WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods results suggest

  1. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-1 Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Suggested Format for Reporting Test... Difference Table C-1 spec. Pass or fail Low 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm 3 4 5 6 Medium 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm...

  2. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  3. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  4. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  5. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai; Chen, Zonghai; Liu, Chengfei; Huang, He; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate

  6. Suggestions on the Development of Safety Culture Assessment Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kim, Woong Sik

    2006-01-01

    Several efforts have been made to assess safety culture of organization that operates nuclear power plants in Korea. The MOST and KINS played a major role to develop assessment methods and KHNP applied them to its NPPs. This paper explains the two methods developed by KINS briefly and presents the insights obtained from the two different applications. It concludes with some suggestions for safety culture assessment based on the insights

  7. Skin sparing mastectomy: Technique and suggested methods of reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahat, A.M.; Hashim, T.; Soliman, H.O.; Manie, T.M.; Soliman, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility and accessibility of performing adequate mastectomy to extirpate the breast tissue, along with en-block formal axillary dissection performed from within the same incision. We also compared different methods of immediate breast reconstruction used to fill the skin envelope to achieve the best aesthetic results. Methods: 38 patients with breast cancer underwent skin-sparing mastectomy with formal axillary clearance, through a circum-areolar incision. Immediate breast reconstruction was performed using different techniques to fill in the skin envelope. Two reconstruction groups were assigned; group 1: Autologus tissue transfer only (n= 24), and group 2: implant augmentation (n= 14). Autologus tissue transfer: The techniques used included filling in the skin envelope using Extended Latissimus Dorsi flap (18 patients) and Pedicled TRAM flap (6 patients). Augmentation with implants: Subpectoral implants(4 patients), a rounded implant placed under the pectoralis major muscle to augment an LD reconstructed breast. LD pocket (10 patients), an anatomical implant placed over the pectoralis major muscle within a pocket created by the LD flap. No contra-lateral procedure was performed in any of the cases to achieve symmetry. Results: All cases underwent adequate excision of the breast tissue along with en-block complete axillary clearance (when indicated), without the need for an additional axillary incision. Eighteen patients underwent reconstruction using extended LD flaps only, six had TRAM flaps, four had augmentation using implants placed below the pectoralis muscle along with LD flaps, and ten had implants placed within the LD pocket. Breast shape, volume and contour were successfully restored in all patients. Adequate degree of ptosis was achieved, to ensure maximal symmetry. Conclusions: Skin Sparing mastectomy through a circum-areolar incision has proven to be a safe and feasible option for the management of breast cancer in Egyptian

  8. An Instructional Method Suggestion: Conveying Stories through Origami (Storigami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how to convey stories through origami and suggest its use in education with the help of pre-service elementary teachers' opinions. The participants of the study were 103 elementary teacher candidates from a state university in the 2014-2015 academic year. In this qualitative study, the data were collected…

  9. The ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring 2007-2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of ISRM suggested methods for testing or measuring properties of rocks and rock masses both in the laboratory and in situ, as well as for monitoring the performance of rock engineering structures. The first collection (Yellow Book) has been published in 1981. In order to provide access to all the Suggested Methods in one volume, the ISRM Blue Book was published in 2007 (by the ISRM via the Turkish National Group) and contains the complete set of Suggested Methods from 1974 to 2006 inclusive. The papers in this most recent volume have been published during the last seven years in international journals, mainly in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. They offer guidance for rock characterization procedures and laboratory and field testing and monitoring in rock engineering. These methods provide a definitive procedure for the identification, measurement and evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics, or properties of rocks or rock systems that produces a test result.

  10. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  11. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppel, C. [Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  12. Authority Delegation in Boyerahmad Health Centers through Model to Combine Suggestions System and Delphi Method 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Momeninezhad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Authority delegation means to transmit part of organization`s manager and leader`s special authorities and executive duties, regardless its root to subordinates and heads of units and related offices to speed up implementing affairs and organizational purposes quickly and on time. The purpose of this study was to inspect authority delegation in health centers of Boyerahmad district through using model to combine suggestions (to identify process and Delphi method (expert`s opinions . Methods: This cross-sectional study was implemented in two stages at first stage, research community was authorities of Boyerahmad health centers (58 persons, their suggestions about requested processes to delegate were gathered by total count through open questionnaires and in second stage, which was Delphi, suggestions gathered from previous stage judged by 30 experts. Data of both stages analyzed by help of Chi-square, correlation coefficient tests. Results: Findings showed that 73.85% of suggestions were able to be delegated, based on expert`s opinion. 40% of suggestions were in domain of official, 36.92% financial and 23.08% hygienic. 88% less than 6 years management background. 20.69% had no academic studies and only 27% were general physicians. Conclusion: By participation of environmental management levels, several processes may be specified and identify cases which are possible to delegate them executively using Delphi (expert`s opinion and this model can be used as a trust worthy method to delegate authority for decentralization. Key words: Participation Management, Health centers, Authority delegation

  13. Testing for variation in taxonomic extinction probabilities: a suggested methodology and some results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Several important questions in evolutionary biology and paleobiology involve sources of variation in extinction rates. In all cases of which we are aware, extinction rates have been estimated from data in which the probability that an observation (e.g., a fossil taxon) will occur is related both to extinction rates and to what we term encounter probabilities. Any statistical method for analyzing fossil data should at a minimum permit separate inferences on these two components. We develop a method for estimating taxonomic extinction rates from stratigraphic range data and for testing hypotheses about variability in these rates. We use this method to estimate extinction rates and to test the hypothesis of constant extinction rates for several sets of stratigraphic range data. The results of our tests support the hypothesis that extinction rates varied over the geologic time periods examined. We also present a test that can be used to identify periods of high or low extinction probabilities and provide an example using Phanerozoic invertebrate data. Extinction rates should be analyzed using stochastic models, in which it is recognized that stratigraphic samples are random varlates and that sampling is imperfect

  14. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  15. Interrogative suggestibility: its relationship with assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and method of coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate empirically in 30 subjects some of the theoretical components related to individual differences that are thought by Gudjonsson & Clark (1986) to mediate interrogative suggestibility as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS; Gudjonsson, 1984a). The variables studied were: assertiveness, social-evaluative anxiety, state anxiety and the coping methods subjects are able to generate and implement during interrogation. Low assertiveness and high evaluative anxiety were found to correlate moderately with suggestibility, but no significant correlations emerged for 'social avoidance and distress'. State anxiety correlated significantly with suggestibility, particularly after negative feedback had been administered. Coping methods (active-cognitive/behavioural vs. avoidance) significantly predicted suggestibility scores. The findings give strong support to the theoretical model of Gudjonsson & Clark.

  16. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S b (E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U e for several two body processes are discussed

  17. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness.

  18. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness

  19. Facultative methanotrophy: false leads, true results, and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jeremy D; DiSpirito, Alan A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Methanotrophs are a group of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms characterized by their ability to utilize methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Early studies suggested that growth on methane could be stimulated with the addition of some small organic acids, but initial efforts to find facultative methanotrophs, i.e., methanotrophs able to utilize compounds with carbon-carbon bonds as sole growth substrates were inconclusive. Recently, however, facultative methanotrophs in the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa, and Methylocystis have been reported that can grow on acetate, as well as on larger organic acids or ethanol for some species. All identified facultative methanotrophs group within the Alphaproteobacteria and utilize the serine cycle for carbon assimilation from formaldehyde. It is possible that facultative methanotrophs are able to convert acetate into intermediates of the serine cycle (e.g. malate and glyoxylate), because a variety of acetate assimilation pathways convert acetate into these compounds (e.g. the glyoxylate shunt of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, the citramalate cycle, and the methylaspartate cycle). In this review, we summarize the history of facultative methanotrophy, describe scenarios for the basis of facultative methanotrophy, and pose several topics for future research in this area. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Suggested Methods for Preventing Core Saturation Instability in HVDC Transmission Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norheim, Ian

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis a study of the HVDC related phenomenon core saturation instability and methods to prevent this phenomenon is performed. It is reason to believe that this phenomenon caused disconnection of the Skagerrak HVDC link 10 August 1993. Internationally, core saturation instability has been reported at several HVDC schemes and thorough complex studies of the phenomenon has been performed. This thesis gives a detailed description of the phenomenon and suggest some interesting methods to prevent the development of it. Core saturation instability and its consequences can be described in a simplified way as follows: It is now assumed that a fundamental harmonic component is present in the DC side current. Due to the coupling between the AC side and the DC side of the HVDC converter, a subsequent second harmonic positive-sequence current and DC currents will be generated on the AC side. The DC currents will cause saturation in the converter transformers. This will cause the magnetizing current to also have a second harmonic positive-sequence component. If a high second harmonic impedance is seen from the commutation bus, a high positive-sequence second harmonic component will be present in the commutation voltages. This will result in a relatively high fundamental frequency component in the DC side voltage. If the fundamental frequency impedance at the DC side is relatively low the fundamental component in the DC side current may become larger than it originally was. In addition the HVDC control system may contribute to the fundamental frequency component in the DC side voltage, and in this way cause a system even more sensitive to core saturation instability. The large magnetizing currents that eventually will flow on the AC side cause large zero-sequence currents in the neutral conductors of the AC transmission lines connected to the HVDC link. This may result in disconnection of the lines. Alternatively, the harmonics in the large magnetizing currents may cause

  1. Magnetic interactions and the method of images: a wealth of educational suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, A; Camarca, M; Sapia, P

    2011-01-01

    Under some conditions, the method of images (well known in electrostatics) may be implemented in magnetostatic problems too, giving an excellent example of the usefulness of formal analogies in the description of physical systems. In this paper, we develop a quantitative model for the magnetic interactions underlying the so-called Geomag(TM) paradox and describe a quantitative experimental investigation to validate the model. The validity ranges of some approximations involved in this problem are quantitatively discussed and the advantages of a dimensionless formulation of the interaction are pointed out. This work offers many educational suggestions suitable for university students.

  2. Suggested Method for Encryption and Hiding ‎Image using LCG and LSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Hussein Zyara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the confidentiality of the data of the very important areas in computer applications , Where many researchers work in the fields of concealment and encryption . So in this research we are working on the combining of the two methods , where confidential data is encrypted by using  a proposed method , Then the cover is encrypted (regular image by LCG algorithm (which generates a series of random numbers to generate the encrypted cover (irregular image , After that ,we hide the encrypted data in encrypted cover by depending on the LSB technique, then we convert the irregular image into regular image and thereby getting  hidden data in random locations in the  cover image  , This method is characterized by flexibility in terms of the possibility of hiding the different  types of confidential data in different types of media , and durability as that data be hidden in random locations and this  what distinguishes the proposed algorithm , and the results showed high security, because the data is hidden in random locations in encrypted image then convert to the original regular image For clarification of the proposed algorithm , it has been applied on a digital image of the gray type using MATLAB language  by using the efficiency scales PSNR and MSE

  3. Achieving graphical excellence: suggestions and methods for creating high-quality visual displays of experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriger, D L; Cooper, R J

    2001-01-01

    Graphics are an important means of communicating experimental data and results. There is evidence, however, that many of the graphics printed in scientific journals contain errors, redundancies, and lack clarity. Perhaps more important, many graphics fail to portray data at an appropriate level of detail, presenting summary statistics rather than underlying distributions. We seek to aid investigators in the production of high-quality graphics that do their investigations justice by providing the reader with optimum access to the relevant aspects of the data. The depiction of by-subject data, the signification of pairing when present, and the use of symbolic dimensionality (graphing different symbols to identify relevant subgroups) and small multiples (the presentation of an array of similar graphics each depicting one group of subjects) to portray stratification are stressed. Step-by-step instructions for the construction of high-quality graphics are offered. We hope that authors will incorporate these suggestions when developing graphics to accompany their manuscripts and that this process will lead to improvements in the graphical literacy of scientific journals. We also hope that journal editors will keep these principles in mind when refereeing manuscripts submitted for peer review.

  4. Debating Curricular Strategies for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods: What Does the Current Evidence Suggest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coursework in statistics and research methods is a core requirement in most undergraduate psychology programs. However, is there an optimal way to structure and sequence methodology courses to facilitate student learning? For example, should statistics be required before research methods, should research methods be required before statistics, or…

  5. Suggestions for an improved HRA method for use in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, Gareth W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses why an improved Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) approach for use in Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) is needed, and proposes a set of requirements on the improved HRA method. The constraints imposed by the need to embed the approach into the PSA methodology are discussed. One approach to laying the foundation for an improved method, using models from the cognitive psychology and behavioral science disciplines, is outlined

  6. Magnetic Interactions and the Method of Images: A Wealth of Educational Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A.; Camarca, M.; Sapia, P.

    2011-01-01

    Under some conditions, the method of images (well known in electrostatics) may be implemented in magnetostatic problems too, giving an excellent example of the usefulness of formal analogies in the description of physical systems. In this paper, we develop a quantitative model for the magnetic interactions underlying the so-called Geomag[TM]…

  7. Suggested Research Method for Testing Selected Tribological Properties of Friction Components in Vehicle Braking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borawski Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The braking system is one of the most important systems in any vehicle. Its proper functioning may determine the health and life the people inside the vehicle as well as other road users. Therefore, it is important that the parameters which characterise the functioning of brakes changed as little as possible throughout their lifespan. Multiple instances of heating and cooling of the working components of the brake system as well as the environment they work in may impact their tribological properties. This article describes a method of evaluating the coefficient of friction and the wear speed of abrasive wear of friction working components of brakes. The methodology was developed on the basis of Taguchi’s method of process optimization.

  8. A suggestion of a new method for the calculation of the coating thickness in continuous hot-dip galvanizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, C. M.; Kwon, Y. D.; Kwon, S. B. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G. Y. [POSCO Technical Research laboratories, Gumgo-dong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    It is known that the distributions of the impinging pressure gradient and the shear stress at the strip surface play a decisive key role in the decision of the coating thickness in hot-dip galvanizing. So, to predict the exact coating thickness, it is essential that the distributions of the impinging wall jet pressure and the shear stress acting between the liquid film and jet stream are measured (or calculated) exactly for each specific coating condition. So far, to obtain the impinging wall jet pressure, it was assumed that the jet issuing from an air-knife is similar to the Hiemenz plane stagnation flow, and the wall shear stress could be predicted by an equation using the assumption of a non-negative Gaussian profile in impinging wall jet pressure in general, so that it cannot be reliable for some impinging wall jet regions and nozzle systems intrinsically. Nevertheless, one cannot find a suitable method to cope with the difficulties in measuring/calculating of the shear stress and the impinging wall jet pressure. Such a difficulty which will cause an inaccuracy in the coating thickness prediction. With these connections, in the present study, we suggest a new method named as a two-step calculation method to calculate the final coating thickness, which consists of the air jet analysis and coating thickness calculation. And, from the comparison of the results one may confirm the validation of the new suggested method.

  9. Wanted: studies on mortality estimation methods for humanitarian emergencies, suggestions for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Measuring rates and circumstances of population mortality (in particular crude and under-5 year mortality rates is essential to evidence-based humanitarian relief interventions. Because prospective vital event registration is absent or deteriorates in nearly all crisis-affected populations, retrospective household surveys are often used to estimate and describe patterns of mortality. Originally designed for measuring vaccination coverage, the two-stage cluster survey methodology is frequently employed to measure mortality retrospectively due to limited time and resources during humanitarian emergencies. The method tends to be followed without considering alternatives, and there is a need for expert advice to guide health workers measuring mortality in the field. In a workshop in France in June 2006, we deliberated the problems inherent in this method when applied to measure outcomes other than vaccine coverage and acute malnutrition (specifically, mortality, and considered recommendations for improvement. Here we describe these recommendations and outline outstanding issues in three main problem areas in emergency mortality assessment discussed during the workshop: sampling, household data collection issues, and cause of death ascertainment. We urge greater research on these issues. As humanitarian emergencies become ever more complex, all agencies should benefit from the most recently tried and tested survey tools.

  10. Suggested Methods for Assessment of Accidental External Exposure and Internal Contamination of Workers and their Medical Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K.A.; Morsy, Samira M.; Hanna, I.R.A.; Hafez, M.B.; Mohamed, H.O.; Jahns, E.; Saied, F.I.A.

    1969-01-01

    Certain assumptions are given for the amount of fission products released from a research reactor after the occurrence of an accident. The size and location of radioactive cloud are assumed, and the corresponding external and internal exposures of workers are computed. A method is suggested for assessment of accidental external radiation dose based on experimental studies performed on the changes of quenching effect of plasma or sera as a.result of whole- body gamma-radiation ranging from 25-200 rems. For assessment of accidentally internally incorporated gamma emitters we suggest the standard chair whole-body counter technique which was found to detect reliably 1/100 of the maximum permissible body burden within eight minutes. It was also suggested that a separation method based on the use of absorption phenomena observed for Sephadex (gel resin) can be applied for quick determination of gross alpha activity in urine. For management of accidentally exposed workers to radiation doses of a lethal or sublethal nature, bone-marrow transplantation therapy and blood component therapy in sterile rooms is discussed in the light of experience gained from treatment of leukaemia with intensive chemotherapy. (author)

  11. The suggestion of droplets generation prevention method of CNx coating by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Yuji; Tokoroyama, Takayuki; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Fuwa, Yoshio; Manabe, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that the carbon nitride (CNx) coating was the super-low friction in which friction coefficient was less than 0.01, and it attracts attention as a high wear resistance and low friction material. When synthesizing a CNx coating with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) method, it was clear that the small asperities called droplets was generated onto the CNx coating surface with increasing thickness, and these droplets generated high friction. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify droplets generation mechanism to reduce droplets. To establish optimal coating conditions for controlling droplets were clarified by paying attention to the energy of an electron beam and the shape of a carbon target. First of all, 300 nm thickness CNx coatings were synthesized with five different filament current densities to clarify the relationship between the filament current density and droplet heights. Secondly, the effect of carbon target shape on droplets generation was confirmed with normal and processed carbon target. Finally, friction coefficient of these surfaces was measured by friction tests under PAO lubrication. (author)

  12. Parkinson's disease and occupation: differences in associations by case identification method suggest referral bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Kay; Marion, Stephen A; Tsui, Joseph K C; Shen, Hui; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Harris, M Anne

    2014-02-01

    We used a population-based sample of 403 Parkinson's disease cases and 405 controls to examine risks by occupation. Results were compared to a previous clinic-based analysis. With censoring of jobs held within 10 years of diagnosis, the following had significantly or strongly increased risks: social science, law and library jobs (OR = 1.8); farming and horticulture jobs (OR = 2.0); gas station jobs (OR = 2.6); and welders (OR = 3.0). The following had significantly decreased risks: management and administration jobs (OR = 0.70); and other health care jobs (OR = 0.44). These results were consistent with other findings for social science and farming occupations. Risks for teaching, medicine and health occupations were not elevated, unlike our previous clinic-based study. This underscores the value of population-based over clinic-based samples. Occupational studies may be particularly susceptible to referral bias because social networks may spread preferentially via jobs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The WOMBAT Attack Attribution Method: Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacier, Marc; Pham, Van-Hau; Thonnard, Olivier

    In this paper, we present a new attack attribution method that has been developed within the WOMBAT project. We illustrate the method with some real-world results obtained when applying it to almost two years of attack traces collected by low interaction honeypots. This analytical method aims at identifying large scale attack phenomena composed of IP sources that are linked to the same root cause. All malicious sources involved in a same phenomenon constitute what we call a Misbehaving Cloud (MC). The paper offers an overview of the various steps the method goes through to identify these clouds, providing pointers to external references for more detailed information. Four instances of misbehaving clouds are then described in some more depth to demonstrate the meaningfulness of the concept.

  14. Repertoire Analysis of Antibody CDR-H3 Loops Suggests Affinity Maturation Does Not Typically Result in Rigidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliazko R. Jeliazkov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody’s antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop for thousands of recent homology models of the human peripheral blood cell antibody repertoire using rigidity theory. We found no clear delineation in the flexibility of naïve and antigen-experienced antibodies. To account for possible sources of error, we additionally analyzed hundreds of human and mouse antibodies in the Protein Data Bank through both rigidity theory and B-factor analysis. By both metrics, we observed only a slight decrease in the CDR-H3 loop flexibility when comparing affinity matured antibodies to naïve antibodies, and the decrease was not as drastic as previously reported. Further analysis, incorporating molecular dynamics simulations, revealed a spectrum of changes in flexibility. Our results suggest that rigidification may be just one of many biophysical mechanisms for increasing affinity.

  15. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.; Paterson, A.; Edgar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  16. German precursor study: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Frey, W.; von Linden, J.; Reichart, G.

    1985-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the GRS by contract of the Federal Minister of Interior. The purpose of the study is to show how the application of system-analytic tools and especially of probabilistic methods on the Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and on other operating experience can support a deeper understanding of the safety-related importance of the events reported in reactor operation, the identification of possible weak points, and further conclusions to be drawn from the events. Additionally, the study aimed at a comparison of its results for the severe core damage frequency with those of the German Risk Study as far as this is possible and useful. The German Precursor Study is a plant-specific study. The reference plant is Biblis NPP with its very similar Units A and B, whereby the latter was also the reference plant for the German Risk Study

  17. Mechanics of Nanostructures: Methods and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rod

    2003-03-01

    We continue to develop and use new tools to measure the mechanics and electromechanics of nanostructures. Here we discuss: (a) methods for making nanoclamps and the resulting: nanoclamp geometry, chemical composition and type of chemical bonding, and nanoclamp strength (effectiveness as a nanoclamp for the mechanics measurements to be made); (b) mechanics of carbon nanocoils. We have received carbon nanocoils from colleagues in Japan [1], measured their spring constants, and have observed extensions exceeding 100% relative to the unloaded length, using our scanning electron microscope nanomanipulator tool; (c) several new devices that are essentially MEMS-based, that allow for improved measurements of the mechanics of psuedo-1D and planar nanostructures. [1] Zhang M., Nakayama Y., Pan L., Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1242-L1244 (2000).

  18. Multiband discrete ordinates method: formalism and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luneville, L.

    1998-06-01

    The multigroup discrete ordinates method is a classical way to solve transport equation (Boltzmann) for neutral particles. Self-shielding effects are not correctly treated due to large variations of cross sections in a group (in the resonance range). To treat the resonance domain, the multiband method is introduced. The main idea is to divide the cross section domain into bands. We obtain the multiband parameters using the moment method; the code CALENDF provides probability tables for these parameters. We present our implementation in an existing discrete ordinates code: SN1D. We study deep penetration benchmarks and show the improvement of the method in the treatment of self-shielding effects. (author)

  19. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  20. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent: retrospective results from a tertiary clinic suggesting an association with facial dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D; Thyssen, J P

    2016-10-01

    Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. Patch test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (P trend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis, age >40 years and facial dermatitis in adjusted binary logistic regression analysis. Current clinical relevance of contact allergy to thiuram mix was 59.3%. Patients with contact allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole had a concomitant reaction to thiuram mix in 35.2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Project Oriented Immersion Learning: Method and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Icaza, José I.; Heredia, Yolanda; Borch, Ole M.

    2005-01-01

    A pedagogical approach called “project oriented immersion learning” is presented and tested on a graduate online course. The approach combines the Project Oriented Learning method with immersion learning in a virtual enterprise. Students assumed the role of authors hired by a fictitious publishing...... house that develops digital products including e-books, tutorials, web sites and so on. The students defined the problem that their product was to solve; choose the type of product and the content; and built the product following a strict project methodology. A wiki server was used as a platform to hold...

  2. Learning phacoemulsification. Results of different teaching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Albrecht

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the learning curves of three eye surgeons converting from sutureless extracapsular cataract extraction to phacoemulsification using different teaching methods. Posterior capsule rupture (PCR as a per-operative complication and visual outcome of the first 100 operations were analysed. The PCR rate was 4% and 15% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively. Likewise, an uncorrected visual acuity of > or = 6/18 on the first postoperative day was seen in 62 (62% of patients and in 22 (22% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively.

  3. RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: ANALYSIS METHODS

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Five-yearly review of employment conditions   Article S V 1.02 of our Staff Rules states that the CERN “Council shall periodically review and determine the financial and social conditions of the members of the personnel. These periodic reviews shall consist of a five-yearly general review of financial and social conditions;” […] “following methods […] specified in § I of Annex A 1”. Then, turning to the relevant part in Annex A 1, we read that “The purpose of the five-yearly review is to ensure that the financial and social conditions offered by the Organization allow it to recruit and retain the staff members required for the execution of its mission from all its Member States. […] these staff members must be of the highest competence and integrity.” And for the menu of such a review we have: “The five-yearly review must include basic salaries and may include any other financial or soc...

  4. Two different hematocrit detection methods: Different methods, different results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuepbach Reto A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about the influence of hematocrit detection methodology on transfusion triggers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare two different hematocrit-assessing methods. In a total of 50 critically ill patients hematocrit was analyzed using (1 blood gas analyzer (ABLflex 800 and (2 the central laboratory method (ADVIA® 2120 and compared. Findings Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements showed a good correlation with a bias of +1.39% and 2 SD of ± 3.12%. The 24%-hematocrit-group showed a correlation of r2 = 0.87. With a kappa of 0.56, 22.7% of the cases would have been transfused differently. In the-28%-hematocrit group with a similar correlation (r2 = 0.8 and a kappa of 0.58, 21% of the cases would have been transfused differently. Conclusions Despite a good agreement between the two methods used to determine hematocrit in clinical routine, the calculated difference of 1.4% might substantially influence transfusion triggers depending on the employed method.

  5. [Adverse events management. Methods and results of a development project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Jensen, Elisabeth Brøgger; Hellebek, Annemarie H; Pedersen, Beth Lilja

    2006-11-27

    This article describes the methods and results of a project in the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (H:S) on preventing adverse events. The aim of the project was to raise awareness about patients' safety, test a reporting system for adverse events, develop and test methods of analysis of events and propagate ideas about how to prevent adverse events. H:S developed an action plan and a reporting system for adverse events, founded an organization and developed an educational program on theories and methods of learning from adverse events for both leaders and employees. During the three-year period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2004, the H:S staff reported 6011 adverse events. In the same period, the organization completed 92 root cause analyses. More than half of these dealt with events that had been optional to report, the other half events that had been mandatory to report. The number of reports and the front-line staff's attitude towards reporting shows that the H:S succeeded in founding a safety culture. Future work should be centred on developing and testing methods that will prevent adverse events from happening. The objective is to suggest and complete preventive initiatives which will help increase patient safety.

  6. Sensitivities of a Standard Test Method for the Determination of the pHe of Bioethanol and Suggestions for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Brewer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the sensitivities of the critical parameters in the ASTM D6423 documentary standard method for the measurement of pHe in (bioethanol has been undertaken. Repeatability of measurements made using the same glass electrode and reproducibility between different glass electrodes have been identified as the main contributors to the uncertainty of the values produced. Strategies to reduce the uncertainty of the measurement have been identified and tested. Both increasing the time after which the pHe measurement is made following immersion in the sample, and rinsing the glass electrode with ethanol prior to immersion in the sample, have been shown to be effective in reducing the uncertainty of the numerical value produced. However, it is acknowledged that the values produced using these modified approaches may not be directly compared with those obtained using the documentary ASTM method since pHe is defined operationally by the process used to measure it.

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Asymmetric Bilateral Gynecomastia: Suggestion of Desirable Surgical Method Based on a Single-Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Lee, Seung Geun; Byun, Geon Young; Kim, Myoung Jin; Koo, Bum Hwan

    2018-06-01

    Asymmetric bilateral gynecomastia (ABGM) is uncommon, and reports on its characteristics are rare. In the present study, we investigated the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of ABGM. We conducted a retrospective study of 1159 patients with gynecomastia who underwent subcutaneous mastectomy with liposuction at Damsoyu Hospital from January 2014 to February 2016. We then analyzed differences in the characteristics and operative results between two groups of patients: those with asymmetric and symmetric gynecomastia. Asymmetric gynecomastia was defined as gynecomastia meeting both of the following criteria: (1) upon physical examination, the size of the palpable mass below the nipple-areolar complex was twice as large as the smaller one, and (2) upon ultrasonography, the depth of the glandular tissue under the nipple-areolar complex was twice as large as the smaller one. Fifty-four patients were diagnosed with asymmetric gynecomastia. Among them, 51 had ABGM and three had unilateral gynecomastia. In the asymmetric group, more patients had a larger left than right breast (33 patients, 64.7%). The incidence of true-type (entirely glandular) breasts was significantly higher in the asymmetric group (84.3%) than in the symmetric group (p < 0.001). The asymmetry ratios in the asymmetric and symmetric groups were 1.87 ± 2.07 and 0.20 ± 0.16, respectively (p < 0.001). Bilateral mastectomy provided an acceptable and symmetric cosmetic outcome in patients with ABGM. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Monitoring of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography – case study and suggestion of method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Michoński

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topography (ST, systems designed for posture evaluation could potentially fill this void. A pilot study was conducted to test the potential of monitoring the change of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography. A single case was studied to test the methodology and preliminarily assess the usefulness of the procedure before performing a randomized trial. The apparatus used in this study was metrologically tested and utilized earlier in scoliosis screening. Case presentation The subject was measured using a custom-made structured light illumination scanner with accuracy of 0.2 mm. Measurement was taken every 2 weeks, between 17th and 37th week of pregnancy, 11 measurements in total. From the measurement the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and vertical balance angle were extracted automatically. Custom-written software was used for analysis. Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI was done with every measurement. The values were correctly extracted from the measurement. The results were: 50.9 ± 2.4° for kyphosis angle, 58.1 ± 2.1° for lordosis angle and 4.7 ± 1.7° for vertical balance angle. The registered change was 7.4° in kyphosis angle, 8.4° in lordosis angle and 5.5° in vertical balance angle. The calculated ODI values were between moderate disability and severe disability (22 to 58 %. Conclusions This case study presents that surface topography may be suitable for monitoring of spinal curvature

  9. Monitoring of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography - case study and suggestion of method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoński, Jakub; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Pakuła, Anna; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Sitnik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topography (ST), systems designed for posture evaluation could potentially fill this void. A pilot study was conducted to test the potential of monitoring the change of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography. A single case was studied to test the methodology and preliminarily assess the usefulness of the procedure before performing a randomized trial. The apparatus used in this study was metrologically tested and utilized earlier in scoliosis screening. The subject was measured using a custom-made structured light illumination scanner with accuracy of 0.2 mm. Measurement was taken every 2 weeks, between 17th and 37th week of pregnancy, 11 measurements in total. From the measurement the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and vertical balance angle were extracted automatically. Custom-written software was used for analysis. Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI) was done with every measurement. The values were correctly extracted from the measurement. The results were: 50.9 ± 2.4° for kyphosis angle, 58.1 ± 2.1° for lordosis angle and 4.7 ± 1.7° for vertical balance angle. The registered change was 7.4° in kyphosis angle, 8.4° in lordosis angle and 5.5° in vertical balance angle. The calculated ODI values were between moderate disability and severe disability (22 to 58 %). This case study presents that surface topography may be suitable for monitoring of spinal curvature and posture change in pregnant women. The ionizing radiation studies

  10. A novel method for assessing elbow pain resulting from epicondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorn, Bradley S.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a novel orthopedic test (Polk's test) which can assist the clinician in differentiating between me- dial and lateral epicondylitis, 2 of the most common causes of elbow pain. This test has not been previously described in the literature. Clinical Features The testing procedure described in this paper is easy to learn, simple to perform and may provide the clinician with a quick and effective method of differentiating between lateral and medial epicondylitis. The test also helps to elucidate normal activities of daily living that the patient may unknowingly be performing on a repetitive basis that are hindering recovery. The results of this simple test allow the clinician to make immediate lifestyle recommendations to the patient that should improve and hasten the response to subsequent treatment. It may be used in conjunction with other orthopedic testing procedures, as it correlates well with other clinical tests for assessing epicondylitis. Conclusion The use of Polk's Test may help the clinician to diagnostically differentiate between lateral and medial epicondylitis, as well as supply information relative to choosing proper instructions for the patient to follow as part of their treatment program. Further research, performed in an academic setting, should prove helpful in more thoroughly evaluating the merits of this test. In the meantime, clinical experience over the years suggests that the practicing physician should find a great deal of clinical utility in utilizing this simple, yet effective, diagnostic procedure. PMID:19674572

  11. The review and results of different methods for facial recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yifan

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, facial recognition draws much attention due to its wide potential applications. As a unique technology in Biometric Identification, facial recognition represents a significant improvement since it could be operated without cooperation of people under detection. Hence, facial recognition will be taken into defense system, medical detection, human behavior understanding, etc. Several theories and methods have been established to make progress in facial recognition: (1) A novel two-stage facial landmark localization method is proposed which has more accurate facial localization effect under specific database; (2) A statistical face frontalization method is proposed which outperforms state-of-the-art methods for face landmark localization; (3) It proposes a general facial landmark detection algorithm to handle images with severe occlusion and images with large head poses; (4) There are three methods proposed on Face Alignment including shape augmented regression method, pose-indexed based multi-view method and a learning based method via regressing local binary features. The aim of this paper is to analyze previous work of different aspects in facial recognition, focusing on concrete method and performance under various databases. In addition, some improvement measures and suggestions in potential applications will be put forward.

  12. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Enterprise Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Velychko, O; UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Scientific Institution UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Gordiyenko, T

    2015-01-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed

  13. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velychko, O.; Gordiyenko, T.

    2015-02-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed.

  14. EQUITY SHARES EQUATING THE RESULTS OF FCFF AND FCFE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Cegłowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present the method of establishing equity shares in weight average cost of capital (WACC, in which the value of loan capital results from the fixed assumptions accepted in the financial plan (for example a schedule of loan repayment and own equity is evaluated by means of a discount method. The described method causes that, regardless of whether cash flows are calculated as FCFF or FCFE, the result of the company valuation will be identical.

  15. Experimental data suggesting that inflammation mediated rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction results from secondary hypoxia rather than from direct effects of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid eWeidinger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response (SIR comprises direct effects of inflammatory mediators (IM and indirect effects, such as secondary circulatory failure which results in tissue hypoxia (HOX. These two key components, SIR and HOX, cause multiple organ failure (MOF. Since HOX and IM occur and interact simultaneously in vivo, it is difficult to clarify their individual pathological impact. To eliminate this interaction, precision cut liver slices (PCLS were used in this study aiming to dissect the effects of HOX and IM on mitochondrial function, integrity of cellular membrane and the expression of genes associated with inflammation. HOX was induced by incubating PCLS or rat liver mitochondria at pO2<1% followed by reoxygenation (HOX/ROX model. Inflammatory injury was stimulated by incubating PCLS with IM (IM model. We found upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression only in the IM model, while heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression was upregulated only in the HOX/ROX model. Elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6 was found in both models reflecting converging pathways regulating the expression of this gene. Both models caused damage to hepatocytes resulting in the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed only during the hypoxic phase in the HOX/ROX model. The reoxygenation phase of HOX, but not IM, drastically impaired mitochondrial electron supply via complex I and II. Additional experiments performed with isolated mitochondria showed that free iron, released during HOX, is likely a key prerequisite of mitochondrial dysfunction induced during the reoxygenation phase. Our data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, previously observed in in vivo SIR-models is the result of secondary circulatory failure inducing HOX rather than the result of a direct interaction of IM with liver cells.

  16. New method of scoliosis assessment: preliminary results using computerized photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroeira, Rozilene Maria Cota; Leal, Jefferson Soares; de Melo Pertence, Antônio Eustáquio

    2011-09-01

    A new method for nonradiographic evaluation of scoliosis was independently compared with the Cobb radiographic method, for the quantification of scoliotic curvature. To develop a protocol for computerized photogrammetry, as a nonradiographic method, for the quantification of scoliosis, and to mathematically relate this proposed method with the Cobb radiographic method. Repeated exposure to radiation of children can be harmful to their health. Nevertheless, no nonradiographic method until now proposed has gained popularity as a routine method for evaluation, mainly due to a low correspondence to the Cobb radiographic method. Patients undergoing standing posteroanterior full-length spine radiographs, who were willing to participate in this study, were submitted to dorsal digital photography in the orthostatic position with special surface markers over the spinous process, specifically the vertebrae C7 to L5. The radiographic and photographic images were sent separately for independent analysis to two examiners, trained in quantification of scoliosis for the types of images received. The scoliosis curvature angles obtained through computerized photogrammetry (the new method) were compared to those obtained through the Cobb radiographic method. Sixteen individuals were evaluated (14 female and 2 male). All presented idiopathic scoliosis, and were between 21.4 ± 6.1 years of age; 52.9 ± 5.8 kg in weight; 1.63 ± 0.05 m in height, with a body mass index of 19.8 ± 0.2. There was no statistically significant difference between the scoliosis angle measurements obtained in the comparative analysis of both methods, and a mathematical relationship was formulated between both methods. The preliminary results presented demonstrate equivalence between the two methods. More studies are needed to firmly assess the potential of this new method as a coadjuvant tool in the routine following of scoliosis treatment.

  17. Resource costing for multinational neurologic clinical trials: methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, K; Burke, J; Drummond, M; Davies, L; Carlsson, P; Gruger, J; Harris, A; Lucioni, C; Gisbert, R; Llana, T; Tom, E; Bloom, B; Willke, R; Glick, H

    1998-11-01

    We present the results of a multinational resource costing study for a prospective economic evaluation of a new medical technology for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage within a clinical trial. The study describes a framework for the collection and analysis of international resource cost data that can contribute to a consistent and accurate intercountry estimation of cost. Of the 15 countries that participated in the clinical trial, we collected cost information in the following seven: Australia, France, Germany, the UK, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. The collection of cost data in these countries was structured through the use of worksheets to provide accurate and efficient cost reporting. We converted total average costs to average variable costs and then aggregated the data to develop study unit costs. When unit costs were unavailable, we developed an index table, based on a market-basket approach, to estimate unit costs. To estimate the cost of a given procedure, the market-basket estimation process required that cost information be available for at least one country. When cost information was unavailable in all countries for a given procedure, we estimated costs using a method based on physician-work and practice-expense resource-based relative value units. Finally, we converted study unit costs to a common currency using purchasing power parity measures. Through this costing exercise we developed a set of unit costs for patient services and per diem hospital services. We conclude by discussing the implications of our costing exercise and suggest guidelines to facilitate more effective multinational costing exercises.

  18. Convergence results for a class of abstract continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Aizicovici

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We study continuous descent methods for the minimization of Lipschitzian functions defined on a general Banach space. We establish convergence theorems for those methods which are generated by approximate solutions to evolution equations governed by regular vector fields. Since the complement of the set of regular vector fields is $sigma$-porous, we conclude that our results apply to most vector fields in the sense of Baire's categories.

  19. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  20. Life cycle analysis of electricity systems: Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Marheineke, T.

    1996-01-01

    The two methods for full energy chain analysis, process analysis and input/output analysis, are discussed. A combination of these two methods provides the most accurate results. Such a hybrid analysis of the full energy chains of six different power plants is presented and discussed. The results of such analyses depend on time, site and technique of each process step and, therefore have no general validity. For renewable energy systems the emissions form the generation of a back-up system should be added. (author). 7 figs, 1 fig

  1. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  2. A Fuzzy Logic Based Method for Analysing Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xuan Vinh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Network operators must perform many tasks to ensure smooth operation of the network, such as planning, monitoring, etc. Among those tasks, regular testing of network performance, network errors and troubleshooting is very important. Meaningful test results will allow the operators to evaluate network performanceof any shortcomings and to better plan for network upgrade. Due to the diverse and mainly unquantifiable nature of network testing results, there is a needs to develop a method for systematically and rigorously analysing these results. In this paper, we present STAM (System Test-result Analysis Method which employs a bottom-up hierarchical processing approach using Fuzzy logic. STAM is capable of combining all test results into a quantitative description of the network performance in terms of network stability, the significance of various network erros, performance of each function blocks within the network. The validity of this method has been successfully demonstrated in assisting the testing of a VoIP system at the Research Instiute of Post and Telecoms in Vietnam. The paper is organized as follows. The first section gives an overview of fuzzy logic theory the concepts of which will be used in the development of STAM. The next section describes STAM. The last section, demonstrating STAM’s capability, presents a success story in which STAM is successfully applied.

  3. Evaluating rehabilitation methods - some practical results from Rum Jungle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.

    1987-01-01

    Research and analysis of the following aspects of rehabilitation have been conducted at the Rum Jungle mine site over the past three years: drainage structure stability; rock batter stability; soil fauna; tree growth in compacted soils; rehabilitation costs. The results show that, for future rehabilitation projects adopting refined methods, attention to final construction detail and biospheric influences is most important. The mine site offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the success of a variety of rehabilitation methods to the benefit of the industry in Australia overseas. It is intended that practical, economic, research will continue for some considerable time

  4. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Example results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described in the first part of this presentation: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. In this, the second and concluding part of the presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  5. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  6. Processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkovich, O.I.; Suleimanov, N.I.; Tokhtasjev, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed

  7. Method of vacuum correlation functions: Results and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalian, A. M.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2006-01-01

    Basic results obtained within the QCD method of vacuum correlation functions over the past 20 years in the context of investigations into strong-interaction physics at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) are formulated Emphasis is placed primarily on the prospects of the general theory developed within QCD by employing both nonperturbative and perturbative methods. On the basis of ab initio arguments, it is shown that the lowest two field correlation functions play a dominant role in QCD dynamics. A quantitative theory of confinement and deconfinement, as well as of the spectra of light and heavy quarkonia, glueballs, and hybrids, is given in terms of these two correlation functions. Perturbation theory in a nonperturbative vacuum (background perturbation theory) plays a significant role, not possessing drawbacks of conventional perturbation theory and leading to the infrared freezing of the coupling constant α s

  8. Application of NUREG-1150 methods and results to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Sype, T.; Camp, A.; Maloney, K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of NUREG-1150 and similar probabilistic risk assessments in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry risk management programs is discussed. Risk management is more comprehensive than the commonly used term accident management. Accident management includes strategies to prevent vessel breach, mitigate radionuclide releases from the reactor coolant system, and mitigate radionuclide releases to the environment. Risk management also addresses prevention of accident initiators, prevention of core damage, and implementation of effective emergency response procedures. The methods and results produced in NUREG-1150 provide a framework within which current risk management strategies can be evaluated, and future risk management programs can be developed and assessed. Examples of the use of the NUREG-1150 framework for identifying and evaluating risk management options are presented. All phases of risk management are discussed, with particular attention given to the early phases of accidents. Plans and methods for evaluating accident management strategies that have been identified in the NRC accident management program are discussed

  9. Application of NUREG-1150 methods and results to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Sype, T.; Camp, A.; Maloney, K.

    1990-01-01

    The use of NUREG-1150 and similar Probabilistic Risk Assessments in NRC and industry risk management programs is discussed. ''Risk management'' is more comprehensive than the commonly used term ''accident management.'' Accident management includes strategies to prevent vessel breach, mitigate radionuclide releases from the reactor coolant system, and mitigate radionuclide releases to the environment. Risk management also addresses prevention of accident initiators, prevention of core damage, and implementation of effective emergency response procedures. The methods and results produced in NUREG-1150 provide a framework within which current risk management strategies can be evaluated, and future risk management programs can be developed and assessed. Examples of the use of the NUREG-1150 framework for identifying and evaluating risk management options are presented. All phases of risk management are discussed, with particular attention given to the early phases of accidents. Plans and methods for evaluating accident management strategies that have been identified in the NRC accident management program are discussed. 2 refs., 3 figs

  10. Results of a multinational study suggest the need for rapid diagnosis and early antiviral treatment at the onset of herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya

    2015-01-01

    survived, with sequelae. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05), Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.93), and symptomatic periods of 2 to 7 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.79) and >7 days (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.15) until the commencement...... of treatment predicted unfavorable outcomes. The outcome in HME patients is related to a combination of therapeutic and host factors. This study suggests that rapid diagnosis and early administration of antiviral treatment in HME patients are keys to a favorable outcome....

  11. PALEOEARTHQUAKES IN THE PRIBAIKALIE: METHODS AND RESULTS OF DATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg P. Smekalin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Pribaikalie and adjacent territories, seismogeological studies have been underway for almost a half of the century and resulted in discovery of more than 70 dislocations of seismic or presumably seismic origin. With commencement of paleoseismic studies, dating of paleo-earthquakes was focused on as an indicator useful for long-term prediction of strong earthquakes. V.P. Solonenko [Solonenko, 1977] distinguished five methods for dating paleoseismogenic deformations, i.e. geological, engineering geological, historico-archeological, dendrochronological and radiocarbon methods. However, ages of the majority of seismic deformations, which were subject to studies at the initial stage of development of seismogeology in Siberia, were defined by methods of relative or correlation age determination.Since the 1980s, studies of seismogenic deformation in the Pribaikalie have been widely conducted with trenching. Mass sampling, followed with radiocarbon analyses and definition of absolute ages of paleo-earthquakes, provided new data on seismic regimes of the territory and rates of and recent displacements along active faults, and enhanced validity of methods of relative dating, in particular morphometry. Capacities of the morphometry method has significantly increased with introduction of laser techniques in surveys and digital processing of 3D relief models.Comprehensive seismogeological studies conducted in the Pribaikalie revealed 43 paleo-events within 16 seismogenic structures. Absolute ages of 18 paleo-events were defined by the radiocarbon age determination method. Judging by their ages, a number of dislocations were related with historical earthquakes which occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries, yet any reliable data on epicenters of such events are not available. The absolute and relative dating methods allowed us to identify sections in some paleoseismogenic structures by differences in ages of activation and thus provided new data for

  12. Performance of various mathematical methods for calculation of radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandel, P.; Vogt, W.

    1977-01-01

    Interpolation and regression methods are available for computer aided determination of radioimmunological end results. We compared the performance of eight algorithms (weighted and unweighted linear logit-log regression, quadratic logit-log regression, Rodbards logistic model in the weighted and unweighted form, smoothing spline interpolation with a large and small smoothing factor and polygonal interpolation) on the basis of three radioimmunoassays with different reference curve characteristics (digoxin, estriol, human chorionic somatomammotropin = HCS). Great store was set by the accuracy of the approximation at the intermediate points on the curve, ie. those points that lie midway between two standard concentrations. These concentrations were obtained by weighing and inserted as unknown samples. In the case of digoxin and estriol the polygonal interpolation provided the best results while the weighted logit-log regression proved superior in the case of HCS. (orig.) [de

  13. Loss of Niemann-Pick C1 or C2 protein results in similar biochemical changes suggesting that these proteins function in a common lysosomal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali S Dixit

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the endolysosomal system. NPC disease results from a defect in either of two distinct cholesterol-binding proteins: a transmembrane protein, NPC1, and a small soluble protein, NPC2. NPC1 and NPC2 are thought to function closely in the export of lysosomal cholesterol with both proteins binding cholesterol in vitro but they may have unrelated lysosomal roles. To investigate this possibility, we compared biochemical consequences of the loss of either protein. Analyses of lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from brain and liver revealed similar decreases in buoyant densities of lysosomes from NPC1 or NPC2 deficient mice compared to controls. The subcellular distribution of both proteins was similar and paralleled a lysosomal marker. In liver, absence of either NPC1 or NPC2 resulted in similar alterations in the carbohydrate processing of the lysosomal protease, tripeptidyl peptidase I. These results highlight biochemical alterations in the lysosomal system of the NPC-mutant mice that appear secondary to lipid storage. In addition, the similarity in biochemical phenotypes resulting from either NPC1 or NPC2 deficiency supports models in which the function of these two proteins within lysosomes are linked closely.

