containing sulfite oxidase (SOx), wired to gold by the methylene blue (MB)-labeled polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. The enzymes’ electrochemical transformation and bioelectrocatalytic function could be followed at both unlabeled and MB-labeled dendrimer-modified electrodes with the formal redox......, optimization of bioelectrocatalysis of complex intermembrane and, possibly, membrane enzymes....

  1. Solvent mimicry with methylene carbene to probe protein topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Gabriela Elena; Monti, José Luis E; Mundo, Mariana Rocío; Delfino, José María

    2015-10-06

    The solvent accessible surface area (SASA) of the polypeptide chain plays a key role in protein folding, conformational change, and interaction. This fundamental biophysical parameter is elusive in experimental measurement. Our approach to this problem relies on the reaction of the minimal photochemical reagent diazirine (DZN) with polypeptides. This reagent (i) exerts solvent mimicry because its size is comparable to water and (ii) shows scant chemical selectivity because it generates extremely reactive methylene carbene. Methylation gives rise to the EM (extent of modification) signal, which is useful for scrutinizing the conformational change triggered by Ca(2+) binding to calmodulin (CaM). The increased EM observed for the full protein is dominated by the enhanced exposure of hydrophobic area in Ca(2+)-CaM. Fragmentation allowed us to quantify the methylene incorporation at specific sites. Peptide 91-106 reveals a major reorganization around the calcium 151 binding site, resulting in local ordering and a greater exposure of the hydrophobic surface. Additionally, this technique shows a high sensitivity to probe recognition between CaM and melittin (Mel). The large decrease in EM indicates the occlusion of a significant hydrophobic area upon complexation. Protection from labeling reveals a larger involvement of the N-terminal and central regions of CaM in this interaction. Despite its smaller size, Mel's differential exposure can also be quantified. Moreover, MS/MS fragmentation realizes the goal of extending the resolution of labeled sites at the amino acid level. Overall, DZN labeling emerges as a useful footprinting method capable of shedding light on physiological conformational changes and interactions.

  2. Concentration determination of methyl magnesium chloride and other Grignard reagents by potentiometric titration with in-line characterization of reaction species by FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yadan; Wang, Tao; Helmy, Roy; Zhou, George X; LoBrutto, Rosario

    2002-07-01

    A potentiometric titration method for methyl magnesium chloride and other Grignard reagents based on the reaction with 2-butanol in THF has been developed and validated. The method employs a commercially available platinum electrode, using an electrolyte compatible with non-aqueous solvents. Well-defined titration curves were obtained, along with excellent method precision. The endpoint was precisely determined based on the first derivative of the titration curve. Different solvents such as THF, diethyl ether and methylene chloride provided similar results with regard to sharpness of the endpoint and method precision. The method was applied to a wide array of Grignard reagents including methyl magnesium bromide, ethyl magnesium chloride, propyl magnesium chloride, vinyl magnesium chloride, phenyl magnesium chloride, and benzyl magnesium chloride with similar precision and accuracy. Application of in-line FTIR was demonstrated for in situ monitoring of the titration reaction, allowing characterization of the reaction species. An authentic spectrum of the MeMgCl-THF complex was obtained using spectral subtraction and the vibrational absorbance bands were identified. FTIR also provided an alternative for detecting the titration endpoint, and the titration results so obtained, provided a cross-validation of the accuracy of the potentiometric titration.

  3. Modifikasi Limbah Tulang Sapi Bali dan Pemanfaatannya untuk Adsorpsi Methylene Blue (MODIFICATION OF BALI COW BONE WASTE AND ITS APPLICATION TO ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Simpen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of modification, characterization, and application of nano-porous adsorbent base onBali cow bone waste to methylene blue (MB adsorption has been carried out. The modification was carriedout through extraction of hydroxyapatite (HA from cow bone, then its activated by 0.4 M NaOH solutionand coating to form active sites of Fe and Fe-Al oxides. The adsorbent was applied to know quantitativelyadsorption capacity coated-HA (CHA to MB as wastewaters simulation. Compound of CHA wascharacterized amount of active sites by base-acid titration, Bronsted-Lewis acid sites by FTIR spectroscopy,specific surface area by MB method and pore size by surface area analyzer gasorption nitrogen. While,amount of coated-Fe and Al by LIBS. Amount of MB adsorbed was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer.The results showed that coating of Fe and Fe-Al oxides increased amount of active sites, sites distributionof new Lewis acid site, everage nano pore size with pore volume is microporous (less than 2 nm, and Fe andFe-Al oxides was into HA crystal structure. The amount of active sites was the higest of T1-Fe-Al2O3 andall pores diameter less than 58.182 nm.While, the specific surface area increased T3-Fe2O3>T3-Fe-Al2O3>T2-Fe2O3 respectively. In the adsorption isotherm, coating on HA significantly increased ability of adsorbentand through Freundlich model (R2 > 0.77 with the higest adsorption capacity on T3-Fe2O3 (3.2019 mg/gthen T2-Fe-Al2O3 (2.7921 mg/g. Results of this research indicate that Fe and Fe-Al oxides HA-modifiedincreased adsorption ability.

  4. A Novel of Buton Asphalt and Methylene Blue as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell using TiO2/Ti Nanotubes Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhidayani; Muzakkar, M. Z.; Maulidiyah; Wibowo, D.; Nurdin, M.

    2017-11-01

    A study of TiO2/Ti nanotubes arrays (NTAs) based on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) used Asphalt Buton (Asbuton) extract and methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer dye has been conducted. The aim of this research is that the Asbuton extract and Methylene Blue (MB) performance as a dye on DSSC solar cells is able to obtain the voltage-currents produced by visible light irradiation. Electrode TiO2/Ti NTAs have been successfully synthesized by anodizing methods, then characterized by using XRD showed that the anatase crystals formed. Subsequently, the morphology showed that the nanotubes formed which has coated by Asbuton extract. The DSSC system was formed by a sandwich structure and tested by using Multimeter Digital with Potentiostat instrument. The characteristics of current (I) and potential (V) versus time indicated that the Asbuton was obtained in a high-performance in 30s of 14,000µV 0.844µA, meanwhile MB dyes were 8,000µV0.573µA. Based on this research, the Asbuton extract from Buton Island-Southeast Sulawesi-Indonesia was potential for natural dyes in DSSC system.

  5. Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery. Methods: A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE. Results: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1 MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg; 2 MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3 The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4 MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5 The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6 There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1 Observations about side effects; 2 The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3 The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans. Conclusion: MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

  6. Complications of Methylene Blue Dye in Breast Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FJ Reyes, MB Noelck, C Valentino, L Grasso-LeBeau, JE Lang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methylene blue dye has been used worldwide successfully with few complications in breast surgery. We present two different complications involving methylene blue: 1 skin and parenchymal necrosis when dye was injected in a subdermal fashion and 2 Mycoplasma infection caused by contaminated methylene blue in breast reduction surgery.Methods: We present two cases seen at the University of Arizona during 2008 and referred to a breast surgeon for management. We evaluated and managed complications of methylene blue dye injected by 2 referring surgeons for different indications. A review of the literature was performed.Results: The first case is a 67 year old female diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast for which she was treated by her initial surgeon with left segmental mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy. The operating surgeon injected methylene blue in a subareolar subdermal fashion (distant from the primary tumor; unfortunately the patient suffered skin and breast necrosis requiring multiple surgical debridements and finally achieving delayed primary closure. The second case is a 45 year old female with infiltrating lobular carcinoma with a history of Mycoplasma infection secondary to methylene blue injected for breast reduction surgery. She required multiple debridements and had granulomas masquerading as cancer on MRI that confounded her extent of disease.Conclusions: The use of methylene blue dye in breast surgery is not without risk. In both cases methylene blue was responsible for complications requiring surgical debridement for local wound problems. In each case severe necrosis and infection were present. Methylene blue may cause not only significant morbidity, but may also produce cosmetically unsatisfactory results.

  7. Substoichiometric extraction of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the substoichiometric extraction of phosphorus is described. Phosphorus was extracted in the form of ternary compounds such as ammonium phosphomolybdate, 8-hydroxyquinolinium phosphomolybdate, tetraphenylarsonium phosphomolybdate and tri-n-octylamine phosphomolybdate. Consequently, phosphorus was extracted substoichiometrically by the addition of a substoichiometric amount of molybdenum for the four phosphomolybdate compounds. On the other hand, phosphorus could be separated substoichiometrically with a substoichiometric amount of tetraphenylarsonium chloride or tri-n-octylamine. Stoichiometric ratios of these ternary compounds obtained substoichiometrically were 1:12:3 for phosphorus, molybdenum and organic reagent. The applicability of these compounds to phosphorus determination is also discussed. (author)

  8. Methylene Blue for Vasoplegia When on Cardiopulmonary Bypass During Double-Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Michelle; Schaff, Jacob; Lai, Terrance; Poppers, Jeremy

    2015-10-15

    Vasoplegia syndrome, characterized by hypotension refractory to fluid resuscitation or high-dose vasopressors, low systemic vascular resistance, and normal-to-increased cardiac index, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after cardiothoracic surgery. Methylene blue inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase, and has been used to treat vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, because methylene blue is associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, its use in patients undergoing lung transplantion has been limited. Herein, we report the use of methylene blue to treat refractory vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient undergoing double-lung transplantation.

  9. A Stereoselective [3+1] Ring Expansion for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Methylene Azetidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Steven C; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-09-25

    The reaction of rhodium-bound carbenes with strained bicyclic methylene aziridines results in a formal [3+1] ring expansion to yield highly substituted methylene azetidines with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity. The reaction appears to proceed through an ylide-type mechanism, where the unique strain and structure of the methylene aziridine promotes a ring-opening/ring-closing cascade that efficiently transfers chirality from substrate to product. The resultant products can be elaborated into new azetidine scaffolds containing vicinal tertiary-quaternary and even quaternary-quaternary stereocenters. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency plasmas in water under ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, Tsunehiro, E-mail: maehara@phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nishiyama, Kyohei; Onishi, Shingo; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kuramoto, Makoto [Integrated Center for Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nomura, Shinfuku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kawashima, Ayato [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8566 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency (RF) plasmas in water under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied experimentally. When the methylene blue solution was exposed to RF plasma, UV irradiation from a mercury vapor lamp enhanced degradation significantly. A lamp without power supply also enhanced degradation since weak UV light was emitted weakly from the lamp due to the excitation of mercury vapor by stray RF power. Such an enhancement is explained by the fact that after hydrogen peroxide is produced via the recombination process of OH radicals around the plasma, OH radicals reproduced from hydrogen peroxide via the photolysis process degrade methylene blue.

  11. Preoperative Localization of Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma with Intra-arterial Methylene Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, Rida; Sebaaly, Mikhael G. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon); Wehbe, Mohammad Rachad; Sfeir, Pierre; Khalife, Mohamad [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of General Surgery (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad, E-mail: mk00@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon)

    2017-06-15

    Ectopic parathyroid is found in 16% of patients with hyperparathyroidism. 2% of ectopic parathyroid adenomas are not accessible to standard cervical excision. In such cases, video-assisted thoracoscopic resection is the recommended definitive treatment. We present a case of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma localized preoperatively by injecting methylene blue within a branch of the internal mammary artery that is supplying the adenoma. Intra-arterial methylene blue injection facilitated visualization and resection of the adenoma. The preoperative intra-arterial infusion of methylene blue appears to be an effective and safe method for localization of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas and allows rapid identification during thoracoscopic resection.

  12. [Determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in leather products by solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiya; Wan, Xin; Li, Lixia; Wang, Chengyun; Jin, Shupei; Xing, Jun

    2014-10-01

    The short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are the additives frequently used in the leather production in China, but they have been put into the list of forbidden chemicals issued by European Union recently. In fact, there is not a commonly recognized method for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products due to the serious matrix interferences from the leather products and the complex chemical structures of the SCCPs. A method of solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS) was established for the determination of the SCCPs in the leather products after the optimization of the SPE conditions. It was found that the interferences from the leather products were thor- oughly separated from the analyte of the SCCPs on a home-made solid phase extraction (SPE) column filled with silica packing while eluted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). With this method, the recoveries for the SCCPs spiked in the real leather samples varied from 90.47% to 99.00% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.7%, and the limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.069 and 0.110 mg/kg. This method is suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCCPs in the leather products.

  13. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  14. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    : On the basis of five included studies, the ED10 values of aqueous cobalt chloride ranged between 0.0663 and 1.95 µg cobalt/cm(2), corresponding to 30.8-259 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides an overview of the doses of cobalt that are required to elicit allergic cobalt contactdermatitis in sensitized...

  15. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  16. Pharmacokinetics of vinyl chloride in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.M.; Laib, R.J.; Kappus, H.; Buchter, A.

    1977-01-01

    When rats are exposed to [ 14 C]vinyl chloride in a closed system, the vinyl chloride present in the atmosphere equilibrates with the animals' organism within 15 min. The course of equilibration could be determined using rats which had been given 6-nitro-1,2,3-benzothiadiazole. This compound completely blocks metabolism of vinyl chloride. The enzymes responsible for metabolism of vinyl chloride are saturated at an atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride of 250 ppm. Pharmacokinetic analysis shows that no significant cumulation of vinyl chloride or its major metabolites is to be expected on repeated administration of vinyl chlorides. This may be consistent with the theory that a reactive, shortly living metabolite which occurs in low concentration only, may be responsible for the toxic effects of vinyl chloride

  17. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C., E-mail: zuhra_kadirova@yahoo.com [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Mirzo Ulugbek Str. 77a, Tashkent 100170 (Uzbekistan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Katsumata, Ken-ichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Isobe, Toshihiro [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9–10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (S{sub BET} 50 m{sup 2}/g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (S{sub BET} 4 and 111 m{sup 2}/g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA < BAU-CL < BAU-HA sample and the adsorption followed Langmuir model. The apparent MB photodegradation rate constant (k{sub app}) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015–0.025 mM; sample content – 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration – 0.43 mM; pH 3–4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  18. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C.; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9–10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (S BET 50 m 2 /g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe 2 O 3 phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (S BET 4 and 111 m 2 /g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA app ) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015–0.025 mM; sample content – 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration – 0.43 mM; pH 3–4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  19. Preconcentration of Sn (II) using the methylene blue on the activated carbon and its determination by spectrophotometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Saeid; Cham Kouri, Narges

    2014-04-05

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amounts of Sn (II) ion in soil sample was developed by using the methylene blue (MB) in the presence of activated carbon (AC) as the adsorbent Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) of Sn (II) and then determined by UV-Vis. The Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 1-80ngmL(-1) of Sn (II) with the detection limits of 0.34ngmL(-1). The influence of type and volume of eluent, concentration of MB, pH, and amount of AC on sensitivity of spectrophotometric method were optimized. The method has been successfully applied for Sn (II) ion determination in soil sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recent progress in actinide and lanthanide solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Hubert, H.; Benjelloun, N.; Vitorge, P.; Bonnin, M.; Forchioni, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1983-04-01

    Work in progress on actinide solvent extraction is briefly reviewed in this paper. 1 H and 31 P NMR are used to elucidate several fundamental unsolved problems concerning organophosphorous extractants often used in actinides extraction: determination of site of dialkylthiophosphate protonation and addition of basic phosphine oxide to dibutylthiophosphoric acid dimer. Extraction of Am III and Eu from high radioactivity level wastes by tetrasubsituted methylene diamides is investigated. Trivalent actinide-lanthanide group are separated by solvent extraction using soft donor ligand complexes which are more stable. The synergism of dinonylnaphtalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS) associated with several neutral donors like TBP, TOPO, amides are examined in the trivalent and tetravalent actinide extraction

  1. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  2. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  3. Synthesis colloidal Kyllinga brevifolia-mediated silver nanoparticles at different temperature for methylene blue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Norain; Sarijo, Siti Halimah; Aziz, Azizan; Lockman, Zainovia

    2017-09-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are well known of having wide applications in various fields such as, catalysis, electronics, energy, chemistry and medicine due to its unique physico-chemical properties. In this study, nanocatalyst Kyllinga brevifolia-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by reduction of silver nitrate using aqueous extract of Kyllinga brevifolia at different temperature. The formations of AgNPs were monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results reveal that the AgNPs well dispersed with average particle size are 22.34 and 6.73 nm for synthesized at room temperature and cold temperature respectively. The biomolecules present in the Kyllinga brevifolia aqueous extract responsible for the formation of AgNPs were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Our AgNPs performed excellent catalytic activity in degradation of methylene blue (MB) dyes via electron relay effect. MB is toxic to ecological system and also has carcinogenic properties. The AgNPs nanocatalysts synthesized in this study are highly dispersed, quasi-spherical and due to their size in nanoscale, they have shown effectiveness for degradation of MB dyes. More importantly, our AgNPs were prepared using biomolecules as capping and reducing agent, which make our product "greener" than available AgNPs that are commonly prepared using hydrazine and borohydride; which are harmful substances to human and environment. Not only the AgNPs can act as nanocatalyst for degradation of MB, they can also be expected to degrade other types of toxic dyes used in textiles industry.

  4. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  11. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color...

  12. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  17. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a...

  18. Intrauterine Methylene Blue Injection Influences the Accuracy of Pulse Oximetry Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Cheng Yeh

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: Intraoperative administration of methylene blue may induce false low readings on pulse oximetry. The patient was not hypoxemic. If there is any doubt, arterial blood gas analysis should be done to ensure that the patient is well oxygenated.

  19. Novel management of methylene blue extravasation: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Saeed Khokhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue is a highly irritant drug and has been used intraoperatively. Its accidental extravasation can lead to tissue necrosis. In this report, a unique management is described, and the patient recovered without any morbidity.