  14. [Suitable investigation method of exploration and suggestions for investigating Chinese materia medica resources from wetland and artificial water of Hongze Lake region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yan, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao; Liu, Xing-Jian; Ren, Quan-Jin; Li, Hui-Wei; Bao, Bei-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Hui

    2016-08-01

    According to the technology requirements of the fourth national survey of Chinese Materia Medica resources (pilot), suitable investigation method of exploration and suggestions for investigating Chinese Materia Medica resources was proposed based on the type of wetland and artificial water of Hongze Lake region. Environment of Hongze Lake and overview of wetland, present situation of ecology and vegetation and vegetation distribution were analyzed. Establishment of survey plan, selection of sample area and sample square and confirmation of representative water area survey plan were all suggested. The present study provide references for improving Chinese materia medica resources survey around Hongze Lake, and improving the technical specifications. It also provide references for investigating Chinese Materia Medica resources survey on similar ecological environment under the condition of artificial intervention. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Methodics of computing the results of monitoring the exploratory gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krúpa Víazoslav

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available At building site of motorway tunnel Višòové-Dubná skala , the priority is given to driving of exploration galley that secures in detail: geologic, engineering geology, hydrogeology and geotechnics research. This research is based on gathering information for a supposed use of the full profile driving machine that would drive the motorway tunnel. From a part of the exploration gallery which is driven by the TBM method, a fulfilling information is gathered about the parameters of the driving process , those are gathered by a computer monitoring system. The system is mounted on a driving machine. This monitoring system is based on the industrial computer PC 104. It records 4 basic values of the driving process: the electromotor performance of the driving machine Voest-Alpine ATB 35HA, the speed of driving advance, the rotation speed of the disintegrating head TBM and the total head pressure. The pressure force is evaluated from the pressure in the hydraulic cylinders of the machine. Out of these values, the strength of rock mass, the angle of inner friction, etc. are mathematically calculated. These values characterize rock mass properties as their changes. To define the effectivity of the driving process, the value of specific energy and the working ability of driving head is used. The article defines the methodics of computing the gathered monitoring information, that is prepared for the driving machine Voest – Alpine ATB 35H at the Institute of Geotechnics SAS. It describes the input forms (protocols of the developed method created by an EXCEL program and shows selected samples of the graphical elaboration of the first monitoring results obtained from exploratory gallery driving process in the Višòové – Dubná skala motorway tunnel.

  16. Radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone. Methods - Results - Indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonon-Estrangin, Chantal.

    1978-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone carried out at the hormonology Laboratory of the Grenoble University Hospital Centre (Professor E. Chambaz), to compare our results with those of the literature and to present the main clinical indications of this analysis. The measurement method has proved reproducible, specific (the steroid purification stage is unnecessary) and sensitive (detection: 10 picograms of progesterone per tube). In seven normally menstruating women our results agree with published values: (in nanograms per millilitre: ng/ml) 0.07 ng/ml to 0.9 ng/ml in the follicular phase, from the start of menstruation until ovulation, then rapid increase at ovulation with a maximum in the middle of the luteal phase (our values for this maximum range from 7.9 ng/ml to 21.7 ng/ml) and gradual drop in progesterone secretion until the next menstrual period. In gynecology the radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone is valuable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes: - to diagnosis the absence of corpus luteum, - to judge the effectiveness of an ovulation induction treatment [fr

  17. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  18. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  19. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  20. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  1. Results and current trends of nuclear methods used in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The significance is evaluated of nuclear methods for agricultural research. The number of breeds induced by radiation mutations is increasing. The main importance of radiation mutation breeding consists in obtaining sources of the desired genetic properties for further hybridization. Radiostimulation is conducted with the aim of increasing yields. The irradiation of foods has not substantially increased worldwide. Very important is the irradiation of excrements and sludges which after such inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms may be used as humus-forming manure or as feed additives. In some countries the method is successfully being used of sexual sterilization for eradication of insect pests. The application of labelled compounds in the nutrition, physiology and protection of plants, farm animals and in food hygiene makes it possible to acquire new and accurate knowledge very quickly. Radioimmunoassay is a highly promising method in this respect. Labelling compounds with the stable 15 N isotope is used for the research of nitrogen metabolism. (M.D.)

  2. The use of performance improvement methods to enhance emergency department patient satisfaction in the United States: a critical review of the literature and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Cruz, Brian L; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2006-07-01

    The authors reviewed the evidence on performance improvement methods for increasing emergency department (ED) patient satisfaction to provide evidence-based suggestions for clinical practice. Data sources consisted of searches through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, Cochrane Library, and Emergency Medicine Abstracts and a manual search of references. Articles were included if they reported a performance improvement intervention targeting patient satisfaction in the ED setting. Articles on studies not conducted in the United States or that failed to provide enough details to allow critical evaluation of the study were excluded. Two authors used structured evaluation criteria to independently review each retained study. Nineteen articles met all selection criteria. Three studies found varying levels of support for multicomponent interventions, predominantly focused on implementation of clinical practice guidelines for specific presenting complaints and process redesign. Sixteen studies evaluated single-component interventions, with the following having at least one supportive study: using alternating patient assignment to provider teams rather than "zone"-based assignment, enhancing provider communication and customer service skills, incorporating information delivery interventions (e.g., pamphlets, video) that target patient expectations, using preformatted charts, and establishing ED-based observation units for specific conditions such as asthma and chest pain. There is modest evidence supporting a range of performance improvement interventions for improving ED patient satisfaction. Further work is needed before specific, evidence-based recommendations can be made regarding which process changes are most effective. Recommendations are made for improving the quality of performance improvement efforts in the ED setting.

  3. Results from the Application of Uncertainty Methods in the CSNI Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, H.

    2008-01-01

    Within licensing procedures there is the incentive to replace the conservative requirements for code application by a - best estimate - concept supplemented by an uncertainty analysis to account for predictive uncertainties of code results. Methods have been developed to quantify these uncertainties. The Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS) Group, following a mandate from CSNI, has compared five methods for calculating the uncertainty in the predictions of advanced -best estimate- thermal-hydraulic codes. Most of the methods identify and combine input uncertainties. The major differences between the predictions of the methods came from the choice of uncertain parameters and the quantification of the input uncertainties, i.e. the wideness of the uncertainty ranges. Therefore, suitable experimental and analytical information has to be selected to specify these uncertainty ranges or distributions. After the closure of the Uncertainty Method Study (UMS) and after the report was issued comparison calculations of experiment LSTF-SB-CL-18 were performed by University of Pisa using different versions of the RELAP 5 code. It turned out that the version used by two of the participants calculated a 170 K higher peak clad temperature compared with other versions using the same input deck. This may contribute to the differences of the upper limit of the uncertainty ranges.

  4. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation to assess the effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired), ceramics. Objective is to obtain useful information on defects, cracking, delaminations, agglomerates, inclusions, regions of high porosity, and anisotropy

  5. Model films of cellulose. I. Method development and initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnars, S.; Wågberg, L.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new method for the preparation of thin cellulose films. NMMO (N- methylmorpholine- N-oxide) was used to dissolve cellulose and addition of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used to control viscosity of the cellulose solution. A thin layer of the cellulose solution is spin- coated

  6. Wide Binaries in TGAS: Search Method and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Chanamé, Julio; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2018-04-01

    Half of all stars reside in binary systems, many of which have orbital separations in excess of 1000 AU. Such binaries are typically identified in astrometric catalogs by matching the proper motions vectors of close stellar pairs. We present a fully Bayesian method that properly takes into account positions, proper motions, parallaxes, and their correlated uncertainties to identify widely separated stellar binaries. After applying our method to the >2 × 106 stars in the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution from Gaia DR1, we identify over 6000 candidate wide binaries. For those pairs with separations less than 40,000 AU, we determine the contamination rate to be ~5%. This sample has an orbital separation (a) distribution that is roughly flat in log space for separations less than ~5000 AU and follows a power law of a -1.6 at larger separations.

  7. Viscous wing theory development. Volume 1: Analysis, method and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R. R.; Melnik, R. E.; Marconi, F.; Steinhoff, J.

    1986-01-01

    Viscous transonic flows at large Reynolds numbers over 3-D wings were analyzed using a zonal viscid-inviscid interaction approach. A new numerical AFZ scheme was developed in conjunction with the finite volume formulation for the solution of the inviscid full-potential equation. A special far-field asymptotic boundary condition was developed and a second-order artificial viscosity included for an improved inviscid solution methodology. The integral method was used for the laminar/turbulent boundary layer and 3-D viscous wake calculation. The interaction calculation included the coupling conditions of the source flux due to the wing surface boundary layer, the flux jump due to the viscous wake, and the wake curvature effect. A method was also devised incorporating the 2-D trailing edge strong interaction solution for the normal pressure correction near the trailing edge region. A fully automated computer program was developed to perform the proposed method with one scalar version to be used on an IBM-3081 and two vectorized versions on Cray-1 and Cyber-205 computers.

  8. Algorithms for monitoring warfarin use: Results from Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Eunice Kazue; Borges, Jessica Bassani; Scomparini, Erika Burim; Curi, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Eliane

    2017-10-01

    Warfarin stands as the most prescribed oral anticoagulant. New oral anticoagulants have been approved recently; however, their use is limited and the reversibility techniques of the anticoagulation effect are little known. Thus, our study's purpose was to develop algorithms for therapeutic monitoring of patients taking warfarin based on the opinion of physicians who prescribe this medicine in their clinical practice. The development of the algorithm was performed in two stages, namely: (i) literature review and (ii) algorithm evaluation by physicians using a Delphi Method. Based on the articles analyzed, two algorithms were developed: "Recommendations for the use of warfarin in anticoagulation therapy" and "Recommendations for the use of warfarin in anticoagulation therapy: dose adjustment and bleeding control." Later, these algorithms were analyzed by 19 medical doctors that responded to the invitation and agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 16 responded to the first round, 11 to the second and eight to the third round. A 70% consensus or higher was reached for most issues and at least 50% for six questions. We were able to develop algorithms to monitor the use of warfarin by physicians using a Delphi Method. The proposed method is inexpensive and involves the participation of specialists, and it has proved adequate for the intended purpose. Further studies are needed to validate these algorithms, enabling them to be used in clinical practice.

  9. Further results for crack-edge mappings by ray methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, A.N.; Achenbach, J.D.; Ahlberg, L.; Tittman, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses further extensions of the local edge mapping method to the pulse-echo case and to configurations of water-immersed specimens and transducers. Crack edges are mapped by the use of arrival times of edge-diffracted signals. Topics considered include local edge mapping in a homogeneous medium, local edge mapping algorithms, local edge mapping through an interface, and edge mapping through an interface using synthetic data. Local edge mapping is iterative, with two or three iterations required for convergence

  10. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Kool, Lawrence B.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  11. The Accident Sequence Precursor program: Methods improvements and current results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minarick, J.W.; Manning, F.M.; Harris, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the US NRC Accident Sequence Precursor program methods since the initial program evaluations of 1969-81 operational events are described, along with insights from the review of 1984-85 events. For 1984-85, the number of significant precursors was consistent with the number observed in 1980-81, dominant sequences associated with significant events were reasonably consistent with PRA estimates for BWRs, but lacked the contribution due to small-break LOCAs previously observed and predicted in PWRs, and the frequency of initiating events and non-recoverable system failures exhibited some reduction compared to 1980-81. Operational events which provide information concerning additional PRA modeling needs are also described

  12. Use of results from microscopic methods in optical model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, C.

    1985-11-01

    A concept of vectorization for coupled-channel programs based upon conventional methods is first presented. This has been implanted in our program for its use on the CRAY-1 computer. In a second part we investigate the capabilities of a semi-microscopic optical model involving fewer adjustable parameters than phenomenological ones. The two main ingredients of our calculations are, for spherical or well-deformed nuclei, the microscopic optical-model calculations of Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux and nuclear densities from Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the density-dependent force D1. For transitional nuclei deformation-dependent nuclear structure wave functions are employed to weigh the scattering potentials for different shapes and channels [fr

  13. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    phantom in terms of Hounsfield unit and high-contrast resolution. For the validation of the lesion realism, lesions of various types were successfully inserted, including well circumscribed and invasive lesions, homogeneous and heterogeneous lesions, high-contrast and low-contrast lesions, isolated and vessel-attached lesions, and small and large lesions. The two experienced radiologists who reviewed the original and inserted lesions could not identify the lesions that were inserted. The same lesion, when inserted into the projection domain and reconstructed with different parameters, demonstrated a parameter-dependent appearance. A framework has been developed for projection-domain insertion of lesions into commercial CT images, which can be potentially expanded to all geometries of CT scanners. Compared to conventional image-domain methods, the authors' method reflected the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance. Compared to prior projection-domain methods, the authors' method has the potential to achieve higher anatomical complexity by employing clinical patient projections and real patient lesions.

  14. Assessment of South African uranium resources: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.; De Klerk, W.J.; Van der Merwe, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals primarily with the methods used by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, in arriving at the assessment of the South African uranium resources. The Resource Evaluation Group is responsible for this task, which is carried out on a continuous basis. The evaluation is done on a property-by-property basis and relies upon data submitted to the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa by the various companies involved in uranium mining and prospecting in South Africa. Resources are classified into Reasonably Assured (RAR), Estimated Additional (EAR) and Speculative (SR) categories as defined by the NEA/IAEA Steering Group on Uranium Resources. Each category is divided into three categories, viz, resources exploitable at less than $80/kg uranium, at $80-130/kg uranium and at $130-260/kg uranium. Resources are reported in quantities of uranium metal that could be recovered after mining and metallurgical losses have been taken into consideration. Resources in the RAR and EAR categories exploitable at costs of less than $130/kg uranium are now estimated at 460 000 t uranium which represents some 14 per cent of WOCA's (World Outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area) resources. The evaluation of a uranium venture is carried out in various steps, of which the most important, in order of implementation, are: geological interpretation, assessment of in situ resources using techniques varying from manual contouring of values, geostatistics, feasibility studies and estimation of recoverable resources. Because the choice of an evaluation method is, to some extent, dictated by statistical consderations, frequency distribution curves of the uranium grade variable are illustrated and discussed for characteristic deposits

  15. UV spectroscopy applied to stratospheric chemistry, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, K.

    1996-03-01

    The publication from the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) deals with an investigation done on stratospheric chemistry by UV spectroscopy. The scientific goals are briefly discussed, and it gives the results from the measuring and analysing techniques used in the investigation. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Creep in rock salt with temperature. Testing methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Berest, P.

    1985-01-01

    The growing interest shown in the delayed behaviour of rocks at elevated temperature has led the Solid Mechanics Laboratory to develop specific equipment designed for creep tests. The design and dimensioning of these units offer the possibility of investigating a wide range of materials. The article describes the test facilities used (uni-axial and tri-axial creep units) and presents the experimental results obtained on samples of Bresse salt [fr

  17. TMI-2 core debris analytical methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Cook, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    A series of six grab samples was taken from the debris bed of the TMI-2 core in early September 1983. Five of these samples were sent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for analysis. Presented is the analysis strategy for the samples and some of the data obtained from the early stages of examination of the samples (i.e., particle size-analysis, gamma spectrometry results, and fissile/fertile material analysis)

  18. Studies of LMFBR: method of analysis and some results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do.

    1983-01-01

    Some results of recent studies of LMFBR characteristics are summarized. A two-dimensional model of the LMFBR is taken from a publication and used as the base model for the analysis. Axial structures are added to the base model and a three-dimensional (Δ - Z) calculation has been done. Two dimensional (Δ and RZ) calculations are compared with the three-dimensional and published results. The eigenvalue, flux and power distributions, breeding characteristics, control rod worth, sodium-void and Doppler reactivities are analysed. Calculations are done by CITATION using six-group cross sections collapsed regionwise by EXPANDA in one-dimensional geometries from the 70-group JFS library. Burnup calculations of a simplified thorium-cycle LMFBR have also been done in the RZ geometry. Principal results of the studies are: (1) the JFS library appears adequate for predicting overall characteristics of an LMFBR, (2) the sodium void reactivity is negative within - 25 cm from the outer boundary of the core, (3) the halflife of Pa-233 must be considered explicitly in burnup analyses, and (4) two-dimensional (RZ and Δ) calculations can be used iteratively to analyze three-dimensional reactor systems. (Author) [pt

  19. Methods and results of radiotherapy in case of medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, M.; Sauerwein, W.; Scherer, E.

    1982-01-01

    The prognosis of the medulloblastoma with its marked tendency towards early formation of metastases by way of liquor circulation can be decisively improved by post-surgical homogenous irradiation. A successful radiotherapy is only possible by means of new irradiation methods which have been developed for high-voltage units during recent years and which require great experience and skill on the part of the radiotherapeutist. At the Radiological Centre of Essen, 26 patients with medulloblastoma have been submitted to such a specially developed post-surgical radiotherapy since 1974. After a follow-up period of at most seven years, 16 patients have survived (two of them with recurrences) and 10 patients died because of a local recurrence. In dependence on the patient's state of health after surgery and before irradiation, the neurologic state and physical condition of these patients seem favorable after unique post-operative radiotherapy. New therapeutic possibilities are provided by radiosensitizing substances. The actually most effective radiosensitizer Misonidazol, however, could not respond hitherto to clinical expectances. (orig.) [de

  20. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, unclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography was assessed for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired) ceramics. The application of microradiography to ceramics is reviewed, and preliminary experiments with a commercial microradiography unit are described. Conventional ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply to flaw detection green ceramics because of the high attenuation, fragility, and couplant-absorbing properties of these materials. However, velocity, attenuation, and spectral data were obtained with pressure-coupled transducers and provided useful informaion related to density variations and the presence of agglomerates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques and neutron radiography were considered for detection of anomalies in the distribution of porosity. With NMR, areas of high porosity might be detected after the samples are doped with water. In the case of neutron radiography, although imaging the binder distribution throughout the sample may not be feasible because of the low overall concentration of binder, regions of high binder concentration (thus high porosity) should be detectable

  1. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  2. New test methods for BIPV. Results from IP performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jol, J.C.; Van Kampen, B.J.M.; De Boer, B.J.; Reil, F.; Geyer, D.

    2009-11-01

    Within the Performance project new test procedures for PV building products and the building performance as a whole when PV is applied in buildings have been drafted. It has resulted in a first draft of new test procedures for PV building products and proposals for tests for novel BIPV technology like thin film. The test proposed are a module breakage test for BIPV products, a fire safety test for BIPV products and a dynamic load test for BIPV products. Furthermore first proposals of how flexible PV modules could be tested in an appropriate way to ensure long time quality and safety of these new products are presented.

  3. Diamagnetic measurements on ISX-B: method and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.

    1983-10-01

    A diamagnetic loop is used on the ISX-B tokamak to measure the change in toroidal magnetic flux, sigma phi, caused by finite plasma current and perpendicular pressure. From this measurement, the perpendicular poloidal beta β/sub I perpendicular to/ is determined. The principal difficulty encountered is in identifying and making corrections for various noise components which appear in the measured flux. These result from coupling between the measuring loops and the toroidal and poloidal field windings, both directly and through currents induced in the vacuum vessel and coils themselves. An analysis of these couplings is made and techniques for correcting them developed. Results from the diamagnetic measurement, employing some of these correction techniques, are presented and compared with other data. The obtained values of β/sub I perpendicular to/ agree with those obtained from the equilibrium magnetic analysis (β/sub IΔ/) in ohmically heated plasmas, indicating no anisotropy. However, with 0.3 to 2.0 MW of tangential neutral beam injection, β/sub IΔ/ is consistently greater than β/sub I pependicular to/ and qualitatively consistent with the formation of an anisotropic ion velocity distribution and with toroidal rotation. Quantitatively, the difference between β/sub IΔ/ and β/sub I perpendicular to/ is more than can be accounted for on the basis of the usual classical fast ion calculations and spectroscopic rotation measurements

  4. [Integrated intensive treatment of tinnitus: method and initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, B; Georgiewa, P; Seydel, C; Haupt, H; Scherer, H; Klapp, B F; Reisshauer, A

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, no major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of tinnitus. Hence, the present therapeutic strategies aim at decoupling the subconscious from the perception of tinnitus. Mindful of the lessons drawn from existing tinnitus retraining and desensitisation therapies, a new integrated day hospital strategy of treatment lasting 7-14 days has been developed at the Charité Hospital and is presented in the present paper. The strategy for treating tinnitus in the proximity of patient domicile is designed for patients who feel disturbed in their world of perception and their efficiency due to tinnitus and give evidence of mental and physical strain. In view of the etiologically non-uniform and multiple events connected with tinnitus, consideration was also given to the fact that somatic and psychosocial factors are equally involved. Therefore, therapy should aim at diagnosing and therapeutically influencing those psychosocial factors that reduce the hearing impression to such an extent that the affected persons suffer from strain. The first results of therapy-dependent changes of 46 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus are presented. The data were evaluated before and after 7 days of treatment and 6 months after the end of treatment. Immediately after the treatment, the scores of both the tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller) and the subscales improved significantly. These results were maintained during the 6-month post-treatment period and even improved.

  5. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  6. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  7. Ilmenite exploration on the Senegal continental shelf. Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, R.; Le Lann, F.; Scolari, G.; Tixeront, M.

    1975-01-01

    From the results of a study based on geomorphology, geophysics and sedimentology, it has been possible to point out, South of Dakar, the existence of a fossil lagoon (peat dated 8400 years BP) partly isolated from the open sea by a littoral sand bar at -25m and strongly eroded. To the North of Dakar, the unconsolidated sediments, with a thickness over 40m, are thinning out seawards and from North of Dakar, the unconsolidated sediments, with a thickness over 40m, are thinning out seawards and from North to South. This pattern reflect the action of the longshore current which overstates the drainage effect to the Cayar canyon. The distribution of ilmenites in the sediments is studied in terms of a possible exploitation however, the grades are too low in the present economic conditions [fr

  8. Climate Action Gaming Experiment: Methods and Example Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Singer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An exercise has been prepared and executed to simulate international interactions on policies related to greenhouse gases and global albedo management. Simulation participants are each assigned one of six regions that together contain all of the countries in the world. Participants make quinquennial policy decisions on greenhouse gas emissions, recapture of CO2 from the atmosphere, and/or modification of the global albedo. Costs of climate change and of implementing policy decisions impact each region’s gross domestic product. Participants are tasked with maximizing economic benefits to their region while nearly stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by the end of the simulation in Julian year 2195. Results are shown where regions most adversely affected by effects of greenhouse gas emissions resort to increases in the earth’s albedo to reduce net solar insolation. These actions induce temperate region countries to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. An example outcome is a trajectory to the year 2195 of atmospheric greenhouse emissions and concentrations, sea level, and global average temperature.

  9. Results of an interlaboratory comparison of analytical methods for contaminants of emerging concern in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderford, Brett J; Drewes, Jörg E; Eaton, Andrew; Guo, Yingbo C; Haghani, Ali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Schluesener, Michael P; Snyder, Shane A; Ternes, Thomas; Wood, Curtis J

    2014-01-07

    An evaluation of existing analytical methods used to measure contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) was performed through an interlaboratory comparison involving 25 research and commercial laboratories. In total, 52 methods were used in the single-blind study to determine method accuracy and comparability for 22 target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and steroid hormones, all at ng/L levels in surface and drinking water. Method biases ranged from caffeine, NP, OP, and triclosan had false positive rates >15%. In addition, some methods reported false positives for 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol in unspiked drinking water and deionized water, respectively, at levels higher than published predicted no-effect concentrations for these compounds in the environment. False negative rates were also generally contamination, misinterpretation of background interferences, and/or inappropriate setting of detection/quantification levels for analysis at low ng/L levels. The results of both comparisons were collectively assessed to identify parameters that resulted in the best overall method performance. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with the calibration technique of isotope dilution were able to accurately quantify most compounds with an average bias of <10% for both matrixes. These findings suggest that this method of analysis is suitable at environmentally relevant levels for most of the compounds studied. This work underscores the need for robust, standardized analytical methods for CECs to improve data quality, increase comparability between studies, and help reduce false positive and false negative rates.

  10. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H 2 gas fraction (f H 2 ), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A O = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f H 2 can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A O -D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A O is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H 2 and stellar masses and higher f H 2 . Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z

  11. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}}), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A {sub O} = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f{sub H{sub 2}} can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A {sub O}-D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A {sub O} is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H{sub 2} and stellar masses and higher f{sub H{sub 2}}. Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z.

  12. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  13. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  14. Results based on 124 cases of breast cancer and 97 controls from Taiwan suggest that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP309) in the MDM2 gene promoter is associated with earlier onset and increased risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ying-Fang; Leu, Jyh-Der; Chen, Su-Mei; Lin, I-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism 309 (SNP309, T -> G) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene is important for tumor development; however, with regards to breast cancer, inconsistent associations have been reported worldwide. It is speculated that these conflicting results may have arisen due to different patient subgroups and ethnicities studied. For the first time, this study explores the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 genotype on Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Genomic DNA was obtained from the whole blood of 124 breast cancer patients and 97 cancer-free healthy women living in Taiwan. MDM2 SNP309 genotyping was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The multivariate logistic regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analyzing the risk association and significance of age at diagnosis among different MDM2 SNP309 genotypes, respectively. Compared to the TT genotype, an increased risk association with breast cancer was apparent for the GG genotype (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.04 to 8.95), and for the TG genotype (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 0.90 to 5.00) after adjusting for age, cardiovascular disease/diabetes, oral contraceptive usage, and body mass index, which exhibits significant difference between cases and controls. Furthermore, the average ages at diagnosis for breast cancer patients were 53.6, 52 and 47 years for those harboring TT, TG and GG genotypes, respectively. A significant difference in median age of onset for breast cancer between GG and TT+TG genotypes was obtained by the log-rank test (p = 0.0067). Findings based on the current sample size suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype may be associated with both the risk of breast cancer and an earlier age of onset in Taiwanese women

  15. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  16. Suggested data-gathering methods for the assessment of attitudes of Nevada citizens toward location of a repository at Yucca Mountain: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline a variety of methods that could be used by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project to assess the attitudes of Nevada citizens toward the location of a repository at Yucca Mountain. The paper is divided into three chapters: Chapter 1 provides a background discussion; Chapter 2 discusses different social science methods and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each; and Chapter 3 outlines a conceptual approach to integrating several methods into one overall strategy for assessment. An assessment of the attitudes of persons who may be affected by repository activities will (1) enhance the NNWSI Project's ability to conduct the social impact assessment that can be included in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); (2) provide an information base for understanding and anticipating public responses; (3) allow the NNWSI Project to scope and prioritize issues that arise in the public debate that may occur over the repository location; and (4) help to facilitate communication and cooperation between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and state and local entities in the process of conducting the study. 114 refs., 1 tab

  17. Suggested data-gathering methods for the assessment of attitudes of Nevada citizens toward location of a repository at Yucca Mountain: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J A

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline a variety of methods that could be used by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project to assess the attitudes of Nevada citizens toward the location of a repository at Yucca Mountain. The paper is divided into three chapters: Chapter 1 provides a background discussion; Chapter 2 discusses different social science methods and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each; and Chapter 3 outlines a conceptual approach to integrating several methods into one overall strategy for assessment. An assessment of the attitudes of persons who may be affected by repository activities will (1) enhance the NNWSI Project`s ability to conduct the social impact assessment that can be included in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); (2) provide an information base for understanding and anticipating public responses; (3) allow the NNWSI Project to scope and prioritize issues that arise in the public debate that may occur over the repository location; and (4) help to facilitate communication and cooperation between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and state and local entities in the process of conducting the study. 114 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Multiband discrete ordinates method: formalism and results; Methode multibande aux ordonnees discretes: formalisme et resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luneville, L

    1998-06-01

    The multigroup discrete ordinates method is a classical way to solve transport equation (Boltzmann) for neutral particles. Self-shielding effects are not correctly treated due to large variations of cross sections in a group (in the resonance range). To treat the resonance domain, the multiband method is introduced. The main idea is to divide the cross section domain into bands. We obtain the multiband parameters using the moment method; the code CALENDF provides probability tables for these parameters. We present our implementation in an existing discrete ordinates code: SN1D. We study deep penetration benchmarks and show the improvement of the method in the treatment of self-shielding effects. (author) 15 refs.

  19. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  20. Interval estimation methods of the mean in small sample situation and the results' comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changli; Guo Chunying; Jiang Meng; Lin Yuangen

    2009-01-01

    The methods of the sample mean's interval estimation, namely the classical method, the Bootstrap method, the Bayesian Bootstrap method, the Jackknife method and the spread method of the Empirical Characteristic distribution function are described. Numerical calculation on the samples' mean intervals is carried out where the numbers of the samples are 4, 5, 6 respectively. The results indicate the Bootstrap method and the Bayesian Bootstrap method are much more appropriate than others in small sample situation. (authors)

  1. Learning semantic query suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Bron, M.; Hollink, L.; Huurnink, B.; de Rijke, M.

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide

  2. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 μg/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 μg per person (< 0.1 μg/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population

  3. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  4. Evolution of different reaction methods resulting in the formation of AgI125 for use in brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.D.; Peleias Jr, F.S.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Zeituni, C.A.; Benega, M.A.G.; Tiezzi, R.; Mattos, F.R.; Rodrigues, B.T.; Oliveira, T.B.; Feher, A.; Moura, J.A.; Costa, O.L.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents about 10% of all cases of cancer in the world. Brachytherapy has been extensively used in the early and intermediate stages of the illness. The radiotherapy method reduces the damage probability to surrounding healthy tissues. The present study compares several deposition methods of iodine-125 on silver substrate (seed core), in order to choose the most suitable one to be implemented at IPEN. Four methods were selected: method 1 (assay based on electrodeposition) which presented efficiency of 65.16%; method 2 (assay based on chemical reactions, developed by David Kubiatowicz) which presented efficiency of 70.80%; method 3 (chemical reaction based on the methodology developed by Dr. Maria Elisa Rostelato) which presented efficiency of 55.80%; new method developed by IPEN with 90.5% efficiency. Based on the results, the new method is the suggested one to be implemented. (authors)

  5. Steady-state transport equation resolution by particle methods, and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-10-01

    A method to solve steady-state transport equation has been given. Principles of the method are given. The method is studied in two different cases; estimations given by the theory are compared to numerical results. Results got in 1-D (spherical geometry) and in 2-D (axisymmetric geometry) are given [fr

  6. The Use of Data Mining Methods to Predict the Result of Infertility Treatment Using the IVF ET Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The IVF ET method is a scientifically recognized infertility treat- ment method. The problem, however, is this method’s unsatisfactory efficiency. This calls for a more thorough analysis of the information available in the treat- ment process, in order to detect the factors that have an effect on the results, as well as to effectively predict result of treatment. Classical statistical methods have proven to be inadequate in this issue. Only the use of modern methods of data mining gives hope for a more effective analysis of the collected data. This work provides an overview of the new methods used for the analysis of data on infertility treatment, and formulates a proposal for further directions for research into increasing the efficiency of the predicted result of the treatment process.

  7. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  8. Enhancing activated-peroxide formulations for porous materials: Test methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tucker, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tezak, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boucher, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-12-01

    During an urban wide-area incident involving the release of a biological warfare agent, the recovery/restoration effort will require extensive resources and will tax the current capabilities of the government and private contractors. In fact, resources may be so limited that decontamination by facility owners/occupants may become necessary and a simple decontamination process and material should be available for this use. One potential process for use by facility owners/occupants would be a liquid sporicidal decontaminant, such as pHamended bleach or activated-peroxide, and simple application devices. While pH-amended bleach is currently the recommended low-tech decontamination solution, a less corrosive and toxic decontaminant is desirable. The objective of this project is to provide an operational assessment of an alternative to chlorine bleach for low-tech decontamination applications activated hydrogen peroxide. This report provides the methods and results for activatedperoxide evaluation experiments. The results suggest that the efficacy of an activated-peroxide decontaminant is similar to pH-amended bleach on many common materials.

  9. Dosimetry methods and results for the former residents of Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    The US Government utilized Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands of Micronesia for atomspheric tests of nuclear explosives in the 1940's and 1950's. The original inhabitants of these atolls were relocated prior to the tests. During the early 1970's, a small but growing population of Marshallese people reinhabited Bikini. Environmental and personnel radiological monitoring programs were begun in 1974 to ensure that doses and dose commitments received by Bikini residents remained within US Federal Radiation Council guidelines. Dramatic increases in 137 Cs body burdens among the inhabitants between April 1977 and 1978 may have played a significant role in the government decision to move the 140 Bikinians in residence off of the atoll in August 1978. The average 137 Cs body burden for the population was 2.3 μCi in April 1978. Several individuals, however, exceeded the maximum permissible body burden of 3 μCi, and some approached 6 μCi. The resultant total dose commitment was less than 200 mrem for the average resident. The average total dose for the mean residence interval of approx. 4.5 years was about 1 rem. The sources of exposure, the probable cause of the unexpected increase in 137 Cs body burdens, and the methods for calculating radionuclide intake and resultant doses are discussed. Suggestions are offered as to the implications of the most significant exposure pathways for the future inhabitation of Bikini and Enewetak

  10. Comparison results on preconditioned SOR-type iterative method for Z-matrices linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Zhong; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Fu, Ying-Ding

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present some comparison theorems on preconditioned iterative method for solving Z-matrices linear systems, Comparison results show that the rate of convergence of the Gauss-Seidel-type method is faster than the rate of convergence of the SOR-type iterative method.

  11. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.

  12. Comparison of multiple-criteria decision-making methods - results of simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Adamczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, both researchers and practitioners have many methods for supporting the decision-making process. Due to the conditions in which supply chains function, the most interesting are multi-criteria methods. The use of sophisticated methods for supporting decisions requires the parameterization and execution of calculations that are often complex. So is it efficient to use sophisticated methods? Methods: The authors of the publication compared two popular multi-criteria decision-making methods: the  Weighted Sum Model (WSM and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. A simulation study reflects these two decision-making methods. Input data for this study was a set of criteria weights and the value of each in terms of each criterion. Results: The iGrafx Process for Six Sigma simulation software recreated how both multiple-criteria decision-making methods (WSM and AHP function. The result of the simulation was a numerical value defining the preference of each of the alternatives according to the WSM and AHP methods. The alternative producing a result of higher numerical value  was considered preferred, according to the selected method. In the analysis of the results, the relationship between the values of the parameters and the difference in the results presented by both methods was investigated. Statistical methods, including hypothesis testing, were used for this purpose. Conclusions: The simulation study findings prove that the results obtained with the use of two multiple-criteria decision-making methods are very similar. Differences occurred more frequently in lower-value parameters from the "value of each alternative" group and higher-value parameters from the "weight of criteria" group.

  13. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  14. Conformational changes in Sindbis virions resulting from exposure to low pH and interactions with cells suggest that cell penetration may occur at the cell surface in the absence of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Angel M.; Ferreira, Davis; Horton, Michelle; Saad, Ali; Tsuruta, Hiro; Johnston, Robert; Klimstra, William; Ryman, Kate; Hernandez, Raquel; Chiu Wah; Brown, Dennis T.

    2004-01-01

    Alphaviruses have the ability to induce cell-cell fusion after exposure to acid pH. This observation has served as an article of proof that these membrane-containing viruses infect cells by fusion of the virus membrane with a host cell membrane upon exposure to acid pH after incorporation into a cell endosome. We have investigated the requirements for the induction of virus-mediated, low pH-induced cell-cell fusion and cell-virus fusion. We have correlated the pH requirements for this process to structural changes they produce in the virus by electron cryo-microscopy. We found that exposure to acid pH was required to establish conditions for membrane fusion but that membrane fusion did not occur until return to neutral pH. Electron cryo-microscopy revealed dramatic changes in the structure of the virion as it was moved to acid pH and then returned to neutral pH. None of these treatments resulted in the disassembly of the virus protein icosahedral shell that is a requisite for the process of virus membrane-cell membrane fusion. The appearance of a prominent protruding structure upon exposure to acid pH and its disappearance upon return to neutral pH suggested that the production of a 'pore'-like structure at the fivefold axis may facilitate cell penetration as has been proposed for polio (J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1342) and human rhino virus (Mol. Cell 10 (2002) 317). This transient structural change also provided an explanation for how membrane fusion occurs after return to neutral pH. Examination of virus-cell complexes at neutral pH supported the contention that infection occurs at the cell surface at neutral pH by the production of a virus structure that breaches the plasma membrane bilayer. These data suggest an alternative route of infection for Sindbis virus that occurs by a process that does not involve membrane fusion and does not require disassembly of the virus protein shell

  15. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  16. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  17. Tensile strength of concrete under static and intermediate strain rates: Correlated results from different testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengxing; Chen Xudong; Zhou Jikai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tensile strength of concrete increases with increase in strain rate. ► Strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength of concrete depends on test method. ► High stressed volume method can correlate results from various test methods. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparative experiment and analysis of three different methods (direct tension, splitting tension and four-point loading flexural tests) for determination of the tensile strength of concrete under low and intermediate strain rates. In addition, the objective of this investigation is to analyze the suitability of the high stressed volume approach and Weibull effective volume method to the correlation of the results of different tensile tests of concrete. The test results show that the strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength depends on the type of test, splitting tensile strength of concrete is more sensitive to an increase in the strain rate than flexural and direct tensile strength. The high stressed volume method could be used to obtain a tensile strength value of concrete, free from the influence of the characteristics of tests and specimens. However, the Weibull effective volume method is an inadequate method for describing failure of concrete specimens determined by different testing methods.

  18. Non-Destructive Evaluation Method Based On Dynamic Invariant Stress Resultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Junchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the vibration based damage detection methods are based on changes in frequencies, mode shapes, mode shape curvature, and flexibilities. These methods are limited and typically can only detect the presence and location of damage. Current methods seldom can identify the exact severity of damage to structures. This paper will present research in the development of a new non-destructive evaluation method to identify the existence, location, and severity of damage for structural systems. The method utilizes the concept of invariant stress resultants (ISR. The basic concept of ISR is that at any given cross section the resultant internal force distribution in a structural member is not affected by the inflicted damage. The method utilizes dynamic analysis of the structure to simulate direct measurements of acceleration, velocity and displacement simultaneously. The proposed dynamic ISR method is developed and utilized to detect the damage of corresponding changes in mass, damping and stiffness. The objectives of this research are to develop the basic theory of the dynamic ISR method, apply it to the specific types of structures, and verify the accuracy of the developed theory. Numerical results that demonstrate the application of the method will reflect the advanced sensitivity and accuracy in characterizing multiple damage locations.

  19. Monitoring ambient ozone with a passive measurement technique method, field results and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, BA; Adema, EH

    1996-01-01

    A low-cost, accurate and sensitive passive measurement method for ozone has been developed and tested. The method is based on the reaction of ozone with indigo carmine which results in colourless reaction products which are detected spectrophotometrically after exposure. Coated glass filters are

  20. Nondestructive methods for the structural evaluation of wood floor systems in historic buildings : preliminary results : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael O. Hunt; Robert J. Ross; Lawrence A. Soltis

    1999-01-01

    To date, there is no standard method for evaluating the structural integrity of wood floor systems using nondestructive techniques. Current methods of examination and assessment are often subjective and therefore tend to yield imprecise or variable results. For this reason, estimates of allowable wood floor loads are often conservative. The assignment of conservatively...

  1. Comparison Of Simulation Results When Using Two Different Methods For Mold Creation In Moldflow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushikbhai C. Parmar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulation gives different results when using different methods for the same simulation. Autodesk Moldflow Simulation software provide two different facilities for creating mold for the simulation of injection molding process. Mold can be created inside the Moldflow or it can be imported as CAD file. The aim of this paper is to study the difference in the simulation results like mold temperature part temperature deflection in different direction time for the simulation and coolant temperature for this two different methods.

  2. Experimental Results and Numerical Simulation of the Target RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanmi Helmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Radar Cross Section (RCS of radar targets using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS method. The purpose GBS method has several advantages over ray method, mainly on the caustic problem. To evaluate the performance of the chosen method, we started the analysis of the RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS and Gaussian Beam Launching (GBL, the asymptotic models Physical Optic (PO, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD and the rigorous Method of Moment (MoM. Then, we showed the experimental validation of the numerical results using experimental measurements which have been executed in the anechoic chamber of Lab-STICC at ENSTA Bretagne. The numerical and experimental results of the RCS are studied and given as a function of various parameters: polarization type, target size, Gaussian beams number and Gaussian beams width.

  3. SPACE CHARGE SIMULATION METHODS INCORPORATED IN SOME MULTI - PARTICLE TRACKING CODES AND THEIR RESULTS COMPARISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE - WANG, J.; LUCCIO, A.U.; D IMPERIO, N.; MACHIDA, S.

    2002-01-01

    Space charge in high intensity beams is an important issue in accelerator physics. Due to the complicity of the problems, the most effective way of investigating its effect is by computer simulations. In the resent years, many space charge simulation methods have been developed and incorporated in various 2D or 3D multi-particle-tracking codes. It has becoming necessary to benchmark these methods against each other, and against experimental results. As a part of global effort, we present our initial comparison of the space charge methods incorporated in simulation codes ORBIT++, ORBIT and SIMPSONS. In this paper, the methods included in these codes are overviewed. The simulation results are presented and compared. Finally, from this study, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed

  4. Application of the DSA preconditioned GMRES formalism to the method of characteristics - First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Hebert, A.

    2004-01-01

    The method of characteristics is well known for its slow convergence; consequently, as it is often done for SN methods, the Generalized Minimal Residual approach (GMRES) has been investigated for its practical implementation and its high reliability. GMRES is one of the most effective Krylov iterative methods to solve large linear systems. Moreover, the system has been 'left preconditioned' with the Algebraic Collapsing Acceleration (ACA) a variant of the Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) based on I. Suslov's former works. This paper presents the first numerical results of these methods in 2D geometries with material discontinuities. Indeed, previous investigations have shown a degraded effectiveness of Diffusion Synthetic Accelerations with this kind of geometries. Results are presented for 9 x 9 Cartesian assemblies in terms of the speed of convergence of the inner iterations (fixed source) of the method of characteristics. It shows a significant improvement on the convergence rate. (authors)

  5. SPACE CHARGE SIMULATION METHODS INCORPORATED IN SOME MULTI - PARTICLE TRACKING CODES AND THEIR RESULTS COMPARISON.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE - WANG,J.; LUCCIO,A.U.; D IMPERIO,N.; MACHIDA,S.

    2002-06-03

    Space charge in high intensity beams is an important issue in accelerator physics. Due to the complicity of the problems, the most effective way of investigating its effect is by computer simulations. In the resent years, many space charge simulation methods have been developed and incorporated in various 2D or 3D multi-particle-tracking codes. It has becoming necessary to benchmark these methods against each other, and against experimental results. As a part of global effort, we present our initial comparison of the space charge methods incorporated in simulation codes ORBIT++, ORBIT and SIMPSONS. In this paper, the methods included in these codes are overviewed. The simulation results are presented and compared. Finally, from this study, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  6. A result-driven minimum blocking method for PageRank parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wan; Liu, Tao; Yu, Wei; Huang, Gan

    2017-01-01

    Matrix blocking is a common method for improving computational efficiency of PageRank, but the blocking rules are hard to be determined, and the following calculation is complicated. In tackling these problems, we propose a minimum blocking method driven by result needs to accomplish a parallel implementation of PageRank algorithm. The minimum blocking just stores the element which is necessary for the result matrix. In return, the following calculation becomes simple and the consumption of the I/O transmission is cut down. We do experiments on several matrixes of different data size and different sparsity degree. The results show that the proposed method has better computational efficiency than traditional blocking methods.

  7. A Pragmatic Smoothing Method for Improving the Quality of the Results in Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennun, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    A new smoothing method for the improvement on the identification and quantification of spectral functions based on the previous knowledge of the signals that are expected to be quantified, is presented. These signals are used as weighted coefficients in the smoothing algorithm. This smoothing method was conceived to be applied in atomic and nuclear spectroscopies preferably to these techniques where net counts are proportional to acquisition time, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and other X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic methods, etc. This algorithm, when properly applied, does not distort the form nor the intensity of the signal, so it is well suited for all kind of spectroscopic techniques. This method is extremely effective at reducing high-frequency noise in the signal much more efficient than a single rectangular smooth of the same width. As all of smoothing techniques, the proposed method improves the precision of the results, but in this case we found also a systematic improvement on the accuracy of the results. We still have to evaluate the improvement on the quality of the results when this method is applied over real experimental results. We expect better characterization of the net area quantification of the peaks, and smaller Detection and Quantification Limits. We have applied this method to signals that obey Poisson statistics, but with the same ideas and criteria, it could be applied to time series. In a general case, when this algorithm is applied over experimental results, also it would be required that the sought characteristic functions, required for this weighted smoothing method, should be obtained from a system with strong stability. If the sought signals are not perfectly clean, this method should be carefully applied

  8. Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce

    As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate…

  9. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nd Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2nd Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania))" >Anton, Alin; th Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24th Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania))" >Muntean, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit ® [1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms

  10. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Alin [Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2" n" d Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania); Muntean, Sebastian [Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24" t" h Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania)

    2015-12-31

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit{sup ®}[1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms.

  11. Soil Particle Size Analysis by Laser Diffractometry: Result Comparison with Pipette Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šinkovičová, Miroslava; Igaz, Dušan; Kondrlová, Elena; Jarošová, Miriam

    2017-10-01

    Soil texture as the basic soil physical property provides a basic information on the soil grain size distribution as well as grain size fraction representation. Currently, there are several methods of particle dimension measurement available that are based on different physical principles. Pipette method based on the different sedimentation velocity of particles with different diameter is considered to be one of the standard methods of individual grain size fraction distribution determination. Following the technical advancement, optical methods such as laser diffraction can be also used nowadays for grain size distribution determination in the soil. According to the literature review of domestic as well as international sources related to this topic, it is obvious that the results obtained by laser diffractometry do not correspond with the results obtained by pipette method. The main aim of this paper was to analyse 132 samples of medium fine soil, taken from the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia, from depths of 15-20 cm and 40-45 cm, respectively, using laser analysers: ANALYSETTE 22 MicroTec plus (Fritsch GmbH) and Mastersizer 2000 (Malvern Instruments Ltd). The results obtained by laser diffractometry were compared with pipette method and the regression relationships using linear, exponential, power and polynomial trend were derived. Regressions with the three highest regression coefficients (R2) were further investigated. The fit with the highest tightness was observed for the polynomial regression. In view of the results obtained, we recommend using the estimate of the representation of the clay fraction (analysis is done according to laser diffractometry. The advantages of laser diffraction method comprise the short analysis time, usage of small sample amount, application for the various grain size fraction and soil type classification systems, and a wide range of determined fractions. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on this issue further to address the

  12. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  13. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  14. How the RNA isolation method can affect microRNA microarray results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Litman, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    RNA microarray analysis on porcine brain tissue. One method is a phenol-guanidine isothiocyanate-based procedure that permits isolation of total RNA. The second method, miRVana™ microRNA isolation, is column based and recovers the small RNA fraction alone. We found that microarray analyses give different results...... that depend on the RNA fraction used, in particular because some microRNAs appear very sensitive to the RNA isolation method. We conclude that precautions need to be taken when comparing microarray studies based on RNA isolated with different methods.......The quality of RNA is crucial in gene expression experiments. RNA degradation interferes in the measurement of gene expression, and in this context, microRNA quantification can lead to an incorrect estimation. In the present study, two different RNA isolation methods were used to perform micro...

  15. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Numerical proceessing of radioimmunoassay results using logit-log transformation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textoris, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical model and algorithm are described of the numerical processing of the results of a radioimmunoassay by the logit-log transformation method and by linear regression with weight factors. The limiting value of the curve for zero concentration is optimized with regard to the residual sum by the iterative method by multiple repeats of the linear regression. Typical examples are presented of the approximation of calibration curves. The method proved suitable for all hitherto used RIA sets and is well suited for small computers with internal memory of min. 8 Kbyte. (author)

  17. A comparison of short-term dispersion estimates resulting from various atmospheric stability classification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Four methods of classifying atmospheric stability class are applied at four sites to make short-term (1-h) dispersion estimates from a ground-level source based on a model consistent with U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission practice. The classification methods include vertical temperature gradient, standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuations (sigma theta), Pasquill-Turner, and modified sigma theta which accounts for meander. Results indicate that modified sigma theta yields reasonable dispersion estimates compared to those produced using methods of vertical temperature gradient and Pasquill-Turner, and can be considered as a potential economic alternative in establishing onsite monitoring programs. (author)

  18. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  19. Short overview of PSA quantification methods, pitfalls on the road from approximate to exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banov, Reni; Simic, Zdenko; Sterc, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Over time the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models have become an invaluable companion in the identification and understanding of key nuclear power plant (NPP) vulnerabilities. PSA is an effective tool for this purpose as it assists plant management to target resources where the largest benefit for plant safety can be obtained. PSA has quickly become an established technique to numerically quantify risk measures in nuclear power plants. As complexity of PSA models increases, the computational approaches become more or less feasible. The various computational approaches can be basically classified in two major groups: approximate and exact (BDD based) methods. In recent time modern commercially available PSA tools started to provide both methods for PSA model quantification. Besides availability of both methods in proven PSA tools the usage must still be taken carefully since there are many pitfalls which can drive to wrong conclusions and prevent efficient usage of PSA tool. For example, typical pitfalls involve the usage of higher precision approximation methods and getting a less precise result, or mixing minimal cuts and prime implicants in the exact computation method. The exact methods are sensitive to selected computational paths in which case a simple human assisted rearrangement may help and even switch from computationally non-feasible to feasible methods. Further improvements to exact method are possible and desirable which opens space for a new research. In this paper we will show how these pitfalls may be detected and how carefully actions must be done especially when working with large PSA models. (authors)

  20. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  2. Comparative study of methods on outlying data detection in experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.S.; Munita, C.S.; Hazenfratz, R.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of experimental results through multivariate statistical methods might reveal the outliers existence, which is rarely taken into account by the analysts. However, their presence can influence the results interpretation, generating false conclusions. This paper shows the importance of the outliers determination for one data base of 89 samples of ceramic fragments, analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The results were submitted to five procedures to detect outliers: Mahalanobis distance, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and standardized residual. The results showed that although cluster analysis is one of the procedures most used to identify outliers, it can fail by not showing the samples that are easily identified as outliers by other methods. In general, the statistical procedures for the identification of the outliers are little known by the analysts. (author)

  3. A holographic method for investigating cylindrical symmetry plasmas resulting from electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, N.; Ralea, M.; Foca, M.; Iova, I.

    1992-01-01

    A new method based on holographic interferometry in real time with reference fringes for diagnosing gas electric discharges in cylindrical symmetry tubes is presented. A method for obtaining and quantitatively investigating interferograms obtained with a video camera is described. By studying the resulting images frame by frame and introducing the measurements into an adequate computer programme one gets a graphical recording of the radial distribution of the charged particle concentration in the plasma in any region of the tube at a given time, as well as their axial distribution. The real time evolution of certain phenomena occurring in the discharge tube can also be determined by this non-destructive method. The method is used for electric discharges in Ar at average pressures in a discharge tube with hollow cathode effect. (Author)

  4. The concentration of heavy metals and PAH's in soot water - suggested methods of treatment; Halten av tungmetaller och PAH:er i sotvatten - foerslag paa behandlingsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Bjoern (TecNet Nordic AB, Goeteborg (SE))

    2007-12-15

    What we here call 'soot water' is a contaminated water from seasonal cleaning of the furnace and heating sections with water. Earlier, it was common to discharge this type of water directly to a recipient or to the municipal sewage plant. Today, with new, more restricted regulations, this is not accepted unless the concentrations of different substances is well documented and below official limits. The objective of this project has been to increase the knowledge of soot water from different types of combustion plants and suggest ways to handle/treat this water. The project started with a literature survey of soot water in the Swedish, English and German open literature. The next step was to perform analyses on soot water from combustion of waste, wood chips, wood chips/peat, bio oil and heavy fuel oil. It is very difficult to take a representative sample of soot water. It is especially the amount of particles in the water that may change. Since particles contains high levels of heavy metals, this may severely affect the concentrations of metals in the sample, if included in the analysis. Soot water contains very low concentrations of mercury. The concentrations of PAH is also close to or below the detection limit. On the other hand, all soot water analysed, contains enough concentrations of some metal, to make it unsuitable to be discharged directly to a recipient or drain. Four methods of water treatment have been examined for its capacity to treat soot water with regard to their capacity, operational and economical performance. The result is as follows: Chemical precipitation is the method that is judged to have the highest potential as long as the chlorides and sulphates can be discharged to the recipient or municipal waste plant. Reversed osmosis is judged less suitable for soot water since the water contains calcium, sulfates and carbonates that may clog the membranes. Evaporators is also judged to be of less interest for soot water due to its

  5. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  6. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  7. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker , D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  8. Generalist palliative care in hospital - Cultural and organisational interactions. Results of a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Jarlbaek, Lene; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-06-01

    It can be challenging to provide generalist palliative care in hospitals, owing to difficulties in integrating disease-oriented treatment with palliative care and the influences of cultural and organisational conditions. However, knowledge on the interactions that occur is sparse. To investigate the interactions between organisation and culture as conditions for integrated palliative care in hospital and, if possible, to suggest workable solutions for the provision of generalist palliative care. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was chosen using two independent studies: a quantitative study, in which three independent datasets were triangulated to study the organisation and evaluation of generalist palliative care, and a qualitative, ethnographic study exploring the culture of generalist palliative nursing care in medical departments. A Danish regional hospital with 29 department managements and one hospital management. Two overall themes emerged: (1) 'generalist palliative care as a priority at the hospital', suggesting contrasting issues regarding prioritisation of palliative care at different organisational levels, and (2) 'knowledge and use of generalist palliative care clinical guideline', suggesting that the guideline had not reached all levels of the organisation. Contrasting issues in the hospital's provision of generalist palliative care at different organisational levels seem to hamper the interactions between organisation and culture - interactions that appear to be necessary for the provision of integrated palliative care in the hospital. The implementation of palliative care is also hindered by the main focus being on disease-oriented treatment, which is reflected at all the organisational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. [Do different interpretative methods used for evaluation of checkerboard synergy test affect the results?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozseven, Ayşe Gül; Sesli Çetin, Emel; Ozseven, Levent

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, owing to the presence of multi-drug resistant nosocomial bacteria, combination therapies are more frequently applied. Thus there is more need to investigate the in vitro activity of drug combinations against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Checkerboard synergy testing is among the most widely used standard technique to determine the activity of antibiotic combinations. It is based on microdilution susceptibility testing of antibiotic combinations. Although this test has a standardised procedure, there are many different methods for interpreting the results. In many previous studies carried out with multi-drug resistant bacteria, different rates of synergy have been reported with various antibiotic combinations using checkerboard technique. These differences might be attributed to the different features of the strains. However, different synergy rates detected by checkerboard method have also been reported in other studies using the same drug combinations and same types of bacteria. It was thought that these differences in synergy rates might be due to the different methods of interpretation of synergy test results. In recent years, multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been the most commonly encountered nosocomial pathogen especially in intensive-care units. For this reason, multidrug resistant A.baumannii has been the subject of a considerable amount of research about antimicrobial combinations. In the present study, the in vitro activities of frequently preferred combinations in A.baumannii infections like imipenem plus ampicillin/sulbactam, and meropenem plus ampicillin/sulbactam were tested by checkerboard synergy method against 34 multi-drug resistant A.baumannii isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for imipenem, meropenem and ampicillin/sulbactam were determined by the broth microdilution method. Subsequently the activity of two different combinations were tested in the dilution range of 4 x MIC and 0.03 x MIC in

  10. Treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): results from a randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Matthias; Giuliano, François; Baygani, Simin K; Melby, Thomas; Sontag, Angelina

    2014-10-01

    To assess treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind study of men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). After a 4-week placebo lead-in period, men aged ≥45 years with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥13 and a maximum urinary flow rate of ≥4 to ≤15 mL/s received placebo (172 men), tadalafil 5 mg (171), or tamsulosin 0.4 mg (168) once daily for 12 weeks. Treatment Satisfaction Scale-BPH (TSS-BPH) responses were assessed based on median treatment differences using the van Elteren test. Overall treatment satisfaction was greater for tadalafil vs placebo (P = 0.005), based on greater satisfaction with efficacy (P = 0.003); neither overall treatment satisfaction nor satisfaction with efficacy was greater for tamsulosin vs placebo (P ≥ 0.409). For individual questions, 66.5% of men rated tadalafil treatment as 'effective/very effective' (Question 1, Q1) vs placebo (P = 0.011), 72.6% would 'definitely/probably recommend their treatment' (Q3; P = 0.043), 71.8% were generally 'very satisfied/satisfied with their medication' (Q8; P BPH by baseline age (≤65/>65 years), history of erectile dysfunction (yes/no), LUTS/BPH severity (IPSS

  11. A semantics-based method for clustering of Chinese web search results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Deqing; Wang, Li; Bi, Zhuming; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Information explosion is a critical challenge to the development of modern information systems. In particular, when the application of an information system is over the Internet, the amount of information over the web has been increasing exponentially and rapidly. Search engines, such as Google and Baidu, are essential tools for people to find the information from the Internet. Valuable information, however, is still likely submerged in the ocean of search results from those tools. By clustering the results into different groups based on subjects automatically, a search engine with the clustering feature allows users to select most relevant results quickly. In this paper, we propose an online semantics-based method to cluster Chinese web search results. First, we employ the generalised suffix tree to extract the longest common substrings (LCSs) from search snippets. Second, we use the HowNet to calculate the similarities of the words derived from the LCSs, and extract the most representative features by constructing the vocabulary chain. Third, we construct a vector of text features and calculate snippets' semantic similarities. Finally, we improve the Chameleon algorithm to cluster snippets. Extensive experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm has outperformed over the suffix tree clustering method and other traditional clustering methods.

  12. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin--a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (E dep ) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated

  13. Comments on Brodsky's statistical methods for evaluating epidemiological results, and reply by Brodsky, A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Khare, M.

    1980-01-01

    Brodsky's paper 'A Statistical Method for Testing Epidemiological Results, as applied to the Hanford Worker Population', (Health Phys., 36, 611-628, 1979) proposed two test statistics for use in comparing the survival experience of a group of employees and controls. This letter states that both of the test statistics were computed using incorrect formulas and concludes that the results obtained using these statistics may also be incorrect. In his reply Brodsky concurs with the comments on the proper formulation of estimates of pooled standard errors in constructing test statistics but believes that the erroneous formulation does not invalidate the major points, results and discussions of his paper. (author)

  14. On Calculation Methods and Results for Straight Cylindrical Roller Bearing Deflection, Stiffness, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some calculation methods for quantifying the relationships of bearing geometry, material properties, load, deflection, stiffness, and stress. The scope of the work was limited to two-dimensional modeling of straight cylindrical roller bearings. Preparations for studies of dynamic response of bearings with damaged surfaces motivated this work. Studies were selected to exercise and build confidence in the numerical tools. Three calculation methods were used in this work. Two of the methods were numerical solutions of the Hertz contact approach. The third method used was a combined finite element surface integral method. Example calculations were done for a single roller loaded between an inner and outer raceway for code verification. Next, a bearing with 13 rollers and all-steel construction was used as an example to do additional code verification, including an assessment of the leading order of accuracy of the finite element and surface integral method. Results from that study show that the method is at least first-order accurate. Those results also show that the contact grid refinement has a more significant influence on precision as compared to the finite element grid refinement. To explore the influence of material properties, the 13-roller bearing was modeled as made from Nitinol 60, a material with very different properties from steel and showing some potential for bearing applications. The codes were exercised to compare contact areas and stress levels for steel and Nitinol 60 bearings operating at equivalent power density. As a step toward modeling the dynamic response of bearings having surface damage, static analyses were completed to simulate a bearing with a spall or similar damage.

  15. Development and application of a new deterministic method for calculating computer model result uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, R.E.; Worley, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Interest in research into the field of uncertainty analysis has recently been stimulated as a result of a need in high-level waste repository design assessment for uncertainty information in the form of response complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) to show compliance with regulatory requirements. The solution to this problem must obviously rely on the analysis of computer code models, which, however, employ parameters that can have large uncertainties. The motivation for the research presented in this paper is a search for a method involving a deterministic uncertainty analysis approach that could serve as an improvement over those methods that make exclusive use of statistical techniques. A deterministic uncertainty analysis (DUA) approach based on the use of first derivative information is the method studied in the present procedure. The present method has been applied to a high-level nuclear waste repository problem involving use of the codes ORIGEN2, SAS, and BRINETEMP in series, and the resulting CDF of a BRINETEMP result of interest is compared with that obtained through a completely statistical analysis

  16. Analytical method and result of radiation exposure for depressurization accident of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, K.; Shiozawa, S.; Mikami, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is now proceeding with the construction design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since the HTTR has some characteristics different from LWRs, analytical method of radiation exposure in accidents provided for LWRs can not be applied directly. This paper describes the analytical method of radiation exposure developed by JAERI for the depressurization accident, which is the severest accident in respect to radiation exposure among the design basis accidents of the HTTR. The result is also described in this paper

  17. Methods and optical fibers that decrease pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, Michael; Gabitov, Ildar

    2004-03-02

    The present invention provides methods and optical fibers for periodically pinning an actual (random) accumulated chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber to a predicted accumulated dispersion of the fiber through relatively simple modifications of fiber-optic manufacturing methods or retrofitting of existing fibers. If the pinning occurs with sufficient frequency (at a distance less than or are equal to a correlation scale), pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion is minimized. Alternatively, pinning may occur quasi-periodically, i.e., the pinning distance is distributed between approximately zero and approximately two to three times the correlation scale.

  18. Testing the ISP method with the PARIO device: Accuracy of results and influence of homogenization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Wolfgang; Huber, Magdalena; Yangxu, Li; Steins, Andi; Pertassek, Thomas; Göttlein, Axel; Iden, Sascha C.; von Unold, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The particle-size distribution (PSD) is one of the main properties of soils. To determine the proportions of the fine fractions silt and clay, sedimentation experiments are used. Most common are the Pipette and Hydrometer method. Both need manual sampling at specific times. Both are thus time-demanding and rely on experienced operators. Durner et al. (Durner, W., S.C. Iden, and G. von Unold (2017): The integral suspension pressure method (ISP) for precise particle-size analysis by gravitational sedimentation, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/2016WR019830) recently developed the integral suspension method (ISP) method, which is implemented in the METER Group device PARIOTM. This new method estimates continuous PSD's from sedimentation experiments by recording the temporal evolution of the suspension pressure at a certain measurement depth in a sedimentation cylinder. It requires no manual interaction after start and thus no specialized training of the lab personnel. The aim of this study was to test the precision and accuracy of new method with a variety of materials, to answer the following research questions: (1) Are the results obtained by PARIO reliable and stable? (2) Are the results affected by the initial mixing technique to homogenize the suspension, or by the presence of sand in the experiment? (3) Are the results identical to the one that are obtained with the Pipette method as reference method? The experiments were performed with a pure quartz silt material and four real soil materials. PARIO measurements were done repetitively on the same samples in a temperature-controlled lab to characterize the repeatability of the measurements. Subsequently, the samples were investigated by the pipette method to validate the results. We found that the statistical error for silt fraction from replicate and repetitive measurements was in the range of 1% for the quartz material to 3% for soil materials. Since the sand fractions, as in any sedimentation method, must

  19. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-03-09

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx² (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods were applied: either dry polishing before sintering or wet polishing after sintering. Each subgroup included 40 specimens. The surface roughness was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a profilometer whereas monoclinic phase transformation was investigated with X-ray diffraction. The data were analyzed using a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with respect to the three factors: zirconia, specimen preparation, and test method. One-way ANOVA was conducted for the test method and zirconia factors within the combination of two other factors. A 2-parameter Weibull distribution assumption was applied to analyze the reliability under different testing conditions. In general, values measured using the 4-point test method presented the lowest flexural strength values. The flexural strength findings can be grouped in the following order: 4-point strength values than prepared before sintering. The Weibull moduli ranged from 5.1 to 16.5. Specimens polished before sintering showed higher surface roughness values than specimens polished after sintering. In contrast, no strong impact of the polishing procedures on the monoclinic surface layer was observed. No impact of zirconia material on flexural strength was found. The test method and the preparation method significantly influenced the flexural strength values.

  20. Could the eventual results of the NSABP* 39/RTOG** 0413 trial for partial breast irradiation (PBI) be improved by combining spherical applicators and whole breast irradiation? Radiobiology suggests it may.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, B J

    2010-01-01

    There may be unacceptable risks associated with the relatively large single doses of irradiation prescribed over five days instead of over six weeks for three of the four trial arms of the NSABP39/RTOG 0413 clinical trial seeking to enlist 4,300 patients. The first arm prescribes 60 Gray (Gy) in two Gy fractions over six weeks, which is the present standard. The dose implications of the other three arms with reference to this standard were examined using the ID2 formalism. Particularly poor (non-homogeneous) dose distributions characterise spherical applicators like "MammoSite" used as a sole device for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The alternative treatment, APBI done by 3-D conformal radiation, may also have a drawback, namely a sudden sharp cut-off in dose which may cause cosmetic problems due to circumscribed fibrosis and edema. Some recently published results from this trial reveal an alarming level of complications. The possible causes of these complications and poor cosmetic outcomes and how to avoid them are examined. An obstacle to the more widespread use of the "MammoSite type of device is that the device is not allowed closer than 5-7 mm from the skin or ribs; a possible remedy for this restriction is offered. It is also intended to make the relevant radiobiological principles usable for surgical oncologists.

  1. Improved Method of Detection Falsification Results the Digital Image in Conditions of Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobozeva A.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern level of information technologies development has led to unheard ease embodiments hitherto unauthorized modifications of digital content. At the moment, very important question is the effective expert examination of authenticity of digital images, video, audio, development of the methods for identification and localization of violations of their integrity using these contents for purposes other than entertainment. Present paper deals with the improvement of the detection method of the cloning results in digital images - one of the most frequently used in the software tools falsification realized in all modern graphics editors. The method is intended for clone detection areas and pre-image in terms of additional disturbing influences in the image after the cloning operation for "masking" of the results, which complicates the search process. The improvement is aimed at reducing the number of "false alarms", when the area of the clone / pre-image detected in the original image or the localization of the identified areas do not correspond to the real clone and pre-image. The proposed improvement, based on analysis of different sizes per-pixel image blocks with the least difference from each other, has made it possible efficient functioning of the method, regardless of the specificity of the analyzed digital image.

  2. A statistical method for testing epidemiological results, as applied to the Hanford worker population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    Some recent reports of Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale claim findings of radiation-produced cancer in the Hanford worker population. These claims are based on statistical computations that use small differences in accumulated exposures between groups dying of cancer and groups dying of other causes; actual mortality and longevity were not reported. This paper presents a statistical method for evaluation of actual mortality and longevity longitudinally over time, as applied in a primary analysis of the mortality experience of the Hanford worker population. Although available, this method was not utilized in the Mancuso-Stewart-Kneale paper. The author's preliminary longitudinal analysis shows that the gross mortality experience of persons employed at Hanford during 1943-70 interval did not differ significantly from that of certain controls, when both employees and controls were selected from families with two or more offspring and comparison were matched by age, sex, race and year of entry into employment. This result is consistent with findings reported by Sanders (Health Phys. vol.35, 521-538, 1978). The method utilizes an approximate chi-square (1 D.F.) statistic for testing population subgroup comparisons, as well as the cumulation of chi-squares (1 D.F.) for testing the overall result of a particular type of comparison. The method is available for computer testing of the Hanford mortality data, and could also be adapted to morbidity or other population studies. (author)

  3. No Results? No Problem! Why We Are Publishing Methods of a Landmark Study With Results Still Pending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Spiegel, Brennan

    2017-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in the United States, and screening for CRC is a national health-care priority. In this issue, investigators from the CONFIRM study group report on the aims and study design of a large, multicenter, randomized prospective study of whether screening colonoscopy is superior to an annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT). CONFRIM hopes to enroll 50,000 individuals, aged 50-75 years, from 46 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and monitor them for 10 years. This article is unique in that no results are presented as the study is not yet complete. We have taken this unusual step as we believe the topic of CRC screening is critically important for our readers and that the results of this massive study have the potential to change clinical practice throughout all fields of medicine.

  4. Development of methods to measure hemoglobin adducts by gel electrophoresis - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; McBride, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical adducts formed on blood hemoglobin may be a useful biomarker for assessing human exposures to these compounds. This paper reports preliminary results in the development of methods to measure such adducts that may be generally applicable for a wide variety of chemicals. Male F344/N rats were intraperitoneally injected with 14 C-BaP dissolved in corn oil. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected and globin was isolated. Globin protein was then cleaved into peptide fragments using cyanogen bromide and the fragments separated using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the adducted 14 C-globin fragments migrated to different areas of the gel than did unadducted fragments. Further research is being conducted to develop methods that will allow quantitation of separated adducted globin fragments from human blood samples without the use of a radiolabel. (author)

  5. Method and equipment for treating waste water resulting from the technological testing processes of NPP equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, M. C.; Valeca, S.; Iorga, C.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods and technologies coupled together with advanced equipment for treating residual substances resulted from technological processes are mandatory measures for all industrial facilities. The correct management of the used working agents and of the all wastes resulted from the different technological process (preparation, use, collection, neutralization, discharge) is intended to reduce up to removal of their potential negative impact on the environment. The high pressure and temperature testing stands from INR intended for functional testing of nuclear components (fuel bundles, fuelling machines, etc.) were included in these measures since the use of oils, demineralized water chemically treated, greases, etc. This paper is focused on the method and equipment used at INR Pitesti in the chemical treatment of demineralized waters, as well as the equipment for collecting, neutralizing and discharging them after use. (authors)

  6. [Results of treatment of milk teeth pulp by modified formocresol method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochna-Sobańska, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of the results of treatment of molar pulp diseases by the formocresol method from the standpoint of the development of inflammatory complications in periapical tissues, disturbances of physiological resorption of roots, disturbances of mineralization of crowns of homologous permanent teeth. For the treatment milk molars were qualified with the diagnosis of grade II pulpopathy in children aged from 3 to 9 years. The treatment was done using formocresol by a modified method of pulp amputation according to Buckley after previous devitalization with parapaste. The status of 143 teeth was examined again 1 to 4 years after completion of treatment. The proportion of positive results after one year was 94%, after two years it was 90%, after three years 87% and after four years 80%. The cause of premature loss of most teeth was root resorption acceleration by 18-24 months. No harmful action of formocresol on the buds of permanent teeth was noted.

  7. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  8. Comparison of the analysis result between two laboratories using different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Agus Taftazani

    2017-01-01

    Comparison of the analysis result of volcano ash sample between two laboratories using different analysis methods. The research aims to improve the testing laboratory quality and cooperate with the testing laboratory from other country. Samples were tested at the Center for Accelerator of Science and Technology (CAST)-NAA laboratory using NAA, while at the University of Texas (UT) USA using ICP-MS and ENAA method. From 12 elements of target, CAST-NAA able to present 11 elements of data analysis. The comparison results shows that the analysis of the K, Mn, Ti and Fe elements from both laboratories have a very good comparison and close one to other. It is known from RSD values and correlation coefficients of the both laboratories analysis results. While observed of the results difference known that the analysis results of Al, Na, K, Fe, V, Mn, Ti, Cr and As elements from both laboratories is not significantly different. From 11 elements were reported, only Zn which have significantly different values for both laboratories. (author)

  9. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ BODY COMPOSITION BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Blinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students

  10. A method of estimating conceptus doses resulting from multidetector CT examinations during all stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damilakis, John; Tzedakis, Antonis; Perisinakis, Kostas; Papadakis, Antonios E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Current methods for the estimation of conceptus dose from multidetector CT (MDCT) examinations performed on the mother provide dose data for typical protocols with a fixed scan length. However, modified low-dose imaging protocols are frequently used during pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for the estimation of conceptus dose from any MDCT examination of the trunk performed during all stages of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study to model the Siemens Sensation 16 and Sensation 64 MDCT scanners. Four mathematical phantoms were used, simulating women at 0, 3, 6, and 9 months of gestation. The contribution to the conceptus dose from single simulated scans was obtained at various positions across the phantoms. To investigate the effect of maternal body size and conceptus depth on conceptus dose, phantoms of different sizes were produced by adding layers of adipose tissue around the trunk of the mathematical phantoms. To verify MCNP results, conceptus dose measurements were carried out by means of three physical anthropomorphic phantoms, simulating pregnancy at 0, 3, and 6 months of gestation and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) crystals. Results: The results consist of Monte Carlo-generated normalized conceptus dose coefficients for single scans across the four mathematical phantoms. These coefficients were defined as the conceptus dose contribution from a single scan divided by the CTDI free-in-air measured with identical scanning parameters. Data have been produced to take into account the effect of maternal body size and conceptus position variations on conceptus dose. Conceptus doses measured with TLD crystals showed a difference of up to 19% compared to those estimated by mathematical simulations. Conclusions: Estimation of conceptus doses from MDCT examinations of the trunk performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be made

  11. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Hill, Patrick M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark [Division of Medical Physics, CDH Proton Center, 4455 Weaver Parkway, Warrenville, Illinois 60555 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ{sub x1},σ{sub x2},σ{sub y1},σ{sub y2}) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ{sub x},μ{sub y}). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets.

  12. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hill, Patrick M.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ x1 ,σ x2 ,σ y1 ,σ y2 ) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ x ,μ y ). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets

  13. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Hill, Patrick M.; Flynn, Ryan T.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark; Hyer, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σx1,σx2,σy1,σy2) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μx,μy). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets. PMID:25735287

  14. Decision making with consonant belief functions: Discrepancy resulting with the probability transformation method used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinicioglu Esma Nur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dempster−Shafer belief function theory can address a wider class of uncertainty than the standard probability theory does, and this fact appeals the researchers in operations research society for potential application areas. However, the lack of a decision theory of belief functions gives rise to the need to use the probability transformation methods for decision making. For representation of statistical evidence, the class of consonant belief functions is used which is not closed under Dempster’s rule of combination but is closed under Walley’s rule of combination. In this research, it is shown that the outcomes obtained using both Dempster’s and Walley’s rules do result in different probability distributions when pignistic transformation is used. However, when plausibility transformation is used, they do result in the same probability distribution. This result shows that the choice of the combination rule and probability transformation method may have a significant effect on decision making since it may change the choice of the decision alternative selected. This result is illustrated via an example of missile type identification.

  15. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF BENCHMARKING METHODS OF INNOVATION SYSTEMS ASSESSMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vylegzhanina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce results of comparative analysis of international ratings indexes of innovation systems for their compliance with purposes of sustainable development. Purpose of this research is defining requirements to benchmarking methods of assessing national or regional innovation systems and compare them basing on assumption, that innovation system is aligned with sustainable development concept. Analysis of goal sets and concepts, which underlie observed international composite innovation indexes, comparison of their metrics and calculation techniques, allowed us to reveal opportunities and limitations of using these methods in frames of sustainable development concept. We formulated targets of innovation development on the base of innovation priorities of sustainable socio-economic development. Using comparative analysis of indexes with these targets, we revealed two methods of assessing innovation systems, maximally connected with goals of sustainable development. Nevertheless, today no any benchmarking method, which meets need of innovation systems assessing in compliance with sustainable development concept to a sufficient extent. We suggested practical directions of developing methods, assessing innovation systems in compliance with goals of societal sustainable development.

  16. Results of the determination of He in cenozoic aquifers using the GC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, Tomasz; Najman, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Applications of the Helium (He) method known so far consisted mainly of 4He measurements using a special mass spectrometer. 4He measurements for groundwater dating purposes can be replaced by total He (3He+4He) concentration measurements because the content of 3He can be ignored. The concentrations of 3He are very low and 3He/4 He ratios do not exceed 1.0·10(-5) in most cases. In this study, the total He concentrations in groundwater were determined using the gas chromatographic (GC) method as an alternative to methods based on spectrometry measurement. He concentrations in groundwater were used for the determination of residence time and groundwater circulation. Additionally, the radiocarbon method was used to determine the value of the external He flux (JHe) in the study area. Obtained low He concentrations and their small variation within the ca. 65 km long section along which groundwater flows indicate that it is likely there is relatively short residence time and a strong hydraulic connection between the aquifers. The estimated residence time (ca. 3000 years) is heavily dependent on the great uncertainty of the He concentration resulting from the low concentrations of He, the external 4He flux value adopted for calculation purposes and the 14C ages used to estimate the external 4He flux. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  17. CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods. State of the art and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.; Richter, G.M.; Roeren, T.; Kauffmann, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    We used 21G or 22G fine needles. All CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods require a proper blood coagulation. Most common CT scanners are suitable for neurolysis if there is enough room for maintaining sterile conditions. All neurolysis methods involve sterile puncture of the ganglia under local anesthesia, a test block with anesthetic and contrast agent to assess the clinical effect and the definitive block with a mixture of 96% ethanol and local anesthetic. This allows us to correct the position of the needle if we see improper distribution of the test block or unwanted side effects. Though inflammatory complications of the peritoneum due to puncture are rarely seen, we prefer the dorsal approach whenever possible. Results: Seven of 20 legs showed at least transient clinical improvement after CT-guided lumbar sympathectomies; 13 legs had to be amputated. Results of the methods in the literature differ. For lumbar sympathectomy, improved perfusion is reported in 39-89%, depending on the pre-selection of the patient group. Discussion: It was recently proved that sympathectomy not only improves perfusion of the skin but also of the muscle. The hypothesis of a steal effect after sympathectomy towards skin perfusion was disproved. Modern aggressive surgical and interventional treatment often leaves patients to sympathectomy whose reservers of collateralization are nearly exhausted. We presume this is the reason for the different results we found in our patient group. For thoracic sympathectomy the clinical treatment depends very much on the indications. Whereas palmar hyperhidrosis offers nearly 100% success, only 60-70% of patients with disturbance of perfusion have benefited. Results in celiac ganglia block also differ. Patients with carcinoma of the pancreas and other organs of the upper abdomen benefit in 80-100% of all cases, patients with chronic pancreatitis in 60-80%. (orig./VHE) [de

  18. A method for purifying air containing radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, C.W.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the extraction of radioactive isotopes from air. It refers to a method for withdrawing the radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon from air, said method of the type comprising filtrating the air contaminated by the radon daughter products in a filter wetted with water in order to trap said substances in water. It is characterized in that it comprises the steps of causing the water contaminated by the radon daughter products to flow through a filtrating substance containing a non hydrosoluble granular substrate, the outer surface of which has been dried then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning the thus filtrated water so that it wets again the air filter and entraps further radon daughter products. This can be applied to the purification of the air in uranium mines [fr

  19. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally

  20. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Enna Kore, Enna (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally.

  1. Methods used by Elsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnerskov Jensen, J [Soenderjyllands Hoejspaendingsvaerk, Faelleskemikerne, Aabenraa (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Performing round robins at regular intervals is the primary method used by ELsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results. The firs round robin was started in 1974, and today 5 round robins are running. These are focused on: boiler water and steam, lubricating oils, coal, ion chromatography and dissolved gases in transformer oils. Besides the power plant laboratories in Elsam, the participants are power plant laboratories from the rest of Denmark, industrial and commercial laboratories in Denmark, and finally foreign laboratories. The calculated standard deviations or reproducibilities are compared with acceptable values. These values originate from ISO, ASTM and the like, or from own experiences. Besides providing the laboratories with a tool to check their momentary performance, the round robins are vary suitable for evaluating systematic developments on a long term basis. By splitting up the uncertainty according to methods, sample preparation/analysis, etc., knowledge can be extracted from the round robins for use in many other situations. (au)

  2. Effective methods of protection of the intellectual activity results in infosphere of global telematics networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lovtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is perfection of using metodology of technological and organization and legal protect of intellectual activity results and related intellectual rights in information sphere of Global Telematics Networks (such as of «Internet», «Relkom», «Sitek», «Sedab», «Remart», and others. On the conduct analysis base of the peculiarities and possibilities of using of different technological, organization and legal methods and ways protection of information objects the offers of perfection of corresponding organization and legal safeguarding are formulated. The effectiveness of the protection is provided on the basis of rational aggregation technological, organization and legal methods and ways possible in a particular situation.

  3. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  4. Some results about the dating of pre hispanic mexican ceramics by the thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, P.; Mendoza A, D.; Ramirez L, A.; Schaaf, P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most frequently recurring questions in Archaeometry concerns the age of the studied objects. The some first dating methods were based in historical narrations, style of buildings manufacture techniques. However, has been observed that as consequence the continuous irradiation from naturally occurring radioisotopes and from cosmic rays some materials, such as archaeological ceramic, accumulate certain quantity of energy. These types of material can, in principle, be dated through the analysis of these accumulate energy. In that case, ceramic dating can be realized by thermoluminescence (TL) dating. In this work, results obtained by our research group about TL dating of ceramic belonging to several archaeological zones like to Edzna (Campeche), Calixtlahuaca and Teotenango (Mexico State) and Hervideros (Durango) are presented. The analysis was realized using the fine grained mode in a Daybreak model 1100 reader TL system. The radioisotopes that contribute in the accumulate annual dose in ceramic samples ( 40 K, 238 U, 232 Th) were determined by means of techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (AAN). Our results are agree with results obtained through other methods. (Author) 7 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Influence of Meibomian Gland Expression Methods on Human Lipid Analysis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, Carolina M E; Brown, Simon H J; Lazon de la Jara, Percy; Holden, Brien A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Papas, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    To compare the lipid composition of human meibum across three different meibum expression techniques. Meibum was collected from five healthy non-contact lens wearers (aged 20-35 years) after cleaning the eyelid margin using three meibum expression methods: cotton buds (CB), meibomian gland evaluator (MGE) and meibomian gland forceps (MGF). Meibum was also collected using cotton buds without cleaning the eyelid margin (CBn). Lipids were analyzed by chip-based, nano-electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Comparisons were made using linear mixed models. Tandem MS enabled identification and quantification of over 200 lipid species across ten lipid classes. There were significant differences between collection techniques in the relative quantities of polar lipids obtained (P<.05). The MGE method returned smaller polar lipid quantities than the CB approaches. No significant differences were found between techniques for nonpolar lipids. No significant differences were found between cleaned and non-cleaned eyelids for polar or nonpolar lipids. Meibum expression technique influences the relative amount of phospholipids in the resulting sample. The highest amounts of phospholipids were detected with the CB approaches and the lowest with the MGE technique. Cleaning the eyelid margin prior to expression was not found to affect the lipid composition of the sample. This may be a consequence of the more forceful expression resulting in cell membrane contamination or higher risk of tear lipid contamination as a result of reflex tearing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  7. Daily radiotoxicological supervision of personnel at the Pierrelatte industrial complex. Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, Jacques.

    1978-05-01

    A 13 year experience gained from daily radiotoxicological supervision of personnel at the PIERRELATTE industrial complex is presented. This study is divided into two parts: part one is theoretical: bibliographical synthesis of all scattered documents and publications; a homogeneous survey of all literature on the subject is thus available. Part two reviews the experience gained in professional surroundings: laboratory measurements and analyses (development of methods and daily applications); mathematical formulae to answer the first questions which arise before an individual liable to be contaminated; results obtained at PIERRELATTE [fr

  8. Application of Semiempirical Methods to Transition Metal Complexes: Fast Results but Hard-to-Predict Accuracy.

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury

    2018-05-22

    A series of semiempirical PM6* and PM7 methods has been tested in reproducing of relative conformational energies of 27 realistic-size complexes of 16 different transition metals (TMs). An analysis of relative energies derived from single-point energy evaluations on density functional theory (DFT) optimized conformers revealed pronounced deviations between semiempirical and DFT methods indicating fundamental difference in potential energy surfaces (PES). To identify the origin of the deviation, we compared fully optimized PM7 and respective DFT conformers. For many complexes, differences in PM7 and DFT conformational energies have been confirmed often manifesting themselves in false coordination of some atoms (H, O) to TMs and chemical transformations/distortion of coordination center geometry in PM7 structures. Despite geometry optimization with fixed coordination center geometry leads to some improvements in conformational energies, the resulting accuracy is still too low to recommend explored semiempirical methods for out-of-the-box conformational search/sampling: careful testing is always needed.

  9. Application of X-ray methods to assess grain vulnerability to damage resulting from multiple loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobecki, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the work is to describe wheat grain behavior under multiple dynamic loads with various multipliers. The experiments were conducted on Almari variety grain. Grain moisture was 11, 16, 21 and 28%. A special ram stand was used for loading the grain. The experiments were carried out using an 8 g weight, equivalent to impact energy of 4,6 x 10 -3 [J]. The X-ray method was used to assess damage. The exposure time was 8 minutes with X-ray lamp voltage equal to 15 kV. The position index was used as the measure of the damage. The investigation results were elaborated statistically. Based on the results of analysis of variance, regression analysis, the d-Duncan test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the damage number was shown to depend greatly on the number of impacts for the whole range of moisture of the grain loaded. (author)

  10. (Re)interpreting LHC New Physics Search Results : Tools and Methods, 3rd Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    The quest for new physics beyond the SM is arguably the driving topic for LHC Run2. LHC collaborations are pursuing searches for new physics in a vast variety of channels. Although collaborations provide various interpretations for their search results, the full understanding of these results requires a much wider interpretation scope involving all kinds of theoretical models. This is a very active field, with close theory-experiment interaction. In particular, development of dedicated methodologies and tools is crucial for such scale of interpretation. Recently, a Forum was initiated to host discussions among LHC experimentalists and theorists on topics related to the BSM (re)interpretation of LHC data, and especially on the development of relevant interpretation tools and infrastructure: https://twiki.cern.ch/twiki/bin/view/LHCPhysics/InterpretingLHCresults Two meetings were held at CERN, where active discussions and concrete work on (re)interpretation methods and tools took place, with valuable cont...

  11. GRS Method for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation of Code Results and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, H.

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years, an increasing interest in computational reactor safety analysis is to replace the conservative evaluation model calculations by best estimate calculations supplemented by uncertainty analysis of the code results. The evaluation of the margin to acceptance criteria, for example, the maximum fuel rod clad temperature, should be based on the upper limit of the calculated uncertainty range. Uncertainty analysis is needed if useful conclusions are to be obtained from best estimate thermal-hydraulic code calculations, otherwise single values of unknown accuracy would be presented for comparison with regulatory acceptance limits. Methods have been developed and presented to quantify the uncertainty of computer code results. The basic techniques proposed by GRS are presented together with applications to a large break loss of coolant accident on a reference reactor as well as on an experiment simulating containment behaviour

  12. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  13. A convenient method for estimating the contaminated zone of a subsurface aquifer resulting from radioactive waste disposal into ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami; Katsurayama, Kousuke; Uchida, Shigeo.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted to estimate the contamination spread resulting from the radioactive waste disposal into a subsurface aquifer. A general equation, expressing the contaminated zone as a function of radioactive decay, the physical and chemical parameters of soil is presented. A distribution coefficient was also formulated which can be used to judge the suitability of a site for waste disposal. Moreover, a method for predicting contaminant concentration in groundwater at a site boundary is suggested for a heterogeneous media where the subsurface aquifer has different values of porosity, density, flow velocity, distribution coefficient and so on. A general equation was also developed to predict the distribution of radionuclides resulting from the disposal of a solid waste material. The distributions of contamination was evaluated for 90 Sr and 239 Pu which obey a linear adsorption model and a first order kinetics respectively. These equations appear to have practical utility for easily estimating groundwater contamination. (author)

  14. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  15. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  16. Long-term results of forearm lengthening and deformity correction by the Ilizarov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Wiktor; Morasiewicz, Leszek; Krawczyk, Artur; Dragan, Szymon; Czapiński, Jacek

    2002-06-30

    Background. Shortening and deformity of the forearm is most frequently caused by congenital disorders or posttraumatic injury. Given its complex anatomy and biomechanics, the forearm is clearly the most difficult segment for lengthening and deformity correction. Material and methods. We analyzed 16 patients with shortening and deformity of the forearm, treated surgically, using the Ilizarov method in our Department from 1989 to 2001. in 9 cases 1-stage surgery was sufficient, while the remaining 7 patients underwent 2-5 stages of treatment. At total of 31 surgical operations were performed. The extent of forearm shortening ranged from 1,5 to 14,5 cm (5-70%). We development a new fixator based on Schanz half-pins. Results. The length of forearm lengthening per operative stage averaged 2,35 cm. the proportion of lengthening ranged from 6% to 48% with an average of 18,3%. The mean lengthening index was 48,15 days/cm. the per-patient rate of complications was 88% compared 45% per stage of treatment, mostly limited rotational mobility and abnormal consolidation of regenerated bone. Conclusions. Despite the high complication rate, the Ilizarov method is the method of choice for patients with forearm shortenings and deformities. Treatment is particularly indicated in patients with shortening caused by disproportionate length of the ulnar and forearm bones. Treatment should be managed so as cause the least possible damage to arm function, even at the cost of limited lengthening. Our new stabilizer based on Schanz half-pins makes it possible to preserve forearm rotation.

  17. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  18. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  19. Improving the accuracy of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy results by machine learning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groselj, C.; Kukar, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Machine learning (ML) as rapidly growing artificial intelligence subfield has already proven in last decade to be a useful tool in many fields of decision making, also in some fields of medicine. Its decision accuracy usually exceeds the human one. To assess applicability of ML in interpretation the results of stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for CAD diagnosis. The 327 patient's data of planar stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were reevaluated in usual way. Comparing them with the results of coronary angiography the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the investigation was computed. The data were digitized and the decision procedure repeated by ML program 'Naive Bayesian classifier'. As the ML is able to simultaneously manipulate of whatever number of data, all reachable disease connected data (regarding history, habitus, risk factors, stress results) were added. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for scintigraphy were expressed in this way. The results of both decision procedures were compared. With ML method 19 patients more out of 327 (5.8 %) were correctly diagnosed by stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. ML could be an important tool for decision making in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (author)

  20. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  1. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods influence reports of cognitive decline. The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded to results from the other scale. Scales were not used for diagnostic classification. Cognitive performances and depressive symptoms were also rated. We studied the association between the two measures and investigated the scales' relation to depressive symptoms, age, and cognitive status. SMC and MAC-Q were significantly associated (r = 0.44, N = 121, p = 0.015) and both scales had a wide range of scores. In this mixed cohort of patients, younger age was associated with higher SMC scores. There were no significant correlations between cognitive test performances and scales measuring subjective decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. Measures for subjective cognitive decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration should be taken as to which questions are relevant and have validity when operationalizing subjective cognitive decline.

  2. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: Hardware setup, reconstruction methods and first clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmeke, Hartmut; Hopp, Torsten; Zapf, Michael; Kaiser, Clemens; Ruiter, Nicole V.

    2017-11-01

    A promising candidate for improved imaging of breast cancer is ultrasound computer tomography (USCT). Current experimental USCT systems are still focused in elevation dimension resulting in a large slice thickness, limited depth of field, loss of out-of-plane reflections, and a large number of movement steps to acquire a stack of images. 3D USCT emitting and receiving spherical wave fronts overcomes these limitations. We built an optimized 3D USCT, realizing for the first time the full benefits of a 3D system. The point spread function could be shown to be nearly isotropic in 3D, to have very low spatial variability and fit the predicted values. The contrast of the phantom images is very satisfactory in spite of imaging with a sparse aperture. The resolution and imaged details of the reflectivity reconstruction are comparable to a 3 T MRI volume. Important for the obtained resolution are the simultaneously obtained results of the transmission tomography. The KIT 3D USCT was then tested in a pilot study on ten patients. The primary goals of the pilot study were to test the USCT device, the data acquisition protocols, the image reconstruction methods and the image fusion techniques in a clinical environment. The study was conducted successfully; the data acquisition could be carried out for all patients with an average imaging time of six minutes per breast. The reconstructions provide promising images. Overlaid volumes of the modalities show qualitative and quantitative information at a glance. This paper gives a summary of the involved techniques, methods, and first results.

  3. Impact of Costing and Cost Analysis Methods on the Result of the Period: Methods Based on Full Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Maria

    2017-01-01

    In light of the above, in the present paper we have proposed that objectives, to approach the methods of calculating full costs (economic or traditional, and comparing them to determine the effect they have on the outcome of the period.

  4. Feasibility to implement the radioisotopic method of nasal mucociliary transport measurement getting reliable results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, M.; Opazo, C.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to implement the radioisotopic method to measure the nasal mucociliary velocity of transport (NMVT) in a feasible way in order to make it easily available as well as to validate the accuracy of the results. Such a method is needed when primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is suspected, a disorder characterized for low NMVT, non-specific chronic respiratory symptoms that needs to be confirmed by electronic microscopic cilia biopsy. Methods: We performed one hundred studies from February 2000 until February 2002. Patients aged 2 months to 39 years, mean 9 years. All of them were referred from the Respiratory Disease Department. Ninety had upper or lower respiratory symptoms, ten were healthy controls. The procedure, done be the Nuclear Medicine Technologist, consists to put a 20 μl drop of 99mTc-MAA (0,1 mCi, 4 MBq) behind the head of the inferior turbinate in one nostril using a frontal light, a nasal speculum and a teflon catheter attached to a tuberculin syringe. The drop movement was acquired in a gamma camera-computer system and the velocity was expressed in mm/min. As there is need for the patient not to move during the procedure, sedation has to be used in non-cooperative children. Abnormal NMVT values cases were referred for nasal biopsy. Patients were classified in three groups. Normal controls (NC), PCD confirmed by biopsy (PCDB) and cases with respiratory symptoms without biopsy (RSNB). In all patients with NMVT less than 2.4 mm/min PCD was confirmed by biopsy. There was a clear-cut separation between normal and abnormal values and interestingly even the highest NMVT in PCDB cases was lower than the lowest NMVT in NC. The procedure is not as easy as is generally described in the literature because the operator has to get some skill as well as for the need of sedation in some cases. Conclusion: The procedure gives reliable, reproducible and objective results. It is safe, not expensive and quick in cooperative patients. Although, sometimes

  5. Rainfall assimilation in RAMS by means of the Kuo parameterisation inversion: method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, A.; Ortolani, A.; Meneguzzo, F.; Levizzani, V.; Torricella, F.; Turk, F. J.