  20. Evaluation of Electrochemical Treatment of Chloride Contaminated Mortar Containing GGBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of cementitious binder on electrochemical treatment of steel embedded in salt contaminated mortar. As binder, ordinary Portland cement (OPC and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS were used and the current density of 250–750 mA/m2 was applied for 4 weeks to complete electrochemical chloride extraction. To evaluate the effect of electrochemical treatment the chloride profile and corrosion behaviour covering chloride concentration, galvanic current density, linear polarization resistance, open circuit potential, and mass loss were measured. An increase in the applied direct current density resulted in a decrease in the chloride concentration at the vicinity of steel, accompanying the mitigated corrosion damage. The performance of electrochemical treatment was more remarkable in mortar containing GGBS presumably due to binding mechanism. However, corrosion damage was more detrimental in GGBS rather than OPC at a given potential, while GGBS had superior corrosion resistance to a corrosive environment and treatment conditions. Therefore, the electrochemical treatment should be conducted prudently to evaluate the corrosion state of embedded steel depending on binder type.

  1. A nonradioactive assay for poly(a)-specific ribonuclease activity by methylene blue colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Wei-Feng; Yan, Yong-Bin; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2006-01-01

    A simple nonradioactive assay, which was based on the specific shift of the absorbance maximum of methylene blue induced by its intercalation into poly(A) molecules, was developed for poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN). A good linear relationship was found between the absorbance at 662 nm and the poly(A) concentration. The assay conditions, including the concentration of methylene blue, the incubation temperature and time, and the poly(A) concentration were evaluated and optimized.

  2. Methylene Blue to Treat Protamine-induced Anaphylaxis Reactions. An Experimental Study in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Afrodite S. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To examine if methylene blue (MB can counteract or prevent protamine (P cardiovascular effects. Methods: The protocol included five heparinized pig groups: Group Sham -without any drug; Group MB - MB 3 mg/kg infusion; Group P - protamine; Group P/MB - MB after protamine; Group MB/P - MB before protamine. Nitric oxide levels were obtained by the nitric oxide/ozone chemiluminescence method, performed using the Nitric Oxide Analizer 280i (Sievers, Boulder, CO, USA. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were estimated using the thiobarbiturate technique. Results: 1 Groups Sham and MB presented unchanged parameters; 2 Group P - a Intravenous protamine infusion caused mean arterial pressure decrease and recovery trend after 25-30 minutes, b Cardiac output decreased and remained stable until the end of protamine injection, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased until the end of protamine injection; 3 Methylene blue infusion after protamine (Group P/MB - a Marked mean arterial pressure decreased after protamine, but recovery after methylene blue injection, b Cardiac output decreased after protamine infusion, recovering after methylene blue infusion, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased after protamine infusion and methylene blue injections; 4 Methylene blue infusion before protamine (Group MB/P - a Mean arterial pressure decrease was less severe with rapid recovery, b After methylene blue, there was a progressive cardiac output increase up to protamine injection, when cardiac output decreased, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance decreased after protamine, followed by immediate Sustained systemic vascular resistance increase; 5 Plasma nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde values did not differ among the experimental groups. Conclusion: Reviewing these experimental results and our clinical experience, we suggest methylene blue safely prevents and treats hemodynamic protamine complications, from the

  3. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modified methylene blue injection improves lymph node harvest in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianpei; Huang, Pinjie; Zheng, Zongheng; Chen, Tufeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nodal metastases in rectal cancer plays an important role in accurate staging and prognosis, which depends on adequate lymph node harvest. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the feasibility and survival benefit of improving lymph node harvest by a modified method with methylene blue injection in rectal cancer specimens. One hundred and thirty-one patients with rectal cancer were randomly assigned to the control group in which lymph nodes were harvested by palpation and sight, or to the methylene blue group using a modified method of injection into the superior rectal artery with methylene blue. Analysis of clinicopathologic records, including a long-term follow-up, was performed. In the methylene blue group, 678 lymph nodes were harvested by simple palpation and sight. Methylene blue injection added 853 lymph nodes to the total harvest as well as 32 additional metastatic lymph nodes, causing a shift to node-positive stage in four patients. The average number of lymph nodes harvested was 11.7 ± 3.4 in the control group and 23.2 ± 4.7 in the methylene blue group, respectively. The harvest of small lymph nodes (rectal cancer, especially small node and metastatic node retrieval, which provided more accurate staging. However, it was not associated with overall survival. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liquid separation easier during the next stage. The electrocoagulation stages must be optimized in order to design an economically feasible process. The results showed that the optimum electrolysis was 10–20 min at a current density of 8 mA/cm2, while the optimum concentration of the electrolyte (NaOH was found to be 2 wt.% when the dye concentration was 50 mg/L. The utilization of an electromagnetic field enhanced the dye removal due to the induced motion of paramagnetic ions inside the solution. The power consumption required to remove the dye was reduced by 45% in the case of applying an electromagnetic field.

  6. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dabrzalska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer—methylene blue (MB. As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  7. Acid-base catalysis of N-[(morpholine)methylene]daunorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anna; Jelińska, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Klawitter, Maria; Zalewski, Przemysław; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Wąsowska, Małgorzata

    2012-08-01

    The stability of N-[(morpholine)methylene]-daunorubicin hydrochloride (MMD) was investigated in the pH range 0.44-13.54, at 313, 308, 303 and 298 K. The degradation of MMD as a result of hydrolysis is a pseudo-first-order reaction described by the following equation: ln c = ln c(0) - k(obs)• t. In the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, borate, acetate and phosphate buffers, k(obs) = k(pH) because general acid-base catalysis was not observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of MMD comprises the following reactions: hydrolysis of the protonated molecules of MMD catalyzed by hydrogen ions (k(1)) and spontaneous hydrolysis of MMD molecules other than the protonated ones (k(2)) under the influence of water. The total rate of the reaction is equal to the sum of partial reactions: k(pH) = k(1) • a(H)+ • f(1) + k(2) • f(2) where: k(1) is the second-order rate constant (mol(-1) l s(-1)) of the specific hydrogen ion-catalyzed degradation of the protonated molecules of MMD; k(2) is the pseudo-first-order rate constant (s(-1)) of the water-catalyzed degradation of MMD molecules other than the protonated ones, f(1) - f(2) are fractions of the compound. MMD is the most stable at approx. pH 2.5.

  8. Cytologic and radiosensibilizer action of the methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, P.C.N.

    1989-01-01

    This work was designed with the aim of studying the use of Methylene Blue as a possible cellular sensitizer to heat and X-rays effects. We were able to show that MB can sensitize bacteria to these two agents. This sensitization is dependent on factors that can interfere with the penetration of the dye through the cellular membrane, like temperature, concentration and permeability. On the other hand, the sensitization is dependent on repair systems. In this work, we show that damages induced by heat and MB are repaired chiefly by the excision repair system, since mutants deficient in UVR ABC endonuclease or in DNA polimerase I are very sensitive to this treatment. This was confirmed by measuring the excision of sup(3)H labeled thymidine from the DNA after treatment of bacteria with heat and MB. Repair of damage produced by X-rays depends on the DNA polimerase I enzyme. It seems that MB can interfere with this enzyme inhibiting the repair of X-rays produced lesions. It is shown too that MB alone, in alkaline conditions, can induce single-strand-breaks in DNA. This means that in the cells, MB probably induces alkali labilizations that become SSB in alkaline conditions. Since X rays are used in cancer therapy, and MB penetrates preferably in malignant cells, our aim was to determine the possibility of using these two agents to improve the discrimination of the lethal effects of X-rays between malignant and normal cells. (author)

  9. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  10. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  11. Optimization of methylene blue removal by stable emulsified liquid membrane using Plackett–Burman and Box–Behnken designs of experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenouhat, Meriem; Bendebane, Farida; Bahloul, Lynda; Samar, Mohamed E. H.

    2018-01-01

    The stability of an emulsified liquid membrane composed of Span80 as a surfactant, D2EHPA as an extractant and sulfuric acid as an internal phase was first studied according to different diluents and many operating parameters using the Plackett–Burman design of experiments. Then the removal of methylene blue from an aqueous solution has been carried out using this emulsified liquid membrane at its stability conditions. The effects of operating parameters were analysed from the Box–Behnken design of experiments. The optimization of the extraction has been realized applying the response surface methodology and the results showed that the dye extraction yielding 98.72% was achieved at optimized conditions. PMID:29515841

  12. Optimization of methylene blue removal by stable emulsified liquid membrane using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenouhat, Meriem; Bendebane, Farida; Bahloul, Lynda; Samar, Mohamed E H; Ismail, Fadhel

    2018-02-01

    The stability of an emulsified liquid membrane composed of Span80 as a surfactant, D2EHPA as an extractant and sulfuric acid as an internal phase was first studied according to different diluents and many operating parameters using the Plackett-Burman design of experiments. Then the removal of methylene blue from an aqueous solution has been carried out using this emulsified liquid membrane at its stability conditions. The effects of operating parameters were analysed from the Box-Behnken design of experiments. The optimization of the extraction has been realized applying the response surface methodology and the results showed that the dye extraction yielding 98.72% was achieved at optimized conditions.

  13. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fabrication of cellulose nanocrystal from Carex meyeriana Kunth and its application in the adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Liu, Hui; Han, Fuyi; Jiang, Shuai; Liu, Lifang; Xia, Zhaopeng

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was extracted from Carex meyeriana Kunth (CMK) by a combination of TEMPO oxidation and mechanical homogenization method, and used to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. After alkali-oxygen treatment, the aqueous biphasic system (polyethylene glycol/inorganic salt) was applied to further remove lignin from CMK. The characteriazation of CNC, and the effects of H 2 O 2 dosage, CNC dosage, adsorption time, and initial MB concentration on the MB removal capacity of CNC were investigated. The results showed that the removal percentage of MB by CNC was raised with the increase of H 2 O 2 and CNC dosage. The adsorption kinetics of prepared CNC followed the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption isotherms fitted well to the Langmuir model with a calculated maximum adsoption capacity of 217.4mg/g, which was higher than those of CNC extracted by acid hydrolysis method, indicating CNC extracted from CMK had promising potentials in the field of MB adsorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organic extract of diesel exhaust particles stimulates expression of Ia and costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation in rat peripheral blood monocytes but not in alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Eiko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in lung. The present study was designed to clarify the following about DEP: (1) whether it affects the expression of Ia and B7 molecules in alveolar macrophages (AM) as a mature cell or in peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) as an immature cell (2) if it affects the antigen-presenting (AP) activity of PBM (3) what component of DEP is responsible for the effects, and (4) whether the effect of DEP is related to oxidative stress. DEP was extracted with methylene chloride. Cells were exposed to whole DEP, organic extract, or residual particles for 24 h. Cell-surface molecules were measured by flow cytometry. AP activity was assessed by antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Whole DEP or organic extract significantly increased the expression of Ia and B7 molecules on PBM but not on AM. No significant effect of residual particles was observed. A low concentration of organic extract also increased the AP activity of PBM. When the induction of an antioxidative enzyme was assessed, heme oxygenase-1 protein was found to be significantly increased by exposure to whole DEP, and the organic extract was more effective than the residual particles. Furthermore, the organic extract-induced expression of Ia antigen on PBM was reduced by the addition of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that DEP may act on immature APC and enhance their AP activity and that the action contributing to oxidative stress may be mediated by organic compounds of DEP

  16. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  17. Dehydration of aluminum chloride hexahydrate: a technical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    Physical and chemical properties of aluminum chloride hexahydrate, ACH, and related compounds are noted as well as the relation of these properties to the problem of dehydration of ACH to form anhydrous aluminum chloride. Several approaches to the dehydration of ACH are discussed and a rationale or each approach is given: solvent extraction, ligand exchange, azeotropic distillation, chemical dehydration, and energy specific direct heating. While the thermodynamics of dehydration are frequently favorable, the rate of reaction and the mechanisms of reaction are more frequently unfavorable. However, each approach requires experimentation to test its effectiveness. The stability of the aluminum-oxygen bond in the hydrate is such that dehydration without decomposition to the oxide will be very difficult

  18. Photodynamic action of methylene blue in osteosarcoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiemin; Lai, Xiaoping; Wang, Xinna; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Chuanshan

    2014-03-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor which threatens the life of young people worldwide. To explore alternative strategy for combating osteosarcoma, a light-emitting diode (LED) that activates methylene blue (MB) was used in the present study to investigate cell death of osteosarcoma-derived UMR106 cells. Photocytotoxicity in UMR106 cells was investigated 24h after photodynamic activation of MB using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and light microscopy. Apoptosis induction was observed 24h after photodynamic treatment using a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with Hoechst 33342 staining. The change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was analyzed using a flow cytometry with rhodamine 123 staining. MB under red light irradiation caused a drug-concentration (0-100μM) and light-dose (0-32J/cm(2)) dependent cytotoxicity in UMR106 cells. The SRB assay and light microscopy observed a significant decrease in the number of UMR106 cells attached to the bottom of culture well after LED light-activated MB (100μM, 32J/cm(2)). Nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation were found in the treated cells by nuclear staining. In addition, flow cytometry showed that the MMP in UMR106 cells was rapidly reduced by photo-activated MB (100μM, 32J/cm(2)). Photodynamic action of MB under LED irradiation could remarkably kill osteosarcoma cells and induce cell apoptosis as well as MMP collapse. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Methylene blue for clinical anaphylaxis treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Moreira Rodrigues

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in modulating systemic changes associated with anaphylaxis. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may exacerbate bronchospasm in anaphylaxis and worsen clinical conditions, with limited roles in anaphylactic shock treatment. The aim here was to report an anaphylaxis case (not anaphylactic shock, reversed by methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old female suddenly presented urticaria and pruritus, initially on her face and arms, then over her whole body. Oral antihistamine was administered initially, but without improvement in symptoms and signs until intravenous methylprednisolone 500 mg. Recurrence occurred after two hours, plus vomiting. Associated upper respiratory distress, pulmonary sibilance, laryngeal stridor and facial angioedema (including erythema and lip edema marked the evolution. At sites with severe pruritus, petechial lesions were observed. The clinical situation worsened, with dyspnea, tachypnea, peroral cyanosis, laryngeal edema with severe expiratory dyspnea and deepening unconsciousness. Conventional treatment was ineffective. Intubation and ventilatory support were then considered, because of severe hypoventilation. But, before doing that, based on our previous experience, 1.5 mg/kg (120 mg bolus of 4% MB was infused, followed by one hour of continuous infusion of another 120 mg diluted in dextrose 5% in water. Following the initial intravenous MB dose, the clinical situation reversed completely in less than 20 minutes, thereby avoiding tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Although the nitric oxide hypothesis for MB effectiveness discussed here remains unproven, our intention was to share our accumulated cohort experience, which strongly suggests MB is a lifesaving treatment for anaphylactic shock and/or anaphylaxis and other vasoplegic conditions.

  20. Laboratory informatics based evaluation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genetic test overutilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Cohen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory data can provide a wide range of information to estimate adherence to guidelines and proper utilization of genetic testing. The methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T variant has been demonstrated to have negligible utility in patient management. However, the testing of this variant remains pervasive. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to analyze concordance of clinician ordering practices with national guidelines. Methods: We used laboratory data to extract specific data elements including patient demographics, timestamps, physician ordering logs and temporal relationship to chemistry requests to examine 245 consecutive MTHFR tests ordered in 2011 at an academic tertiary center. A comprehensive chart review was used to identify indications for testing. These results were correlated with a retrospective analysis of 4,226 tests drawn at a range of hospitals requesting testing from a national reference laboratory over a 2-year period. MTHFR ordering practices drawn from 17 institutions were examined longitudinally from 2002 to 2011. Results: Indications for testing included cerebrovascular events (40.0% and venous thrombosis (39.1%. Family history prompted testing in eight cases. Based on acceptable hypercoagulability guidelines recommending MTHFR C677T testing only in the presence of elevated serum homocysteine, 10.6% (22/207 of adult patients met an indicated threshold at an academic tertiary center. Among 77 institutions, 14.5% (613/4226 of MTHFR testing met recommendations. Conclusion: We demonstrate an effective method to examine discreet elements of a molecular diagnostics laboratory information system at a tertiary care institution and to correlate these findings at a national level. Retrospective examination of clinicians′ request of MTHFR C677T genetic testing strongly suggests that clinicians have failed to adjust their ordering practices in light of evolving scientific and professional

  1. Experimental investigation on the threshold chloride concentration for corrosion initiation in reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung Hwan Oh; Seung Yup Jang

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion of steel reinforcements in concrete is of great importance in the view of safety and durability of reinforced concrete structures. This study is focused on the corrosion behavior of steel bars induced by internal chlorides in concrete. The main objective of this study is to determine the threshold chloride concentration causing depassivation and active corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete. To examine the threshold concentration of chloride ion, the half-cell potential, the chemical composition of extracted pore solutions of concrete and the extent of corroded area of the specimens were measured. Major test variables include the added amount of chlorides in concrete, type of binder, and water-to-binder ratios. From the present comprehensive test results, the factors influencing threshold chloride concentration are investigated, and the rational ranges of threshold chloride concentration causing active corrosion of steels are proposed. The present study provides the realistic chloride limit for corrosion initiation of reinforced concrete structures, which can be used efficiently in the future technical specification. (authors)

  2. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  3. Melting in trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; Scamehorn, C.; Tosi, M.P.

    1990-11-01

    We report a neutron diffraction study of the liquid structure of YCl 3 and combine the structural data with macroscopic melting and transport data to contrast the behaviour of this molten salt with those of SrCl 2 , ZnCl 2 and AlCl 3 as prototypes of different melting mechanisms for ionic materials. A novel melting mechanism for trivalent metal chlorides, leading to a loose disordered network of edge-sharing octahedral units in the liquid phase, is thereby established. The various melting behaviours are related to bonding character with the help of Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Monitoring of trace chloride ions at different stages of the gas production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. El Naggar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty gas and liquid samples at different stages of Obaiyed gas plant in Egypt were selected and subjected for determining chloride ion and hydrocarbon compositions. The trace levels of chloride in the water extracted from natural gas, condensate, Benfield and glycol samples were achieved using ion chromatograph (IC, electrical, conductivity and potentiometric methods, respectively. The hydrocarbon compositions were analyzed and evaluated using capillary gas chromatography. The chloride ions in natural gas and condensate are a function of water content and their concentration mainly depends on the separation efficiency. Variability in natural gas and condensate compositions seasonally is not an uncommon occurrence. Our aim is monitoring of chloride ion to select and optimize the conditions of sweetening and dehydration regenerators in order to follow and prevent their gradient in gas plant.