    2004-03-01

    In order to improve high-resolution forecasts, a specific method for assimilating rainfall rates into the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System model has been developed. It is based on the inversion of the Kuo convective parameterisation scheme. A nudging technique is applied to 'gently' increase with time the weight of the estimated precipitation in the assimilation process. A rough but manageable technique is explained to estimate the partition of convective precipitation from stratiform one, without requiring any ancillary measurement. The method is general purpose, but it is tuned for geostationary satellite rainfall estimation assimilation. Preliminary results are presented and discussed, both through totally simulated experiments and through experiments assimilating real satellite-based precipitation observations. For every case study, Rainfall data are computed with a rapid update satellite precipitation estimation algorithm based on IR and MW satellite observations. This research was carried out in the framework of the EURAINSAT project (an EC research project co-funded by the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development Programme within the topic 'Development of generic Earth observation technologies', Contract number EVG1-2000-00030).

  6. Implantable central venous chemoport: camparision of results according to approach routes and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byung Suck; Ahn, Moon Sang

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the results and complications of placement of implantable port according to approach routes and methods. Between April 2001 and October 2002, a total of 103 implantable chemoport was placed in 95 patients for chemotherapy using preconnected type (n=39) and attachable type (n=64). Puncture sites were left subclavian vein (n=35), right subclavian vein (n=5), left internal jugular vein (n=9), right internal jugular vein (n=54). We evaluated duration of catheterization days, complications according to approach routes and methods. Implantable chemoport was placed successfully in all cases. Duration of catheterization ranged from 8 to 554 days(mean 159, total 17,872 catheter days). Procedure related complications occurred transient pulmonary air embolism (n=1), small hematoma (n=1) and malposition in using preconnected type (n=2). Late complications occurred catheter migration (n=5), catheter malfunction (n=3), occlusion (n=1) and infection (n=11). Among them 15 chemoport was removed (14.5%). Catheter migration was occured via subclavian vein in all cases (13%, p=.008). Infection developed in 10.7% of patients(0.61 per 1000 catheter days). There were no catheter-related central vein thrombosis. Implantation of chemoport is a safe procedure. Choice of right internal jugular vein than subclavian vain vein for puncture site has less complications. And selection of attachable type of chemoport is convenient than preconnected type. Adequate care of chemoport is essential for long patency

  7. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M.; Tumino, A. [Kore University, Enna, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  8. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Gulino, M.; Tumino, A.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance

  9. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  10. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...... decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive...... decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration...

  11. Results of a survey on accident and safety analysis codes, benchmarks, verification and validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1996-03-01

    During the 'Workshop on R and D needs' at the 3rd Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR-III), the participants agreed that it would be useful to compile a survey of the computer codes and nuclear data libraries used in accident and safety analyses for research reactors and the methods various organizations use to verify and validate their codes and libraries. Five organizations, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, Canada), China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE, People's Republic of China), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI, Japan), Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL, USA), and Siemens (Germany) responded to the survey. The results of the survey are compiled in this report. (author) 36 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Radioactive indium labelling of the figured elements of blood. Method, results, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Nouel, J.P.

    Following the work of Thakur et al. the authors became interested in red corpuscle, leucocyte and platelet labelling with indium 111 or 113m (8 hydroxyquinolein-indium). For easier labelling of the figured elements of blood the technique described was modified. The chelate is prepared by simple contact at room temperature of indium 111 or 113m chloride and water-soluble 8 hydroxyquinolein sulphate, in the presence of 0.2M TRIS buffer. The figured element chosen suspended in physiological serum is added directly to the solution obtained, the platelets and leucocytes being separated out beforehand by differential centrifugation. While it gives results similar to those of Thabur et al. the method proposed avoids the chloroform extraction of the radioactive chelate and the use of alcohol, liable to impair the platelet regation capacity [fr

  13. Hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Tessier, A.; Cossement, D.; Lafi, L.; Bose, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    We present high sensitivity gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen sorption measurement systems adapted for in situ conditioning under high temperature and high vacuum. These systems, which allow for precise measurements on small samples and thorough degassing, are used for sorption measurements on carbon nanostructures. We developed one volumetric system for the pressure range 0-1 bar, and two gravimetric systems for 0-1 bar and 0-100 bars. The use of both gravimetric and volumetric methods allows for the cross-checking of the results. The accuracy of the systems has been determined from hydrogen absorption measurements on palladium. The accuracies of the 0-1 bar volumetric and gravimetric systems are about 10 μg and 20 μg respectively. The accuracy of the 0-100 bars gravimetric system is about 20 μg. Hydrogen sorption measurements on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal-incorporated- SWNTs are presented. (author)

  14. Method validation in plasma source optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) - From samples to results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilon, Fabien; Vielle, Karine; Birolleau, Jean-Claude; Vigneau, Olivier; Labet, Alexandre; Arnal, Nadege; Adam, Christelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Amiel, Jeanine; Granier, Guy; Faure, Joel; Arnaud, Regine; Beres, Andre; Blanchard, Jean-Marc; Boyer-Deslys, Valerie; Broudic, Veronique; Marques, Caroline; Augeray, Celine; Bellefleur, Alexandre; Bienvenu, Philippe; Delteil, Nicole; Boulet, Beatrice; Bourgarit, David; Brennetot, Rene; Fichet, Pascal; Celier, Magali; Chevillotte, Rene; Klelifa, Aline; Fuchs, Gilbert; Le Coq, Gilles; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Even though ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy) is now a routine analysis technique, requirements for measuring processes impose a complete control and mastering of the operating process and of the associated quality management system. The aim of this (collective) book is to guide the analyst during all the measurement validation procedure and to help him to guarantee the mastering of its different steps: administrative and physical management of samples in the laboratory, preparation and treatment of the samples before measuring, qualification and monitoring of the apparatus, instrument setting and calibration strategy, exploitation of results in terms of accuracy, reliability, data covariance (with the practical determination of the accuracy profile). The most recent terminology is used in the book, and numerous examples and illustrations are given in order to a better understanding and to help the elaboration of method validation documents

  15. Labelling of blood cells with radioactive indium-201: method, results, indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Brendel, A.; Nouel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A modification of the method of Thakur et al. for labelling polynuclear cells with 8-hydroxyquinolein-indium-complexe utilising the water soluble sulfate of the substance was applied. The labelling procedure gave a yield over 98% with erthrocytes and over 80% with platelets and polynuclear cells using at least 1 x 10 8 plasma free cells. Functional capacity of the labelled cells remained unaltered. Injection double labelled ( 111 In, 51 Cr) red cells correlation of values for the red cell volume amounted to r = 0,98 (n=20); red cell life-spane measurements gave comparable results in 5 patients. After injecting labelled platelets a life-spane between 6,5 and 11 days was measured. Scintigraphic visualisation of pulmonary embolism was obtained 30 minutes after injecting labelled platelets. Injection of labelled polynuclear cells allows life-spane measurements as well as detection of abscesses. (author)

  16. Pion emission from the T2K replica target: method, results and application

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grabez, B.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Maletic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messina, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Pulawski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.; Hartz, M.; Ichikawa, A.K.; Kubo, H.; Marino, A.D.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yuan, T.; Zimmerman, E.D.

    2013-01-01

    The T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan needs precise predictions of the initial neutrino flux. The highest precision can be reached based on detailed measurements of hadron emission from the same target as used by T2K exposed to a proton beam of the same kinetic energy of 30 GeV. The corresponding data were recorded in 2007-2010 by the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS using a replica of the T2K graphite target. In this paper details of the experiment, data taking, data analysis method and results from the 2007 pilot run are presented. Furthermore, the application of the NA61/SHINE measurements to the predictions of the T2K initial neutrino flux is described and discussed.

  17. MLFMA-accelerated Nyström method for ultrasonic scattering - Numerical results and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrala, Praveen; Downs, Andrew; Chen, Kun; Song, Jiming; Roberts, Ron

    2018-04-01

    Full wave scattering models for ultrasonic waves are necessary for the accurate prediction of voltage signals received from complex defects/flaws in practical nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurements. We propose the high-order Nyström method accelerated by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) as an improvement to the state-of-the-art full-wave scattering models that are based on boundary integral equations. We present numerical results demonstrating improvements in simulation time and memory requirement. Particularly, we demonstrate the need for higher order geom-etry and field approximation in modeling NDE measurements. Also, we illustrate the importance of full-wave scattering models using experimental pulse-echo data from a spherical inclusion in a solid, which cannot be modeled accurately by approximation-based scattering models such as the Kirchhoff approximation.

  18. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices--How numerical implementation affects the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed.

  19. Comparison of Results according to the treatment Method in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Jo, Jae Sik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nam, Taek Keun; Nah, Byung Sik [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Jin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-15

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the proper management of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Materials and Methods : Authors analysed 33 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus treated at Chonnam University Hospital from January 1986 to December 1992. There were 24 men and 9 women with median age of 55 years. According to AJCC TNM system of 1988, a patient of T2, 10 patients of T3 and 22 patients of T4 were available, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastases was observed in 5 patients(N1;4/33, N2b;1/33). Patients were classified as 3 groups according to management method. The first group, named as 'FAR' (16 patients), was consisted of preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU;mean of total dosage;3078mg) through the superficial temporal artery with concurrent radiation(mean dose delivered;3433cGy, daily 180-200cGy) and vitamin A(50,000 IU daily), and followed by total maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose;2351cGy). The second group, named as 'SR'(7 patients), was consisted of total maxillectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose 5920 cGy). Her third group, named as 'R'(6 patients), was treated with radiation alone(mean dose;7164cGy). Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used for survival analysis and Mantel-Cox test was performed for significance of survival difference between two groups. Results : Local recurrence free survival rate in the end of 2 year was 100%, 5-% and 0% in FAR, SR and R group, respectively. Disease free survival rate in 2 years was 88.9%, 40% and 50% in Far, SR and R group, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between FAR and SR or FAR and R group in their local recurrence free, disease free and overall survival rates. But difference of each survival rate between SR and R group was not significant. Conclusion : In this study FAR group revealed better results that SR or R group. In the

  20. INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN PUBLIC SPACE PARTICIPATIVE PROJECTS: METHODS AND RESULTS IN PRACTICE AND TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brandão

    2015-06-01

    • In the development of design practice and studio teaching methods We shall see in this paper how interdisciplinary approaches correspond to new and complex urban transformations, focusing on the importance of actors’ interaction processes, combining professional and non-professional knowledge and theory-practice relations. Therefore, we aim at a deepening in public space area of knowledge under the growing complexity of urban life. We see it as a base for further development of collaborative projects and their implications on community empowerment and urban governance at local level. Motivations of this line of work are persistent in several ongoing research projects, aiming to: - Understand public space as a cohesion factor both in urban life and urban form - Manage processes and strategies as elements of urban transformation, - Stimulate the understanding of actors’ roles in urban design practices. - Favoring the questioning of emerging aspects of urban space production… The paper presents and analyses processes, methods and results from civic participation projects developed in the neighbourhood of Barò de Viver (Barcelona and in the District of Marvila (Lisbon. In the first case, a long process initiated in 2004 and partially completed in 2011, neighbours developed the projects "Memory Wall" and Ciutat d'Asuncion Promenade as part of identity construction in public space, in collaboration  with a team of facilitators from CrPolis group. In the second case, different participatory processes dated from 2001 and 2003 have resulted in the implementation of a specific identity urban brand and communication system with an ongoing project of "maps" construction according to the neighbours perception and representation systems. We may conclude that processes of urban governance require more active participation of citizens in projects regarding the improvement of quality of life. At the same time, the implementation of these processes requires a clear

  1. Comparison of Results according to the treatment Method in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Jo, Jae Sik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nam, Taek Keun; Nah, Byung Sik; Park, Seung Jin

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the proper management of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Materials and Methods : Authors analysed 33 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus treated at Chonnam University Hospital from January 1986 to December 1992. There were 24 men and 9 women with median age of 55 years. According to AJCC TNM system of 1988, a patient of T2, 10 patients of T3 and 22 patients of T4 were available, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastases was observed in 5 patients(N1;4/33, N2b;1/33). Patients were classified as 3 groups according to management method. The first group, named as 'FAR' (16 patients), was consisted of preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU;mean of total dosage;3078mg) through the superficial temporal artery with concurrent radiation(mean dose delivered;3433cGy, daily 180-200cGy) and vitamin A(50,000 IU daily), and followed by total maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose;2351cGy). The second group, named as 'SR'(7 patients), was consisted of total maxillectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose 5920 cGy). Her third group, named as 'R'(6 patients), was treated with radiation alone(mean dose;7164cGy). Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used for survival analysis and Mantel-Cox test was performed for significance of survival difference between two groups. Results : Local recurrence free survival rate in the end of 2 year was 100%, 5-% and 0% in FAR, SR and R group, respectively. Disease free survival rate in 2 years was 88.9%, 40% and 50% in Far, SR and R group, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between FAR and SR or FAR and R group in their local recurrence free, disease free and overall survival rates. But difference of each survival rate between SR and R group was not significant. Conclusion : In this study FAR group revealed better results that SR or R group. In the future prospective randomized

  2. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  3. Impact of Costing and Cost Analysis Methods on the Result of the Period: Methods Based on Partial Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Maria

    2017-01-01

    Looking from this perspective, in the present paper we have proposed that objectives, to approach the full cost calculation methods based on partial costs (direct-costing on the product or direct-costing evolved, and comparing them to determine the effect they have on the outcome of the period.

  4. A New Method for a Virtue-Based Responsible Conduct of Research Curriculum: Pilot Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berling, Eric; McLeskey, Chet; O'Rourke, Michael; Pennock, Robert T

    2018-02-03

    Drawing on Pennock's theory of scientific virtues, we are developing an alternative curriculum for training scientists in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) that emphasizes internal values rather than externally imposed rules. This approach focuses on the virtuous characteristics of scientists that lead to responsible and exemplary behavior. We have been pilot-testing one element of such a virtue-based approach to RCR training by conducting dialogue sessions, modeled upon the approach developed by Toolbox Dialogue Initiative, that focus on a specific virtue, e.g., curiosity and objectivity. During these structured discussions, small groups of scientists explore the roles they think the focus virtue plays and should play in the practice of science. Preliminary results have shown that participants strongly prefer this virtue-based model over traditional methods of RCR training. While we cannot yet definitively say that participation in these RCR sessions contributes to responsible conduct, these pilot results are encouraging and warrant continued development of this virtue-based approach to RCR training.

  5. First characterization of the expiratory flow increase technique: method development and results analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maréchal, L; Barthod, C; Jeulin, J C

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an important contribution to the definition of the expiratory flow increase technique (EFIT). So far, no measuring means were suited to assess the manual EFIT performed on infants. The proposed method aims at objectively defining the EFIT based on the quantification of pertinent cognitive parameters used by physiotherapists when practicing. We designed and realized customized instrumented gloves endowed with pressure and displacement sensors, and the associated electronics and software. This new system is specific to the manoeuvre, to the user and innocuous for the patient. Data were collected and analysed on infants with bronchiolitis managed by an expert physiotherapist. The analysis presented is realized on a group of seven subjects (mean age: 6.1 months, SD: 1.1; mean chest circumference: 44.8 cm, SD: 1.9). The results are consistent with the physiotherapist's tactility. In spite of inevitable variability due to measurements on infants, repeatable quantitative data could be reported regarding the manoeuvre characteristics: the magnitudes of displacements do not exceed 10 mm on both hands; the movement of the thoracic hand is more vertical than the movement of the abdominal hand; the maximum applied pressure with the thoracic hand is about twice higher than with the abdominal hand; the thrust of the manual compression lasts (590 ± 62) ms. Inter-operators measurements are in progress in order to generalize these results

  6. Energy Conservation Program Evaluation : Practical Methods, Useful Results : Proceedings of the 1987 Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argonne National Laboratory; International Conference on Energy Conservation Program Evaluation (3rd : 1987 : Chicago, ILL.)

    1987-01-01

    The success of cutting-edge evaluation methodologies depends on our ability to merge, manage, and maintain huge amounts of data. Equally important is presenting results of the subsequent analysis in a meaningful way. These topics are addressed at this session. The considerable amounts of data that have been collected about energy conservation programs are rarely used by other researchers, either because they are not available in computerized form or, if they are, because of the difficulties of interpreting someone else's data, format inconsistencies, incompatibility of computers, lack of documentation, data entry errors, and obtaining data use agreements. Even census, RECS, and AHS data can be best used only by a researcher who is intimately familiar with them. Once the data have been accessed and analyzed, the results need to be put in a format that can be readily understood by others. This is a particularly difficult task when submetered data is the basis of the analysis. Stoops and Gilbride will demonstrate their methods of using off-the-shelf graphics software to illustrate complex hourly data from nonresidential buildings.

  7. Automatically classifying sentences in full-text biomedical articles into Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2009-12-01

    Biomedical texts can be typically represented by four rhetorical categories: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRAD). Classifying sentences into these categories can benefit many other text-mining tasks. Although many studies have applied different approaches for automatically classifying sentences in MEDLINE abstracts into the IMRAD categories, few have explored the classification of sentences that appear in full-text biomedical articles. We first evaluated whether sentences in full-text biomedical articles could be reliably annotated into the IMRAD format and then explored different approaches for automatically classifying these sentences into the IMRAD categories. Our results show an overall annotation agreement of 82.14% with a Kappa score of 0.756. The best classification system is a multinomial naïve Bayes classifier trained on manually annotated data that achieved 91.95% accuracy and an average F-score of 91.55%, which is significantly higher than baseline systems. A web version of this system is available online at-http://wood.ims.uwm.edu/full_text_classifier/.

  8. Major Results of the OECD BEMUSE (Best Estimate Methods; Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reventos, F.

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of computer code models of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is to demonstrate that these are designed to respond safely at postulated accidents. Models and codes are an approximation of the real physical behaviour occurring during a hypothetical transient and the data used to build these models are also known with certain accuracy. Therefore code predictions are uncertain. The BEMUSE programme is focussed on the application of uncertainty methodologies to large break LOCAs. The programme intends to evaluate the practicability, quality and reliability of best-estimate methods including uncertainty evaluations in applications relevant to nuclear reactor safety, to develop common understanding and to promote/facilitate their use by the regulator bodies and the industry. In order to fulfil its objectives BEMUSE is organized in to steps and six phases. The first step is devoted to the complete analysis of a LB-LOCA (L2-5) in an experimental facility (LOFT) while the second step refers to an actual Nuclear Power Plant. Both steps provide results on thermalhydraulic Best Estimate simulation as well as Uncertainty and sensitivity evaluation. At the time this paper is prepared, phases I, II and III are fully completed and the corresponding reports have been issued. Phase IV draft report is by now being reviewed while participants are working on Phase V developments. Phase VI consists in preparing the final status report which will summarizes the most relevant results of the whole programme.

  9. Evaluation of column flotation results with a film flotation method; Film fusenho wo mochiita column fusen kekkan no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H.; Matsukata, M.; Ueyama, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1996-10-28

    Change in wettability of coal particle surfaces due to kerosene adsorption was studied by using a film flotation method. The applicability of a film flotation method to coals modified by kerosene adsorption was first confirmed. In experiment, film flotation was applied to Illinois coal modified by aqueous methanol solution and kerosene adsorption, and the weight percent of residual particles on a gas-liquid interface and kerosene in aqueous methanol solution were analyzed to verify the applicability of a film flotation method. Film flotation was applied to Datong and Illinois coals modified by kerosene adsorption, and the weight percent of residual particles on a gas-liquid interface was plotted to surface tension of liquid. As a result, the weight percent of hydrophobic particles within 50mN/m in surface tension slightly increased in Datong coal and remarkably increased in Illinois coal with kerosene addition. It was thus suggested that in addition to surface tension, the distributions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic strengths on the surface of each coal particle should be considered to understand attachment of coal particles and bubbles. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. The Vermont oxford neonatal encephalopathy registry: rationale, methods, and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2006, the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) established the Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry (NER) to characterize infants born with neonatal encephalopathy, describe evaluations and medical treatments, monitor hypothermic therapy (HT) dissemination, define clinical research questions, and identify opportunities for improved care. Methods Eligible infants were ≥ 36 weeks with seizures, altered consciousness (stupor, coma) during the first 72 hours of life, a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, or receiving HT. Infants with central nervous system birth defects were excluded. Results From 2006–2010, 95 centers registered 4232 infants. Of those, 59% suffered a seizure, 50% had a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, 38% received HT, and 18% had stupor/coma documented on neurologic exam. Some infants experienced more than one eligibility criterion. Only 53% had a cord gas obtained and only 63% had a blood gas obtained within 24 hours of birth, important components for determining HT eligibility. Sixty-four percent received ventilator support, 65% received anticonvulsants, 66% had a head MRI, 23% had a cranial CT, 67% had a full channel encephalogram (EEG) and 33% amplitude integrated EEG. Of all infants, 87% survived. Conclusions The VON NER describes the heterogeneous population of infants with NE, the subset that received HT, their patterns of care, and outcomes. The optimal routine care of infants with neonatal encephalopathy is unknown. The registry method is well suited to identify opportunities for improvement in the care of infants affected by NE and study interventions such as HT as they are implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22726296

  11. Chemical abundances of fast-rotating massive stars. I. Description of the methods and individual results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Constantin; Morel, Thierry; Nazé, Yaël; Rauw, Gregor; Semaan, Thierry; Daflon, Simone; Oey, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: Recent observations have challenged our understanding of rotational mixing in massive stars by revealing a population of fast-rotating objects with apparently normal surface nitrogen abundances. However, several questions have arisen because of a number of issues, which have rendered a reinvestigation necessary; these issues include the presence of numerous upper limits for the nitrogen abundance, unknown multiplicity status, and a mix of stars with different physical properties, such as their mass and evolutionary state, which are known to control the amount of rotational mixing. Methods: We have carefully selected a large sample of bright, fast-rotating early-type stars of our Galaxy (40 objects with spectral types between B0.5 and O4). Their high-quality, high-resolution optical spectra were then analysed with the stellar atmosphere modelling codes DETAIL/SURFACE or CMFGEN, depending on the temperature of the target. Several internal and external checks were performed to validate our methods; notably, we compared our results with literature data for some well-known objects, studied the effect of gravity darkening, or confronted the results provided by the two codes for stars amenable to both analyses. Furthermore, we studied the radial velocities of the stars to assess their binarity. Results: This first part of our study presents our methods and provides the derived stellar parameters, He, CNO abundances, and the multiplicity status of every star of the sample. It is the first time that He and CNO abundances of such a large number of Galactic massive fast rotators are determined in a homogeneous way. Based on observations obtained with the Heidelberg Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (HEROS) at the Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato (TIGRE) with the SOPHIE échelle spectrograph at the Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP; Institut Pytheas; CNRS, France), and with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph at the Magellan II Clay telescope

  12. Learning Method and Its Influence on Nutrition Study Results Throwing the Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin; Nugraha, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to know the difference between playing and learning methods of exploratory learning methods to learning outcomes throwing the ball. In addition, this study also aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status of these two learning methods mentioned above. This research was conducted at SDN Cipinang Besar Selatan 16 Pagi East…

  13. Finite elements volumes methods: applications to the Navier-Stokes equations and convergence results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emonot, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the first chapter are described the equations modeling incompressible fluid flow and a quick presentation of finite volumes method. The second chapter is an introduction to the finite elements volumes method. The box model is described and a method adapted to Navier-Stokes problems is proposed. The third chapter shows a fault analysis of the finite elements volumes method for the Laplacian problem and some examples in one, two, three dimensional calculations. The fourth chapter is an extension of the error analysis of the method for the Navier-Stokes problem

  14. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  16. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D.; Truppa, W.; Aravena, M.; Tamayo, B.

    2015-09-01

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  17. Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF 6 in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF 6 is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF 6 may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF 6 cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail

  18. Methods and introductory results of the Greek national health and nutrition survey - HYDRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Martimianaki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  According to a large prospective cohort study (with baseline examination in the 1990s and smaller studies that followed, the population in Greece has been gradually deprived of the favorable morbidity and mortality indices recorded in the 1960s. The HYDRIA survey conducted in 2013-14 is the first nationally representative survey, which collected data related to the health and nutrition of the population in Greece. Methods: The survey sample consists of 4011 males (47% and females aged 18 years and over. Data collection included interviewer-administered questionnaires on personal characteristics, lifestyle choices, dietary habits and medical history; measurements of somatometry and blood pressure; and, blood drawing. Weighting factors were applied to ensure national representativeness of results. Results: Three out of five adults in Greece reported suffering of a chronic disease, with diabetes mellitus and chronic depression being the more frequent ones among older individuals. The population is also experiencing an overweight/obesity epidemic, since seven out of 10 adults are either overweight or obese. In addition, 40% of the population bears indications of hypertension. Smoking is still common and among women the prevalence was higher in younger age groups. Social disparities were observed in the prevalence of chronic diseases and mortality risk factors (hypertension, obesity, impaired lipid profile and high blood glucose levels. Conclusion: Excess body weight, hypertension, the smoking habit and the population’s limited physical activity are the predominant challenges that public health officials have to deal with in formulating policies and designing actions for the population in Greece.

  19. Methods used by accredited dental specialty programs to advertise faculty positions: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R

    2011-01-01

    The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update.

  20. Methods for improving mechanical properties of partially stabilized zirconia and the resulting product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for improving mechanical surface properties of a rigid body comprising partially stabilized zirconia as a constituent is described comprising the following steps: (i) providing a rigid body having an exposed surface and an interior volume; (ii) subjecting the exposed surface region of partially stabilized zirconia to external heating to heat the exposed surface region to 1100 0 C-1600 0 C without heating the interior volume above 500 0 C-800 0 C; and (iii) cooling the rigid body to a temperature of less than 500 0 C to cause a portion of the exposed surface region to transform from the tetragonal lattice modification to the monoclinic lattice modification, thereby creating a compressive stress field in the exposed surface region and improving the mechanical surface properties of the exposed surface region. In a ceramic body comprising a first exposed region of a partially stabilized zirconia, and a second region of a partially stabilized zirconia at an interior portion of the ceramic body, the improvement is described comprising the ceramic body having in the first, exposed region a greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification than in the second region; having in the first, exposed region 5 percent to 100 percent in the monoclinic lattice modification; and having a molded surface finish in the first, exposed region; the first, exposed region being subjected to a compressive field resulting from the greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification

  1. New results to BDD truncation method for efficient top event probability calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yuchang; Zhong, Farong; Zhao, Xiangfu; Yang, Quansheng; Cui, Gang

    2012-01-01

    A Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is a graph-based data structure that calculates an exact top event probability (TEP). It has been a very difficult task to develop an efficient BDD algorithm that can solve a large problem since its memory consumption is very high. Recently, in order to solve a large reliability problem within limited computational resources, Jung presented an efficient method to maintain a small BDD size by a BDD truncation during a BDD calculation. In this paper, it is first identified that Jung's BDD truncation algorithm can be improved for a more practical use. Then, a more efficient truncation algorithm is proposed in this paper, which can generate truncated BDD with smaller size and approximate TEP with smaller truncation error. Empirical results showed this new algorithm uses slightly less running time and slightly more storage usage than Jung's algorithm. It was also found, that designing a truncation algorithm with ideal features for every possible fault tree is very difficult, if not impossible. The so-called ideal features of this paper would be that with the decrease of truncation limits, the size of truncated BDD converges to the size of exact BDD, but should never be larger than exact BDD.

  2. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  3. The relationship between team climate and interprofessional collaboration: Preliminary results of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreli, Heloise F; Peduzzi, Marina; Bailey, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Relational and organisational factors are key elements of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team climate. Few studies have explored the relationship between IPC and team climate. This article presents a study that aimed to explore IPC in primary healthcare teams and understand how the assessment of team climate may provide insights into IPC. A mixed methods study design was adopted. In Stage 1 of the study, team climate was assessed using the Team Climate Inventory with 159 professionals in 18 interprofessional teams based in São Paulo, Brazil. In Stage 2, data were collected through in-depth interviews with a sample of team members who participated in the first stage of the study. Results from Stage 1 provided an overview of factors relevant to teamwork, which in turn informed our exploration of the relationship between team climate and IPC. Preliminary findings from Stage 2 indicated that teams with a more positive team climate (in particular, greater participative safety) also reported more effective communication and mutual support. In conclusion, team climate provided insights into IPC, especially regarding aspects of communication and interaction in teams. Further research will provide a better understanding of differences and areas of overlap between team climate and IPC. It will potentially contribute for an innovative theoretical approach to explore interprofessional work in primary care settings.

  4. Methods for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George C. Y. [Bloomington, IN; Hieftje, Gary M [Bloomington, IN

    2010-08-03

    A method for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES analysis is performed across a plurality of selected locations in the plasma on an unknown sample, collecting the light intensity at one or more selected wavelengths of one or more sought-for analytes, creating a first dataset. The first dataset is then calibrated with a calibration dataset creating a calibrated first dataset curve. If the calibrated first dataset curve has a variability along the location within the plasma for a selected wavelength, errors are present. Plasma-related errors are then corrected by diluting the unknown sample and performing the same ICP-AES analysis on the diluted unknown sample creating a calibrated second dataset curve (accounting for the dilution) for the one or more sought-for analytes. The cross-over point of the calibrated dataset curves yields the corrected value (free from plasma related errors) for each sought-for analyte.

  5. 3D MRI of the colon: methods and first results of 5 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Pelkonen, P.; Steiner, P.; Krestin, G.P.; Debatin, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: 'Exoscopic' and endoscopic identification of colorectal pathologies via MRI. Methods: 5 patients (36-88 years), two normal and three with different colorectal pathologies (diverticular disease, polyps and carcinoma of the colon), were examined by MRI after colonoscopy. Subsequent to filling of the colon with a gadolinium-water mixture under MRI-monitoring, 3D-data sets of the colon were acquired in prone and supine positions over a 28 sec breathold interval. Subsequently multiplanar T 1 -weighted 2D-sequences were acquired before and following i.v. administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg BW). All imaging was performed in the coronal orientation. The 3D-data were interactively analysed based on various displays: Maximum intensity projection (MIP), surface shadowed display (SSD), multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), virtual colonoscopy (VC). Results: All of the colorectal pathologies could be interactively diagnosed by MPR. On MIP images some pathologies were missed. VC presented the morphology of colon haustra as well as of all endoluminally growing lesions in a manner similar to endoscopy. The colon masses showed uptake of contrast media and could thus be differentiated from air or faeces. (orig./AJ) [de

  6. Integrate life-cycle assessment and risk analysis results, not methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Trump, Benjamin D; Wender, Ben A; Seager, Thomas P; Kennedy, Alan J; Keisler, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-04

    Two analytic perspectives on environmental assessment dominate environmental policy and decision-making: risk analysis (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). RA focuses on management of a toxicological hazard in a specific exposure scenario, while LCA seeks a holistic estimation of impacts of thousands of substances across multiple media, including non-toxicological and non-chemically deleterious effects. While recommendations to integrate the two approaches have remained a consistent feature of environmental scholarship for at least 15 years, the current perception is that progress is slow largely because of practical obstacles, such as a lack of data, rather than insurmountable theoretical difficulties. Nonetheless, the emergence of nanotechnology presents a serious challenge to both perspectives. Because the pace of nanomaterial innovation far outstrips acquisition of environmentally relevant data, it is now clear that a further integration of RA and LCA based on dataset completion will remain futile. In fact, the two approaches are suited for different purposes and answer different questions. A more pragmatic approach to providing better guidance to decision-makers is to apply the two methods in parallel, integrating only after obtaining separate results.

  7. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  8. Method for Developing Descriptions of Hard-to-Price Products: Results of the Telecommunications Product Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, F.; Tonn, B.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study to test a new method for developing descriptions of hard-to-price products. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (CPI). BLS accomplishes this task by sending field staff to places of business to price actual products. The field staff are given product checklists to help them determine whether products found today are comparable to products priced the previous month. Prices for non-comparable products are not included in the current month's price index calculations. A serious problem facing BLS is developing product checklists for dynamic product areas, new industries, and the service sector. It is difficult to keep checklists up-to-date and quite often simply to develop checklists for service industry products. Some people estimates that upwards of 50 % of US economic activity is not accounted for in the CPI

  9. A method for calculating Bayesian uncertainties on internal doses resulting from complex occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puncher, M.; Birchall, A.; Bull, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating uncertainties on doses from bioassay data is of interest in epidemiology studies that estimate cancer risk from occupational exposures to radionuclides. Bayesian methods provide a logical framework to calculate these uncertainties. However, occupational exposures often consist of many intakes, and this can make the Bayesian calculation computationally intractable. This paper describes a novel strategy for increasing the computational speed of the calculation by simplifying the intake pattern to a single composite intake, termed as complex intake regime (CIR). In order to assess whether this approximation is accurate and fast enough for practical purposes, the method is implemented by the Weighted Likelihood Monte Carlo Sampling (WeLMoS) method and evaluated by comparing its performance with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The MCMC method gives the full solution (all intakes are independent), but is very computationally intensive to apply routinely. Posterior distributions of model parameter values, intakes and doses are calculated for a representative sample of plutonium workers from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy cohort using the WeLMoS method with the CIR and the MCMC method. The distributions are in good agreement: posterior means and Q 0.025 and Q 0.975 quantiles are typically within 20 %. Furthermore, the WeLMoS method using the CIR converges quickly: a typical case history takes around 10-20 min on a fast workstation, whereas the MCMC method took around 12-hr. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. (authors)

  10. Emission-Line Galaxies from the PEARS Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A 2-D Detection Method and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. P.; Straughn, Amber N.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, james; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) survey provides a large dataset of low-resolution spectra from thousands of galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. One important subset of objects in these data are emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and we have investigated several different methods aimed at systematically selecting these galaxies. Here we present a new methodology and results of a search for these ELGs in the PEARS observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a 2D detection method that utilizes the observation that many emission lines originate from clumpy knots within galaxies. This 2D line-finding method proves to be useful in detecting emission lines from compact knots within galaxies that might not otherwise be detected using more traditional 1D line-finding techniques. We find in total 96 emission lines in the HUDF, originating from 81 distinct "knots" within 63 individual galaxies. We find in general that [0 1111 emitters are the most common, comprising 44% of the sample, and on average have high equivalent widths (70% of [0 1111 emitters having rest-frame EW> 100A). There are 12 galaxies with multiple emitting knots; several show evidence of variations in H-alpha flux in the knots, suggesting that the differing star formation properties across a single galaxy can in general be probed at redshifts approximately greater than 0.2 - 0.4. The most prevalent morphologies are large face-on spirals and clumpy interacting systems, many being unique detections owing to the 2D method described here, thus highlighting the strength of this technique.

  11. The Method for Assessing and Forecasting Value of Knowledge in SMEs – Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions by SMEs regarding knowledge development are made at a strategic level (Haas-Edersheim, 2007. Related to knowledge management are approaches to "measure" knowledge, where literature distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative methods of valuating intellectual capital. Although there is a quite range of such methods to build an intellectual capital reporting system, none of them is really widely recognized. This work presents a method enabling assessing the effectiveness of investing in human resources, taking into consideration existing methods. The method presented is focusing on SMEs (taking into consideration their importance for, especially, regional development. It consists of four parts: an SME reference model, an indicator matrix to assess investments into knowledge, innovation indicators, and the GMDH algorithm for decision making. The method presented is exemplified by a case study including 10 companies.

  12. A Review of Spectral Methods for Variable Amplitude Fatigue Prediction and New Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Irvine, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the available methods for estimating fatigue damage from variable amplitude loading is presented. The dependence of fatigue damage accumulation on power spectral density (psd) is investigated for random processes relevant to real structures such as in offshore or aerospace applications. Beginning with the Rayleigh (or narrow band) approximation, attempts at improved approximations or corrections to the Rayleigh approximation are examined by comparison to rainflow analysis of time histories simulated from psd functions representative of simple theoretical and real world applications. Spectral methods investigated include corrections by Wirsching and Light, Ortiz and Chen, the Dirlik formula, and the Single-Moment method, among other more recent proposed methods. Good agreement is obtained between the spectral methods and the time-domain rainflow identification for most cases, with some limitations. Guidelines are given for using the several spectral methods to increase confidence in the damage estimate.

  13. Measuring adult mortality using sibling survival: a new analytical method and new results for 44 countries, 1974-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Obermeyer

    2010-04-01

    probability of a 15-y old dying before his or her 60th birthday-for 44 countries with DHS sibling survival data. Our findings suggest that levels of adult mortality prevailing in many developing countries are substantially higher than previously suggested by other analyses of sibling history data. Generally, our estimates show the risk of adult death between ages 15 and 60 y to be about 20%-35% for females and 25%-45% for males in sub-Saharan African populations largely unaffected by HIV. In countries of Southern Africa, where the HIV epidemic has been most pronounced, as many as eight out of ten men alive at age 15 y will be dead by age 60, as will six out of ten women. Adult mortality levels in populations of Asia and Latin America are generally lower than in Africa, particularly for women. The exceptions are Haiti and Cambodia, where mortality risks are comparable to many countries in Africa. In all other countries with data, the probability of dying between ages 15 and 60 y was typically around 10% for women and 20% for men, not much higher than the levels prevailing in several more developed countries.Our results represent an expansion of direct knowledge of levels and trends in adult mortality in the developing world. The CSS method provides grounds for renewed optimism in collecting sibling survival data. We suggest that all nationally representative survey programs with adequate sample size ought to implement this critical module for tracking adult mortality in order to more reliably understand the levels and patterns of adult mortality, and how they are changing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of green taxes in the Nordic countries. Results and method question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Dengsoee, N.; Branth Pedersen, A.

    2000-01-01

    Green taxes have over the past 10 years become a significant part of environmental regulation in the Nordic countries. The present report is a literature study of the effects of green taxes with regard to CO 2 and pesticides. The authors have identified 68 studies of CO 2 -taxes and 20 studies of the pesticide taxes. The report presents a summary of the results from these studies and assesses the methodologies employed for examining the effects of the green taxes. The majority of the reviewed studies are ex-ante studies, which have been carried out in advance of the implementation of the taxes, and which are often based on simplified economic models. Ex-post studies, which are based on the actual historical data for the adjustment to the taxes, are relatively few. 20 ex-post studies of the CO 2 -taxes have been identified, while there are not any ex-post studies of the pesticide taxes. With regard to the environmental effects of green taxes, the ex-post studies can be relied on for the procurement of the most reliable data. The completed ex-post studies of the CO 2 -taxes do not present unambiguous results, because focus and methodology differ. Most studies are partial in their focus and relate to one or more sectors of the economy. Some studies have been carried out few tears after the introduction of the taxes, and do not present an updated assessment of the effects of the taxes. To the extent that it is possible to summarise the present knowledge about the effects of the CO 2 -taxes, there seems to be indications for relatively marked effects in Denmark as compared to the other Nordic countries, since Denmark is the only country whose taxed CO 2 -emissions have been reduced in absolute figures. With regard to Norway and Sweden, effects of the CO 2 -taxes can be identified in particular sectors in relation to business-as-usual scenarios. Finland's CO 2 -tax has not been comprehensively evaluated ex-post, but has reached a tax level which gives expectations of

  15. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  16. Establishing Upper Limits for Item Ratings for the Angoff Method: Are Resulting Standards More 'Realistic'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jerry B.

    This report investigates an area of uncertainty in using the Angoff method for setting standards, namely whether or not a judge's conceptualizations of borderline group performance are realistic. Ratings are usually made with reference to the performance of this hypothetical group, therefore the Angoff method's success is dependent on this point.…

  17. Some new results on correlation-preserving factor scores prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Krijnen, W.P.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Shapiro, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson and Rubin and McDonald have proposed a correlation-preserving method of factor scores prediction which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for variables. Green has proposed a correlation-preserving method which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for factors.

  18. Communicating patient-reported outcome scores using graphic formats: results from a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Michael D; Smith, Katherine C; Little, Emily A; Bantug, Elissa T; Snyder, Claire F

    2015-10-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) promote patient-centered care by using PRO research results ("group-level data") to inform decision making and by monitoring individual patient's PROs ("individual-level data") to inform care. We investigated the interpretability of current PRO data presentation formats. This cross-sectional mixed-methods study randomized purposively sampled cancer patients and clinicians to evaluate six group-data or four individual-data formats. A self-directed exercise assessed participants' interpretation accuracy and ratings of ease-of-understanding and usefulness (0 = least to 10 = most) of each format. Semi-structured qualitative interviews explored helpful and confusing format attributes. We reached thematic saturation with 50 patients (44 % < college graduate) and 20 clinicians. For group-level data, patients rated simple line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding and usefulness (median 8.0; 33 % selected for easiest to understand/most useful) and clinicians rated simple line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding and usefulness (median 9.0, 8.5) but most often selected line graphs with confidence limits or norms (30 % for each format for easiest to understand/most useful). Qualitative results support that clinicians value confidence intervals, norms, and p values, but patients find them confusing. For individual-level data, both patients and clinicians rated line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding (median 8.0 patients, 8.5 clinicians) and usefulness (median 8.0, 9.0) and selected them as easiest to understand (50, 70 %) and most useful (62, 80 %). The qualitative interviews supported highlighting scores requiring clinical attention and providing reference values. This study has identified preferences and opportunities for improving on current formats for PRO presentation and will inform development of best practices for PRO presentation. Both patients and clinicians prefer line graphs across group-level data and individual

  19. Survey of sterile admixture practices in canadian hospital pharmacies: part 1. Methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-03-01

    The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its "General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations", which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results relating to policies, personnel, raw materials, storage and handling

  20. Sensitivity of Spaceborne and Ground Radar Comparison Results to Data Analysis Methods and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    With the availability of active weather radar observations from space from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TR.MM) satellite, numerous studies have been performed comparing PR reflectivity and derived rain rates to similar observations from ground-based weather radars (GR). These studies have used a variety of algorithms to compute matching PR and GR volumes for comparison. Most studies have used a fixed 3-dimensional Cartesian grid centered on the ground radar, onto which the PR and GR data are interpolated using a proprietary approach and/or commonly available GR analysis software (e.g., SPRINT, REORDER). Other studies have focused on the intersection of the PR and GR viewing geometries either explicitly or using a hybrid of the fixed grid and PR/GR common fields of view. For the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) of the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, a prototype DPR/GR comparison algorithm based on similar TRMM PR data has been developed that defines the common volumes in terms of the geometric intersection of PR and GR rays, where smoothing of the PR and GR data are minimized and no interpolation is performed. The PR and GR volume-averaged reflectivity values of each sample volume are accompanied by descriptive metadata, for attributes including the variability and maximum of the reflectivity within the sample volume, and the fraction of range gates in the sample average having reflectivity values above an adjustable detection threshold (typically taken to be 18 dBZ for the PR). Sample volumes are further characterized by rain type (Stratiform or Convective), proximity to the melting layer, underlying surface (land/water/mixed), and the time difference between the PR and GR observations. The mean reflectivity differences between the PR and GR can differ between data sets produced by the different analysis methods; and for the GPM prototype, by the type of constraints and

  1. Could Daylight Glare Be Defined Mathematically?Results of Testing the DGIN Method in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Ali; Oki, Masato

    Discomfort glare from daylight is a common problem without valid prediction methods so far. A new mathematical DGIN (New Daylight Glare Index) method tries to respond the challenge. This paper reports on experiments carried out in daylit office environment in Japan to test applicability of the method. Slight positive correlation was found between the DGIN and the subjective evaluation. Additionally, a high Ladaptation value together with the small ratio of Lwindow to Ladaptation was obviously experienced sufficient to neutralize the effect of glare discomfort. However, subjective assessments are poor glare indicators and not reliable in testing glare prediction methods. DGIN is a good indicator of daylight glare, and when the DGIN value is analyzed together with the measured illuminance ratios, discomfort glare from daylight can be analyzed in a quantitative manner. The DGIN method could serve architects and lighting designers in testing daylighting systems, and also guide the action of daylight responsive lighting controls.

  2. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, L.

    2001-04-01

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, φ76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. The investigation approach for borehole KLX02 followed, in general outline, the SKB model for site investigations, where a number of key issues for site characterization are studied. For each of those, a number of geoscientific parameters are investigated and determined. One important aim is to erect a lithological-structural model of the site, which constitutes the basic requirement for modelling mechanical stability, thermal properties, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes. The investigations in borehole KLX02 resulted in a thorough lithological-structural characterization of the rock volume near the borehole. In order to

  3. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, L. [GEOSIGMA AB/LE Geokonsult AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, {phi}76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. The investigation approach for borehole KLX02 followed, in general outline, the SKB model for site investigations, where a number of key issues for site characterization are studied. For each of those, a number of geoscientific parameters are investigated and determined. One important aim is to erect a lithological-structural model of the site, which constitutes the basic requirement for modelling mechanical stability, thermal properties, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes. The investigations in borehole KLX02 resulted in a thorough lithological-structural characterization of the rock volume near the borehole. In order

  4. Paleomagnetic intensity of Aso pyroclastic flows: Additional results with LTD-DHT Shaw method, Thellier method with pTRM-tail check

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruuchi, T.; Shibuya, H.

    2009-12-01

    , and 42 specimens were submitted to Thellier experiments. Twelve specimens from 4 sites passed the same criteria as Aso-2, and yield a mean paleointensity of 43.1±1.4uT. It again agrees with the value (45.6±1.7uT) of Takai et al. (2002). LTD-DHT Shaw method experiment is also applied for 12 specimens from 3 sites, and 4 passed the criteria giving 38.2±1.7. Although it is a little smaller than Thellier results, it is way larger than the Sint-800 at the time of Aso-4. Aso-1 result in this study is more consistent with the Sint-800 at that time than Takai et al. (2002). But for Aso-2 and Aso-4, their new reliable paleointensity results suggest that the discrepancy from the Sint-800 is not attributed to the experimental problems.

  5. Investigation of error estimation method of observational data and comparison method between numerical and observational results toward V and V of seismic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Norihiro

    2017-01-01

    The method to estimate errors included in observational data and the method to compare numerical results with observational results are investigated toward the verification and validation (V and V) of a seismic simulation. For the method to estimate errors, 144 literatures for the past 5 years (from the year 2010 to 2014) in the structure engineering field and earthquake engineering field where the description about acceleration data is frequent are surveyed. As a result, it is found that some processes to remove components regarded as errors from observational data are used in about 30% of those literatures. Errors are caused by the resolution, the linearity, the temperature coefficient for sensitivity, the temperature coefficient for zero shift, the transverse sensitivity, the seismometer property, the aliasing, and so on. Those processes can be exploited to estimate errors individually. For the method to compare numerical results with observational results, public materials of ASME V and V Symposium 2012-2015, their references, and above 144 literatures are surveyed. As a result, it is found that six methods have been mainly proposed in existing researches. Evaluating those methods using nine items, advantages and disadvantages for those methods are arranged. The method is not well established so that it is necessary to employ those methods by compensating disadvantages and/or to search for a solution to a novel method. (author)

  6. The CREATE Method Does Not Result in Greater Gains in Critical Thinking than a More Traditional Method of Analyzing the Primary Literature †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Totten, Miriam; Dalman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the primary literature in the undergraduate curriculum is associated with gains in student learning. In particular, the CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) method is associated with an increase in student critical thinking skills. We adapted the CREATE method within a required cell biology class and compared the learning gains of students using CREATE to those of students involved in less structured literature discussions. We found that while both sets of students had gains in critical thinking, students who used the CREATE method did not show significant improvement over students engaged in a more traditional method for dissecting the literature. Students also reported similar learning gains for both literature discussion methods. Our study suggests that, at least in our educational context, the CREATE method does not lead to higher learning gains than a less structured way of reading primary literature. PMID:24358379

  7. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  8. Results of a study assessing teaching methods of faculty after measuring student learning style preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Bridget V

    2017-08-01

    Learning style preference impacts how well groups of students respond to their curricula. Faculty have many choices in the methods for delivering nursing content, as well as assessing students. The purpose was to develop knowledge around how faculty delivered curricula content, and then considering these findings in the context of the students learning style preference. Following an in-service on teaching and learning styles, faculty completed surveys on their methods of teaching and the proportion of time teaching, using each learning style (visual, aural, read/write and kinesthetic). This study took place at the College of Nursing a large all-female university in Saudi Arabia. 24 female nursing faculty volunteered to participate in the project. A cross-sectional design was used. Faculty reported teaching using mostly methods that were kinesthetic and visual, although lecture was also popular (aural). Students preferred kinesthetic and aural learning methods. Read/write was the least preferred by students and the least used method of teaching by faculty. Faculty used visual methods about one third of the time, although they were not preferred by the students. Students' preferred learning style (kinesthetic) was the method most used by faculty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On a new iterative method for solving linear systems and comparison results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu

    2008-10-01

    In Ujevic [A new iterative method for solving linear systems, Appl. Math. Comput. 179 (2006) 725-730], the author obtained a new iterative method for solving linear systems, which can be considered as a modification of the Gauss-Seidel method. In this paper, we show that this is a special case from a point of view of projection techniques. And a different approach is established, which is both theoretically and numerically proven to be better than (at least the same as) Ujevic's. As the presented numerical examples show, in most cases, the convergence rate is more than one and a half that of Ujevic.

  10. Monitoring intakes of radionuclides by nuclear power plants workers in France: materials, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonin, M.; Le Guen, B.; Bailloeuil, C.; Gerondal, M. [Electricite De France (France)

    2000-05-01

    for 72 hours of counting, 4. Beta and alpha total counts (ZnS scintillators) on nose blows used for monitoring alpha risks. 5. Quality assurance programs are applied for measurements and also for dose assessments. For the measurements, especially for low activities of alpha emmiters, yearly comparison exercises are organized by PROCORAD association (CEA and COGEMA laboratories). More than 50 European and American laboratories have participated in recent years. By another way, OPRI, the radiation protection office of the Ministry of Health, organises intercomparison measurements of laboratories. For the quality control on dose assessment, the EDF laboratory participates in the comparison exercises planned by EURADOS-CENDOS Working Group 6. Routine, operational and special monitoring programs are carried out. The results are given with the dominant radionuclides indicated. These results shows that the collective effective dose is extremely low: 257 man-mSv for 90 cases over 16 years. The protection methods used appear to be effective. Nethertheless, in some special cases, adding effective dose to external exposure doses could lead to a total dose higher than the regulatory limits. (author)

  11. Monitoring intakes of radionuclides by nuclear power plants workers in France: materials, methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonin, M.; Le Guen, B.; Bailloeuil, C.; Gerondal, M.

    2000-01-01

    hours of counting, 4. Beta and alpha total counts (ZnS scintillators) on nose blows used for monitoring alpha risks. 5. Quality assurance programs are applied for measurements and also for dose assessments. For the measurements, especially for low activities of alpha emmiters, yearly comparison exercises are organized by PROCORAD association (CEA and COGEMA laboratories). More than 50 European and American laboratories have participated in recent years. By another way, OPRI, the radiation protection office of the Ministry of Health, organises intercomparison measurements of laboratories. For the quality control on dose assessment, the EDF laboratory participates in the comparison exercises planned by EURADOS-CENDOS Working Group 6. Routine, operational and special monitoring programs are carried out. The results are given with the dominant radionuclides indicated. These results shows that the collective effective dose is extremely low: 257 man-mSv for 90 cases over 16 years. The protection methods used appear to be effective. Nethertheless, in some special cases, adding effective dose to external exposure doses could lead to a total dose higher than the regulatory limits. (author)

  12. Finding ultracool brown dwarfs with MegaCam on CFHT: method and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, P.; Willott, C. J.; Forveille, T.; Delfosse, X.; Reylé, C.; Bertin, E.; Albert, L.; Artigau, E.; Robin, A. C.; Allard, F.; Doyon, R.; Hill, G. J.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: We present the first results of a wide field survey for cool brown dwarfs with the MegaCam camera on the CFHT telescope, the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey, hereafter CFBDS. Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field-brown dwarf mass function thanks to a larger sample of L and T dwarfs. Methods: We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images using optimised psf-fitting within Source Extractor, and follow them up with pointed near-infrared imaging on several telescopes. Results: We have so far analysed over 350 square degrees and found 770 brown dwarf candidates brighter than z'_AB=22.5. We currently have J-band photometry for 220 of these candidates, which confirms 37% as potential L or T dwarfs. Some are among the reddest and farthest brown dwarfs currently known, including an independent identification of the recently published ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 and the discovery of a second brown dwarf later than T8, CFBDS J005910.83-011401.3. Infrared spectra of three T dwarf candidates confirm their nature, and validate the selection process. Conclusions: The completed survey will discover ~100 T dwarfs and ~500 L dwarfs or M dwarfs later than M8, approximately doubling the number of currently known brown dwarfs. The resulting sample will have a very well-defined selection function, and will therefore produce a very clean luminosity function. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations made

  13. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part II. Results and discussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work rheological studies of the gelling process were carried out. We have developed a measuring system for studying the rheology of the gelation process. It consisted of several measuring cells of the Weiler-Rebinder type, system for automatic regulation of the composition of the medium and thermostabilization system. This complex is designed to measure the dependence of the value of the ultimate shear stress as a function of time, from the start of the sol-gel transition to the complete conversion of the sol to the gel. The developed device has a wide range of measured values of critical shear stresses τ0 = (0,05÷50000 Dyne/cm2. Using the developed instrument, it was possible to establish the shape of the initial section of the curve τ0 = f(t and develop a methodology for more accurate determination of gelation time. The developed method proved that the classical method for determining the start time of the sol-gel transition using the point of intersection of the tangent to the linear part of the rheological curve τ0 = f(t, gives significantly distorted results. A new phenomenon has been discovered: the kinetic curves in the coordinates of the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation have an inflection point which separates the kinetic curve into two parts, the initial and the final. It was found that the constant k in the Avrami–Erofeev–Bogolyubov equation does not depend on the temperature and is the same for both the initial and final parts of the kinetic curve. It depends only on the chemical nature of the reacting system. It was found that for the initial section of the kinetic curves, the value of the parameter n in the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation was n = 23,4±2,8 and, unlike the final section of the rheological curve, does not depend on temperature. A large value of this parameter can be interpreted as the average number of directions of growth of a fractal aggregate during its growth. The value of this parameter

  14. Application of Semiempirical Methods to Transition Metal Complexes: Fast Results but Hard-to-Predict Accuracy.

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury; Sharapa, Dmitry I.; Cavallo, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    -point energy evaluations on density functional theory (DFT) optimized conformers revealed pronounced deviations between semiempirical and DFT methods indicating fundamental difference in potential energy surfaces (PES). To identify the origin of the deviation

  15. Biological dosimetry intercomparison exercise: an evaluation of Triage and routine mode results by robust methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Barquinero, J.F.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Guerrero Carvajal, Y.C.; Stuck Oliveira, M.S.; Valdivia, P.; García Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; González Mesa, J.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.E.; Martínez López, W.; Lloyd, D.C.; Méndez Acuña, L.; Di Tomaso, M.V.; Roy, L.; Lindholm, C.; Romm, H.; Güçlü, I.

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined protocols and quality management standards are indispensable for biological dosimetry laboratories. Participation in periodic proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons is also required. This harmonization is essential if a cooperative network is used to respond to a mass casualty event. Here we present an international intercomparison based on dicentric chromosome analysis for dose assessment performed in the framework of the IAEA Regional Latin American RLA/9/054 Project. The exercise involved 14 laboratories, 8 from Latin America and 6 from Europe. The performance of each laboratory and the reproducibility of the exercise were evaluated using robust methods described in ISO standards. The study was based on the analysis of slides from samples irradiated with 0.75 (DI) and 2.5 Gy (DII). Laboratories were required to score the frequency of dicentrics and convert them to estimated doses, using their own dose-effect curves, after the analysis of 50 or 100 cells (triage mode) and after conventional scoring of 500 cells or 100 dicentrics. In the conventional scoring, at both doses, all reported frequencies were considered as satisfactory, and two reported doses were considered as questionable. The analysis of the data dispersion among the dicentric frequencies and among doses indicated a better reproducibility for estimated doses (15.6% for DI and 8.8% for DII) than for frequencies (24.4% for DI and 11.4% for DII), expressed by the coefficient of variation. In the two triage modes, although robust analysis classified some reported frequencies or doses as unsatisfactory or questionable, all estimated doses were in agreement with the accepted error of ±0.5 Gy. However, at the DI dose and for 50 scored cells, 5 out of the 14 reported confidence intervals that included zero dose and could be interpreted as false negatives. This improved with 100 cells, where only one confidence interval included zero dose. At the DII dose, all estimations fell within

  16. A new garnet-orthopyroxene thermometer developed: method, results and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivotos, Spyros-Christos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The Fe-Mg exchange reaction between garnet and orthopyroxene is a robust geothermometer that has extensively been used to retrieve metamorphic temperatures from granulitic and peridotitic/pyroxenitic lithologies with important implications on the thermal state of the continental lithosphere. More than 800 experimental mineral pairs from both simple and complex systems were gleaned from the literature covering the P-T range 0.5-15 GPa / 800-1800°C. Grt was treated as a senary (Py, Alm, Grs, Sps, Kno and Uv), whereas Opx as a septenary (En, Fs, Di, Hd, FeTs, MgTs and MgCrTs) solid solution. For Opx, Al in the M1 site was calculated following Carswell (1991) and Fe/Mg equipartitioning between sites was assumed. A mixing on sites model was employed to calculate mole fractions of components for both minerals. With regard to the excess free energy of solution and activity coefficients the formalism of Mukhopadhyay et al. (1993) was adopted treating both minerals as symmetric regular solutions. Calibration was achieved in multiple steps; in each step ΔS was allowed to vary until the standard deviation of the differences between experimental and calculated temperature for all experiments was minimised. The experiment with the largest absolute relative deviation in temperature was then eliminated and the process was repeated. The new thermometer reproduces the experimental data to within 50°C and is independent of P-T-X variations within the bounds of the calibrant data set. Application of our new calibration to metamorphosed crustal and mantle rocks that occur both as massifs and xenoliths in volcanics suggested the following results. Granulite terranes have recorded differences in temperature between peak and re-equilibration conditions in the range 100-340°C, primarily depending on the mechanism and rate of exhumation. Several provinces retain memory of discrete cooling pulses (e.g. Palni Hills, South Harris, Adirondacks, E. Antarctic Belt, Aldan Shield) whereas

  17. COMPARISON OF CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS RESULTS FROM TWO METHODS OF PROCESSING SITE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , D

    2007-01-01

    Consequence analysis to support documented safety analysis requires the use of one or more years of representative meteorological data for atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations. At minimum, the needed meteorological data for most atmospheric transport and dispersion models consist of hourly samples of wind speed and atmospheric stability class. Atmospheric stability is inferred from measured and/or observed meteorological data. Several methods exist to convert measured and observed meteorological data into atmospheric stability class data. In this paper, one year of meteorological data from a western Department of Energy (DOE) site is processed to determine atmospheric stability class using two methods. The method that is prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for supporting licensing of nuclear power plants makes use of measurements of vertical temperature difference to determine atmospheric stability. Another method that is preferred by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relies upon measurements of incoming solar radiation, vertical temperature gradient, and wind speed. Consequences are calculated and compared using the two sets of processed meteorological data from these two methods as input data into the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) code

  18. Using Google Earth to Assess Shade for Sun Protection in Urban Recreation Spaces: Methods and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, R; Wilson, N; Signal, L; Barr, M; Mackay, C; Reeder, A; Thomson, G

    2018-05-16

    Shade in public spaces can lower the risk of and sun burning and skin cancer. However, existing methods of auditing shade require travel between sites, and sunny weather conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of free computer software-Google Earth-for assessing shade in urban open spaces. A shade projection method was developed that uses Google Earth street view and aerial images to estimate shade at solar noon on the summer solstice, irrespective of the date of image capture. Three researchers used the method to separately estimate shade cover over pre-defined activity areas in a sample of 45 New Zealand urban open spaces, including 24 playgrounds, 12 beaches and 9 outdoor pools. Outcome measures included method accuracy (assessed by comparison with a subsample of field observations of 10 of the settings) and inter-rater reliability. Of the 164 activity areas identified in the 45 settings, most (83%) had no shade cover. The method identified most activity areas in playgrounds (85%) and beaches (93%) and was accurate for assessing shade over these areas (predictive values of 100%). Only 8% of activity areas at outdoor pools were identified, due to a lack of street view images. Reliability for shade cover estimates was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). Google Earth appears to be a reasonably accurate and reliable and shade audit tool for playgrounds and beaches. The findings are relevant for programmes focused on supporting the development of healthy urban open spaces.

  19. Automatic Tree Data Removal Method for Topography Measurement Result Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, laser scanning has been receiving greater attention as a useful tool for real-time 3D data acquisition, and various applications such as city modelling, DTM generation and 3D modelling of cultural heritage sites have been proposed. And, former digital data processing were demanded in the past digital archive techniques for cultural heritage sites. However, robust filtering method for distinguishing on- and off-terrain points by terrestrial laser scanner still have many issues. In the past investigation, former digital data processing using air-bone laser scanner were reported. Though, efficient tree removal methods from terrain points for the cultural heritage are not considered. In this paper, authors describe a new robust filtering method for cultural heritage using terrestrial laser scanner with "the echo digital processing technology" as latest data processing techniques of terrestrial laser scanner.

  20. Review of solution approach, methods, and recent results of the TRAC-PF1 system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffy, J.H.; Liles, D.R.; Knight, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The current version of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1) was created to improve on the capabilities of its predecessor (TRAC-PD2) for analyzing slow reactor transients such as small-break loss-of-coolant accidents. TRAC-PF1 continues to use a semi-implicit finite-difference method for modeling three-dimensional flows in the reactor vessel. However, it contains a new stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) finite-difference tecnique for one-dimensional flow calculations. This method is not restricted by a material Courant stability condition, allowing much larger time-step sizes during slow transients than would a semi-implicit method. These have been successfully applied to the analysis of a variety of experiments and hypothetical plant transients covering a full range of two-phase flow regimes

  1. Characterization of the Darwin direct implicit particle-in-cell method and resulting guidelines for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, M.R.; Hewett, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the linear dispersion and other properties of the Darwin Direct Implicit Particle-in-cell (DADIPIC) method in order to deduce guidelines for its use in the simulation of long time-scale, kinetic phenomena in plasmas. The Darwin part of this algorithm eliminates the Courant constraint for light propagation across a grid cell in a time step and divides the field solution into several elliptic equations. The direct implicit method is only applied to the electrostatic field relieving the need to resolve plasma oscillations. Linear theory and simulations verifying the theory are used to generate the desired guidelines as well as show the utility of DADIPIC for a wide range of low frequency, electromagnetic phenomena. We find that separation of the fields has made the task of predicting algorithm behavior easier and produced a robust method without restrictive constraints. 20 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Comparison of evaluation results of piping thermal fatigue evaluation method based on equivalent stress amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Kasahara, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, reports have increased about failure cases caused by high cycle thermal fatigue both at light water reactors and fast breeder reactors. One of the reasons of the cases is a turbulent mixing at a Tee-junction, where hot and cold temperature fluids are mixed, in a coolant system. In order to prevent thermal fatigue failures at Tee-junctions. The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers published the guideline which is an evaluation method of high cycle thermal fatigue damage at nuclear pipes. In order to justify safety margin and make the procedure of the guideline concise, this paper proposes a new evaluation method of thermal fatigue damage with use of the 'equivalent stress amplitude.' Because this new method makes procedure of evaluation clear and concise, it will contribute to improving the guideline for thermal fatigue evaluation. (author)

  3. Semiautomatic volume of interest drawing for 18F-FDG image analysis - method and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.J.; Baig, S.; Begent, R.H.J.; Francis, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Functional imaging of cancer adds important information to the conventional measurements in monitoring response. Serial 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), which indicates changes in glucose metabolism in tumours, shows great promise for this. However, there is a need for a method to quantitate alterations in uptake of FDG, which accounts for changes in tumour volume and intensity of FDG uptake. Selection of regions or volumes [ROI or volumes of interest (VOI)] by hand drawing, or simple thresholding, suffers from operator-dependent drawbacks. We present a simple, robust VOI growing method for this application. The method requires a single seed point within the visualised tumour and another in relevant normal tissue. The drawn tumour VOI is insensitive to the operator inconsistency and is, thus, a suitable basis for comparative measurements. The method is validated using a software phantom. We demonstrate the use of the method in the assessment of tumour response in 31 patients receiving chemotherapy for various carcinomas. Valid assessment of tumour response could be made 2-4 weeks after starting chemotherapy, giving information for clinical decision making which would otherwise have taken 9-12 weeks. Survival was predicted from FDG-PET 2-4 weeks after starting chemotherapy (p = 0.04) and after 9-12 weeks FDG-PET gave a better prediction of survival (p = 0.002) than CT or MRI (p = 0.015). FDG-PET using this method of analysis has potential as a routine tool for optimising use of chemotherapy and improving its cost effectiveness. It also has potential for increasing the accuracy of response assessment in clinical trials of novel therapies. (orig.)

  4. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  5. Noninvasive MRI thermometry with the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method: in vivo results in human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Poorter, J; De Wagter, C; De Deene, Y

    1995-01-01

    The noninvasive thermometry method is based on the temperature dependence of the proton resonance frequency (PRF). High-quality temperature images can be obtained from phase information of standard gradient-echo sequences with an accuracy of 0.2 degrees C in phantoms. This work was focused on the...

  6. Review of quantum Monte Carlo methods and results for Coulombic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceperley, D.

    1983-01-01

    The various Monte Carlo methods for calculating ground state energies are briefly reviewed. Then a summary of the charged systems that have been studied with Monte Carlo is given. These include the electron gas, small molecules, a metal slab and many-body hydrogen

  7. Remote Determination of Cloud Temperature and Transmittance from Spectral Radiance Measurements: Method and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    atmospherics temperatura and humidity profiles. Validation tests performed on experimental spectra demonstrate the occuracy of the method with typical...indicated as with the title.) Passive Remota Sensing Infrared Spectra Cloud Temperatura Cloud Transmittance FTIR Spectrometer Icing Hazard Detection (DCD03E.IFO - 95.02.22) UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF FORM

  8. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha Gezim; Shala Ahmet; Likaj Rame

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Cr...

  9. A new method for processing INAA results without the necessity of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemon, G.; Philippot, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    When neutron activation analysis is used for elemental determinations in samples taken from environment, and quite different in origin, certain questions arise: is the method absolute or relative, precise or accurate? How should objects be chosen to represent the subject studied? How should the conclusions of the measurement be used? How are the quality and intensity of the flux to be controlled? What corrections are needed for the effects of perturbing elements, uranium and boron? How sensitive is the method or - which amounts to the same thing - what is the best time to analyse an element in a given matrix? The authors attempt to answer these questions and illustrate the subject by way of a few specific examples: mineral and river water, sea and river sediments, aerosols, quartz tools, hair, nodules and Mn deposits, diamonds, wines, PWR effluents. (author)

  10. Health effects estimation: Methods and results for uranium mill tailings contaminated properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Cross, F.T.; Soldat, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes methods for estimating potential health effects from exposure to uranium mill tailings and presents a summary of risk projections for 50 contaminated properties (residences, schools, churches, and businesses) in the US. The methods provide realistic estimates of cancer risk to exposed individuals based on property-specific occupancy and contamination patterns. External exposure to gamma radiation, inhalation of radon daughters, and consumption of food products grown in radium-contaminated soil are considered. Most of the projected risk was from indoor exposure to radon daughters; however, for some properties the risk from consumption of locally grown food products is similar to that from radon daughters. In all cases, the projected number of lifetime cancer deaths for specific properties is less than one, but for some properties the increase in risk over that normally expected is greater than 100%

  11. Method of eliminating undesirable gaseous products resulting in underground uranium ore leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, J.; Dedic, K.; Johann, J.; Haas, F.; Sokola, K.

    1980-01-01

    The method described is characteristic of the fact that gases being formed or dissolved are oxidized using a combined oxidation-reduction system consisting of airborne oxygen, oxygen carriers and a strong irreversible oxidant. The oxygen carrier system consists of a mixture of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ cations or of Cu + and Cu 2+ cations introduced in solutions in form of iron salts at a concentration of 0.0001 to 0.003 M, or copper salts maximally of 0.0003 M. The irreversible oxidant shows a standard redox potential of at least +1.0 V. In addition to undesirable product elimination, the method allows increasing the leaching process yield. (J.B.)

  12. Strengthening of limestone by the impregnation - gamma irradiation method. Results of tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.; Tassigny, C. de

    1975-04-01

    The method developed by the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France) strengthens the stones by impregnation with a styrene resin/liquid polystyrene mixture followed by polymerization under gamma irradiation. This method is applicable to stones which can be taken into the laboratory for treatment. The increase in strength of 6 different species of French limestone has been quantitatively recorded. The following parameters were studied: possibility of water migration inside the stones, improvements of the mechanical properties of the impregnated stone, standing up to freeze-thaw conditions and artificial ageing of the stones which causes only minor changes in the appearance of the stone and a negligible decrease in weight [fr

  13. The Ramsey method in high-precision mass spectrometry with Penning traps Experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kretzschmar, M; Nagy, S; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2007-01-01

    The highest precision in direct mass measurements is obtained with Penning trap mass spectrometry. Most experiments use the interconversion of the magnetron and cyclotron motional modes of the stored ion due to excitation by external radiofrequency-quadrupole fields. In this work a new excitation scheme, Ramsey's method of time-separated oscillatory fields, has been successfully tested. It has been shown to reduce significantly the uncertainty in the determination of the cyclotron frequency and thus of the ion mass of interest. The theoretical description of the ion motion excited with Ramsey's method in a Penning trap and subsequently the calculation of the resonance line shapes for different excitation times, pulse structures, and detunings of the quadrupole field has been carried out in a quantum mechanical framework and is discussed in detail in the preceding article in this journal by M. Kretzschmar. Here, the new excitation technique has been applied with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN fo...

  14. Method for covering a spme fibre with carbon nanotubes and resulting spme fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrán, Enric; Jover Comas, Eric; García Céspedes, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep María

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for covering solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres with carbon nanotubes (CNT), comprising the following operations: (i) depositing a layer of a metal material on the SPME fibre; (ii) applying a heat treatment in order to form catalytic metal nanoparticles in a reducing atmosphere; and (iii) applying carbon using chemical deposition techniques, thereby forming CNT on top ofthe metal nanoparticles. The invention also relates to a fibre obtain...

  15. A Simple Method for Closure of Urethrocutaneous Fistula after Tubularized Incised Plate Repair: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mehdi; Ariafar, Ali; Babaei, Amir Hossein; Ashrafzadeh, Abdosamad; Adib, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) is the most prevalent complication after hypospadias repair surgery. Many methods have been developed for UCF correction, and the best technique for UCF repair is determined based on the size, location, and number of fistulas, as well as the status of the surrounding skin. In this study, we introduced and evaluated a simple method for UCF correction after tubularized incised plate (TIP) repair. This clinical study was conducted on children with UCFs ≤ 4 mm that developed after TIP surgery for hypospadias repair. The skin was incised around the fistula and the tract was released from the surrounding tissues and the dartos fascia, then ligated with 5 - 0 polydioxanone (PDS) sutures. The dartos fascia, as the second layer, was covered on the fistula tract with PDS thread (gauge 5 - 0) by the continuous suture method. The skin was closed with 6 - 0 Vicryl sutures. After six months of follow-up, surgical outcomes were evaluated based on fistula relapse and other complications. After six months, relapse occurred in only one patient, a six-year-old boy with a single 4-mm distal opening, who had undergone no previous fistula repairs. Therefore, in 97.5% of the cases, relapse was non-existent. Other complications, such as urethral stenosis, intraurethral obstruction, and epidermal inclusion cysts, were not seen in the other patients during the six-month follow-up period. This repair method, which is simple, rapid, and easily learned, is highly applicable, with a high success rate for the closure of UCFs measuring up to 4 mm in any location.

  16. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

    OpenAIRE

    Rigo, Manuel D; Grivas, Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods ar...

  17. The relationship between team climate and interprofessional collaboration: preliminary results of a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Christopher; Agreli, Heloise F.; Peduzzi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Relational and organisational factors are key elements of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team climate. Few studies have explored the relationship between IPC and team climate. This article presents a study that 10 aimed to explore IPC in primary healthcare teams and understand how the assessment of team climate may provide insights into IPC. A mixed methods study design was adopted. In Stage 1 of the study, team climate was assessed using the Team Climate Inventory with 159 profess...

  18. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: cross-correlation redshifts - methods and systematics characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M.; Vielzeuf, P.; Davis, C.; Cawthon, R.; Rau, M. M.; DeRose, J.; De Vicente, J.; Alarcon, A.; Rozo, E.; Gaztanaga, E.; Hoyle, B.; Miquel, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gruen, D.; Gschwend, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Roodman, A.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Glazebrook, K.; Hinton, S. R.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Möller, A.; O'Neill, C. R.; Sommer, N. E.; Uddin, S. A.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carollo, D.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Hoormann, J. K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, B. E.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wolf, R. C.

    2018-06-01

    We use numerical simulations to characterize the performance of a clustering-based method to calibrate photometric redshift biases. In particular, we cross-correlate the weak lensing source galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample with redMaGiC galaxies (luminous red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts) to estimate the redshift distribution of the former sample. The recovered redshift distributions are used to calibrate the photometric redshift bias of standard photo-z methods applied to the same source galaxy sample. We apply the method to two photo-z codes run in our simulated data: Bayesian Photometric Redshift and Directional Neighbourhood Fitting. We characterize the systematic uncertainties of our calibration procedure, and find that these systematic uncertainties dominate our error budget. The dominant systematics are due to our assumption of unevolving bias and clustering across each redshift bin, and to differences between the shapes of the redshift distributions derived by clustering versus photo-zs. The systematic uncertainty in the mean redshift bias of the source galaxy sample is Δz ≲ 0.02, though the precise value depends on the redshift bin under consideration. We discuss possible ways to mitigate the impact of our dominant systematics in future analyses.

  19. Experimental results and validation of a method to reconstruct forces on the ITER test blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, Christian; Maione, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An in operation force measurement system for the ITER EU HCPB TBM has been developed. • The force reconstruction methods are based on strain measurements on the attachment system. • An experimental setup and a corresponding mock-up have been built. • A set of test cases representing ITER relevant excitations has been used for validation. • The influence of modeling errors on the force reconstruction has been investigated. - Abstract: In order to reconstruct forces on the test blanket modules in ITER, two force reconstruction methods, the augmented Kalman filter and a model predictive controller, have been selected and developed to estimate the forces based on strain measurements on the attachment system. A dedicated experimental setup with a corresponding mock-up has been designed and built to validate these methods. A set of test cases has been defined to represent possible excitation of the system. It has been shown that the errors in the estimated forces mainly depend on the accuracy of the identified model used by the algorithms. Furthermore, it has been found that a minimum of 10 strain gauges is necessary to allow for a low error in the reconstructed forces.

  20. Different methods to define utility functions yield similar results but engage different neural processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Heldmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of utility is fundamental to many economic theories, up to now a generally accepted method determining a subject’s utility function is not available. We investigated two methods that are used in economic sciences for describing utility functions by using response-locked event-related potentials in order to assess their neural underpinnings. For defining the certainty equivalent (CE, we used a lottery game with probabilities to win p=0.5, for identifying the subjects’ utility functions directly a standard bisection task was applied. Although the lottery tasks’ payoffs were only hypothetical, a pronounced negativity was observed resembling the error related negativity (ERN previously described in action monitoring research, but this occurred only for choices far away from the indifference point between money and lottery. By contrast, the bisection task failed to evoke an ERN irrespective of the responses’ correctness. Based on these findings we are reasoning that only decisions made in the lottery task achieved a level of subjective relevance that activates cognitive-emotional monitoring. In terms of economic sciences, our findings support the view that the bisection method is unaffected by any kind of probability valuation or other parameters related to risk and in combination with the lottery task can, therefore, be used to differentiate between payoff and probability valuation.

  1. An improved method for interpreting API filter press hydraulic conductivity test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslin, G.M.; Baxter, D.Y.; Filz, G.M.; Davidson, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) filter press is frequently used to measure the hydraulic conductivity of soil-bentonite backfill during the mix design process and as part of construction quality controls. However, interpretation of the test results is complicated by the fact that the seepage-induced consolidation pressure varies from zero at the top of the specimen to a maximum value at the bottom of the specimen. An analytical solution is available which relates the stress, compressibility, and hydraulic conductivity in soil consolidated by seepage forces. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation undertaken to support application of this theory to API hydraulic conductivity tests. When the API test results are interpreted using seepage consolidation theory, they are in good agreement with the results of consolidometer permeameter tests. Limitations of the API test are also discussed

  2. Quantitative functional scintigraphy of the salivary glands: A new method of interpreting and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Trauring, G.; Haas, J.P.; Noodt, A.; Draf, W.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m pertechnetate is injected i.v. and the kinetics of the tracer in the salivary glands is analyzed using a gamma camera and a computer system. To visualize regional gland function, phase images as well as socalled gradient images are generated, which reflect the rate of tracer inflow and outflow. The time activity curves for the individual glands which are obtained with the ROI technique show an initial rise which reflects the pertechnetate uptake potential of the gland and is superimposed by background activity. After a standardized lemon juice dose the curve drops steeply, with the slope depending on the outflow potential of the gland and the background activity. In the past, attempts at quantifying the uptake and elimination functions have failed because of problems in allowing for the variable background component of the time activity curves, which normally amounts of about 60%. In 25 patients in whom one gland had been removed surgically the background activity was examined in terms of the time course and the regional pattern and a patient and gland-specific subtraction method was developed for visualizing the time activity curves of isolated glands devoid of any background activity and describing the uptake and elimination potentials in quantitative terms. Using this new method we evaluated 305 salivary gland scans. Normal ranges for the quantitative parameters were established and their reproducibility was examined. Unlike qualitative functional images of the salivary glands the new quantitative method offers accurate evidence of the extent of gland function and thus helps to decide wether a gland should be salvaged or not (conservative versus surgical treatment). However, quantitation does not furnish any clues on the benign or malignant nature of a tumor. (Author)

  3. Some elaborating methods of gamma scanning results on irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternini, E.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma scanning, as a post-irradiation examination, is a technique which provides a large number of informations on irradiated nuclear fuels. Power profile, fission products distribution, average and local burn-up of single elements structural and nuclear behaviour of fuel materials are examples of the obtained informations. In the present work experimental methods and theoretical calculations used at the CNEN hot cell laboratory for the mentioned purposes are described. Errors arising from the application of the gamma scanning technique are also discussed

  4. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    A description of the most frequently used approaches for human reliability assesment is given. The relation between different human factor causes for human induced events in Kozloduy NPP during the period 2000 - 2003 is discussed. A comparison between the contribution of the casual factors for events occurrences in Kozloduy NPP and an Japanese NPP is presented. It can be concluded that for both NPPs the most important casual factors are: 1) written procedures and documents; 2) man-machine interface; 3) environmental working conditions; 4) working practice; 5) training and qualification; 6) supervising methods

  5. Results of a survey on accident and safety analysis codes, benchmarks, verification and validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the information submitted by AECL, CIAE, JAERI, ORNL and Siemens in response to a need identified at the 'Workshop on R and D Needs' at the IGORR-3 meeting. The survey compiled information on the national standards applied to the Safety Quality Assurance (SQA) programs undertaken by the participants. Information was assembled for the computer codes and nuclear data libraries used in accident and safety analyses for research reactors and the methods used to verify and validate the codes and libraries. Although the survey was not comprehensive, it provides a basis for exchanging information of common interest to the research reactor community

  6. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoxha Gezim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Crash software and Virtual Crash are shown in tabular graphics and compared in mathematical methods.

  7. A method to derive fixed budget results from expected optimisation times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Jansen, Thomas; Witt, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    At last year's GECCO a novel perspective for theoretical performance analysis of evolutionary algorithms and other randomised search heuristics was introduced that concentrates on the expected function value after a pre-defined number of steps, called budget. This is significantly different from...... the common perspective where the expected optimisation time is analysed. While there is a huge body of work and a large collection of tools for the analysis of the expected optimisation time the new fixed budget perspective introduces new analytical challenges. Here it is shown how results on the expected...... optimisation time that are strengthened by deviation bounds can be systematically turned into fixed budget results. We demonstrate our approach by considering the (1+1) EA on LeadingOnes and significantly improving previous results. We prove that deviating from the expected time by an additive term of ω(n3...

  8. First in-flight results of Pleiades 1A innovative methods for optical calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Philippe; Lebègue, Laurent; Fourest, Sébastien; Delvit, Jean-Marc; de Lussy, Françoise; Greslou, Daniel; Blanchet, Gwendoline

    2017-11-01

    The PLEIADES program is a space Earth Observation system led by France, under the leadership of the French Space Agency (CNES). Since it was successfully launched on December 17th, 2011, Pleiades 1A high resolution optical satellite has been thoroughly tested and validated during the commissioning phase led by CNES. The whole system has been designed to deliver submetric optical images to users whose needs were taken into account very early in the design process. This satellite opens a new era in Europe since its off-nadir viewing capability delivers a worldwide 2- days access, and its great agility will make possible to image numerous targets, strips and stereo coverage from the same orbit. Its imaging capability of more than 450 images of 20 km x 20 km per day can fulfill a broad spectrum of applications for both civilian and defence users. For an earth observing satellite with no on-board calibration source, the commissioning phase is a critical quest of wellcharacterized earth landscapes and ground patterns that have to be imaged by the camera in order to compute or fit the parameters of the viewing models. It may take a long time to get the required scenes with no cloud, whilst atmosphere corrections need simultaneous measurements that are not always possible. The paper focuses on new in-flight calibration methods that were prepared before the launch in the framework of the PLEIADES program : they take advantage of the satellite agility that can deeply relax the operational constraints and may improve calibration accuracy. Many performances of the camera were assessed thanks to a dedicated innovative method that was successfully validated during the commissioning period : Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), refocusing, absolute calibration, line of sight stability were estimated on stars and on the Moon. Detectors normalization and radiometric noise were computed on specific pictures on Earth with a dedicated guidance profile. Geometric viewing frame was

  9. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods are not known by most of the scientific community. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of the different physiotherapy methodologies (specific exercises, integrated into the whole rehabilitation program, is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about it. This is what the SCOLIOSIS Journal is going to do through the "Rehabilitation Schools for Scoliosis" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  10. Dosimetric methods and results of measurement for total body electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ningyuan; Yu Geng; Yu Zihao

    1987-01-01

    A modified 'STANFORD TSEI TECHNIQUE' e.g. dual angled gantry, 6 turntable angles and 12 fields was developed on PHILIPS SL 75-20 linear accelerator to treat mycosis fungoides. A plastic scatter screen, 5 mm in thickness was used to reduce the primary electron energy to 4 MeV in order to control treatment depth (d 80 approx.= 1.2 cm) and skin dose up to 89%. The X-ray contamination was at an acceptable level of 2%. This measurement which involved multiple dosimetric methods, showed that the distance between the scattor screen and the patient, within 10-30 cm, had no influence on PDD and the dose distribution on the body surface was reasonably homogeneous, but strongly dependent on the anatomic positions. For those sites which were located in the electron beam shadows, boosting irradiation might be necessary. The preliminary clinical trials indicated that this technique is valid and feasible

  11. A new method for deriving rigorous results on ππ scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Dita, P.

    1979-06-01

    We develop a new approach to the problem of constraining the ππ scattering amplitudes by means of the axiomatically proved properties of unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The method is based on the solution of an extremal problem on a convex set of analytic functions and provides a global description of the domain of values taken by any finite number of partial waves at an arbitrary set of unphysical energies, compatible with unitarity, the bounds at complex energies derived from generalized dispersion relations and the crossing integral relations. From this doma domain we obtain new absolute bounds for the amplitudes as well as rigorous correlations between the values of various partial waves. (author)

  12. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  13. Radioimmunoassay for human myoglobin: methods and results in patients with skeletal muscle or myocardial disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Saito, S.; Kawai, H.; Kondo, A.; Iwasa, M.; Hayashi, T.; Yagita, M.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay has been developed for the measurement of serum Mb. Immunization of rabbit with human Mb yielded anti-Mb antibody which was purified by affinity chromatography. Human hemoglobin, CK, and the component of serum per se did not appear to cross-react with the antibody. Mb was radiolabeled by the chloramine T method. The radioimmunoassay method could detect as little as 0.3 ng of Mb and was not affected by hemolysis. Information is also given on precision, recovery, and specimen preservation. Mb levels could be detected in all of 120 normal adults, and the values ranged between 1 and 28 ng/ml (mean, 13.1 +- 6.1). No sex difference was observed. Levels were markedly elevated in all the patients with progressive muscular dystrophy, especially in the Duchenne type at the level of 40 to 1700 ng/ml. It was also noticed that about 70% of female gene carriers of Duchenne type had a slightly increased Mb level. An elevated serum Mb was also noted in polymyositis. In every case of acute myocardial infarction, serum Mb levels were increased, peak values ranging from 175 to 4400 ng/ml and averaging 1162 +- 287.9 Mb levels were elevated faster and peaked earlier (within 6 to 12 hr after the attack) than serum CK activity and returned to nearly normal range within 3 to 4 days. The increase in serum Mb was also noticed in shock and surgery. These data indicate that radioimmunoassay of Mb is a useful test for judging the myolytic state of myogenic myopathies and for early detection of myocardial infarction

  14. Indications and organisational methods for autologous blood transfusion procedures in Italy: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Liviana; Campolongo, Alessandra; Caponera, Maurizio; Berzuini, Alessandra; Bontadini, Andrea; Furlò, Giuseppe; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M

    2014-10-01

    Pre-operative donation of autologous blood is a practice that is now being abandoned. Alternative methods of transfusing autologous blood, other than predeposited blood, do however play a role in limiting the need for transfusion of allogeneic blood. This survey of autologous blood transfusion practices, promoted by the Italian Society of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology more than 2 years after the publication of national recommendations on the subject, was intended to acquire information on the indications for predeposit in Italy and on some organisational aspects of the alternative techniques of autotransfusion. A structured questionnaire consisting of 22 questions on the indications and organisational methods of autologous blood transfusion was made available on a web platform from 15 January to 15 March, 2013. The 232 Transfusion Services in Italy were invited by e-mail to complete the online survey. Of the 232 transfusion structures contacted, 160 (69%) responded to the survey, with the response rate decreasing from the North towards the South and the Islands. The use of predeposit has decreased considerably in Italy and about 50% of the units collected are discarded because of lack of use. Alternative techniques (acute isovolaemic haemodilution and peri-operative blood salvage) are used at different frequencies across the country. The data collected in this survey can be considered representative of national practice; they show that the already very limited indications for predeposit autologous blood transfusion must be adhered to even more scrupulously, also to avoid the notable waste of resources due to unused units.Users of alternative autotransfusion techniques must be involved in order to gain a full picture of the degree of use of such techniques; multidisciplinary agreement on the indications for their use is essential in order for these indications to have an effective role in "patient blood management" programmes.

  15. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.; van Zadelhoff, E.; van Loo, G.; Widdershoven, G.A.; Molewijk, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. Research questions: How did

  16. Does It Matter? Analyzing the Results of Three Different Learning Delivery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernish, William N.; DeFranco, Agnes L.; Lindner, James R.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing diversity of learners and their preferences coupled with increasing usage of the computer and Internet prompted the need for testing and verifying the ways that knowledge can be delivered and learned effectively. This research addresses these concerns by comparing the results of a college course, hospitality human resource…

  17. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  18. Measuring age differences among globular clusters having similar metallicities - A new method and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, D.A.; Bolte, M.; Stetson, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    A color-difference technique for estimating the relative ages of globular clusters with similar chemical compositions on the basis of their CM diagrams is described and demonstrated. The theoretical basis and implementation of the procedure are explained, and results for groups of globular clusters with m/H = about -2, -1.6, and -1.3, and for two special cases (Palomar 12 and NGC 5139) are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. It is found that the more metal-deficient globular clusters are nearly coeval (differences less than 0.5 Gyr), whereas the most metal-rich globular clusters exhibit significant age differences (about 2 Gyr). This result is shown to contradict Galactic evolution models postulating halo collapse in less than a few times 100 Myr. 77 refs

  19. Review of solution approach, methods, and recent results of the RELAP5 system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapp, J.A.; Ransom, V.H.

    1983-01-01

    The present RELAP5 code is based on a semi-implicit numerical scheme for the hydrodynamic model. The basic guidelines employed in the development of the semi-implicit numerical scheme are discussed and the numerical features of the scheme are illustrated by analysis for a simple, but analogous, single-equation model. The basic numerical scheme is recorded and results from several simulations are presented. The experimental results and code simulations are used in a complementary fashion to develop insights into nuclear-plant response that would not be obtained if either tool were used alone. Further analysis using the simple single-equation model is carried out to yield insights that are presently being used to implement a more-implicit multi-step scheme in the experimental version of RELAP5. The multi-step implicit scheme is also described

  20. Performance of various mathematical methods for computer-aided processing of radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, W.; Sandel, P.; Langfelder, Ch.; Knedel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of 6 algorithms were compared for computer aided determination of radioimmunological end results. These were weighted and unweighted linear logit log regression; quadratic logit log regression, smoothing spline interpolation with a large and small smoothing factor, respectively, and polygonal interpolation and the manual curve fitting on the basis of three radioimmunoassays with different reference curve characteristics (digoxin, estriol, human chorionic somatomammotrophin (HCS)). Great store was set by the accuracy of the approximation at the intermediate points on the curve, i.e. those points that lie midway between two standard concentrations. These concentrations were obtained by weighing and inserted as unknown samples. In the case of digoxin and estriol the polygonal interpolation provided the best results, while the weighted logit log regression proved superior in the case of HCS. (Auth.)

  1. Conversion Method of the Balance Test Results in Open Jet Tunnel on the Free Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of sizing a model and converting the balance test results in the low speed open-jet wind tunnel to free-flow conditions. The ANSYS Fluent commercial code performs flow model calculations in the test section and in the free flow, and the ANSYS ICEM CFD module is used to provide grid generation. A structured grid is generated in the free flow and an unstructured one is provided in the test section. The changes of aerodynamic coefficients are determined at the different values of the blockage factor for the segmental-conical and hemisphere cylinder-cone shapes of the model. The blockage factor values are found at which the interference of the test section – model is neglected. The paper presents a technique to convert the wind tunnel test results to the free flow conditions.

  2. Comparison of Different Methods for Transverse Emittance Measurement and Recent Results from LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Bovet, Claude; Jung, R

    1997-01-01

    The knowledge of its position and angular transverse distributions is of utmost interest to assess the good behaviour of a beam within an accelerator. After a short reminder of beam "emittance" definitions, a review is made of various measurement techniques used so far both in single pass machines and colliders. Results of measurements made at CERN in the future LHC injection complex and in LEP are presented and discussed.

  3. USA/FBR program fast flux test facility startup physics and reactor characterization methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.A.; Harris, R.A.; Daughtry, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Final confirmation of much of the engineering mockup work has been achieved in FTR zero-power experiments in February, 1980, and in power demonstration performed in December, 1980, and March, 1981. Final in-core low-power and high-power irradiation of spatially distributed radioactivants will be completed late in 1981. This paper describes physics experiments and present summaries of the extensive results accumulated to date. 53 figures

  4. Methods and results of a probabilistic risk assessment for radioactive waste transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1993-01-01

    The radiological risk from accidents has been analyzed for the expected annual transport volume (3400 shipping units) of low and partially intermediate level radioactive wastes to be shipped to a final repository. In order to take account of these variable quantities and conditions a computer code was developed to simulate a wide spectrum of waste transport and accident configurations using Monte Carlo sampling techniques. Typically some 10.000 source terms were generated to represent possible releases of radionuclides from transport accidents. Accident events in which the integrity of waste packagings is retained and consequently no releases occur are included. Potential radiological consequences are then calculated for each of the release categories by using an accident consequence code which takes into account atmospheric dispersion statistics. Finally cumulative complementary frequency distributions of radiological consequences are generated by superposing the results for all release categories. Radiological consequences are primarily expressed as potential effective individual doses resulting from airborne and deposited radionuclides. The results of the risk analysis show that expected frequencies of effective doses comparable to the natural radiation exposure of one year are quite low and very low for potential radiation exposures in the range of 50 mSv. (J.P.N.)

  5. Method for purification of environmental objects, contaminated with radioactive substancesas a result of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, Kh.; Shiraliyeva, Kh.; Mirzayev, N.; Garibov, R.; Allahverdiyev, G.; Aliyeva, U.; Farajova, A.

    2017-01-01

    , centrifugation and evaporation/ and vegetation /firing, treatment with nitric acid and distilled water/ taken from all regions of the republic were carried out. Mineral compositions have been studied by X-ray fluorescence, γ, α, β spectroscopy, electron microscopy and chemical methods. Four times washing /stirring and extraction/ by distilled water were used to clean the soil samples. It is possible to re-wash the soil for achieve complete cleaning of deeply contaminated soils. Methods sedimentation, centrifugation, mass spectroscopy and adsorption on activated carbon or on organic porous adsorbents /copolymers of maleic anhydride with styrene hardened by polyethylene polyamines/ were used for purification (separation of heavy elements, radioactive isotopes) of water samples and water extracts of soil.