  5. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  6. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  7. Corneal edema and permanent blue discoloration of a silicone intraocular lens by methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Scott; Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    To report a silicone intraocular lens (IOL) stained blue by inadvertent intraoperative use of methylene blue instead of trypan blue and the results of experimental staining of various lens materials with different concentrations of the same dye. A "blue dye" was used to enhance visualization during capsulorhexis in a patient undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of a three-piece silicone lens. Postoperatively, the patient presented with corneal edema and a discolored IOL. Various IOL materials were experimentally stained using methylene blue. Sixteen lenses (4 silicone, 4 hydrophobic acrylic, 4 hydrophilic acrylic, and 4 polymethylmethacrylate) were immersed in 0.5 mL of methylene blue at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. These lenses were grossly and microscopically evaluated for discoloration 6 and 24 hours after immersion. The corneal edema resolved within 1 month after the initial surgical procedure. After explantation, gross and microscopic analyses of the explanted silicone lens revealed that its surface and internal substance had been permanently stained blue. In the experimental study, all of the lenses except the polymethylmethacrylate lenses were permanently stained by methylene blue. The hydrophilic acrylic lenses showed the most intense blue staining in all dye concentrations. This is the first clinicopathological report of IOL discoloration due to intraocular use of methylene blue. This and other tissue dyes may be commonly found among surgical supplies in the operating room and due diligence is necessary to avoid mistaking these dyes for those commonly used during ocular surgery.

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes Using New Methylene Blue as the Photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Chicón, P; Gulías, Ò; Nonell, S; Agut, M

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combines the use of a photosensitizing drug with light and oxygen to eradicate pathogens. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a dermatophytic fungus able to invade the skin and keratinized tissues. We have investigated the use of new methylene blue as the photosensitizing agent for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to produce the in vitro inactivation of T mentagrophytes. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the parameters for photoinactivation of the dermatophyte. The parameters studied were new methylene blue concentration, contact time between the photosensitizing agent and the fungus prior to light treatment, and the fluence of red light (wavelength, 620-645nm) applied. The minimum concentration of new methylene blue necessary to induce the death of all T. mentagrophytes cells in the initial suspension (approximate concentration, 10 6 colony forming units per milliliter) was 50μM for a fluence of 81J/cm 2 after a contact time of 10minutes with the photosensitizing-agent. Increasing the concentration to 100μM allowed the fluence to be decreased to 9J/cm 2 . Comparison of our data with other published data shows that the susceptibility of T. mentagrophytes to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with new methylene blue is strain-dependent. New methylene blue is a photosensitizing agent that should be considered for the treatment of fungal skin infections caused by this dermatophyte. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of NiO-Decorated ZnO Nanowhiskers for Methylene Blue Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowhiskers were used for photodecomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The rate of methylene blue degradation increased linearly with time of UV irradiation. 54% of degradation rate was observed when the ZnO nanowhiskers were used as photocatalysts for methylene blue degradation for 80 min under UV irradiation. The decoration of p-type NiO nanoparticles on n-type ZnO nanowhiskers significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and reached 72% degradation rate of methylene blue by using the same method. NiO-decorated ZnO was recycled for second test and shows 66% degradation from maximal peak of methylene blue within the same period. The increment of photocatalytic activity of NiO-decorated ZnO nanowhiskers was explained by the extension of the electron depletion layer due to the formation of nanoscale p-n junctions between p-type NiO and n-type ZnO. Hence, these products provide new alternative proficient photocatalysts for wastewater treatment.

  10. Cation exchange process for molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    A new method, utilizing a cation exchange technique, has been developed for processing molten salt extraction (MSE) chloride salt residues. The developed ion exchange procedure has been used to separate americium and plutonium from gross quantities of magnesium, potassium, and sodium chloride that are present in the residues. The recovered plutonium and americium contained only 20 percent of the original amounts of magnesium, potassium, and sodium and were completely free of any detectable amounts of chloride impurity. (U.S.)

  11. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled ethyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanski, R.

    1976-01-01

    A new efficient method of synthesis of ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C), based on the Ba 14 CO 3 and dry hydrogen chloride as starting materials has been developed and described. Addition of the hydrogen chloride to ethylene (1,2- 14 C), obtained from Ba 14 CO 3 , has been carried out in the presence of the AlCl 3 as catalyst. The outlined method leads to ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C) of high specific activity. The radiochemical yield of the reaction based on the activity of barium carbonate used was 72%. (author)

  12. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Tsunashima, Mikiyasu; Horie, Masaaki; Koyama, Masafumi; Sudo, Minoru; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Ogasawara, Tadashi.

    1991-01-01

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  13. Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Sediment and Soil by Pressurized Solvent Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction, and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 61 compounds in environmental sediment and soil samples is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wastewater and wastewater-impacted sediment on aquatic organisms. This method also may be used to evaluate the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water and sediment quality of urban streams. Method development focused on the determination of compounds that were chosen on the basis of their endocrine-disrupting potential or toxicity. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants and their degradates, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from interfering matrix components by high-pressure water/isopropyl alcohol extraction. The compounds were isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing chemically modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin. The cartridges were dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds were eluted with methylene chloride (80 percent)-diethyl ether (20 percent) through Florisil/sodium sulfate SPE cartridge, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-sand samples fortified at 4 to 72 micrograms averaged 76 percent ?13 percent relative standard deviation for all method compounds. Initial method reporting levels for single-component compounds ranged from 50 to 500 micrograms per kilogram. The concentrations of 20 out of 61 compounds initially will be reported as estimated with the 'E' remark code for one of three reasons: (1) unacceptably low-biased recovery (less than 60 percent) or highly variable method performance

  14. Chloride-mass-balance for predicting increased recharge after land-use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, G.W.; Zhang, Z.F.; Tyler, S.W.; Albright, W.H.; Singleton, M.J.

    2004-02-23

    The chloride-mass-balance (CMB) method has been used extensively to estimate recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Required data include estimates of annual precipitation, total chloride input (from dry fallout and precipitation), and pore-water chloride concentrations. Typically, CMB has been used to estimate ancient recharge but recharge from recent land-use change has also been documented. Recharge rates below a few mm/yr are reliably detected with CMB; however, estimates above a few mm/yr appear to be less reliable. We tested the CMB method against 26 years of drainage from a 7.6-m-deep lysimeter at a simulated waste-burial ground, located on the Department of Energy s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA where land-use change has increased recharge rates. Measured drainage from the lysimeter for the past 26 years averaged 62 mm/yr. Precipitation averaged 190 mm/yr with an estimated chloride input of 0.225 mg/L. Initial pore-water chloride concentration was 88 mg/L and decreased to about 6 mg/L after 26 years, while the drainage water decreased to less than 1 mg/L. A recharge estimate made using chloride concentrations in drain water was within 20 percent of the measured drainage rate. In contrast, recharge estimates using 1:1 (water: soil) extracts were lower than actual by factors ranging from 2 to 8 or more. The results suggest that when recharge is above a few mm/yr, soil water extracts can lead to unreliable estimates of recharge. For conditions of elevated recharge, direct sampling of pore water is the preferred method, because chloride concentrations are often 20 to 50 times higher in directly-sampled pore water than in pore-water extracts.

  15. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (ΔH=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (ΔG=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (ΔS=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and molar adsorption coefficient (μa) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when

  16. Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase contributes to allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Eyring

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors in modifying allergic airway disease.We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms.Allergic airway disease was induced in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice through house dust mite (HDM exposure. Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR were measured between the two groups. Gene expression and methylation profiles were generated for whole lung tissue. Disease and molecular outcomes were evaluated in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice supplemented with betaine.Loss of Mthfr alters single carbon metabolite levels in the lung and serum including elevated homocysteine and cystathionine and reduced methionine. HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice demonstrated significantly less airway hyperreactivity (AHR compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice have reduced whole lung lavage (WLL cellularity, eosinophilia, and Il-4/Il-5 cytokine concentrations. Betaine supplementation reversed parts of the HDM-induced allergic airway disease that are modified by Mthfr loss. 737 genes are differentially expressed and 146 regions are differentially methylated in lung tissue from HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice and HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, analysis of methylation/expression relationships identified 503 significant correlations.Collectively, these findings indicate that the loss of folate as a methyl donor is a modifier of

  17. Thermochemistry of alkali chloride - lanthanoide(III) chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachnik, R.; Selle, D.

    1979-01-01

    The phase diagrams of the mixtures KCl + GdCl 3 resp. DyCl 3 and of CsCl + PrCl 3 (DyCl 3 , ErCl 3 , and YbCl 3 ) were investigated by differential thermal analysis. In the mixtures of lanthanoide(III) chlorides with CsCl resp. KCl three different stoichiometries of the compounds were found, namely A 3 MCl 6 , A 2 MCl 5 , and AM 2 Cl 7 . Debyeograms of the compounds A 3 MCl 6 and AM 2 Cl 7 reveal, that in the case of the latter type all compounds with the same alkali halide have identical structure, whereas in the A 3 MCl 6 compounds three different types of X-ray patterns were observed. The stabilities of the congruently melting compounds can be estimated by comparing the melting point of the compound with the temperature of an extrapolated eutectic point. (author)

  18. Evaluation of chloride-ion-specific electrodes as in situ chemical sensors for monitoring total chloride concentration in aqueous solutions generated during the recovery of plutonium from molten salts used in plutonium electrorefining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.

    1992-10-01

    Two commercially available chloride-ion-specific electrodes (CLISEs), a solid-state type and a membrane type, were evaluated as potential in situ chemical sensors for determining total chloride ion concentration in mixed sodium chloride/potassium chloride/hydrochloric acid solutions generated during the recovery of plutonium from molten salts used in plutonium electrorefining operations. Because the response of the solid-state CLISE was closer than was the response of the membrane-type CLISE to the theoretical response predicted by the Nernst equation, the solid-state CLISE was selected for further evaluation. A detailed investigation of the characteristics of the chloride system and the corresponding CLISE response to concentration changes suggested four methods by which the CLISE could be used either as a direct, in situ sensor or as an indirect sensor through which an analysis could be performed on-line with a sample extracted from the process solution

  19. Assessing Urinary Tract Junction Obstruction Defects by Methylene Blue Dye Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kangsun

    2017-10-12

    Urinary tract junction obstruction defects are congenital anomalies inducing hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Murine urinary tract junction obstruction defects can be assessed by tracking methylene blue dye flow within the urinary system. Methylene blue dye is injected into the renal pelvis of perinatal embryonic kidneys and dye flow is monitored from the renal pelvis of the kidney through the ureter and into the bladder lumen after applying hydrostatic pressure. Dye accumulation will be evident in the bladder lumen of the normal perinatal urinary tract, but will be constrained between the renal pelvis and the end point of an abnormal ureter, if urinary tract obstructions occur. This method facilitates the confirmation of urinary tract junction obstructions and visualization of hydronephrosis and hydroureter. This manuscript describes a protocol for methylene blue dye injection into the renal pelvis to confirm urinary tract junction obstructions.

  20. Potential adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using green macroalgaePosidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, F.-N.; Yassaa, N.

    2018-03-01

    The use of inexpensive biological materials, such as marine algae for removing dyes from contaminated industrial effluents appears as a potential alternative method. The aim of this study is to investigate the aptitude of marine macroalgae Posidonia Oceanica local biomass abundant on the coasts of Algeria for selective sorption of methylene blue (MB) from an aqueous solution in batch experiments at 20 °C. A maximum percentage removal of Posidonia oceanica occurs at pH 5. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption equilibrium of methylene blue was best describe by Langmuir model than the Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity was 357 mgg-1at pH 5. The sorption data were very well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Keywords: Posidonia oceanica, Methylene blue (MB), Biosorption, Isotherm Equilibrium, Kinetics; Modelling.

  1. Solid-phase microextraction of Methylene Blue using carboxy graphene-modified steel wires, and its detection by electrochemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sui; Lv, Shasha; Guo, Zhiyong; Jiang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We report on a new solid phase for microextraction (SPME) of Methylene Blue (MB). It was obtained by immobilizing carboxy graphene (G-COOH) on a stainless steel wire. Scanning electron micrography showed the surface to be homogeneous, porous and wrinkled. The effects of sample solution pH, extraction time, stirring rate, desorption time and of desorption solvent on the efficiency of extraction of MB were optimized. The new SPME was coupled to electrochemiluminescence detection of MB and gave a linear analytical range from 2.7 nM to 1.3 μM, and the detection limit is 0.89 nM which is better than other methods. When considering the enrichment factor of ∼20, the resulting detection limit is estimated to be 45 pM. The new SPME fiber was successfully applied to the analysis of MB in spiked real water samples. Recoveries range from 95.7 % to 113.0 %, and relative standard deviations are <5.0 %, which showed the good reproducibility of the method. (author)

  2. TiO₂ (rutile) embedded inulin--A versatile bio-nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi Kalaivani, G; Suja, S K

    2016-06-05

    Inulin, a water soluble carbohydrate polymer, was extracted from Allium sativum L. by hot water diffusion method. A novel bio-nanocomposite was prepared by embedding TiO2 (rutile) onto the inulin matrix. The extracted inulin and the prepared bio-nanocomposite were characterized using UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and TGA techniques. The photocatalytic activity of the bio-nanocomposite for the degradation of methylene blue was studied under UV illumination in batch mode experiment and was found to be twice as high as that of pristine TiO2. The kapp for inulin-TiO2 (0.0449 min(-1)) was higher than that for TiO2 (0.0325 min(-1)) which may be due to the synergistic action of inulin and TiO2. The stabilization of photo excited electron suppressed the electron-hole pair recombination thereby inducing the electrons and the holes to participate in the photo reduction and oxidation processes, respectively and enhancing the photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmentally benign process for the preparation of antimicrobial α-methylene-β-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (tulipalin B) from tulip biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Hayashi, Emiko; Kawakami, Shohei; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Tulipalin B (α-methylene-β-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone, PaB) is an antimicrobial natural product occurring in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). PaB is directly formed from the precursor glucose ester 6-tuliposide B (PosB) by endogenous Pos-converting enzyme (TCE). Despite the potential usefulness of antibacterial PaB in various industrial applications, lack of facile synthetic schemes hampers its practical use. Herein, we describe an environmentally benign and facile process for the preparation of PaB using tulip biomass materials based on one-step enzyme reaction catalyzed by TCE without the use of petroleum-derived solvents. By screening 115 tulip cultivars, we found three elite cultivars, which accumulated PosB almost exclusively in flower tissues. The flower extracts with aqueous ethanol were partially purified with activated charcoal and subjected to the enzyme reaction with reusable immobilized TCE prepared from bulb crude extracts. The reaction was completed in a few hours at room temperature, and PaB was purified with activated charcoal and ethanol in a batch-wise manner.

  4. Stability constants of the Europium complexes with the chloride ions; Constantes de estabilidad de los complejos del europio con los iones cloruro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The stability constants of lanthanides complexes with chloride ions which were determined at the same ionic force but in different media, are significantly different. It does not exist a systematic study over these stability constants. The purpose of this work is to determine the stability constants of the europium complexes with chloride ions at 303 K, by the solvents extraction method. (Author)

  5. Removal of congo red and methylene blue from waste water using coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffar, S.; Nosheen, S.; Ahmad, N.

    2011-01-01

    The textile industry has been condemned as being one of the world's worst offenders in terms of pollution Because of increasing population and industrial developments, a huge amount of wastewater is discharged to the environment above the level that the nature can eliminate. Many techniques like oxidation, reduction, physical treatment and biological method are available for removal of colored dyes from wastewater. The work presented here involved the decolorisation of wastewater containing congo red and methylene blue using various coagulants such as alum, bentonite and lime. The effect of various experimental factors such as dosage of coagulants, contact time between coagulant and dye and concentration of dyes and working environment like shaking and static was studied. Under static condition alum give almost 43% removal of congo red while with 10 minutes shaking 74 % removal of 80 dye was achieved with same coagulant. The highest removal of congo red was found to be 99.5 % by using alum after 30 minutes of shaking but in case of methylene blue it intensified the color and gave negative results. Lime gave only 33 % color removal of congo red under static conditions while 57% color was removed under shaking conditions. Maximum color removal achieved by lime was 89% at 40 minutes with shaking condition. Lime gave 60% removal of methylene blue in static condition and 90% removal in shaking condition and maximum absorbance at 80 ppm was 90%. Bentonite also used for the removal of methylene blue and gave 89% removal in shaking condition. By increasing shaking time %age removal increased to 100% at 40 min. And amount of coagulant increased the removal efficiency it attained 100% in both lime and bentonite coagulant for methylene blue Overall alum was found to be better coagulant for the removal of congo red from its aqueous solution. Lime and bentonite both proved better and economical for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution at lab scale. (author)

  6. Influence of sodium chloride on aflatoxin production by irradiated and non-irradiated spores of aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid medium consisting of 2% yeast extract, 4% sucrose and 0-10% sodium chloride was inoculated with aspergillus flavus and incubated at 22.30 and 37 degree C for 8 days. Aflatoxin was determined in the medium by thin layer chromatography. Aflatoxin production was enhanced by 2 and 4% sodium chloride at 22 and 30 degree C and by 2-6% sodium chloride at 37 degree C. Aflatoxin was decreased by 8 and 10% sodium chloride at the three temperatures. Exposure of Asp. flavus spores to gamma radiation enhanced aflatoxin at 1 kGy and inhibited it at 2 kGy, with the different concentrations of sodium chloride.2 tab

  7. Neuroprotective potential of Citrullus lanatus seed extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury chloride toxicity continues to be relevant in the advent of increased interest in mining activity in Nigeria. The neuroprotective potential of Citrullus lanatus seed extract (CLSE) (Watermelon seed) and vitamin E (VIT E) on mercury chloride intoxication on the frontal cerebral cortex of male rats was investigated.