  6. Pharmaceutical companies' policies on access to trial data, results, and methods: audit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldacre, Ben; Lane, Síle; Mahtani, Kamal R; Heneghan, Carl; Onakpoya, Igho; Bushfield, Ian; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-07-26

    Objectives  To identify the policies of major pharmaceutical companies on transparency of trials, to extract structured data detailing each companies' commitments, and to assess concordance with ethical and professional guidance. Design  Structured audit. Setting  Pharmaceutical companies, worldwide. Participants  42 pharmaceutical companies. Main outcome measures  Companies' commitments on sharing summary results, clinical study reports (CSRs), individual patient data (IPD), and trial registration, for prospective and retrospective trials. Results  Policies were highly variable. Of 23 companies eligible from the top 25 companies by revenue, 21 (91%) committed to register all trials and 22 (96%) committed to share summary results; however, policies commonly lacked timelines for disclosure, and trials on unlicensed medicines and off-label uses were only included in six (26%). 17 companies (74%) committed to share the summary results of past trials. The median start date for this commitment was 2005. 22 companies (96%) had a policy on sharing CSRs, mostly on request: two committed to share only synopses and only two policies included unlicensed treatments. 22 companies (96%) had a policy to share IPD; 14 included phase IV trials (one included trials on unlicensed medicines and off-label uses). Policies in the exploratory group of smaller companies made fewer transparency commitments. Two companies fell short of industry body commitments on registration, three on summary results. Examples of contradictory and ambiguous language were documented and summarised by theme. 23/42 companies (55%) responded to feedback; 7/1806 scored policy elements were revised in light of feedback from companies (0.4%). Several companies committed to changing policy; some made changes immediately. Conclusions  The commitments made by companies to transparency of trials were highly variable. Other than journal submission for all trials within 12 months, all elements of best practice

  7. False positive results using calcitonin as a screening method for medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Loch Batista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of serum calcitonin as part of the evaluation of thyroid nodules has been widely discussed in literature. However there still is no consensus of measurement of calcitonin in the initial evaluation of a patient with thyroid nodule. Problems concerning cost-benefit, lab methods, false positive and low prevalence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC are factors that limit this approach. We have illustrated two cases where serum calcitonin was used in the evaluation of thyroid nodule and rates proved to be high. A stimulation test was performed, using calcium as secretagogue, and calcitonin hyper-stimulation was confirmed, but anatomopathologic examination did not evidence medullar neoplasia. Anatomopathologic diagnosis detected Hashimoto thyroiditis in one case and adenomatous goiter plus an occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in the other one. Recommendation for routine use of serum calcitonin in the initial diagnostic evaluation of a thyroid nodule, followed by a confirming stimulation test if basal serum calcitonin is showed to be high, is the most currently recommended approach, but questions concerning cost-benefit and possibility of diagnosis error make the validity of this recommendation discussible.

  8. Accelerated life-test methods and results for implantable electronic devices with adhesive encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuechen; Denprasert, Petcharat May; Zhou, Li; Vest, Adriana Nicholson; Kohan, Sam; Loeb, Gerald E

    2017-09-01

    We have developed and applied new methods to estimate the functional life of miniature, implantable, wireless electronic devices that rely on non-hermetic, adhesive encapsulants such as epoxy. A comb pattern board with a high density of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) could be used to detect incipient failure from water vapor condensation. Inductive coupling of an RF magnetic field was used to provide DC bias and to detect deterioration of an encapsulated comb pattern. Diodes in the implant converted part of the received energy into DC bias on the comb pattern. The capacitance of the comb pattern forms a resonant circuit with the inductor by which the implant receives power. Any moisture affects both the resonant frequency and the Q-factor of the resonance of the circuitry, which was detected wirelessly by its effects on the coupling between two orthogonal RF coils placed around the device. Various defects were introduced into the comb pattern devices to demonstrate sensitivity to failures and to correlate these signals with visual inspection of failures. Optimized encapsulation procedures were validated in accelerated life tests of both comb patterns and a functional neuromuscular stimulator under development. Strong adhesive bonding between epoxy and electronic circuitry proved to be necessary and sufficient to predict 1 year packaging reliability of 99.97% for the neuromuscular stimulator.

  9. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  10. Joint hyperlaxity prevents relapses in clubfeet treated by Ponseti method-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Dan Ionuţ; Corbu, Andrei; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Todor, Adrian; Valeanu, Madalina; Morcuende, Jose; Man, Sorin

    2018-05-07

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of joint hyperlaxity (by Beighton score) as a protective factor for clubfoot relapse. Patients with idiopathic clubfoot treated with the Ponseti method between January 2004 and December 2012, without other congenital foot deformity, and not previously treated by open surgery were included in either the Relapse group (n = 23) if it was a clubfoot relapse or the Control group (n = 19) if no relapse was noted. Joint laxity was evaluated using the Beighton score at the latest follow-up against the Normal group (n = 22, children matched by sex and age without clubfoot deformity). We found a significantly higher joint laxity in the Control group (4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-7.06) as compared to the Relapse (3.17, 95% CI: 1.53-4.81, p = 0.032) and Normal (3.14, 95% CI: 1.78-4.5, p = 0.03) groups. The univariate logistic regression showed a 5.28-times increase in the risk of relapse for a Beighton score lower than 4/9 points (odds ratio = 5.28; 95% CI = 1.29-21.5; p = 0.018). Joint hyperlaxity could be a protective factor for clubfoot relapse.

  11. Preliminary results of oxygen isotope ratio measurement with a particle-gamma coincidence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiuk, Maciek, E-mail: maciek.borysiuk@pixe.lth.se; Kristiansson, Per; Ros, Linus; Abdel, Nassem S.; Elfman, Mikael; Nilsson, Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to study variations in the oxygen isotopic ratio with photon tagged nuclear reaction analysis (pNRA) is evaluated in the current work. The experiment described in the article was performed at Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF) with a 2 MeV deuteron beam. Isotopic fractionation of light elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen is the basis of many analytical tools in hydrology, geology, paleobiology and paleogeology. IBA methods provide one possible tool for measurement of isotopic content. During this experimental run we focused on measurement of the oxygen isotopic ratio. The measurement of stable isotopes of oxygen has a number of applications; the particular one driving the current investigation belongs to the field of astrogeology and specifically evaluation of fossil extraterrestrial material. There are three stable isotopes of oxygen: {sup 16}O, {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O. We procured samples highly enriched with all three isotopes. Isotopes {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O were easily detected in the enriched samples, but no significant signal from {sup 17}O was detected in the same samples. The measured yield was too low to detect {sup 18}O in a sample with natural abundances of oxygen isotopes, at least in the current experimental setup, but the spectral line from the reaction with {sup 16}O was clearly visible.

  12. Variation in Results of Volume Measurements of Stumps of Lower-Limb Amputees : A Comparison of 4 Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer-Wilzing, Vera G.; Bolt, Arjen; Geertzen, Jan H.; Emmelot, Cornelis H.; Baars, Erwin C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    de Boer-Wilzing VG, Bolt A, Geertzen JH, Emmelot CH, Baars EC, Dijkstra PU. Variation in results of volume measurements of stumps of lower-limb amputees: a comparison of 4 methods. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:941-6. Objective: To analyze the reliability of 4 methods (water immersion,

  13. Studies on the comparability of the results from different methods for the radioimmunological determination of digoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwenger, A.; Trautschold, I.

    1978-01-01

    Three iodine-125-digoxin radioimmunoassay kits (A Amersham Buchler; B Boehringer Mannheim; C Schwarz Mann/Becton Dickinson) were evaluated with respect to assay quality and comparability of the results. Intra- and interassay variances were calculated for the following types of samples: Three media (a pool serum; b artificial human serum; c buffer solution with albumin and globulin) containing pure digoxin, sera from a pharmacokinetic study, sera with different concentrations of proteins, a hemolytic serum and sera with digitoxin and metabolites of spironolactone. The intra-assay precision depended on the medium of the sample and was higher for samples with identical digoxin concentrations in an identical medium (e.g. CV for 2 μg/l in medium a for kit A: 4.3% for kit B: 7.0%; for kit C: 2.2%) than for samples with identical antigen concentrations in different media (CV for 2 μg/l in media a, b and c for kit A: 6.4%; for kit B: 9.1%; for kit C: 4.3%). The mean recovery in the range 0.5-4 μg/l depended on the kind of medium (a, b or c) and varied for kit A from 84.4% to 100.8%, for kit B from 112.0% to 119.6%, and for kit C from 98.0% to 104.5%. Decreasing serum protein concentrations to less than one half of the physiological concentration gave false negative results for kit A and fals positive results for kit C; for kit B this dependency was not be observed, but there was a decrease of reproducibility. (orig./AJ) [de

  14. Assessing incentive contracts for reducing residential electricity consumption: new experimental methods for new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachet, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Facing economic, political and environmental stakes, electricity providers are nowadays developing incentive tools, in order to reduce consumer's demand, particularly during peak demand periods. For residential customers, these tools can be tariffs (dynamic pricing of time-of-use tariffs), or informative devices or services (feedbacks on historical or real-time consumption, given on various media). They might go along with automation systems that can help cutting of some electric devices when needed. In order to evaluate the capacity of these settings among their customers, electricity utilities are developing quite a few studies, which are mainly field experiment often called pilots. During these pilots, demand response tools are implemented on a population sample. These long and expensive studies lid to quantitative and qualitative analysis. We have compiled about 40 of them and extract from this survey some generalizable teachings. We have shown what these results were and highlighted pilot programs' methodological limits. In order to propose a substitute to these heavy experimentations, we assessed the capacity or experimental economics. This relatively new discipline's objective is to evaluation the efficiency of institutions, like markets, but also to study what animate economic agents' behaviour, e.g. preferences, beliefs, cognitive biases, willingness to pay... We were also able to elaborate an experimental protocol dedicated to the evaluation of some demand response contracts' acceptability. The results collected during 14 experimental sessions gave us some innovative clues and insight on these contracts acceptability. But, beyond these results, we have demonstrated that even if experimental economics can't obviously be a substitute for field experiments, it can represent an interesting exploratory methodology. To sum up the experimental economics can take part of residential customers' behaviour understanding, performing

  15. A Survey for hot Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae I. Methods and First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kanarek, Graham C.; Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of initial spectrographic followup with the Very Large Telescope (UT3, Melipal) for $K_s \\ge 14$ Galactic plane CIV emission-line candidates in the near-infrared (NIR). These 7 faint stars all display prominent HeI and CIV emission lines characteristic of a carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet star. They have NIR colours which are much too blue to be those of distant, classical WR stars. The magnitudes and colours are compatible with those expected for central stars of planetary nebu...

  16. Study on some factors affecting the results in the use of MIP method in concrete research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhattacharjee, B.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of rate of pressure application and forms and type of sample on porosity and pore size distribution of concrete estimated through mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) are presented in this experimental work. Two different forms of concrete sample, namely, crushed chunks of concrete and small core drilled out from the concrete beam specimens, were used for this study. The results exhibit that the rate of pressure application in mercury porosimetry has little effect on porosity and pore size distribution of concrete. It is also demonstrated that small cores drilled out from large concrete specimens are preferable as samples for performing porosimetry test on concrete

  17. Longitudinal bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation spectroscopy. Physical principles, multichannel spectrometer, experimental results, mathematical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Wesch, Stephan; Behrens, Christopher; Koevener, Toke; Hass, Eugen; Casalbuoni, Sara

    2018-03-01

    The generation and properties of transition radiation (TR) are thoroughly treated. The spectral energy density, as described by the Ginzburg-Frank formula, is computed analytically, and the modifications caused by the finite size of the TR screen and by near-field diffraction effects are carefully analyzed. The principles of electron bunch shape reconstruction using coherent transition radiation are outlined. Spectroscopic measurements yield only the magnitude of the longitudinal form factor but not its phase. Two phase retrieval methods are investigated and illustrated with model calculations: analytic phase computation by means of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, and iterative phase retrieval. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguities which are unavoidable in the reconstruction of longitudinal charge density profiles from spectroscopic data. The origin of these ambiguities has been identified and a thorough mathematical analysis is presented. The experimental part of the paper comprises a description of our multichannel infrared and THz spectrometer and a selection of measurements at FLASH, comparing the bunch profiles derived from spectroscopic data with those determined with a transversely deflecting microwave structure. A rigorous derivation of the Kramers-Kronig phase formula is presented in Appendix A. Numerous analytic model calculations can be found in Appendix B. The differences between normal and truncated Gaussians are discussed in Appendix C. Finally, Appendix D contains a short description of the propagation of an electromagnetic wave front by two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation. This is the basis of a powerful numerical Mathematica trademark code THzTransport, which permits the propagation of electromagnetic wave fronts through a beam line consisting of drift spaces, lenses, mirrors and apertures.

  18. Postgraduate Education in Quality Improvement Methods: Initial Results of the Fellows' Applied Quality Training (FAQT) Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Burkart, Thomas A; Choi, Calvin Y; McKillop, Matthew S; Beyth, Rebecca J; Dahm, Phillipp

    2016-06-01

    Training in quality improvement (QI) is a pillar of the next accreditation system of the Accreditation Committee on Graduate Medical Education and a growing expectation of physicians for maintenance of certification. Despite this, many postgraduate medical trainees are not receiving training in QI methods. We created the Fellows Applied Quality Training (FAQT) curriculum for cardiology fellows using both didactic and applied components with the goal of increasing confidence to participate in future QI projects. Fellows completed didactic training from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Open School and then designed and completed a project to improve quality of care or patient safety. Self-assessments were completed by the fellows before, during, and after the first year of the curriculum. The primary outcome for our curriculum was the median score reported by the fellows regarding their self-confidence to complete QI activities. Self-assessments were completed by 23 fellows. The majority of fellows (15 of 23, 65.2%) reported no prior formal QI training. Median score on baseline self-assessment was 3.0 (range, 1.85-4), which was significantly increased to 3.27 (range, 2.23-4; P = 0.004) on the final assessment. The distribution of scores reported by the fellows indicates that 30% were slightly confident at conducting QI activities on their own, which was reduced to 5% after completing the FAQT curriculum. An interim assessment was conducted after the fellows completed didactic training only; median scores were not different from the baseline (mean, 3.0; P = 0.51). After completion of the FAQT, cardiology fellows reported higher self-confidence to complete QI activities. The increase in self-confidence seemed to be limited to the applied component of the curriculum, with no significant change after the didactic component.

  19. Machine learning methods for the classification of gliomas: Initial results using features extracted from MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, G; Parvathy, R; Vikas, V; Chandrasekharan, Kesavadas; Nair, Suresh

    2015-04-01

    With the advent of new imaging modalities, radiologists are faced with handling increasing volumes of data for diagnosis and treatment planning. The use of automated and intelligent systems is becoming essential in such a scenario. Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, is increasingly being used in medical image analysis applications such as image segmentation, registration and computer-aided diagnosis and detection. Histopathological analysis is currently the gold standard for classification of brain tumors. The use of machine learning algorithms along with extraction of relevant features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) holds promise of replacing conventional invasive methods of tumor classification. The aim of the study is to classify gliomas into benign and malignant types using MRI data. Retrospective data from 28 patients who were diagnosed with glioma were used for the analysis. WHO Grade II (low-grade astrocytoma) was classified as benign while Grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma) and Grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) were classified as malignant. Features were extracted from MR spectroscopy. The classification was done using four machine learning algorithms: multilayer perceptrons, support vector machine, random forest and locally weighted learning. Three of the four machine learning algorithms gave an area under ROC curve in excess of 0.80. Random forest gave the best performance in terms of AUC (0.911) while sensitivity was best for locally weighted learning (86.1%). The performance of different machine learning algorithms in the classification of gliomas is promising. An even better performance may be expected by integrating features extracted from other MR sequences. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Longitudinal bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation spectroscopy. Physical principles, multichannel spectrometer, experimental results, mathematical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Wesch, Stephan; Behrens, Christopher [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Koevener, Toke [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hass, Eugen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Casalbuoni, Sara [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Beam Physics and Technology; Schmueser, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    The generation and properties of transition radiation (TR) are thoroughly treated. The spectral energy density, as described by the Ginzburg-Frank formula, is computed analytically, and the modifications caused by the finite size of the TR screen and by near-field diffraction effects are carefully analyzed. The principles of electron bunch shape reconstruction using coherent transition radiation are outlined. Spectroscopic measurements yield only the magnitude of the longitudinal form factor but not its phase. Two phase retrieval methods are investigated and illustrated with model calculations: analytic phase computation by means of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, and iterative phase retrieval. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguities which are unavoidable in the reconstruction of longitudinal charge density profiles from spectroscopic data. The origin of these ambiguities has been identified and a thorough mathematical analysis is presented. The experimental part of the paper comprises a description of our multichannel infrared and THz spectrometer and a selection of measurements at FLASH, comparing the bunch profiles derived from spectroscopic data with those determined with a transversely deflecting microwave structure. A rigorous derivation of the Kramers-Kronig phase formula is presented in Appendix A. Numerous analytic model calculations can be found in Appendix B. The differences between normal and truncated Gaussians are discussed in Appendix C. Finally, Appendix D contains a short description of the propagation of an electromagnetic wave front by two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation. This is the basis of a powerful numerical Mathematica trademark code THzTransport, which permits the propagation of electromagnetic wave fronts through a beam line consisting of drift spaces, lenses, mirrors and apertures.

  1. Evaluation of the results of treatment of morbid obesity by the endoscopic intragastric balloon implantation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żurawiński, Wojciech; Sokołowski, Dariusz; Krupa-Kotara, Karolina; Czech, Elżbieta; Sosada, Krystyn

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are ranked in the fifth place among the risk factors responsible for the greatest number of deaths in the world. To assess the effects of treatment of patients with morbid obesity using endoscopic intragastric balloon (IGB) implantation. Two hundred and seventy-two patients with obesity were treated using endoscopic intragastric balloon implantation. Upon analysis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the study covered a group of 63 patients with morbid obesity. The patients were implanted with the LexBal balloon. Reduction of excess body mass, changes to BMI values and ailments and complications divided into mild and severe were assessed. Before intragastric balloon treatment, the average body mass index (BMI) value was 58.3 ±10.5 kg/m 2 , whereas after 6 months of treatment it decreased to 49.5 ±8.7 kg/m 2 . The patients with postoperative BMI equal to or greater than 50.0 kg/m 2 reported nausea (69.7%), vomiting (51.5%), flatulence (45.5%), upper abdominal pain (36.4%) and general discomfort (424%) more frequently. Dehydration (9.1%) was also more frequent in this group, whereas frequency of occurrence of such ailments and complications as heartburn (23.3%) and oesophageal candidiasis (10.0%) was higher in the patients with postoperative BMI below 50.0 kg/m 2 . Endoscopic intragastric balloon implantation is an effective and safe method of excess body mass reduction in patients with morbid obesity before a planned bariatric surgical procedure. Pre-operative excess body mass and BMI value and post-operative excess weight loss in patients with morbid obesity have no impact on frequency of occurrence of ailments and complications in IGB treatment.

  2. Application of a PCR method for the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Agnoletti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative enteritis or “quail disease” is an acute clostridial infection of young birds reported in many avian species, chicken and turkey included. Clostridium colinum is the causative agent of ulcerative enteritis and because of the difficulties bound to the isolation and identification of this bacterium by means of classic bacteriological techniques, its detection appears very hard and the prevalence of this disease could be underestimated. To investigate the diffusion of C. colinum in enteric disease of birds, a recently developed PCR protocol was applied to 42 cultural broths previously inoculated with organs and intestinal samples collected from diseased subjects. PCR-positive broths were cultivated to attempt the isolation of C. colinum. Samples collected from positive birds were subjected to histological examinations. 4 birds (3 broilers chickens and 1 pigeon resulted PCR-positive and, in one case, C. colinum was isolated. Gross and histological lesions of positive birds were compatible with those described in other ulcerative enteritis outbreaks. These preliminary results demonstrates that C. colinum is sporadically implicated in enteric diseases of broiler chickens (14.2%. In addition, the PCR assay proved to be an useful and reliable instrument to support the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis and to facilitate the isolation of C. colinum.

  3. UV-VIS Spectroscopy Applied to Stratospheric Chemistry, Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, K.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Numerous observations and modeling have shown with a very high degree of certainty that the man-made emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halons are responsible for the Antarctica ozone hole. It is also evident that the ozone layer of the Northern Hemisphere has suffered a certain decline over the last 10-15 years, possibly because of CFC and halons. 20-30% of the observed reduction is ascribed to coupled chlorine and bromine chemistry via a catalytic cycle resulting in the net conversion of 2O{sub 3} to 3O{sub 2}. But the details are not fully understood. The author plans to assemble a UV-VIS spectrometer for measuring the species OClO and BrO and to compare and discuss measured diurnal variations of OClO and BrO with model calculations. The use of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is discussed and some results from late 1995 presented. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Challenges of E-learning in medicine: methods and results of a systematical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreckelsen, Cord

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available E-learning in medicine traditionally concentrates on case oriented or problem oriented learning scenarios, the development of multimedia courseware or the implementation of simulators. This paper aims at a systematic exploration of actual and new challenges for E-learning in the medical domain. The exploration is based on the analysis of the scientific discourse in the field of Medical Education. The analysis starts from text based sources: the concept hierarchy of the Medical Subject Headings, the profiles of the relevant scientific associations, and the scientific program of scientific conferences or annual meetings. These sources are subjected to conceptual analysis, supported by network visualization tools and supplemented by network theoretic indices (Betweeness Centrality. As a result, the main concerns of the Medical Education community and their modifications during the last six years can be identified. The analysis discovers new challenges, which result from central issues of Medical Education, namely from e.g. curricular and faculty development or the sustainable integration of postgraduate education and continuing medial education. The main challenges are: 1 the implementation of integrative conceptions of the application of learning management systems (LMS and 2 the necessity of combining aspects of organizational development, knowledge management and learning management within the scope of a comprehensive learning life cycle management.

  5. Development of a method of robust rain gauge network optimization based on intensity-duration-frequency results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chebbi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF curves, fitted in several locations of a given area, a robust optimization approach is proposed to identify the best locations to install new rain gauges. The advantage of robust optimization is that the resulting design solutions yield networks which behave acceptably under hydrological variability. Robust optimization can overcome the problem of selecting representative rainfall events when building the optimization process. This paper reports an original approach based on Montana IDF model parameters. The latter are assumed to be geostatistical variables, and their spatial interdependence is taken into account through the adoption of cross-variograms in the kriging process. The problem of optimally locating a fixed number of new monitoring stations based on an existing rain gauge network is addressed. The objective function is based on the mean spatial kriging variance and rainfall variogram structure using a variance-reduction method. Hydrological variability was taken into account by considering and implementing several return periods to define the robust objective function. Variance minimization is performed using a simulated annealing algorithm. In addition, knowledge of the time horizon is needed for the computation of the robust objective function. A short- and a long-term horizon were studied, and optimal networks are identified for each. The method developed is applied to north Tunisia (area = 21 000 km2. Data inputs for the variogram analysis were IDF curves provided by the hydrological bureau and available for 14 tipping bucket type rain gauges. The recording period was from 1962 to 2001, depending on the station. The study concerns an imaginary network augmentation based on the network configuration in 1973, which is a very significant year in Tunisia because there was an exceptional regional flood event in March 1973. This network consisted of 13 stations and did not meet World

  6. The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method with the Use of l-[1-13C]Leucine Suggests a Higher than Currently Recommended Protein Requirement in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Salvarinova, Ramona; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2017-02-01

    Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1- 13 C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 μmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1- 13 C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1- 13 C]Leu tracer oxidation. The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 (R 2 = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ; based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient. This

  7. Polarimetry at 1.3 mm using MILLIPOL - methods and preliminary results for Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvainis, R.; Clemens, D.P.; Leach, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a polarimeter for use at wavelengths near 1 mm, designed to be self-contained and portable. Only minor modifications should be required to adapt this instrument for use on any of several millimeter and submillimeter telescopes. The polarimeter system and data-taking techniques are described, and a preliminary measurement is reported of the polarized dust emission from the Orion KL region at 1.3 mm using the NRAO 12 m telescope. The results are similar to previous polarization measurements of Orion at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The magnetic field direction implied by the polarization position angle is parallel to that found in the surrounding Orion region using optical and near- to midinfrared polarimetric techniques. 17 references

  8. Preliminary results for the detection method of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs residues in pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-kuo Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs residues, which come from environmental pollution, tend to accumulate in the food chain (EFSA, 2008; Guerranti et al., 2013. 17 chemicals of PFASs family were selected for this study. Fresh pork samples were extracted by Waters® WAX SPE (solid phase extraction cartridges. All extracted samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The results of calibration curves of each PFAS were good, the R2 values ranging from 0.9901 to 0.9993. The Recoveries were in the range 80%-119%. The protocol of extraction by Waters® WAX SPE cartridge will be applied in future studies.

  9. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups.

  10. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  11. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Rien M J P A; van Zadelhoff, Ezra; van Loo, Ger; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Molewijk, Bert A C

    2015-12-01

    Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. How did participants evaluate moral case deliberation? What has moral case deliberation brought to them? What has moral case deliberation contributed to care practice? Should moral case deliberation be further implemented and, if so, how? Quantitative analysis of a questionnaire study among participants of moral case deliberation, both caregivers and team leaders. Qualitative analysis of written answers to open questions, interview study and focus group meetings among caregivers and team leaders. Caregivers and team leaders in a large organization for aged care in the Netherlands. A total of 61 moral case deliberation sessions, carried out on 16 care locations belonging to the organization, were evaluated and perceived results were assessed. Participants gave informed consent and anonymity was guaranteed. In the Netherlands, the law does not prescribe independent ethical review by an Institutional Review Board for this kind of research among healthcare professionals. Moral case deliberation was evaluated positively by the participants. Content and atmosphere of moral case deliberation received high scores, while organizational issues regarding the moral case deliberation sessions scored lower and merit further attention. Respondents indicated that moral case deliberation has the potential to contribute to care practice as relationships among team members improve, more openness is experienced and more understanding for different perspectives is fostered. If moral case deliberation is to be successfully implemented, top-down approaches should go hand in hand with bottom-up approaches. The relevance of moral case deliberation for care practice received wide acknowledgement from the respondents. It can contribute

  12. Detection of leaks in underground storage tanks using electrical resistance methods: 1996 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.

    1996-10-01

    This document provides a summary of a field experiment performed under a 15m diameter steel tank mockup located at the Hanford Reservation, Washington. The purpose of this test was to image a contaminant plume as it develops in soil under a tank already contaminated by previous leakage and to determine whether contaminant plumes can be detected without the benefit of background data. Measurements of electrical resistance were made before and during a salt water release. These measurements were made in soil which contained the remnants of salt water plumes released during previous tests in 1994 and in 1995. About 11,150 liters of saline solution were released along a portion of the tank's edge in 1996. Changes in electrical resistivity due to release of salt water conducted in 1996 were determined in two ways: (1) changes relative to the 1996 pre-spill data, and (2) changes relative to data collected near the middle of the 1996 spill after the release flow rate was increased. In both cases, the observed resistivity changes show clearly defined anomalies caused by the salt water release. These results indicate that when a plume develops over an existing plume and in a geologic environment similar to the test site environment, the resulting resistivity changes are easily detectable. Three dimensional tomographs of the resistivity of the soil under the tank show that the salt water release caused a region of low soil resistivity which can be observed directly without the benefit of comparing the tomograph to tomographs or data collected before the spill started. This means that it may be possible to infer the presence of pre-existing plumes if there is other data showing that the regions of low resistivity are correlated with the presence of contaminated soil. However, this approach does not appear reliable in defining the total extent of the plume due to the confounding effect that natural heterogeneity has on our ability to define the margins of the anomaly

  13. Changes in School Food Preparation Methods Result in Healthier Cafeteria Lunches in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K; Liebert, Mina L; Peterson, Hannah J; Howard Smith, Jennifer; Sutliffe, Jay T; Day, Aubrey; Mack, Jodi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a districtwide food best practices and preparation changes in elementary schools lunches, implemented as part of the LiveWell@School childhood obesity program, funded by LiveWell Colorado/Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative. Longitudinal study examining how school changes in best practices for food preparation impacted the types of side items offered from 2009 to 2015 in elementary school cafeterias in a high-need school district in southern Colorado. Specifically, this study examined changes in side items (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, breads, and desserts). In Phase 1 (2009-2010), baseline data were collected. During Phase 2 (2010-2011), breaded and processed foods (e.g., frozen nuggets, pre-packaged pizza) were removed and school chefs were trained on scratch cooking methods. Phase 3 (2011-2012) saw an increased use of fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables after a new commodity order. During Phase 4 (2013-2015), chef consulting and training took place. The frequency of side offerings was tracked across phases. Analyses were completed in Fall 2016. Because of limited sample sizes, data from Phases 2 to 4 (intervention phases) were combined for potatoes and desserts. Descriptive statistics were calculated. After adjusting for length of time for each phase, Pearson chi-square tests were conducted to examine changes in offerings of side items by phase. Fresh fruit offerings increased and canned fruit decreased in Phases 1-4 (p=0.001). A significant difference was observed for vegetables (p=0.001), with raw and steamed vegetables increasing and canned vegetables decreasing from Phase 1 to 4. Fresh potatoes (low in sodium) increased and fried potatoes (high in sodium) decreased from Phase 1 to Phases 2-4 (p=0.001). Breads were eliminated entirely in Phase 2, and dessert changes were not significant (p=0.927). This approach to promoting healthier lunch sides is a promising paradigm for improving elementary

  14. New archeointensity results from the reconstructed ancient kiln by the Tsunakawa-Shaw method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Hatakeyama, T.; Kitahara, Y.; Saito, T.

    2017-12-01

    Yamamoto et al. (2015) reported that baked clay samples from the floor of a reconstructed ancient kiln provided a reliable Tsunakawa-Shaw (LTD-DHT Shaw) archeointensity (AI) estimate of 47.3 +/- 2.2 microT which is fairly consistent with the in situ geomagnetic field of 46.4 microT at the time of the reconstruction. The reconstruction was conducted to reproduce an excavated kiln of the seventh century in Japan and Sue-type potteries of contemporary style were also fired (Nakajima et al., 1974). Two of the potteries with reddish color were recently subjected to the Tsunakawa-Shaw archeointensity determinations, resulting in reliable AI estimates of 45.4 +/- 2.3 (N=6) and 48.2 +/- 2.7 microT (N=15) when specimens were heated in air in laboratory (Yamamoto et al., 2017 JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting). We have had another opportunity to take samples from a new reconstructed ancient kiln in Japan which was fired in autumn 2016. The samples were two Sue-type potteries with grayish color (bowl-type and plate-type) and some blocks collected from inner wall of the kiln body. They were cut into mini specimens and then subjected to the Tsunakawa-Shaw experiment. Heating in laboratory was done either in air or vacuum.For the bowl-type pottery, AIs of 46.9 +/- 2.8 (N=6, air) and 45.3 +/- 2.3 microT (N=6, vacuum) are obtained. They are indistinguishable each other and consistent with the IGRF field of 47.4 microT at the reconstructed location in 2016. For the plate-type pottery, AIs result in 41.8 +/- 1.3 (N=4, air) and 43.9 +/- 3.9 microT (N=4, vacuum). They are also indistinguishable each other but the former AI is slightly lower than the IGRF field.For the inner wall, AIs of 45.0 (N=1, air) and 46.8 microT (N=1, vacuum) are obtained from a right-side wall, and those of 45.5 +/- 2.5 (N=2, air) and 47.7 +/- 3.0 microT (N=2, vacuum) are observed from a left-side wall. They are all indistinguishable and consistent with the IGRF field.

  15. TREC 2010 legal track: method and results of the ELK collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearing, Shelly [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Kay, Bain [KAYVIUM; Lindquist, Eric [EWA-IIT

    2010-10-25

    The ELK team ([E]WA-IIT, [L]os Alamos National laboratory (LANL), and [K]ayvium Corporation (ELK)) used the legal Track task 302 as an opportunity to compare and integrate advanced semantic-automation strategies. The team members believe that enabling parties to discover, consume, analyze, and make decisions in a noisy and information-overloaded environment requires new tools. Together, as well as independently, they are actively developing these tools and view the TREC exercise as an opportunity to test, compare, and complement tools and approaches. Our collaboration is new to TREC, brought together by a shared interest in document relevance, concept-in-context identification and annotation, and the recognition that words out-of-context do not a match make. The team's intent was to lay the foundation for automating the mining and analysis of large volumes of electronic information by litigants and their lawyers, not only in the context of document discovery, but also to support litigation strategy, motion practice, deposition, trial tactics, etc. The premise was that a Subject Matter Expert- (SME-) built model can be automatically mapped onto various search engines for document retrieval, organization, relevance scoring, analysis and decision support. In the end, we ran nearly a dozen models, mostly, but not exclusively, with Kayvium Corporation's knowledge automation technology. The Sal Database Search Engine we used had a bug in its proximity feature, requiring that we develop a workaround. While the work-around was successful, it left us with insufficient time to converge the models to achieve expected quality. However, with optimized proximity processing in place, we would be able to run the model many more times, and believe repeatable quality would be a matter of working through a few requests to get the approach right. We believe that with more time, the results we would achieve might point towards a new way of processing documents for litigation

  16. Test results for cables used in nuclear power plants by a new environmental testing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Katsue; Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Toshiyasu; Takano, Keiji; Oya, Shingo

    1982-12-01

    In the nuclear power plants using PWRs or BWRs in Japan, environmental tests are provided, in which simulated LOCA conditions are considered so as to conform with Japanese conditions, and many cables which passed these tests are presently employed. Lately, the new environmental testing, in which a credible accident called MSLB (main steam line breakage) is taken into account, is investigated in PWR nuclear power plants, besides LOCA. This paper reports on the results of evaluating some PWR cables for this new environmental testing conditions. The several cables tested were selected out of PH cables (fire-retardant, ethylene propylene rubber insulated, chlorosulfonated polyethylene sheathed cables) as the cables for safety protecting circuits and to be used in containment vessels where the cables are to be exposed to severe environmental test conditions of 2 x 10/sup 8/ Rad ..gamma..-irradiation and simulated LOCA. All these cables have been accepted after the vertical tray burning test provided in the IEEE Standard 383. The new testing was carried out by sequentially applying thermal deterioration, ..gamma..-irradiation, and the exposure to steam (twice 300 s exposures to 190 deg C superheated steam). After completing each step, tensile strength, elongation, insulation resistance and breakdown voltage were measured, respectively. Every cable tested showed satisfactory breakdown voltage after the exposure to steam, thus it was decided to be acceptable. In future, it is required to investigate the influence of the rate of temperature rise on the cable to be tested in MSLB simulation.

  17. Estimating the uncertainty of damage costs of pollution: A simple transparent method and typical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, Joseph V.; Rabl, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the uncertainty of environmental impacts and damage costs is usually estimated by means of a Monte Carlo calculation, this paper shows that most (and in many cases all) of the uncertainty calculation involves products and/or sums of products and can be accomplished with an analytic solution which is simple and transparent. We present our own assessment of the component uncertainties and calculate the total uncertainty for the impacts and damage costs of the classical air pollutants; results for a Monte Carlo calculation for the dispersion part are also shown. The distribution of the damage costs is approximately lognormal and can be characterized in terms of geometric mean μ g and geometric standard deviation σ g , implying that the confidence interval is multiplicative. We find that for the classical air pollutants σ g is approximately 3 and the 68% confidence interval is [μ g / σ g , μ g σ g ]. Because the lognormal distribution is highly skewed for large σ g , the median is significantly smaller than the mean. We also consider the case where several lognormally distributed damage costs are added, for example to obtain the total damage cost due to all the air pollutants emitted by a power plant, and we find that the relative error of the sum can be significantly smaller than the relative errors of the summands. Even though the distribution for such sums is not exactly lognormal, we present a simple lognormal approximation that is quite adequate for most applications

  18. Test results for cables used in nuclear power plants by a new environmental testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Katsue; Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Toshiyasu; Takano, Keiji; Oya, Shingo

    1982-01-01

    In the nuclear power plants using PWRs or BWRs in Japan, environmental tests are provided, in which simulated LOCA conditions are considered so as to conform with Japanese conditions, and many cables which passed these tests are presently employed. Lately, the new environmental testing, in which a credible accident called MSLB (main steam line breakage) is taken into account, is investigated in PWR nuclear power plants, besides LOCA. This paper reports on the results of evaluating some PWR cables for this new environmental testing conditions. The several cables tested were selected out of PH cables (fire-retardant, ethylene propylene rubber insulated, chlorosulfonated polyethylene sheathed cables) as the cables for safety protecting circuits and to be used in containment vessels where the cables are to be exposed to severe environmental test conditions of 2 x 10 8 Rad γ-irradiation and simulated LOCA. All these cables have been accepted after the vertical tray burning test provided in the IEEE Standard 383. The new testing was carried out by sequentially applying thermal deterioration, γ-irradiation, and the exposure to steam (twice 300 s exposures to 190 deg C superheated steam). After completing each step, tensile strength, elongation, insulation resistance and breakdown voltage were measured, respectively. Every cable tested showed satisfactory breakdown voltage after the exposure to steam, thus it was decided to be acceptable. In future, it is required to investigate the influence of the rate of temperature rise on the cable to be tested in MSLB simulation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Mean Blood Pressure Assessment during Post-Exercise: Result from Two Different Methods of Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Sainas, Raffaele Milia, Girolamo Palazzolo, Gianfranco Ibba, Elisabetta Marongiu, Silvana Roberto, Virginia Pinna, Giovanna Ghiani, Filippo Tocco, Antonio Crisafulli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At rest the proportion between systolic and diastolic periods of the cardiac cycle is about 1/3 and 2/3 respectively. Therefore, mean blood pressure (MBP is usually calculated with a standard formula (SF as follows: MBP = diastolic blood pressure (DBP + 1/3 [systolic blood pressure (SBP – DBP]. However, during exercise this proportion is lost because of tachycardia, which shortens diastole more than systole. We analysed the difference in MBP calculation between the SF and a corrected formula (CF which takes into account changes in the diastolic and systolic periods caused by exercise-induced tachycardia. Our hypothesis was that the SF potentially induce a systematic error in MBP assessment during recovery after exercise. Ten healthy males underwent two exercise-recovery tests on a cycle-ergometer at mild-moderate and moderate-heavy workloads. Hemodynamics and MBP were monitored for 30 minutes after exercise bouts. The main result was that the SF on average underestimated MBP by –4.1 mmHg with respect to the CF. Moreover, in the period immediately after exercise, when sustained tachycardia occurred, the difference between SF and CF was large (in the order of -20-30 mmHg. Likewise, a systematic error in systemic vascular resistance assessment was present. It was concluded that the SF introduces a substantial error in MBP estimation in the period immediately following effort. This equation should not be used in this situation.

  20. Estimation of the Radon-induced Dose for Russia's Population: Methods and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marenny, A.M.; Savkin, M.N.; Shinkarev, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    A model is proposed for inferring the radon-induced annual average collective and personal doses, as well as the dose distribution of the population, all over Russia from selective radon monitoring in some regions of Russia. The model assumptions and the selective radon monitoring results that underlie the numerical estimates obtained for different population groups are presented. The current estimate of the collective radon-induced dose received by the population of Russia (148,100,000 as of 1996) is about 130,000 man Sv, of which 55,000 man Sv is for the rural population (27% of the total population) and 75,000 man Sv for the urban population (73% of the total). The average radon-induced personal dose in Russia is estimated to be about 0.87 mSv. About 1,000,000 people receive annual doses above 10 mSv, including some 200,000 people who receive doses above 20 mSv annually. The ways of making the current estimates more accurate are outlined. (author)

  1. A Literature Study of Matrix Element Influenced to the Result of Analysis Using Absorption Atomic Spectroscopy Method (AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyas-Djuhariningrum

    2004-01-01

    The gold sample analysis can be deviated more than >10% to those thrue value caused by the matrix element. So that the matrix element character need to be study in order to reduce the deviation. In rock samples, the matrix elements can cause self quenching, self absorption and ionization process, so there is a result analysis error. In the rock geochemical process, the elements of the same group at the periodic system have the tendency to be together because of their same characteristic. In absorption Atomic Spectroscopy analysis, the elements associate can absorb primer energy with similar wave length so that it can cause deviation in the result interpretation. The aim of study is to predict matrix element influences from rock sample with application standard method for reducing deviation. In quantitative way, assessment of primer light intensity that will be absorbed is proportional to the concentration atom in the sample that relationship between photon intensity with concentration in part per million is linier (ppm). These methods for eliminating matrix elements influence consist of three methods : external standard method, internal standard method, and addition standard method. External standard method for all matrix element, internal standard method for elimination matrix element that have similar characteristics, addition standard methods for elimination matrix elements in Au, Pt samples. The third of standard posess here accuracy are about 95-97%. (author)

  2. Effect of Chemistry Triangle Oriented Learning Media on Cooperative, Individual and Conventional Method on Chemistry Learning Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latisma D, L.; Kurniawan, W.; Seprima, S.; Nirbayani, E. S.; Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to see which method are well used with the Chemistry Triangle-oriented learning media. This quasi experimental research involves first grade of senior high school students in six schools namely each two SMA N in Solok city, in Pasaman and two SMKN in Pariaman. The sampling technique was done by Cluster Random Sampling. Data were collected by test and analyzed by one-way anova and Kruskall Wallish test. The results showed that the high school students in Solok learning taught by cooperative method is better than the results of student learning taught by conventional and Individual methods, both for students who have high initial ability and low-ability. Research in SMK showed that the overall student learning outcomes taught by conventional method is better than the student learning outcomes taught by cooperative and individual methods. Student learning outcomes that have high initial ability taught by individual method is better than student learning outcomes that are taught by cooperative method and for students who have low initial ability, there is no difference in student learning outcomes taught by cooperative, individual and conventional methods. Learning in high school in Pasaman showed no significant difference in learning outcomes of the three methods undertaken.

  3. [Methods in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS): results of a nationwide survey in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchinger, S; Sapetschnig, I; Danda, M; Sommer, C; Resch, B; Urlesberger, B; Raith, W

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs in neonates whose mothers have taken addictive drugs or were under substitution therapy during pregnancy. Incidence numbers of NAS are on the rise globally, even in Austria NAS is not rare anymore. The aim of our survey was to reveal the status quo of dealing with NAS in Austria. A questionnaire was sent to 20 neonatology departments all over Austria, items included questions on scoring, therapy, breast-feeding and follow-up procedures. The response rate was 95%, of which 94.7% had written guidelines concerning NAS. The median number of children being treated per year for NAS was 4. Finnegan scoring system is used in 100% of the responding departments. Morphine is being used most often, in opiate abuse (100%) as well as in multiple substance abuse (44.4%). The most frequent forms of morphine preparation are morphine and diluted tincture of opium. Frequency as well as dosage of medication vary broadly. 61.1% of the departments supported breast-feeding, regulations concerned participation in a substitution programme and general contraindications (HIV, HCV, HBV). Our results revealed that there is a big west-east gradient in patients being treated per year. NAS is not a rare entity anymore in Austria (up to 50 cases per year in Vienna). Our survey showed that most neonatology departments in Austria treat their patients following written guidelines. Although all of them base these guidelines on international recommendations there is no national consensus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The new Inventory of Italian Glaciers: Present knowledge, applied methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Baroni, Carlo; Mortara, Gianni; Perotti, Luigi; Bondesan, Aldino; Salvatore, Cristina; Vagliasindi, Marco; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    A new Glacier Inventory is an indispensable requirement in Italy due to the importance of evaluating the present glacier coverage and the recent changes driven by climate. Furthermore Alpine glaciers represent a not negligible water and touristic resource then to manage and promote them is needed to know their distribution, size and features. The first Italian Glacier Inventory dates back to 1959-1962. It was compiled by the Italian Glaciological Committee (CGI) in cooperation with the National Research Council (CNR); this first inventory was mainly based on field data coupled with photographs (acquired on the field) and high resolution maps. The Italian glaciation resulted to be spread into 754 ice bodies which altogether were covering 525 km2. Moreover in the Eighties a new inventory was compiled to insert Italian data into the World Glacier Inventory (WGI); aerial photos taken at the end of the Seventies (and in some cases affected by a high and not negligible snow coverage) were used as the main source of data. No other national inventory were compiled after that period. Nevertheless during the last decade the largest part of the Italian Alpine regions have produced regional and local glacier inventories which in several cases are also available and queried through web sites and web GIS application. The actual need is now to obtain a complete, homogeneous and contemporary picture of the Italian Glaciation which encompasses the already available regional and local data and all the new updated information coming from new sources of data (e.g.: orthophotos, satellite imagines, etc..). The challenge was accepted by the University of Milan, the EvK2CNR Committee and the Italian Glaciological Committee who, with the sponsorship of Levissima Spa, are presently working to compile the new updated Italian Glacier Inventory. The first project step is to produce a unique homogeneous glacier database including glacier boundary and surface area and the main fundamental

  5. Skin sparing mastectomy: Technique and suggested methods of reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Farahat

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Skin Sparing mastectomy through a circum-areolar incision has proven to be a safe and feasible option for the management of breast cancer in Egyptian women, offering them adequate oncologic control and optimum cosmetic outcome through preservation of the skin envelope of the breast when ever indicated. Our patients can benefit from safe surgery and have good cosmetic outcomeby applying different reconstructive techniques.

  6. Teaching Intracultural and Intercultural Communication: A Critique and Suggested Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoss, Danielle; Jasken, Julia; Hayden, Dawn

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes recent literature about the importance of paying attention to intercultural communication. Analyzes the productive approaches in popular business and technical communication textbooks. Presents five challenges for business and technical communication teachers to consider. Includes teaching modules that address these challenges. Notes…

  7. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  8. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Qualitative Analysis Results for Applications of a New Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment Method to Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Daeil; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seungcheol

    2013-01-01

    The fire PRA Implementation Guide has been used for performing a fire PSA for NPPs in Korea. Recently, US NRC and EPRI developed a new fire PSA method, NUREG/CR-6850, to provide state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire PSA for a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP). Due to the limited budget and man powers for the development of KSRP, hybrid PSA approaches, using NUREG/CR-6850 and Fire PRA Implementation Guide, will be employed for conducting a fire PSA of Ulchin Unit 3. In this paper, the qualitative analysis results for applications of a new fire PSA method to Ulchin Unit 3 are presented. This paper introduces the qualitative analysis results for applications of a new fire PSA method to Ulchin Unit 3. Compared with the previous industry, the number of fire areas for quantification identified and the number of equipment selected has increased

  10. The numerical method of inverse Laplace transform for calculation of overvoltages in power transformers and test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulović Jovan Č.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for calculation of overvoltages in transformer windings, based on a numerical method of inverse Laplace transform, is presented. Mathematical model of transformer windings is described by partial differential equations corresponding to distributed parameters electrical circuits. The procedure of calculating overvoltages is applied to windings having either isolated neutral point, or grounded neutral point, or neutral point grounded through impedance. A comparative analysis of the calculation results obtained by the proposed numerical method and by analytical method of calculation of overvoltages in transformer windings is presented. The results computed by the proposed method and measured voltage distributions, when a voltage surge is applied to a three-phase 30 kVA power transformer, are compared. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33037 i br. TR-33020

  11. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  12. First results of Minimum Fisher Regularisation as unfolding method for JET NE213 liquid scintillator neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, Jan; Adams, John M.; Bertalot, Luciano; Conroy, Sean

    2005-01-01

    At JET, the NE213 liquid scintillator is being validated as a diagnostic tool for spectral measurements of neutrons emitted from the plasma. Neutron spectra have to be unfolded from the measured pulse-height spectra, which is an ill-conditioned problem. Therefore, use of two independent unfolding methods allows for less ambiguity on the interpretation of the data. In parallel to the routine algorithm MAXED based on the Maximum Entropy method, the Minimum Fisher Regularisation (MFR) method has been introduced at JET. The MFR method, known from two-dimensional tomography applications, has proved to provide a new transparent tool to validate the JET neutron spectra measured with the NE213 liquid scintillators. In this article, the MFR method applicable to spectra unfolding is briefly explained. After a mention of MFR tests on phantom spectra experimental neutron spectra are presented that were obtained by applying MFR to NE213 data in selected JET experiments. The results tend to confirm MAXED observations

  13. Method, equipment and results of determination of element composition of the Venus rock by the Vega-2 space probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Moskaleva, L.P.; Shcheglov, O.P.

    1985-01-01

    Venus rock composition was determined by X-ray radiometric method in the northeast site of the Aphrodita terra. The experiment was performed on the Vega-2 spacecraft. Composition of Venus rock proved to be close to the composition of the anorthosite-norite-troctolite rocks widespread in the lunar highland crust. The descriptions of the method, instrumentation and results of determining the composition of rocks in landing site of Vega-2 spacecraft are given

  14. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  15. Uranium City radiation reduction program: further efforts at remedial measures for houses with block walls, concrete porosity test results, and intercomparison of Kuznetz method and Tsivoglau method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubrich, E.; Leung, M.K.; Mackie, R.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt was made to reduce the levels of radon in a house in Uranium City by mechanically venting the plenums in the concrete block basement walls, with little success. A table compares the results obtained by measuring the radon WL using the Tsivoglau and the Kuznetz methods

  16. Air sampling methods to evaluate microbial contamination in operating theatres: results of a comparative study in an orthopaedics department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, C; Tafuri, S; Montenegro, L; Cassano, M; Notarnicola, A; Lattarulo, S; Montagna, M T; Moretti, B

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the level of microbial contamination of air in operating theatres using active [i.e. surface air system (SAS)] and passive [i.e. index of microbial air contamination (IMA) and nitrocellulose membranes positioned near the wound] sampling systems. Sampling was performed between January 2010 and January 2011 in the operating theatre of the orthopaedics department in a university hospital in Southern Italy. During surgery, the mean bacterial loads recorded were 2232.9 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(2)/h with the IMA method, 123.2 cfu/m(3) with the SAS method and 2768.2 cfu/m(2)/h with the nitrocellulose membranes. Correlation was found between the results of the three methods. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 12 of 60 operations (20%) with the membranes, five (8.3%) operations with the SAS method, and three operations (5%) with the IMA method. Use of nitrocellulose membranes placed near a wound is a valid method for measuring the microbial contamination of air. This method was more sensitive than the IMA method and was not subject to any calibration bias, unlike active air monitoring systems. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison result of inversion of gravity data of a fault by particle swarm optimization and Levenberg-Marquardt methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toushmalani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of two methods for gravity inversion of a fault. First method [Particle swarm optimization (PSO)] is a heuristic global optimization method and also an optimization algorithm, which is based on swarm intelligence. It comes from the research on the bird and fish flock movement behavior. Second method [The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LM)] is an approximation to the Newton method used also for training ANNs. In this paper first we discussed the gravity field of a fault, then describes the algorithms of PSO and LM And presents application of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, and a particle swarm algorithm in solving inverse problem of a fault. Most importantly the parameters for the algorithms are given for the individual tests. Inverse solution reveals that fault model parameters are agree quite well with the known results. A more agreement has been found between the predicted model anomaly and the observed gravity anomaly in PSO method rather than LM method.

  18. Locating previously unknown patterns in data-mining results: a dual data- and knowledge-mining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knaus William A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data mining can be utilized to automate analysis of substantial amounts of data produced in many organizations. However, data mining produces large numbers of rules and patterns, many of which are not useful. Existing methods for pruning uninteresting patterns have only begun to automate the knowledge acquisition step (which is required for subjective measures of interestingness, hence leaving a serious bottleneck. In this paper we propose a method for automatically acquiring knowledge to shorten the pattern list by locating the novel and interesting ones. Methods The dual-mining method is based on automatically comparing the strength of patterns mined from a database with the strength of equivalent patterns mined from a relevant knowledgebase. When these two estimates of pattern strength do not match, a high "surprise score" is assigned to the pattern, identifying the pattern as potentially interesting. The surprise score captures the degree of novelty or interestingness of the mined pattern. In addition, we show how to compute p values for each surprise score, thus filtering out noise and attaching statistical significance. Results We have implemented the dual-mining method using scripts written in Perl and R. We applied the method to a large patient database and a biomedical literature citation knowledgebase. The system estimated association scores for 50,000 patterns, composed of disease entities and lab results, by querying the database and the knowledgebase. It then computed the surprise scores by comparing the pairs of association scores. Finally, the system estimated statistical significance of the scores. Conclusion The dual-mining method eliminates more than 90% of patterns with strong associations, thus identifying them as uninteresting. We found that the pruning of patterns using the surprise score matched the biomedical evidence in the 100 cases that were examined by hand. The method automates the acquisition of

  19. Comparison of objective methods for assessment of annoyance of low frequency noise with the results of a laboratory listening test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Subjective assessments made by test persons were compared to results from a number of objective measurement and calculation methods for the assessment of low frequency noise. Eighteen young persons with normal hearing listened to eight environmental low frequency noises and evaluated the annoyance...

  20. A method for carrying out radiolysis and chemical reactions by means of the radiations resulting from a thermonuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomberg, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of the radiations resulting from thermonuclear reactions. It deals with a method comprising a combination of thermo-chemical and radiolytic reactions for treating a molecule having a high absorption rate, by the radiations of a thermonuclear reaction. This is applicable to the dissociation of water into oxygen and hydrogen [fr

  1. Chapter 5: Exponential experiments on natural uranium graphite moderated systems. II: Correlation of results with the method of Syrett (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Moore, P.G.F.; Richmond, R.

    1963-01-01

    The results are given of exponential experiments on graphite moderated systems with fuel elements consisting of single rods and tubes of natural uranium metal. A correlation is given with the method of calculation proposed by Syrett (1961) and new consistent values of neutron yield and effective resonance integral are derived. (author)

  2. STANDARDIZATION OF GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN RESULTS AND REFERENCE VALUES IN WHOLE-BLOOD STUDIED IN 103 LABORATORIES USING 20 METHODS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEYKAMP, CW; PENDERS, TJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    We investigated the effect of calibration with lyophilized calibrators on whole-blood glycohemoglobin (glyHb) results. One hundred three laboratories, using 20 different methods, determined glyHb in two lyophilized calibrators and two whole-blood samples. For whole-blood samples with low (5%) and

  3. Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, L; Smith, T; Havsager, A M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield and to describe the spectrum of diagnosis encountered by evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 198 patients referred to a department of neurology...... with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy. The evaluation included nerve conduction studies with near-nerve technique, quantitative examination of temperature sensation, blood tests, chest x-rays, and skin biopsies as well as diagnostic tests for differential diagnoses. RESULTS: Polyneuropathy was found in 147......%), drugs (5%), connective tissue disease (3%), and a number of less frequent conditions. A previously undiagnosed condition was found in 30% of the patients with polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy reveals a high fraction of patients with previously...

  4. A Comparison of Result Reliability for Investigation of Milk Composition by Alternative Analytical Methods in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk analyse result reliability is important for assurance of foodstuff chain quality. There are more direct and indirect methods for milk composition measurement (fat (F, protein (P, lactose (L and solids non fat (SNF content. The goal was to evaluate some reference and routine milk analytical procedures on result basis. The direct reference analyses were: F, fat content (Röse–Gottlieb method; P, crude protein content (Kjeldahl method; L, lactose (monohydrate, polarimetric method; SNF, solids non fat (gravimetric method. F, P, L and SNF were determined also by various indirect methods: – MIR (infrared (IR technology with optical filters, 7 instruments in 4 labs; – MIR–FT (IR spectroscopy with Fourier’s transformations, 10 in 6; – ultrasonic method (UM, 3 in 1; – analysis by the blue and red box (BRB, 1 v 1. There were used 10 reference milk samples. Coefficient of determination (R2, correlation coefficient (r and standard deviation of the mean of individual differences (MDsd, for n were evaluated. All correlations (r; for all indirect and alternative methods and all milk components were significant (P ≤ 0.001. MIR and MIR–FT (conventional methods explained considerably higher proportion of the variability in reference results than the UM and BRB methods (alternative. All r average values (x minus 1.64 × sd for 95% confidence interval can be used as standards for calibration quality evaluation (MIR, MIR–FT, UM and BRB: – for F 0.997, 0.997, 0.99 and 0.995; – for P 0.986, 0.981, 0.828 and 0.864; – for L 0.968, 0.871, 0.705 and 0.761; – for SNF 0.992, 0.993, 0.911 and 0.872. Similarly ​MDsd (x plus 1.64 × sd: – for F 0.071, 0.068, 0.132 and 0.101%; – for P 0.051, 0.054, 0.202 and 0.14%; – for L 0.037, 0.074, 0.113 and 0.11%; – for SNF 0.052, 0.068, 0.141 and 0.204.

  5. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A normalization method for combination of laboratory test results from different electronic healthcare databases in a distributed research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dukyong; Schuemie, Martijn J; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Dong Ki; Park, Man Young; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Jung, Eun-Young; Park, Dong Kyun; Cho, Soo Yeon; Shin, Dahye; Hwang, Yeonsoo; Park, Rae Woong

    2016-03-01

    Distributed research networks (DRNs) afford statistical power by integrating observational data from multiple partners for retrospective studies. However, laboratory test results across care sites are derived using different assays from varying patient populations, making it difficult to simply combine data for analysis. Additionally, existing normalization methods are not suitable for retrospective studies. We normalized laboratory results from different data sources by adjusting for heterogeneous clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of the data and called this the subgroup-adjusted normalization (SAN) method. Subgroup-adjusted normalization renders the means and standard deviations of distributions identical under population structure-adjusted conditions. To evaluate its performance, we compared SAN with existing methods for simulated and real datasets consisting of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum potassium, and total bilirubin. Various clinico-epidemiologic characteristics can be applied together in SAN. For simplicity of comparison, age and gender were used to adjust population heterogeneity in this study. In simulations, SAN had the lowest standardized difference in means (SDM) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov values for all tests (p normalization performed better than normalization using other methods. The SAN method is applicable in a DRN environment and should facilitate analysis of data integrated across DRN partners for retrospective observational studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  8. Examining Sexual Dysfunction in Non‐Muscle‐Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of Cross‐Sectional Mixed‐Methods Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Kowalkowski, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Survivors' sexual symptoms may result from NMIBC, comorbidities, or both. These results inform literature and practice by raising awareness about the frequency of symptoms and the impact on NMIBC survivors' intimate relationships. Further work is needed to design symptom management education programs to dispel misinformation about contamination post‐treatment and improve quality of life. Kowalkowski MA, Chandrashekar A, Amiel GE, Lerner SP, Wittmann DA, Latini DM, and Goltz HH. Examining sexual dysfunction in non‐muscle‐invasive bladder cancer: Results of cross‐sectional mixed‐methods research. Sex Med 2014;2:141–151.

  9. Standardization of glycohemoglobin results and reference values in whole blood studied in 103 laboratories using 20 methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weykamp, C W; Penders, T J; Miedema, K; Muskiet, F A; van der Slik, W

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of calibration with lyophilized calibrators on whole-blood glycohemoglobin (glyHb) results. One hundred three laboratories, using 20 different methods, determined glyHb in two lyophilized calibrators and two whole-blood samples. For whole-blood samples with low (5%) and high (9%) glyHb percentages, respectively, calibration decreased overall interlaboratory variation (CV) from 16% to 9% and from 11% to 6% and decreased intermethod variation from 14% to 6% and from 12% to 5%. Forty-seven laboratories, using 14 different methods, determined mean glyHb percentages in self-selected groups of 10 nondiabetic volunteers each. With calibration their overall mean (2SD) was 5.0% (0.5%), very close to the 5.0% (0.3%) derived from the reference method used in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. In both experiments the Abbott IMx and Vision showed deviating results. We conclude that, irrespective of the analytical method used, calibration enables standardization of glyHb results, reference values, and interpretation criteria.

  10. A validation of direct grey Dancoff factors results for cylindrical cells in cluster geometry by the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Leticia Jenisch; Bogado, Sergio; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2008-01-01

    The WIMS code is a well known and one of the most used codes to handle nuclear core physics calculations. Recently, the PIJM module of the WIMS code was modified in order to allow the calculation of Grey Dancoff factors, for partially absorbing materials, using the alternative definition in terms of escape and collision probabilities. Grey Dancoff factors for the Canadian CANDU-37 and CANFLEX assemblies were calculated with PIJM at five symmetrically distinct fuel pin positions. The results, obtained via Direct Method, i.e., by direct calculation of escape and collision probabilities, were satisfactory when compared with the ones of literature. On the other hand, the PIJMC module was developed to calculate escape and collision probabilities using Monte Carlo method. Modifications in this module were performed to determine Black Dancoff factors, considering perfectly absorbing fuel rods. In this work, we proceed further in the task of validating the Direct Method by the Monte Carlo approach. To this end, the PIJMC routine is modified to compute Grey Dancoff factors using the cited alternative definition. Results are reported for the mentioned CANDU-37 and CANFLEX assemblies obtained with PIJMC, at the same fuel pin positions as with PIJM. A good agreement is observed between the results from the Monte Carlo and Direct methods

  11. Doppler method leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 1. Experimental results of bubble detection using small models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi

    1999-01-01

    To prevent the expansion of the tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, an active acoustic method was developed. Previous studies have revealed that in practical steam generators the active acoustic method can detect bubbles of 10 l/s within 10 seconds. To prevent the expansion of damage to neighboring tubes, it is necessary to detect smaller leakages of water from the heat transfer tubes. The Doppler method is designed to detect small leakages and to find the source of the leak before damage spreads to neighboring tubes. To evaluate the relationship between the detection sensitivity of the Doppler method and the bubble volume and bubble size, the structural shapes and bubble flow conditions were investigated experimentally, using a small structural model. The results show that the Doppler method can detect the bubbles under bubble flow conditions, and it is sensitive enough to detect small leakages within a short time. The doppler method thus has strong potential for the detection of water leakage in SGs. (author)

  12. METHODS OF MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING BY SIMULATING ITS STRIKES WITH THE INTERVAL ASSESSMENT OF THE RESULTS OF MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Kriksin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the development of new methods aimed at more accurate interval estimate of the experimental values of voltages on grounding devices of substations and circuits in the control cables, that occur when lightning strikes to lightning rods; the abovementioned estimate made it possible to increase the accuracy of the results of the study of lightning noise by 28 %. A more accurate value of interval estimation were achieved by developing a measurement model that takes into account, along with the measured values, different measurement errors and includes the special processing of the measurement results. As a result, the interval of finding the true value of the sought voltage is determined with an accuracy of 95 %. The methods can be applied to the IK-1 and IKP-1 measurement complexes, consisting in the aperiodic pulse generator, the generator of high-frequency pulses and selective voltmeters, respectively. To evaluate the effectiveness of the developed methods series of experimental voltage assessments of grounding devices of ten active high-voltage substation have been fulfilled in accordance with the developed methods and traditional techniques. The evaluation results confirmed the possibility of finding the true values of voltage over a wide range, that ought to be considered in the process of technical diagnostics of lightning protection of substations when the analysis of the measurement results and the development of measures to reduce the effects of lightning are being fulfilled. Also, a comparative analysis of the results of measurements made in accordance with the developed methods and traditional techniques has demonstrated that the true value of the sought voltage may exceed the measured value at an average of 28 %, that ought to be considered in the further analysis of the parameters of lightning protection at the facility and in the development of corrective actions. The developed methods have been

  13. Summary of EPA's risk assessment results from the analysis of alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrowski, M.S.; Hung, C.Y.; Meyer, G.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential health risk and individual exposure from a broad number of disposal alternatives is an important part of EPA's program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The Agency has completed an analysis of the potential population health risks and maximum individual exposures from ten disposal methods under three different hydrogeological and climatic settings. This paper briefly describes the general input and analysis procedures used in the risk assessment for LLW disposal and presents their preliminary results. Some important lessons learned from simulating LLW disposal under a large variety of methods and conditions are identified

  14. The effect of different methods and image analyzers on the results of the in vivo comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoya, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Rika; Shimanura, Yuko; Terada, Megumi; Masuda, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    The in vivo comet assay is a widely used genotoxicity test that can detect DNA damage in a range of organs. It is included in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. However, various protocols are still used for this assay, and several different image analyzers are used routinely to evaluate the results. Here, we verified a protocol that largely contributes to the equivalence of results, and we assessed the effect on the results when slides made from the same sample were analyzed using two different image analyzers (Comet Assay IV vs Comet Analyzer). Standardizing the agarose concentrations and DNA unwinding and electrophoresis times had a large impact on the equivalence of the results between the different methods used for the in vivo comet assay. In addition, there was some variation in the sensitivity of the two different image analyzers tested; however this variation was considered to be minor and became negligible when the test conditions were standardized between the two different methods. By standardizing the concentrations of low melting agarose and DNA unwinding and electrophoresis times between both methods used in the current study, the sensitivity to detect the genotoxicity of a positive control substance in the in vivo comet assay became generally comparable, independently of the image analyzer used. However, there may still be the possibility that other conditions, except for the three described here, could affect the reproducibility of the in vivo comet assay.

  15. Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bertini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP’s broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.

  16. Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Sabrina; Risi, Giulia; Guerrini, Marco; Carrick, Kevin; Szajek, Anita Y; Mulloy, Barbara

    2017-07-19

    In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP's broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.

  17. EIT Imaging of admittivities with a D-bar method and spatial prior: experimental results for absolute and difference imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S J

    2017-05-22

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging imaging modality that uses harmless electrical measurements taken on electrodes at a body's surface to recover information about the internal electrical conductivity and or permittivity. The image reconstruction task of EIT is a highly nonlinear inverse problem that is sensitive to noise and modeling errors making the image reconstruction task challenging. D-bar methods solve the nonlinear problem directly, bypassing the need for detailed and time-intensive forward models, to provide absolute (static) as well as time-difference EIT images. Coupling the D-bar methodology with the inclusion of high confidence a priori data results in a noise-robust regularized image reconstruction method. In this work, the a priori D-bar method for complex admittivities is demonstrated effective on experimental tank data for absolute imaging for the first time. Additionally, the method is adjusted for, and tested on, time-difference imaging scenarios. The ability of the method to be used for conductivity, permittivity, absolute as well as time-difference imaging provides the user with great flexibility without a high computational cost.

  18. Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity (ACE-Obesity: an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from Conclusion The use of consistent methods enables valid comparison of potential intervention costs and cost-offsets for each of the interventions. ACE-Obesity informs policy-makers about cost-effectiveness, health impact, affordability and 2nd stage filters for important options for preventing unhealthy weight gain in children. In related articles cost-effectiveness results and

  19. Gradient Correlation Method for the Stabilization of Inversion Results of Aerosol Microphysical Properties Retrieved from Profiles of Optical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolgotin Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation relationships between aerosol microphysical parameters and optical data are investigated. The results show that surface-area concentrations and extinction coefficients are linearly correlated with a correlation coefficient above 0.99 for arbitrary particle size distribution. The correlation relationships that we obtained can be used as constraints in our inversion of optical lidar data. Simulation studies demonstrate a significant stabilization of aerosol microphysical data products if we apply the gradient correlation method in our traditional regularization technique.

  20. Channels Coordination Game Model Based on Result Fairness Preference and Reciprocal Fairness Preference: A Behavior Game Forecasting and Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Chuan; Wang, Kaihong; Huang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    In a distribution channel, channel members are not always self-interested, but altruistic in some conditions. Based on this assumption, this paper adopts a behavior game method to analyze and forecast channel members’ decision behavior based on result fairness preference and reciprocal fairness preference by embedding a fair preference theory in channel research of coordination. The behavior game forecasts that a channel can achieve coordination if channel members consider behavior elemen...

  1. Rapid method of calculating the fluence and spectrum of neutrons from a critical assembly and the resulting dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessis, J.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed calculation method is unsophisticated but rapid. The first part (computer code CRITIC), which is based on the Fermi age equation, evaluates the number of neutrons per fission emitted from a moderated critical assembly and their energy spectrum. The second part (computer code NARCISSE), which uses the current albedo for concrete, evaluates the product of neutron reflection on the walls and calculates the fluence resulting at any point in the room and its energy distribution by 21 groups. The results obtained are shown to compare satisfactorily with those obtained through the use of a Monte Carlo program

  2. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  3. Four-spacecraft determination of magnetopause orientation, motion and thickness: comparison with results from single-spacecraft methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Haaland

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use Cluster data from one magnetopause event on 5 July 2001 to compare predictions from various methods for determination of the velocity, orientation, and thickness of the magnetopause current layer. We employ established as well as new multi-spacecraft techniques, in which time differences between the crossings by the four spacecraft, along with the duration of each crossing, are used to calculate magnetopause speed, normal vector, and width. The timing is based on data from either the Cluster Magnetic Field Experiment (FGM or the Electric Field Experiment (EFW instruments. The multi-spacecraft results are compared with those derived from various single-spacecraft techniques, including minimum-variance analysis of the magnetic field and deHoffmann-Teller, as well as Minimum-Faraday-Residue analysis of plasma velocities and magnetic fields measured during the crossings. In order to improve the overall consistency between multi- and single-spacecraft results, we have also explored the use of hybrid techniques, in which timing information from the four spacecraft is combined with certain limited results from single-spacecraft methods, the remaining results being left for consistency checks. The results show good agreement between magnetopause orientations derived from appropriately chosen single-spacecraft techniques and those obtained from multi-spacecraft timing. The agreement between magnetopause speeds derived from single- and multi-spacecraft methods is quantitatively somewhat less good but it is evident that the speed can change substantially from one crossing to the next within an event. The magnetopause thickness varied substantially from one crossing to the next, within an event. It ranged from 5 to 10 ion gyroradii. The density profile was sharper than the magnetic profile: most of the density change occured in the earthward half of the magnetopause.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and

  4. Improvement of human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) using short-time exposure methods for prevention of false-negative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kazuto; Ishii, Yuuki; Vo, Phuc Thi Hong; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Ogata, Shinichi; Yamashita, Kunihiko; Kojima, Hajime; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Recently, animal testing has been affected by increasing ethical, social, and political concerns regarding animal welfare. Several in vitro safety tests for evaluating skin sensitization, such as the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT), have been proposed. However, similar to other tests, the h-CLAT has produced false-negative results, including in tests for acid anhydride and water-insoluble chemicals. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the cause of false-negative results from phthalic anhydride was hydrolysis by an aqueous vehicle, with IL-8 release from THP-1 cells, and that short-time exposure to liquid paraffin (LP) dispersion medium could reduce false-negative results from acid anhydrides. In the present study, we modified the h-CLAT by applying this exposure method. We found that the modified h-CLAT is a promising method for reducing false-negative results obtained from acid anhydrides and chemicals with octanol-water partition coefficients (LogK ow ) greater than 3.5. Based on the outcomes from the present study, a combination of the original and the modified h-CLAT is suggested for reducing false-negative results. Notably, the combination method provided a sensitivity of 95% (overall chemicals) or 93% (chemicals with LogK ow > 2.0), and an accuracy of 88% (overall chemicals) or 81% (chemicals with LogK ow > 2.0). We found that the combined method is a promising evaluation scheme for reducing false-negative results seen in existing in vitro skin-sensitization tests. In the future, we expect a combination of original and modified h-CLAT to be applied in a newly developed in vitro test for evaluating skin sensitization.

  5. Estimated H-atom anisotropic displacement parameters: a comparison between different methods and with neutron diffraction results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munshi, Parthapratim; Madsen, Anders Ø; Spackman, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    systems and identify systematic discrepancies for several atom types. A revised and extended library of internal H-atom mean-square displacements is presented for use with Madsen's SHADE web server [J. Appl. Cryst. (2006), 39, 757-758; http://shade.ki.ku.dk], and the improvement over the original SHADE...... in the agreement with neutron results. The SHADE2 library, now incorporated in the SHADE web server, is recommended as a routine procedure for deriving estimates of H-atom ADPs suitable for use in charge-density studies on molecular crystals, and its widespread use should reveal remaining deficiencies and perhaps...... results is substantial, suggesting that this is now the most readily and widely applicable of the three approximate procedures. Using this new library--SHADE2--it is shown that, in line with expectations, a segmented rigid-body description of the heavy atoms yields only a small improvement...

  6. FEM effective suggestion of guitar construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Dániel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis of the whole guitar construction was performed. The results of eigenfrequencies were obtained. Stress in strings affects not only static loading of material, but also shift of eigenfrequencies. From obtained natural frequencies for solved spectrum such frequencies were used which coincides with assumed ribs new positions of ribs were suggested. Other ribs which do not carry out the mechanical function were removed. Also static reaction was evaluated and new position of ribs was adjusted. For final model new eigenfrequencies were computed and compared with previous ones. Significant changes were revealed in low frequencies (bellow 400 Hz where fewer amounts of natural shapes were obtained. Approximately 50% were lost by adding of ribs. For chosen frequencies of equal temperament the harmonic analysis was performed. The analysis proved ability of oscillation for frequencies far of natural frequencies. The final model satisfies the requirement of minimization of static stress in material due to strings and allows very effective oscillation of top the guitar resonance board. In comparison with literature good agreement in amplitude size of front board and amount of modes in appropriate frequencies were achieved. Suggested model even offers higher amount of natural shapes in comparison with literature, namely in high frequencies. From additional comparison of eigenfrequencies and natural shapes the influence of ribs position on natural shapes was approved.

  7. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  8. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  9. Validation of a near infrared microscopy method for the detection of animal products in feedingstuffs: results of a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, A; Fernández Pierna, J A; von Holst, C; Baeten, V

    2012-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a near infrared microscopy (NIRM) method, when applied to the detection of animal products in feedingstuffs, were determined via a collaborative study. The method delivers qualitative results in terms of the presence or absence of animal particles in feed and differentiates animal from vegetable feed ingredients on the basis of the evaluation of near infrared spectra obtained from individual particles present in the sample. The specificity ranged from 86% to 100%. The limit of detection obtained on the analysis of the sediment fraction, prepared as for the European official method, was 0.1% processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed, since all laboratories correctly identified the positive samples. This limit has to be increased up to 2% for the analysis of samples which are not sedimented. The required sensitivity for the official control is therefore achieved in the analysis of the sediment fraction of the samples where the method can be applied for the detection of the presence of animal meal. Criteria for the classification of samples, when fewer than five spectra are found, as being of animal origin needs to be set up in order to harmonise the approach taken by the laboratories when applying NIRM for the detection of the presence of animal meal in feed.

  10. Description and pilot results from a novel method for evaluating return of incidental findings from next-generation sequencing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Katrina A B; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Berg, Jonathan S; Williams, Marc S; Webber, Elizabeth M; Webster, Jennifer A; Lin, Jennifer S; Schrader, Kasmintan A; Campos-Outcalt, Doug; Offit, Kenneth; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Hollombe, Celine

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, operationalize, and pilot test a transparent, reproducible, and evidence-informed method to determine when to report incidental findings from next-generation sequencing technologies. Using evidence-based principles, we proposed a three-stage process. Stage I "rules out" incidental findings below a minimal threshold of evidence and is evaluated using inter-rater agreement and comparison with an expert-based approach. Stage II documents criteria for clinical actionability using a standardized approach to allow experts to consistently consider and recommend whether results should be routinely reported (stage III). We used expert opinion to determine the face validity of stages II and III using three case studies. We evaluated the time and effort for stages I and II. For stage I, we assessed 99 conditions and found high inter-rater agreement (89%), and strong agreement with a separate expert-based method. Case studies for familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary hemochromatosis, and α1-antitrypsin deficiency were all recommended for routine reporting as incidental findings. The method requires definition of clinically actionable incidental findings and provide documentation and pilot testing of a feasible method that is scalable to the whole genome.

  11. Comparison of R6 and A16 J estimation methods under combined mechanical and thermal loads with FE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyun-Suk; Oh, Chang-Young; Kim, Yun-Jae; Jerng, Dong Wook; Ainsworth, Robert A.; Budden, Peter J.; Marie, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares elastic–plastic values of J calculated using the methods in the UK R6 and the French A16 fitness-for-service procedures with FE results for a vessel with a circumferential surface crack under axial tension and a radial thermal gradient. In the FE analyses, the relative magnitudes and loading sequence of mechanical and thermal loads are systematically varied, together with the material strain hardening exponent. Fully circumferential and semi-elliptical surface crack with two relative crack depths are considered. It is found that the R6 estimates are overall accurate but can be non-conservative at large L_r. The A16 estimates are more conservative than the R6 estimates at small L_r but are conservative even at large L_r. Possible sources of conservatism and non-conservatism in R6 and A16 are discussed. - Highlights: • Accuracy of existing J estimation methods for combined mechanical and thermal loading are compared with FE results. • The methods in the UK R6 and the French A16 procedures are considered. • The R6 estimates are overall accurate but can be non-conservative at large L_r. • The A16 estimates are more conservative than the R6 estimates at small L_r but are conservative even at large L_r. • Possible sources of conservatism and non-conservatism in R6 and A16 are discussed.

  12. Relationships Between Results Of An Internal And External Match Load Determining Method In Male, Singles Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Yahaya; Coetzee, Ben; Van den Berg, Linda

    2017-07-03

    The study purpose was to determine relationships between results of internal and external match load determining methods. Twenty-one players, who participated in selected badminton championships during the 2014/2015 season served as subjects. The heart rate (HR) values and GPS data of each player were obtained via a fix Polar HR Transmitter Belt and MinimaxX GPS device. Moderate significant Spearman's rank correlations were found between HR and absolute duration (r = 0.43 at a low intensity (LI) and 0.44 at a high intensity (HI)), distance covered (r = 0.42 at a HI) and player load (PL) (r = 0.44 at a HI). Results also revealed an opposite trend for external and internal measures of load as the average relative HR value was found to be the highest for the HI zone (54.1%) compared to the relative measures of external load where average values (1.29-9.89%) were the lowest for the HI zone. In conclusion, our findings show that results of an internal and external badminton match load determining method are more related to each other in the HI zone than other zones and that the strength of relationships depend on the duration of activities that are performed in especially LI and HI zones. Overall, trivial to moderate relationships between results of an internal and external match load determining method in male, singles badminton players reaffirm the conclusions of others that these constructs measure distinctly different demands and should therefore be measured concurrently to fully understand the true requirements of badminton match play.

  13. Methods and results of diuresis renography in infants and children. Methodik und Ergebnisse der Diurese-Nephrographie im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinhans, E. (Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Rohrmann, D. (Urologische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Stollbrink, C. (Paediatrische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Mertens, R. (Paediatrische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Jakse, G. (Urologische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Buell, U. (Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, RWTH Aachen (Germany))

    1994-02-01

    In infants and children with hydronephrosis, the decision-making process for those instances of urinary tract dilatation that require surgical correction and those that do not is based in part on the findings of diuresis renography. Quantitative analysis of renogram curve pattern is a well established tool which, in addition, provides comparable results in follow-up studies. However, standardization of the method including data analysis does not yet exist. In this study, three parameters obtained by mathematical curve analysis were examined: clearance half-time for diuretic response, clearance within 5 minutes and clearance within 16 minutes. As a result, 16 minutes clearance revealed superior results in discriminating obstructive impairments of urine drainage from not obstructive ones. Compared to the clearance halftime, the markedly shorter duration of the examination (16 minutes) is an additional benefit. (orig.)

  14. Methods for estimating uncertainty in PMF solutions: examples with ambient air and water quality data and guidance on reporting PMF results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven G; Eberly, Shelly; Paatero, Pentti; Norris, Gary A

    2015-06-15

    The new version of EPA's positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF) software, 5.0, includes three error estimation (EE) methods for analyzing factor analytic solutions: classical bootstrap (BS), displacement of factor elements (DISP), and bootstrap enhanced by displacement (BS-DISP). These methods capture the uncertainty of PMF analyses due to random errors and rotational ambiguity. To demonstrate the utility of the EE methods, results are presented for three data sets: (1) speciated PM2.5 data from a chemical speciation network (CSN) site in Sacramento, California (2003-2009); (2) trace metal, ammonia, and other species in water quality samples taken at an inline storage system (ISS) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (2006); and (3) an organic aerosol data set from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) measurements in Las Vegas, Nevada (January 2008). We present an interpretation of EE diagnostics for these data sets, results from sensitivity tests of EE diagnostics using additional and fewer factors, and recommendations for reporting PMF results. BS-DISP and BS are found useful in understanding the uncertainty of factor profiles; they also suggest if the data are over-fitted by specifying too many factors. DISP diagnostics were consistently robust, indicating its use for understanding rotational uncertainty and as a first step in assessing a solution's viability. The uncertainty of each factor's identifying species is shown to be a useful gauge for evaluating multiple solutions, e.g., with a different number of factors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Studies on mycobacterium tuberculosis sensitivity test by using the method of rapid radiometry with appendixes of clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongqing; Jiang Yimin; Lu Wendong; Zhu Rongen

    1987-01-01

    Three standard strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis (H 37 RV-fully sensitive, SM-R1000 μg/ml, RFP-R 100 μg/ml) were tested with 10 concentration of 5 antitubercular agent, INH, SM, PAS, RFP and EB. 114 isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis taken from patients were tested with INH, PAS, SM and RFP. They were agreed with the results of standard Lowenstein-Jensen method in 81.7%. 82% of the isolate test were completed within 5 days. The method may be used in routine clinical work. The liquid media prepared by authors do not require human serum albumin and it is less expensive and readily available

  16. The method of producing climate change datasets impacts the resulting policy guidance and chance of mal-adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ekström

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Impact, adaptation and vulnerability (IAV research underpin strategies for adaptation to climate change and help to conceptualise what life may look like in decades to come. Research draws on information from global climate models (GCMs though typically post-processed into a secondary product with finer resolution through methods of downscaling. Through worked examples set in an Australian context we assess the influence of GCM sub-setting, geographic area sub-setting and downscaling method on the regional change signal. Examples demonstrate that choices impact on the final results differently depending on factors such as application needs, range of uncertainty of the projected variable, amplitude of natural variability, and size of study region. For heat extremes, the choice of emissions scenario is of prime importance, but for a given scenario the method of preparing data can affect the magnitude of the projection by a factor of two or more, strongly affecting the indicated adaptation decision. For catchment level runoff projections, the choice of emission scenario is less dominant. Rather the method of selecting and producing application-ready datasets is crucial as demonstrated by results with opposing sign of change, raising the real possibility of mal-adaptive decisions. This work illustrates the potential pitfalls of GCM sub-sampling or the use of a single downscaled product when conducting IAV research. Using the broad range of change from all available model sources, whilst making the application more complex, avoids the larger problem of over-confidence in climate projections and lessens the chance of mal-adaptation.

  17. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  18. Testing the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method for comparison of EIA and SEA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuitunen, Markku; Jalava, Kimmo; Hirvonen, Kimmo

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how the results of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) could be compared using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method. There are many tools and techniques that have been developed for use in impact assessment processes, including scoping, checklists, matrices, qualitative and quantitative models, literature reviews, and decision-support systems. While impact assessment processes have become more technically complicated, it is recognized that approaches including simpler applications of available tools and techniques are also appropriate. The Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) is a tool for organizing, analysing and presenting the results of a holistic EIA. RIAM was originally developed to compare the impact of alternative procedures in a single project. In this study, we used RIAM to compare the environmental and social impact of different projects, plans and programs realized within the same geographical area. RIAM scoring is based on five separate criteria. The RIAM criteria were applied to the impact that was considered to be the most significant in the evaluated cases, and scores were given both on environmental and social impact. Our results revealed that the RIAM method could be used for comparison and ranking of separate and distinct projects, plans, programs and policies, based on their negative or positive impact. Our data included 142 cases from the area of Central Finland that is covered by the Regional Council of Central Finland. This sample consisted of various types of projects, ranging from road construction to education programs that applied for EU funding

  19. Justice Is the Missing Link in One Health: Results of a Mixed Methods Study in an Urban City State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamra Lysaght

    Full Text Available One Health (OH is an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to human and animal health that aims to break down conventional research and policy 'silos'. OH has been used to develop strategies for zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID. However, the ethical case for OH as an alternative to more traditional public health approaches is largely absent from the discourse. To study the ethics of OH, we examined perceptions of the human health and ecological priorities for the management of zoonotic EID in the Southeast Asia country of Singapore.We conducted a mixed methods study using a modified Delphi technique with a panel of 32 opinion leaders and 11 semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of those experts in Singapore. Panellists rated concepts of OH and priorities for zoonotic EID preparedness planning using a series of scenarios developed through the study. Interview data were examined qualitatively using thematic analysis.We found that panellists agreed that OH is a cross-disciplinary collaboration among the veterinary, medical, and ecological sciences, as well as relevant government agencies encompassing animal, human, and environmental health. Although human health was often framed as the most important priority in zoonotic EID planning, our qualitative analysis suggested that consideration of non-human animal health and welfare was also important for an effective and ethical response. The panellists also suggested that effective pandemic planning demands regional leadership and investment from wealthier countries to better enable international cooperation.We argue that EID planning under an OH approach would benefit greatly from an ethical ecological framework that accounts for justice in human, animal, and environmental health.

  20. Justice Is the Missing Link in One Health: Results of a Mixed Methods Study in an Urban City State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Tamra; Capps, Benjamin; Bailey, Michele; Bickford, David; Coker, Richard; Lederman, Zohar; Watson, Sangeetha; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2017-01-01

    One Health (OH) is an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to human and animal health that aims to break down conventional research and policy 'silos'. OH has been used to develop strategies for zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). However, the ethical case for OH as an alternative to more traditional public health approaches is largely absent from the discourse. To study the ethics of OH, we examined perceptions of the human health and ecological priorities for the management of zoonotic EID in the Southeast Asia country of Singapore. We conducted a mixed methods study using a modified Delphi technique with a panel of 32 opinion leaders and 11 semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of those experts in Singapore. Panellists rated concepts of OH and priorities for zoonotic EID preparedness planning using a series of scenarios developed through the study. Interview data were examined qualitatively using thematic analysis. We found that panellists agreed that OH is a cross-disciplinary collaboration among the veterinary, medical, and ecological sciences, as well as relevant government agencies encompassing animal, human, and environmental health. Although human health was often framed as the most important priority in zoonotic EID planning, our qualitative analysis suggested that consideration of non-human animal health and welfare was also important for an effective and ethical response. The panellists also suggested that effective pandemic planning demands regional leadership and investment from wealthier countries to better enable international cooperation. We argue that EID planning under an OH approach would benefit greatly from an ethical ecological framework that accounts for justice in human, animal, and environmental health.

  1. Improvement of production layout based on optimum production balancing scale results by using Moodie Young and Comsoal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhsan, Siregar; Ulina Anastasia Sipangkar, Tri; Prasetio, Aji

    2017-09-01

    This research was conducted at a make to order production system company which is engaged in the car body of the vehicle. One of the products produced is dump truck which is one kind of transportation for the transport of goods equipped with hydraulics to facilitate goods’ loading and unloading process. The company has 7 work stations with different cycle times. Companies often experience delays in order delivery. The production process on the production floor has not been done optimally where there is a build up of work in process in some work centres. The build up of work in process (WIP) products is seen in the welding and painting stations. Stacking that occurs on the production line may cause the company to be liable for damages due to delays in product completion. The WIP occurs due to unbalanced paths can be seen from the variance of cycle time of each station is very diverse. The time difference of each work element is due to the allocation of work elements to each work centre unevenly. On the basis of the allocation of uneven work elements, the dump truck assembly line is made. The analysis is done by using Moodie Young and Comsoal method to do the balancing of production line. The result of layout improvement by using systematic layout planning (SLP) method is change the composition of the work centre from 7 into 4 work centre which enables the movement of material to be more effective and efficient so that it can get an efficient and effective production trajectory and can solve existing problems. The result of the track balancing is then used as a guide in constructing a new layout based on the balancing result with the most optimum method.

  2. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  3. Communicating uncertainty: lessons learned and suggestions for climate change assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, A.; Dessai, S.

    2005-01-01

    Assessments of climate change face the task of making information about uncertainty accessible and useful to decision-makers. The literature in behavior economics provides many examples of how people make decisions under conditions of uncertainty relying on inappropriate heuristics, leading to inconsistent and counterproductive choices. Modern risk communication practices recommend a number of methods to overcome these hurdles, which have been recommended for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports. This paper evaluates the success of the most recent IPCC approach to uncertainty communication, based on a controlled survey of climate change experts. Evaluating the results from the survey, and from a similar survey recently conducted among university students, the paper suggests that the most recent IPCC approach leaves open the possibility for biased and inconsistent responses to the information. The paper concludes by suggesting ways to improve the approach for future IPCC assessment reports. (authors)

  4. Developing a bone mineral density test result letter to send to patients: a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmonds SW

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie W Edmonds,1,2 Samantha L Solimeo,3 Xin Lu,1 Douglas W Roblin,4,8 Kenneth G Saag,5 Peter Cram6,7 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2College of Nursing, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Iowa City, IA, USA; 4Kaiser Permanente of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Department of Rheumatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 6Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 7University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 8School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA Purpose: To use a mixed-methods approach to develop a letter that can be used to notify patients of their bone mineral density (BMD results by mail that may activate patients in their bone-related health care. Patients and methods: A multidisciplinary team developed three versions of a letter for reporting BMD results to patients. Trained interviewers presented these letters in a random order to a convenience sample of adults, aged 50 years and older, at two different health care systems. We conducted structured interviews to examine the respondents’ preferences and comprehension among the various letters. Results: A total of 142 participants completed the interview. A majority of the participants were female (64.1% and white (76.1%. A plurality of the participants identified a specific version of the three letters as both their preferred version (45.2%; P<0.001 and as the easiest to understand (44.6%; P<0.01. A majority of participants preferred that the letters include specific next steps for improving their bone health. Conclusion: Using a mixed-methods approach, we were able to develop and optimize a printed letter for communicating a complex test result (BMD to patients. Our results may offer guidance to clinicians, administrators, and researchers who are

  5. Comparison of OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D actuator line methods with (NEW) MEXICO results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, J.; Meyer Forsting, A. R.; Troldborg, N.; Masson, C.

    2017-05-01

    The Actuator Line Method exists for more than a decade and has become a well established choice for simulating wind rotors in computational fluid dynamics. Numerous implementations exist and are used in the wind energy research community. These codes were verified by experimental data such as the MEXICO experiment. Often the verification against other codes were made on a very broad scale. Therefore this study attempts first a validation by comparing two different implementations, namely an adapted version of SOWFA/OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D and also a verification by comparing against experimental results from the MEXICO and NEW MEXICO experiments.

  6. Indication, methods and results of selective arteriography of the A. iliaca interna in case of erectile dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehren, W.; Gall, H.; Scherb, W.; Thon, W.

    1988-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction very frequently can be traced back to the real cause by means of angiography. Selective angiography is the method of choice in cases where other causes of circulatory disturbance have already been excluded, and non-invasive tests are expected to yield information of relevance to therapy. The qualitatively best angiographic results are obtained by examination under peridural anesthesia and by intracavitary injection of vaso-active substances. Selective arteriography is indicated in cases of primary or post-traumatic erectile dysfunction. It is a prerequisite of surgery for revascularisation of the pudendal-penile vascular bed.

  7. Comparison of OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D actuator line methods with (NEW) MEXICO results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, J; Masson, C; Meyer Forsting, A R; Troldborg, N

    2017-01-01

    The Actuator Line Method exists for more than a decade and has become a well established choice for simulating wind rotors in computational fluid dynamics. Numerous implementations exist and are used in the wind energy research community. These codes were verified by experimental data such as the MEXICO experiment. Often the verification against other codes were made on a very broad scale. Therefore this study attempts first a validation by comparing two different implementations, namely an adapted version of SOWFA/OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D and also a verification by comparing against experimental results from the MEXICO and NEW MEXICO experiments. (paper)

  8. The Effect of Memory Trace Strength on Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, Kathy; Roe, Chantal

    1995-01-01

    Examined the conditions under which children's memory is resistant to suggestibility versus vulnerable to suggestibility. Results suggest that children have more accurate memory for an event that occurred to them frequently, and that they are less vulnerable to suggestive influences such as biased interviewing procedures than they would be for an…

  9. A Kinematic Study of Prosodic Structure in Articulatory and Manual Gestures: Results from a Novel Method of Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Krivokapić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this work is to examine prosodic structure as expressed concurrently through articulatory and manual gestures. Specifically, we investigated the effects of phrase-level prominence (Experiment 1 and of prosodic boundaries (Experiments 2 and 3 on the kinematic properties of oral constriction and manual gestures. The hypothesis guiding this work is that prosodic structure will be similarly expressed in both modalities. To test this, we have developed a novel method of data collection that simultaneously records speech audio, vocal tract gestures (using electromagnetic articulometry and manual gestures (using motion capture. This method allows us, for the first time, to investigate kinematic properties of body movement and vocal tract gestures simultaneously, which in turn allows us to examine the relationship between speech and body gestures with great precision. A second goal of the paper is thus to establish the validity of this method. Results from two speakers show that manual and oral gestures lengthen under prominence and at prosodic boundaries, indicating that the effects of prosodic structure extend beyond the vocal tract to include body movement.1

  10. Methods for the decontamination of personnel recommended by a company doctor on the basis of recent research results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, G.