  8. Photodynamic Therapy With Methylene Blue for Skin Ulcers Infected With Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiroz, C; Sevil, M; Toyas, C; Gilaberte, Y

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality with significant antimicrobial activity. We present 2 cases of chronic lower limb ulcers in which fungal and bacterial superinfection complicated management. PDT with methylene blue as the photosensitizer led to clinical and microbiological cure with no significant adverse effects. PDT with methylene blue is a valid option for the management of superinfected chronic ulcers, reducing the use of antibiotics and the induction of resistance. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of Methylene Blue from aqueous solution using spent bleaching earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, E.; Saputra, R.; Nugraha, M. W.; Irianty, R. S.; Utama, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    The waste from industrial textile waste is one of the environmental problems, it is required effective and efficient processing. In this study spent bleaching earth was used as absorbent. It was found that the absorbent was effective to remove methylene blue from aqueous solution with removal efficiency 99.97 % in 120 min. Several parameters such as pH, amount of absorbent loading, stirring speed are found as key factor influencing removal of methylene blue. The mechanism of adsorption was also studied, and it was found that Langmuir isotherm fitted to data of experiment with adsorption capacity 0.5 mg/g.

  10. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  11. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  12. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  13. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  14. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those...

  17. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, V.D.; Kocherov, N.P.; Novikova, N.R.; Perfilov, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Evaluation of anticancer properties of a new α-methylene-δ-lactone DL-249 on two cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomorska Dorota K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer activity of a new synthetic α-methylene-δ-lactone DL-249 was reported in leukemia HL-60 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells and compared with the activity of a natural α-methylene-γ-lactone from Tanacetum parthenium, parthenolide.

  19. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Kihara, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Ohuchi, Misao

    1996-06-01

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl{sub 2} and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} were formed. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl{sub 2}, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH{sub 3}{sup +} and CH{sub 4} were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  20. Determination of small amounts of zinc in cadmium with iodonitrotetrazolium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Kamburova, M.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction photometric method for determining small amounts of zinc in metallic cadmium with iodonitrotetrazolium chloride was suggested. This method is specific under the stipulated conditions. The mean standard deviation is 1.43%x0.01% zinc can be determined in cadmium. (author)

  1. Indium-111-chloride and three-phase bone scintigraphy: A comparison for imaging experimental osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskinson, J.J.; Daniel, G.B.; Patton, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the utility of indium-111-chloride ( 111 In-Cl) imaging in detecting osteomyelitis complicating surgical or fracture sites, the proximal tibia of 11 dogs were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus after creation of a cortical defect. The contralateral limb served as a sham-operated control. Animals were serially imaged by radiography, three-phase technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) scintigraphy, and 111 In-Cl scintigraphy. There was a significant difference between infected (1.93) and noninfected (1.32) limb's tibia/femur count density ratios on 24-hr (p = 0.0001) and 72-hr (p = 0.0001) 111 In-Cl images. A smaller difference was found for 99mTc-MDP bone-phase tibia/femur ratios (p = 0.0199). Using receiver operator characteristic analysis of tibia/femur ratios, a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 88%, and positive (75%) and negative (79%) predictive values were determined for the 24-hr 111 In-Cl images. Indium-111-chloride was superior to 99mTc-MDP in differentiating infected and noninfected operative sites

  2. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  3. ON THE CHEMISTRY AND STAINING PROPERTIES OF CERTAIN DERIVATIVES OF THE METHYLENE BLUE GROUP WHEN COMBINED WITH EOSIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.

    1907-01-01

    1. Eosinate of thionin gives very satisfactory staining for blood smears. It is easily prepared and dissolves readily in methylated spirits. 2. In the methods heretofore employed for making mixtures of eosin and methylene blue derivatives, the eosinates of methylene violet and methylene azure are present in very small quantities or are altogether absent. 3. Thionol and thionin are probably formed in methylene blue which has been long boiled with dilute alkalies and silver oxide. 4. Good stains of eosin and methylene blue derivatives can be obtained by a variety of manipulations. 5. Methylated spirits is more economical as a solvent for this stain and better adapted for the simple technique above described than is methyl alcohol. There is some evidence that the staining act is of a chemical nature. PMID:19867116

  4. Chloride Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the ...

  5. Siam weed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method of phytoremediation was applied to clean up heavy metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbon contents of a ... prevents corrosion of these auto machines parts. It contains .... extracted with methylene chloride (DCM). The extract was ...

  6. Substoichiometric extraction of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.

    1980-01-01

    Substoichiometric extraction of chromium with tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPACl), tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDDC) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) was examined in detail. Chromium can be extracted substoichiometrically in a pH range, which is 1.1-2.6 for the TPACl compound, 0.6-2.3 for the TNOA compound, 5.1-6.4 for the DDDC chelate and 3.9-4.9 for the APDC chelate. Chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate, Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and Brewers Yeast (NBS SRM-1569) was determined by neutron activation analysis combined with substoichiometric extraction by DDDC and APDC. The values of 2.0+-0.02 ppm and 2.6+-0.2 ppm were obtained for Brewers Yeast and Orchard Leaves, respectively. These values were in good agreement with those reported by NBS. The reaction mechanism and the reaction ratio between hexavalent chromium and dithiocarbamate are also discussed. (author)

  7. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  8. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  9. Continuous adsorption of methylene blue dye on the maize stem ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Predrag S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions onto maize stem ground tissue in column mode was investigated. The study encompassed the effects of important parameters such as flow rate, initial concentration of methylene blue, and bed depth on methylene blue removal from model solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity of the maize stem was 45.9 mg/g at the initial methylene blue concentration of 20 mg/L, bed height of 6.5 cm and flow rate of 8 mL/min. It was found that the breakthrough time for reaching saturation increased with a decrease in the flow rate, and also occurred earlier for a higher influent concentration. The breakthrough times increased with the bed depth, thus allowing a larger volume to be treated. The Adams-Bohart, Yoon-Nelson, Clark and artificial neural network models were used to predict the breakthrough curves. These models gave excellent approximations of the experimental behavior.[Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172025

  10. Increased uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in muscles in the course of polymyositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemir, Z.; Oleksa, R.; Czepczynski, R.; Sowinski, J.

    2005-01-01

    A case of a woman aged 46 years with signs of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure is presented. Coxsackie serum test was positive. Increased uptake of Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ( 99mT c-MDP) by muscles of thighs and calves was observed. After 1 year no increased accumulation of radiotracer in the muscles was found

  11. The Adsorption Efficiency of Chemically Prepared Activated Carbon from Cola Nut Shells by on Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Ndi Nsami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from cola nut shell has been investigated under batch mode. The influence of major parameters governing the efficiency of the process such as, solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, and contact time on the removal process was investigated. The time-dependent experimental studies showed that the adsorption quantity of methylene blue increases with initial concentration and decreasing adsorbent dosage. The equilibrium time of 180 min was observed and maximum adsorption was favoured at pH 3.5. The dye removal using 0.1 g of adsorbent was more than 90%. This dosage (0.1 g was considered as the optimum dosage to remove methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The kinetics of methylene blue solution was discussed by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich models. The adsorption process follows the Elovich rate kinetic model, having a correlation coefficient in the range between 0.9811 and 1.

  12. Synthesis of /sup 14/C-labeled felbamate from phenylacetic-(methylene-/sup 14/C) acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.M.; Kucharczyk, N.; Sofia, R.D.

    1986-05-01

    A synthetic procedure for the preparation of 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol-2-/sup 14/C dicarbamate, starting with phenylacetic-(methylene-/sup 14/C) acid was developed. The procedure from phenylacetic acid to 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate has four steps via phenylmalonic acid and 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol. The overall yield of all four steps was 28%.

  13. Extended Fenske-Hall LCAO MO Calculations for Mixed Methylene Dihalides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Hartmut; Paulun, Manfred

    1988-10-01

    The electronic structure of mixed methylene dihalides CH2XY (X, Y = F, Cl, Br. I) has been studied using extended Fenske-Hall LCAO MO method. The comparison with available photoelec­tron spectra confirmes previous assignments of all bands with binding energies <100 eV. The electronic structure changes occurring upon varying the halogen substituents are discussed.

  14. Breakdown of methylene blue and methyl orange by pulsed corona discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabowski, L.R.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Rutgers, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    The recently developed corona above water technique is applied to water containing 10 mg l-1 methylene blue (MB) or methyl orange (MO). The corona discharge pulses are created with a spark gap switched capacitor followed by a transmission line transformer. The pulse amplitude is 40 kV; its duration

  15. Chemical composition effects of methylene containing polymers on gas emission under γ-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, M., E-mail: muriel.ferry@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dannoux-Papin, A. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dély, N. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, LIDYL, PCR, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legand, S.; Durand, D.; Roujou, J.L.; Lamouroux, C.; Dauvois, V. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coignet, P.; Cochin, F. [AREVA NC DOR/RDP, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 La Défense (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, LIDYL, PCR, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-09-01

    The presence of different chemical groups in methylene containing polymers can lead to very different behaviors under ionizing radiation. To better understand the effect of these groups on gas production under γ-irradiation, especially on hydrogen formation, and to study the efficiency of energy transfer between chemical groups, several methylene containing polymers with different controlled group concentrations were studied in inert atmosphere. We analyzed the influence of the nature and position of the chemical group using methylene containing copolymers with aliphatic side-chains (different lengths), ester groups in the side-chains (different concentrations) and ester groups in the polymer backbone (different concentrations). Radiation chemical yields of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were determined at room temperature by high resolution mass spectrometry. On the basis of these results, we attempt to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. It can be observed that crystallinity and aliphatic side-chain have no effect on hydrogen formation. On contrary, esters on side-chain and in the backbone have an important influence on hydrogen formation, with the most important effect when esters groups are in the backbone. In these two kind of materials, energy fraction transferred from methylene to ester groups has been quantified and only 10 wt% (or less) of ester groups are sufficient to protect effectively the aliphatic moiety.

  16. Liver metastases of breast carcinoma detected on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.; Horning, S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    The accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported in liver metastases from colon carcinoma and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Two patients with breast carcinoma in whom hepatic metastases were visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone images are described. This has not been previously reported

  17. Retrograde Instillation of Methylene Blue in the Difficult Diagnosis of BPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ravenna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases in which we were able to diagnose bronchopleural fistula through retrograde methylene blue instillation during bronchoscopy. In the first case, methylene blue was injected through an abdominal drain, followed by air instillation and detected in the left bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the lingula’s bronchus. In the second case, methylene blue was injected into a pleural drain, through a breach on a surgical suture and detected in the right bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the right inferior bronchus. The retrograde instillation of methylene blue, through a drain in the abdomen or the thoracic wall, is a safe, cheap, and practical method that allows the bronchoscopist to identify the presence of a fistula and, more importantly, to identify the exact point on the bronchial tree where a fistula is located. This provides the possibility of sealing the fistula with a variety of devices. It is our opinion that this procedure should be considered a primary method of diagnosis when a bronchopleural fistula is suspected and a drain on the thoracic or abdominal wall is positioned such that effusions are able to drain.

  18. Microfluidics-based microbubbles in methylene blue solution for photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman; Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Yang, Chun; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Contrast agents which can be used for more than one bio-imaging technique has gained a lot of attention from researchers in recent years. In this work, a microfluidic device employing a flow-focusing junction, is used for the continuous generation of monodisperse nitrogen microbubbles in methylene blue, an optically absorbing organic dye, for dual-modal photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. Using an external phase of polyoxyethylene glycol 40 stearate (PEG 40), a non-ionic surfactant, and 50% glycerol solution at a flow rate of 1 ml/hr and gas pressure at 1.75 bar, monodisperse nitrogen microbubbles of diameter 7 microns were obtained. The external phase also contained methylene blue hydrate at a concentration of 1 gm/litre. The monodisperse microbubbles produced a strong ultrasound signal as expected. It was observed that the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the photoacoustic signal for the methylene blue solution in the presence of the monodisperse microbubbles was 68.6% lower than that of methylene blue solution in the absence of microbubbles. This work is of significance because using microfluidics, we can precisely control the bubbles' production rate and bubble size which increases ultrasound imaging efficiency. A uniform size distribution of the bubbles will have narrower resonance frequency bandwidth which will respond well to specific ultrasound frequencies.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C 3 N 4 /ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photocatalytic activities of prepared samples were investigated under the illumination of blacklight and fluorescent lamps as the low wattage light source. The C 3 N 4 /ZnO showed a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO to degrade a methylene blue (MB) dye solution using blacklight lamps, but there is no significant ...

  20. Chloride effect on the early photolysis intermediates of a gecko cone-type visual pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J W; Liang, J; Ebrey, T G; Sheves, M; Kliger, D S

    1995-05-02

    Nanosecond laser photolysis measurements were conducted on the cone-type visual pigment P521 in digitonin extracts of Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) retina containing physiological chloride ion levels and also on samples which had been chloride depleted or which contained high levels (4 M) of chloride. Absorbance difference spectra were recorded at a sequence of time delays from 30 ns to 60 microseconds following excitation with a pulse of either 532- or 477-nm actinic light. Global analysis showed the kinetic decay data for gecko pigment P521 to be best fit by two exponential processes under all chloride conditions. The initial photoproduct detected had a broad spectrum characteristic of an equilibrated mixture of a Batho P521 intermediate with its blue-shifted intermediate (BSI P521) decay product. The first exponential process was assigned to the decay of this mixture to the Lumi P521 intermediate. The second exponential process was identified as the decay of Lumi P521 to Meta I P521. The initial photoproduct's spectrum exhibited a strong dependence on chloride concentration, indicating that chloride affects the composition of the equilibrated mixture of Batho P521 and BSI P521. These results suggest that the affinity for chloride is reduced approximately 5-fold in the Batho P521 intermediate and approximately 50-fold in the BSI P521 intermediate. Chloride concentration also affects the apparent decay rate of the equilibrated mixture. When the apparent decay rate is corrected for the composition of the equilibrated mixture, a relatively invariant microscopic rate constant is obtained for BSI decay (k = 1/55 ns-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Phytoextraction of chloride from a cement kiln dust (CKD) contaminated landfill with Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Kaitlin; Rutter, Allison; Cumming, Robert; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a globally produced by-product from cement manufacturing that is stockpiled or landfilled. Elevated concentrations of chloride pose toxic threats to plants and aquatic communities, as the anion is highly mobile in water and can leach into surrounding water sources. Re-vegetation and in situ phytoextraction of chloride from a CKD landfill in Bath, ON, Canada, was investigated with the resident invasive species Phragmites australis (haplotype M). Existing stands of P. australis were transplanted from the perimeter of the site into the highest areas of contamination (5.9×10(3)μg/g). Accumulation in the shoots of P. australis was quantified over one growing season by collecting samples from the site on a bi-weekly basis and analyzing for chloride. Concentrations decreased significantly from early May (24±2.2×10(3)μg/g) until mid-June (15±2.5×10(3)μg/g), and then remained stable from June to August. Shoot chloride accumulation was not significantly affected by water level fluctuations at the site, however elevated potassium concentrations in the soil may have contributed to uptake. Based on shoot chloride accumulation and total biomass, it was determined that phytoextraction from the CKD landfill can remove 65±4kg/km(2) of chloride per season. Based on this extraction rate, removal of chloride present in the highly contaminated top 10cm of soil can be achieved in 3-9years. This is the first study to apply phytotechnologies at a CKD landfill, and to successfully demonstrate in situ phytoextraction of chloride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  3. [Sensitive determination of Bi3+ by spectrofluorimetry based on graphene oxide-methylene blue system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qiu-ge; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yan-ming

    2014-08-01

    Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummers method and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The interaction of graphene with methylene blue was studied by UV absorption, the intensity of two main absorption peaks of methylene blue decreased significantly after the fluorescence was quenched, and the energy transfer didn't occur because the overlap of the absorption spectrum of GO and the emission spectrum of MB is too small. Therefore, the fluorescence quenching of MB and GO was static. When adding a certain amount of Bi3+ in the graphene-methylene blue system, Bi3+ replaces the methylene blue from the graphene-methylene blue complexes because Bi3+ has the smaller volume and is more positively charged. The methylene blue therefore dissociates from the GO-MB complexes, resulting in the recovery of fluorescence of the system. Furthermore, the fluorescence of the system increases with the increase in the amount of Bi3+ due to the enhanced amount of MB in the system. A novel spectrofluorimetric method was therefore developed for the sensitive determination of Bi3+. Some parameters including the concentration of methylene blue, the amount of graphene oxide, the amount of nitric acid and the sequence of reagent adding were optimized to obtain higher sensitivity. The fluorescence of the system was detected at an emission wavelength of 667 nm with excitation at 690 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the concentration of Bi3+ showed good linear relationships with the fluorescence intensity in the range of 0.5-100 micromol x L(-1), with correlation coefficients of r = 0.9955. The limits of detection for Bi3+ was 1.0 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1) (S/N=3). The selectivity of the proposed method was evaluated and the results showed that 1000-fold K+, Ca+, Na+, Mg2+, Cu2+; 100-fold Fe3+, Be2+, SiO2- Al3+, Ni2+, Sb3+, NO3-, Cl-, F-, and 20-fold Pb2+, Hg2+, Cd2+ had negligible interference with the determination of Bi3+. The method has advantages of

  4. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  5. Occupational methaemoglobinaemia. Mechanisms of production, features, diagnosis and management including the use of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M

    2003-01-01

    unreliable in the presence of methaemoglobinaemia. Arterial blood gas analysis is mandatory in severe poisoning and reveals normal partial pressures of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2,), a normal 'calculated' haemoglobin oxygen saturation, an increased methaemoglobin concentration and possibly a metabolic acidosis. Following decontamination, high-flow oxygen should be given to maximise oxygen carriage by remaining ferrous haem. No controlled trial of the efficacy of methylene blue has been performed but clinical experience suggests that methylene blue can increase the rate of methaemoglobin conversion to haemoglobin some 6-fold. Patients with features and/or methaemoglobin concentrations of 30-50%, should be administered methylene blue 1-2 mg/kg/bodyweight intravenously (the dose depending on the severity of the features), whereas those with methaemoglobin concentrations exceeding 50% should be given methylene blue 2 mg/kg intravenously. Symptomatic improvement usually occurs within 30 minutes and a second dose of methylene blue will be required in only very severe cases or if there is evidence of ongoing methaemoglobin formation. Methylene blue is less effective or ineffective in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency since its antidotal action is dependent on nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). In addition, methylene blue is most effective in intact erythrocytes; efficacy is reduced in the presence of haemolysis. Moreover, in the presence of haemolysis, high dose methylene blue (20-30 mg/kg) can itself initiate methaemoglobin formation. Supplemental antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N-acetylcysteine and tocopherol (vitamin E) have been used as adjuvants or alternatives to methylene blue with no confirmed benefit. Exchange transfusion may have a role in the management of severe haemolysis or in G-6-P-D deficiency associated with life-threatening methaemoglobinaemia where methylene blue is relatively contraindicated.

  6. Molten salt extractive distillation process for zirconium-hafnium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for zirconium-hafnium separation. It utilizes an extractive distillation column with a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides introduced into a distillation column having a top and bottom with hafnium enriched overheads taken from the top of the column and a molten salt solvent circulated through the column to provide a liquid phase, and with molten salt solvent containing zirconium chloride being taken from the bottom of the distillation column. The improvements comprising: utilizing a molten salt solvent consisting principally of lithium chloride and at least one of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium chlorides; stripping of the zirconium chloride taken from the bottom of the distillation column by electrochemically reducing zirconium from the molten salt solvent; and utilizing a pressurized reflux condenser on the top of the column to add the hafnium chloride enriched overheads to the molten salt solvent previously stripped of zirconium chloride

  7. Combination of artificial neural network and genetic algorithm method for modeling of methylene blue adsorption onto wood sawdust from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Sarafraz-Yazdi, Ali; Natavan, Zahra Bameri

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a low price and environmentally friendly adsorbent with abundant of source to remove methylene blue (MB) from water samples. Sawdust solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was used for the extraction and determination of MB. In this study, an experimental data-based artificial neural network model is constructed to describe the performance of sawdust solid-phase extraction method for various operating conditions. The pH, time, amount of sawdust, and temperature were the input variables, while the percentage of extraction of MB was the output. The optimum operating condition was then determined by genetic algorithm method. The optimized conditions were obtained as follows: 11.5, 22.0 min, 0.3 g, and 26.0°C for pH of the solution, extraction time, amount of adsorbent, and temperature, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the detection limit and relative standard deviation were 0.067 μg L(-1) and <2.4%, respectively. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherm constant and for the removal and determination of MB from water samples. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. The use of chemical modified chitosan with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption; O emprego de quitosana quimicamente modificada com anidrido succinico na adsorcao de azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ilauro S.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.; Airoldi, Claudio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br

    2006-05-15

    The adsorption capacity of a-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically iclass and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methylene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 {+-} 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 {+-} 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 {+-} 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 {+-} 0.4 and -21.5 {+-} 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. (author)

  9. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  10. Technetium-99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate ameliorates ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic phenotype without causing osteonecrosis in the jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinghua; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yi; Akiyama, Kentaro; Chen, Chider; Atsuta, Ikiru; Zhou, Tao; Duan, Xiaohong; Jin, Yan; Shi, Songtao

    2012-12-01

    Technetium-99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate ((99)Tc-MDP) is a novel bisphosphonate derivative without radioactivity and has been successfully used to treat arthritis in China for years. Since bisphosphonate therapy has the potential to induce bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ), we examined whether (99)Tc-MDP represents a new class of bisphosphonate for antiresorptive therapy to ameliorate estrogen deficiency-induced bone resorption with less risk of causing BRONJ. We showed that (99)Tc-MDP-treated, ovariectomized (OVX) mice had significantly improved bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume in comparison to the untreated OVX group by inhibiting osteoclasts and enhancing osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. To determine the potential of inducing BRONJ, (99)Tc-MDP/dexamethasone (Dex) or zoledronate/Dex was administered into C57BL/6J mice via the tail vein, followed by extraction of maxillary first molars. Interestingly, (99)Tc-MDP treatment showed less risk to induce osteonecrosis in the maxillary bones compared to zoledronate treatment group, partially because (99)Tc-MDP neither suppressed adaptive regulatory T cells nor activated the inflammatory T-helper-producing interleukin-17 cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that (99)Tc-MDP therapy may be a promising approach in the treatment of osteoporosis with less risk of causing BRONJ.

  11. Rapid and sensitive determination of phenylurea herbicides in water in the presence of their anilines by extraction with a Carbopack cartridge followed by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corcia, A; Marchetti, M

    1991-03-22

    A rapid and sensitive method for determining phenylurea herbicides in environmental aqueous samples in the presence of their anilines is described. The water sample is preconcentrated by passage at a flow-rate of ca. 150 ml/min through a 250-mg graphitized carbon black (Carbopack B) cartridge. After washing with 0.6 ml of methanol, the Carbopack B trap is connected with a cartridge containing a strong cation exchanger. Organics trapped by the Carbopack cartridge are eluted by passage of 6 ml of methylene chloride-methanol (95:5, v/v). Anilines and other basic compounds are quantitatively subtracted from the solvent system while flowing through the cation-exchange cartridge. After evaporation and redissolution, the sample is subjected to reversed-phase gradient elution high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 250 nm. Recoveries of phenylureas added to water at levels between 30 and 3000 ng/l were higher than 92%. The limit of detection was about 1 ng/l, for a 2-1 sample. With respect to an octadecyl (C18)-bonded silica cartridge, the Carbopack B cartridge had a far better extraction efficiency for polar phenylureas.

  12. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  13. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  14. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  15. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  16. Inert Reassessment Document for Cerous Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rare earth chlorides have a wide variety of scientific applications. They a re used in superconductors, lasers, magnets, catalytic converters, fertilizes, supper alloys, cigarette lighters and as catalysts in the production of petroleum products.

  17. Process for making rare earth metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruesi, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An uncombined metal or a metal compound such as a sulfide, oxide, carbonate or sulfate is converted in a liquid salt bath to the corresponding metal chloride by reacting it with chlorine gas or a chlorine donor. The process applies to metals of groups 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 5a and 8 of the periodic table and to the rare earth metals. The chlorine donor may be ferric or sulfur chloride. The liquid fused salt bath is made up of chlorides of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, ammonia, zinc and ferric iron. Because the formed metal chlorides are soluble in the liquid fused salt bath, they can be recovered by various conventional means

  18. Remediation of cadmium- and lead-contaminated agricultural soil by composite washing with chlorides and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-jiao; Hu, Peng-jie; Zhao, Jie; Dong, Chang-xun

    2015-04-01

    Composite washing of cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated agricultural soil from Hunan province in China using mixtures of chlorides (FeCl3, CaCl2) and citric acid (CA) was investigated. The concentrations of composite washing agents for metal removal were optimized. Sequential extraction was conducted to study the changes in metal fractions after soil washing. The removal of two metals at optimum concentration was reached. Using FeCl3 mixed with CA, 44% of Cd and 23% of Pb were removed, and 49 and 32% by CaCl2 mixed with CA, respectively. The mechanism of composite washing was postulated. A mixture of chlorides and CA enhanced metal extraction from soil through the formation of metal-chloride and metal-citrate complexes. CA in extract solutions promoted the formation of metal-chloride complexes and reduced the solution pH. Composite washing reduced Cd and Pb in Fe-Mn oxide forms significantly. Chlorides and CA exerted a synergistic effect on metal extraction during composite washing.

  19. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  20. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  1. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Furanic Derivatives in the Presence of Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Jérôme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of furanic derivatives (5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, furfural… from carbohydrates is of high interest for a wide range of applications. These reactions are carried out in the presence of various solvents, and among them choline chloride can be used. It is a salt that can form a low melting mixture with a carbohydrate (fructose, glucose… or a deep eutectic mixture with carboxylic acid. A review of the studies performed in the conversion of carbohydrates to furanic derivatives in the presence of choline chloride is presented here with the advantages and drawbacks of this solvent. Choline chloride can enhance the selectivity to HMF by stabilizing effect and allows the conversion of highly concentrated feed. However, the extraction of the products from these solvents still needs improvement.

  2. On the possibility of separation of valuable components from chloride pulps by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chub, A.V.; Zelenkov, B.N.; Zakharov, V.F.; Drobot, D.V.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility has been studied of extracting MCl 5 (M=Nb, Ta) from technical products (chloride pulps in TiCl 4 ) by filtration. It has been established that in a low temperature range (( 5 . With increasing temperature a mutual presence of niobium and tantalum chlorides decreases the total content of MCl 5 in the solution. It has also been found that the filtration rate is proportional to pressure; besides, ''the aged'' precipitates possess worse filtrating properties due to particle destruction. Materials of the fiber glass fabric type are a good base for applying the precipitate. At a layer thickness of the chloride (MCl 5 ) precipitate about 20 mm a sufficiently high filtration rate is ensured

  3. Atmospheric chloride: Its implication for foliar uptake and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, E. L.; Sealy, R. L.

    Atmospheric chloride is inversely related to distance from the Texas coast; r2 = 0.86. Levels of atmospheric chloride are higher in the early summer than in the winter because of salt storms. Leaf chloride l'evels of Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) reflect the atmospheric chloride levels; r2 = 0.78. The importance of considering the effect of atmospheric chloride on leaf damage to horticultural crops is discussed.

  4. Sorption study of methylene blue on activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Olalekan Saheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets the effectiveness of the prepared activated carbon from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats for the sorption of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution. The prepared Jatropha activated carbon (JAC and Terminalia activated carbon (TAC were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Branauer- Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis. Effect of initial concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption experiments were studied and the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents were found to be 37.84 mg/g and 17.44 mg/g for methylene blue uptake by JAC and TAC respectively. The experimental data were analysed using Langmuir, Fruendlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data fitted best into Langmuir isotherm for Methylene blue-JAC and Methylene blue-TAC systems. The kinetic studies fitted into pseudo second order kinetics model. The process chemistry was exothermic.

  5. Post-operative outcomes following the excision of dorsal wrist ganglions with/without the use of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Tas

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The recurrence of cysts is rare after complete excision, particularly when rupture is prevented. Methylene blue injection is useful for ensuring complete excision and, therefore, to prevent recurrence. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  6. Homogeneous photosensitized degradation of pharmaceuticals by using red light LED as light source and methylene blue as photosensitizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Y.; Bruning, H.; Yntema, D.; Mayer, M.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2017-01-01

    Research on employing advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for pharmaceuticals removal is gaining interests. However, detrimental effects of background water constituents in complex water matrices are limiting their implementation. In this study, we report red light induced methylene blue

  7. Effects of Saw Palmetto Extract on Urodynamic Parameters, Bladder Muscarinic and Purinergic Receptors and Urinary Cytokines in Rats with Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, Sweety; Masuda, Eiji; Kugaya, Haruna; Osano, Ayaka; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the effect of saw palmetto extract (SPE), a phytotherapeutic agent, on urodynamic parameters, bladder muscarinic and purinergic receptors, and urinary cytokines in rats with cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). Saw palmetto extract (60 mg/kg per day) was administered orally twice a day for 7 days to rats. The urodynamic parameters in CYP (150 mg/kg i.p.)-treated rats were monitored by a cystometric method under anesthesia. The muscarinic and purinergic receptors in the bladder and submaxillary gland were measured by radioreceptor assays using [N-methyl-(3) H] scopolamine chloride([(3) H]NMS) and αβ-methylene-ATP [2,8-(3) H] tetrasodium salt ([(3) H]αβ-MeATP), respectively. Urinary cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6 and L-17) were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Micturition interval and micturition volume were significantly decreased and the frequency of micturition and basal pressure were significantly increased in the CYP-treated rats compared with sham-operated rats. Orally administered SPE significantly increased the micturition interval and micturition volume and decreased the frequency of micturition and basal pressure. The maximal number of sites (Bmax ) for the specific binding of [(3) H]NMS and [(3) H]αβ-MeATP was significantly decreased in the bladder. The decrease in receptors was attenuated by repeated treatment with SPE. An elevation in urinary cytokine (IL-1β and IL-17) levels were seen, and this increase was effectively suppressed by SPE treatment. Saw palmetto extract attenuates the alteration of urodynamic parameters, pharmacologically relevant receptors, and urinary cytokines in CYP-treated rats. Therefore, SPE may be a potential therapeutic agent for improving the clinical symptoms of cystitis. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Removal of methylene blue dye from wastewater by using supported liquid memberane technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Waqar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the application of Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM technology towards the removal and recovery of a cationic dye (Methylene Blue from aqueous solutions. Natural and non-toxic vegetable oils have been impregnated on microporous polymeric films of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF to constitute a liquid membrane. Different parameters affecting the transport, like pH of feed solution, acid concentration in the strip solution, initial dye concentration, oil types and stirring speeds have been investigated. Highest value of flux (1.7 × 10−5 mg/cm2/sec1 for methylene blue dye was achieved with sunflower oil impregnated on the PVDF support, with pH maintained at 12 in the feed solution and 0.3 M hydrochloric acid concentration in the strip solution. It took 6 hours to transport maximum amount of dye under optimum conditions.

  9. Application of Spent Li-Ion Batteries Cathode in Methylene Blue Dye Discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the mechanism study of methylene blue (MB discoloration using spent Li-ion battery cathode tape and hydrogen peroxide. The recycled cathode used in this work is composed of 72% of LiCoO2, 18% of carbon, and 10% of Al. The value found for surface area is 8.9 m2/g and the ZCP value occurs in pH = 2.95. Different from what is proposed in the literature, the most likely mechanism of methylene blue discoloration is the oxidation/delitiation of LiCoO2 and the reduction of H2O2 forming OH∙. Thus, in this paper, an important and promising alternative for discoloration of textile industry dyes using spent Li-ion battery cathode is presented.

  10. Determination of chloride in MOX samples using chloride ion selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindan, R; Das, D K; Mallik, G K; Sumathi, A; Patil, Sangeeta; Raul, Seema; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1997-09-01

    The chloride present in the MOX fuel is separated from the matrix by pyrohydrolysis at a temperature of 950 {+-} 50 degC and is then analyzed by chloride ion selective electrode (Cl-ISE). The range covered is 0.4-4 ppm with a precision of better than {+-}5% R.S.D. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Study on the chloride migration coefficient obtained following different Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Uzoegbo, H.C.; Schmidt, W.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the differences in the available Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines, and their influence on the values of the chloride migration coefficients DRCM, obtained following these guidelines. It is shown that the differences between the guidelines are significant and concern

  12. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F.; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A.; Pressly, Eric D.; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J.; Lynd, Nathaniel A.

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxi...

  13. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delport, Anzelle; Harvey, Brian H.; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P.

    2017-01-01

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, the present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC 50 = 0.0037 μM), Nile blue (IC 50 = 0.0077 μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC 50 = 0.018 μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC 50 = 0.07 μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC 50 value of 0.012 μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. - Highlights: • MB analogues, cresyl violet and Nile blue, are high potency MAO-A inhibitors. • Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor. • Potent MAO-A inhibition should alert to potential serotonin toxicity.

  14. A New Property of Conjugated Polymer PFP: Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new property of conjugated polymer poly(furancarbinol-co-phenol)(PFP) was studied.The target copolymer was used as a catalyst after proper heating treatment. And dye methylene blue (MB) could be fully degraded and largely mineralized on PFP, under natural light or even in dark, in a few minutes. Furthermore, the catalytic activity could be preserved after several runs and the catalyst was readily separated. The effect of calcination temperature was also observed.

  15. Effective photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue utilizing ZnO/rectorite nanocomposite under simulated solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shi-qian, E-mail: shiqianli04@tom.com [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Biomass-resource Chemical and Environment Bio-technology, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering, FuQing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Zhou, Pei-jiang; Zhang, Wan-shun [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Biomass-resource Chemical and Environment Bio-technology, Wuhan 430079 (China); Chen, Sheng [Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering, FuQing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Peng, Hong [State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Preparation of ZnO inserted in rectorite as photocatalyst in methylene blue photodegradation. • The ZnO/rectorite can be used as adsorbents and photocatalysts. • The ZnO/rectorite system was easy to be gathered and recycled. • Inferred ZnO/rectorite the photocatalytic degradation methylene blue of aqueous micro mechanism. - Abstract: Preparation of a nanometer zinc oxide/rectorite (ZnO/REC) composites photocatalyst based on natural rectorite was conducted using a hydrothermal intercalation method. The structure, thermal property, and surface morphology of ZnO/REC were characterized by X-ray diffractor (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO/REC was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution as a model pollutant under simulated sunlight irradiation. The HRTEM results revealed that well-dispersed and uniform ZnO/REC nanocomposites with diameters of 10 nm were embedded in rectorite. The ZnO/REC nanocomposite exhibited high photocatalytic activity under simulated solar irradiation. After 2 h of irradiation by simulated solar light, over 99% of methylene blue solution (15 mg/L) was decolorized with 0.9 g/L of the photocatalyst. The ZnO/REC was reusable, which meant that the adsorption photocatalytic decolorization process could be operated at a relatively low cost. Since this process does not require the addition of hydrogen peroxide but uses sunlight, it can be developed as an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method to decolorize or treat dye wastewater using solar.

  16. An improved synthesis of 2,2−-((4-substituted phenyl methylene difurans by Ultrasound irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naween M. Yonis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 2,2−((4-substituted phenyl methylene difuran was synthesized by one-pot cyclocondensation of aldehyde with excess furan at room temperature using trifluoro acetic acid as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation in the absence of solvent. The products were compared with the classical condensation reactions. This method consistently enjoys the advantages of mild reaction conditions, excellent yields, easy work up and short time.

  17. Extraosseous uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate: Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Kun, L.; Casper, J.; Babbitt, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor. (orig.) [de

  18. Extraosseous uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphonate. Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J R; Kun, L; Casper, J; Babbitt, D P

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphate (/sup 99/sup(m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor.

  19. Extraosseous uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate: Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J R; Kun, L; Casper, J; Babbitt, D P [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor.

  20. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  1. Temperature dependence of diffusion coefficients of trivalent uranium ions in chloride and chloride-fluoride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.E.; Borodina, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of U 3+ ions are measured by chronopotentiometric method in chloride 3LiCl-2KCl and in mixed chloride fluoride 3LiCl(LiF)-2KCl melts in the temperature range 633-1235 K. It is shown It is shown that experimental values of diffusion-coefficients are approximated in a direct line in lg D-1/T coordinate in chloride melt in the whole temperature range and in chloride-fluoride melt in the range of 644-1040 K. Experimental values of diffusion coefficients diviate from Arrhenius equation in the direction of large values in chloride-fluoride melt at further increase of temperature up to 1235 K. Possible causes of such a diviation are considered [ru

  2. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erçarıkcı, Elif; Dağcı, Kader; Topçu, Ezgi; Alanyalıoğlu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. • Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. • Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. • XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. • Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene

  3. Synthesis and properties of Co-doped titanate nanotubes and their optical sensitization with methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, V.C.; Nunes, M.R.; Silvestre, A.J.; Monteiro, O.C.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on a novel chemical route to synthesize homogenous cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes (CoTNT), using an amorphous Co-doped precursor. The influence of the synthesis temperature, autoclave dwell time and metal doping on the structural and microstructural as well as on the optical properties of the synthesized titanate nanotubes is studied and discussed. The optical band gaps of the CoTNT samples are red shifted in comparison with the values determined for the undoped samples, such red shifts bringing the absorption edge of the CoTNT samples into the visible region. CoTNT materials also demonstrate particular high adsorption ability for methylene blue, the amount of the adsorbed dye being higher than the one predictable for a monolayer formation. This suggests the possibility of intercalation of the dye molecule between the TiO 6 layers of the TNT structure. It is also shown that the methylene blue sensitized Co-doped nanostructures are highly stable under UV radiation and present a strong and broad absorption in the visible region. - Highlights: • New hydrothermal chemical route to synthesize cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes. • The Co-doping stabilizes the TNTs morphology in a temperature range of 160–200 °C. • Optical band gaps of CoTNTs are red shifted compared to the TNT samples. • Methylene blue sensitized CoTNTs are highly stable under UV–vis irradiation

  4. Intraoperative use of fibrin glue dyed with methylene blue in surgery for branchial cleft anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioni, Michela; Bottazzoli, Marco; Nassif, Nader; Stefini, Stefania; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-09-01

    We present a new method of optimizing the results of surgery for branchial cleft anomalies based on the intraoperative injection of fibrin glue combined with methylene blue dye. Retrospective single-center cohort study. The method was applied in 17 patients suffering from branchial anomalies. Six (35.29%) had a preauricular lesion; three (17.65%) had lesions derived from the first arch/pouch/groove (type I), four (23.53%) had lesions derived from the first (type II), one (5.88%) had lesions derived from the second, one (5.88%) had lesions derived from the third, and two (11.76%) had lesions derived from the fourth. The median and mean age at surgery were 10 and 10.6 years, respectively. All patients were followed by periodic clinical and ultrasonographic examination. The combination of fibrin glue with methylene blue facilitated the correct assessment of the extension of the lesions and their intraoperative manipulation. After a mean follow-up of 47.8 months, all patients were free of disease. Intraoperative injection of branchial fistulae and cysts by a mixture of fibrin glue and methylene blue is an effective, easy, and safe tool to track lesions and achieve radical resection. The technique requires a definitive validation on a large cohort with adequate stratification of patients. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2147-2150, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Microwave atmospheric pressure plasma jets for wastewater treatment: Degradation of methylene blue as a model dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María C; Mora, Manuel; Esquivel, Dolores; Foster, John E; Rodero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution as a model dye using a non thermal microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. Argon has been used as feed gas and aqueous solutions with different concentrations of the dye were treated using the effluent from plasma jet in a remote exposure. The removal efficiency increased as the dye concentration decreased from 250 to 5 ppm. Methylene blue degrades after different treatment times, depending on the experimental plasma conditions. Thus, kinetic constants up to 0.177 min -1 were obtained. The higher the Ar flow, the faster the degradation rate. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to gather information about the species present in the gas phase, specifically excited argon atoms. Argon excited species and hydrogen peroxide play an important role in the degradation of the dye. In fact, the conversion of methylene blue was directly related to the density of argon excited species in the gas phase and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous liquid phase. Values of energy yield at 50% dye conversion of 0.296 g/kWh were achieved. Also, the use of two plasma applicators in parallel has been proven to improve energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel methylene-blue-sensitized photopolymers for holographic recording: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushamani, Mythili; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, Rani

    2004-06-01

    Polymer matrices like PVC and a blend of PVA/PAA is introduced as new holographic media that cause red sensitivity with methylene blue. Unlike methylene blue sensitized polymers like PVA, PMMA, gelatin etc, the change of state occurring for methylene blue on laser irradiation on PVC matrix was found to be permanent. No recovery of dye on the irradiated spot was observed on storage. The outstanding properties of this material are its excellent optical clarity, insensitive to humidity, economical, ease of fabrication, absence of dark room storage etc. The recovery of dye in conventional MBPVA matrix can be delayed by blending PVA with PAA. Optimization of the ratio of PVA/PAA, the sensitizer concentration, pH, energy, diffraction efficiency measurements etc are done. pH is found to have a great influence on the recovery of the dye in this matrix. The effect of monomers in improving the diffraction efficiency on these dye doped polymer system is also evaluated. A comparative study is done on these polymer matrices and holographic gratings were recorded on these films from a He- Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm.

  7. Ag-ligand modified tungstovandates and their efficient catalysis degradation properties for methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ran; Zhang, Huixia; Liu, Yunping; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Han, Zhangang, E-mail: hanzg116@126.com

    2017-02-15

    Two polytungstovandates [Ag(mbpy){sub 2}][Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}][VW{sub 5}O{sub 19}]·H{sub 2}O (1) and [Ag(mbpy)]{sub 2}[Ag(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 4}[VW{sub 12}O{sub 40}] (2) (mbpy =4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridyl), had been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR, TG, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Single-crystal structural analysis revealed that the polyanionic clusters in two compounds are different: Lindqvist-type in 1 and α-Keggin-type in 2, respectively, while the cationic moieties in them are Ag-mbpy units. The experiments showed that this kind of hybrid crystal materials possesses more efficiently catalytic performance for the degradation of organic dye methylene blue (MB) in water solution under the UV irradiation. The significant degradation rate of MB can reach 89.9%, 94.9% by crystals 1 and 2 (40 mg) in the course of about 5 min. - Graphical abstract: Two Ag-ligand modified polytungstovandates had been synthesized and characterized, which were active in the catalytic degradation of organic dye methylene blue under the UV irradiation. - Highlights: • Two Ag-ligand modified tungstovandates were synthesized and characterized. • Weak interactions play important roles in constructing crystal frameworks. • Compounds are active to catalyze the degradation of methylene blue.

  8. Functional elastic hydrogel as recyclable membrane for the adsorption and degradation of methylene blue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Bao

    Full Text Available Developing the application of high-strength hydrogels has gained much attention in the fields of medical, pharmacy, and pollutant removal due to their versatility and stimulus-responsive properties. In this presentation, a high-strength freestanding elastic hydrogel membrane was constructed by clay nanosheets, N, N-dimethylacrylamide and 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid for adsorption of methylene blue and heavy metal ions. The maximum values of elongation and Young's modulus for 0.5% AMPSNa hydrogel were 1901% and 949.4 kPa, respectively, much higher than those of traditional hydrogels. The adsorptions were confirmed to follow pseudo-second kinetic equation and Langmuir isotherm model fits the data well. The maximum adsorption capacity of hydrogel towards methylene blue was 434.8 mg g(-1. The hydrogel also exhibited higher separation selectivity to Pb(2+ than Cu(2+. The methylene blue adsorbed onto the hydrogel membrane can be photocatalytically degraded by Fenton agent and the hydrogel membrane could be recycled at least five times without obvious loss in mechanical properties. In conclusion, this presentation demonstrates a convenient strategy to prepare tough and elastic clay nanocomposite hydrogel, which can not only be applied as recyclable membrane for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dye, but also for the recovery of valuables.

  9. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif [Applied Chemistry Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ubaid-ur-Rehman [Applied Chemistry Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ghaffar, Abdul; Ahmed, Kurshid [Electronics Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2002-08-01

    The effect of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 M{omega} resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l{sup -1} methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O{sub 2} at 10 ml min{sup -1} through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O{sub 2} containing 1500 {mu}mol O{sub 3} l{sup -1} at 10 ml min{sup -1} reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O{sub 3} was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O{sub 3} generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O{sub 3} production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in 30 min by corona discharge with O{sub 2} bubbling, and in 11 min by corona discharge with bubbling of O{sub 2} containing 1500 {mu}mol O{sub 3} l{sup -1}.

  10. Synthesis and properties of Co-doped titanate nanotubes and their optical sensitization with methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, V.C. [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CQB, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, M.R. [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CCMM, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Silvestre, A.J. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Department of Physics and ICEMS, R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Monteiro, O.C., E-mail: ocmonteiro@fc.ul.pt [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CQB, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-01

    Here we report on a novel chemical route to synthesize homogenous cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes (CoTNT), using an amorphous Co-doped precursor. The influence of the synthesis temperature, autoclave dwell time and metal doping on the structural and microstructural as well as on the optical properties of the synthesized titanate nanotubes is studied and discussed. The optical band gaps of the CoTNT samples are red shifted in comparison with the values determined for the undoped samples, such red shifts bringing the absorption edge of the CoTNT samples into the visible region. CoTNT materials also demonstrate particular high adsorption ability for methylene blue, the amount of the adsorbed dye being higher than the one predictable for a monolayer formation. This suggests the possibility of intercalation of the dye molecule between the TiO{sub 6} layers of the TNT structure. It is also shown that the methylene blue sensitized Co-doped nanostructures are highly stable under UV radiation and present a strong and broad absorption in the visible region. - Highlights: • New hydrothermal chemical route to synthesize cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes. • The Co-doping stabilizes the TNTs morphology in a temperature range of 160–200 °C. • Optical band gaps of CoTNTs are red shifted compared to the TNT samples. • Methylene blue sensitized CoTNTs are highly stable under UV–vis irradiation.

  11. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Ubaid-ur-Rehman; Ghaffar, Abdul; Ahmed, Kurshid

    2002-01-01

    The effect of O 2 and O 3 bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 MΩ resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l -1 methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O 2 at 10 ml min -1 through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O 2 containing 1500 μmol O 3 l -1 at 10 ml min -1 reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O 3 was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O 3 generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O 3 production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in 30 min by corona discharge with O 2 bubbling, and in 11 min by corona discharge with bubbling of O 2 containing 1500 μmol O 3 l -1

  12. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, M A; Ghaffar, A; Ahmed, K

    2002-01-01

    The effect of O sub 2 and O sub 3 bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 M OMEGA resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l sup - sup 1 methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O sub 2 at 10 ml min sup - sup 1 through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O sub 2 containing 1500 mu mol O sub 3 l sup - sup 1 at 10 ml min sup - sup 1 reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O sub 3 was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O sub 3 generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O sub 3 production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in...

  13. Effect of some pre-treatments on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, S.; Guerses, A.; Bayrak, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments, such as HCl treatment, demineralization and pyrolysis, under a CO 2 atmosphere at different temperatures on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite were investigated. The adsorption capacities of the samples were determined before and after these pre-treatments. In addition, the removals of pyritic and organic sulfur and ash contents for the same coal samples were also defined. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the samples decreased after these pre-treatments. The decrease in adsorption capacity with pyrolysis can be attributed to the changes in surface morphology and/or pore size distribution of the coal samples. On the other hand, the observed decrease in adsorption capacity with removal of carbonates and silicates shows that these minerals have an important effect on methylene blue adsorption, and the adsorption considerably occurs through electrostatic interactions. In addition, the obtained results showed that the organic sulfur presence in the coal matrix have a positive effect on the methylene blue adsorption

  14. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  15. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl 3 liquid + H 2 O → FeOCl solid + 2 HCl gas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl solid + H 2 O → Fe 2 O 3 solid + 2 HCl gas . The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  16. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  17. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... concentrations over longer periods. The signal was seen to be stable, with regular drift in both laboratory and field test. In the field application, the sensor signal was corrected for drift, and errors were observed to be under 7% of that of conductivity measurements. The study also found that the chloride...

  18. Methylene blue improves mitochondrial respiration and decreases oxidative stress in a substrate-dependent manner in diabetic rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duicu, Oana M; Privistirescu, Andreea; Wolf, Adrian; Petruş, Alexandra; Dănilă, Maria D; Raţiu, Corina D; Muntean, Danina M; Sturza, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been systematically associated with compromised mitochondrial energetics and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that underlie its progression to heart failure. Methylene blue is a redox drug with reported protective effects mainly on brain mitochondria. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute administration of methylene blue on mitochondrial respiration, H 2 O 2 production, and calcium sensitivity in rat heart mitochondria isolated from healthy and 2 months (streptozotocin-induced) diabetic rats. Mitochondrial respiratory function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry. H 2 O 2 production and calcium retention capacity were measured spectrofluorimetrically. The addition of methylene blue (0.1 μmol·L -1 ) elicited an increase in oxygen consumption of mitochondria energized with complex I and II substrates in both normal and diseased mitochondria. Interestingly, methylene blue elicited a significant increase in H 2 O 2 release in the presence of complex I substrates (glutamate and malate), but had an opposite effect in mitochondria energized with complex II substrate (succinate). No changes in the calcium retention capacity of healthy or diabetic mitochondria were found in the presence of methylene blue. In conclusion, in cardiac mitochondria isolated from diabetic and nondiabetic rat hearts, methylene blue improved respiratory function and elicited a dichotomic, substrate-dependent effect on ROS production.

  19. Methylation of mercuric chloride by human intestinal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, I R; Grasso, P; Davies, M J

    1975-01-01

    There is now evidence that ingested mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) may be methylated, in vivo, in the rat intestine and, in vitro, by human feces. However, one cannot infer from these experiments that the microbial flora of the intestine is responsible for the methylation reaction, since the gut contents contain several sources of metabolic activity other than bacteria. Data are presented on the ability of pure cultures of bacteria and yeasts, isolated from human feces, to convert HgCl/sub 2/ to methylmercury. Strains of Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, bacteriodes and bifidobacteria were inoculated into a medium containing 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, Bacto-tryptone, yeast extract and D-glucose, each at 0.5% (w/v). Results indicate that most strains of staphylococci, streptococci, yeasts and E. coli isolated from human feces, could synthesize methylmercury compounds. In contrast, few strains of obligate anaerobes could do so. Up to 6 ng methylmercury/ml were formed in 44 h from 2 ..mu..g mercuric chloride.

  20. The extraction of proteins from the neem seed ( Indica azadirachta A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for maximizing the extraction of protein from the neem seed (Indica azadirachta A. Juss) were investigated. Extractants used were sodium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions of varying concentration and pH. Maximum extractions of 17.86 g of extractable protein was obtained from 1 kg of crude protein, using ...

  1. Lithium chloride protects retinal neurocytes from nutrient deprivation by promoting DNA non-homologous end-joining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Jing; Li Fan; Liu Xuan; Liu Zhiping; Lin Jianxian; Ge Yihong; Kaminski, Joseph M.; Summers, James Bradley; Wang Zhichong; Ge Jian; Yu Keming

    2009-01-01

    Lithium chloride is a therapeutic agent for treatment of bipolar affective disorders. Increasing numbers of studies have indicated that lithium has neuroprotective effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of lithium have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether lithium chloride produces neuroprotective function by improving DNA repair pathway in retinal neurocyte. In vitro, the primary cultured retinal neurocytes (85.7% are MAP-2 positive cells) were treated with lithium chloride, then cultured with serum-free media to simulate the nutrient deprived state resulting from ischemic insult. The neurite outgrowth of the cultured cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to different levels of lithium chloride. Genomic DNA electrophoresis demonstrated greater DNA integrity of retinal neurocytes when treated with lithium chloride as compared to the control. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of Ligase IV (involved in DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) in retinal neurocytes increased with lithium chloride. The end joining activity assay was performed to determine the role of lithium on NHEJ in the presence of extract from retinal neurocytes. The rejoining levels in retinal neurocytes treated with lithium were significantly increased as compared to the control. Furthermore, XRCC4, the Ligase IV partner, and the transcriptional factor, CREB and CTCF, were up-regulated in retinal cells after treating with 1.0 mM lithium chloride. Therefore, our data suggest that lithium chloride protects the retinal neural cells from nutrient deprivation in vitro, which may be similar to the mechanism of cell death in glaucoma. The improvement in DNA repair pathway involving in Ligase IV might have an important role in lithium neuroprotection. This study provides new insights into the neural protective mechanisms of lithium chloride.

  2. Determination of chloride content in crystalline silicotitanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is one of three options under evaluation to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process. This Salt Disposition Alternatives team identified three options for pretreatment of High Level Waste supernate: non-elutable ion exchange, precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate or direct disposal in grout. The ion exchange option would use crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Researchers at Texas A and M and Sandia National Laboratory developed CST. The engineered form of CST was procured from UOP LLC under the trade name IONSIVreg s ign IE-911. Review of vendor literature and discussions with UOP personnel led to speculation concerning the fate of chloride ion during the manufacture process of IE-911. Walker proposed tests to examine the chloride content of CST and removal methods. This report describes the results of tests to determine the chloride levels in as received CST and washed CST

  3. Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride after metabolic activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannug, U; Johansson, A; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1974-01-01

    Vinyl chloride has recently been shown to cause a malignant liver tumor disease in man after occupational exposure in PVC plants. This actualizes the problem of whether such hazards could be avoided or at least diminished in the future by a screening for mutagenicity of chemicals used in industries. The basis for such a screening procedure is the close correlation between carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of chemicals. Experiments with Salmonella bacteria showed that the carcinogenic hazard of vinyl chloride could have been traced by means of mutagenicity tests. The data indicate that vinyl chloride is not mutagenic per se but becomes mutagenic after a metabolic activation in the liver. 24 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  4. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient......; the higher the volume of gel solid relative to the space available for it, the lower the chloride migration coefficient, because the pore system becomes more tortuous and the porosity becomes less....

  5. Carbon and TiO{sub 2} synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes, E-mail: evelynalvesnunes@yahoo.com.br; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio

    2016-07-01

    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO{sub 2} structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO{sub 2} structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO{sub 2} phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO{sub 2} during the sol-gel step, with a TiO{sub 2} structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO{sub 2} based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO{sub 2}-Carbon

  6. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Caffarel-Salvador

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed “photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy” (PACT. In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1–2.5 mg/mL and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96

  7. Carbon and TiO_2 synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio

    2016-01-01

    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO_2 structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO_2/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO_2 structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO_2-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO_2 phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO_2 during the sol-gel step, with a TiO_2 structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO_2 based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO_2-Carbon composite. • The sol-gel synthesis was efficient

  8. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyanada S. Khanolkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM. Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2 through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites.

  9. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar, Dnyanada S.; Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM). Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2) through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites. PMID:25763027

  10. Complex sulphide-barite ore leaching in ferric chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sokić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on the leaching process of complex sulphide-barite ore were presented in this paper. The leaching process was carried out in a laboratory autoclave by ferric chloride solution. Considering that those minerals are represented in complex structural-textural relationships, it is not possible to extract lead, zinc and copper minerals from ore by flotation methods. The obtained results confirmed possibility of the ore processing directly, by chemical methods. The effect of temperature, time and oxygen partial pressure on the lead, zinc and copper dissolution was studied. The maximal leaching degree was achieved at 100 °C and amount of 91.5 % for Pb, 96.1 % for Zn and 60.7 % for Cu. Leaching at temperatures above 100 °C is impractical.

  11. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  12. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  13. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...... desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 k...

  14. Evaluation of the protein biomarkers and the analgesic response to systemic methylene blue in patients with refractory neuropathic pain: a double-blind, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miclescu AA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adriana A Miclescu,1 Martin Svahn,1 Torsten E Gordh1,2 1Multidisciplinary Pain Clinic, Uppsala University Hospital, 2Pain Research, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Aim: This study was carried out in patients with neuropathic pain in order to assess the analgesic effects and changes in protein biomarkers after the administration of methylene blue (MB, a diaminophenothiazine with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide.Materials and methods: Ten patients with chronic refractory neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either MB (10 mg/mL Methylthioninium chloride 2 mg/kg (MB group or MB 0.02 mg/kg (control group infused over 60 minutes. Sensory function and pain (Numerical Rating Scale were evaluated at baseline and at 60 minutes after the start of the infusion. The patients kept a pain diary during the next 24 hours and for the following 4 days. Plasma and urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α and plasma protein biomarkers prior to and after the infusions were measured with radioimmunoassay and with proximity extension assay.Results: A decrease of the Numerical Rating Scale at 60 minutes in comparison with baseline was observed in the MB (P=0.047 group. The decrease was significant between the MB and the control group on the day of and day after MB infusion (P=0.04 and P=0.008, respectively. There was no difference in systemic protein expressions between groups except for prolactin (PRL (P=0.02. Three patients demonstrated diminished dynamic mechanical allodynia.Conclusion: MB decreased the pain levels in patients with chronic therapy-resistant neuropathic pain on the first 2 days after administration. Known as an endocrine modulator on the anterior pituitary gland, MB infusion produced a decrease of PRL. The detailed role of PRL effects in chronic neuropathic pain remains undetermined.Keywords: methylene blue, nitric oxide

  15. Dyeing studies with henna and madder: A research on effect of tin (II) chloride mordant

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Mohd; Shahid, Mohammad; Khan, Mohd Ibrahim; Khan, Shafat Ahmad; Khan, Mohd Ali; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with the application of natural dyes extracted from powdered henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves and madder (Rubia cordifolia) roots on woolen yarn and assessment of effect of stannous chloride mordant on dyeability, color characteristics, fastness properties and antifungal activity of dyed woolen yarn. Sixteen shades have been developed for the characterization of their color characteristics and fastness properties. The color strength (K/S value) has been found to be very...

  16. Crystal field influence on vibration spectra: anhydrous uranyl chloride and dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Andre; Caillet, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Vibrational spectra of anhydrous uranyl chloride UO 2 Cl 2 and so called basic uranyl chloride: dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate /UO 2 (OH) 2 UO 2 /Cl 2 (H 2 O) 4 are reported. Factor group method analysis leads for the first time to complete and comprehensive interpretation of their spectra. Two extreme examples of crystal field influence on vibrational spectra are pointed out: for UO 2 Cl 2 , one is unable to explain spectra without taking into account all the elements of primitive crystalline cell, whilst for dihydroxodiuranyl dichloride tetrahydrate the crystal packing has very little effect on vibrational spectra [fr

  17. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...

  18. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. Control Technology for Depainting Operations: Estimation of Life-Cycle Costs of Controlling Methylene Chloride in Aircraft-Depainting Operations Versus Alternative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-24

    2343 Calle Del Mundo Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008 Tel.: (408)727-8282 POC: J. A. Gotterba Durr Industries Environmental Systems Division 40600...1) LESS THAN 1 IV. FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA FLASH POINT (TEST METHOD) ABOVE 200*P AUTO IGNITION ABOVE TEMPERATURE iJfJO’P...IST METHOD, ?oo.._r T,CCT CxriNOUISHINO Mt 01A WATER AUTO IGNITION ABOVB I rLAM**BLt »•’•’"’• TEMPERATURE ^QQly | IN AIR

  20. Determination of 0.01–0.1% of samarium in 40–100 mg of lead chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterdenbos, J.; Jütte, B.A.H.G.; Schuring, J.

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of 5–25 μg of samarium in about 40 mg of lead chloride, based on the removal of the lead by electrolysis and determination of the samarium by extraction with PAN and measurement of the extinction of the complex at 552 nm.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of a novel hydrophobic CaCO{sub 3} grafted by hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Lixia [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University (China); School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Yang, Simei; Luo, Xin [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Lei, Jingxin [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University (China); Cao, Qiue [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Wang, Jiliang, E-mail: jlwang@ynu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-OH) with different molecular weight and hydroxyl value was successfully prepared by the suspension copolymerization. • PVC-OH was grafted onto the surface of CaCO{sub 3} particles by the urethane formation reaction. • The modified CaCO{sub 3} particles show excellent hydrophobicity. - Abstract: The hydroxylated PVC (PVC-OH) was successfully synthesized by a suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC), butyl acrylate (BA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Novel hydrophobic CaCO{sub 3} was then prepared by a urethane formation reaction between methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and the −OH groups both in the PVC-OH chains and on the surface of pristine CaCO{sub 3} particles. The effect of the PVC-OH content on the grafting ratio of treated CaCO{sub 3} particles was extensively investigated. Combining the result of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) with that of water contact angle, it can be concluded that the hydrophobicity of CaCO{sub 3} had been efficiently improved by the PVC-OH segments grafted on the surface of CaCO{sub 3} particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were also used to study crystalline behaviors, thermal stability and surface morphology of the modified CaCO{sub 3} particles, respectively. The change of specific surface area implying surface modification was investigated as well.

  2. Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffleben, George; Goods, Steven H.; Shepodd, Timothy; Wheeler, David R.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy

    2002-01-01

    Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

  3. Detection of chloride ion concentration using chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions using chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with respect to another identical Ag/AgCl electrode in the bulk electrolyte.

  4. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  5. Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Chloride Hexahydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar; Šolcová, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 17 (2005), s. 6591-6598 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aluminum chloride hexahydrate * thermal decomposition * reaction kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2005

  6. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is bas...

  7. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Sherman (202-205-3289...

  8. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... contained in USITC Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014. (2) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl... this section by engineering, work practice, and personal protective controls as follows: (1) Feasible...

  10. Niobium interaction with chloride-carbonate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Kuznetsova, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    Niobium interaction with chloride-carbonate melt NaCl-KCl-K 2 CO 3 (5 mass %) in the temperature range of 973-1123 K has been studied. The products and niobium corrosion rate have been ascertained, depending on the temperature of melt and time of allowance. Potentials of niobium corrosion have been measured. Refs. 11, figs. 3, tabs. 2

  11. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  12. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  13. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation is one of the fundamental and essential molecular cloning techniques. In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride ...

  14. Analysis of the Rapid Chloride Migration test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Ferreira, R. M.; Gulikers, J.; Andrade, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study the Rapid Chloride Migration test (RCM) standardized as NT Build 492 and BAW-Merkblatt is reviewed. Since the traditional natural diffusion tests are laborious, time consuming and costly, they are not always preferred from a practical point of view. To overcome these disadvantages,

  15. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  16. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  17. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM. PMID:27873832

  18. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-09-15

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO₃, a solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO₃, solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM.

  19. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  20. Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Tangen, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.

  1. Determination of Critical Micellar Concentration of Homologous 2-Alkoxyphenylcarbamoyloxyethyl-Morpholinium Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Stopková

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The critical micellar concentrations of selected alkyloxy homologues of local anesthetic 4-(2-{[(2-alkoxyphenylcarbamoyl]oxy}ethylmorpholin-4-ium chloride with nc = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 carbons in alkyloxy tail were determined by absorption spectroscopy in the UV–vis spectral region with the use of a pyrene probe. Within the homologous series of the studied amphiphilic compounds, the ln(cmc was observed to be dependent linearly on the number of carbon atoms nc in the hydrophobic tail: ln(cmc = 0.705–0.966 nc. The Gibbs free energy, necessary for the transfer of the methylene group of the alkoxy chain from the water phase into the inner part of the micelle at the temperature of 25 °C and pH ≈ 4.5–5.0, was found to be −2.39 kJ/mol. The experimentally determined cmc values showed good correlations with the predicted values of the bulkiness of the alkoxy tail expressed as the molar volume of substituent R, as well as with the surface tension of the compounds.

  2. Glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents as extractants for the separation of MEK and ethanol via liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, N.R.; Ferré Güell, J.; Kroon, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Four different glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were tested as extracting agents for the separation of the azeotropic mixture {methyl ethyl ketone + ethanol} via liquid-liquid extraction. The selected DESs for this work were: glycerol/choline chloride with molar ratios (4:1) and (2:1),

  3. Improved electrolyte for lithium-thionyl chloride battery. [Patent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, W.H.; McCartney, J.F.

    1980-12-17

    A lithium, thionyl chloride battery is provided with an electrolyte which makes it safe under a reverse voltage condition. The electrolyte is niobium pentachloride which is dissolved in the thionyl chloride.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride (Final Report, 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Vinyl Chloride and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  5. Thallium-201 chloride dynamic analysis using thallium-201 chloride and sodium iodide-131 thyroid subtraction scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Setsuo; Hiraki, Yoshio; Togami, Izumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-10-01

    The mechanism of /sup 201/Tl chloride accumulation is unclear in thyroid gland and thyroid tumor. This report examines 108 patients that received thyroid scintigraphy examinations with both /sup 201/Tl chloride and sodium /sup 131/I. The patients were diagnosed clinically and histologically whenever possible. The ROI were obtained by subtraction imaging with both isotopes and by subtraction positive and negative areas of imaging. Dynamic curves were obtained for /sup 201/Tl chloride per square unit of each ROI. The dynamic curve in the radioiodide-accumulated area was examined. The data indicate that the clearance rate of /sup 201/Tl chloride (T/sub 15/) was correlated with the sodium /sup 131/I uptake rate at 24 h (r=0.70).

  6. Recovery of uranium from wet process by the chloridic leaching of phosphate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, A.O.; Paula, H.C.B.; Dantas, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium was recovered from chloridic leach liquor of phosphate rocks by solvent extraction on a laboratory scale. The extractor system is a mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D 2 EHPA) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in a varsol diluent. The uranium concentration is 150 ppm in the rocks and 12 ppm in the leach liquor. The phosphate rocks are leached on a semi-industrial scale for dicalcium phosphate production. The recovery process comprises the following steps: extraction, reextraction, iron removal and uranium precipitation. (orig./EF)

  7. Recovery of uranium from wet process by the chloridic leaching of phosphate rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, A O; Paula, H C.B.; Dantas, C C

    1984-03-01

    Uranium was recovered from chloridic leach liquor of phosphate rocks by solvent extraction on a laboratory scale. The extractor system is a mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D/sub 2/EHPA) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in a varsol diluent. The uranium concentration is 150 ppm in the rocks and 12 ppm in the leach liquor. The phosphate rocks are leached on a semi-industrial scale for dicalcium phosphate production. The recovery process comprises the following steps: extraction, reextraction, iron removal and uranium precipitation.

  8. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etre, A.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions

  9. Carbamoyl methylphosphine oxide derivatives of adamantane as americium and europium extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Alyapyshev, M.Yu.; Novakov, I.A.; Orlinson, B.S.; Savel'ev, E.N.; Shokova, Eh.A.; Serebrayannikova, A.E.; Kovalev, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Adamantane di-1,3-carbamoyl methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) derivatives, where CMPO-groups connect with 1,3-positions of rigid adamantane platform by methylene and ethylene bridges, are synthesized, and their efficiency as extractants of americium(III) and europium(III) from nitric acid solutions is demonstrated. Distribution function of Am 3+ and Eu + during extraction from 3M HNO 3 are measured in the investigation of extraction properties. It is noted that first synthesized adamantane CMPO derivatives are more effective for the extraction of americium(III) and europium(III) from 3MHNO 3 [ru

  10. Conformational analysis of the chemical shifts for molecules containing diastereotopic methylene protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Quantum chemistry SCF/GIAO calculations were carried out on a set of compounds containing diastereotopic protons. Five molecules, including recently synthesized 1,3-di(2,3-epoxypropoxy)benzene, containing the chiral or pro-chiral center and the neighboring methylene group, were chosen. The rotational averages (i.e. normalized averages with respect to the rotation about the torsional angle τ with the exponential energy weight at temperature T) calculated individually for each of the methylene protons in 1,3-di(2,3-epoxypropoxy)benzene differ by ca. 0.6 ppm, which is significantly less than the value calculated for the lowest energy conformer. This value turned out to be low enough to guarantee the proper ordering of theoretical chemical shifts, supporting the interpretation of the 1H NMR spectrum of this important compound. The rotational averages of chemical shifts for methylene protons for a given type of conformer are shown to be essentially equal to the Boltzmann averages (here, the population-weighted averages for the individual conformers representing minima on the E( τ) cross-section). The calculated Boltzmann averages in the representative conformational space may exhibit completely different ordering as compared to the chemical shifts calculated for the lowest-energy conformer. This is especially true in the case of molecules, for which no significant steric effects are present. In this case, only Boltzmann averages account for the experimental pattern of proton signals. In addition, better overall agreement with experiment (lower value of the root-mean-square deviation between calculated and measured chemical shifts) is typically obtained when Boltzmann averages are used.

  11. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  12. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  13. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  14. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this analytical technique has been checked against a certified reference material, Merck sodium chloride solution. Confidence levels (CL0.95), of 0.03 and relative standard deviations of 0.2 % for chloride were determined for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) chloride binding ...

  15. Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

  16. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-04-01

    This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

  17. Spinal meningeal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in meningeal seeding by malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, T.; Or, R.; Matzner, Y.; Samuels, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Definite diagnosis of meningeal seeding by systemic cancer relies on the presence of malignant cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the absence of such cells in the CSF, only two other tests strongly suggest the diagnosis - a CT scan and a myelogram. This paper reports a case in which the diagnosis was strongly suggested by an unusual uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate by the leptomeninges during a skeletal scan and later established by the presence of malignant cells in the CSF. The radionuclide scan may be an additional diagnostic test in some cases with meningeal seeding by systemic cancer

  18. Performance of zeolite ceramic membrane synthesized by wet mixing method as methylene blue dye wastewater filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masturi; Widodo, R. D.; Edie, S. S.; Amri, U.; Sidiq, A. L.; Alighiri, D.; Wulandari, N. A.; Susilawati; Amanah, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    Problem of pollution in water continues in Indonesia, with its manufacturing sector as biggest contributor to economic growth. One out of many technological solutions is post-treating industrial wastewater by membrane filtering technology. We presented a result of our fabrication of ceramic membrane made from zeolite with simple mixing and he. At 5% of (poring agent):(total weight), its permeability stays around 2.8 mD (10‑14m2) with slight variance around it, attributed to the mixture being in far below percolating threshold. All our membranes achieve remarkable above 90% rejection rate of methylene blue as solute waste in water solvent.

  19. Antibacterial activity of berberine-NorA pump inhibitor hybrids with a methylene ether linking group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosorn, Siritron; Tanwirat, Bongkot; Muhamad, Nussara; Casadei, Gabriele; Tomkiewicz, Danuta; Lewis, Kim; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Prammananan, Therdsak; Gornall, Karina C; Beck, Jennifer L; Bremner, John B

    2009-06-01

    Conjugation of the NorA substrate berberine and the NorA inhibitor 5-nitro-2-phenyl-1H-indole via a methylene ether linking group gave the 13-substituted berberine-NorA inhibitor hybrid, 3. A series of simpler arylmethyl ether hybrid structures were also synthesized. The hybrid 3 showed excellent antibacterial activity (MIC Staphylococcus aureus, 1.7 microM), which was over 382-fold more active than the parent antibacterial berberine, against this bacterium. This compound was also shown to block the NorA efflux pump in S. aureus.

  20. Utilization of zeolites synthesized from coal ash for methylene blue removal from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution was carried out using zeolites synthesized from coal ash as low-cost adsorbents. The coal ash sample was converted to zeolites by hydrothermal treatment using different synthesis parameters. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, XRD and SEM studies. The adsorption isotherms can be fitted by Freundlich model. The values of the adsorption capacity of adsorbents were similar for adsorbents. Kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  1. Is Cytox 3522 (10% methylene-bis-thiocyanate) a human skin sensitizer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Methylene-bis-thiocyanate is an antimicrobial agent in Cytox 3522 (American Cyanamid Corporation) and Nalco 206 (Nalco Chemical Company). Both are wide-spectrum industrial biocides. Cytox 3522 showed a strong sensitization potential in guineau pigs using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test and the O...... and the Open Epicutaneous Test procedures. In spite of this, human sensitization has not been reported. This may be explained by several factors such as limited exposure, low-use concentration and a lack of diagnostic patch tests in selected patients....

  2. Methylene blue as a lignin surrogate in manganese peroxidase reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goby, Jeffrey D; Penner, Michael H; Lajoie, Curtis A; Kelly, Christine J

    2017-11-15

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is associated with lignin degradation and is thus relevant to lignocellulosic-utilization technologies. Technological applications require reaction mixture optimization. A surrogate substrate can facilitate this if its susceptibility to degradation is easily monitored and mirrors that of lignin. The dye methylene blue (MB) was evaluated in these respects as a surrogate substrate by testing its reactivity in reaction mixtures containing relevant redox mediators (dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids). Relative rates of MB degradation were compared to available literature reports of lignin degradation under similar conditions, and suggest that MB can be a useful lignin surrogate in MnP systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of plasma after methylene blue and white light treatment in four Chinese blood centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Yang; Guohui, Bian; Hong, Yang; Xiaopu, Xiao; Zherong, Bai; Mingyuan, Wang; Xinsheng, Zhang; Juanjuan, Wang; Changqing, Li; Wuping, Li

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen reduction technology is an important process in the blood safety system, including solvent/detergent treatment, filtration and methylene blue-photochemical technology (MB-PCT). To investigate the quality of MB-PCT-treated plasma, plasma samples from four Chinese blood centers were analyzed over 12 months of storage to determine the recovery of activities and levels of various plasma proteins. Ten plasma units each from the Suzhou, Yancheng, Chongqing and Shandong blood centers were divided into two aliquots. One was subjected to treatment with one of two methylene blue-photochemical technology instruments and the other was used as control. The treated and untreated sample pairs were stored at -30°C. The recovery rates of coagulation factors, inhibitor proteins, total protein, immunoglobulins, and complement proteins were measured at different time points after storage. The mean recovery of most proteins exceeded 80% after MB treatment. The exceptions were factor XI and fibrinogen, of which only 71.3-74% and 69.0-92.3% were retained during storage. The two equipment types differed in terms of residual MB concentration in the plasma samples (0.18 μM and 0.29 μM, respectively). They had similar protein recovery rates at 0.5 month but differed at later time points. The four blood centers differed significantly with regard to factor II, V, VIII and fibrinogen activities. Only the samples from the Shandong blood center met the methylene blue treated fresh frozen plasma requirement. The major factor that influenced the quality of the MB-FFP samples was the time taken between blood collection and storage. Methylene blue treated plasma showed reduced coagulation factor (CF) activity and protein levels. The MB treatment-induced damage to the proteins was acceptable at the four Chinese blood centers, but the quality of the MB-treated plasma in general was not satisfactory. The main factor affecting plasma quality may be the duration of the collection and

  4. Role of methylene spacer in the excitation energy transfer in europium 1- and 2- naphthylcarboxylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, K. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Tsaryuk, V., E-mail: vit225@ire216.msk.s [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Kudryashova, V.; Pekareva, I. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Sokolnicki, J. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of WrocLaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie str., WrocLaw 50-383 (Poland); Yakovlev, Yu. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15

    A series of compounds Ln(RCOO){sub 3}.Phen (Ln=Eu, Gd, Tb; RCOO{sup -}-1- and 2-naphthoate, 1- and 2-naphthylacetate, 1- and 2-naphthoxyacetate anions, Phen-1,10-phenanthroline) was investigated by methods of optical spectroscopy. Compounds of composition Ln(RCOO){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O with the same carboxylate ligands are also considered. Results of studies of the effects of methylene spacer decoupling the {pi}-{pi}- or p-{pi}-conjugation in the naphthylcarboxylate ligand on the structure of Eu{sup 3+} coordination centre, on the lifetime of {sup 5}D{sub 0} (Eu{sup 3+}) state, and on processes of the excitation energy transfer to Eu{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} ions are presented. Introduction of the methylene bridge in the ligand weakens the influence of the steric hindrances in forming of a crystal lattice and results in lowering the distortion of the Eu{sup 3+} luminescence centre, and in elongation of the observed {sup 5}D{sub 0} lifetime {tau}{sub obs}. The latter is caused by decrease in contribution of the radiative processes rate 1/{tau}{sub r}. This is confirmed by the correlation between the lifetimes {tau}{sub obs} and the quantities '{tau}{sub r}.const' inversely proportional to the total integral intensities of Eu(RCOO){sub 3}.Phen luminescence spectra. The methylene spacer performs a role of regulator of sensitization of the Ln{sup 3+} luminescence efficiency by means of an influence on mutual location of lowest triplet states of the ligands, the ligand-metal charge transfer (LMCT) states, and the emitting states of Ln{sup 3+} ions. The lowest triplet state in lanthanide naphthylcarboxylate adducts with Phen is related to carboxylate anion. A presence of the methylene spacer in naphthylcarboxylate ligand increases the triplet state energy. At the same time, the energy of 'carboxylic group-Eu{sup 3+} ion' charge transfer states falls, which can promote the degradation of excitation energy. In naphthylcarboxylates investigated a range of the

  5. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delport, Anzelle [Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Harvey, Brian H. [Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Petzer, Anél [Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Petzer, Jacobus P., E-mail: jacques.petzer@nwu.ac.za [Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2017-06-15

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, the present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC{sub 50} = 0.0037 μM), Nile blue (IC{sub 50} = 0.0077 μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC{sub 50} = 0.018 μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC{sub 50} = 0.07 μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC{sub 50} value of 0.012 μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. - Highlights: • MB analogues, cresyl violet and Nile blue, are high potency MAO-A inhibitors. • Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor. • Potent MAO-A inhibition should alert to potential serotonin toxicity.

  6. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...

  7. Determination of Chloride Content in Cementitious Materials : From Fundamental Aspects to Application of Ag/AgCl Chloride Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pargar, F.; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the advantages and drawbacks of available test methods for the determination of chloride content in cementitious materials in general, and the application of Ag/AgCl chloride sensors in particular. The main factors that affect the reliability of a chloride sensor are presented.

  8. Methylene blue microbubbles as a model dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound and activatable photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Song, Wentao; Huynh, Elizabeth; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Jeesu; Helfield, Brandon L.; Leung, Ben Y. C.; Goertz, David E.; Zheng, Gang; Oh, Jungtaek; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Kim, Chulhong

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging are highly complementary modalities since both use ultrasonic detection for operation. Increasingly, photoacoustic and ultrasound have been integrated in terms of hardware instrumentation. To generate a broadly accessible dual-modality contrast agent, we generated microbubbles (a standard ultrasound contrast agent) in a solution of methylene blue (a standard photoacoustic dye). This MB2 solution was formed effectively and was optimized as a dual-modality contrast solution. As microbubble concentration increased (with methylene blue concentration constant), photoacoustic signal was attenuated in the MB2 solution. When methylene blue concentration increased (with microbubble concentration held constant), no ultrasonic interference was observed. Using an MB2 solution that strongly attenuated all photoacoustic signal, high powered ultrasound could be used to burst the microbubbles and dramatically enhance photoacoustic contrast (>800-fold increase), providing a new method for spatiotemporal control of photoacoustic signal generation.

  9. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, I.A.; Zamorani, E.; Serrini, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 50 0 C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  10. Thermochemistry of certain rare earth and ammonium double chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubaliev, D.U.; Abramtsev, V.A.; Kydynov, M.K.; Vilyaev, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    In a calorimeter with isothermal casing at 25 deg C dissolution enthalpies of double chlorides of rare earths and ammonium LnCl 3 x2NH 4 Cl (Ln=La, Sm) and LnCl 3 x3NH 4 Cl (Ln=Gd, Tb, Ho) in water, as well as dissolution enthalpy of rare earth chlorides in solution of ammonium chloride and NH 4 Cl in solution of rare earth chloride, have been measured. Formation enthalpies, standard formation enthalpies, dissociation enthalpies of the above-mentioned double chlorides are calculated

  11. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  12. Magnetic interactions in iron (III) porphyrin chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, J.; Subramanian, Japyesan; Fuhrhop, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Intermolecular exchange interactions in iron(III) porphyrin chlorides (porphyrin = OEP, proto, TPP) have been studied by X-ray structure, EPR and magnetic susceptibility studies. The crystal structure of Fe(III)OEP-Cl was found to be different from that of the other two. Different types of exchange broadened EPR-spectra are obtained which are attributable to the arrangement in the crystals. The EPR results correlate well with magnetic susceptibility data. (orig.) [de

  13. Methylene-Cycloalkylacetate (MCA) Scaffold-Based Compounds as Novel Neurotropic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankri, David; Haham, Dikla; Lahiani, Adi; Lazarovici, Philip; Tsvelikhovsky, Dmitry

    2018-04-18

    One of the main symptoms in degenerative diseases is death of neuronal cell followed by the loss of neuronal pathways. In neuronal cultures, neurite outgrowths are cell sprouts capable of transforming into either axons or dendrites, to further form functional neuronal synaptic connections. Such connections have an important role in brain cognition, neuronal plasticity, neuronal survival, and regeneration. Therefore, drugs that stimulate neurite outgrowth may be found beneficial in ameliorating neural degeneration. Here, we establish the existence of a unique family of methylene-cycloalkylacetate-based molecules (MCAs) that interface with neuronal cell properties and operate as acceptable pharmacophores for a novel neurotropic (neurite outgrowth inducing) lead compounds. Using an established PC12 cell bioassay, we investigated the neurotropic effect of methylene-cycloalkylacetate compounds by comparison to NGF, a known neurotropic factor. Micrographs of the cells were collected by using a light microscope camera, and digitized photographs were analyzed for compound-induced neurotropic activity using an NIH image protocol. The results indicate that the alkene element, integrated within the cycloalkylacetate core, is indispensable for neurotropic activity. The discovered lead compounds need further mechanistic investigation and may be improved toward development of a neurotropic drug.

  14. 3D Oxidized Graphene Frameworks: An Efficient Adsorbent for Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Deb, Madhurima; Tiwari, Shreya; Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2018-04-01

    Extraordinary properties of graphene and its derivatives have found application in varied areas such as energy, electronics, optical devices and sensors, to name a few. Large surface area along with specialized functional groups make these materials attractive for removal of dye molecules in solution via adsorption. Industrial effluents contain large amounts of toxic chemicals resulting in pollution of water bodies, which pose environmental hazards in general. Here we report application of 3D oxidized graphene frameworks in the efficient removal of cationic dye molecules such as methylene blue via adsorption. Systematic parametric studies investigating the effect of the initial dye concentration, pH and contact time have been performed. Spectroscopic analysis of the filtrate suggests that tortuous paths in 3D oxidized graphene frameworks result in efficient removal of dye molecules due to enhanced interaction. The hydroxyl groups retained in these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks facilitate adsorption of the dye molecules while passing through the adsorbent. pH studies suggest that maximum removal efficiency for methylene blue was achieved at pH value of 9. The results suggest that these 3D oxidized graphene frameworks can be used for purification of large volumes of contaminated water from cationic dyes in waste water treatment plants.

  15. Methylene Blue Dye-Induced Skin Necrosis in Immediate Breast Reconstruction: Evaluation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hwan Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background For early breast cancer patients, skin-sparing mastectomy or nipple-sparing mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the mainstream treatment for immediate breast reconstruction in possible cases. However, a few cases of skin necrosis caused by methylene blue dye (MBD used for sentinel lymph node localization have been reported. Methods Immediate breast reconstruction using a silicone implant was performed on 35 breasts of 34 patients after mastectomy. For sentinel lymph node localization, 1% MBD (3 mL was injected into the subareolar area. The operation site was inspected in the postoperative evaluation. Results Six cases of immediate breast reconstruction using implants were complicated by methylene blue dye. One case of local infection was improved by conservative treatment. In two cases, partial necrosis and wound dehiscence of the incision areas were observed; thus, debridement and closure were performed. Of the three cases of wide skin necrosis, two cases underwent removal of the dead tissue and implants, followed by primary closure. In the other case, the breast implant was salvaged using latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap reconstruction. Conclusions The complications were caused by MBD toxicity, which aggravated blood disturbance and skin tension after implant insertion. When planning immediate breast reconstruction using silicone implants, complications of MBD should be discussed in detail prior to surgery, and appropriate management in the event of complications is required.

  16. Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R 2) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution. PMID:25705714

  17. Use of ZnO:Mn particles for degradation of methylene blue by photocatalysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldi, T. R.; Swerts, J. P.; Vicente, M. A.; Paris, E.C.; Ribeiro, C.

    2016-01-01

    The management of water use in the agricultural environment is a key factor to build new environmentally sustainable productive methods. Photocatalysis is a promising method for water decontamination. This research paper aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic potential of pure and Mn-doped ZnO particles. The materials were obtained by the polymeric precursor method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, N_2 adsorption in low temperature, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. In order to evaluate ZnO:Mn particles photo efficiency, experiments were carried out by applying the methylene blue dye solution to photodegradation under UVC exposure. The particles had ZnO single-phase, but low specific surface area. The sample ZnO:0.25% Mn presented higher efficiency in the methylene blue photocatalytic degradation test. This efficiency was related to a higher band gap energy value and a lower rate of electron recombination, which allows greater formation of hydroxyl radicals, which are responsible for dye degradation. (author)

  18. Electrochemical behavior of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukkitgar, Shikandar D.; Shetti, Nagaraj P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel sensor for the determination of 5-fluorouracil was constructed by electrochemical deposition of methylene blue on surface of carbon paste electrode. The electrode surface morphology was studied using Atomic force microscopy and XRD. The electrochemical activity of modified electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse method. The developed sensor shows impressive enlargement in sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil determination. The peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry was linear with concentration of 5-fluorouracil in the range 4 × 10 −5 –1 × 10 −7 M and detection limit and quantification limit were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM respectively. Further, the sensor was successfully applied in pharmaceutical and biological fluid sample analysis. - Highlights: • Electrochemical oxidation of 5-fluorouracil has been investigated for first time at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode • The electrode process was irreversible and diffusion controlled • Probable electrochemical mechanism was proposed which involved two proton and two electron transfer reaction • The LOD and LOQ values were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM, respectively, with good selectivity and sensitivity. • Proposed method was applied to 5-Fluorouracil determination in pharmaceutical and spiked human urine samples

  19. Combination photodynamic therapy of human breast cancer using salicylic acid and methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Jahanshiri, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination therapy with methylene blue (MB) assisted photodynamic therapy (PDT) and salicylic acid (SA) as chemo-therapy anticancer agent. The binding of salicylic acid to methylene blue was studied using spectrophotometric method. The results show the 1:2 complex formation between SA and MB. The binding constants and related Gibbs free energies o are obtained (Kb1 = 183.74, Kb2 = 38.13 and ∆ Gb1° = 12.92 kJ·mol- 1, ∆ Gb2° =9.02 kJ·mol- 1). The spectrophotometric results show the improvement in solubilization and reduction prevention for SA and MB in the complex form. These results are in agreements with cellular experiments. The dark toxicity measurements represent the improve efficacy of chemotherapy using combination of SA and MB. The photodynamic therapy results (using red LED as light source (630 nm; power density: 30 mW cm- 2)) show that the cancer cell killing efficiency of MB increases in the combination with SA due to reduction prevention and stabilization of monomeric form of MB.

  20. Graphene quantum dot synthesis using nanosecond laser pulses and its comparison to Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, Khomidkhodza; Thomas, Zachary; Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Smith, Skylar

    A biocompatible photodynamic therapy agent that generates a high amount of singlet oxygen with high water dispersibility and excellent photostability is desirable. In this work, a graphene based biomaterial which is a promising alternative to a standard photosensitizers was produced. Methylene blue was used as a reference photosensitizer. Bacteria deactivation by methylene blue was shown to be inhibited inside human blood due to protein binding. Graphene quantum dots (GQD) were synthesized by irradiating benzene and nickel oxide mixture using nanosecond laser pulses. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used for characterization of GQDs. Initial results show graphene quantum dots whose size less than 5 nm were successfully obtained. UV-VIS spectra shows absorption peak around 310 nm. The results of these studies can potentially be used to develop therapies for the eradication of pathogens in open wounds, burns, or skin cancers. New therapies for these conditions are particularly needed when antibiotic-resistant infections are present. NIH KBRIN.