    1992-01-01

    There is no single panacea for all kinds of contamination and, thus, no standard procedure to be uniformly adopted in the decontamination of individuals. This means that methods of personnel decontamination vary according to the different working conditions encountered in research laboratories and units for the production of nuclear fuel and radionuclides on the one hand and nuclear power plants on the other hand. Some knowledge of the chemical properties of contaminating materials appears indispensable, but is mostly found wanting. A suitable method of personnel decontamination can by no means be defined as one that ensures the cleaning of contaminations from the skin surface. All decontamination measures, even the less aggressive ones, may result in incorporation. An intact skin offers the best protection against incorporation. It must be borne in mind that most contaminations occuring in nuclear power plants are of minor importance as regards dose. The damage to the affected individual from aggressive methods of removal will be much greater than that from any radioactivity remaining in the corneal layer. (orig.) [de

  11. Methods and results of implementing a commercially available videotaped health physics training program in a multi-disciplined DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Sandia, a prime contractor for DOE, is a multi-disciplined research and development laboratory. Its various activities include the operations of two nuclear reactors, several multi-kilocurie gamma irradiation facilities, a transuranic hot cell facility, various and numerous particle accelerators and x-ray generators, and many other areas involving employees working with or around radioactive materials or radiation producing machines. Since March 1979, Sandia has conducted a formalized basic radiation safety training program using a commercially available videotaped training package. The videotapes are generic in nature and are accompanied with hard copy text material, vu-graphs, quizzes, and an instructor's guide. Sandia's overall training program and the methods, results, and problem areas of implementing an off the shelf, commercially available videotaped training program are described. Results are summarized using an instructor/course/student evaluation form

  12. Use of statistical study methods for the analysis of the results of the imitation modeling of radiation transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, M. A.; Gendrina, I. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, due to the abundance of various types of observational data in the systems of vision through the atmosphere and the need for their processing, the use of various methods of statistical research in the study of such systems as correlation-regression analysis, dynamic series, variance analysis, etc. is actual. We have attempted to apply elements of correlation-regression analysis for the study and subsequent prediction of the patterns of radiation transfer in these systems same as in the construction of radiation models of the atmosphere. In this paper, we present some results of statistical processing of the results of numerical simulation of the characteristics of vision systems through the atmosphere obtained with the help of a special software package.1

  13. Potential theory for stationary Schrödinger operators: a survey of results obtained with non-probabilistic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bramanti

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deal with a uniformly elliptic operator of the kind: Lu  Au + Vu, where the principal part A is in divergence form, and V is a function assumed in a “Kato class”. This operator has been studied in different contexts, especially using probabilistic techniques. The aim of the present work is to give a unified and simplified presentation of the results obtained with non probabilistic methods for the operator L on a bounded Lipschitz domain. These results regard: continuity of the solutions of Lu=0; Harnack inequality; estimates on the Green's function and L-harmonic measure; boundary behavior of positive solutions of Lu=0, in particular a “Fatou's theorem”.

  14. The quality of reporting methods and results of cost-effectiveness analyses in Spain: a methodological systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Ridao, Manuel; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; García-Altés, Anna; Cameron, Chris; González-Bermejo, Diana; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique; Peiró, Salvador; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Hutton, Brian

    2016-01-07

    Cost-effectiveness analysis has been recognized as an important tool to determine the efficiency of healthcare interventions and services. There is a need for evaluating the reporting of methods and results of cost-effectiveness analyses and establishing their validity. We describe and examine reporting characteristics of methods and results of cost-effectiveness analyses conducted in Spain during more than two decades. A methodological systematic review was conducted with the information obtained through an updated literature review in PubMed and complementary databases (e.g. Scopus, ISI Web of Science, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) databases from Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), Índice Médico Español (IME) Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)). We identified cost-effectiveness analyses conducted in Spain that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as outcome measures (period 1989-December 2014). Two reviewers independently extracted the data from each paper. The data were analysed descriptively. In total, 223 studies were included. Very few studies (10; 4.5 %) reported working from a protocol. Most studies (200; 89.7 %) were simulation models and included a median of 1000 patients. Only 105 (47.1 %) studies presented an adequate description of the characteristics of the target population. Most study interventions were categorized as therapeutic (189; 84.8 %) and nearly half (111; 49.8 %) considered an active alternative as the comparator. Effectiveness of data was derived from a single study in 87 (39.0 %) reports, and only few (40; 17.9 %) used evidence synthesis-based estimates. Few studies (42; 18.8 %) reported a full description of methods for QALY calculation. The majority of the studies (147; 65.9 %) reported that the study intervention produced "more costs and more QALYs" than the comparator. Most studies (200; 89.7 %) reported favourable

  15. Results of clinical approbation of new local treatment method in the complex therapy of inflammatory parodontium diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Romanova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of parodontium are one of the most difficult problems in stomatology today. Purpose of research: estimation of clinical efficiency of local combined application of developed agent apigel for oral cavity care and low-frequency electromagnetic field magnetotherapy at treatment of inflammatory diseases of parodontium. Materials and methods: 46 patients with chronic generalized catarrhal gingivitis and chronic generalized periodontitis of 1st degree were included into the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment management: basic (n = 23 and control (n = 23. Conventional treatment with the local use of the dental gel with camomile was used in the control group. Patients of the basic group were treated with local combined application of apigel and magnetotherapy. Efficiency was estimated with clinical, laboratory, microbiological and functional (ultrasonic Doppler examination methods of examination. Results: The application of the apigel and pulsating electromagnetic field in the complex medical treatment of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis (GhGP caused positive changes in clinical symptom and condition of parodontal tissues, that was accompanied by decline of hygienic and parodontal indexes. As compared with patients who had traditional anti-inflammatory therapy, patients who were treated with local application of apigel and magnetoterapy had decline of edema incidence. It was revealed that decrease of the pain correlated with improvement of hygienic condition of oral cavity and promoted prevention of bacterial contamination of damaged mucous membranes. Estimation of microvasculatory blood stream with the method of ultrasonic doppler flowmetry revealed more rapid normalization of volume and linear high systole, speed of blood stream in the parodontal tissues in case of use of new complex local method. Conclusions: Effect of the developed local agent in patients

  16. An assessment of the validity of inelastic design analysis methods by comparisons of predictions with test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.; Clinard, J.A.; Sartory, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    The use of computer programs that employ relatively complex constitutive theories and analysis procedures to perform inelastic design calculations on fast reactor system components introduces questions of validation and acceptance of the analysis results. We may ask ourselves, ''How valid are the answers.'' These questions, in turn, involve the concepts of verification of computer programs as well as qualification of the computer programs and of the underlying constitutive theories and analysis procedures. This paper addresses the latter - the qualification of the analysis methods for inelastic design calculations. Some of the work underway in the United States to provide the necessary information to evaluate inelastic analysis methods and computer programs is described, and typical comparisons of analysis predictions with inelastic structural test results are presented. It is emphasized throughout that rather than asking ourselves how valid, or correct, are the analytical predictions, we might more properly question whether or not the combination of the predictions and the associated high-temperature design criteria leads to an acceptable level of structural integrity. It is believed that in this context the analysis predictions are generally valid, even though exact correlations between predictions and actual behavior are not obtained and cannot be expected. Final judgment, however, must be reserved for the design analyst in each specific case. (author)

  17. Advances in agronomic management of phytoremediation: methods and results from a 10-year study of metal-polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofilo Vamerali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among green technologies addressed to metal pollution, phytoextraction has received increasing attention in recent years as an alternative to physical and chemical methods of decontamination. Since 1998, as part of an Italian multidisciplinary research team on phytoremediation, we have been carrying out several agronomic investigations with field crops in agricultural soil and pyrite waste, both markedly contaminated by heavy metals. Phytoextraction was rarely an efficient process, requiring a long time even to remove merely the bioavailable metal fraction, but the great metal stock in roots suggests exploring the effectiveness of long-term in planta stabilisation. Poor above-ground productivity was the main factor constraining metal removals, especially in wastes. Without assisting the process, only zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu were harvested by the canopy in substantial amounts, with an estimated maximum of ~8 kg of metals from an hectare base with rapeseed in the agricultural soil and only 0.33 kg with fodder radish in pyrite waste. Root growth was a key trait in species and genotype selection, in view of the close relationship between root length and metal uptake. The auxins, humic acids and chelators tested on the model plant fodder radish generally increased metal concentrations in plant tissues, but reduced growth and removals. It is currently concluded that phytoremediation efficiency with crop species may be improved through increased productivity by suitable soil management, involving mineral and organic fertilisation, contaminant dilution, soil capping, and metal immobilisation with inorganics and biochar.

  18. Suggestions for an updated fusion power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1976-02-01

    This document contains suggestions for a revised CTR Program strategy which should allow us to achieve equivalent goals while operating within the above constraints. The revised program is designed around three major facilities. The first is an upgrading of the present TFTR facility which will provide a demonstration of the generation of tens of megawatts electric equivalent originally envisioned for the 1985 EPR. The second device is the TTAP which will allow the integration and optimization of the plasma physics results obtained from the next generation of plasma physics experiments. The improvement in tokamak reactor operation resulting from this optimization of fusion plasma performance will enable an EPR to be designed which will produce several hundred megawatts of electric power by 1990. This will move the fusion program much closer to its goal of commercial fusion power by the turn of the century. In addition to this function the TTAP will serve as a prototype of the 1990 EPR system, thus making more certain the successful operation of this device. The third element of this revised program is an intense radiation damage facility which will provide the radiation damage information necessary for the EPR and subsequent fusion reactor facilities. The sum total of experience gained from reacting plasma experiments on TFTR, reactor grade plasma optimization and technological prototyping on TTAP, and end of life radiation damage results from the intense neutron facility will solve all of the presently foreseen problems associated with a tokamak fusion power reactor except those associated with the external nuclear systems. These external system problems such as tritium breeding and optimal power recovery can be developed in parallel on the 1990 EPR

  19. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  20. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  1. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  2. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  3. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  4. Maxillectomy defects: a suggested classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, V I; Dosumu, O O; Olusanya, A A; Ikusika, O F

    2013-06-01

    The term "maxillectomy" has been used to describe a variety of surgical procedures for a spectrum of diseases involving a diverse anatomical site. Hence, classifications of maxillectomy defects have often made communication difficult. This article highlights this problem, emphasises the need for a uniform system of classification and suggests a classification system which is simple and comprehensive. Articles related to this subject, especially those with specified classifications of maxillary surgical defects were sourced from the internet through Google, Scopus and PubMed using the search terms maxillectomy defects classification. A manual search through available literature was also done. The review of the materials revealed many classifications and modifications of classifications from the descriptive, reconstructive and prosthodontic perspectives. No globally acceptable classification exists among practitioners involved in the management of diseases in the mid-facial region. There were over 14 classifications of maxillary defects found in the English literature. Attempts made to address the inadequacies of previous classifications have tended to result in cumbersome and relatively complex classifications. A single classification that is based on both surgical and prosthetic considerations is most desirable and is hereby proposed.

  5. Alpha test results for a Housing First eLearning strategy: the value of multiple qualitative methods for intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Emily Q; Watson, Dennis P; Adams, Erin L; McGuire, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Detailed descriptions of implementation strategies are lacking, and there is a corresponding dearth of information regarding methods employed in implementation strategy development. This paper describes methods and findings related to the alpha testing of eLearning modules developed as part of the Housing First Technical Assistance and Training (HFTAT) program's development. Alpha testing is an approach for improving the quality of a product prior to beta (i.e., real world) testing with potential applications for intervention development. Ten participants in two cities tested the modules. We collected data through (1) a structured log where participants were asked to record their experiences as they worked through the modules; (2) a brief online questionnaire delivered at the end of each module; and (3) focus groups. The alpha test provided useful data related to the acceptability and feasibility of eLearning as an implementation strategy, as well as identifying a number of technical issues and bugs. Each of the qualitative methods used provided unique and valuable information. In particular, logs were the most useful for identifying technical issues, and focus groups provided high quality data regarding how the intervention could best be used as an implementation strategy. Alpha testing was a valuable step in intervention development, providing us an understanding of issues that would have been more difficult to address at a later stage of the study. As a result, we were able to improve the modules prior to pilot testing of the entire HFTAT. Researchers wishing to alpha test interventions prior to piloting should balance the unique benefits of different data collection approaches with the need to minimize burdens for themselves and participants.

  6. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  7. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  8. An overview of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, addiction, analytical methods, and interpretation of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, H; Aydin, B E; Mueller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S

    2011-09-01

    Abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been known since the early 1990's, but is not as widespread as the consumption of other illegal drugs. However, the number of severe intoxications with fatal outcomes is comparatively high; not the least of which is brought about by the consumption of the currently legal precursor substances gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD). In regards to previous assumptions, addiction to GHB or its analogues can occur with severe symptoms of withdrawal. Moreover, GHB can be used for drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its pharmacological effects are generated mainly by interaction with both GABA(B) and GHB receptors, as well as its influence on other transmitter systems in the human brain. Numerous analytical methods for determining GHB using chromatographic techniques were published in recent years, and an enzymatic screening method was established. However, the short window of GHB detection in blood or urine due to its rapid metabolism is a challenge. Furthermore, despite several studies addressing this problem, evaluation of analytical results can be difficult: GHB is a metabolite of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid); a differentiation between endogenous and exogenous concentrations has to be made. Apart from this, in samples with a longer storage interval and especially in postmortem specimens, higher levels can be measured due to GHB generation during this postmortem interval or storage time. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Neurochemistry of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias: Results of metabolic imaging and future application of ligand binding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, K.A.; Koeppe, R.A.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been recognized for over a decade as a leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly, its etiology remains unknown. Radiotracer imaging studies have revealed characteristic patterns of abnormal energy metabolism and blood flow in AD. A consistent reduction in cerebral glucose metabolism, determined by positron emission tomography, is observed in the parietal, temporal, and frontal association cortices. It is proposed that this occurs on the basis of diffuse cortical pathology, resulting in disproportionate loss of presynaptic input to higher cortical association areas. Postmortem neurochemical studies consistently indicate a severe depletion of cortical presynaptic cholinergic markers in AD. This is accounted for by loss of cholinergic projection neurons in the basal forebrain. In addition, loss of extrinsic serotonergic innervation of the cortex and losses of intrinsic cortical markers such as somatostatin, substance P, glutamate receptors, and glutamate- and GABA-uptake sites are reported. These observations offer the opportunity for study in vivo with the use of radioligand imaging methods under development. The role of tracer imaging studies in the investigation and diagnosis of dementia is likely to become increasingly central, as metabolic imaging provides evidence of abnormality early in the clinical course. New neurochemical imaging methods will allow direct testing of hypotheses of selective neuronal degeneration, and will assist in design of future studies of AD pathophysiology

  10. Discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative evaluation of randomised controlled trial results: achieving clarity through mixed methods triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin-Crine, Sarah; Anthierens, Sibyl; Hood, Kerenza; Yardley, Lucy; Cals, Jochen W L; Francis, Nick A; Coenen, Samuel; van der Velden, Alike W; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Llor, Carl; Butler, Chris C; Verheij, Theo J M; Goossens, Herman; Little, Paul

    2016-05-12

    Mixed methods are commonly used in health services research; however, data are not often integrated to explore complementarity of findings. A triangulation protocol is one approach to integrating such data. A retrospective triangulation protocol was carried out on mixed methods data collected as part of a process evaluation of a trial. The multi-country randomised controlled trial found that a web-based training in communication skills (including use of a patient booklet) and the use of a C-reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care test decreased antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners (GPs) for acute cough. The process evaluation investigated GPs' and patients' experiences of taking part in the trial. Three analysts independently compared findings across four data sets: qualitative data collected view semi-structured interviews with (1) 62 patients and (2) 66 GPs and quantitative data collected via questionnaires with (3) 2886 patients and (4) 346 GPs. Pairwise comparisons were made between data sets and were categorised as agreement, partial agreement, dissonance or silence. Three instances of dissonance occurred in 39 independent findings. GPs and patients reported different views on the use of a CRP test. GPs felt that the test was useful in convincing patients to accept a no-antibiotic decision, but patient data suggested that this was unnecessary if a full explanation was given. Whilst qualitative data indicated all patients were generally satisfied with their consultation, quantitative data indicated highest levels of satisfaction for those receiving a detailed explanation from their GP with a booklet giving advice on self-care. Both qualitative and quantitative data sets indicated higher patient enablement for those in the communication groups who had received a booklet. Use of CRP tests does not appear to engage patients or influence illness perceptions and its effect is more centred on changing clinician behaviour. Communication skills and the patient

  11. Implicit methods for equation-free analysis: convergence results and analysis of emergent waves in microscopic traffic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschler, Christian; Sieber, Jan; Berkemer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a general formulation for an implicit equation-free method in the setting of slow-fast systems. First, we give a rigorous convergence result for equation-free analysis showing that the implicitly defined coarse-level time stepper converges to the true dynamics on the slow manifold...... against the direction of traffic. Equation-free analysis enables us to investigate the behavior of the microscopic traffic model on a macroscopic level. The standard deviation of cars' headways is chosen as the macroscopic measure of the underlying dynamics such that traveling wave solutions correspond...... to equilibria on the macroscopic level in the equation-free setup. The collapse of the traffic jam to the free flow then corresponds to a saddle-node bifurcation of this macroscopic equilibrium. We continue this bifurcation in two parameters using equation-free analysis....

  12. Measurement of gamma ray from fuel of high temperature engineering test reactor. Method of measurement and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Takada, Eiji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-02-01

    To obtain information in the HTTR core directly, gamma ray from fuel blocks was measured when fuel blocks were discharged from the core and reloaded to the core. Gamma ray was measured using GM detector, CZT semiconductor detector installed in a door valve and area monitors installed in a stand pipe compartment. The measurement was carried out for 20 fuel blocks in 4 columns considering the symmetry of uranium enrichment distribution in the core. Relative axial distribution in each column obtained by the GM detector and CZT detector agreed with calculated results. However, calculation values showed higher values than measured values in upper region of the core, lower those in lower region of the core. The axial distributions were also evaluated by the area monitors. The measured values agreed with calculated values. It became clear that it was possible to obtain the data inside the core by this method. (author)

  13. Formal quality improvement curriculum and DMAIC method results in interdisciplinary collaboration and process improvement in renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaphart, Cynthia L; Gonwa, Thomas A; Mai, Martin L; Prendergast, Mary B; Wadei, Hani M; Tepas, Joseph J; Taner, C Burcin

    2012-09-01

    Broad-based formal quality improvement curriculum emphasizing Six Sigma and the DMAIC approach developed by our institution is required for physicians in training. DMAIC methods evaluated the common outcome of postoperative hyponatremia, thus resulting in collaboration to prevent hyponatremia in the renal transplant population. To define postoperative hyponatremia in renal transplant recipients, a project charter outlined project aims. To measure postoperative hyponatremia, serum sodium at admission and immediately postoperative were recorded by retrospective review of renal transplant recipient charts from June 29, 2010 to December 31, 2011. An Ishikawa diagram was generated to analyze potential causative factors. Interdisciplinary collaboration and hospital policy assessment determined necessary improvements to prevent hyponatremia. Continuous monitoring in control phase was performed by establishing the goal of DMAIC approach and formal quality curriculum for trainees addresses core competencies by providing a framework for problem solving, interdisciplinary collaboration, and process improvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Analysis of the results of bone healing in femurs lengthened by the gradual distraction method in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochymek, J; Skvaril, J; Ondrus, S

    2009-10-01

    Treatment of leg length inequality via lengthening of the shorter extremity is an infrequent orthopedic procedure due to the requirement of special distraction devices and possible serious complications. Essential qualitative changes in operative technique development are associated with the name of G. A. Ilizarov, who paved the way for the autoregenerate gradual distraction method in the 1950s. In the years 1990 through 2007 a total of 67 patients underwent femur lengthening via gradual distraction using various types of external fixators at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Orthopedics, and Traumatology, Faculty Hospital in Brno. The quality of bone healing was monitored and a number of parameters followed and statistically evaluated using regularly scheduled X-ray examinations. In 13 cases we had to remove the external fixator following the distraction phase, perform an osteosynthesis via a splint and fill the distraction gap via spongioplasty. The bone healing was satisfactory in the remaining 54 patients and the lengthened bone required no other fixation method. The analysis showed statistically significant deceleration in bone healing following distraction in female patients over 12 years of age, and in boys over 14 years of age. Lack of periosteal callus five weeks after surgery always signified serious problems in further healing. Severe complications were recorded in 11 cases during the distraction phase, and in 12 cases after the removal of the distraction apparatus. Our results fully correspond with the data and experience of others cited authors. In addition our study showed deceleration in bone healing in girls over 12 years and in boys over 14 years of age and serious problem in healing when is lack of periostal callus five weeks after surgery. The aim of this report was to present the results of our study of distraction gap bone healing using the gradual lengthening approach. Key words: leg lengthening, gradual distraction, external fixation, leg

  15. Monte Carlo Method to Study Properties of Acceleration Factor Estimation Based on the Test Results with Varying Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Tiannikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available G.D. Kartashov has developed a technique to determine the rapid testing results scaling functions to the normal mode. Its feature is preliminary tests of products of one sample including tests using the alternating modes. Standard procedure of preliminary tests (researches is as follows: n groups of products with m elements in each start being tested in normal mode and, after a failure of one of products in the group, the remained products are tested in accelerated mode. In addition to tests in alternating mode, tests in constantly normal mode are conducted as well. The acceleration factor of rapid tests for this type of products, identical to any lots is determined using such testing results of products from the same lot. A drawback of this technique is that tests are to be conducted in alternating mode till the failure of all products. That is not always is possible. To avoid this shortcoming, the Renyi criterion is offered. It allows us to determine scaling functions using the right-censored data thus giving the opportunity to stop testing prior to all failures of products.In this work a statistical modeling of the acceleration factor estimation owing to Renyi statistics minimization is implemented by the Monte-Carlo method. Results of modeling show that the acceleration factor estimation obtained through Renyi statistics minimization is conceivable for rather large n . But for small sample volumes some systematic bias of acceleration factor estimation, which decreases with growth n is observed for both distributions (exponential and Veybull's distributions. Therefore the paper also presents calculation results of correction factors for a case of exponential distribution and Veybull's distribution.

  16. Functional analysis of rare variants in mismatch repair proteins augments results from computation-based predictive methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sanjeevani; Huwe, Peter J.; Sikder, Rahmat; Shah, Manali; Browne, Amanda J.; Lesh, Randy; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Deshpande, Sanat; Hall, Michael J.; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Golemis, Erica A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cancer-predisposing Lynch Syndrome (LS) arises from germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, predominantly MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. A major challenge for clinical diagnosis of LS is the frequent identification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in these genes, as it is often difficult to determine variant pathogenicity, particularly for missense variants. Generic programs such as SIFT and PolyPhen-2, and MMR gene-specific programs such as PON-MMR and MAPP-MMR, are often used to predict deleterious or neutral effects of VUS in MMR genes. We evaluated the performance of multiple predictive programs in the context of functional biologic data for 15 VUS in MLH1, MSH2, and PMS2. Using cell line models, we characterized VUS predicted to range from neutral to pathogenic on mRNA and protein expression, basal cellular viability, viability following treatment with a panel of DNA-damaging agents, and functionality in DNA damage response (DDR) signaling, benchmarking to wild-type MMR proteins. Our results suggest that the MMR gene-specific classifiers do not always align with the experimental phenotypes related to DDR. Our study highlights the importance of complementary experimental and computational assessment to develop future predictors for the assessment of VUS. PMID:28494185

  17. After-visit summaries in primary care: mixed methods results from a literature review and stakeholder interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Courtney R; Gupta, Reena; Tieu, Lina; Fernandez, Alicia

    2018-05-28

    After-visit summary (AVS) documents presenting key information from each medical encounter have become standard in the USA due to federal health care reform. Little is known about how they are used or whether they improve patient care. First, we completed a literature review and described the totality of the literature on AVS by article type and major outcome measures. Next, we used reputational sampling from large-scale US studies on primary care to identify and interview nine stakeholders on their perceptions of AVS across high-performing primary care practices. Interviews were transcribed and coded for AVS use in practice, perceptions of the best/worst features and recommendations for improving AVS utility in routine care. The literature review resulted in 17 studies; patients reported higher perceived value of AVS compared with providers, despite poor recall of specific AVS content and varied post-visit use. In key informant interviews, key informants expressed enthusiasm for the potential of using AVS to reinforce key information with patients, especially if AVS were customizable. Despite this potential, key informants found that AVS included incorrect information and did not feel that patients or their practices were using AVS to enhance care. There is a gap between the potential of AVS and how providers and patients are using it in routine care. Suggestions for improved use of AVS include increasing customization, establishing care team responsibilities and workflows and ensuring patients with communication barriers have dedicated support to review AVS during visits.

  18. Non-invasive approach towards the in vivo estimation of 3D inter-vertebral movements: methods and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveri, P; Pedotti, A; Ferrigno, G

    2004-12-01

    A kinematical model of the lower spine was designed and used to obtain a robust estimation of the vertebral rotations during torso movements from skin-surface markers recorded by video-cameras. Markers were placed in correspondence of the anatomical landmarks of the pelvic bone and vertebral spinous and transverse processes, and acquired during flexion, lateral bending and axial motions. In the model calibration stage, a motion-based approach was used to compute the rotation axes and centres of the functional segmental units. Markers were mirrored into virtual points located on the model surface, expressed in the local reference system of coordinates. The spine motion assessment was solved into the domain of extended Kalman filters: at each frame of the acquisition, the model pose was updated by minimizing the distances between the measured 2D marker projections on the cameras and the corresponding back-projections of virtual points located on the model surface. The novelty of the proposed technique rests on the fact that the varying location of the rotation centres of the functional segmental units can be tracked directly during motion computation. In addition, we show how the effects of skin artefacts on orientation data can be taken into account. As a result, the kinematical estimation of simulated motions shows that orientation artefacts were reduced by a factor of at least 50%. Preliminary experiments on real motion confirmed the reliability of the proposed method with results in agreement with classical studies in literature.

  19. Actual interaction effects between policy measures for energy efficiency-A qualitative matrix method and quantitative simulation results for households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the conditions for a successful implementation of saving options, a general framework was developed to investigate possible interaction effects in sets of energy policy measures. Interaction regards the influence of one measure on the energy saving effect of another measure. The method delivers a matrix for all combinations of measures, with each cell containing qualitative information on the strength and type of interaction: overlapping, reinforcing, or independent of each other. Results are presented for the set of policy measures on household energy efficiency in the Netherlands for 1990-2003. The second part regards a quantitative analysis of the interaction effects between three major measures: a regulatory energy tax, investment subsidies and regulation of gas use for space heating. Using a detailed bottom-up model, household energy use in the period 1990-2000 was simulated with and without these measures. The results indicate that combinations of two or three policy measures yield 13-30% less effect than the sum of the effects of the separate measures

  20. Method of forecasting pollutant transfer in an aquifer initial results obtained in a sandy medium (Barp site, Gironde)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madoz-Escande, C.; Peyrus, J.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogeological studies are undertaken in the context of the radiological safety of nuclear plants to forecast consequences of accidental releases of radioactive pollutants into an aquifer (transfer time, concentration at points of emergence). This quantitative forecast is obtained with the aid of a mathematical model with sequential emission. This requires a knowledge of the physical parameters of the aquifer and of the behavior of the pollutant in relation to the water-bearing medium. The physical parameters of a saturated porous medium are presented with the aid of radioactive tracer tests on a model and also in the field. The initial results obtained in a sandy medium are presented. In view of the difficulty of extrapolating to field conditions the conclusions of tests on models, it was necessary to set up a mobile laboratory with which in situ studies could be undertaken. The behavior of the pollutant in relation to the water-bearing medium is the subject of preliminary laboratory research on the laws of adsorption under different pH and temperature conditions. The numerical results obtained call for confirmation in the field. A description is given of a method which should enable the distribution coefficients to be evaluated in situ

  1. The relationship of the local food environment with obesity: A systematic review of methods, study quality and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Franco, Manuel; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Nur, Alana; Anderson, Cheryl AM

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between local food environments and obesity and assess the quality of studies reviewed. Methods Systematic keyword searches identified studies from US and Canada that assessed the relationship of obesity to local food environments. We applied a quality metric based on design, exposure and outcome measurement, and analysis. Results We identified 71 studies representing 65 cohorts. Overall, study quality was low; 60 studies were cross-sectional. Associations between food outlet availability and obesity were predominantly null. Among non-null associations, we saw a trend toward inverse associations between supermarket availability and obesity (22 negative, 4 positive, 67 null) and direct associations between fast food and obesity (29 positive, 6 negative, 71 null) in adults. We saw direct associations between fast food availability and obesity in lower income children (12 positive, 7 null). Indices including multiple food outlets were most consistently associated with obesity in adults (18 expected, 1 not expected, 17 null). Limiting to higher quality studies did not affect results. Conclusions Despite the large number of studies, we found limited evidence for associations between local food environments and obesity. The predominantly null associations should be interpreted cautiously due to the low quality of available studies. PMID:26096983

  2. Structuring scientific works in the “Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion” format – what a beginner ought to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avdeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference materials about the “Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion”, which is a commonly used international format for scientific works, have become available for Russian authors nowadays, still lack of knowledge about the format would pop up here or there, especially when we speak about beginners. The faults which would appear regularly in work structuring prompted the present research, the aim of which is to compare the information about the IMRAD format with the specific difficulties beginning authors would often face when preparing their works for publication.The main materials to be studied were sources in Russian and in English published mostly in 2010s and devoted to the problems of structuring works according to the meant above format. Besides, the present research considered the results of plagiarism tests (such tests used to be carried out at the Russia State Library within the period of 2013 – 2015 with the help of software “Automated system of specialized processing of textual documents”. The main methods of our research would remain structural and comparative analysis of texts.As a result, our research revealed the fact of inconsistency of the available information on the IMRAD structure. It would often demand deep thinking and explanations. Different authors of reference editions would as a rule differ one from another in their interpretation of the degree of necessity of this or that composition element, of the amount of details in descriptions, etc. Moreover, the very structure of scientific work looks differently for different authors. More often the structure supposes the integrity of the contents and its form, still sometimes its description would be replaced by outer elements, such as, for example, language clichés. The analysis of the most common faults in text structuring points that authors do not often have a clear idea of how to understand the different demands which are so obscurely described

  3. Arsenic absorption by members of the Brassicacea family, analysed by neutron activation, k0-method - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, George; Matos, Ludmila Vieira da Silva; Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Ferreira, Alexandre Santos Martorano; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia

    2009-01-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Thailand and the United States of America and also in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities has been contributing to aggravate natural contamination. Brassicacea is a plant family with edible species (arugula, cabbage, cauliflower, cress, kale, mustard, radish), ornamental ones (alysssum, field pennycress, ornamental cabbages and kales) and some species are known as metal and metalloid accumulators (Indian mustard, field pennycress), like chromium, nickel, and arsenic. The present work aimed at studying other taxa of the Brassicaceae family to verify their capability in absorbing arsenic, under controlled conditions, for possible utilisation in remediation activities. The analytical method chosen was neutron activation analysis, k 0 method, a routine technique at CDTN, and also very appropriate for arsenic studies. To avoid possible interference from solid substrates, like sand or vermiculite, attempts were carried out to keep the specimens in 1/4 Murashige and Skoog basal salt solution (M and S). Growth was stumped, plants withered and perished, showing that modifications in M and S had to be done. The addition of nickel and silicon allowed normal growth of the plant specimens, for periods longer than usually achieved (more than two months); yielding samples large enough for further studies with other techniques, like ICP-MS, and other targets, like speciation studies. The results of arsenic absorption are presented here and the need of nickel and silicon in the composition of M and S is discussed. (author)

  4. Arsenic absorption by members of the Brassicacea family, analysed by neutron activation, k{sub 0}-method - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, George; Matos, Ludmila Vieira da Silva; Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Ferreira, Alexandre Santos Martorano; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: george@cdtn.br, e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Thailand and the United States of America and also in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities has been contributing to aggravate natural contamination. Brassicacea is a plant family with edible species (arugula, cabbage, cauliflower, cress, kale, mustard, radish), ornamental ones (alysssum, field pennycress, ornamental cabbages and kales) and some species are known as metal and metalloid accumulators (Indian mustard, field pennycress), like chromium, nickel, and arsenic. The present work aimed at studying other taxa of the Brassicaceae family to verify their capability in absorbing arsenic, under controlled conditions, for possible utilisation in remediation activities. The analytical method chosen was neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0} method, a routine technique at CDTN, and also very appropriate for arsenic studies. To avoid possible interference from solid substrates, like sand or vermiculite, attempts were carried out to keep the specimens in 1/4 Murashige and Skoog basal salt solution (M and S). Growth was stumped, plants withered and perished, showing that modifications in M and S had to be done. The addition of nickel and silicon allowed normal growth of the plant specimens, for periods longer than usually achieved (more than two months); yielding samples large enough for further studies with other techniques, like ICP-MS, and other targets, like speciation studies. The results of arsenic absorption are presented here and the need of nickel and silicon in the composition of M and S is discussed. (author)

  5. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-01-01

    Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence ...

  6. Dating Of Remains Of Neanderthals And Homo Sapiens From Anatolian Region By ESR-US Combined Methods Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Farkh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We tried in the present study to apply the electron spin resonance method ESR combined with uranium-series method US for dating fossilized human teeth and found valuable archaeological sites such as Karain Cave in Anatolia. Karain Cave is a crucial site in a region that has yielded remains of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens our direct ancestors. The dating of these remains allowed us to trace the history since the presence of man on earth. Indeed Anatolia in Turkey is an important region of the world because it represents a passage between Africa the Middle East and Europe. Our study was conducted on faunal teeth found near human remains. The combination of ESR and US data on the teeth provides an understanding of their complex geochemical evolution and get better estimated results. Our samples were taken from the central cutting where geological layers are divided into archaeological horizons each 10 cm. The AH4 horizon of I.3 layer which represents the boundary between the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic is dated to 29 4 ka by the ESR-US model. Below two horizons AH6 and AH8 in the same layer I.4 are dated respectively 40 6 and 45 7 ka using the ESR-US model. In layer II where a stalagmite floor was taken we made two U-Th dating at the base and on the top ages oscillated around 120 ka. Since human remains were collected from AH3 horizon for Homo sapiens and AH5 and AH7 horizons for the Neanderthal man so the dates obtained in AH4 AH6 and AH8 represent maximum ages. Thus they provide the disappearance of Neanderthal man between 45 and 40 ka and the appearance of Homo sapiens in 29 ka in Anatolia region. Undoubtedly there is a chronological gap between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic represented by the disappearance of Neanderthals and the appearance of sapiens and none of our results confirm the contemporaneity of these two species in this region.

  7. Serum 3,3'-L-diiodothyronine, a direct radioimmunoassay in human serum: method and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.; Sakoloff, C.

    1977-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay for 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T 2 ) is described which is capable of detecting as little as 1.3 ng/dl. The antiserum recognizes mainly T 2 ; biliary conjugates of T 2 bind slightly to the antibody. The intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation were, respectively, 5.7% and 13.1%. T 2 was detected in the serum of hypothyroid patients treated with triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and in euthyroid subjects treated with reverse triiodothyronine (rT 3 ). These results suggest that both T 3 and rT 3 are deiodinated to T 2 . Serum concentrations of T 2 in normal subjects decreased with age. Between 20 and 40 years the mean concentration was 4.3 +- 2.0 ng/dl (2 SD), between 41 and 60 years it varied from 1.9 to 5.8 ng/dl (3.8 +- 0.3 ng/dl, SE) and in elderly subjects have 60 years concentrations varied from unmeasurable to 4 ng/dl (2.9 +- 0.4 ng/dl, SE). Low serum T 2 concentrations were found in anorexia nervosa (2.5 +- 0.3 ng/dl, SE). In hypothyroidism the serum concentrations were low or unmeasurable. As most of the hypothyroid subjects were elderly their serum T 2 concentrations overlapped with the low values found in the elderly euthyroid subjects. In classical hyperthyroidism serum T 2 concentrations were greatly increased (3.3 to 31 ng/dl (11.8 +- 2.7 ng/dl, SE) but in ''T 3 toxicosis'' the concentrations were only modestly increased

  8. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Obstetric care and method of delivery in Mexico: results from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Heredia-Pi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the current clinical, socio-demographic and obstetric factors associated with the various types of delivery strategies in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study based on the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT of 6,736 women aged 12 to 49 years. Delivery types discussed in this paper include vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean section and planned cesarean section. Using bivariate analyses, sub-population group differences were identified. Logistic regression models were applied, including both binary and multinomial outcome variables from the survey. The logistic regression results identify those covariates associated with the type of delivery. RESULTS: 53.1% of institutional births in the period 2006 through 2012 were vaginal deliveries, 46.9% were either a planned or emergency cesarean sections. The highest rates of this procedure were among women who reported a complication during delivery (OR: 4.21; 95%CI: 3.66-4.84, between the ages of 35 and 49 at the time of their last child birth (OR: 2.54; 95%CI: 2.02-3.20 and women receiving care through private healthcare providers during delivery (OR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.84-3.03. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of different socio-demographic and obstetric profiles among women who receive care for vaginal or cesarean delivery, are supported by the findings of the present study. The frequency of vaginal delivery is higher in indigenous women, when the care provider is public and, in women with two or more children at time of the most recent child birth. Planned cesarean deliveries are positively associated with years of schooling, a higher socioeconomic level, and higher age. The occurrence of emergency cesarean sections is elevated in women with a diagnosis of a health issue during pregnancy or delivery, and it is reduced in highly marginalized settings.

  10. The impact of secure messaging on workflow in primary care: Results of a multiple-case, multiple-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Peter L T; Carayon, Pascale; Cartmill, Randi S

    2017-04-01

    Secure messaging is a relatively new addition to health information technology (IT). Several studies have examined the impact of secure messaging on (clinical) outcomes but very few studies have examined the impact on workflow in primary care clinics. In this study we examined the impact of secure messaging on workflow of clinicians, staff and patients. We used a multiple case study design with multiple data collections methods (observation, interviews and survey). Results show that secure messaging has the potential to improve communication and information flow and the organization of work in primary care clinics, partly due to the possibility of asynchronous communication. However, secure messaging can also have a negative effect on communication and increase workload, especially if patients send messages that are not appropriate for the secure messaging medium (for example, messages that are too long, complex, ambiguous, or inappropriate). Results show that clinicians are ambivalent about secure messaging. Secure messaging can add to their workload, especially if there is high message volume, and currently they are not compensated for these activities. Staff is -especially compared to clinicians- relatively positive about secure messaging and patients are overall very satisfied with secure messaging. Finally, clinicians, staff and patients think that secure messaging can have a positive effect on quality of care and patient safety. Secure messaging is a tool that has the potential to improve communication and information flow. However, the potential of secure messaging to improve workflow is dependent on the way it is implemented and used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The reaction π-p → π-π-π+p: Development of the analysis methods and selected results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchikov, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the description of the analysis methods and results of applying them to the exclusive diffractive reaction π-p → π-π-π+p of 50 . 106 events measured with COMPASS detector. The large statistics of π-π-π+ events enables the two-dimensional partial-wave analysis independently in 100 bins of m(3π) with 0.5 < m(3π) < 2.5 GeV/c2 and in 11 intervals of squared momentum transfer with 0.1 < t' < 1 GeV2/c2. The partial-wave analysis sub-density matrix is the subject to further mass-dependent fits describing the data in terms of resonances in 3π system and coherent background contributions. The novel approach of extracting JPC = 0++(π+π-)S isobar amplitudes as model-free functions, different for several JPC 3π states, is used. It demonstrates the presence of processes π(1800) → f0(980)π and π(1800) → f0(1500)π as well as π2(1880) → f0(980)π and new narrow signal a1(1420) → f0(980)π, without any established shapes used for (π+π-)S isobars. The presented analysis is subject to further development and refinements which currently take place.

  12. Peak Bagging of red giant stars observed by Kepler: first results with a new method based on Bayesian nested sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Enrico; De Ridder, Joris

    2015-09-01

    The peak bagging analysis, namely the fitting and identification of single oscillation modes in stars' power spectra, coupled to the very high-quality light curves of red giant stars observed by Kepler, can play a crucial role for studying stellar oscillations of different flavor with an unprecedented level of detail. A thorough study of stellar oscillations would thus allow for deeper testing of stellar structure models and new insights in stellar evolution theory. However, peak bagging inferences are in general very challenging problems due to the large number of observed oscillation modes, hence of free parameters that can be involved in the fitting models. Efficiency and robustness in performing the analysis is what may be needed to proceed further. For this purpose, we developed a new code implementing the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm, a powerful statistical method well suited for Bayesian analyses of complex problems. In this talk we show the peak bagging of a sample of high signal-to-noise red giant stars by exploiting recent Kepler datasets and a new criterion for the detection of an oscillation mode based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence. Preliminary results for frequencies and lifetimes for single oscillation modes, together with acoustic glitches, are therefore presented.

  13. Using video games for volcanic hazard education and communication: an assessment of the method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Lara; Cole, Paul D.; Stewart, Iain

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study aimed at understanding whether video games (or serious games) can be effective in enhancing volcanic hazard education and communication. Using the eastern Caribbean island of St. Vincent, we have developed a video game - St. Vincent's Volcano - for use in existing volcano education and outreach sessions. Its twin aims are to improve residents' knowledge of potential future eruptive hazards (ash fall, pyroclastic flows and lahars) and to integrate traditional methods of education in a more interactive manner. Here, we discuss the process of game development including concept design through to the final implementation on St. Vincent. Preliminary results obtained from the final implementation (through pre- and post-test knowledge quizzes) for both student and adult participants provide indications that a video game of this style may be effective in improving a learner's knowledge. Both groups of participants demonstrated a post-test increase in their knowledge quiz score of 9.3 % for adults and 8.3 % for students and, when plotted as learning gains (Hake, 1998), show similar overall improvements (0.11 for adults and 0.09 for students). These preliminary findings may provide a sound foundation for the increased integration of emerging technologies within traditional education sessions. This paper also shares some of the challenges and lessons learnt throughout the development and testing processes and provides recommendations for researchers looking to pursue a similar study.

  14. Some new results on stability and synchronization for delayed inertial neural networks based on non-reduced order method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanying; Li, Xiaotong; Hu, Cheng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, without transforming the second order inertial neural networks into the first order differential systems by some variable substitutions, asymptotic stability and synchronization for a class of delayed inertial neural networks are investigated. Firstly, a new Lyapunov functional is constructed to directly propose the asymptotic stability of the inertial neural networks, and some new stability criteria are derived by means of Barbalat Lemma. Additionally, by designing a new feedback control strategy, the asymptotic synchronization of the addressed inertial networks is studied and some effective conditions are obtained. To reduce the control cost, an adaptive control scheme is designed to realize the asymptotic synchronization. It is noted that the dynamical behaviors of inertial neural networks are directly analyzed in this paper by constructing some new Lyapunov functionals, this is totally different from the traditional reduced-order variable substitution method. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the derived theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Peak Bagging of red giant stars observed by Kepler: first results with a new method based on Bayesian nested sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsaro Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peak bagging analysis, namely the fitting and identification of single oscillation modes in stars’ power spectra, coupled to the very high-quality light curves of red giant stars observed by Kepler, can play a crucial role for studying stellar oscillations of different flavor with an unprecedented level of detail. A thorough study of stellar oscillations would thus allow for deeper testing of stellar structure models and new insights in stellar evolution theory. However, peak bagging inferences are in general very challenging problems due to the large number of observed oscillation modes, hence of free parameters that can be involved in the fitting models. Efficiency and robustness in performing the analysis is what may be needed to proceed further. For this purpose, we developed a new code implementing the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC algorithm, a powerful statistical method well suited for Bayesian analyses of complex problems. In this talk we show the peak bagging of a sample of high signal-to-noise red giant stars by exploiting recent Kepler datasets and a new criterion for the detection of an oscillation mode based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence. Preliminary results for frequencies and lifetimes for single oscillation modes, together with acoustic glitches, are therefore presented.

  16. An Efficient Implementation of the Nwat-MMGBSA Method to Rescore Docking Results in Medium-Throughput Virtual Screenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Maffucci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nwat-MMGBSA is a variant of MM-PB/GBSA based on the inclusion of a number of explicit water molecules that are the closest to the ligand in each frame of a molecular dynamics trajectory. This method demonstrated improved correlations between calculated and experimental binding energies in both protein-protein interactions and ligand-receptor complexes, in comparison to the standard MM-GBSA. A protocol optimization, aimed to maximize efficacy and efficiency, is discussed here considering penicillopepsin, HIV1-protease, and BCL-XL as test cases. Calculations were performed in triplicates on both classic HPC environments and on standard workstations equipped by a GPU card, evidencing no statistical differences in the results. No relevant differences in correlation to experiments were also observed when performing Nwat-MMGBSA calculations on 4 or 1 ns long trajectories. A fully automatic workflow for structure-based virtual screening, performing from library set-up to docking and Nwat-MMGBSA rescoring, has then been developed. The protocol has been tested against no rescoring or standard MM-GBSA rescoring within a retrospective virtual screening of inhibitors of AmpC β-lactamase and of the Rac1-Tiam1 protein-protein interaction. In both cases, Nwat-MMGBSA rescoring provided a statistically significant increase in the ROC AUCs of between 20 and 30%, compared to docking scoring or to standard MM-GBSA rescoring.

  17. An Efficient Implementation of the Nwat-MMGBSA Method to Rescore Docking Results in Medium-Throughput Virtual Screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffucci, Irene; Hu, Xiao; Fumagalli, Valentina; Contini, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    Nwat-MMGBSA is a variant of MM-PB/GBSA based on the inclusion of a number of explicit water molecules that are the closest to the ligand in each frame of a molecular dynamics trajectory. This method demonstrated improved correlations between calculated and experimental binding energies in both protein-protein interactions and ligand-receptor complexes, in comparison to the standard MM-GBSA. A protocol optimization, aimed to maximize efficacy and efficiency, is discussed here considering penicillopepsin, HIV1-protease, and BCL-XL as test cases. Calculations were performed in triplicates on both classic HPC environments and on standard workstations equipped by a GPU card, evidencing no statistical differences in the results. No relevant differences in correlation to experiments were also observed when performing Nwat-MMGBSA calculations on 4 ns or 1 ns long trajectories. A fully automatic workflow for structure-based virtual screening, performing from library set-up to docking and Nwat-MMGBSA rescoring, has then been developed. The protocol has been tested against no rescoring or standard MM-GBSA rescoring within a retrospective virtual screening of inhibitors of AmpC β-lactamase and of the Rac1-Tiam1 protein-protein interaction. In both cases, Nwat-MMGBSA rescoring provided a statistically significant increase in the ROC AUCs of between 20% and 30%, compared to docking scoring or to standard MM-GBSA rescoring.

  18. A randomized phase II dose-response exercise trial among colon cancer survivors: Purpose, study design, methods, and recruitment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Troxel, Andrea B; Ky, Bonnie; Damjanov, Nevena; Zemel, Babette S; Rickels, Michael R; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Courneya, Kerry S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2016-03-01

    Observational studies indicate that higher volumes of physical activity are associated with improved disease outcomes among colon cancer survivors. The aim of this report is to describe the purpose, study design, methods, and recruitment results of the courage trial, a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored, phase II, randomized, dose-response exercise trial among colon cancer survivors. The primary objective of the courage trial is to quantify the feasibility, safety, and physiologic effects of low-dose (150 min·week(-1)) and high-dose (300 min·week(-1)) moderate-intensity aerobic exercise compared to usual-care control group over six months. The exercise groups are provided with in-home treadmills and heart rate monitors. Between January and July 2015, 1433 letters were mailed using a population-based state cancer registry; 126 colon cancer survivors inquired about participation, and 39 were randomized onto the study protocol. Age was associated with inquiry about study participation (Pclinical, or geographic characteristics were associated with study inquiry or randomization. The final trial participant was randomized in August 2015. Six month endpoint data collection was completed in February 2016. The recruitment of colon cancer survivors into an exercise trial is feasible. The findings from this trial will inform key design aspects for future phase 2 and phase 3 randomized controlled trials to examine the efficacy of exercise to improve clinical outcomes among colon cancer survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated b