WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods involving elimination

  1. Method of eliminating gaseous hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakura, Masaaki; Imaizumi, Hideki; Suemori, Nobuo; Aizawa, Takashi; Naito, Taisei.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent external diffusion of gaseous hydrogen isotopes such as tritium or the like upon occurrence of tritium leakage accident in a thermonuclear reactor by recovering to eliminate the isotopes rapidly and with safety. Method: Gases at the region of a reactor container where hydrogen isotopes might leak are sucked by a recycing pump, dehumidified in a dehumidifier and then recycled from a preheater through a catalytic oxidation reactor to a water absorption tower. In this structure, the dehumidifier is disposed at the upstream of the catalytic oxidation reactor to reduce the water content of the gases to be processed, whereby the eliminating efficiency for the gases to be processed can be maintained well even when the oxidation reactor is operated at a low temperature condition near the ambient temperature. This method is based on the fact that the oxidating reactivity of the catalyst can be improved significantly by eliminating the water content in the gases to be processed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  2. Methods for elimination of dampness in Building walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campian, Cristina; Pop, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Dampness elimination in building walls is a very sensitive problem, with high costs. Many methods are used, as: chemical method, electro osmotic method or physical method. The RECON method is a representative and a sustainable method in Romania. Italy has the most radical method from all methods. The technology consists in cutting the brick walls, insertion of a special plastic sheeting and injection of a pre-mixed anti-shrinking mortar.

  3. A method for eliminating sulfur compounds from fluid, saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhriev, A.M.; Galiautdinov, N.G.; Kashevarov, L.A.; Mazgarov, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The method for eliminating sulfur compounds from fluid, saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons, which involves extracting hydrocarbons using a dimethylsulfoxide extractant, is improved by using a dimethylsulfoxide blend and 10-60 percent (by volume) diethylenetriamine or polyethylenepolyamine which contains diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine and tetraethylenepentamine, in order to eliminate the above compounds. Polyethylenepolyamine is produced as a by-product during the production of ethylenediamine. Elimination is performed at 0-50 degrees and 1-60 atmospheres of pressure. Here, the extractant may contain up to 10 percent water. The use of the proposed method, rather than the existing method, will make it possible to increase hydrocarbon elimination from mercaptans by 40 percent and from H/sub 2/S by 10 percent when the same amount is eliminated from dialkylsulfides.

  4. An Alternative Method to Gauss-Jordan Elimination: Minimizing Fraction Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Luke; Powell, Joan

    2011-01-01

    When solving systems of equations by using matrices, many teachers present a Gauss-Jordan elimination approach to row reducing matrices that can involve painfully tedious operations with fractions (which I will call the traditional method). In this essay, I present an alternative method to row reduce matrices that does not introduce additional…

  5. Method of eliminating cruds in the primary coolants of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Takaaki.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate cruds in the primary coolants by using rind of onions or peanuts. Method: Since cruds contained in the reactor primary coolants increase the radioactive exposure to reactor operators, they have been intended to remove by ion exchange resins. In this invention, rind of onions or peanuts are crushed into an adequate particle size and packed into an absorption column instead of ion exchange resins into which primary coolants are circulated. The powderous onions or peanuts rind contain glucoside such as cosmosiin and has an effect of cationic exchanger, they satisfactorily catch heavy metals such as Fe and Cu. They have an excellent filtering effect even under a high pH condition and are excellent in economical point of view. They can be decrease the volume of the absorption column, reduce their devolume after use through corrosion and easily subjected to waste procession through oxidizing combustion in liquid. (Nakamoto, H.)

  6. Method for eliminating gas blocking in electrokinetic pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Don W.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.

    2001-09-11

    A method for eliminating gas bubble blockage of current flow during operation of an electrokinetic pump. By making use of the ability to modify the surface charge on the porous dielectric medium used in electrokinetic pumps, it becomes possible to place electrodes away from the pressurized region of the electrokinetic pump. While gas is still generated at the electrodes they are situated such that the generated gas can escape into a larger buffer reservoir and not into the high pressure region of the pump where the gas bubbles can interrupt current flow. Various combinations of porous dielectric materials and ionic conductors can be used to create pumps that have desirable electrical, material handling, and flow attributes.

  7. Smart gun technologies: One method of eliminating unauthorized firearm use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1994-06-01

    Law enforcement officers work each day with individuals who can become aggressive and violent. Among the worst scenarios, which occur each year and often raise national media attention, an officer has his handgun taken away and used against him. As many as 12 officers per year are killed with their own gun. This problem can be addressed through the integration of modern sensors with control electronics to provide authorized user firearms for law enforcement and even recreational uses. A considerable benefit to law enforcement agencies, as well as society as a whole, would be gained by the application of recommended Smart Gun Technologies (SGT) as a method of limiting the use of firearms to authorized individuals. Sandia National Laboratory has been actively involved in the research and design of technologically sophisticated surety devices for weapons for the DOE and DOD. This experience is now being applied to criminal justice problems by transferring these technologies to commercial industry. In the SGT project Sandia is developing the user requirements that would limit a firearms use to its owner and/or authorized users. Various technologies that are capable of meeting the requirements are being investigated, these range from biometrics identification to radio-controlled devices. Research is presently underway to investigate which technologies represent the best solutions to the problem. Proof of concept demonstration models are being built for the most promising SGT with the intent of technology transfer. Different solutions are recommended for the possible applications: law enforcement, military, and commercial (personal protection/recreational) use.

  8. Estimation of the drift eliminator efficiency using numerical and experimental methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stodůlka Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the drift eliminators is to prevent water from escaping in significant amounts the cooling tower. They are designed to catch the droplets dragged by the tower draft and the efficiency given by the shape of the eliminator is the main evaluation criteria. The ability to eliminate the escaping water droplets is studied using CFD and using the experimental IPI method.

  9. Background elimination methods for multidimensional coincidence γ-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the paper new methods to separate useful information from background in one, two, three and multidimensional spectra (histograms) measured in large multidetector γ-ray arrays are derived. The sensitive nonlinear peak clipping algorithm is the basis of the methods for estimation of the background in multidimensional spectra. The derived procedures are simple and therefore have a very low cost in terms of computing time. (orig.)

  10. A non-iterative twin image elimination method with two in-line digital holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwu; Lee, Heejung; Jeon, Philjun; Kim, Dug Young

    2018-02-01

    We propose a simple non-iterative in-line holographic measurement method which can effectively eliminate a twin image in digital holographic 3D imaging. It is shown that a twin image can be effectively eliminated with only two measured holograms by using a simple numerical propagation algorithm and arithmetic calculations.

  11. The HACMS program: using formal methods to eliminate exploitable bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen; Launchbury, John; Richards, Raymond

    2017-10-13

    For decades, formal methods have offered the promise of verified software that does not have exploitable bugs. Until recently, however, it has not been possible to verify software of sufficient complexity to be useful. Recently, that situation has changed. SeL4 is an open-source operating system microkernel efficient enough to be used in a wide range of practical applications. Its designers proved it to be fully functionally correct, ensuring the absence of buffer overflows, null pointer exceptions, use-after-free errors, etc., and guaranteeing integrity and confidentiality. The CompCert Verifying C Compiler maps source C programs to provably equivalent assembly language, ensuring the absence of exploitable bugs in the compiler. A number of factors have enabled this revolution, including faster processors, increased automation, more extensive infrastructure, specialized logics and the decision to co-develop code and correctness proofs rather than verify existing artefacts. In this paper, we explore the promise and limitations of current formal-methods techniques. We discuss these issues in the context of DARPA's HACMS program, which had as its goal the creation of high-assurance software for vehicles, including quadcopters, helicopters and automobiles.This article is part of the themed issue 'Verified trustworthy software systems'. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. The HACMS program: using formal methods to eliminate exploitable bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launchbury, John; Richards, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    For decades, formal methods have offered the promise of verified software that does not have exploitable bugs. Until recently, however, it has not been possible to verify software of sufficient complexity to be useful. Recently, that situation has changed. SeL4 is an open-source operating system microkernel efficient enough to be used in a wide range of practical applications. Its designers proved it to be fully functionally correct, ensuring the absence of buffer overflows, null pointer exceptions, use-after-free errors, etc., and guaranteeing integrity and confidentiality. The CompCert Verifying C Compiler maps source C programs to provably equivalent assembly language, ensuring the absence of exploitable bugs in the compiler. A number of factors have enabled this revolution, including faster processors, increased automation, more extensive infrastructure, specialized logics and the decision to co-develop code and correctness proofs rather than verify existing artefacts. In this paper, we explore the promise and limitations of current formal-methods techniques. We discuss these issues in the context of DARPA’s HACMS program, which had as its goal the creation of high-assurance software for vehicles, including quadcopters, helicopters and automobiles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Verified trustworthy software systems’. PMID:28871050

  13. Sleep can eliminate list-method directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests a link between sleep and memory consolidation, indicating that sleep in comparison to wakefulness stabilizes memories. However, relatively little is known about how sleep affects forgetting. Here we examined whether sleep influences directed forgetting, the finding that people can intentionally forget obsolete memories when cued to do so. We applied the list-method directed forgetting task and assessed memory performance after 3 delay intervals. Directed forgetting was present after a short 20-min delay and after a 12-hr delay filled with diurnal wakefulness; in contrast, the forgetting was absent after a 12-hr delay that included regular nocturnal sleep. Successful directed forgetting after a delay thus can depend on whether sleep or wakefulness follows upon encoding: When wakefulness follows upon encoding, the forgetting can be successful; when sleep follows upon encoding, no forgetting may arise. Connections of the results to recent studies on the interplay between forgetting and sleep are discussed.

  14. Elimination of copper and nickel from wastewater by electrooxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazeminezhad, Iraj, E-mail: I.Kazeminezhad@scu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mosivand, Saba [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University, Khorram-Abad, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Electrooxidation method was used to remove copper and nickel from water by iron sacrificial sheets in an electrolytic cell. The effect of various voltages, electrooxidation time, and the initial pH of water has been studied on removal efficiency. The concentration of heavy metals before and after treatment was determined by an AAS instrument. The sludge obtained after treatment has been characterized using XRD, FESEM, and VSM. Our results show that the operational parameters play an important role on removal process. AAS results confirmed that the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the water effectively decreases by increasing the applied voltage, electrochemical reaction time, or the initial pH of water. Based on these results it is possible to highly decrease the concentration of Ni or Cu from water at pH ∼4.5 by applying ∼28 V for 60 min. The FESEM images showed the nano-size of synthesized particles during water treatment. The element maps confirmed the presence of iron, oxygen, and heavy metal pollutants in precipitate after water treatment. The XRD patterns of powder sample obtained after removal of Ni or Cu show the reflections of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and some small peaks which are correspond to different compound of metal pollutants. VSM results showed that the sludge samples are magnetically soft and their specific magnetization depends on removal conditions. The magnetic property of the sludge samples helps to separate them easily from water using magnetic field. - Highlights: • Electrooxidation method was used to remove copper and nickel from water. • By applying a potential between two electrodes the nanosorbents are generated in situ. • The operational parameters play an important role on removal process. • The concentration of metal in water decreases by increasing voltage, time, or pH of water. • The magnetic property of the sludge helps the magnetic separation.

  15. Involvement of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the functional elimination of synaptic contacts during neuromuscular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Tomàs, Josep

    2010-04-05

    Confocal immunohistochemistry shows that neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its receptor tropomyosin-related tyrosin kinase C (trkC) are present in both neonatal (P6) and adult (P45) mouse motor nerve terminals in neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) colocalized with several synaptic proteins. NT-3 incubation (1-3h, in the range 10-200ng/ml) does not change the size of the evoked and spontaneous endplate potentials at P45. However, NT-3 (1h, 100ng/ml) strongly potentiates evoked ACh release from the weak (70%) and the strong (50%) axonal inputs on dually innervated postnatal endplates (P6) but not in the most developed postnatal singly innervated synapses at P6. The present results indicate that NT-3 has a role in the developmental mechanism that eliminates redundant synapses though it cannot modulate synaptic transmission locally as the NMJ matures.

  16. Comparing methods for involving users in ideation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Scupola, Ada; Sørensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    workshop method (involving users and employees) is especially good at qualifying and further developing ideas. The findings suggest that methods for involving users in ideation should be carefully selected and combined to achieve optimum benefits and avoid potential disadvantages.......In this paper we discuss how users may be involved in the ideation phase of innovation. The study compares the use of a blog and three future workshops (students, employees and a mix of the two) in a library. Our study shows that the blog is efficient in giving the users voice whereas the mixed...

  17. Early Involvement and Integration in Construction Projects: The Benefits of DfX in Elimination of Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Halttula

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical construction processes provide waste: material waste but especially process-related waste. The majority of this waste can be avoided with efficient planning in the front end of projects. The main aim is to describe how the concept of Design for Excellence (DfX can reduce the most severe waste in construction projects. Based on a literature review of waste and requirements that aid early involvement and integration, we created a survey for analyzing and prioritizing types of waste in the construction industry. We describe how DFX reduces this waste, especially through the use of early involvement and integration. When applied, DfX creates incentives for project stakeholders to eliminate waste automatically through early involvement and integration.

  18. Automatic control logics to eliminate xenon oscillation based on Axial Offsets Trajectory Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro

    1996-01-01

    We have proposed Axial Offsets (AO) Trajectory Method for xenon oscillation control in pressurized water reactors. The features of this method are described as such that it can clearly give necessary control operations to eliminate xenon oscillations. It is expected that using the features automatic control logics for xenon oscillations can be simple and be realized easily. We investigated automatic control logics. The AO Trajectory Method could realize a very simple logic only for eliminating xenon oscillations. However it was necessary to give another considerations to eliminate the xenon oscillation with a given axial power distribution. The other control logic based on the modern control theory was also studied for comparison of the control performance of the new control logic. As the results, it is presented that the automatic control logics based on the AO Trajectory Method are very simple and effective. (author)

  19. A method to eliminate the effect of protein binding on GFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakaran, K.; Fernandes, V.; Nour, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Plasma clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA is a standard method for GFR assessment. Protein binding (PB) of 99m Tc-DTPA is thought to affect the accuracy of the GFR measurement. Therefore, eliminating PB portion would improve the accuracy of this measurement. Methods to eliminate PB are usually complex, but a simple Amicon micropartition system has been proposed to eliminate the PB effect. This study is aimed to assess if this simple method effectively excluded the PB fraction and improved the accuracy of the GFR measurement. Therefore, eliminating PB portion would improve the accuracy of this measurement. Methods to eliminate PB are usually complex, but a simple Amicon micropartition system separates free 99m Tc-DTPA from the PB fraction after a 10 min centrifugation of patient plasma. The ultrafiltrate obtained is totally free of PB 99m Tc-DTPA. 20 consecutive patients had GFRs performed using the two sample method with blood drawn at 60 and 150 min. All samples had an Ultrafiltrate 99m Tc-DTPA and normal plasma 99m Tc-DTPA. The GFRs were calculated from both samples. The findings showed a mean PB of 6.5 + 3.9% and 13 + 5.0% at 60 min and 150 min respectively for our DTPA. The mean GFR from normal plasma 85.7 + 26.4 mL/min and from ultrafiltrate = 97.2 + 28.8 mL/min. Statistical analysis using Student''s ''t'' test shows that there is a significant difference between the values of GFR (P < 0.05). Our result confirms that the PB of DTPA is substantial and affects the GFR estimation significantly. The method of ultrafiltration eliminates the PB, and very simple to use. This method could be used on a routine basis and/or to assess the suitability of the DTPA used in various departments for GFR measurement

  20. New method for eliminating the statistical bias in highly turbulent flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, S.I.; Terao, Y.; Hirata, K.I.; Kitakyushu Industrial Research Institute, Fukuoka, Japan)

    1987-01-01

    A simple method was developed for eliminating statistical bias which can be applied to highly turbulent flows with the sparse and nonuniform seeding conditions. Unlike the method proposed so far, a weighting function was determined based on the idea that the statistical bias could be eliminated if the asymmetric form of the probability density function of the velocity data were corrected. Moreover, the data more than three standard deviations away from the mean were discarded to remove the apparent turbulent intensity resulting from noise. The present method was applied to data obtained in the wake of a block, which provided local turbulent intensities up to about 120 percent, it was found to eliminate the statistical bias with high accuracy. 9 references

  1. Gaussian elimination methods for calculating classical periodic trajectories in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.

    1991-08-01

    A Gaussian-elimination method for calculating classical periodic trajectories is formulated for a two-dimensional system. Two variants of the theory are obtained, one assuming that the period of the motion is fixed and the other assuming that the total energy is fixed. Comparisons are made between various approaches. 14 refs

  2. Envelope method for background elimination from X-ray fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, V.V.; Naumenko, P.A.; Chashinskaya, O.A.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the background noise caused by Bremsstrahlung on the accuracy of the envelope method at x-ray fluorescence spectra processing is studied. This is carried out by the example of model spectra at different forms of Bremsstrahlung noise as well as at the presence of background noise in spectra. The interpolation by parabolic splines is used for the estimation of the error of the envelope method for the elimination of continuos background noise. It is found out that the error of the proposed method constitutes decimal parts of percent. It is shown that the envelope method is the effective technique for the elimination of the continuous Bremsstrahlung from x-ray fluorescence spectra of the first order [ru

  3. Nuclear power plant pressurizer fault diagnosis using fuzzy signed-digraph and spurious faults elimination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun

    1994-02-01

    In this work, the Fuzzy Signed Digraph(FSD) method which has been researched for the fault diagnosis of industrial process plant systems is improved and applied to the fault diagnosis of the Kori-2 nuclear power plant pressurizer. A method for spurious faults elimination is also suggested and applied to the fault diagnosis. By using these methods, we could diagnose the multi-faults of the pressurizer and could also eliminate the spurious faults of the pressurizer caused by other subsystems. Besides the multi-fault diagnosis and system-wide diagnosis capabilities, the proposed method has many merits such as real-time diagnosis capability, independency of fault pattern, direct use of sensor values, and transparency of the fault propagation to the operators

  4. Nuclear power plant pressurizer fault diagnosis using fuzzy signed-digraph and spurious faults elimination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the Fuzzy Signed Digraph (FSD) method which has been researched for the fault diagnosis of industrial process plant systems is improved and applied to the fault diagnosis of the Kori-2 nuclear power plant pressurizer. A method for spurious faults elimination is also suggested and applied to the fault diagnosis. By using these methods, we could diagnose the multi-faults of the pressurizer and could also eliminate the spurious faults of the pressurizer caused by other subsystems. Besides the multi-fault diagnosis and system-wide diagnosis capabilities, the proposed method has many merits such as real-time diagnosis capability, independency of fault pattern, direct use of sensor values, and transparency of the fault propagation to the operators. (Author)

  5. a Gross Error Elimination Method for Point Cloud Data Based on Kd-Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Huang, G.; Yang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Point cloud data has been one type of widely used data sources in the field of remote sensing. Key steps of point cloud data's pro-processing focus on gross error elimination and quality control. Owing to the volume feature of point could data, existed gross error elimination methods need spend massive memory both in space and time. This paper employed a new method which based on Kd-tree algorithm to construct, k-nearest neighbor algorithm to search, settled appropriate threshold to determine with result turns out a judgement that whether target point is or not an outlier. Experimental results show that, our proposed algorithm will help to delete gross error in point cloud data and facilitate to decrease memory consumption, improve efficiency.

  6. A GROSS ERROR ELIMINATION METHOD FOR POINT CLOUD DATA BASED ON KD-TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud data has been one type of widely used data sources in the field of remote sensing. Key steps of point cloud data’s pro-processing focus on gross error elimination and quality control. Owing to the volume feature of point could data, existed gross error elimination methods need spend massive memory both in space and time. This paper employed a new method which based on Kd-tree algorithm to construct, k-nearest neighbor algorithm to search, settled appropriate threshold to determine with result turns out a judgement that whether target point is or not an outlier. Experimental results show that, our proposed algorithm will help to delete gross error in point cloud data and facilitate to decrease memory consumption, improve efficiency.

  7. Apparatus and Method for Elimination of Polarization-Induced Fading in Fiber-optic Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Parker, Jr., Allen R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method of eliminating polarization-induced fading in interferometric fiber-optic sensor system having a wavelength-swept laser optical signal. The interferometric return signal from the sensor arms are combined and provided to a multi-optical path detector assembly and ultimately to a data acquisition and processing unit by way of a switch that is time synchronized with the laser scan sweep cycle.

  8. An efficient method to eliminate the protease activity contaminating commercial bovine pancreatic DNase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tien; Lee, Hak Jin; Jin, Hyung Jong

    2015-08-15

    A method was developed to eliminate the proteases contaminating commercial DNase I, which can cause degradation of target protein during the purification process. Bio Basic DNase stock solution (in Tris-HCl buffer [pH 8.0] containing 5mM CaCl2) was first incubated at 50 °C to generate autolysis of proteases and zymogens, leading to a significant reduction in protease activity while preserving DNase activity. The residual protease activity was completely inhibited by further incubation with 2mM PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) or 2× S8830 inhibitor cocktail. This approach could be readily applicable to eliminate the protease activity in any DNase products or during the preparation of commercial DNase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elimination Voltammetry with Linear Scan as a New Detection Method for DNA Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes successful coupling of adsorptive transfer stripping (AdTS andelimination voltammetry with linear scan (EVLS for the resolution of reduction signals of cytosine (Cand adenine (A residues in hetero-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs. Short ODNs (9-mers and 20-merswere adsorbed from a small volume on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE. After washing ofthe ODN-modified electrode by water and its transferring to an electrochemical cell, voltammetric curves were measured. The AdTS EVLS was able to determine of C/A ratio of ODNs through theelimination function conserving the diffusion current component and eliminating kinetic and chargingcurrent components. This function, which provides the elimination signal in a peak-counterpeak form,increased the current sensitivity for A and C resolution, and for the recognition of bases sequences inODN chains. Optimal conditions of elimination experiments such as pH, time of adsorption, and scanrate were found. The combination of EVLS with AdTS procedure can be considered as a newdetection method in a DNA sensor.

  10. Calibration Method to Eliminate Zeroth Order Effect in Lateral Shearing Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Xiang, Yang; Qi, Keqi; Chen, Dawei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a calibration method is proposed which eliminates the zeroth order effect in lateral shearing interferometry. An analytical expression of the calibration error function is deduced, and the relationship between the phase-restoration error and calibration error is established. The analytical results show that the phase-restoration error introduced by the calibration error is proportional to the phase shifting error and zeroth order effect. The calibration method is verified using simulations and experiments. The simulation results show that the phase-restoration error is approximately proportional to the phase shift error and zeroth order effect, when the phase shifting error is less than 2° and the zeroth order effect is less than 0.2. The experimental result shows that compared with the conventional method with 9-frame interferograms, the calibration method with 5-frame interferograms achieves nearly the same restoration accuracy.

  11. A novel method for producing low cost dynamometric wheels based on harmonic elimination techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-López, María D.; García de Jalón, Javier; Cubillo, Adrián

    2015-02-01

    A method for producing low cost dynamometric wheels is presented in this paper. For carrying out this method, the metallic part of a commercial wheel is instrumented with strain gauges, which must be grouped in at least three circumferences and in equidistant radial lines. The strain signals of the same circumference are linearly combined to obtain at least two new signals that only depend on the tyre/road contact forces and moments. The influence of factors like the angle rotated by the wheel, the temperature or the centrifugal forces is eliminated in them by removing the continuous component and the largest possible number of harmonics, except the first or the second one, of the strain signals. The contact forces and moments are obtained from these new signals by solving two systems of linear equations with three unknowns each. This method is validated with some theoretical and experimental examples.

  12. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path between mud pump pressure interference and downhole mud pressure signals. Considering pressure signal transmission characteristics of the mud pipe, a mathematical model of ideal low-pass filter for limited frequency band signal is introduced to study the pole frequency impact on the signal reconstruction and the constraints of pressure sensor distance are obtained by pole frequencies analysis. Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation show that the method can effectively eliminate mud pump pressure interference and the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals can be reconstructed successfully with a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in the condition of satisfying the constraints of pressure sensor distance.

  13. Method of eliminating undesirable gaseous products resulting in underground uranium ore leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, J.; Dedic, K.; Johann, J.; Haas, F.; Sokola, K.

    1980-01-01

    The method described is characteristic of the fact that gases being formed or dissolved are oxidized using a combined oxidation-reduction system consisting of airborne oxygen, oxygen carriers and a strong irreversible oxidant. The oxygen carrier system consists of a mixture of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ cations or of Cu + and Cu 2+ cations introduced in solutions in form of iron salts at a concentration of 0.0001 to 0.003 M, or copper salts maximally of 0.0003 M. The irreversible oxidant shows a standard redox potential of at least +1.0 V. In addition to undesirable product elimination, the method allows increasing the leaching process yield. (J.B.)

  14. [Physical and chemical methods for eliminating propagules of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi from soil samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covacevich, Fernanda; Castellari, Claudia C; Echeverría, Hernán E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate methods to eliminate or reduce the number of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from soil samples without affecting their edaphic or microbiological properties. At an early trial we evaluated moist heat (autoclaving), dry heat (oven), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and formaldehyde at a range of 100.0-3.3μl/g and 16.7-3.3μl/g respectively. There was no germination in plants of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) sown on substrates receiving NaClO (100.0-33.3μl/g), whereas autoclaving significantly increased the available soil phosphorous content. Both treatments failed to eradicate AMF colonization at 9 weeks; therefore, they were discarded. In a second trial, oven and formaldehyde (10.0μl/g) treatments were analyzed to assess the effects of seed decontamination and AMF reinoculation. Both procedures were effective in reducing or eliminating indigenous AMF at a range of soil P availability of 12-29mg/kg. However, the time between soil treatment and AMF multiplication and safety requirements were greater in the case of formaldehyde application. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis and elimination method of the effects of cables on LVRT testing for offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zimin; Liu, Xiaohao; Li, Changgang; Liu, Yutian

    2018-02-01

    The current state, characteristics and necessity of the low voltage ride through (LVRT) on-site testing for grid-connected offshore wind turbines are introduced firstly. Then the effects of submarine cables on the LVRT testing are analysed based on the equivalent circuit of the testing system. A scheme for eliminating the effects of cables on the proposed LVRT testing method is presented. The specified voltage dips are guaranteed to be in compliance with the testing standards by adjusting the ratio between the current limiting impedance and short circuit impedance according to the steady voltage relationship derived from the equivalent circuit. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the voltage dips at the high voltage side of wind turbine transformer satisfy the requirements of testing standards.

  16. Analytical energy gradient for the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter, E-mail: dcremer@smu.edu [Computational and Theoretical Chemistry Group (CATCO), Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, 3215 Daniel Ave, Dallas, Texas 75275-0314 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    The analytical gradient for the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method is presented. The 2c-NESC is a Dirac-exact method that employs the exact two-component one-electron Hamiltonian and thus leads to exact Dirac spin-orbit (SO) splittings for one-electron atoms. For many-electron atoms and molecules, the effect of the two-electron SO interaction is modeled by a screened nucleus potential using effective nuclear charges as proposed by Boettger [Phys. Rev. B 62, 7809 (2000)]. The effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on molecular geometries is analyzed utilizing the properties of the frontier orbitals and calculated SO couplings. It is shown that bond lengths can either be lengthened or shortened under the impact of SOC where in the first case the influence of low lying excited states with occupied antibonding orbitals plays a role and in the second case the jj-coupling between occupied antibonding and unoccupied bonding orbitals dominates. In general, the effect of SOC on bond lengths is relatively small (≤5% of the scalar relativistic changes in the bond length). However, large effects are found for van der Waals complexes Hg{sub 2} and Cn{sub 2}, which are due to the admixture of more bonding character to the highest occupied spinors.

  17. Analytical energy gradient for the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    The analytical gradient for the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method is presented. The 2c-NESC is a Dirac-exact method that employs the exact two-component one-electron Hamiltonian and thus leads to exact Dirac spin-orbit (SO) splittings for one-electron atoms. For many-electron atoms and molecules, the effect of the two-electron SO interaction is modeled by a screened nucleus potential using effective nuclear charges as proposed by Boettger [Phys. Rev. B 62, 7809 (2000)]. The effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on molecular geometries is analyzed utilizing the properties of the frontier orbitals and calculated SO couplings. It is shown that bond lengths can either be lengthened or shortened under the impact of SOC where in the first case the influence of low lying excited states with occupied antibonding orbitals plays a role and in the second case the jj-coupling between occupied antibonding and unoccupied bonding orbitals dominates. In general, the effect of SOC on bond lengths is relatively small (≤5% of the scalar relativistic changes in the bond length). However, large effects are found for van der Waals complexes Hg2 and Cn2, which are due to the admixture of more bonding character to the highest occupied spinors.

  18. Method to eliminate flux linkage DC component in load transformer for static transfer switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Mao, Chengxiong; Lu, Jiming; Wang, Dan; Tian, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2 ~ 30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.

  19. Investigation of a Novel Common Subexpression Elimination Method for Low Power and Area Efficient DCT Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide interest has been observed to find a low power and area efficient hardware design of discrete cosine transform (DCT algorithm. This research work proposed a novel Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE based pipelined architecture for DCT, aimed at reproducing the cost metrics of power and area while maintaining high speed and accuracy in DCT applications. The proposed design combines the techniques of Canonical Signed Digit (CSD representation and CSE to implement the multiplier-less method for fixed constant multiplication of DCT coefficients. Furthermore, symmetry in the DCT coefficient matrix is used with CSE to further decrease the number of arithmetic operations. This architecture needs a single-port memory to feed the inputs instead of multiport memory, which leads to reduction of the hardware cost and area. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed scheme uses minimum logic utilizing mere 340 slices and 22 adders. Moreover, this design meets the real time constraints of different video/image coders and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR requirements. Furthermore, the proposed technique has significant advantages over recent well-known methods along with accuracy in terms of power reduction, silicon area usage, and maximum operating frequency by 41%, 15%, and 15%, respectively.

  20. Investigation of a novel common subexpression elimination method for low power and area efficient DCT architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M F; Reza, A W; Kanesan, J; Ramiah, H

    2014-01-01

    A wide interest has been observed to find a low power and area efficient hardware design of discrete cosine transform (DCT) algorithm. This research work proposed a novel Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) based pipelined architecture for DCT, aimed at reproducing the cost metrics of power and area while maintaining high speed and accuracy in DCT applications. The proposed design combines the techniques of Canonical Signed Digit (CSD) representation and CSE to implement the multiplier-less method for fixed constant multiplication of DCT coefficients. Furthermore, symmetry in the DCT coefficient matrix is used with CSE to further decrease the number of arithmetic operations. This architecture needs a single-port memory to feed the inputs instead of multiport memory, which leads to reduction of the hardware cost and area. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed scheme uses minimum logic utilizing mere 340 slices and 22 adders. Moreover, this design meets the real time constraints of different video/image coders and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) requirements. Furthermore, the proposed technique has significant advantages over recent well-known methods along with accuracy in terms of power reduction, silicon area usage, and maximum operating frequency by 41%, 15%, and 15%, respectively.

  1. Paramecium tetraurelia chromatin assembly factor-1-like protein PtCAF-1 is involved in RNA-mediated control of DNA elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignarski, Michael; Singh, Aditi; Swart, Estienne C; Arambasic, Miroslav; Sandoval, Pamela Y; Nowacki, Mariusz

    2014-10-29

    Genome-wide DNA remodelling in the ciliate Paramecium is ensured by RNA-mediated trans-nuclear crosstalk between the germline and the somatic genomes during sexual development. The rearrangements include elimination of transposable elements, minisatellites and tens of thousands non-coding elements called internally eliminated sequences (IESs). The trans-nuclear genome comparison process employs a distinct class of germline small RNAs (scnRNAs) that are compared against the parental somatic genome to select the germline-specific subset of scnRNAs that subsequently target DNA elimination in the progeny genome. Only a handful of proteins involved in this process have been identified so far and the mechanism of DNA targeting is unknown. Here we describe chromatin assembly factor-1-like protein (PtCAF-1), which we show is required for the survival of sexual progeny and localizes first in the parental and later in the newly developing macronucleus. Gene silencing shows that PtCAF-1 is required for the elimination of transposable elements and a subset of IESs. PTCAF-1 depletion also impairs the selection of germline-specific scnRNAs during development. We identify specific histone modifications appearing during Paramecium development which are strongly reduced in PTCAF-1 depleted cells. Our results demonstrate the importance of PtCAF-1 for the epigenetic trans-nuclear cross-talk mechanism. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Reasons for the appearance of pulsations in gas-lift wells and methods of eliminating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibirev, A P; Grekhov, V V; Leonov, V A; Shigapov, R R

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the main reason for pulsation in the gas-lift well output is lack of coordinated operation between the bed and the gas-lift lifter. A plan is suggested for making decisions to conduct work to detect and eliminate pulsations in the gas-lift well output which permit elimination of the pulsation in the shortest time and with the least outlays.

  3. Elimination Method of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA: A Simple Methodological Approach for Assessing Agricultural Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byomkesh Talukder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present world context, there is a need to assess the sustainability of agricultural systems. Various methods have been proposed to assess agricultural sustainability. Like in many other fields, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA has recently been used as a methodological approach for the assessment of agricultural sustainability. In this paper, an attempt is made to apply Elimination, a MCDA method, to an agricultural sustainability assessment, and to investigate its benefits and drawbacks. This article starts by explaining the importance of agricultural sustainability. Common MCDA types are discussed, with a description of the state-of-the-art method for incorporating multi-criteria and reference values for agricultural sustainability assessment. Then, a generic description of the Elimination Method is provided, and its modeling approach is applied to a case study in coastal Bangladesh. An assessment of the results is provided, and the issues that need consideration before applying Elimination to agricultural sustainability, are examined. Whilst having some limitations, the case study shows that it is applicable for agricultural sustainability assessments and for ranking the sustainability of agricultural systems. The assessment is quick compared to other assessment methods and is shown to be helpful for agricultural sustainability assessment. It is a relatively simple and straightforward analytical tool that could be widely and easily applied. However, it is suggested that appropriate care must be taken to ensure the successful use of the Elimination Method during the assessment process.

  4. A method to eliminate wetting during the homogenization of HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1986-01-01

    Adhesion of HgCdTe samples to fused silica ampoule walls, or 'wetting', during the homogenization process was eliminated by adopting a slower heating rate. The idea is to decrease Cd activity in the sample so as to reduce the rate of reaction between Cd and the silica wall.

  5. Development and application of the analytical energy gradient for the normalized elimination of the small component method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The analytical energy gradient of the normalized elimination of the small component (NESC) method is derived for the first time and implemented for the routine calculation of NESC geometries and other first order molecular properties. Essential for the derivation is the correct calculation of the

  6. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate S, Herman; Espinoza B, Juan; Maier N, Liliana; Silva, Jose R

    2003-01-01

    Radiation as a food preservation method has long been used in many countries, among them Chile. The application of this technology to brand name hamburgers was studied by Santo Tomas University together with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission in order to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp and to identify organoleptic characteristics using specific doses. A total of 144 frozen hamburgers (-18 o C) were analyzed and divided into three equal groups. Each hamburger - weighing 115 g approximately - was put into sealed polyethylene bags. The first two sample groups were sterilized with irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella sp strain ATCC 2714-99 ISP. The inoculating strains were prepared in the Microbiology Laboratory of Santo Tomas University. The third group was not sterilized because it was the control group. The samples were treated with gamma irradiation (Co 60 ), with doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy analyzing the bacteria counts after 24 hours, 30 days and 60 days post radiation. Their values D 10 were also investigated finding values of 0.472 to 0.494 kGy for the Escherichia coli and 0.649 to 0.697 kGy for the Salmonella sp. The storage time did not influence the values D 10 . The statistical analysis reveals that there are significant differences among the species (p 0,05), due to the diverse nature of the bacteria. Similarly, storage times also showed meaningful differences between days 1, 30 and 60, but this fact was not reflected in the results obtained in the D 10 . The organoleptic analysis of hamburger was done by means of a sensory evaluation panel of 12 members, which evaluated samples with 0; 1.5 and 3 kGy. Each person tasted about 55 of each sample and evaluated nine attributes such as appearance, color, aroma, sweetness, acidity, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, no attribute showed significant

  7. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate Segovia, Herman Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Radiation as a food preservation method has long been used in many countries, among them Chile. The application of this technology to brand name hamburgers was studied by Santo Tomas University together with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission in order to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp and to identify organoleptic characteristics using specific doses. A total of 144 frozen hamburgers (-18 deg C) were analyzed and divided into three equal groups. Each hamburger - weighing 115 g approximately - was put into sealed polyethylene bags. The first two sample groups were sterilized with irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli 0157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella sp strain ATCC 2714-99 ISP. The inoculating strains were prepared in the Microbiology Laboratory of Santo Tomas University. The third group was not sterilized because it was the control group. The samples were treated with gamma irradiation (Co 60 ), with doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy analyzing the bacteria counts after 24 hours, 30 days and 60 days post radiation. Their values D 10 were also investigated finding values of 0.472 to 0.494 kGy for the Escherichia coli and 0.649 to 0.697 kGy for the Salmonella sp. The storage time did not influence the values D 10 . The statistical analysis reveals that there are significant differences among the species (p ≤0,05), due to the diverse nature of the bacteria. Similarly, storage times also showed meaningful differences between days 1, 30 and 60, but this fact was not reflected in the results obtained in the D 10 . The organoleptic analysis of hamburger was done by means of a sensory evaluation panel of 12 members, which evaluated samples with 0; 1.5 and 3 kGy. Each person tasted about 55 of each sample and evaluated nine attributes such as appearance, color, aroma, sweetness, acidity, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, no attribute showed

  8. New Multigrid Method Including Elimination Algolithm Based on High-Order Vector Finite Elements in Three Dimensional Magnetostatic Field Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Mitsuo; Hotta, Masashi

    A new multigrid method based on high-order vector finite elements is proposed in this paper. Low level discretizations in this method are obtained by using low-order vector finite elements for the same mesh. Gauss-Seidel method is used as a smoother, and a linear equation of lowest level is solved by ICCG method. But it is often found that multigrid solutions do not converge into ICCG solutions. An elimination algolithm of constant term using a null space of the coefficient matrix is also described. In three dimensional magnetostatic field analysis, convergence time and number of iteration of this multigrid method are discussed with the convectional ICCG method.

  9. Titanium nitride coatings synthesized by IPD method with eliminated current oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafał

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of elimination of current oscillations within the coaxial plasma accelerator during IPD deposition process on the morphology, phase structure and properties of synthesized TiN coatings. Current observations of waveforms have been made by use of an oscilloscope. As a test material for experiments, titanium nitride TiN coatings synthesized on silicon and high-speed steel substrates were used. The coatings morphology, phase composition and wear resistance properties were determined. The character of current waveforms in the plasma accelerator electric circuit plays a crucial role during the coatings synthesis process. Elimination of the current oscillations leads to obtaining an ultrafine grained structure of titanium nitride coatings and to disappearance of the tendency to structure columnarization. The coatings obtained during processes of a non-oscillating character are distinguished by better wear-resistance properties.

  10. An Easy Method to Eliminate the Effect of Lupus Anticoagulants in the Coagulation Factor Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Yin, Shiyu

    2016-07-01

    To build and evaluate intrinsic coagulation factor assays which can eliminate the effect of lupus anticoagulants (LAC). Commercial silica clotting time confirmatory (SCT-C) reagent containing sufficient synthetic phospholipid and routine activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) reagent were each used for one-stage detection of FVIII, FIX, and FXI activities, in samples with or without LAC, and the results were compared. For samples without LAC, consistent results of FVIII, FIX, and FXI using both SCT-C reagent and APTT reagent were obtained. For samples with LAC, the assays with SCT-C reagent not only could eliminate the effect of strong lupus anticoagulants but also needed fewer dilutions than that with routine APTT reagent. The intrinsic factor detections by SCT-C reagent are credible and convenient to be used for samples with LAC.

  11. Method of eliminating the training effect in superconducting coils by post-wind preload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The training effect in superconducting coils is eliminated by winding the coil with a composite material that includes both a superconductor and a normal material. Stresses are applied to the wound coil in the direction that electromagnetic stresses will be applied to the coil during normal use. The applied stresses are greater than the calculated magnitude of the greatest electromagnetic stresses to be applied to the coil

  12. A Method Based on Semi-Solid Forming for Eliminating Coarse Dendrites and Shrinkage Porosity of H13 Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A method called forging solidifying metal (FSM, which is applied for eliminating coarse dendrites and shrinkage porosity defects of ferrous alloys was proposed based on semi-solid forming technology (SSF. To verify its feasibility, the effects of liquid fraction (FL on the microstructure of the deformed H13 steel were investigated experimentally. The coarse dendrites structure still existed and cracks appeared when the 0.1/s 50% FSM method was carried out at ~20% FL. What is significantly different from that is, the elimination of the coarse dendrites structure and shrinkage porosity defects became more significant, when this method was conducted at the end of solidification (FL < 10%. The microstructure of H13 steel was significantly refined and also became dense in such condition.

  13. The isotope effect and enthalpy of a base-promoted 1,4-elimination reaction by a thermokinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, P.

    1974-01-01

    Microcalorimetry (MC) has been used to measure the second order rate constants (k) for the base-promoted 1,4-elimination reactions of 3-(2-acetoxy-2-propyl)indene (B sub (H)) and 3-di-d-3-(2-acetoxy-2-propyl)indene (B sub (D)). Triethylamine (TEA) was used as eliminating base in methanol buffered with TEAH + AcO - as solvent. The MC-rate constants agreed with those obtained by an independent method, a calibrated quench-extraction-NMR (Q-E-NMR) method. In the present case the MC-method yields k/s with a precision of -1 (-9.5 kcal/mol) for B sub (H). The usefulness microcalorimetry in the study of reaction mechanisms is discussed. (author)

  14. A Real-Time Thermal Self-Elimination Method for Static Mode Operated Freestanding Piezoresistive Microcantilever-Based Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Fu; Huang, Long-Sun; Yen, Yi-Kuang

    2018-02-28

    Here, we provide a method and apparatus for real-time compensation of the thermal effect of single free-standing piezoresistive microcantilever-based biosensors. The sensor chip contained an on-chip fixed piezoresistor that served as a temperature sensor, and a multilayer microcantilever with an embedded piezoresistor served as a biomolecular sensor. This method employed the calibrated relationship between the resistance and the temperature of piezoresistors to eliminate the thermal effect on the sensor, including the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and bimorph effect. From experimental results, the method was verified to reduce the signal of thermal effect from 25.6 μV/°C to 0.3 μV/°C, which was approximately two orders of magnitude less than that before the processing of the thermal elimination method. Furthermore, the proposed approach and system successfully demonstrated its effective real-time thermal self-elimination on biomolecular detection without any thermostat device to control the environmental temperature. This method realizes the miniaturization of an overall measurement system of the sensor, which can be used to develop portable medical devices and microarray analysis platforms.

  15. A Real-Time Thermal Self-Elimination Method for Static Mode Operated Freestanding Piezoresistive Microcantilever-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fu Ku

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Here, we provide a method and apparatus for real-time compensation of the thermal effect of single free-standing piezoresistive microcantilever-based biosensors. The sensor chip contained an on-chip fixed piezoresistor that served as a temperature sensor, and a multilayer microcantilever with an embedded piezoresistor served as a biomolecular sensor. This method employed the calibrated relationship between the resistance and the temperature of piezoresistors to eliminate the thermal effect on the sensor, including the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR and bimorph effect. From experimental results, the method was verified to reduce the signal of thermal effect from 25.6 μV/°C to 0.3 μV/°C, which was approximately two orders of magnitude less than that before the processing of the thermal elimination method. Furthermore, the proposed approach and system successfully demonstrated its effective real-time thermal self-elimination on biomolecular detection without any thermostat device to control the environmental temperature. This method realizes the miniaturization of an overall measurement system of the sensor, which can be used to develop portable medical devices and microarray analysis platforms.

  16. Eliminating armaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.

    1998-01-01

    The end of Cold War induced optimistic projections concerning disarmament, elimination of nuclear weapons, elimination of massive inequities - poverty, hatred, racism. All these goals should be achieved simultaneously, but little has been achieved so far

  17. Electricity eliminates rust from district heat pipes. The new deoxidation method works on radiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonninen, R.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Oxygen dissolving in district heating water through district heat pipes and pipe joints made of plastic corrodes many small and medium-size district heating systems, resulting in heat cuts in the buildings connected to these systems. IN some cases, corrosion products have even circulated back to district heating power plants, thus hampering heat generation in the worst of cases. People residing in blocks of flats where some radiator components are made of plastic also face a similar problem, though on a smaller scale. A small and efficient electrochemical deoxidation cell has now been invented to eliminate this nuisance, which occurs particularly in cold winter weather. (orig.)

  18. Interactive methods to involve users into workspace design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Banke, Palle

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the use of a combination of interactive methods involving workers can lead to a useful input to the (re)design of their workspace. The workbook and the layout design game methods were tested, and a comparison between their use and the ergonomic analysi...

  19. Two Sets of Piwi Proteins Are Involved in Distinct sRNA Pathways Leading to Elimination of Germline-Specific DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique I. Furrer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Piwi proteins and piRNAs protect eukaryotic germlines against the spread of transposons. During development in the ciliate Paramecium, two Piwi-dependent sRNA classes are involved in the elimination of transposons and transposon-derived DNA: scan RNAs (scnRNAs, associated with Ptiwi01 and Ptiwi09, and iesRNAs, whose binding partners we now identify as Ptiwi10 and Ptiwi11. scnRNAs derive from the maternal genome and initiate DNA elimination during development, whereas iesRNAs continue DNA targeting until the removal process is complete. Here, we show that scnRNAs and iesRNAs are processed by distinct Dicer-like proteins and bind Piwi proteins in a mutually exclusive manner, suggesting separate biogenesis pathways. We also demonstrate that the PTIWI10 gene is transcribed from the developing nucleus and that its transcription depends on prior DNA excision, suggesting a mechanism of gene expression control triggered by the removal of short DNA segments interrupting the gene.

  20. Analysis of polarization methods for elimination of power overshoot in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Polarization curves from microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show an unexpectedly large drop in voltage with increased current densities, leading to a phenomenon in the power density curve referred to as "power overshoot". Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV, 1 mV s- 1) and variable external resistances (at fixed intervals of 20 min) over a single fed-batch cycle in an MFC both resulted in power overshoot in power density curves due to anode potentials. Increasing the anode enrichment time from 30 days to 100 days did not eliminate overshoot, suggesting that insufficient enrichment of the anode biofilm was not the primary cause. Running the reactor at a fixed resistance for a full fed-batch cycle (~ 1 to 2 days), however, completely eliminated the overshoot in the power density curve. These results show that long times at a fixed resistance are needed to stabilize current generation by bacteria in MFCs, and that even relatively slow LSV scan rates and long times between switching circuit loads during a fed-batch cycle may produce inaccurate polarization and power density results for these biological systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Project to develop and demonstrate methods to eliminate frozen coal handling problems. Status report I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-15

    For too many years, problems associated with frozen coal have plagued the companies who mine it, the companies who handle it in transit and the utilities and other industrial concerns that finally burn it. But never before has the magnitude of the frozen coal problem been as great as it is today because of two primary factors, i.e. (1) the majority of coal currently transported and used has been ground to a very fine mesh that absorbs water readily, thus providing more surface area for freezing, and (2) the substantially increased importance of coal, indeed, the now critical necessity for more coal to be used in displacing dangerously uncertain foreign oil supplies that currently account for 50 percent of our daily domestic oil consumption. Frozen coal problems can and do have a devastating effect upon the ability to provide energy from coal during harsh winter months when it is not needed. The majority of these problems have been involved with removing frozen coal from rail cars. To allay the problem, numerous techniques have been tried, all with some measure of success. As an example, certain chemicals have been sprayed on the coal; another common treatment has been widespread use of thaw sheds, which, whether electrically or gas-fired, are all energy intensive, time consuming, hard on rail equipment and expensive to operate over long periods of time. From sledge hammers and crow bars to gas-fired jets and electric thaw sheds, available mechanical de-icing methods often damage coal handling equipment, are time consuming and, therefore, very expensive when demurrage losses must be added to significant investment and/or operating costs.

  2. Participatory methods for initiating manufacturing employees' involvement in product innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Jensen, Christian Schou; Broberg, Ole

    2016-01-01

    approach that we apply to two case companies, this paper presents an empirical study of how to initiate involvement of manufacturing employees in R&D activities. We have used participatory methods from design thinking that has the ability to create relations between employees from different backgrounds......Employee-driven innovation has the potential to improve product innovation by involving employees as innovative resources. However, it can be a challenge to turn the potential into a reality of collaboration practices across organizational structures and culture. Through an interactive research...... and through a series of facilitated workshops we have investigated how these methods can initiate employee involvement. We see that participatory methods can improve understanding and relation between R&D and manufacturing departments, and thereby support a creative collaboration and emergence of employee...

  3. An Experiment of Ocular Artifacts Elimination from EEG Signals using ICA and PCA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjon Turnip

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world of automation, biological signals, especially Electroencephalogram (EEG is gaining wide attention as a source of biometric information. Eye-blinks and movement of the eyeballs produce electrical signals (contaminate the EEG signals that are collectively known as ocular artifacts. These noise signals are required to be separated from the EEG signals to obtain the accurate results. This paper reports an experiment of ocular artifacts elimination from EEG signal using blind source separation algorithm based on independent component analysis and principal component analysis. EEG signals are recorded on three conditions, which are normal conditions, closed eyes, and blinked eyes. After processing, the dominant frequency of EEG signals in the range of 12-14 Hz either on normal, closed, and blinked eyes conditions is obtained. 

  4. A method of eliminating the surface defect in low-temperature oxidation powder added UO2 pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, H. S.; Lee, S. J.; Kim, J. I.; Jeon, K. R.; Kim, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    A study on methods to eliminate surface defect shown in low-temperature oxidation powder added UO 2 pellet has been performed. Powders oxidized at 350 .deg. C for 4 hrs were prepared and mixed with UO 2 powder after crushing them. After being sintered, surfaces of the pellet were inspected both visually and optically. A large number of defects were observed on the surface of the specimens in which low-temperature oxidation powders were directly mixed or master mixed with UO 2 powder while both specimens produced from mixed powders including milled oxidation powders and powders that were milled totally after mixing had clean surfaces. However, optical examination showed considerably large defected pores in the milled oxidation powder added pellet and it was confirmed that the inner defects can be eliminated completely only when milling the entire mixture on UO 2 and low-temperature oxidation powder, but not by crushing only oxidation powder

  5. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  6. A new method for elimination of artifacts produced by collimator septum effect in gamma-camera images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Isao; Onai, Yoshio; Tomaru, Teizo; Irifune, Toraji; Kakegawa, Makoto.

    1978-01-01

    Collimator artifacts may be present within the images produced by collimators whose septal width approaches the inherent resolution of the gamma-camera system. As the inherent resolution of the gamma-camera is improved, collimator artifacts become more prominent. The purpose of this study is to eliminate collimator artifacts from gamma-camera images. To eliminate the septum effect produced by high-energy parallel-hole collimators with thick septa, the following method was used: X and Y signals from the detector are made to ride on the triangular waves changing periodically, and resultant position signals obtained by this processing are applied to the corresponding deflection circuits in the CRT display. The oscillation amplitude of processed position signals can be regulated by the frequency and amplitude of the triangular waves. Regulation of the oscillation amplitude of position signals, which would produce maximum reduction of collimator artifacts, was to approach the spatial frequency responses of the overall processed line spread functions obtained experimentally to those of the Gaussian functions with FWHM equal to the geometric resolution calculated from the equation given by Gerber and Miller. In images of a pancreas phantom containing 131 I, collimator artifacts were clearly seen in the unprocessed case, but were eliminated in the processed case. (auth.)

  7. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganism in hamburgers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, H.; Espinoza B, J; Maier, L; Silva, J.R

    2002-01-01

    The application of ionizing energy in hamburgers of a trade mark, was studied by the University Santo Tomas in conjunction with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission in order to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp and to search for organoleptic characteristic by means of determined doses. A total of 144 frozen hamburgers (-18 o C) were analyzed and divided into three equal groups. Each hamburger - weighting 115 g - was put into sealed polietilene bags. The first two sample groups were sterilized with an irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella sp strain ATCC 2714-99 ISP. The third group was not sterilized because it corresponded to the control group. The samples of each group were treated with gamma irradiation ( 60 Co), with doses of 0, 1, 2 and 4 kGy analyzing the bacteria counts after 24 hours, 30 days and 60 days post radiation. D 10 values of 0,472 to 0,494 kGy for the Escherichia coli and 0,649 to 0,697 kGy for the Salmonella sp were found. The storage time did not time exert any influence on the D 10 values. The storage time also showed meaningful differences between the days 1, 30 and 60, nevertheless, this fact was not reflected in the results obtained in the D 10 value. The organoleptic analysis of hamburger was done by means of a trained sensorial panel who evaluated samples with 0; 1,5 and 3 kGy. Each person tasted 55 approximately of each sample and evaluated; appearance, color, aroma, sweetness, acidity, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, none attribute showed significant differences (p .05) between the radiated samples and the control group, concluding that the level of the hamburger acceptability was qualified as good (au)

  8. An Efficient Seam Elimination Method for UAV Images Based on Wallis Dodging and Gaussian Distance Weight Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinyan; Li, Xiaojuan; Duan, Fuzhou; Wang, Junqian; Ou, Yang

    2016-05-10

    The rapid development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing conforms to the increasing demand for the low-altitude very high resolution (VHR) image data. However, high processing speed of massive UAV data has become an indispensable prerequisite for its applications in various industry sectors. In this paper, we developed an effective and efficient seam elimination approach for UAV images based on Wallis dodging and Gaussian distance weight enhancement (WD-GDWE). The method encompasses two major steps: first, Wallis dodging was introduced to adjust the difference of brightness between the two matched images, and the parameters in the algorithm were derived in this study. Second, a Gaussian distance weight distribution method was proposed to fuse the two matched images in the overlap region based on the theory of the First Law of Geography, which can share the partial dislocation in the seam to the whole overlap region with an effect of smooth transition. This method was validated at a study site located in Hanwang (Sichuan, China) which was a seriously damaged area in the 12 May 2008 enchuan Earthquake. Then, a performance comparison between WD-GDWE and the other five classical seam elimination algorithms in the aspect of efficiency and effectiveness was conducted. Results showed that WD-GDWE is not only efficient, but also has a satisfactory effectiveness. This method is promising in advancing the applications in UAV industry especially in emergency situations.

  9. The use of ionizing radiation as a method of eliminating pathogenic microorganism in Chicken Nuggets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempffer R, Daniela; Espinoza B, Juan; Maier N, Liliana; Torres, Ximena; Zarate S, Herman

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine an effective treatment of ionizing energy on chicken nuggets a study was developed so as to eliminate pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. The experiment included 3 types of analyses: aerobic plate count, organoleptic evaluation and chemical analyses. A total of 144 frozen nuggets (-18 o C )were analyzed and divided into two equal groups for proceeding with artificial contamination.Each nugget -weighting 25 g -was put into sealed polietilene bags.The two sample groups were sterilized with irradiation doses of 25 kGy, then inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 25922 ISP (Instituto de Salud Publica) and Salmonella enteritidis strain ATCC 1833-99 ISP. The samples of each group were treated with gamma irradiation (Co 60 ), with doses of 0,3;0,6 and 0,9 kGy,except for one group (control) which was not irradiated, and stored for 24 hours, 30 and 60 days post radiation. The D 10 values mid-point were found for the Escherichia coli to be 0,242 kGy and 0,295 kGy for the Salmonella enteritidis. A third group, composed by 9 randomly selected nuggets without sterilization was chosen to determine the total aerobic plate counts, resulting in an initial count of 6,15x 10 4 ufc/g. The sensory analysis of nuggets was done by means of a trained sensorial panel who evaluated samples with 0,75 and 1,5 kGy and those of the control group non irradiated. Each person tasted the whole sample (25 g)and evaluated: appearance, color, odor, bitterness, texture, flavor and acceptability. Statistically, none attribute showed significant differences (p≤0.05)between the radiated samples and the control group, concluding that the level of the nugget acceptability was qualified as very good. The chemical analysis of nuggets was done in two groups: A control group and an irradiated group with 1.5 kGy. It evaluated the percentage of proteins, fats, ashes, humidity and carbohydrates. Statistically, none of the nutrients showed significant

  10. Statistical methods for elimination of guarantee-time bias in cohort studies: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sung Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin has been considered to be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Several pharmaco-epidemiology cohort studies have shown protective effects of aspirin on diseases using various statistical methods, with the Cox regression model being the most commonly used approach. However, there are some inherent limitations to the conventional Cox regression approach such as guarantee-time bias, resulting in an overestimation of the drug effect. To overcome such limitations, alternative approaches, such as the time-dependent Cox model and landmark methods have been proposed. This study aimed to compare the performance of three methods: Cox regression, time-dependent Cox model and landmark method with different landmark times in order to address the problem of guarantee-time bias. Methods Through statistical modeling and simulation studies, the performance of the above three methods were assessed in terms of type I error, bias, power, and mean squared error (MSE. In addition, the three statistical approaches were applied to a real data example from the Korean National Health Insurance Database. Effect of cumulative rosiglitazone dose on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was used as an example for illustration. Results In the simulated data, time-dependent Cox regression outperformed the landmark method in terms of bias and mean squared error but the type I error rates were similar. The results from real-data example showed the same patterns as the simulation findings. Conclusions While both time-dependent Cox regression model and landmark analysis are useful in resolving the problem of guarantee-time bias, time-dependent Cox regression is the most appropriate method for analyzing cumulative dose effects in pharmaco-epidemiological studies.

  11. Improved method for eliminating center-of-mass coordinates from matrix elements in oscillator basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.H.; Shapiro, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a concise, efficient method of reducing potential energy matrix elements to relative coordinates, when one is using an oscillator basis. It is especially suited to computer calculations. One nice feature of the method is its modular form, which allows a wide range of calculations. Separate FORTRAN subroutines have been written which calculate and store tables of the one-dimensional brackets of an equation that is presented and the single particle brackets from the isotropic to the axially symmetric oscillator equations. The tables are used by other subroutines which calculate the modified brackets and the brackets with spin. The methods developed here are a substantial improvement over what has been done heretofore, and open up new possibilities for performing nuclear structure calculations

  12. ON THE EFFECTS OF THE PRESENCE AND METHODS OF THE ELIMINATION HETEROSCEDASTICITY AND AUTOCORRELATION IN THE REGRESSION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina L. Timofeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodological and technical bases for the creation of regression models that adequately reflect reality. The focus is on methods of removing residual autocorrelation in models. Algorithms eliminating heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation of the regression model residuals: reweighted least squares method, the method of Cochran-Orkutta are given. A model of "pure" regression is build, as well as to compare the effect on the dependent variable of the different explanatory variables when the latter are expressed in different units, a standardized form of the regression equation. The scheme of abatement techniques of heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation for the creation of regression models specific to the social and cultural sphere is developed.

  13. Rapid method for protein quantitation by Bradford assay after elimination of the interference of polysorbate 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongfeng; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Bradford assay is one of the most common methods for measuring protein concentrations. However, some pharmaceutical excipients, such as detergents, interfere with Bradford assay even at low concentrations. Protein precipitation can be used to overcome sample incompatibility with protein quantitation. But the rate of protein recovery caused by acetone precipitation is only about 70%. In this study, we found that sucrose not only could increase the rate of protein recovery after 1 h acetone precipitation, but also did not interfere with Bradford assay. So we developed a method for rapid protein quantitation in protein drugs even if they contained interfering substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A method for disaggregating clay concretions and eliminating formalin smell in the processing of sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1989-01-01

    A complete handling procedure for processing sediment samples is described. It includes some improvements of conventional methods. The fixed sediment sample is mixed with a solution of the alkaline detergent AJAX® (Colgate-Palmolive). It is kept at 80-900 C for 20-40 min. This treatment facilitates...

  15. Passive method of eliminating accommodation/convergence disparity in stereoscopic head-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jesse B.

    2005-03-01

    The difference in accommodation and convergence distance experienced when viewing stereoscopic displays has long been recognized as a source of visual discomfort. It is especially problematic in head mounted virtual reality and enhanced reality displays, where images must often be displayed across a large depth range or superimposed on real objects. DTI has demonstrated a novel method of creating stereoscopic images in which the focus and fixation distances are closely matched for all parts of the scene from close distances to infinity. The method is passive in the sense that it does not rely on eye tracking, moving parts, variable focus optics, vibrating optics, or feedback loops. The method uses a rapidly changing illumination pattern in combination with a high speed microdisplay to create cones of light that converge at different distances to form the voxels of a high resolution space filling image. A bench model display was built and a series of visual tests were performed in order to demonstrate the concept and investigate both its capabilities and limitations. Results proved conclusively that real optical images were being formed and that observers had to change their focus to read text or see objects at different distances

  16. Active-Set Reduced-Space Methods with Nonlinear Elimination for Two-Phase Flow Problems in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian

    2016-07-26

    Fully implicit methods are drawing more attention in scientific and engineering applications due to the allowance of large time steps in extreme-scale simulations. When using a fully implicit method to solve two-phase flow problems in porous media, one major challenge is the solution of the resultant nonlinear system at each time step. To solve such nonlinear systems, traditional nonlinear iterative methods, such as the class of the Newton methods, often fail to achieve the desired convergent rate due to the high nonlinearity of the system and/or the violation of the boundedness requirement of the saturation. In the paper, we reformulate the two-phase model as a variational inequality that naturally ensures the physical feasibility of the saturation variable. The variational inequality is then solved by an active-set reduced-space method with a nonlinear elimination preconditioner to remove the high nonlinear components that often causes the failure of the nonlinear iteration for convergence. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare it with the classical implicit pressure-explicit saturation method for two-phase flow problems with strong heterogeneity. The numerical results show that our nonlinear solver overcomes the often severe limits on the time step associated with existing methods, results in superior convergence performance, and achieves reduction in the total computing time by more than one order of magnitude.

  17. Active-Set Reduced-Space Methods with Nonlinear Elimination for Two-Phase Flow Problems in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Haijian; Yang, Chao; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    Fully implicit methods are drawing more attention in scientific and engineering applications due to the allowance of large time steps in extreme-scale simulations. When using a fully implicit method to solve two-phase flow problems in porous media, one major challenge is the solution of the resultant nonlinear system at each time step. To solve such nonlinear systems, traditional nonlinear iterative methods, such as the class of the Newton methods, often fail to achieve the desired convergent rate due to the high nonlinearity of the system and/or the violation of the boundedness requirement of the saturation. In the paper, we reformulate the two-phase model as a variational inequality that naturally ensures the physical feasibility of the saturation variable. The variational inequality is then solved by an active-set reduced-space method with a nonlinear elimination preconditioner to remove the high nonlinear components that often causes the failure of the nonlinear iteration for convergence. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare it with the classical implicit pressure-explicit saturation method for two-phase flow problems with strong heterogeneity. The numerical results show that our nonlinear solver overcomes the often severe limits on the time step associated with existing methods, results in superior convergence performance, and achieves reduction in the total computing time by more than one order of magnitude.

  18. A method to eliminate the effect of radiation on thermocouple performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Fawaz; Lu Lixuan

    2007-01-01

    In-core temperature measurements are pivotal in maintaining nuclear reactors in a safe state of operation. Thermocouples serve as the liaison in ensuring this safe state. The realization of the thermocouple's full potential is hindered by the fact that thermocouples cannot be situated in areas with high radiation fields. Radiation has the potential of generating voltages in the thermocouple wires, hence producing an error in the temperature transmitter output. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to quantify the effect that radiation from the Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has on the thermocouple temperature reading. Subsequently, a method to offset the effect of radiation on the thermocouple is proposed. Simulation is performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system

  19. A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment - Eliminating CO2 Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak [University of Utah

    2013-11-05

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the potential of a new process technology to reduce the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission from the production of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) pigment. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most commonly used minerals in the chemical manufacturing industry. It has been commercially processed as a pigment since the early 1900's, and has a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications. TiO{sub 2} pigment is currently produced primarily by the use of the so called chloride process. A key step of the chloride process relies on high temperature carbo-chlorination of TiO{sub 2} bearing raw materials, hence producing large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The new method uses a chemical/metallurgical sequential extraction methodology to produce pigment grade TiO{sub 2} from high-TiO{sub 2} slag. The specific project objectives were to 1) study and prove the scientific validity of the concept, 2) understand the primary chemical reactions and the efficiency of sequential extraction schemes, 3) determine the properties of TiO{sub 2} produced using the technology, and 4) model the energy consumptions and environmental benefits of the technology. These objectives were successfully met and a new process for producing commercial quality TiO{sub 2} pigment was developed and experimentally validated. The process features a unique combination of established metallurgical processes, including alkaline roasting of titania slag followed by leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination. The caustic, acidic, and organic streams in the process will also be regenerated and reused in the process, greatly reducing environmental waste. The purpose and effect of each of these steps in producing purified TiO{sub 2} is detailed in the report. The levels of impurities in our pigment meet the requirements for commercial pigment, and are nearly equivalent to those of two commercial pigments. Solvent extraction with an amine extractant

  20. Methods for Reducing Normal Tissue Complication Probabilities in Oropharyngeal Cancer: Dose Reduction or Planning Target Volume Elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, Stuart E.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Vineberg, Karen; Lee, Jae; Lee, Choonik; Matuszak, Martha M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Brock, Kristy K., E-mail: kbrock@med.umich.edu

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Strategies to reduce the toxicities of head and neck radiation (ie, dysphagia [difficulty swallowing] and xerostomia [dry mouth]) are currently underway. However, the predicted benefit of dose and planning target volume (PTV) reduction strategies is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to compare the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for swallowing and salivary structures in standard plans (70 Gy [P70]), dose-reduced plans (60 Gy [P60]), and plans eliminating the PTV margin. Methods and Materials: A total of 38 oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) plans were analyzed. Standard organ-sparing volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (P70) were created and then modified by eliminating the PTVs and treating the clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) only (C70) or maintaining the PTV but reducing the dose to 60 Gy (P60). NTCP dose models for the pharyngeal constrictors, glottis/supraglottic larynx, parotid glands (PGs), and submandibular glands (SMGs) were analyzed. The minimal clinically important benefit was defined as a mean change in NTCP of >5%. The P70 NTCP thresholds and overlap percentages of the organs at risk with the PTVs (56-59 Gy, vPTV{sub 56}) were evaluated to identify the predictors for NTCP improvement. Results: With the P60 plans, only the ipsilateral PG (iPG) benefited (23.9% vs 16.2%; P<.01). With the C70 plans, only the iPG (23.9% vs 17.5%; P<.01) and contralateral SMG (cSMG) (NTCP 32.1% vs 22.9%; P<.01) benefited. An iPG NTCP threshold of 20% and 30% predicted NTCP benefits for the P60 and C70 plans, respectively (P<.001). A cSMG NTCP threshold of 30% predicted for an NTCP benefit with the C70 plans (P<.001). Furthermore, for the iPG, a vPTV{sub 56} >13% predicted benefit with P60 (P<.001) and C70 (P=.002). For the cSMG, a vPTV{sub 56} >22% predicted benefit with C70 (P<.01). Conclusions: PTV elimination and dose-reduction lowered the NTCP of the iPG, and PTV elimination lowered the NTCP of the cSMG. NTCP thresholds and the

  1. Involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the functional elimination of synaptic contacts at polyinnervated neuromuscular synapses during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, N; Santafe, M M; Tomàs, M; Lanuza, M A; Besalduch, N; Tomàs, J

    2010-05-15

    We use immunohistochemistry to describe the localization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors trkB and p75(NTR) in the neuromuscular synapses of postnatal rats (P6-P7) during the synapse elimination period. The receptor protein p75(NTR) is present in the nerve terminal, muscle cell and glial Schwann cell whereas BDNF and trkB proteins can be detected mainly in the pre- and postsynaptic elements. Exogenously applied BDNF (10 nM for 3 hr or 50 nM for 1 hr) increases ACh release from singly and dually innervated synapses. This effect may be specific for BDNF because the neurotrophin NT-4 (2-8 nM) does not modulate release at P6-P7. Blocking the receptors trkB and p75(NTR) (with K-252a and anti-p75-192-IgG, respectively) completely abolishes the potentiating effect of exogenous BDNF. In addition, exogenous BDNF transiently recruits functionally depressed silent terminals, and this effect seems to be mediated by trkB. Calcium ions, the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels and protein kinase C are involved in BDNF-mediated nerve ending recruitment. Blocking experiments suggest that endogenous BDNF could operate through p75(NTR) receptors coupled to potentiate ACh release in all nerve terminals because the anti-p75-192-IgG reduces release. However, blocking the trkB receptor (K-252a) or neutralizing endogenous BDNF with the trkB-IgG fusion protein reveals a trkB-mediated release inhibition on almost mature strong endings in dual junctions. Taken together these results suggest that a BDNF-induced p75(NTR)-mediated ACh release potentiating mechanism and a BDNF-induced trkB-mediated release inhibitory mechanism may contribute to developmental synapse disconnection. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Analysis of the application of selected physico-chemical methods in eliminating odor nuisance of municipal facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Urszula

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of municipal management facilities is inseparable from the problem of malodorous compounds emissions to the atmospheric air. In that case odor nuisance is related to the chemical composition of waste, sewage and sludge as well as to the activity of microorganisms whose products of life processes can be those odorous compounds. Significant reduction of odorant emission from many sources can be achieved by optimizing parameters and conditions of processes. However, it is not always possible to limit the formation of odorants. In such cases it is best to use appropriate deodorizing methods. The choice of the appropriate method is based on in terms of physical parameters, emission intensity of polluted gases and their composition, if it is possible to determine. Among the solutions used in municipal economy, there can be distinguished physico-chemical methods such as sorption and oxidation. In cases where the source of the emission is not encapsulated, odor masking techniques are used, which consists of spraying preparations that neutralize unpleasant odors. The paper presents the characteristics of selected methods of eliminating odor nuisance and evaluation of their applicability in municipal management facilities.

  3. Analysis of the application of selected physico-chemical methods in eliminating odor nuisance of municipal facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Urszula; Grzelka, Agnieszka; Romanik, Elżbieta; Kuriata, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Operation of municipal management facilities is inseparable from the problem of malodorous compounds emissions to the atmospheric air. In that case odor nuisance is related to the chemical composition of waste, sewage and sludge as well as to the activity of microorganisms whose products of life processes can be those odorous compounds. Significant reduction of odorant emission from many sources can be achieved by optimizing parameters and conditions of processes. However, it is not always possible to limit the formation of odorants. In such cases it is best to use appropriate deodorizing methods. The choice of the appropriate method is based on in terms of physical parameters, emission intensity of polluted gases and their composition, if it is possible to determine. Among the solutions used in municipal economy, there can be distinguished physico-chemical methods such as sorption and oxidation. In cases where the source of the emission is not encapsulated, odor masking techniques are used, which consists of spraying preparations that neutralize unpleasant odors. The paper presents the characteristics of selected methods of eliminating odor nuisance and evaluation of their applicability in municipal management facilities.

  4. Spin-orbit coupling calculations with the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Michael; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    A new algorithm for the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2cNESC) method is presented and tested in the calculation of spin-orbit (SO) splittings for a series of heavy atoms and their molecules. The 2cNESC is a Dirac-exact method that employs the exact two-component one-electron Hamiltonian and thus leads to exact Dirac SO splittings for one-electron atoms. For many-electron atoms and molecules, the effect of the two-electron SO interaction is modeled by a screened nucleus potential using effective nuclear charges as proposed by Boettger [Phys. Rev. B 62, 7809 (2000), 10.1103/PhysRevB.62.7809]. The use of the screened nucleus potential for the two-electron SO interaction leads to accurate spinor energy splittings, for which the deviations from the accurate Dirac Fock-Coulomb values are on the average far below the deviations observed for other effective one-electron SO operators. For hydrogen halides HX (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, and Uus) and mercury dihalides HgX2 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) trends in spinor energies and SO splittings as obtained with the 2cNESC method are analyzed and discussed on the basis of coupling schemes and the electronegativity of X.

  5. Non-traditional method-based solution for elimination of lower order harmonics in voltage source inverter feeding an induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargese Jegathesan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and reliable Genetic Algorithm-based solution for Specific Harmonic Elimination (SHE switching pattern. This method eliminates considerable amount of lower order line voltage harmonics in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM inverter. The determination of pulse pattern for the elimination of some lower order harmonics of a PWM inverter necessitates solving a system of nonlinear transcendental equations. Genetic Algorithm is used to solve nonlinear transcendental equations for PWM-SHE. In this proposed method, harmonics up to 17th are eliminated using Genetic Algorithm without using Dual transformer. Simulations using Matlab 7.0 and PSIM 6.1 are carried out so as to validate the solution.

  6. Scientific Opinion on a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode from the bark of pine trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the appropriateness of a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle......) insufficient evidence on the sampling methodology is provided to determine the reliability of the testing method provided by the Portuguese document to determine freedom from PWN. Although there is potential for development of a composting method as a heat treatment to eliminate PWN from bark of pine trees...

  7. Calculations of atomic magnetic nuclear shielding constants based on the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2017-04-01

    A new method for calculating nuclear magnetic resonance shielding constants of relativistic atoms based on the two-component (2c), spin-orbit coupling including Dirac-exact NESC (Normalized Elimination of the Small Component) approach is developed where each term of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic contribution to the isotropic shielding constant σi s o is expressed in terms of analytical energy derivatives with regard to the magnetic field B and the nuclear magnetic moment 𝝁 . The picture change caused by renormalization of the wave function is correctly described. 2c-NESC/HF (Hartree-Fock) results for the σiso values of 13 atoms with a closed shell ground state reveal a deviation from 4c-DHF (Dirac-HF) values by 0.01%-0.76%. Since the 2-electron part is effectively calculated using a modified screened nuclear shielding approach, the calculation is efficient and based on a series of matrix manipulations scaling with (2M)3 (M: number of basis functions).

  8. A Context Aware Recommender System for Mobile Phone Selection Using Combination of Elimination Method and Analytic Hierarchy Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rezaeenour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems suggest proper items to customers based on their preferences and needs. Needed time to search is reduced and the quality of customer’s choice is increased using recommender systems. The context information like time, location and user behaviors can enhance the quality of recommendations and customer satisfication in such systems. In this paper a context aware recommender system is designed and implemented in android smart phones to help customers select mobile phones. The system removes ineffective criteria on user’s purcheses using customer mobile phones’ sensor data. Then creates analytic hierarchy processing tree and computes weights. Finally the recommender system recommends proper mobile phone to user. The system selects and recommends suitable phones using combination of elimination method and analytic hierarchy processing (AHP. The context aware recommender system is used by mobile phone customers to assess recomendation satisfication and user interface design satisfication. In addition a traditional non-context aware recommender system is used by users to compare the recommendation results in two different systems. The article concludes that using context information can improve the recommendation quality and user satisfication. Because of decreasing criteria and pair-wised comparisions, the user interface design satisfication improves a little too.

  9. Public involvement in multi-objective water level regulation development projects-evaluating the applicability of public involvement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaentaenen, Ari; Marttunen, Mika

    2005-01-01

    Public involvement is a process that involves the public in the decision making of an organization, for example a municipality or a corporation. It has developed into a widely accepted and recommended policy in environment altering projects. The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) took force in 2000 and stresses the importance of public involvement in composing river basin management plans. Therefore, the need to develop public involvement methods for different situations and circumstances is evident. This paper describes how various public involvement methods have been applied in a development project involving the most heavily regulated lake in Finland. The objective of the project was to assess the positive and negative impacts of regulation and to find possibilities for alleviating the adverse impacts on recreational use and the aquatic ecosystem. An exceptional effort was made towards public involvement, which was closely connected to planning and decision making. The applied methods were (1) steering group work, (2) survey, (3) dialogue, (4) theme interviews, (5) public meeting and (6) workshops. The information gathered using these methods was utilized in different stages of the project, e.g., in identifying the regulation impacts, comparing alternatives and compiling the recommendations for regulation development. After describing our case and the results from the applied public involvement methods, we will discuss our experiences and the feedback from the public. We will also critically evaluate our own success in coping with public involvement challenges. In addition to that, we present general recommendations for dealing with these problematic issues based on our experiences, which provide new insights for applying various public involvement methods in multi-objective decision making projects

  10. A balancing method for calculating a component raw involving CGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Kang, D.; Yang, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method called the 'Balancing Method' to derive a component RAW (Risk Achievement Worth) with basic event RAWs including a CCF (Common Cause Failure) RAW is summarized, and compared with the method proposed by the NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute) by mathematically checking the background on which the two methods are based. It is proved that the Balancing Method has a strong mathematically background. While the NEI method significantly underestimates the component RAW and is a little bit ad hoc in handling CCF RAW, the Balancing Method estimates the true component RAW very closely. Validity of the Balancing Method is based on the fact that if an component is out-of-service, it does not mean that the component is non-existent, but integrates the possibility that the component might fail due to CCF. The validity of the Balancing Method is proved by comparing it to the exact component RAW generated from the fault tree model

  11. Universal leakage elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Wu, L.-A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    'Leakage' errors are particularly serious errors which couple states within a code subspace to states outside of that subspace, thus destroying the error protection benefit afforded by an encoded state. We generalize an earlier method for producing leakage elimination decoupling operations and examine the effects of the leakage eliminating operations on decoherence-free or noiseless subsystems which encode one logical, or protected qubit into three or four qubits. We find that by eliminating a large class of leakage errors, under some circumstances, we can create the conditions for a decoherence-free evolution. In other cases we identify a combined decoherence-free and quantum error correcting code which could eliminate errors in solid-state qubits with anisotropic exchange interaction Hamiltonians and enable universal quantum computing with only these interactions

  12. A sample speed control technique and pulsating torque elimination method in a brush less D C motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, J.; Aboulghasemian Azami, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical derivation and computer simulation of an optimal speed controller for a barrelhouse dc motor using feedback from a linear model running in parallel with the inverter-fed model. The intent of the feedback from the linear model is to eliminate torque ripples from the inverter drive. A nonlinear model of such a motor, transformed into a linear model by a local dipheomorphism (defined in section 2) and a new model is introduced in order to eliminate the undesirable effects of the inverter harmonics

  13. A balancing method for calculating a component raw involving CGF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.; Kang, D.; Yang, J.E. [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, a method called the 'Balancing Method' to derive a component RAW (Risk Achievement Worth) with basic event RAWs including a CCF (Common Cause Failure) RAW is summarized, and compared with the method proposed by the NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute) by mathematically checking the background on which the two methods are based. It is proved that the Balancing Method has a strong mathematically background. While the NEI method significantly underestimates the component RAW and is a little bit ad hoc in handling CCF RAW, the Balancing Method estimates the true component RAW very closely. Validity of the Balancing Method is based on the fact that if an component is out-of-service, it does not mean that the component is non-existent, but integrates the possibility that the component might fail due to CCF. The validity of the Balancing Method is proved by comparing it to the exact component RAW generated from the fault tree model.

  14. Composting Used as a Low Cost Method for Pathogen Elimination in Sewage Sludge in Mérida, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rojas-Herrera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Spreading sewage sludge from municipal wastewater (MWW treatment on land is still a common practice in developing countries. However, it is well known that sewage sludge without special treatment contains various pollutants, which are (reintroduced into the environment by sludge landspreading and which might in turn have harmful effects on the environment and human health. This is more dangerous in places like Merida, Mexico, where soil is calcareous with fractures along the ground and thin layers of humus. Consequently, any liquid and semisolid wastes have the potential of percolating to the subsurface and contaminate the aquifer. The main aim of this work was using composting as a low cost process to eliminate pathogens contained in sewage sludge from MWW treatment in order to use the final product for land spreading in a safe way for both environment and human health. Two piles for composting process at real scale were settled using a mixture of sewage sludge from municipal waste water and green waste. Composting was carried out by windrow process and it was monitored during four weeks. Concentration of helminth eggs, salmonella and faecal coliforms were measured twice a week to observe its behavior and, as a control process, Temperature, Moisture Content (MC, and pH were also measured. After 30 days of composting sludge from municipal waste water system, salmonella was eliminated by 99%, faecal coliforms by 96% and helminth eggs by 81%. After 3 months compost reached GI = 160%, so did not show any phytotoxicity to seeds.

  15. Failure of imidocarb dipropionate to eliminate Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs based on parasitological and molecular evaluation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Paradies, Paola; Greco, Beatrice; Eyal, Osnat; Zaza, Valeria; Baneth, Gad

    2010-08-04

    The efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate for the treatment of Hepatozoon canis infection was studied in three naturally infected asymptomatic dogs followed longitudinally over 8 months. Response to treatment was followed by monitoring blood counts, parasitemia levels in blood, parasite in concentrated buffy-coat smears and by PCR. The dogs were initially treated with a low dose of 3 mg/kg imidocarb dipropionate twice a month and when parasitemia persisted after five treatments, with the regular dose of 6 mg/kg. In one dog, H. canis gamonts were no longer detectable by blood and buffy-coat microscopy after 2 months of therapy with 6 mg/kg while in the two other dogs gamonts were intermittently found in blood but persistently detectable in buffy-coat smears during the whole study period. Furthermore, combined therapy with doxycycline monohydrate administered at 10 mg/kg/day PO for 4 weeks also failed to eliminate H. canis. PCR revealed that parasite DNA was present in the blood of all dogs at all sampling dates regardless of treatment refuting the effectiveness of treatment suggested by negative blood microscopy. Detection of H. canis in buffy coat was found to be twice as sensitive than by blood smear and detection by PCR was even more sensitive revealing infection in eight samples (16% of total samples) negative by blood and buffy-coat microscopy. In conclusion, imidocarb dipropionate was not effective in eliminating H. canis from dogs treated repeatedly over 8 months. Microscopical detection is not sufficient for the evaluation of treatment response in H. canis infection and follow up by molecular techniques is recommended. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Obesogenic Potency of Various High-Caloric Diet Compositions in Male Rats, and Their Effects on Expression of Liver and Kidney Proteins Involved in Drug Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdussalam, Ali; Elshenawy, Osama H; Bin Jardan, Yousef A; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Brocks, Dion R

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is caused by a number of factors including heredity, lack of exercise, and poor diet. Diets rich in fats and carbohydrates are the common culprits leading to obesity. Here we studied the effects of these components on proteins involved in drug disposition. Male rats were given a normal diet (lean controls) or one rich in fats, carbohydrates (as high-fructose corn syrup equivalent) or in combination. After 14 weeks, plasma biochemistry, liver and kidney mRNA and protein for selected cytochrome P450 (CYP) and transporters were determined. Significant increases in body and perinephric fat weight were noted in each of the high-calorie diet-fed groups, with increases being higher in those given high-fat diets. Increases in the protein of CYP3A1/2 and CYP2C11 were seen in liver in high-fat-fed rats. No changes were seen for CYP1A1 at the level of mRNA or protein. For transporters, decreases in expressions of Oct1/2 and Mate1 were seen, with no change in Mdr1. The results showed similarity to earlier assessments of genetically prone rats and suggested that diet-induced obesity has the potential to lead to decreases in the clearance of drugs acting as substrates for CYP 3A, 2C11, and organic cation transport. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Novel Method for the Current Harmonic Elimination of Industrial Power System Using Single Tuned Shunt Passive Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Ahmed Soomro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of IPS (Industrial Power System has brought about several advantages of increased productivity and efficiency but it suffers from incompatible problems of overheating, noise, complexity etc, which disturb its smooth and fault tolerant implication. When the resonance condition is reached, these effects become detrimental and disturb the whole power system. The purpose of this research work is to include single tuned shunt type passive filter for harmonic elimination of the components used in industrial power system. For this purpose, MATLAB simulation using sim Power system tool has been used to analyze the effects of current harmonics. Third harmonic effects have been removed by the addition of six pulse converter technique. The simulation results show that implication of single tuned shunt (parallel connected passive filter removes effects of succeeding order current harmonics i.e. fifth, seventh and eleventh etc. which are causing substantial damage to industrial power system. The effects of current harmonics can be solved by installing without and with the application of proposed filter. Further, it is observed that these filters contribute in reduction of THD (Total Harmonic Current Distortion followed by improvement in power factor. These results are taken considering limits of IEEE 519-1992 standards.

  18. Flashed-feed VMD configuration as a novel method for eliminating temperature polarization effect and enhancing water vapor flux

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2018-05-28

    The coupling of heat and mass transfer in membrane distillation (MD) process makes enhancing water vapor flux and determining MD membrane mass transfer coefficient (MTC) fairly challenging due to the development of temperature gradient near the membrane surface, referred to as temperature polarization (TP). As a result, the change in feed temperature at the membrane surface will be difficult to measure accurately. In this paper, the effect of TP was decoupled from the membrane MTC by preventing the liquid feed stream from contacting the membrane surface through the use of a novel custom-made vacuum MD (VMD) module design. Results showed that a temperature difference of 10°C between the feed bulk and feed temperatures at the membrane surface/interface is estimated to take place in the typical VMD configuration, while the proposed flashed-feed VMD configuration eliminates TP effect and gives a flux 3.5-fold higher (200kg/m2.hr) under similar operating conditions. Therefore, it can be concluded that heat transfer coefficient is considered to be the main factor controlling resistance of water vapor flux in the typical VMD configuration. The measured MTC of the tested commercial membrane was found to be more accurate and the highest among all reported MTCs in the MD literature (2.44×10−6kg/m2.s.Pa). Additionally, a transmembrane temperature difference of 5°C and 10°C in the novel configuration can produce water vapor fluxes of about 9kg/m2.hr and 40kg/m2.hr, respectively, at a feed temperature of 70°C, which is very attractive for scaling-up the process.

  19. The HURRA filter: An easy method to eliminate collimator artifacts in high-energy gamma camera images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, H; Barquero, R

    The correct determination and delineation of tumor/organ size is crucial in 2-D imaging in 131 I therapy. These images are usually obtained using a system composed of a Gamma camera and high-energy collimator, although the system can produce artifacts in the image. This article analyses these artifacts and describes a correction filter that can eliminate those collimator artifacts. Using free software, ImageJ, a central profile in the image is obtained and analyzed. Two components can be seen in the fluctuation of the profile: one associated with the stochastic nature of the radiation, plus electronic noise and the other periodically across the position in space due to the collimator. These frequencies are analytically obtained and compared with the frequencies in the Fourier transform of the profile. A specially developed filter removes the artifacts in the 2D Fourier transform of the DICOM image. This filter is tested using a 15-cm-diameter Petri dish with 131 I radioactive water (big object size) image, a 131 I clinical pill (small object size) image, and an image of the remainder of the lesion of two patients treated with 3.7GBq (100mCi), and 4.44GBq (120mCi) of 131 I, respectively, after thyroidectomy. The artifact is due to the hexagonal periodic structure of the collimator. The use of the filter on large-sized images reduces the fluctuation by 5.8-3.5%. In small-sized images, the FWHM can be determined in the filtered image, while this is impossible in the unfiltered image. The definition of tumor boundary and the visualization of the activity distribution inside patient lesions improve drastically when the filter is applied to the corresponding images obtained with HE gamma camera. The HURRA filter removes the artifact of high-energy collimator artifacts in planar images obtained with a Gamma camera without reducing the image resolution. It can be applied in any study of patient quantification because the number of counts remains invariant. The filter makes

  20. On the theory and computation of surface tension: The elimination of parasitic currents through energy conservation in the second-gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Didier; Torres, David; Brackbill, J.U.

    2002-01-01

    Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method

  1. On the theory and computation of surface tension: The elimination of parasitic currents through energy conservation in the second-gradient method

    CERN Document Server

    Jamet, D; Brackbill, J U

    2002-01-01

    Errors in the computation of fluid flows with surface tension are examined. These errors cause large parasitic flows when the capillary number is large and have often been attributed to truncation error in underresolved interfacial regions. A study using the second-gradient method reveals that when truncation error is eliminated in the computation of energy exchanges between surface and kinetic energies so that energy is strictly conserved, the parasitic currents are reduced to round-off. The results are based on general thermodynamic arguments and can be used to guide improvements in other methods, such as the continuum-surface-force (CSF) method, which is commonly used with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method.

  2. Detecting the quality of glycerol monolaurate: a method for using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with wavelet transform and modified uninformative variable elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojing; Wu, Di; He, Yong; Liu, Shou

    2009-04-06

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) products contain many impurities, such as lauric acid and glucerol. The GML content is an important quality indicator for GML production. A hybrid variable selection algorithm, which is a combination of wavelet transform (WT) technology and modified uninformative variable eliminate (MUVE) method, was proposed to extract useful information from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy for the determination of GML content. FT-IR spectra data were compressed by WT first; the irrelevant variables in the compressed wavelet coefficients were eliminated by MUVE. In the MUVE process, simulated annealing (SA) algorithm was employed to search the optimal cutoff threshold. After the WT-MUVE process, variables for the calibration model were reduced from 7366 to 163. Finally, the retained variables were employed as inputs of partial least squares (PLS) model to build the calibration model. For the prediction set, the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9910 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 4.8617 were obtained. The prediction result was better than the PLS model with full-spectra data. It was indicated that proposed WT-MUVE method could not only make the prediction more accurate, but also make the calibration model more parsimonious. Furthermore, the reconstructed spectra represented the projection of the selected wavelet coefficients into the original domain, affording the chemical interpretation of the predicted results. It is concluded that the FT-IR transmission spectroscopy technique with the proposed method is promising for the fast detection of GML content.

  3. M/T method based incremental encoder velocity measurement error analysis and self-adaptive error elimination algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yangyang; Yang, Ming; Long, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    For motor control applications, the speed loop performance is largely depended on the accuracy of speed feedback signal. M/T method, due to its high theoretical accuracy, is the most widely used in incremental encoder adopted speed measurement. However, the inherent encoder optical grating error...

  4. Stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews: a protocol for a systematic review of methods, outcomes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Alex; Campbell, Pauline; Struthers, Caroline; Synnot, Anneliese; Nunn, Jack; Hill, Sophie; Goodare, Heather; Watts, Chris; Morley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are expected to actively involve stakeholders (including patients, the public, health professionals, and others) in their research. Although researchers increasingly recognise that this is good practice, there is limited practical guidance about how to involve stakeholders. Systematic reviews are a research method in which international literature is brought together, using carefully designed and rigorous methods to answer a specified question about healthcare. We want to investigate how researchers have involved stakeholders in systematic reviews, and how involvement has potentially affected the quality and impact of reviews. We plan to bring this information together by searching and reviewing the literature for reports of stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews. This paper describes in detail the methods that we plan to use to do this. After carrying out comprehensive searches for literature, we will: 1. Provide an overview of identified reports, describing key information such as types of stakeholders involved, and how. 2. Pick out reports of involvement which include detailed descriptions of how researchers involved people in a systematic review and summarise the methods they used. We will consider who was involved, how people were recruited, and how the involvement was organised and managed. 3. Bring together any reports which have explored the effect, or impact, of involving stakeholders in a systematic review. We will assess the quality of these reports, and summarise their findings. Once completed, our review will be used to produce training resources aimed at helping researchers to improve ways of involving stakeholders in systematic reviews. Background There is an expectation for stakeholders (including patients, the public, health professionals, and others) to be involved in research. Researchers are increasingly recognising that it is good practice to involve stakeholders in systematic reviews. There is currently a lack of evidence

  5. An inertial parameter identification method of eliminating system damping effect for a six-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tixian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new simple and effective inertial parameter identification method based on sinusoidal vibrations of a six-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator is proposed. Compared with previously known identification algorithms, the advantages of the new approach are there is no need to design the excitation trajectory to consider the condition number of the observation matrix and the inertial matrix can be accurately defined regardless of the effect of viscous friction. In addition, the use of a sinusoidal exciting trajectory allows calculation of the velocities and accelerations from the measured position response. Simulations show that the new approach has acceptable tolerance of dry friction when using a simple coupling parameter modified formula. The experimental application to the hydraulically driven Stewart platform demonstrates the capability and efficiency of the proposed identification method.

  6. MATH INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA DESIGN USING COMPUTER FOR COMPLETION OF TWO-VARIABLES LINEAR EQUATION SYSTEM BY ELIMINATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbaiti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology have been rapidly evolved in some fields of knowledge, including mathematics. Such development can contribute to improvements on the learning process that encourage students and teachers to enhance their abilities and performances. In delivering the material on the linear equation system with two variables (SPLDV, the conventional teaching method where teachers become the center of the learning process is still well-practiced. This method would cause the students get bored and have difficulties to understand the concepts they are learning. Therefore, in order to the learning of SPLDV easy, an interesting, interactive media that the students and teachers can apply is necessary. This media is designed using GUI MATLAB and named as students’ electronic worksheets (e-LKS. This program is intended to help students in finding and understanding the SPLDV concepts more easily. This program is also expected to improve students’ motivation and creativity in learning the material. Based on the test using the System Usability Scale (SUS, the design of interactive mathematics learning media of the linear equation system with Two Variables (SPLDV gets grade B (excellent, meaning that this learning media is proper to be used for Junior High School students of grade VIII.

  7. Understanding malaria treatment-seeking preferences within the public sector amongst mobile/migrant workers in a malaria elimination scenario: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Ye Naung; Maung, Thae Maung; Wai, Khin Thet; Oo, Tin; Thi, Aung; Tipmontree, Rungrawee; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit

    2017-11-13

    Migration flows and the emerging resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) create programmatic challenges to meeting the AD 2030 malaria elimination target in Myanmar. The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) targeted migrant workers based mainly on the stability of their worksites (categories 1: permanent work-setting; categories 2 and 3: less stable work-settings). This study aims to assess the migration patterns, malaria treatment-seeking preferences, and challenges encountered by mobile/migrant workers at remote sites in a malaria-elimination setting. A mixed-methods explanatory sequential study retrospectively analysed the secondary data acquired through migrant mapping surveys (2013-2015) in six endemic regions (n = 9603). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to ascertain the contributing factors. A qualitative strand (2016-2017) was added by conducting five focus-group discussions (n = 50) and five in-depth interviews with migrant workers from less stable worksites in Shwegyin Township, Bago Region. The contiguous approach was used to integrate quantitative and qualitative findings. Among others, migrant workers from Bago Region were significantly more likely to report the duration of stay ≥ 12 months (63% vs. 49%) and high seasonal mobility (40% vs. 35%). Particularly in less stable settings, a very low proportion of migrant workers (17%) preferred to seek malaria treatment from the public sector and was significantly influenced by the worksite stability (adjusted OR = 1.4 and 2.3, respectively for categories 2 and 1); longer duration of stay (adjusted OR = 3.5); and adjusted OR malaria messages, knowledge of malaria symptoms and awareness of means of malaria diagnosis. Qualitative data further elucidated their preference for the informal healthcare sector, due to convenience, trust and good relations, and put migrant workers at risk of substandard care. Moreover, the

  8. A new correction method serving to eliminate the parabola effect of flatbed scanners used in radiochromic film dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppinga, D., E-mail: daniela.poppinga@uni-oldenburg.de; Schoenfeld, A. A.; Poppe, B. [Medical Radiation Physics, Carl v. Ossietzky University, Oldenburg 26127, Germany and Department for Radiation Oncology, Pius Hospital, Oldenburg 26121 (Germany); Doerner, K. J. [Radiotherapy Department, General Hospital, Celle 29223 (Germany); Blanck, O. [CyberKnife Center Northern Germany, Güstrow 18273, Germany and Department for Radiation Oncology, University Clinic Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck 23562 (Germany); Harder, D. [Medical Physics and Biophysics, Georg-August-University, Göttingen 37073 (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the correction of the lateral scanner artifact, i.e., the effect that, on a large homogeneously exposed EBT3 film, a flatbed scanner measures different optical densities at different positions along thex axis, the axis parallel to the elongated light source. At constant dose, the measured optical densitiy profiles along this axis have a parabolic shape with significant dose dependent curvature. Therefore, the effect is shortly called the parabola effect. The objective of the algorithm developed in this study is to correct for the parabola effect. Any optical density measured at given position x is transformed into the equivalent optical density c at the apex of the parabola and then converted into the corresponding dose via the calibration of c versus dose. Methods: For the present study EBT3 films and an Epson 10000XL scanner including transparency unit were used for the analysis of the parabola effect. The films were irradiated with 6 MV photons from an Elekta Synergy accelerator in a RW3 slab phantom. In order to quantify the effect, ten film pieces with doses graded from 0 to 20.9 Gy were sequentially scanned at eight positions along thex axis and at six positions along the z axis (the movement direction of the light source) both for the portrait and landscape film orientations. In order to test the effectiveness of the new correction algorithm, the dose profiles of an open square field and an IMRT plan were measured by EBT3 films and compared with ionization chamber and ionization chamber array measurement. Results: The parabola effect has been numerically studied over the whole measuring field of the Epson 10000XL scanner for doses up to 20.9 Gy and for both film orientations. The presented algorithm transforms any optical density at positionx into the equivalent optical density that would be measured at the same dose at the apex of the parabola. This correction method has been validated up to doses of 5.2 Gy all over the

  9. A new correction method serving to eliminate the parabola effect of flatbed scanners used in radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppinga, D.; Schoenfeld, A. A.; Poppe, B.; Doerner, K. J.; Blanck, O.; Harder, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the correction of the lateral scanner artifact, i.e., the effect that, on a large homogeneously exposed EBT3 film, a flatbed scanner measures different optical densities at different positions along thex axis, the axis parallel to the elongated light source. At constant dose, the measured optical densitiy profiles along this axis have a parabolic shape with significant dose dependent curvature. Therefore, the effect is shortly called the parabola effect. The objective of the algorithm developed in this study is to correct for the parabola effect. Any optical density measured at given position x is transformed into the equivalent optical density c at the apex of the parabola and then converted into the corresponding dose via the calibration of c versus dose. Methods: For the present study EBT3 films and an Epson 10000XL scanner including transparency unit were used for the analysis of the parabola effect. The films were irradiated with 6 MV photons from an Elekta Synergy accelerator in a RW3 slab phantom. In order to quantify the effect, ten film pieces with doses graded from 0 to 20.9 Gy were sequentially scanned at eight positions along thex axis and at six positions along the z axis (the movement direction of the light source) both for the portrait and landscape film orientations. In order to test the effectiveness of the new correction algorithm, the dose profiles of an open square field and an IMRT plan were measured by EBT3 films and compared with ionization chamber and ionization chamber array measurement. Results: The parabola effect has been numerically studied over the whole measuring field of the Epson 10000XL scanner for doses up to 20.9 Gy and for both film orientations. The presented algorithm transforms any optical density at positionx into the equivalent optical density that would be measured at the same dose at the apex of the parabola. This correction method has been validated up to doses of 5.2 Gy all over the

  10. Risks: diagnosing and eliminating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy A. Tikhomirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop conceptual theoretical and legal provisions and scientific recommendations on the identification analysis and elimination of risk. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition as well as scientific and private research methods based on it. Results the system was researched of risks diagnostics in the legal sphere and mechanism of influencing the quotrisk situationsquot and their consequences damage to the environment and harm to society. The concept of risk in the legal sphere was formulated the author39s classification of risks in the legal sphere is presented. The rules of analysis evaluation and prevention of risks and the model risk management framework are elaborated. Scientific novelty the mechanism for the identification analysis and elimination of risk has been developed and introduced into scientific circulation the author has proposed the classification and types of risks the reasons and the conditions promoting the risk occurrence. Practical significance the provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific lawmaking and lawenforcement activity as well as in the educational process of higher educational establishments. nbsp

  11. RF plasma probe diagnostics: a method for eliminating measurement errors for Langmuir probes with bare protective shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaby, V. A.; Masherov, P. E.; Savinov, V. P.; Yakunin, V. G.

    2018-02-01

    The new DC arc T-plasmatron of long service life [1] is studied. The well known method of the electric field strength measurements in a stabilized arc channel [2] was applied in a modified form as a consequence of the specific form of the presumably diffuse anode spot attached to a gas vortex on the external surface of the anode unit. The electrical field strength was determined assuming that the potential drop across the diffuse anode spot in the new plasmatron was small. This gave the mean argon plasma conductivity: σ≤118 Ohm-1cm-1 for arc currents I ≤ 180 A which agreed with the independent experiment [2] affirming the correctness of the above assumption. Analysis of the known experimental and theoretic data on atmospheric argon plasma conductivity resulted in the selection of R.S.Devoto’s theoretic dependence σ(T) [3] as the most reliable one for T=8000…20000 K at P = 1 atm that allowed the evaluation of the mean argon plasma temperature at the exit of the plasmatron: T ≤ 19500 K.

  12. A new correction method serving to eliminate the parabola effect of flatbed scanners used in radiochromic film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D; Schoenfeld, A A; Doerner, K J; Blanck, O; Harder, D; Poppe, B

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is the correction of the lateral scanner artifact, i.e., the effect that, on a large homogeneously exposed EBT3 film, a flatbed scanner measures different optical densities at different positions along the x axis, the axis parallel to the elongated light source. At constant dose, the measured optical density profiles along this axis have a parabolic shape with significant dose dependent curvature. Therefore, the effect is shortly called the parabola effect. The objective of the algorithm developed in this study is to correct for the parabola effect. Any optical density measured at given position x is transformed into the equivalent optical density c at the apex of the parabola and then converted into the corresponding dose via the calibration of c versus dose. For the present study EBT3 films and an Epson 10000XL scanner including transparency unit were used for the analysis of the parabola effect. The films were irradiated with 6 MV photons from an Elekta Synergy accelerator in a RW3 slab phantom. In order to quantify the effect, ten film pieces with doses graded from 0 to 20.9 Gy were sequentially scanned at eight positions along the x axis and at six positions along the z axis (the movement direction of the light source) both for the portrait and landscape film orientations. In order to test the effectiveness of the new correction algorithm, the dose profiles of an open square field and an IMRT plan were measured by EBT3 films and compared with ionization chamber and ionization chamber array measurement. The parabola effect has been numerically studied over the whole measuring field of the Epson 10000XL scanner for doses up to 20.9 Gy and for both film orientations. The presented algorithm transforms any optical density at position x into the equivalent optical density that would be measured at the same dose at the apex of the parabola. This correction method has been validated up to doses of 5.2 Gy all over the scanner bed with 2D dose

  13. Lay and professional stakeholder involvement in scoping palliative care issues: Methods used in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Louise; Ingleton, Christine; Gardiner, Clare; Goyder, Elizabeth; Mozygemba, Kati; Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Tummers, Marcia; Sacchini, Dario; Leppert, Wojciech; Blaževičienė, Aurelija; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Refolo, Pietro; De Nicola, Martina; Chilcott, James; Oortwijn, Wija

    2017-02-01

    Stakeholders are people with an interest in a topic. Internationally, stakeholder involvement in palliative care research and health technology assessment requires development. Stakeholder involvement adds value throughout research (from prioritising topics to disseminating findings). Philosophies and understandings about the best ways to involve stakeholders in research differ internationally. Stakeholder involvement took place in seven countries (England, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway and Poland). Findings informed a project that developed concepts and methods for health technology assessment and applied these to evaluate models of palliative care service delivery. To report on stakeholder involvement in the INTEGRATE-HTA project and how issues identified informed project development. Using stakeholder consultation or a qualitative research design, as appropriate locally, stakeholders in seven countries acted as 'advisors' to aid researchers' decision making. Thematic analysis was used to identify key issues across countries. A total of 132 stakeholders (82 professionals and 50 'lay' people) aged ⩾18 participated in individual face-to-face or telephone interviews, consultation meetings or focus groups. Different stakeholder involvement methods were used successfully to identify key issues in palliative care. A total of 23 issues common to three or more countries informed decisions about the intervention and comparator of interest, sub questions and specific assessments within the health technology assessment. Stakeholders, including patients and families undergoing palliative care, can inform project decision making using various involvement methods according to the local context. Researchers should consider local understandings about stakeholder involvement as views of appropriate and feasible methods vary. Methods for stakeholder involvement, especially consultation, need further development.

  14. 1H NMR methods for the noninvasive study of metabolism and other processes involving small molecules in intact erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabenstein, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    1 H NMR methods are described with which resolved resonances can be obtained for many of the small molecules in intact erythrocytes. In one method, the more intense hemoglobin resonances are suppressed by transfer of saturation throughout the hemoglobin spin system by cross relaxation following a selective saturation pulse. In a second method, the hemoglobin resonances are eliminated with the spin-echo pulse sequence by using a between-pulse delay time long enough for complete elimination of the hemoglobin resonances by spin-spin relaxation. Selected examples of the study of erythrocyte biochemistry by 1 H NMR are discussed. (Auth.)

  15. General method for eliminating wave reflection in 2D photonic crystal waveguides by introducing extra scatterers based on interference cancellation of waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Ouyang, Zhengbiao

    2018-01-01

    We propose a general method for eliminating the reflection of waves in 2 dimensional photonic crystal waveguides (2D-PCWs), a kind of 2D material, by introducing extra scatterers inside the 2D-PCWs. The intrinsic reflection in 2D-PCWs is compensated by the backward-scattered waves from these scatterers, so that the overall reflection is greatly reduced and the insertion loss is improved accordingly. We first present the basic theory for the compensation method. Then, as a demonstration, we give four examples of extremely-low-reflection and high-transmission 90°bent 2D-PCWs created according to the method proposed. In the four examples, it is demonstrated by plane-wave expansion method and finite-difference time-domain method that the 90°bent 2D-PCWs can have high transmission ratio greater than 90% in a wide range of operating frequency, and the highest transmission ratio can be greater than 99.95% with a return loss higher than 43 dB, better than that in other typical 90°bent 2D-PCWs. With our method, the bent 2D-PCWs can be optimized to obtain high transmission ratio at different operating wavelengths. As a further application of this method, a waveguide-based optical bridge for light crossing is presented, showing an optimum return loss of 46.85 dB, transmission ratio of 99.95%, and isolation rates greater than 41.77 dB. The method proposed provides also a useful way for improving conventional waveguides made of cables, fibers, or metal walls in the optical, infrared, terahertz, and microwave bands.

  16. Model correction factor method for reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchin, P.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2002-01-01

    The model correction factor method (MCFM) is used in conjunction with the first-order reliability method (FORM) to solve structural reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields. The approach replaces the limit-state function with an idealized one, in which the integrals ...

  17. The Relationship Among Teaching Methods, Student Characteristics, and Student Involvement in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Soctt, Corinne C.

    1978-01-01

    Individual students tend to benefit differently from different teaching methods; however, when little or nothing is known of the entering students' characteristics regarding learning involvement, the high school teacher would be wise to use the classroom discourse method of teaching. (JD)

  18. Least-squares methods involving the H{sup -1} inner product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasciak, J.

    1996-12-31

    Least-squares methods are being shown to be an effective technique for the solution of elliptic boundary value problems. However, the methods differ depending on the norms in which they are formulated. For certain problems, it is much more natural to consider least-squares functionals involving the H{sup -1} norm. Such norms give rise to improved convergence estimates and better approximation to problems with low regularity solutions. In addition, fewer new variables need to be added and less stringent boundary conditions need to be imposed. In this talk, I will describe some recent developments involving least-squares methods utilizing the H{sup -1} inner product.

  19. Maximizing research study effectiveness in malaria elimination settings: a mixed methods study to capture the experiences of field-based staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E; Haller, Britt; Lek, Dysoley; Yok, Sovann; Richards, Jack S; Whittaker, Maxine Anne

    2017-09-11

    In a drug-resistant, malaria elimination setting like Western Cambodia, field research is essential for the development of novel anti-malarial regimens and the public health solutions necessary to monitor the spread of resistance and eliminate infection. Such field studies often face a variety of similar implementation challenges, but these are rarely captured in a systematic way or used to optimize future study designs that might overcome similar challenges. Field-based research staff often have extensive experience and can provide valuable insight regarding these issues, but their perspectives and experiences are rarely documented and seldom integrated into future research protocols. This mixed-methods analysis sought to gain an understanding of the daily challenges encountered by research field staff in the artemisinin-resistant, malaria elimination setting of Western Cambodia. In doing so, this study seeks to understand how the experiences and opinions of field staff can be captured, and used to inform future study designs. Twenty-two reports from six field-based malaria studies conducted in Western Cambodia were reviewed using content analysis to identify challenges to conducting the research. Informal Interviews, Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews were also conducted among field research staff. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken using Nvivo 9 ® software. Triangulation and critical case analysis was also used. There was a lack of formalized avenues through which field workers could report challenges experienced when conducting the malaria studies. Field research staff faced significant logistical barriers to participant recruitment and data collection, including a lack of available transportation to cover long distances, and the fact that mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) are usually excluded from studies because of challenges in follow-up. Cultural barriers to communication also hindered participant recruitment and created

  20. How to eliminate the formation of chlorogenic acids artefacts during plants analysis? Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) in the HPLC analysis of chlorogenic acids and their native derivatives in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wianowska, Dorota; Typek, Rafał; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2015-09-01

    The analytical procedures for determining plant constituents involve the application of sample preparation methods to fully isolate and/or pre-concentrate the analyzed substances. High-temperature liquid extraction is still applied most frequently for this purpose. The present paper shows that high-temperature extraction cannot be applied for the analysis of chlorogenic acids (CQAs) and their derivatives in plants as it causes the CQAs transformation leading to erroneous quantitative estimations of these compounds. Experiments performed on different plants (black elder, hawthorn, nettle, yerba maté, St John's wort and green coffee) demonstrate that the most appropriate method for the estimation of CQAs/CQAs derivatives is sea sand disruption method (SSDM) because it does not induce any transformation and/or degradation processes in the analyzed substances. Owing to the SSDM method application we found that the investigated plants, besides four main CQAs, contain sixteen CQAs derivatives, among them three quinic acids. The application of SSDM in plant analysis not only allows to establish a true concentration of individual CQAs in the examined plants but also to determine which chlorogenic acids derivatives are native plant components and what is their concentration level. What is even more important, the application of SSDM in plant analysis allows to eliminate errors that may arise or might have arisen in the study of chlorogenic acids and their derivatives in plant metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of constraints and rules of user-involvement methods for IS concept creation and specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Ohno, Takehiko; Nakatani, Momoko

    2015-01-01

    ideas. In this paper, by exemplifying our user-involvement method with game elements, ICT Service Design Game, in comparison with conventional brainstorming, we show the impact of constraints and rules in user-involvement methods when creating service concepts and specifications for information systems....... The analysis is based on a comparative experiment on two design methods and shows that the constraints and rules of our game approach fostered innovative idea generation in spite of participants’ limited knowledge of and experience with design processes. Although our analysis is still in a preliminary stage......, it indicates some positive impact of constraints and rules in design methods, especially when the methods are used by non-design professionals....

  2. Lung ventilation image by visualisation of the 133Xe elimination coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehier, H.; Mallet, J.J.; Veillas, G.; Cabocel, J.P.; Peyrin, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    A simple method is proposed for calculation of the 133 Xe elimination coefficient and its graphical representation giving a functional lung ventilation image, the advantages of the method are that it uses a small computing unit and above all involves only the start of the wash out phase, the only moment when xenon elimination belongs to a decreasing monoexponential time function. The validity of the method is illustrated by three typical results [fr

  3. Alternative Methods of Communication to Improve Parents' Involvement in and Knowledge of the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have examined methods of communication between home and school and the resulting impact on parents' satisfaction and students' academic achievement. However, there is insufficient information concerning the use of technology to support parental involvement, especially in the area of social media. Drawing from overlapping spheres of…

  4. USCIS Backlog Elimination

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS is streamlining the way immigration benefits are delivered. By working smarter and eliminating redundancies, USCIS is bringing a business model to government....

  5. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2012-09-01

      Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement.   To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research.   Mixed methods including a two-round Delphi study with pre-specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow-up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self-selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed.   Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement.   This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement. Objective  To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research. Methods  Mixed methods including a two‐round Delphi study with pre‐specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow‐up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self‐selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed. Results  Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement. Conclusions  This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. PMID:21324054

  7. Calculations of electric dipole moments and static dipole polarizabilities based on the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    The analytical energy gradient and Hessian of the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method with regard to the components of the electric field are derived and used to calculate spin-orbit coupling (SOC) corrected dipole moments and dipole polarizabilities of molecules, which contain elements with high atomic number. Calculated 2c-NESC dipole moments and isotropic polarizabilities agree well with the corresponding four-component-Dirac Hartree-Fock or density functional theory values. SOC corrections for the electrical properties are in general small, but become relevant for the accurate prediction of these properties when the molecules in question contain sixth and/or seventh period elements (e.g., the SO effect for At2 is about 10% of the 2c-NESC polarizability). The 2c-NESC changes in the electric molecular properties are rationalized in terms of spin-orbit splitting and SOC-induced mixing of frontier orbitals with the same j = l + s quantum numbers.

  8. Calculations of electric dipole moments and static dipole polarizabilities based on the two-component normalized elimination of the small component method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2016-11-14

    The analytical energy gradient and Hessian of the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method with regard to the components of the electric field are derived and used to calculate spin-orbit coupling (SOC) corrected dipole moments and dipole polarizabilities of molecules, which contain elements with high atomic number. Calculated 2c-NESC dipole moments and isotropic polarizabilities agree well with the corresponding four-component-Dirac Hartree-Fock or density functional theory values. SOC corrections for the electrical properties are in general small, but become relevant for the accurate prediction of these properties when the molecules in question contain sixth and/or seventh period elements (e.g., the SO effect for At 2 is about 10% of the 2c-NESC polarizability). The 2c-NESC changes in the electric molecular properties are rationalized in terms of spin-orbit splitting and SOC-induced mixing of frontier orbitals with the same j = l + s quantum numbers.

  9. Spectral methods for a nonlinear initial value problem involving pseudo differential operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasciak, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral methods (Fourier methods) for approximating the solution of a nonlinear initial value problem involving pseudo differential operators are defined and analyzed. A semidiscrete approximation to the nonlinear equation based on an L 2 projection is described. The semidiscrete L 2 approximation is shown to be a priori stable and convergent under sufficient decay and smoothness assumptions on the initial data. It is shown that the semidiscrete method converges with infinite order, that is, higher order decay and smoothness assumptions imply higher order error bounds. Spectral schemes based on spacial collocation are also discussed

  10. The economics of malaria control and elimination: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shretta, Rima; Avanceña, Anton L V; Hatefi, Arian

    2016-12-12

    Declining donor funding and competing health priorities threaten the sustainability of malaria programmes. Elucidating the cost and benefits of continued investments in malaria could encourage sustained political and financial commitments. The evidence, although available, remains disparate. This paper reviews the existing literature on the economic and financial cost and return of malaria control, elimination and eradication. A review of articles that were published on or before September 2014 on the cost and benefits of malaria control and elimination was performed. Studies were classified based on their scope and were analysed according to two major categories: cost of malaria control and elimination to a health system, and cost-benefit studies. Only studies involving more than two control or elimination interventions were included. Outcomes of interest were total programmatic cost, cost per capita, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). All costs were converted to 2013 US$ for standardization. Of the 6425 articles identified, 54 studies were included in this review. Twenty-two were focused on elimination or eradication while 32 focused on intensive control. Forty-eight per cent of studies included in this review were published on or after 2000. Overall, the annual per capita cost of malaria control to a health system ranged from $0.11 to $39.06 (median: $2.21) while that for malaria elimination ranged from $0.18 to $27 (median: $3.00). BCRs of investing in malaria control and elimination ranged from 2.4 to over 145. Overall, investments needed for malaria control and elimination varied greatly amongst the various countries and contexts. In most cases, the cost of elimination was greater than the cost of control. At the same time, the benefits of investing in malaria greatly outweighed the costs. While the cost of elimination in most cases was greater than the cost of control, the benefits greatly outweighed the cost. Information from this review provides guidance to

  11. Revealing barriers and facilitators to use a new genetic test: comparison of three user involvement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Visser, Maaike J; Verberk, Maarten M; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Kezic, Sanja; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-10-01

    We compared three common user involvement methods in revealing barriers and facilitators from intended users that might influence their use of a new genetic test. The study was part of the development of a new genetic test on the susceptibility to hand eczema for nurses. Eighty student nurses participated in five focus groups (n = 33), 15 interviews (n = 15) or questionnaires (n = 32). For each method, data were collected until saturation. We compared the mean number of items and relevant remarks that could influence the use of the genetic test obtained per method, divided by the number of participants in that method. Thematic content analysis was performed using MAXQDA software. The focus groups revealed 30 unique items compared to 29 in the interviews and 21 in the questionnaires. The interviews produced more items and relevant remarks per participant (1.9 and 8.4 pp) than focus groups (0.9 and 4.8 pp) or questionnaires (0.7 and 2.3 pp). All three involvement methods revealed relevant barriers and facilitators to use a new genetic test. Focus groups and interviews revealed substantially more items than questionnaires. Furthermore, this study suggests a preference for the use of interviews because the number of items per participant was higher than for focus groups and questionnaires. This conclusion may be valid for other genetic tests as well.

  12. Comparing culture and molecular methods for the identification of microorganisms involved in necrotizing soft tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Xu, Yijuan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are a group of infections affecting all soft tissues. NSTI involves necrosis of the afflicted tissue and is potentially life threatening due to major and rapid destruction of tissue, which often leads to septic shock and organ failure. The gold...... to culture. Although the molecular methods generally gave concordant results, our results indicate that Microseq may misidentify or overlook microorganisms that can be detected by other molecular methods. Half of the patients were found to be infected with S. pyogenes, but several atypical findings were also...... that clinicians should be prepared to diagnose and treat any combination of microbial pathogens. Some of the tested molecular methods offer a faster turnaround time combined with a high specificity, which makes supplemental use of such methods attractive for identification of microorganisms, especially...

  13. The method of varying amplitudes for solving (non)linear problems involving strong parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2015-01-01

    Parametrically excited systems appear in many fields of science and technology, intrinsically or imposed purposefully; e.g. spatially periodic structures represent an important class of such systems [4]. When the parametric excitation can be considered weak, classical asymptotic methods like...... the method of averaging [2] or multiple scales [6] can be applied. However, with many practically important applications this simplification is inadequate, e.g. with spatially periodic structures it restricts the possibility to affect their effective dynamic properties by a structural parameter modulation...... of considerable magnitude. Approximate methods based on Floquet theory [4] for analyzing problems involving parametric excitation, e.g. the classical Hill’s method of infinite determinants [3,4], can be employed also in cases of strong excitation; however, with Floquet theory being applicable only for linear...

  14. DNA repair in human cells: Methods for the determination of calmodulin involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charp, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Exposure of DNA to either physical or chemical agents can result in the formation of a number of different lesions which must be repaired enzymatically in order for DNA to carry on normal replication and transcription. In most cases, the enzymes involved in this repair of damaged DNA include endonucleases, exonucleases, glycosylases, polymerases, and ligases. Each group of enzymes is involved in precise steps in DNA repair. Exposure to physical agents such as ultraviolet light (UV) at a wavelength of 254 nm is repaired by two distinct and different mechanisms. One mode of enzymatic repair of pyrimidine dimers is accomplished in situ by photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers by photoreactivating light. The second mode of enzymatic repair is the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers involving several different enzymes including endonuclease, exonuclease, and DNA ligase. A summary of the sequence of enzymatic steps involved is shown. It has been observed that specific drugs which bind to and alter the action of calmodulin in cells block DNA synthesis. This suggests that calmodulin may play a role both in normal DNA replication and repair. Others using an indirect method measuring the degree of DNA nucleoid sedimentation, showed that the specific anti-calmodulin agent W-13 slowed the rate of DNA repair. Others showed that DNA synthesis in T51B rat liver cells could be blocked with the addition of either chlorpromazine or trifluoperazine

  15. Primary chromatic aberration elimination via optimization work with genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chang, En-Hao

    2008-09-01

    Chromatic Aberration plays a part in modern optical systems, especially in digitalized and smart optical systems. Much effort has been devoted to eliminating specific chromatic aberration in order to match the demand for advanced digitalized optical products. Basically, the elimination of axial chromatic and lateral color aberration of an optical lens and system depends on the selection of optical glass. According to reports from glass companies all over the world, the number of various newly developed optical glasses in the market exceeds three hundred. However, due to the complexity of a practical optical system, optical designers have so far had difficulty in finding the right solution to eliminate small axial and lateral chromatic aberration except by the Damped Least Squares (DLS) method, which is limited in so far as the DLS method has not yet managed to find a better optical system configuration. In the present research, genetic algorithms are used to replace traditional DLS so as to eliminate axial and lateral chromatic, by combining the theories of geometric optics in Tessar type lenses and a technique involving Binary/Real Encoding, Multiple Dynamic Crossover and Random Gene Mutation to find a much better configuration for optical glasses. By implementing the algorithms outlined in this paper, satisfactory results can be achieved in eliminating axial and lateral color aberration.

  16. Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Marques, Raissa Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

  17. Radioactive wastes eliminating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, Norimasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate impurities and radioactive wastes by passing liquid sodium in a cold trap and an adsorption device. Constitution: Heated sodium is partially extracted from the core of a nuclear reactor by way of a pump, flown into and cooled in heat exchangers and then introduced into a cold trap for removal of impurities. The liquid sodium eliminated with impurities is introduced into an adsorption separator and purified by the elimination of radioactive wastes. The purified sodium is returned to the nuclear reactor. A heater is provided between the cold trap and the adsorption separator, so that the temperature of the liquid sodium introduced into the adsorption separator is not lower than the minimum temperature in the cold trap to thereby prevent deposition of impurities in the adsorption separator. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. An analytic method for S-expansion involving resonance and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipinza, M.C.; Penafiel, D.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy); Lingua, F. [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Ravera, L. [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    In this paper we describe an analytic method able to give the multiplication table(s) of the set(s) involved in an S-expansion process (with either resonance or 0{sub S}-resonant-reduction) for reaching a target Lie (super)algebra from a starting one, after having properly chosen the partitions over subspaces of the considered (super)algebras. This analytic method gives us a simple set of expressions to find the subset decomposition of the set(s) involved in the process. Then, we use the information coming from both the initial (super)algebra and the target one for reaching the multiplication table(s) of the mentioned set(s). Finally, we check associativity with an auxiliary computational algorithm, in order to understand whether the obtained set(s) can describe semigroup(s) or just abelian set(s) connecting two (super)algebras. We also give some interesting examples of application, which check and corroborate our analytic procedure and also generalize some result already presented in the literature. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. The multiple imputation method: a case study involving secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walani, Salimah R; Cleland, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate with the example of a secondary data analysis study the use of the multiple imputation method to replace missing data. Most large public datasets have missing data, which need to be handled by researchers conducting secondary data analysis studies. Multiple imputation is a technique widely used to replace missing values while preserving the sample size and sampling variability of the data. The 2004 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. The authors created a model to impute missing values using the chained equation method. They used imputation diagnostics procedures and conducted regression analysis of imputed data to determine the differences between the log hourly wages of internationally educated and US-educated registered nurses. The authors used multiple imputation procedures to replace missing values in a large dataset with 29,059 observations. Five multiple imputed datasets were created. Imputation diagnostics using time series and density plots showed that imputation was successful. The authors also present an example of the use of multiple imputed datasets to conduct regression analysis to answer a substantive research question. Multiple imputation is a powerful technique for imputing missing values in large datasets while preserving the sample size and variance of the data. Even though the chained equation method involves complex statistical computations, recent innovations in software and computation have made it possible for researchers to conduct this technique on large datasets. The authors recommend nurse researchers use multiple imputation methods for handling missing data to improve the statistical power and external validity of their studies.

  20. State plans to force companies to eliminate environmental burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Ministry of Environment is preparing legislation aimed at forcing the state and especially private enterprises to map and eliminate tips, refuse from company premises and farmyards, and manure heaps. It is expected that the main burden will fall on private enterprises. The department is still working on the wording of this new Act on environmental burdens and so it is not yet clear whether it will be of assistance in the elimination of environmental burdens. The Ministry is aware that economic aspects must also be taken into account when exercising pressure on the companies. Closing down a company that cannot meet environmental criteria would result in redundancies and so the time schedule for the elimination of environmental burdens will be adjusted to fit the financial situation of the company involved. The ministry plans to first find companies responsible for environmental debts and then set a deadline for the preparation of a project to eliminate the environmental burden. The project would have to contain a description of elimination methods, in addition to a time schedule and cost assessment. If a private company does not report an environmental burden, the competent public authority will have the power to request access to the premises to undertake an inspection. (author)

  1. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  2. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.

  3. Forms And Methods Of Modern Russian Youth Involvement Into The Electoral Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey D. Maslov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors analyzes forms and methods of modern Russian youth involvement in the electoral process. Involving young people in the electoral process is directly related to the problem of increasing the level of political culture in the society. This article presents the main forms of work to attract young people to participate in elections in our country, according to the Central Election Commission (CEC of Russia, some of the regional election commissions, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (WCIOM. Authors note that at present there are more than one hundred and sixty legislative acts of the Russian Federation, which reflect certain aspects of the state youth policy. All these measures stimulate the political activity of young people, but in our opinion, that is not enough. The fundamental change in the attitude of young people to politics, to the institution of elections is possible only when young people feel like a real part and the subject of transformation processes in our country. In conclusion authors summarizes, that a fundamental change in the relationship of young people to politics, the institution of elections is possible only, when very young feel a real party and the subject of transformation processes in our country. This is possible only when the state is really and not formally prioritizes youth policy. Young people should have a daily state support for education, starting a business, implementation of acquired skills for a decent fee, starting a family, buying a house, etc.

  4. Statistical evaluation of the analytical method involved in French nuclear glasses leaching rate determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broudic, V.; Marques, C.; Bonnal, M

    2004-07-01

    Chemical durability studies of nuclear glasses involves a large number of water leaching experiments at different temperatures and pressures on both, glasses doped with fission products and actinides and non radioactive surrogates. The leaching rates of these glasses are evaluated through ICPAES analysis of the leachate over time. This work presents a statistical evaluation of the analysis method used to determine the concentrations of various vitreous matrix constituents: Si, B, Na, Al, Ca, Li as major elements and Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Sr, Zn, Zr as minor elements. Calibration characteristics, limits of detection, limits of quantification and uncertainties quantification are illustrated with different examples of analysis performed on surrogates and on radioactive leachates in glove box. (authors)

  5. Statistical evaluation of the analytical method involved in French nuclear glasses leaching rate determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broudic, V.; Marques, C.; Bonnal, M.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical durability studies of nuclear glasses involves a large number of water leaching experiments at different temperatures and pressures on both, glasses doped with fission products and actinides and non radioactive surrogates. The leaching rates of these glasses are evaluated through ICPAES analysis of the leachate over time. This work presents a statistical evaluation of the analysis method used to determine the concentrations of various vitreous matrix constituents: Si, B, Na, Al, Ca, Li as major elements and Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Sr, Zn, Zr as minor elements. Calibration characteristics, limits of detection, limits of quantification and uncertainties quantification are illustrated with different examples of analysis performed on surrogates and on radioactive leachates in glove box. (authors)

  6. A Grid Synchronization PLL Method Based on Mixed Second- and Third-Order Generalized Integrator for DC-Offset Elimination and Frequency Adaptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunjiang; Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Xiaohuan

    2018-01-01

    in the grid voltages, the general SOGI’s performance suffers from its generated dc effect in the lagging sine signal at the output. Therefore, in this paper, a mixed second- and third-order generalized integrator (MSTOGI) is proposed to eliminate this effect caused by the dc offset of grid voltages......The second order generalized integrator (SOGI) has been widely used to implement grid synchronization for grid-connected inverters, and from grid voltages it is able to extract the fundamental components with an output of two orthogonal sinusoidal signals. However, if there is a dc offset existing...

  7. A mass spectrometric method to determine activities of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Kaori; Samejima, Keijiro; Takao, Koichi; Kohda, Kohfuku; Hiramatsu, Kyoko; Kawakita, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Compounds in polyamine catabolic pathway were determined by a column-free ESI-TOF MS. ► N 1 - and N 8 -acetylspermidine were determined by a column-free ESI-MS/MS. ► The method was applied to determine activities of APAO, SMO, and SSAT in the pathway. ► The assay method contained stable isotope-labeled natural substrates. ► It is applicable to biological samples containing natural substrate and product. - Abstract: An analytical method for the determination of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) and five acetylpolyamines [N 1 -acetylspermidine (N 1 AcSpd), N 8 -acetylspermidine (N 8 AcSpd), N 1 -acetylspermine, N 1 ,N 8 -diacetylspermidine, and N 1 ,N 12 -diacetylspermine] involved in the polyamine catabolic pathway has been developed using a hybrid tandem mass spectrometer. Heptafluorobutyryl (HFB) derivatives of these compounds and respective internal standards labeled with stable isotopes were analyzed simultaneously by TOF MS, based on peak areas appearing at appropriate m/z values. The isomers, N 1 AcSpd and N 8 AcSpd were determined from their fragment ions, the acetylamidopropyl and acetylamidobutyl groups, respectively, using MS/MS with 13 C 2 -N 1 AcSpd and 13 C 2 -N 8 AcSpd which have the 13 C 2 -acetyl group as an internal standard. The TOF MS method was successfully applied to measure the activity of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolic pathways, namely N 1 -acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), spermine oxidase (SMO), and spermidine/spermine N 1 -acetyltransferase (SSAT). The following natural substrates and products labeled with stable isotopes considering the application to biological samples were identified; for APAO, [4,9,12- 15 N 3 ]-N 1 -acetylspermine and [1,4,8- 15 N 3 ]spermidine ( 15 N 3 -Spd), respectively; for SMO, [1,4,8,12- 15 N 4 ]spermine and 15 N 3 -Spd, respectively; and for SSAT, 15 N 3 -Spd and [1,4,8- 15 N 3 ]-N 1 -acetylspermidine, respectively.

  8. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  9. Lay and professional stakeholder involvement in scoping palliative care issues: Methods used in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brereton, L.; Ingleton, C.; Gardiner, C.; Goyder, E.; Mozygemba, K.; Lysdahl, K.B.; Tummers, M.J.; Sacchini, D.; Leppert, W.; Blazeviciene, A.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Refolo, P.; Nicola, M. De; Chilcott, J.; Oortwijn, W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stakeholders are people with an interest in a topic. Internationally, stakeholder involvement in palliative care research and health technology assessment requires development. Stakeholder involvement adds value throughout research (from prioritising topics to disseminating findings).

  10. Study of covariances involved in the k0 method of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanderlei

    2011-01-01

    This work aimed the development of a methodology for the treatment of uncertainty in the k 0 Method for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), comprehensively and accurately, by applying the covariance analysis methodology. All parameters involved in determining the concentration of a given element were analyzed with criteria in order to establish the correlations among them. Also established were the possible correlations between the concentrations of different elements for the same sample and for different samples. This procedure generated a large number of correlations that have been rigorously addressed. Data for analysis were obtained experimentally by means of irradiations performed at 24A irradiation position, near the core of the IEA-R1 research reactor, located at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The parameters α and f, characterizing the neutron field were determined by applying several methods from the literature. A detailed statistical treatment was applied to each measurement, verifying the various uncertainties and partial correlations. In order to deepen the study, targets of 64 Zn and 68 Zn were chosen, for which the nuclear parameters k 0 and Q 0 showed discrepancies in the literature in order to determine them experimentally. For 64 Zn, the values for these parameters resulted 5.63(8) x 10 -3 and 1.69(6), respectively. For 68 Zn they resulted 4.00(6) x 10 -4 and 2.34(4), respectively. These values were compared with data from the literature. The Monte Carlo method was applied at various stages of study, to allow accurate determination of some parameters needed for the complete data analysis. (author)

  11. S-MRI score: A simple method for assessing bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Mota, J.; Alfonso, P.; Pocovi, M.; Giraldo, P.

    2007-01-01

    Semi quantitative MRI is a very useful procedure for evaluating the bone marrow burden (BMB) in Gaucher disease (GD). Score systems have been applied to obtain a parameter for evaluating the severity of bone disease. Our purpose was to test a simple, reproducible and accurate score to evaluate bone marrow involvement in GD patients. MRI was performed in spine, pelvis and femora at diagnosis in 54 adult GD1 patients, 61.1% of whom were female. Three MRI patterns and punctuation in each location were defined: normal, 0; non-homogeneous infiltration subtypes reticular, 1; mottled, 2; diffuse, 3; and homogeneous infiltration, 4. This score was called Spanish-MRI (S-MRI). Two independent observers applied the S-MRI and bone marrow burden score and compared the differences using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Correlation rank test was calculated. In 46 patients (85.2%), bone involvement was observed. Thirty-nine (72.3%) had their spine affected, 35 (64.8%) pelvis and 33 (61.2%) femora. Fourteen patients had bone infarcts, 14 avascular necrosis, 2 vertebral fractures and 2 bone crises. Correlation analysis between S-MRI and BMB was (r 2 = .675; p = .0001). No evidence of correlation was observed between CT activity and S-MRI nor between CT activity and BMB. We have found a relationship between genotype and bone infiltration according to S-MRI site and complications. S-MRI is a simple method that provides useful information to evaluate bone infiltration and detect silent complications. Our results correlated with the BMB score but offer higher sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for classifying the extent of bone disease

  12. S-MRI score: A simple method for assessing bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M. [Radiology (Magnetic Resonance) Instituto Aragones de Ciencias de la Salud (I-CS), Zaragoza (Spain); Mota, J. [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Medimagen, Barcelona (Spain); Alfonso, P. [Radiology (Magnetic Resonance) Instituto Aragones de Ciencias de la Salud (I-CS), Zaragoza (Spain); Pocovi, M. [Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology Department, Zaragoza University (Spain); Giraldo, P. [Haematology Department, Miguel Servet University Hospital, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: pgiraldo@salud.aragon.es

    2007-04-15

    Semi quantitative MRI is a very useful procedure for evaluating the bone marrow burden (BMB) in Gaucher disease (GD). Score systems have been applied to obtain a parameter for evaluating the severity of bone disease. Our purpose was to test a simple, reproducible and accurate score to evaluate bone marrow involvement in GD patients. MRI was performed in spine, pelvis and femora at diagnosis in 54 adult GD1 patients, 61.1% of whom were female. Three MRI patterns and punctuation in each location were defined: normal, 0; non-homogeneous infiltration subtypes reticular, 1; mottled, 2; diffuse, 3; and homogeneous infiltration, 4. This score was called Spanish-MRI (S-MRI). Two independent observers applied the S-MRI and bone marrow burden score and compared the differences using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Correlation rank test was calculated. In 46 patients (85.2%), bone involvement was observed. Thirty-nine (72.3%) had their spine affected, 35 (64.8%) pelvis and 33 (61.2%) femora. Fourteen patients had bone infarcts, 14 avascular necrosis, 2 vertebral fractures and 2 bone crises. Correlation analysis between S-MRI and BMB was (r {sup 2} = .675; p = .0001). No evidence of correlation was observed between CT activity and S-MRI nor between CT activity and BMB. We have found a relationship between genotype and bone infiltration according to S-MRI site and complications. S-MRI is a simple method that provides useful information to evaluate bone infiltration and detect silent complications. Our results correlated with the BMB score but offer higher sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for classifying the extent of bone disease.

  13. A Method to Ease the Deployment of Web Applications that Involve Database Systems A Method to Ease the Deployment of Web Applications that Involve Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega Corona

    2012-02-01

    . Thus, an object-oriented approach is proposedto ease the development of applications that involve database systems.

  14. Facilitated workshop method to involve stakeholders and public in decision making process in radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, Raimo; Sinkko, Kari [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland). Research and Environmental Surveillance; Haemaelaeinen, Raimo P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland). System Analysis Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    International organisations in radiation protection have for many years recommended that key players, e.g. authorities, expert organisations, industry, producers of foodstuffs and even the public, should be involved in the planning of protective actions in case of a nuclear accident. In this work, we have developed and tested a facilitated workshop method where representatives from various fields of the society aim to identify and evaluate systematically protective actions. Decision analysis techniques have been applied in workshops in order to find out the most feasible countermeasure strategies and to make the decision making-process transparent and auditable. The work builds on case studies where it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore various types of countermeasures should be considered. This paper provides experiences gained in several European countries on how to facilitate this kind of workshops and how modern decision analysis techniques can be applied in the decision-making process.

  15. Facilitated workshop method to involve stakeholders and public in decision making process in radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, Raimo; Sinkko, Kari; Haemaelaeinen, Raimo P.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations in radiation protection have for many years recommended that key players, e.g. authorities, expert organisations, industry, producers of foodstuffs and even the public, should be involved in the planning of protective actions in case of a nuclear accident. In this work, we have developed and tested a facilitated workshop method where representatives from various fields of the society aim to identify and evaluate systematically protective actions. Decision analysis techniques have been applied in workshops in order to find out the most feasible countermeasure strategies and to make the decision making-process transparent and auditable. The work builds on case studies where it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore various types of countermeasures should be considered. This paper provides experiences gained in several European countries on how to facilitate this kind of workshops and how modern decision analysis techniques can be applied in the decision-making process

  16. Preconditioned steepest descent methods for some nonlinear elliptic equations involving p-Laplacian terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Wenqiang, E-mail: wfeng1@vols.utk.edu [Department of Mathematics, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Salgado, Abner J., E-mail: asalgad1@utk.edu [Department of Mathematics, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Wang, Cheng, E-mail: cwang1@umassd.edu [Department of Mathematics, The University of Massachusetts, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States); Wise, Steven M., E-mail: swise1@utk.edu [Department of Mathematics, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We describe and analyze preconditioned steepest descent (PSD) solvers for fourth and sixth-order nonlinear elliptic equations that include p-Laplacian terms on periodic domains in 2 and 3 dimensions. The highest and lowest order terms of the equations are constant-coefficient, positive linear operators, which suggests a natural preconditioning strategy. Such nonlinear elliptic equations often arise from time discretization of parabolic equations that model various biological and physical phenomena, in particular, liquid crystals, thin film epitaxial growth and phase transformations. The analyses of the schemes involve the characterization of the strictly convex energies associated with the equations. We first give a general framework for PSD in Hilbert spaces. Based on certain reasonable assumptions of the linear pre-conditioner, a geometric convergence rate is shown for the nonlinear PSD iteration. We then apply the general theory to the fourth and sixth-order problems of interest, making use of Sobolev embedding and regularity results to confirm the appropriateness of our pre-conditioners for the regularized p-Lapacian problems. Our results include a sharper theoretical convergence result for p-Laplacian systems compared to what may be found in existing works. We demonstrate rigorously how to apply the theory in the finite dimensional setting using finite difference discretization methods. Numerical simulations for some important physical application problems – including thin film epitaxy with slope selection and the square phase field crystal model – are carried out to verify the efficiency of the scheme.

  17. Network methods to support user involvement in qualitative data analyses: an introduction to Participatory Theme Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Paul; Badham, Jennifer; Corepal, Rekesh; O'Neill, Roisin F; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank; Hunter, Ruth F

    2017-11-23

    While Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) is encouraged throughout the research process, engagement is typically limited to intervention design and post-analysis stages. There are few approaches to participatory data analyses within complex health interventions. Using qualitative data from a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT), this proof-of-concept study tests the value of a new approach to participatory data analysis called Participatory Theme Elicitation (PTE). Forty excerpts were given to eight members of a youth advisory PPI panel to sort into piles based on their perception of related thematic content. Using algorithms to detect communities in networks, excerpts were then assigned to a thematic cluster that combined the panel members' perspectives. Network analysis techniques were also used to identify key excerpts in each grouping that were then further explored qualitatively. While PTE analysis was, for the most part, consistent with the researcher-led analysis, young people also identified new emerging thematic content. PTE appears promising for encouraging user led identification of themes arising from qualitative data collected during complex interventions. Further work is required to validate and extend this method. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02455986 . Retrospectively Registered on 21 May 2015.

  18. Methods for Involving Older People in Health Research-A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Imke; Gerhardus, Ansgar

    2017-11-29

    Demographic change has increased the need for research on healthcare for older people. Recently there has been a growing awareness that research might benefit from actively involving patients and the public in study design and conduct. Besides empowering patients and democratizing research, involvement enhances the quality of research and the development of equitable healthcare solutions. Little is known about how to involve older people. This review aims to support scientists intending to involve older people in health research by systematically identifying and describing studies involving older people and analyzing associated facilitators and challenges. Old people were operationalized as people living with old-age-related conditions. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Cochrane library for the period 2007 to July 2017 and also manually searched reference lists of the nine retrieved articles and other relevant sources. While involvement of older people in research is feasible, specific challenges related to this group need be taken into account. Strategies to enhance effective involvement comprise a thoughtful choice of location, use of visualization and accessible communication, building good relationships and flexible approaches. Further research is needed on the involvement of people in care homes or with vision, hearing or mobility limitations.

  19. Methods for Involving Older People in Health Research—A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Schilling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Demographic change has increased the need for research on healthcare for older people. Recently there has been a growing awareness that research might benefit from actively involving patients and the public in study design and conduct. Besides empowering patients and democratizing research, involvement enhances the quality of research and the development of equitable healthcare solutions. Little is known about how to involve older people. This review aims to support scientists intending to involve older people in health research by systematically identifying and describing studies involving older people and analyzing associated facilitators and challenges. Old people were operationalized as people living with old-age-related conditions. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane library for the period 2007 to July 2017 and also manually searched reference lists of the nine retrieved articles and other relevant sources. While involvement of older people in research is feasible, specific challenges related to this group need be taken into account. Strategies to enhance effective involvement comprise a thoughtful choice of location, use of visualization and accessible communication, building good relationships and flexible approaches. Further research is needed on the involvement of people in care homes or with vision, hearing or mobility limitations.

  20. Principal-Generated YouTube Video as a Method of Improving Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Joey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the involvement level of parents and reveal whether principal-generated YouTube videos for regular communication would enhance levels of parental involvement at one North Texas Christian Middle School (pseudonym). The following questions guided this study: 1. What is the beginning level of parental…

  1. Women's toileting behaviour related to urinary elimination: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kefang; Palmer, Mary H

    2010-08-01

    This paper is a report of analysis of the concept of women's toileting behaviour related to urinary elimination. Behaviours related to emptying urine from the bladder can contribute to bladder health problems. Evidence exists that clinical interventions focusing on specific behaviours that promote urine storage and controlled emptying are effective in reducing lower urinary tract symptoms. The concept of women's toileting behaviour related to urinary elimination has not been well-developed to guide nursing research and intervention. The CINAHL, Medline, PsycInfo and ISI Citation databases were searched for publications between January, 1960 and May, 2009, using combinations of keywords related to women's toileting behaviour. Additional publications were identified by examining the reference lists in the papers identified. Johnson's behavioural system model provided the conceptual framework to identify the concept. Walker and Avant's method was used for this concept analysis. Women's toileting behaviour related to urinary elimination can be defined as voluntary actions related to the physiological event of emptying the bladder, which is comprised of specific attributes including voiding place, voiding time, voiding position and voiding style. This behaviour is also influenced by the physical and social environments. An explicit definition of women's toileting behaviour can offer a basis for nurses to understand the factors involved in women's toileting behaviour. It also facilitates the development of an instrument to assess women's toileting behaviour better, and to facilitate development of behavioural interventions designed to prevent, eliminate, reduce and manage female lower urinary tract symptoms.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygenation with eliminated skin blood flow in young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirasawa, Ai; Kaneko, Takahito; Tanaka, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    We estimated cerebral oxygenation during handgrip exercise and a cognitive task using an algorithm that eliminates the influence of skin blood flow (SkBF) on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal. The algorithm involves a subtraction method to develop a correction factor for each subject. ...

  3. A family of four stages embedded explicit six-step methods with eliminated phase-lag and its derivatives for the numerical solution of the second order problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, T. E.

    2017-11-01

    A family of four stages high algebraic order embedded explicit six-step methods, for the numerical solution of second order initial or boundary-value problems with periodical and/or oscillating solutions, are studied in this paper. The free parameters of the new proposed methods are calculated solving the linear system of equations which is produced by requesting the vanishing of the phase-lag of the methods and the vanishing of the phase-lag's derivatives of the schemes. For the new obtained methods we investigate: • Its local truncation error (LTE) of the methods.• The asymptotic form of the LTE obtained using as model problem the radial Schrödinger equation.• The comparison of the asymptotic forms of LTEs for several methods of the same family. This comparison leads to conclusions on the efficiency of each method of the family.• The stability and the interval of periodicity of the obtained methods of the new family of embedded finite difference pairs.• The applications of the new obtained family of embedded finite difference pairs to the numerical solution of several second order problems like the radial Schrödinger equation, astronomical problems etc. The above applications lead to conclusion on the efficiency of the methods of the new family of embedded finite difference pairs.

  4. Comparison of three radiographic methods in screening of temporomandibular joint involvement in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenoenen, M.; Kilpinen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-three randomly selected subjects with psoriatic arthritis (PA) were examined radiographically by means of orthopantomography, transcranial radiography, and transmaxillary radiography. Two examiners graded the radiographic signs of flattening, osteophytes, erosion, and sclerosis. The findings obtained were then compared to determine the best technique for screening of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bone changes. Together the techniques showed definite (24%) and possible (6%) changes, suggesting TMJ involvement in 31 of 106 joints. In all projections, radiographic signs suggesting TMJ involvement were most frequent in the condyle. Erosion in the condyle was the most frequent finding. Agreement with regard to definite changes in the condyle was found in only one-third to half of the cases. It is concluded that in radiography of the TMJ in subjects with PA, a combination of radiographic techniques should be used to obtain maximum information. However, orthopantomography is well suited for screening of TMJ involvement in subjects with PA. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Eliminating transducer distortion in acoustic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Torras Rosell, Antoni; McWalter, Richard Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the in uence of nonlinear components that contaminate the linear response of acoustic transducer, and presents a method for eliminating the in uence of nonlinearities in acoustic measurements. The method is evaluated on simulated as well as experimental data, and is shown...

  6. Novel Numerical Methods for Optimal Control Problems Involving Fractional-Order Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-14

    UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 03/14/2018 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR...optimal control problems involving fractional-order differential equations Wang, Song Curtin University of Technology Kent Street, Bentley WA6102...Article history : Received 3 October 2016 Accepted 26 March 2017 Available online 29 April 2017 Keywords: Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation Financial

  7. Method for retrospective estimation of absorbed dose in subsurface tissues when conducting works connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination (using experimental and calculated data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panova, V.I.; Shaks, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    The method for retrospective estimation of doses in subsurface tissues at early time periods from the accident begin in the case, when gamma radiation dose rate values (radiation field cartogram) and a person irradiation conditions on contaminated territory (professional route) are known, is discussed

  8. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  9. Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, X. X., E-mail: baoxingxian@upc.edu.cn [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, C. L. [Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xiong, C. B. [The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2015-07-27

    Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields.

  10. Compositions and methods involving methyladenosine phosphorylase in the diagnosis and treatment of proliferative disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2007-03-20

    Disclosed are novel nucleic acid and peptide compositions comprising methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) and methods of use for MTAP amino acid sequences and DNA segments comprising MTAP in the diagnosis of human cancers and development of MTAP-specific antibodies. Also disclosed are methods for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors and other proliferative cell disorders, and identification of tumor suppressor genes and gene products from the human 9p21-p22 chromosome region. Such methods are useful in the diagnosis of multiple tumor types such as bladder cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, brain tumors, lymphomas, gliomas, melanomas, and leukemias.

  11. Novel participatory methods of involving patients in research: naming and branding a longitudinal cohort study, BRIGHTLIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Mohain, Jasjeet; Gibson, Faith; Solanki, Anita; Whelan, Jeremy; Fern, Lorna A

    2015-03-14

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is central to research and service planning. Identifying effective, meaningful ways of involvement is challenging. The cohort study 'Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?' follows young people for three years, examining outcomes associated with specialist care. Participant retention in longitudinal research can be problematic potentially jeopardising study completion. Maximising study awareness through high impact branding and publicity may improve study retention. Study names are typically generated by researchers rather than designed with patients. We aimed to involve young people in developing a brand identity and name to 'Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?'. Nine young people aged 17-26 years diagnosed with cancer when aged 14-25 years participated in a one day workshop with further data collection at a patient conference. Methodology was similar to conventional branding and naming exercises and was divided into six stages. The workshop comprised five stages. Stage 1: 'What's in a brand' allowed young people to enquire why brands/logos are important, Stage 2: 'Brand Transformation' identified what young people needed to know and believe about the study when approached about participation, Stage 3: 'Brand Essence' determined how we wanted the study to be perceived by young people, Stage 4: 'What's in a name' identified potential names for the study. Stage 5: 'Logo creation' assembled the mood and feel of logos. Stage 6 was logo design and an electronic survey of 249 young people attending a patient conference. BRIGHTLIGHT was the final study name and the brand essence (or study personality) was friendly, supportive and inspiring. Four logos were designed and the final logo received 47% (n = 115) of votes. Acceptance and retention to BRIGHTLIGHT is higher than anticipated (80% versus 60%), this may be related to our integral PPI strategy. We

  12. Have you tried spermine? A rapid and cost-effective method to eliminate dextran sodium sulfate inhibition of PCR and RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych, Łukasz; Kot, Witold; Bendtsen, Katja M B; Hansen, Axel K; Vogensen, Finn K; Nielsen, Dennis S

    2018-01-01

    The Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) induced colitis mouse model is commonly used to investigate human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nucleic acid extracts originating from these animals are often contaminated with DSS, which is a strong inhibitor of many enzymatic based molecular biology reactions including PCR and reverse-transcription (RT). Methods for removing DSS from nucleic acids extracts exist for RNA, but no effective protocol for DNA or cDNA is currently available. However, spermine has previously been shown to be an effective agent for counteracting DSS inhibition of polynucleotide kinase, which led to the hypothesis, that spermine could be used to counteract DSS inhibition of PCR and RT. We investigated the means of adding spermine in an adequate concentration to PCR based protocols (including qPCR, two-step RT-qPCR, and amplicon sequencing library preparation) to remove DSS inhibition. Within the range up to 0.01g/L, spermine can be added to PCR/qPCR or RT prophylactically without a significant reduction of reaction efficiency. Addition of spermine at the concentration of 0.08g/L can be used to recover qualitative PCR signal inhibited by DSS in concentrations up to 0.32g/L. For optimal quantitative analysis, the concentration of spermine requires fine adjustment. Hence, we present here a simple fluorometric based method for adjusting the concentration of spermine ensuring an optimal efficiency of the reaction exposed to an unknown concentration of DSS. In conclusion, we demonstrate a cost effective and easy method to counteract DSS inhibition in PCR and two-step RT-qPCR. Fixed or fine-tuned concentrations of spermine can be administered depending on the qualitative or quantitative character of the analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elimination of chloride ions in the analytical method for the precise determination of plutonium or uranium using titanous ions as reductant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol-Rostaing, C.; Wagner, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Corpel and Regnaud's procedure for the precise determination of uranium and plutonium, using titanous (III) chloride as reductant has been modified in order to be compatible with the throwing out standards in nuclear plants. The removal of chloride reagents has been studied. On the original method, there are two: titanous chloride and ferric chloride. We propose titanous sulphate and ferric nitrate as substitution reagents. As commercial titanous sulphate can't be found, an easy procedure has been set and described with storage conditions: experimental conditions have been optimized and adapted for manufacturing on a laboratory scale [fr

  14. Evaluation of 4% Sodium Hypochlorite in eliminating Enterococcus faecalis from the Root Canal when Used with Three Irrigation Methods: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyank, Harsh; Pandey, Vinisha; Bagul, Abhishek; Majety, Kishore Kumar; Verma, Parul; Choudhury, Basanta Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Endodontic treatment removes all pathogens, such as Enterococcus faecalis from pulp and root canals. The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of sodium hypo-chlorite (NaOCl) in removing E. faecalis from the root canal used with three different irrigation methods. This study was conducted on freshly extracted maxillary incisors. After biomechanical preparation, root canals were injected with E. faecalis. Three groups were made which contained 30 teeth in each group; 2 mL of NaOCl solution was used for irrigation followed by agitation with K-files in group I; 2 mL of NaOCl solution was used for irrigation and ultrasonic agitation was done in group II. In group III, an alternate irrigation with NaOCl and 3% hydrogen peroxide was done. The fourth group (control) was irrigated with sterile saline solution. E. fae-calis bacteria were sampled to the root canals with paper points and were transferred to tubes that contained 5 mL of brain heart infusion broth. Tubes were incubated and the presence of broth turbidity was suggestive of bacteria remaining in the root canal. All three groups showed no statistically significant difference. However, difference existed between experimental groups and control groups. The author concluded that all three methods of application of NaOCl were effective in disinfecting the root canal than the saline solution. No single irrigant has 100% efficiency. Thus by this study, a best irrigating solution with maximum properties can be established.

  15. The importance of male partner involvement for women's acceptability and adherence to female-initiated HIV prevention methods in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Elizabeth T; van der Straten, Ariane; Chidanyika, Agnes; Chipato, Tsungai; Jaffar, Shabbar; Padian, Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Enlisting male partner involvement is perceived as an important component of women's successful uptake of female-initiated HIV prevention methods. We conducted a longitudinal study among a cohort of 955 Zimbabwean women participating in a clinical trial of the effectiveness of a female-initiated HIV prevention method (the diaphragm and lubricant gel) to: (a) describe the extent to which women involved their male partners in the decision to use the study products, and (b) measure the effect perceived male partner support had on their acceptability and consistent use of these methods. Reported levels of male partner involvement in discussions and decisions regarding: joining the study, study activities, the outcome of HIV/STI test results, and product use were very high. In multivariate analyses, regular disclosure of study product use and partner approval for the diaphragm and gel were significantly associated with women's acceptability and consistent use of the products; an essential component for determining efficacy of investigational prevention methods. These results support the need for more sophisticated measurement of how couples interact to make decisions that impact study participation and investigational product use as well as more rigorous adaptations and evaluations of existing strategies to involve male partners in female-initiated HIV prevention trials.

  16. Eliminating US hospital medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Steinebach, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the USA have continued to rise steadily since the 1980s. Medical errors are one of the major causes of deaths and injuries of thousands of patients every year, contributing to soaring healthcare costs. The purpose of this study is to examine what has been done to deal with the medical-error problem in the last two decades and present a closed-loop mistake-proof operation system for surgery processes that would likely eliminate preventable medical errors. The design method used is a combination of creating a service blueprint, implementing the six sigma DMAIC cycle, developing cause-and-effect diagrams as well as devising poka-yokes in order to develop a robust surgery operation process for a typical US hospital. In the improve phase of the six sigma DMAIC cycle, a number of poka-yoke techniques are introduced to prevent typical medical errors (identified through cause-and-effect diagrams) that may occur in surgery operation processes in US hospitals. It is the authors' assertion that implementing the new service blueprint along with the poka-yokes, will likely result in the current medical error rate to significantly improve to the six-sigma level. Additionally, designing as many redundancies as possible in the delivery of care will help reduce medical errors. Primary healthcare providers should strongly consider investing in adequate doctor and nurse staffing, and improving their education related to the quality of service delivery to minimize clinical errors. This will lead to an increase in higher fixed costs, especially in the shorter time frame. This paper focuses additional attention needed to make a sound technical and business case for implementing six sigma tools to eliminate medical errors that will enable hospital managers to increase their hospital's profitability in the long run and also ensure patient safety.

  17. Method of Manufacturing A Porous Polymer Component Involving Use of A Dissolvable, Sacrificial Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    and thereby the resulting inner structure of the component 1 is arranged in a controlled and reproducible manner. The sacrificial material 2 and possibly also the component material 3 may e.g. be arranged by use of a 3D-printer or manually. The method may e.g. be used to manufacture a three...

  18. Food allergen analysis for processed food using a novel extraction method to eliminate harmful reagents for both ELISA and lateral-flow tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Oyama, Yuriko; Tsuruma, Rieko; Saito, Eriko; Saito, Yoshikazu; Ozu, Takeshi; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakai, Shinobu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Shoji, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used to determine food allergens in food products. However, a significant number of ELISAs give an erroneous result, especially when applied to highly processed food. Accordingly, an improved ELISA, which utilizes an extraction solution comprising the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and reductant 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), has been specially developed to analyze food allergens in highly processed food by enhancing analyte protein extraction. Recently, however, the use of 2-ME has become undesirable. In the present study, a new extraction solution containing a human- and eco-friendly reductant, which is convenient to use at the food manufacturing site, has been established. Among three chemicals with different reducing properties, sodium sulfite, tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine, and mercaptoethylamine sodium sulfite was selected as a 2-ME substitute. The protein extraction ability of SDS/0.1 M sodium sulfite solution was comparable to that of SDS/2-ME solution. Next, the ELISA performance for egg, milk, wheat, peanut, and buckwheat was evaluated by using model-processed foods and commercially available food products. The data showed that the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA significantly correlated with the SDS/2-ME ELISA for all food allergens examined (p analysis of food allergens in processed food, showing consistency with the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA results. Accordingly, a harmonized analysis system for processed food comprising a screening LF test and a quantitative ELISA with identical extraction solution has been established. The ELISA based on the SDS/0.1 M sulfite extraction solution has now been authorized as the revised official method for food allergen analysis in Japan.

  19. Evaluation of quatitative scintigraphic method in diagnosis of esophagic involvement of Progressive Systemic Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Muehlen, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty patients with Progressive Systemic Sclerosis are studied by scintigraphic methodology. The esophageal transit method is used for liquid and solid meals. The results are compared with the ones of a control group, without or not gastrintestinal problems but without autoimmune diasese. 99 sup(m)Tc-sulfurcolloid is used as labelling compound. The studies were done in supine and orthostatical position. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. A mixed methods exploration of family involvement in medical care for older adults with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Pepin, Renee; Mueser, Kim T; Naslund, John A; Rolin, Stephanie A; Faber, Marjan J; Bartels, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Many older persons with serious mental illness (SMI) suffer from high rates of comorbid medical conditions. Although families play a critical role in psychiatric illness management among adults with SMI, their contributions to improving health outcomes in this population has received little attention. This study explored family involvement in medical care for older adults with SMI. This mixed methods study involved analysis of quantitative data collected from older adults with SMI and cardiovascular risk (n = 28) participating in a pilot study of an intervention designed to improve patient-centered primary care augmented by qualitative interviews with their relatives (n = 13) to explore family involvement in medical care. Approximately 89% of older adults with SMI reported family involvement in at least one aspect of their medical care (e.g., medication reminders, medical decision making). However, many family members reported that they were rarely involved in their relative's medical visits, and most did not perceive a need to be involved during routine care. Family members identified obesity as their relative's primary health concern and many wanted guidance from providers on effective strategies for supporting weight loss. Although many family members did not perceive a need to be involved in their relative's routine medical visits, they expressed interest in talking with providers about how to help their relative change unhealthy behaviors. Educating patients, families, and providers about the potential benefits of family involvement in medical care, including routine medical visits for persons with SMI and cardiovascular health risk may promote patient- and family-centered collaboration in this high-risk population.

  1. Elimination device for metal impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reuse of adsorbing materials by eliminating Fe 3 O 4 films reduced with adsorbing performance by way of electrolytic polishing and then forming fresh membranes using high temperature steams. Constitution: An elimination device is provided to a coolant clean-up system of a reactor for eliminating impurities such as cobalt. The elimination device comprises adsorbing materials made of stainless steel tips or the likes having Fe 3 O 4 films. The adsorbing materials are regenerated by applying an electric current between grid-like cathode plates and anode plates to leach out the Fe 3 O 4 films, washing out the electrolytic solution by cleaning water and then applying steams at high temperature onto the adsorbing materials to thereby form fresh Fe 3 O 4 films again thereon. The regeneration of the adsorbing materials enables to eliminate Co 60 and the like in the primary coolant efficiently. (Moriyama, K.)

  2. Techniques involving extreme environment, nondestructive techniques, computer methods in metals research, and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunshah, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A number of different techniques which range over several different aspects of materials research are covered in this volume. They are concerned with property evaluation of 4 0 K and below, surface characterization, coating techniques, techniques for the fabrication of composite materials, computer methods, data evaluation and analysis, statistical design of experiments and non-destructive test techniques. Topics covered in this part include internal friction measurements; nondestructive testing techniques; statistical design of experiments and regression analysis in metallurgical research; and measurement of surfaces of engineering materials

  3. Capillary haemangioma involving the middle and external ear: radiotherapy as a treatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavamani, S.P.; Ram, T.S.; Viswanathan, P.N.; Viswanathan, F.R.; Surendrababu, N.R.S.; Thomas, M.

    2007-01-01

    Capillary haemangiomas rarely occur in the auditory canal and have mainly been managed with surgical excision or kept on close follow up for development of symptoms. Radiotherapy, as a treatment method, has not been reported previously in the published work. We describe a study of a capillary haemangioma in the auditory canal of a 26-year-old woman who presented with bleeding. She was treated with radiotherapy, after the lesion was found to be unsuitable for surgery and embolization. The patient remains well 5 years after completion of treatment

  4. A rapid Salmonella detection method involving thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification and a lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin-Jun; Zhou, Tian-Jiao; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that is widespread in the environment and can cause serious human and animal disease. Since conventional culture methods to detect Salmonella are time-consuming and laborious, rapid and accurate techniques to detect this pathogen are critically important for food safety and diagnosing foodborne illness. In this study, we developed a rapid, simple and portable Salmonella detection strategy that combines thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) with a lateral flow assay to provide a detection result based on visual signals within 90 min. Performance analyses indicated that the method had detection limits for DNA and pure cultured bacteria of 73.4-80.7 fg and 35-40 CFU, respectively. Specificity analyses showed no cross reactions with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella and Campylobacter jejuni. The results for detection in real food samples showed that 1.3-1.9 CFU/g or 1.3-1.9 CFU/mL of Salmonella in contaminated chicken products and infant nutritional cereal could be detected after 2 h of enrichment. The same amount of Salmonella in contaminated milk could be detected after 4 h of enrichment. This tHDA-strip can be used for the rapid detection of Salmonella in food samples and is particularly suitable for use in areas with limited equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Free thyroxin by radioimmunoassay: evaluation of a new direct method involving a radiolabeled thyroxin analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubasik, N.P.; Lundberg, P.A.; Brodows, R.G.; Hallauer, G.D.; Same, D.G.; Lindstedt, G.; Bengtsson, C.; Nystroem, E.

    1983-01-01

    The first performance evaluation of a new direct method for free thyroxin (T4) in serum by radioimmunoassay, with use of coated tubes and a radioiodinated T4 analog (Diagnostic Products Corp.) is presented. The assay is precise and robust: within-run imprecision (CV), 3.1-6.6%; between-run imprecision, 4.0-7.9%; no demonstrable variation between technologists irrespective of experience with the method. No outliers were observed when we compared the free T4 results with serum total T4. Reference values are reported for a total of 1243 euthyroid subjects; there was no significant age effect on serum free T4 in women 26 to 72 years old. The biological variation was about +/- 35% of the mean (2 SD). Free T4 results are the same for serum and plasma. The assay performs well in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and distinguishes individuals with thyroid disease from normal individuals. Free T4 values in women taking oral contraceptives are normal. Depressed results were often observed in acute nonthyroidal illness and continuing pregnancy. These results were directly comparable with those of another commercial direct radiolabeled-T4 analog kit for free T4

  6. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  7. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: I. Involving funders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the World Health Organization's Department for Child and Adolescent Health and Development commissioned five large research priority setting exercises using the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. The aim was to define research priorities related to the five major causes of child deaths for the period up to the year 2015. The selected causes were childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea, birth asphyxia, neonatal infections and preterm birth/low birth weight. The criteria used for prioritization in all five exercises were the “standard” CHNRI criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, potential for mortality burden reduction and the effect on equity. Having completed the exercises, the WHO officers were left with another question: how “fundable” were the identified priorities, i.e. how attractive were they to research funders?

  8. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: III. Involving stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo Yoshida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting health research priorities is a complex and value–driven process. The introduction of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI method has made the process of setting research priorities more transparent and inclusive, but much of the process remains in the hands of funders and researchers, as described in the previous two papers in this series. However, the value systems of numerous other important stakeholders, particularly those on the receiving end of health research products, are very rarely addressed in any process of priority setting. Inclusion of a larger and more diverse group of stakeholders in the process would result in a better reflection of the system of values of the broader community, resulting in recommendations that are more legitimate and acceptable.

  9. Can prevention eliminate caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D

    1995-07-01

    There are four main factors involved in the carious process: at-risk tooth structure, plaque flora, fermentable carbohydrates, and time. Based on our knowledge of the carious process, four main preventive strategies have been developed over the years, namely, fluorides, fissure sealing, dietary choice, and plaque control. Fluorides are having a major impact on smooth-surface caries; hence, strategies combining fluorides and fissure sealing are very effective. However, use of fissure sealing is still problematic. Changing dietary practices with a view to reducing dental caries seems to be having little impact on a global scale. Plaque control, as practiced routinely by the majority of people, is not sufficient to result in caries reductions. Deprivation and poverty are strongly associated with high caries levels. Although the preventive strategies currently available are likely to result in lower caries levels for many, for logistical reasons and because of factors associated with deprivation and poverty, caries is likely to remain a major public health problem in most communities for the foreseeable future.

  10. Analysis of genes involved in sex determination of fishes by phenol-emulsion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Ichiro; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Araki, Kazuo [National Research Inst. of Aquaculture, Mie (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    With an aim to clarify the mechanism of sex determination common to vertebrates, the genes presumed to mediate the sex determination were analyzed through cDNA subtraction by phenol-emulsion method. A total RNA was extracted from male juvenile Amago, a kind of oncorhynchus and cDNA was synthesized using mRNA fractionated by oligo-dT column. The male-specific genes expressed in the stage of sex determination was isolated through incorporation to PVC-derived vector. Thus obtained genes were confirmed to be male-specific by Southern hybridization. The results of the screening for the subtracted products indicate that neither of the male-specific clones detected in this study was novel. Previous studies on sex discrimination based on mitochondrial DNA suggested that Sakuramasu and Amago belong in the same species, Oncorhynchus masou masou and the present results show that DNA sequence for male-derived GH pseudo-gene is partially different between the two fishes. (M.N.)

  11. Integrated method development of general and special students stamina involved in the fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Alekseev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : testing the effectiveness of methods of development of general and special endurance cadets wrestlers. Material : the experiment was attended by 20 students aged 18-20 years (10-12 years experience of employment, qualifications - candidates for the master of sports and master of sports. Classes are held 10 times a week, lasting for 120 minutes. Results : the developed methodology based on the application of a special set of exercises. Technique promotes rapid increase endurance level students. The directions of increasing endurance and performance of students. As an exercise for the development of general endurance recommended: motocross race, gymnastics, sports (rugby, soccer. As an exercise for the development of special endurance recommended: Attempted partner with high intensity (8-9 shots in 10 seconds Perform five series, consisting of 5 spurts (the maximum number of shots in 10 seconds And run shots at a moderate pace (4 -5 throws for 10 seconds ; training and educational training bout, fight quadruples (fight lasts until the transition to the fight lying down or throw up. Conclusions : the increase in special endurance cadets should be in parallel with the improvement of overall fitness.

  12. Possibilities of Sulphate Elimination from Mine Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heviánková Silvie

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of „acid water“ (or AMD is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphate-elimination from this locality. Recently, several methods of sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are biological, physical-chemical and chemical precipitation. The method described in this contribution consists of chemical precipitation by sodium aluminate and calcium hydrate. Under application of this method very interesting results were obtained. The amount of SO42- anions decreased to almost zero-value, using optimal doses of the chemical reagents.

  13. State of the art of methods for the elimination of nitrogen in small and medium-sized agricultural biogas installations - Final report; Etat de l'art des methodes (rentables) pour l'elimination, la concentration ou la transformation de l'azote pour les installations de biogaz agricoles de taille petite/moyenne - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakx, T.; Membrez, Y.; Mottet, A. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Joss, A.; Boehler, M. [EAWAG, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on research work done on the elimination, concentration or transformation of nitrogen in small and medium-sized agricultural biogas installations. The goal of the project - the conception of a state of the art on existing, economically feasible technologies or processes to treat the nitrogen produced in anaerobic digestion - is discussed. Typical Swiss small/medium size agricultural biogas plants with an electrical power of around 100 kW from its combined heat and power generation (CHP) unit are examined. A reference installation is discussed which treats cow slurry, organic restaurant waste, used vegetable oils, bakery wastes, coffee grounds, and cereal wastes. A literature research is described which was conducted to find information regarding available treatment techniques for slurry and digestate treatment. Information from Switzerland, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and Austria was used. Various techniques are examined including a screw-press separator, a centrifuge, membrane filtration, air stripping with acid wash, air stripping with catalytic combustion, evaporation, band dryer, precipitation, composting and biological treatment. The economic analysis and the comparison between techniques are quoted as being coarse as they are based on numerous assumptions.

  14. Eliminating PCR contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.C.; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Webster, Alison; Emery, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can mean that even very low levels of contamination with the target DNA will result in a positive signal. At present this aspect is a major limitation in the use of PCR as a routine diagnostic method. By exposing PCR reagents to UV light, contaminating DNA can be inactivated, thus providing an opportunity to eradicate false positive reactions. UV irradiation was applied to PCR systems used for detection of human cytomegalovirus CMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and shown to be effective in eradicating both laboratory encountered contamination and plasmid DNA (below 100 pg) added to PCR systems prior to UV exposure. Sensitivity of a PCR system to amplify the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of HIV-1 was not affected by the irradiation procedure; however, ultimate sensitivity of a PCR system for the amplification of an early gene pro-motor sequence of the CMV genome was reduced 1000-fold. UV irradiation did not affect the size of the PCR product as determined by strand separating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a 32 P-labelled amplimer. Thus, a simple pre-exposure to UV light would seem a worth-wile step to incorporate into PCR protocols provided that the effects on sensitivity have been determined empirically for each PCR system. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Proportional counter end effects eliminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekins, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved gas-filled proportional counter which includes a resistor network connected between the anode and cathode at the ends of the counter in order to eliminate ''end effects'' is described. 3 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  16. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  17. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  18. Study on eliminate pathogenic method for application for treatment of motor neuron disease%祛邪法在中医药治疗运动神经元病中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽香

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究祛邪法对于治疗运动神经元病的应用。方法:分析中医祛邪法治疗运动神经元病的治则与治法,以祛毒、解郁、活血化瘀、平肝熄风、祛湿化痰5个方面来阐述祛邪法在治疗运动神经元病方面的应用。结果:运动神经元病是一种慢性进行性神经变性疾病。在疾病不同阶段,临床表现变化多端。在治疗运动神经元病过程中,根据病期长短、病变虚实,在补虚治本的同时注重祛邪治标,标本兼治,可有效地缓解运动神经元病症状,减轻患者痛苦。结论:分析表明治疗运动神经元病,需要分清虚实,辨证施治,兼顾标本,才能获取满意的疗效。%Objective:To study the eliminate pathogenic method for application for the treatment of motor neuron disease .Methods:E-liminate pathogenic analysis of traditional Chinese medicine therapy and therapeutic principle and method in the treatment of motor neuron disease, to remove poison, XieYu, promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis , liver wind, qushi phlegm out five aspects to elimi-nate pathogenic method in the treatment of motor neuron disease .Results:The motor neuron disease is a chronic progressive neurodegener-ative disease .Conclusion:The analysis indicated that the treatment of motor neuron disease , need to distinguish the actual situation , could obtain satisfactory curative effect .

  19. Flow Cytometry Method as a Diagnostic Tool for Pleural Fluid Involvement in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUZAFFER KEKLIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells that mainly affects bone marrow. Pleural effusions secondary to pleural myelomatous involvement have rarely been reported in the literature. As it is rarely detected, we aimed to report a case in which pleural effusion of a multiple myeloma was confirmed as true myelomatous involvement by flow cytometry method. A 52-years old man presented to our clinic with chest and back pain lasting for 3 months. On the chest radiography, pleural fluid was detected in left hemithorax. Pleural fluid flow cytometry was performed. In the flow cytometry, CD56, CD38 and CD138 found to be positive, while CD19 was negative. True myelomatous pleural effusions are very uncommon, with fewer than 100 cases reported worldwide. Flow cytometry is a potentially useful diagnostic tool for clinical practice. We presented our case; as it has been rarely reported, although flow cytometer is a simple method for detection of pleural fluid involvement in multiple myeloma.

  20. Flow Cytometry Method as a Diagnostic Tool for Pleural Fluid Involvement in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Keklik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells that mainly affects bone marrow. Pleural effusions secondary to pleural myelomatous involvement have rarely been reported in the literature. As it is rarely detected, we aimed to report a case in which pleural effusion of a multiple myeloma was confirmed as true myelomatous involvement by flow cytometry method. A 52-years old man presented to our clinic with chest and back pain lasting for 3 months. On the chest radiography, pleural fluid was detected in left hemithorax. Pleural fluid flow cytometry was performed. In the flow cytometry, CD56, CD38 and CD138 found to be positive, while CD19 was negative. True myelomatous pleural effusions are very uncommon, with fewer than 100 cases reported worldwide. Flow cytometry is a potentially useful diagnostic tool for clinical practice. We presented our case; as it has been rarely reported, although flow cytometer is a simple method for detection of pleural fluid involvement in multiple myeloma.

  1. Elimination of salmonella from animal glandular products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C W; Burck, K T; Feldman, D

    1969-03-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin-a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination.

  2. Elimination of Salmonellae from Animal Glandular Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, Conrad W.; Burck, Kenneth T.; Feldman, David

    1969-01-01

    Methods for the elimination of salmonellae from selected powdered pharmaceuticals of animal glandular origin were studied. Terminal heat treatment under carefully controlled conditions was effective for pancreatin—a powder containing proteolytic, amylolytic, and lipolytic enzymes prepared from hog pancreas glands. Use of this method resulted in a significant reduction in the number of salmonella-positive batches and also reduced the testing procedures required to confirm the absence of viable salmonellae among the majority of samples tested. Powders such as stomach substance and thyroid, in which the biological activity is not enzyme in nature, were treated successfully with acidified organic solvents. Other methods were investigated but were not suitable because of a deleterious effect on the biological activity or physical properties of the product or an inability to effect salmonella elimination. PMID:5780395

  3. Pyrophosphate scintigraphy and other non-invasive methods in the detection of cardiac involvement in some systemic connective tissue diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F.; Bradna, P.; Pospisil, M.; Kubicek, J.; Vizda, J.; Kafka, P.; Palicka, V.; Mazurova, Y.

    1987-02-01

    Thirteen patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 patients with polymyositis, and 6 patients with spondylitis ankylopoetica (Bechterew's disease) underwent clinical cardiologic examination and scintigraphy of the myocardium (/sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate), ECG, echocardiography, polygraphy, and their blood pressure was taken. The aim of the study was to ascertain how such a combination of non-invasive examinations can help in recognizing a cardiac involvement. In systemic lupus erythematosus cases one or more positive findings were revealed in 9 patients (69%), in 4 patients all examinations were negative (31%). Four patients (50%) with polymyosits had positive findings. In patients with spondylitis ankylopoetica positive findings occurred in 2 cases (33%). The study has shown that a combination of non-invasive cardiologic methods increases the probability of detecting cardiac involvement in systemic connective tissue diseases.

  4. Pyrophosphate scintigraphy and other non-invasive methods in the detection of cardiac involvement in some systemic connective tissue diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F; Bradna, P; Pospisil, M; Kubicek, J; Vizda, J; Kafka, P; Palicka, V; Mazurova, Y

    1987-02-01

    Thirteen patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 patients with polymyositis, and 6 patients with spondylitis ankylopoetica (Bechterew's disease) underwent clinical cardiologic examination and scintigraphy of the myocardium (/sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate), ECG, echocardiography, polygraphy, and their blood pressure was taken. The aim of the study was to ascertain how such a combination of non-invasive examinations can help in recognizing a cardiac involvement. In systemic lupus erythematosus cases one or more positive findings were revealed in 9 patients (69%), in 4 patients all examinations were negative (31%). Four patients (50%) with polymyosits had positive findings. In patients with spondylitis ankylopoetica positive findings occurred in 2 cases (33%). The study has shown that a combination of non-invasive cardiologic methods increases the probability of detecting cardiac involvement in systemic connective tissue diseases.

  5. Elimination reactions. V. Steric effects in Hofmann elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coke, J.L.; Smith, G.D.; Britton, G.H. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Earlier Hofmann elimination studies were extended, and the percent syn eliminations in several ring systems have been correlated using cis-d 1 and trans-d 1 models. The measurements of several syn and anti k/sub H//k/sub D/ kinetic isotope effects are reported. Results indicate that Hofmann elimination of N,N,N-trimethyl-3,3-dimethylcyclopentylammonium hydroxide goes by 97 percent syn mechanism to give 3,3-dimethylcyclopentene and by 70 + - 6 percent syn mechanism to give 4,4-dimethylcyclopentene. There appears to be severe steric interactions in the anti mechanism in the 3,3-dimethylcyclopentyl system. Results indicate that, for Hofmann pyrolysis of trimethylammonium hydroxides, cyclopentene is formed by a 39 +- 7 percent syn mechanism, cyclohexene is formed by a 2 + - 2 percent syn mechanism, and cycloheptene is formed by a 30 +- 2 percent syn mechanism. Steric effects on isotope effects and mechanisms are discussed. (U.S.)

  6. Differentiation of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin from healthy skin using noninvasive visual, colorimeter and evaporimeter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, L K; Bakhtian, S; Wright, E D; Rallis, T M

    1995-08-01

    Uninvolved skin of psoriasis may not be entirely normal. The object was to characterize healthy, uninvolved psoriatic skin and lesional skin by biophysical methods. Involved and uninvolved psoriatic and age-gender matched healthy skin was measured objectively with a colorimeter and evaporimeter and subjectively with visual assessment in 14 subjects. Visual assessment of erythema (E), scaling (S) and induration (I) as well as the target lesion score at the involved psoriatic skin sites were significantly elevated (puninvolved psoriatic skin >healthy skin (pcolorimeter L* and a* scale values at uninvolved psoriatic skin sites were lower and higher (pcolorimeter description (L*× b*)/a* significantly differentiated healthy skin from both involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. These collective data highlight that even visually appearing uninvolved psoriatic skin is compromised compared with healthy skin. These objective, noninvasive but differential capabilities of the colorimeter and evaporimeter will aid in the mechanistic quantification of new psoriatic drug therapies and in conjuction with biochemical studies, add to understanding of the multifactorial pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  7. A Decision Logic Approach to Mill’s Eliminative Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętka Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is a contemporary interpretation of J.S. Mill’s elimination method using selected concepts of Zdzisław Pawlak’s decision logic. The aim of the interpretation is to reformulate the original rules (canons of Mill’s induction so that they correspond more precisely to his concept of cause as a complex sufficient condition. In the first part of the paper, we turn to Mill’s writings and justify the thesis that in his understanding the cause is an aggregation of circumstances, and not a single circumstance; next, we point out that Mill’s original canons (for example the canon of agreement and the canon of difference do not allow causes-aggregations to be singled out from empirical data. In the second part of this paper, we present such aspects of Z. Pawlak’s decision logic that serve as the basis for the formalisation of the method of eliminative induction. We describe exhaustively the schema of induction that involves a gradual - divided into three stages - simplification of a set of implications corresponding to the observed dependencies [system of potential causes, effect]. The simplification is deductive because it maintains consistency within the set of implications. We show that such schema is ideal for isolating complex causes (aggregations of circumstances, ultimately described using complex conditional formulas of decision logic.

  8. An Elimination of Resonance in Electric Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Malek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible couplings together with resonance phenomenon are present mainly in the field of servodrives where high accuracy and dynamic requirements are crucial. When dynamics doesn’t correlate with mechanical system design, unwanted frequencies in the system are exited. Sometimes we haven’t conditions (whether material or space to design mechanical system with resonant frequencies too high to be exited. In that case we must choose compensating methods which can eliminate these phenomenons. This paper is dedicated to them.

  9. Blame and guilt - a mixed methods study of obstetricians' and midwives' experiences and existential considerations after involvement in traumatic childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Hvidt, Niels C

    2016-07-01

    When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers and proportions of obstetricians and midwives involved in such traumatic childbirth and explored their experiences with guilt, blame, shame and existential concerns. A mixed methods study comprising a national survey of Danish obstetricians and midwives and a qualitative interview study with selected survey participants. The response rate was 59% (1237/2098), of which 85% stated that they had been involved in a traumatic childbirth. We formed five categories during the comparative mixed methods analysis: the patient, clinical peers, official complaints, guilt, and existential considerations. Although blame from patients, peers or official authorities was feared (and sometimes experienced), the inner struggles with guilt and existential considerations were dominant. Feelings of guilt were reported by 36-49%, and 50% agreed that the traumatic childbirth had made them think more about the meaning of life. Sixty-five percent felt that they had become a better midwife or doctor due to the traumatic incident. The results of this large, exploratory study suggest that obstetricians and midwives struggle with issues of blame, guilt and existential concerns in the aftermath of a traumatic childbirth. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Pathways of topological rank analysis (PoTRA: a novel method to detect pathways involved in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoxing Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex diseases such as cancer are usually the result of a combination of environmental factors and one or several biological pathways consisting of sets of genes. Each biological pathway exerts its function by delivering signaling through the gene network. Theoretically, a pathway is supposed to have a robust topological structure under normal physiological conditions. However, the pathway’s topological structure could be altered under some pathological condition. It is well known that a normal biological network includes a small number of well-connected hub nodes and a large number of nodes that are non-hubs. In addition, it is reported that the loss of connectivity is a common topological trait of cancer networks, which is an assumption of our method. Hence, from normal to cancer, the process of the network losing connectivity might be the process of disrupting the structure of the network, namely, the number of hub genes might be altered in cancer compared to that in normal or the distribution of topological ranks of genes might be altered. Based on this, we propose a new PageRank-based method called Pathways of Topological Rank Analysis (PoTRA to detect pathways involved in cancer. We use PageRank to measure the relative topological ranks of genes in each biological pathway, then select hub genes for each pathway, and use Fisher’s exact test to test if the number of hub genes in each pathway is altered from normal to cancer. Alternatively, if the distribution of topological ranks of gene in a pathway is altered between normal and cancer, this pathway might also be involved in cancer. Hence, we use the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test to detect pathways that have an altered distribution of topological ranks of genes between two phenotypes. We apply PoTRA to study hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and several subtypes of HCC. Very interestingly, we discover that all significant pathways in HCC are cancer-associated generally, while several

  11. Pathways of topological rank analysis (PoTRA): a novel method to detect pathways involved in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoxing; Liu, Li; Dinu, Valentin

    2018-01-01

    Complex diseases such as cancer are usually the result of a combination of environmental factors and one or several biological pathways consisting of sets of genes. Each biological pathway exerts its function by delivering signaling through the gene network. Theoretically, a pathway is supposed to have a robust topological structure under normal physiological conditions. However, the pathway's topological structure could be altered under some pathological condition. It is well known that a normal biological network includes a small number of well-connected hub nodes and a large number of nodes that are non-hubs. In addition, it is reported that the loss of connectivity is a common topological trait of cancer networks, which is an assumption of our method. Hence, from normal to cancer, the process of the network losing connectivity might be the process of disrupting the structure of the network, namely, the number of hub genes might be altered in cancer compared to that in normal or the distribution of topological ranks of genes might be altered. Based on this, we propose a new PageRank-based method called Pathways of Topological Rank Analysis (PoTRA) to detect pathways involved in cancer. We use PageRank to measure the relative topological ranks of genes in each biological pathway, then select hub genes for each pathway, and use Fisher's exact test to test if the number of hub genes in each pathway is altered from normal to cancer. Alternatively, if the distribution of topological ranks of gene in a pathway is altered between normal and cancer, this pathway might also be involved in cancer. Hence, we use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to detect pathways that have an altered distribution of topological ranks of genes between two phenotypes. We apply PoTRA to study hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and several subtypes of HCC. Very interestingly, we discover that all significant pathways in HCC are cancer-associated generally, while several significant pathways in subtypes

  12. Planning of elimination of emergency consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kovalenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The volume of useful information in the planning of elimination of emergency consequences process is reasonable to assess with calculatory problems and mathematical models. Materials and methods. The expert survey method is used to calculate quantitative values of probability and to determine the optimal solution before the information in condition is received. Results. It is determined that the quality of the solution of elimination emergency consequences depends primarily on the number of factors that are taken into account in particular circumstances of the situation; on the level of information readiness of control bodies to take decision to eliminate emergency consequences as soon as possible and to consider several options for achieving reasonableness and concreteness of a particular decision. The ratio between volume of useful information collected and processed during operation planning which is required for identifying optimal solution is calculated. This ratio allows to construct a graph of probability of identifying a solution in existing environment and probability value of identifying optimal solution before information in P*condition is obtained. This graph also shows the ratio volume of useful information collected and processed during operation planning and necessary volume of information for identifying optimal solution. Conclusion. The results of this research can be used for improving control bodies decisions to ensure safe working conditions for employees of food industry.

  13. Engineering students' and faculty perceptions of teaching methods and the level of faculty involvement that promotes academic success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpilo, Lacy N.

    Student academic success is a top priority of higher education institutions in the United States and the trend of students leaving school prior to finishing their degree is a serious concern. Accountability has become a large part of university and college ratings and perceived success. Retention is one component of the accountability metrics used by accreditation agencies. In addition, there are an increasing number of states allocating funds based in part on retention (Seidman, 2005). Institutions have created initiatives, programs, and even entire departments to address issues related to student academic success to promote retention. Universities and colleges have responded by focusing on methods to retain and better serve students. Retention and student academic success is a primary concern for high education institutions; however, engineering education has unique retention issues. The National Science Board (2004) reports a significant decline in the number of individuals in the United States who are training to become engineers, despite the fact that the number of jobs that utilize an engineering background continues to increase. Engineering education has responded to academic success issues by changing curriculum and pedagogical methods (Sheppard, 2001). This descriptive study investigates the perception of engineering students and faculty regarding teaching methods and faculty involvement to create a picture of what is occurring in engineering education. The population was the engineering students and faculty of Colorado State University's College of Engineering. Data from this research suggests that engaging teaching methods are not being used as often as research indicates they should and that there is a lack of student-faculty interaction outside of the classroom. This research adds to the breadth of knowledge and understanding of the current environment of engineering education. Furthermore, the data allows engineering educators and other higher

  14. Synchronized multiartifact reduction with tomographic reconstruction (SMART-RECON): A statistical model based iterative image reconstruction method to eliminate limited-view artifacts and to mitigate the temporal-average artifacts in time-resolved CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Li, Yinsheng

    2015-08-01

    In x-ray computed tomography (CT), a violation of the Tuy data sufficiency condition leads to limited-view artifacts. In some applications, it is desirable to use data corresponding to a narrow temporal window to reconstruct images with reduced temporal-average artifacts. However, the need to reduce temporal-average artifacts in practice may result in a violation of the Tuy condition and thus undesirable limited-view artifacts. In this paper, the authors present a new iterative reconstruction method, synchronized multiartifact reduction with tomographic reconstruction (SMART-RECON), to eliminate limited-view artifacts using data acquired within an ultranarrow temporal window that severely violates the Tuy condition. In time-resolved contrast enhanced CT acquisitions, image contrast dynamically changes during data acquisition. Each image reconstructed from data acquired in a given temporal window represents one time frame and can be denoted as an image vector. Conventionally, each individual time frame is reconstructed independently. In this paper, all image frames are grouped into a spatial-temporal image matrix and are reconstructed together. Rather than the spatial and/or temporal smoothing regularizers commonly used in iterative image reconstruction, the nuclear norm of the spatial-temporal image matrix is used in SMART-RECON to regularize the reconstruction of all image time frames. This regularizer exploits the low-dimensional structure of the spatial-temporal image matrix to mitigate limited-view artifacts when an ultranarrow temporal window is desired in some applications to reduce temporal-average artifacts. Both numerical simulations in two dimensional image slices with known ground truth and in vivo human subject data acquired in a contrast enhanced cone beam CT exam have been used to validate the proposed SMART-RECON algorithm and to demonstrate the initial performance of the algorithm. Reconstruction errors and temporal fidelity of the reconstructed

  15. Missed opportunities for impact in patient and carer involvement: a mixed methods case study of research priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, R; Crocker, J C; Crowe, S

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers want to listen more to patients and their carers in all sorts of areas of healthcare. This can include choosing topics for medical research. We looked at how patients and carers have helped to choose topics for research about type I diabetes. We aimed to find out if, and why, researchers often rejected their choices. We looked at a project which brought together patients, carers and healthcare workers to choose topics for research about type 1 diabetes. The group first asked patients, carers and healthcare workers to suggest ideas for research questions. But the group had to follow rules about what counted as a good research question. Some people's ideas did not count as good research questions, and they were rejected at the start. We looked at who were most likely to have their ideas rejected at the start. We found that patients and carers were most likely to have a suggestion rejected. Then we looked at the rejected questions in detail. They were mostly about curing diabetes, preventing diabetes and understanding how diabetes works. There were also some questions about access to medicines and the quality of care. Researchers should ask patients and carers for help deciding what counts as a good research question from the start of projects like these. We should also think about what might be getting in the way of patients and carers making more of a difference in research. Background Patients and carers are increasingly involved in deciding on topics for medical research. However, so far, it has been difficult to gain an accurate picture of the impact of such involvement because of poor reporting and evaluation in published studies to date. This study aimed to explore how a partnership of patients, carers, healthcare professionals and organisations identified questions for future research and why patients and carers had a limited impact on this process. Methods In the first stage of the partnership process, relevant service users and providers

  16. Blame and guilt - a mixed methods study of obstetricians' and midwives' experiences and existential considerations after involvement in traumatic childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers and propo......INTRODUCTION: When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers...... and proportions of obstetricians and midwives involved in such traumatic childbirth and explored their experiences with guilt, blame, shame and existential concerns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mixed methods study comprising a national survey of Danish obstetricians and midwives and a qualitative interview study...... the meaning of life. Sixty-five percent felt that they had become a better midwife or doctor due to the traumatic incident. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this large, exploratory study suggest that obstetricians and midwives struggle with issues of blame, guilt and existential concerns in the aftermath...

  17. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index

  18. How To Eliminate Narcissism Overnight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition appears likely to eliminate the diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. There are significant problems with the discriminant validity of the current narcissistic personality disorder critiera set; furthermore, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition's narrow focus on “grandiosity” probably contributes to the wide disparity between low narcissistic personality disorder prevalence rates in epidemiological studies and high rates of narcissistic personality disorder in clinical practice. Nevertheless, the best course of action may be to refine the narcissistic personality disorder criteria, followed by careful field testing and a search for biomarkers, rather than wholesale elimination of the narcissistic personality disorder category. The construct of “malignant narcissism” is also worthy of more intense empirical investigation. PMID:21468294

  19. Challenges beyond elimination in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaz, Farah; Mohanty, Partha Sarathi; Bansal, Avi Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Gupta, Umesh Datta

    2017-01-01

    Every year >200,000 new leprosy cases are registered globally. This number has been fairly stable over the past 8 years. The World Health Organization has set a target to interrupt the transmission of leprosy globally by 2020. It is important, in terms of global action and research activities, to consider the eventuality of multidrug therapy (MDT) resistance developing. It is necessary to measure disease burden comprehensively, and contact-centered preventive interventions should be part of a global elimination strategy. Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a drug such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition. MDT has proven to be a powerful tool in the control of leprosy, especially when patients report early and start prompt treatment. Adherence to and its successful completion is equally important. This paper has reviewed the current state of leprosy worldwide and discussed the challenges and also emphasizes the challenge beyond the elimination in leprosy.

  20. Immune Interventions to Eliminate the HIV Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Denise C; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2017-10-26

    Inducing HIV remission is a monumental challenge. A potential strategy is the "kick and kill" approach where latently infected cells are first activated to express viral proteins and then eliminated through cytopathic effects of HIV or immune-mediated killing. However, pre-existing immune responses to HIV cannot eradicate HIV infection due to the presence of escape variants, inadequate magnitude, and breadth of responses as well as immune exhaustion. The two major approaches to boost immune-mediated elimination of infected cells include enhancing cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated killing and harnessing antibodies to eliminate HIV. Specific strategies include increasing the magnitude and breadth of T cell responses through therapeutic vaccinations, reversing the effects of T cell exhaustion using immune checkpoint inhibition, employing bispecific T cell targeting immunomodulatory proteins or dual-affinity re-targeting molecules to direct cytotoxic T lymphocytes to virus-expressing cells and broadly neutralizing antibody infusions. Methods to steer immune responses to tissue sites where latently infected cells are located need to be further explored. Ultimately, strategies to induce HIV remission must be tolerable, safe, and scalable in order to make a global impact.

  1. A meta-analysis based method for prioritizing candidate genes involved in a pre-specific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of genes associated with a given biological function in plants remains a challenge, although network-based gene prioritization algorithms have been developed for Arabidopsis thaliana and many non-model plant species. Nevertheless, these network-based gene prioritization algorithms have encountered several problems; one in particular is that of unsatisfactory prediction accuracy due to limited network coverage, varying link quality, and/or uncertain network connectivity. Thus a model that integrates complementary biological data may be expected to increase the prediction accuracy of gene prioritization. Towards this goal, we developed a novel gene prioritization method named RafSee, to rank candidate genes using a random forest algorithm that integrates sequence, evolutionary, and epigenetic features of plants. Subsequently, we proposed an integrative approach named RAP (Rank Aggregation-based data fusion for gene Prioritization, in which an order statistics-based meta-analysis was used to aggregate the rank of the network-based gene prioritization method and RafSee, for accurately prioritizing candidate genes involved in a pre-specific biological function. Finally, we showcased the utility of RAP by prioritizing 380 flowering-time genes in Arabidopsis. The ‘leave-one-out’ cross-validation experiment showed that RafSee could work as a complement to a current state-of-art network-based gene prioritization system (AraNet v2. Moreover, RAP ranked 53.68% (204/380 flowering-time genes higher than AraNet v2, resulting in an 39.46% improvement in term of the first quartile rank. Further evaluations also showed that RAP was effective in prioritizing genes-related to different abiotic stresses. To enhance the usability of RAP for Arabidopsis and non-model plant species, an R package implementing the method is freely available at http://bioinfo.nwafu.edu.cn/software.

  2. Elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashin, Anatoly V; Sharipov, Azizullo S; Kadamov, Dilshod S; Karimov, Saifuddin S; Gasimov, Elkhan; Baranova, Alla M; Morozova, Lola F; Stepanova, Ekaterina V; Turbabina, Natalia A; Maksimova, Maria S; Morozov, Evgeny N

    2017-05-30

    Malaria was eliminated in Tajikistan by the beginning of the 1960s. However, sporadic introduced cases of malaria occurred subsequently probably as a result of transmission from infected mosquito Anopheles flying over river the Punj from the border areas of Afghanistan. During the 1970s and 1980s local outbreaks of malaria were reported in the southern districts bordering Afghanistan. The malaria situation dramatically changed during the 1990s following armed conflict and civil unrest in the newly independent Tajikistan, which paralyzed health services including the malaria control activities and a large-scale malaria epidemic occurred with more than 400,000 malaria cases. The malaria epidemic was contained by 1999 as a result of considerable financial input from the Government and the international community. Although Plasmodium falciparum constituted only about 5% of total malaria cases, reduction of its incidence was slower than that of Plasmodium vivax. To prevent increase in P. falciparum malaria both in terms of incidence and territory, a P. falciparum elimination programme in the Republic was launched in 200, jointly supported by the Government and the Global Fund for control of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The main activities included the use of pyrethroids for the IRS with determined periodicity, deployment of mosquito nets, impregnated with insecticides, use of larvivorous fishes as a biological larvicide, implementation of small-scale environmental management, and use of personal protection methods by population under malaria risk. The malaria surveillance system was strengthened by the use of ACD, PCD, RCD and selective use of mass blood surveys. All detected cases were timely epidemiologically investigated and treated based on the results of laboratory diagnosis. As a result, by 2009, P. falciparum malaria was eliminated from all of Tajikistan, one year ahead of the originally targeted date. Elimination of P. falciparum also contributed towards

  3. The extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in primary care research: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Steven; McLachlan, Sarah; Jowett, Sue; Kinghorn, Philip; Gill, Paramjit; Higginbottom, Adele; Rhodes, Carol; Stevenson, Fiona; Jinks, Clare

    2018-01-01

    In the UK, more patients go to primary care than other parts of the health service. Therefore it is important for research into primary care to include the insights and views of people who receive these services. To explore the extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in primary care research, we examined documents of 200 projects and surveyed 191 researchers.We found that about half of studies included PPI to develop research ideas and during the study itself. Common activities included designing study materials, advising on methods, and managing the research. Some studies did not undertake the PPI activities initially planned and funded for. PPI varied by study design, health condition and study population. We found pockets of good practice: having a PPI budget, supporting PPI contributors, and PPI informing recruitment issues. However, good practice was lacking in other areas. Few projects offered PPI contributors training, used PPI to develop information for participants about study progress and included PPI to advise on publishing findings.Researchers reported beneficial impacts of PPI. Most impact was reported when the approach to PPI included more indicators of good practice. The main cost of PPI for researchers was their time. Many reported difficulties providing information about PPI.In partnership with PPI contributors, we have used these findings to develop:a new Cost and Consequences Framework for PPI highlighting financial and non-financial costs, benefits and harms of PPIFifteen co-produced recommendations to improve the practice and delivery of PPI. Background: To improve the lives of patients in primary care requires the involvement of service users in primary care research. We aimed to explore the extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in primary care research. Methods: We extracted information about PPI from grant applications, reports and an electronic survey of researchers of studies funded

  4. Redundancy Elimination in DTN via ACK Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional routing protocols for delay tolerant networks (DTN usually take the strategy of spreading multiple copies of one message to the networks. When one copy reaches destination, the transmission of other copies not only waste the bandwidth but also deprive other messages of the opportunities for transmission. This paper brings up a mechanism to eliminate the redundant copies. By adding an acknowledge field to the packet header to delete redundant copies, it can degrade the network overhead while improve the delivery ratio. Simulation results confirm that the proposed method can improve the performance of epidemic and Spray and Wait routing protocol.

  5. Gaussian elimination is not optimal, revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We refactor the universal law for the tensor product to express matrix multiplication as the product . MN of two matrices . M and . N thus making possible to use such matrix product to encode and transform algorithms performing matrix multiplication using techniques from linear algebra. We explore...... the end results are equations involving matrix products, our exposition builds upon previous works on the category of matrices (and the related category of finite vector spaces) which we extend by showing: why the direct sum . (⊕,0) monoid is not closed, a biproduct encoding of Gaussian elimination...... such possibility and show two stepwise refinements transforming the composition . MN into the Naïve and Strassen's matrix multiplication algorithms. The inspection of the stepwise transformation of the composition of matrices . MN into the Naïve matrix multiplication algorithm evidences that the steps...

  6. The enigma of 'harmful' alcohol consumption: evidence from a mixed methods study involving female drinkers in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jan S; Rush, Robert; Black, Heather; O'May, Fiona P; Chick, Jonathan; Rees, Cheryl; McPake, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    An appreciation of the drinking patterns of population subgroups may usefully inform tailored interventions. For this purpose, research has highlighted a need to better describe the drinking behaviour of UK women. This study aims to characterise the purchasing and consumption behaviour of female heavy, harmed, drinkers in contact with Scottish health services in two cities and to explore the factors that influence the link to harm. Mixed methods study involving cross-sectional survey questionnaires and one-to-one interviews (5). The questionnaires documented (1) demographic data (including derived deprivation score), last week's (or 'typical' weekly) consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase), self-reported illnesses, and (2) Alcohol-Related Problem Questionnaire score. A total of 181 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol were recruited within National Health Service (NHS) hospital clinics (in- and outpatient settings), in two Scottish cities during 2012. Median consumption was 157.6 UK units for the recorded week, with almost exclusive purchase from 'off-sale' retail outlets. Preferred drinks were white cider, vodka and white wine. Increasing problems was positively associated with drinking more in the week, being younger and belonging to Glasgow. For Scottish women, the current definition of 'harmful' consumption likely captures a fourfold variation in alcohol intake, with gender differences less apparent. While current alcohol-related harm is positively associated with dose and being younger, there is clear evidence of an influence of the less tangible 'Glasgow effect'. Future harm concerns are warranted by data relating to pattern, alcohol dose and cigarette use. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  7. Processes and problems of ammonia elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippmer, K

    1974-01-01

    In many cases a conversion of ammonia in coke oven gases to ammonium sulfate (fertilizer) is not useful. It must then be eliminated by oxidation to nitrogen and water or catalytically to N2 and hydrogen. Several processes are available for this which are combined with the simultaneous removal of hydrogen sulfide. The absorption of NH3 with NH3 incineration with and without heat utilization, the NH3 absorption with catalytic cracking of NH3, H2S and NH3 scrubbing with NH3 incineration and production of sulfuric acid (78 or 96 percent), as well as H2S and NH3 scrubbing with catalytic cracking of NH3 and production of pure sulfur are discussed in great detail. A cost comparison of these methods is provided. Lowest investments are required for an NH3 scrubbing process with elimination of NH3 but without desulfurization. Expenditures for an NH3 scrubber with desulfurization of the coke oven gas to about 1.5 g H2S/cu m and NH3 incineration with production of 78 percent H2SO4 are lower than those for the production of 96 percent H2SO4. For the latter there is more demand, however. Desulfurization to about 0.7 g H2S/cu m is only slightly more expensive. The process producing sulfur in combination with an H2S oxidation method requires somewhat lower investment costs.

  8. Elimination of frequency noise from groundwater measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.; Bryce, R.W.; Strait, S.R.; Yeatman, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Groundwater response to atmospheric fluctuation can be effectively removed from downhole-pressure records using the systematic approach. The technique is not as successful for removal of earth tides, due to a probable discrepancy between the actual earth tide and the theoretical earth tide. The advantage of the systematic technique is that a causative relationship is established for each component of the pressure response removed. This concept of data reduction is easily understood and well accepted. The disadvantage is that a record of the stress causing the pressure fluctuation must be obtained. This may be done by monitoring or synthesizing the stress. Frequency analysis offers a simpler way to eliminate the undesirable hydrologic fluctuations from the downhole pressure. Frequency analysis may prove to be impractical if the fluctuations being removed have broadband characteristics. A combination of the two techniques, such as eliminating the atmospheric effect with the systematic method and the earth-tide fluctuations with the frequency method, is the most effective and efficient approach

  9. Evaluating public involvement in research design and grant development: Using a qualitative document analysis method to analyse an award scheme for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan; Muir, Delia; Brereton, Louise; Allmark, Christine; Barber, Rosemary; Harris, Lydia; Hodges, Brian; Khan, Samaira; Baird, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    money was used, including a description of the aims and outcomes of the public involvement activities. The purpose of this study was to analyse the content of these reports. We aimed to find out what researcher views and experiences of public involvement activities were, and what lessons might be learned. Methods We used an innovative method of data analysis, drawing on group participatory approaches, qualitative content analysis, and Framework Analysis to sort and label the content of the reports. We developed a framework of categories and sub-categories (or themes and sub-themes) from this process. Results Twenty five documents were analysed. Four main themes were identified in the data: the added value of public involvement; planning and designing involvement; the role of public members; and valuing public member contributions. Within these themes, sub-themes related to the timing of involvement (prior to the research study/intended during the research study), and also specific benefits of public involvement such as: validating ideas; ensuring appropriate outcomes; ensuring the acceptability of data collection methods/tools and advice regarding research processes. Other sub-themes related to: finding and approaching public members; timing of events; training/support; the format of sessions; setting up public involvement panels: use of public contributors in analysis and interpretation of data; and using public members to assist with dissemination and translation into practice. Conclusions The analysis of reports submitted by researchers following involvement events provides evidence of the value of public involvement during the development of applications for research funding, and details a method for involving members of the public in data analysis which could be of value to other researchers The findings of the analysis indicate recognition amongst researchers of the variety in potential roles for public members in research, and also an acknowledgement of how

  10. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  11. Elimination of User-Fees in Tertiary Education: A Distributive Analysis for Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Juan; Loayza, Yessenia

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers new evidence and methods for understanding the distributive effect of a universal government policy to eliminate user fees in public universities in Ecuador. The main argument to eliminate user fees in higher education is that it will increase enrollment among the poor. In this regard, eliminating tuition fees is supposed to be a…

  12. Testing the hypothesis that treatment can eliminate HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okano, Justin T; Robbins, Danielle; Palk, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, approximately 35 million individuals are infected with HIV; about 25 million of these live in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO proposes using treatment as prevention (TasP) to eliminate HIV. Treatment suppresses viral load, decreasing the probability an individual transmits HIV....... The elimination threshold is one new HIV infection per 1000 individuals. Here, we test the hypothesis that TasP can substantially reduce epidemics and eliminate HIV. We estimate the impact of TasP, between 1996 and 2013, on the Danish HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM), an epidemic UNAIDS has...... identified as a priority for elimination. METHODS: We use a CD4-staged Bayesian back-calculation approach to estimate incidence, and the hidden epidemic (the number of HIV-infected undiagnosed MSM). To develop the back-calculation model, we use data from an ongoing nationwide population-based study...

  13. Cardiac involvement of progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type, Limb-girdle type and Fukuyama type) evaluated by radionuclide method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Inoue, Kenjiro; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Ono, Seiji; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Hayashi, Tohru

    1994-01-01

    Tl-201 SPECT and Tc-99m-Human serum albumin (HSA) multigated radionuclide ventriculography were performed on 11 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type 2, Fukuyama type 2, Limb-girdle type 7) to evaluate myocardial involvement. Hypoperfusion was detected in 8 patients on Tl-201 SPECT. Decreases in both systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEF) and diastolic function (peak filling rate; PFR) were also seen in these patients. A high incidence of myocardial involvement of these kinds of progressive muscular dystrophy was suggested. (author)

  14. Cardiac involvement of progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type, Limb-girdle type and Fukuyama type) evaluated by radionuclide method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Inoue, Kenjiro; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Ono, Seiji; Ohnishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Hayashi, Tohru [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1994-02-01

    Tl-201 SPECT and Tc-99m-Human serum albumin (HSA) multigated radionuclide ventriculography were performed on 11 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (Becker type 2, Fukuyama type 2, Limb-girdle type 7) to evaluate myocardial involvement. Hypoperfusion was detected in 8 patients on Tl-201 SPECT. Decreases in both systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction; LVEF) and diastolic function (peak filling rate; PFR) were also seen in these patients. A high incidence of myocardial involvement of these kinds of progressive muscular dystrophy was suggested. (author).

  15. Effective public involvement in the HoST-D Programme for dementia home care support: From proposal and design to methods of data collection (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa; Roe, Brenda; Hodgson, Anthony; Britt, David; Clarkson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Public involvement is an important element in health and social care research. However, it is little evaluated in research. This paper discusses the utility and impact of public involvement of carers and people with dementia in a five-year programme on effective home support in dementia, from proposal and design to methods of data collection, and provides a useful guide for future research on how to effectively involve the public. The Home SupporT in Dementia (HoST-D) Programme comprises two elements of public involvement, a small reference group and a virtual lay advisory group. Involving carers and people with dementia is based on the six key values of involvement - respect, support, transparency, responsiveness, fairness of opportunity, and accountability. Carers and people with dementia gave opinions on study information, methods of data collection, an economic model, case vignettes, and a memory aid booklet, which were all taken into account. Public involvement has provided benefits to the programme whilst being considerate of the time constraints and geographical locations of members.

  16. Improvements in Elimination of Loudspeaker Distortion in Acoustic Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Torras Rosell, Antoni; McWalter, Richard Ian

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of nonlinear components that contaminate the linear response of acoustic transducers, and presents improved methods for eliminating the influence of nonlinearities in acoustic measurements. The method is evaluated with pure sinusoidal signals as well as swept...

  17. Application of the method ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors; Aplicacao do metodo ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) na ordenacao de clientes em uma distribuidora de gas liquefeito do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Costa, Ana Paula Cabral Seixas [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to promote the use of multi criteria decision method ELECTRE II to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors, located in the Northeast of Brazil. The company has difficulties to rank the customers their factory, causing various difficult related like reduction of performance indicators and high costs with extra-hours. Finally, is presented a results comparison obtained by the method with the current results, performing a utilization viability analysis of method for this problem. (author)

  18. Lean for Government: Eliminating the Seven Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2012-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and a slow economy, it is becoming increasingly important for all government agencies to become more efficient. Citizens expect and deserve efficient and effective services from federal, state and local government agencies. One of the best methods to improve efficiency and eliminate waste is to institute the business process improvement methodologies known collectively as Lean; however, with reduced budgets, it may not be possible to train everyone in Lean or to engage the services of a trained consultant. It is possible, however, to raise awareness of the "Seven Wastes" of Lean in each employee, and encourage them to identify areas for improvement. Management commitment is vital to the success of these initiatives, and it is also important to develop the right metrics that will track the success of these changes.

  19. δ-Similar Elimination to Enhance Search Performance of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Hernán; Sato, Masahiko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    In this paper, we propose δ-similar elimination to improve the search performance of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms in combinatorial optimization problems. This method eliminates similar individuals in objective space to fairly distribute selection among the different regions of the instantaneous Pareto front. We investigate four eliminating methods analyzing their effects using NSGA-II. In addition, we compare the search performance of NSGA-II enhanced by our method and NSGA-II enhanced by controlled elitism.

  20. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Fernández-Santos, Nadia A.; Orozco-Algarra, María E.; Rodríguez-Atanacio, José A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Real-Najarro, Olga; Prado-Velasco, Francisco G.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Richards, Frank O.; Hassan, Hassan K.; González-Roldán, Jesús F.; Kuri-Morales, Pablo A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS) surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP) was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population. Conclusions/Significance The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico. PMID:26161558

  1. Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez

    Full Text Available Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence.In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population.The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico.

  2. Eliminating the Influence of Harmonic Components in Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels-Jørgen; Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    structures, in contrast, are subject inherently to deterministic forces due to the rotating parts in the machinery. These forces are seen as harmonic components in the responses, and their influence should be eliminated before extracting the modes in their vicinity. This paper describes a new method based...... on the well-known Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) technique for eliminating these harmonic components in the modal parameter extraction process. For assessing the quality of the method, various experiments were carried out where the results were compared with those obtained with pure stochastic...

  3. Dual-Laser vibrometry: Elimination or extraction of pseudo vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Bækbo, Martin Jesper; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the principal idea of a method using two identical laser vibrometers to eliminate pseudovibrations, occurring as structured noise in laser-vibrometer measurements of angular velocity of a rotating object. Thetwo vibrometers monitor the same surface path on the rotating...... in angularvelocity of the object occur simultaneously at the two vibrometers. Knowing the angular separation between thevibrometers, simple trigonometry canbe used to eliminate the pseudo vibrations. These vibrometers are based oncameras, therefore the experiments demonstrate the principle of the method only...

  4. Chernobyl'-92. Reports of the 3. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 2. Part 1. Methods for decontamination, dust suppression. Development and applicability of techniques for the accident effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    The means of decontamination have been considered. The requirements on radiation protection of equipment during radioactive contamination have been presented. New efficient methods for decontamination of technological equipment, units and systems of the Chernobyl' NPP were demonstrated. The variations and postects for burial of radioactive wastes and materials, radioactive water processing and application of polymer coatings were presented

  5. Value of the polymerase chain reaction method for detecting tuberculosis in the bronchial tissue involved by anthracosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Shafahie, Ahmad; Reza Khakzad, Mohammad; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2014-04-01

    Anthracofibrosis is the black discoloration of the bronchial mucosa with deformity and obstruction. Association of this disease with tuberculosis (TB) was approved. The objective of this study was to find the additional benefit of assessment of TB by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Bronchoscopy was performed on 103 subjects (54 anthracofibrosis and 49 control subjects) who required bronchoscopy for their pulmonary problems. According to bronchoscopic findings, participants were classified to anthracofibrosis and nonanthracotic groups. They were examined for TB with traditional methods such as direct smear (Ziehl-Neelsen staining), Löwenstein-Jensen culture, and histopathology and the new method "PCR" for Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome (IS6110). Age, sex, smoking, and clinical findings were not significantly different in the TB and the non-TB groups. Acid-fast bacilli could be detected by a direct smear in 12 (25%) of the anthracofibrosis subjects, and adding the results of culture and histopathology traditional tests indicated TB in 27 (31%) of the cases. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed by PCR in 18 (33%) patients, but the difference was not significant. Detection of acid-fast bacilli in control nonanthracosis subjects was significantly lower (3, 6%), but PCR (20, 40%) and accumulation of results from all traditional methods (22, 44%) showed a nonsignificant difference. The PCR method showed a result equal to traditional methods including accumulation of smear, culture, and histopathology.

  6. Nonparametric method for genomics-based prediction of performance of quantitative traits involving epistasis in plant breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Sun

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS procedures have proven useful in estimating breeding value and predicting phenotype with genome-wide molecular marker information. However, issues of high dimensionality, multicollinearity, and the inability to deal effectively with epistasis can jeopardize accuracy and predictive ability. We, therefore, propose a new nonparametric method, pRKHS, which combines the features of supervised principal component analysis (SPCA and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS regression, with versions for traits with no/low epistasis, pRKHS-NE, to high epistasis, pRKHS-E. Instead of assigning a specific relationship to represent the underlying epistasis, the method maps genotype to phenotype in a nonparametric way, thus requiring fewer genetic assumptions. SPCA decreases the number of markers needed for prediction by filtering out low-signal markers with the optimal marker set determined by cross-validation. Principal components are computed from reduced marker matrix (called supervised principal components, SPC and included in the smoothing spline ANOVA model as independent variables to fit the data. The new method was evaluated in comparison with current popular methods for practicing GS, specifically RR-BLUP, BayesA, BayesB, as well as a newer method by Crossa et al., RKHS-M, using both simulated and real data. Results demonstrate that pRKHS generally delivers greater predictive ability, particularly when epistasis impacts trait expression. Beyond prediction, the new method also facilitates inferences about the extent to which epistasis influences trait expression.

  7. Nonparametric method for genomics-based prediction of performance of quantitative traits involving epistasis in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun; Ma, Ping; Mumm, Rita H

    2012-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) procedures have proven useful in estimating breeding value and predicting phenotype with genome-wide molecular marker information. However, issues of high dimensionality, multicollinearity, and the inability to deal effectively with epistasis can jeopardize accuracy and predictive ability. We, therefore, propose a new nonparametric method, pRKHS, which combines the features of supervised principal component analysis (SPCA) and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) regression, with versions for traits with no/low epistasis, pRKHS-NE, to high epistasis, pRKHS-E. Instead of assigning a specific relationship to represent the underlying epistasis, the method maps genotype to phenotype in a nonparametric way, thus requiring fewer genetic assumptions. SPCA decreases the number of markers needed for prediction by filtering out low-signal markers with the optimal marker set determined by cross-validation. Principal components are computed from reduced marker matrix (called supervised principal components, SPC) and included in the smoothing spline ANOVA model as independent variables to fit the data. The new method was evaluated in comparison with current popular methods for practicing GS, specifically RR-BLUP, BayesA, BayesB, as well as a newer method by Crossa et al., RKHS-M, using both simulated and real data. Results demonstrate that pRKHS generally delivers greater predictive ability, particularly when epistasis impacts trait expression. Beyond prediction, the new method also facilitates inferences about the extent to which epistasis influences trait expression.

  8. Eliminating ambiguity in digital signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1979-01-01

    Multiamplitude minimum shift keying (mamsk) transmission system, method of differential encoding overcomes problem of ambiguity associated with advanced digital-transmission techniques with little or no penalty in transmission rate, error rate, or system complexity. Principle of method states, if signal points are properly encoded and decoded, bits are detected correctly, regardless of phase ambiguities.

  9. The pseudo-harmonics method: an application involving perturbations caused by control rod insertion in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Alvim, A.C.M.; Thome, Z.D.

    1988-08-01

    The objective of this work is to stydy the effect of intense perturbations, such as control rod insertion in the core of PWR reactors, through a perturbation approach consisting of a modified version of the pseudo-harmonics method. A typical one-dimensional PWR reactor model was used as a reference state, from which two perturbations were imposed, simulation gray and black control rod insertion. In the first case, eigenvalue convergence was achieved with the eighth order of approximation approximation and perturbed fluxes and eigenvalue estimates agreed very well with direct calculation results. The second case tested represents a very intense localized perturbation. Oscillation in keff were observed er of approximation increased and the method failed to converge. Results obtained indicate that the pseudo-harmonics method can be used to compute 2 group fluxes and fundamental eigenvalue of perturbated states resulting from gray control rod insertion in PWR reactors. The method is limited, however, by perturbation intensity, as other perturbation methods are. (author) [pt

  10. Conserving energy by eliminating waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N. H.

    1979-07-01

    Some ways in which energy is wasted in industry are discussed and the losses involved are quantified. Reference is made to a particular loss in annealing furnaces; wasted energy in factory and lighting systems; heat generated by motors and lighting and by such processes as welding; unlagged hot pipework and most hot processes; and poor building envelope features. It is concluded that an industry should declare its intention of conservation at the highest possible level, identify conservation as a manufacturing target, and invest the responsibility in people for whom it is a full-time activity. (MCW)

  11. Elimination of Cigarette Smoke-derived Acetaldehyde in Saliva by Slow-release L-Cysteine Lozenge Is a Potential New Method to Assist Smoking Cessation. A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, Kari; Salminen, Johanna; Aresvuo, Ulla; Hendolin, Panu; Paloheimo, Lea; Eklund, Carita; Salaspuro, Mikko; Suovaniemi, Osmo

    2016-05-01

    Harmans are condensation products of acetaldehyde and biogenic amines in saliva. Like other monoamine oxidase inhibitors, harmans help maintain behavioral sensitization to nicotine and mediate the addictive potential of cigarette smoke-derived acetaldehyde. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that effective elimination of acetaldehyde in saliva by slow-release L-cysteine (Acetium™ lozenge; Biohit Oyj, Helsinki, Finland) blocks the formation of harmans and eliminates acetaldehyde-enhanced nicotine addiction in smokers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing Acetium lozenges and placebo in smoking intervention was undertaken. A cohort of 423 cigarette smokers were randomly allocated to intervention (n=212) and placebo arms (n=211). Smoking-related data were recorded by questionnaires, together with nicotine dependence testing by Fagerström scale. The participants used a smoking diary to record the daily number of cigarettes, test lozenges and sensations of smoking. The data were analyzed separately for point prevalence of abstinence and prolonged abstinence endpoints. Altogether, 110 study participants completed the trial per protocol, 234 had minor violations, and the rest (n=79) were lost to follow-up. During the 6-month trial, 65 participants quit smoking; 38 (17.9%) in the intervention arm and 27 (12.8%) in the placebo arm [odds ratio (OR)=1.48; 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.87-2.54; p=0.143]. Success in the per protocol group was better (42.9% vs. 31.1%, respectively; OR=1.65, 95% CI=0.75-3.62; p=0.205) than in the modified intention-to-treat group: 13.5% vs. 7.4% (p=0.128). If the efficacy of Acetium lozenge can be confirmed in an adequately powered study, this new approach would represent a major breakthrough in smoking quit intervention because slow-release L-cysteine is non-toxic with no side-effects or limitations of use. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All

  12. Use of a New Method Involving Labelling with Non-Radioactive Elements and Activation Analysis to Investigate Wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvan, M.; Reven'ska-Kos'tsjuk, B.; Vez'ranovski, E

    1967-01-01

    In view of the considerable difficulties in using the labelled-atom method to investigate the wear of bearings in agricultural machines under operating conditions, and also to investigate the wear of fire-proof materials in steel production (owing to the occurrence of exogenous non-metallic inclusions), the authors turned their attention to labelling these parts with nonradioactive elements, which were then determined by activation analysis. In the work carried out by this method either mixtures of rare-earth oxides or lanthanum oxide alone were used as tracers, because of their useful nuclear properties. The use of rare-earth elements is also justified by the fact that their chemical properties differ from those of the remaining elements in the material investigated, which means that they can be separated from the respective carriers. In investigations of the wear of agricultural machine bearings made from cast-iron modified with rare-earth elements in an amount too low to cause structural changes, the authors used the modifier as a tracer. The wear of polyamide bearings was also investigated. The use of activation analysis is particularly interesting in this case, since certain properties of the polyamide make standard methods of investigation completely impossible. The products of wear were separated from the oil or grease by extraction or combustion. In determinations of non-metallic exogenous inclusions in ball-bearing steel, caused by certain fireproof materials, the wear of these materials was investigated using modem steel production technology. The aim of these investigations was to determine the effect of vacuum extraction and the use of induction mixers on the passage of fire-resistant particles into the steel. A method of determination was developed based on chemical separation of the tracer after activation with an appropriate surplus of non-radioactive carrier, and also a method of separating it before activation with a calcium carrier. The authors

  13. Modification of the method of construction of value chain industrial enterprises with regard to financial involvement of staff of logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butrin A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author’s method of building an efficient value chain in an industrial plant, based on a well-known concept of the value of M. Porter, and other members of the Harvard Business School. Its novelty lies in the fact that, first, the operation captured still poorly known financial stream; second, extended value chain border due to the inclusion of all members of the value within the supply chain management concept. This will speed up capital turnover and reduce costs in terms of integration of all participants in the value chain. Cash flow still remains little known in the concepts of financial management and financial logistics. However, the adaptation of key provisions in the crisis lie is the effective use of financial logistics methods.

  14. Involving the Navier-Stokes equations in the derivation of boundary conditions for the lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaeve, Joris C G

    2011-06-13

    By means of the continuity equation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, additional physical arguments for the derivation of a formulation of the no-slip boundary condition for the lattice Boltzmann method for straight walls at rest are obtained. This leads to a boundary condition that is second-order accurate with respect to the grid spacing and conserves mass. In addition, the boundary condition is stable for relaxation frequencies close to two.

  15. Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination via Paratransgenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Gilbert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, transmitted by tsetse flies, has historically infected hundreds of thousands of individuals annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last decade, concerted control efforts have reduced reported cases to below 10,000 annually, bringing complete elimination within reach. A potential technology to eliminate HAT involves rendering the flies resistant to trypanosome infection. This approach can be achieved through the introduction of transgenic Sodalis symbiotic bacteria that have been modified to produce a trypanocide, and propagated via Wolbachia symbionts, which confer a reproductive advantage to the paratransgenic tsetse. However, the population dynamics of these symbionts within tsetse flies have not yet been evaluated. Specifically, the key factors that determine the effectiveness of paratransgenesis have yet to be quantified. To identify the impact of these determinants on T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense transmission, we developed a mathematical model of trypanosome transmission that incorporates tsetse and symbiont population dynamics. We found that fecundity and mortality penalties associated with Wolbachia or recombinant Sodalis colonization, probabilities of vertical transmission, and tsetse migration rates are fundamental to the feasibility of HAT elimination. For example, we determined that HAT elimination could be sustained over 25 years when Wolbachia colonization minimally impacted fecundity or mortality, and when the probability of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission exceeded 99.9%. We also found that for a narrow range of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission probability (99.9-90.6% for T.b. gambiense and 99.9-85.8% for T.b. rhodesiense, cumulative HAT incidence was reduced between 30% and 1% for T.b. gambiense and between 21% and 3% for T.b. rhodesiense, although elimination was not predicted. Our findings indicate that fitness and mortality penalties associated with paratransgenic

  16. College Choice in a Brand Elimination Framework: The Administrator's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Deborah E.; Curran, James M.; Greenlee, Timothy B.

    1998-01-01

    Through a survey of business programs, a study examined the nature and extent of student recruiting activities and classified them according to a "brand elimination" model. Timing and methods of recruiting were then compared to reports of enrollment changes. Results suggest that targeted recruitment activities aimed at creating awareness…

  17. Dual-laser vibrometry: elimination or extraction of pseudovibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Bækbo, Martin Jesper; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    The principal idea of a method using two identical laser vibrometers to eliminate pseudovibrations occurring as structured noise in laser-vibrometer measurements of angular velocity of a rotating object is investigated. The two vibrometers monitor the same surface path on the rotating object...

  18. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  19. Measurement of metabolism of worker ants by using the elimination of caesium-134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.G.; Jensen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to find a method for measuring field metabolism of worker ants the elimination of 134 Cs by two ant species has been investigated. Equations relating temperature to radiocaesium elimination and metabolism have been found. From these equations the relationship between elimination and metabolism is calculated. Consequently, the elimination of the isotope can be used for measuring metabolism. A pilot field experiment with Lasius alienus (Foerst.) reveals that the traditional methods of estimating field metabolism give values which are considerably lower than the value based on caesium elimination rate. This difference is supposed to be mainly due to greater motor activity of the animals in the field. Consequently, the value of the caesium elimination method is closer to the 'true' value of field metabolism. (orig.) [de

  20. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  1. How computational methods and relativistic effects influence the study of chemical reactions involving Ru-NO complexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenha, Renato Pereira; Santiago, Régis Tadeu; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade; Galembeck, Sérgio Emanuel

    2017-05-05

    Two treatments of relativistic effects, namely effective core potentials (ECP) and all-electron scalar relativistic effects (DKH2), are used to obtain geometries and chemical reaction energies for a series of ruthenium complexes in B3LYP/def2-TZVP calculations. Specifically, the reaction energies of reduction (A-F), isomerization (G-I), and Cl - negative trans influence in relation to NH 3 (J-L) are considered. The ECP and DKH2 approaches provided geometric parameters close to experimental data and the same ordering for energy changes of reactions A-L. From geometries optimized with ECP, the electronic energies are also determined by means of the same ECP and basis set combined with the computational methods: MP2, M06, BP86, and its derivatives, so as B2PLYP, LC-wPBE, and CCSD(T) (reference method). For reactions A-I, B2PLYP provides the best agreement with CCSD(T) results. Additionally, B3LYP gave the smallest error for the energies of reactions J-L. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Extension of the method of moments for population balances involving fractional moments and application to a typical agglomeration problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadis, Alessio; Vanni, Marco; Gardin, Pascal

    2004-08-01

    The method of moment (MOM) is a powerful tool for solving population balance. Nevertheless it cannot be used in every circumstance. Sometimes, in fact, it is not possible to write the governing equations in closed form. Higher moments, for instance, could appear in the evolution of the lower ones. This obstacle has often been resolved by prescribing some functional form for the particle size distribution. Another example is the occurrence of fractional moment, usually connected with the presence of fractal aggregates. For this case we propose a procedure that does not need any assumption on the form of the distribution but it is based on the "moments generating function" (that is the Laplace transform of the distribution). An important result of probability theory is that the kth derivative of the moments generating function represents the kth moment of the original distribution. This result concerns integer moments but, taking in account the Weyl fractional derivative, could be extended to fractional orders. Approximating fractional derivative makes it possible to express the fractional moments in terms of the integer ones and so to use regularly the method of moments.

  3. In situ measured elimination of Vibrio cholerae from brackish water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Elena Martínez; Macek, Miroslav; Galván, María Teresa Castro

    2004-01-01

    In situ elimination of fluorescently labelled Vibrio cholerae (FLB) was measured in two saline water bodies in Mexico: in a brackish water lagoon, Mecoacán (Gulf of Mexico; State of Tabasco) and an athalassohaline lake, Alchichica (State of Puebla). Disappearance rates of fluorescently labelled V. cholera O1 showed that they were eliminated from the environment at an average rate of 32% and 63%/day, respectively (based on the bacterial standing stocks). The indirect immunofluorescence method confirmed the presence of V. cholerae O1 in the lagoon. However, the elimination of FLB was not directly related either to the presence or absence of the bacterium in the water body or to the phytoplankton concentration.

  4. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanoparticles for Oxygen Reduction Prepared via a Crushing Method Involving a High Shear Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of agricultural wastes such as fresh banana peels (BPs is an environmental issue. In this work, fresh BPs were successfully transformed into nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CNPs by using a high shear mixer facilitated crushing method (HSM-FCM followed by carbonization under Ar atmosphere. Ammonia-activated N-CNPs (N-CNPs-NH3 were prepared via subsequent ammonia activation treatments at a high temperature. The as-prepared N-CNPs and N-CNPs-NH3 materials both exhibited high surface areas (above 700 m2/g and mean particle size of 50 nm. N-CNPs-NH3 showed a relatively higher content of pyridinic and graphitic N compared to N-CNPs. In alkaline media, N-CNPs-NH3 showed superior performances as an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR catalyst (E0 = −0.033 V, J = 2.4 mA/cm2 compared to N-CNPs (E0 = 0.07 V, J = 1.8 mA/cm2. In addition, N-CNPs-NH3 showed greater oxygen reduction stability and superior methanol crossover avoidance than a conventional Pt/C catalyst. This study provides a novel, simple, and scalable approach to valorize biomass wastes by synthesizing highly efficient electrochemical ORR catalysts.

  5. Elimination of Ideas and Professional Socialisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravengaard, Gitte; Rimestad, Lene

    2012-01-01

    . Our aim is to study how this building of expertise takes place at meetings with a particular focus on the decision-making process concerning ideas for new news stories. In order to do this, we perform linguistic analysis of news production practices, as we investigate how the journalists' ideas...... for potential news stories are eliminated by the editor at the daily newsroom meetings. The elimination of ideas for news stories are not just eliminations; they are also corrections of culturally undesirable behaviour producing and reproducing the proper perception of an important object of knowledge...

  6. Cut elimination in multifocused linear logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus

    2015-01-01

    We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....

  7. Uncertainty evaluation of a modified elimination weighing for source preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacais, F.L.; Loayza, V.M., E-mail: facacais@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delgado, J.U. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    Some modification in elimination weighing method for radioactive source allowed correcting weighing results without non-linearity problems assign a uncertainty contribution for the correction of the same order of the mass of drop uncertainty and check weighing variability in series source preparation. This analysis has focused in knowing the achievable weighing accuracy and the uncertainty estimated by Monte Carlo method for a mass of a 20 mg drop was at maximum of 0.06%. (author)

  8. Elimination of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Fernanda Peixoto

    2005-01-01

    Food treatment by exposure to ionizing radiation, known as food irradiation, presents several attractive features such as: leaving no residues, posing no threat to consumer health, usually causing no damage to sensory or nutritional properties and acting uniformly throughout the volume of the products. This work investigated the efficiency of irradiation for eliminating Sitophilus oryzae (L.), also known as 'the rice weevil', a small beetle frequently found in infested grains. A total of 444 individuals of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) found in corn meal and noodles supplies were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and then visually monitored for 4 days in order to determine the number of insects still alive. The least-squares fitting method was used to determine the survival curves as functions of post-irradiation time and dose. The living fraction of the irradiated population was found to decrease exponentially with time. The results indicated that doses of 2.0, 1.5 and 0.6 kGy cause immediate death, instantaneous immobility and death of the species within one week, respectively. The findings suggest that disinfestation of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation is an interesting option to the dangerous use of toxic chemicals. (author)

  9. Elimination of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Fernanda Peixoto [Exercito Brasileiro, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Suprimento. Dept. Logistico]. E-mail: peixotocastro@dlog.eb.mil.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil)]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2005-07-01

    Food treatment by exposure to ionizing radiation, known as food irradiation, presents several attractive features such as: leaving no residues, posing no threat to consumer health, usually causing no damage to sensory or nutritional properties and acting uniformly throughout the volume of the products. This work investigated the efficiency of irradiation for eliminating Sitophilus oryzae (L.), also known as 'the rice weevil', a small beetle frequently found in infested grains. A total of 444 individuals of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) found in corn meal and noodles supplies were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy and then visually monitored for 4 days in order to determine the number of insects still alive. The least-squares fitting method was used to determine the survival curves as functions of post-irradiation time and dose. The living fraction of the irradiated population was found to decrease exponentially with time. The results indicated that doses of 2.0, 1.5 and 0.6 kGy cause immediate death, instantaneous immobility and death of the species within one week, respectively. The findings suggest that disinfestation of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) by irradiation is an interesting option to the dangerous use of toxic chemicals. (author)

  10. TOWARDS THE ELIMINATION OF PREVENTABLE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shamsheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents incidence rates of major vaccine-preventable diseases in the world and the Russian Federation and cites mitigation measures that, in the end, must lead to the elimination of the diseases. 

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid metabolism and elimination in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salous, Abdelghaffar Kamal

    The bioactive lipids lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are present in human and mouse plasma at a concentration of ~0.1-1 microM and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system including atherothrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and immune function, edema formation, and permeability. PPAP2B, the gene encoding LPP3, a broad activity integral membrane enzyme that terminates LPA actions in the vasculature, has a single nucleotide polymorphism that been recently associated with coronary artery disease risk. The synthesis and signaling of LPA and S1P in the cardiovascular system have been extensively studied but the mechanisms responsible for their elimination are less well understood. The broad goal of this research was to examine the role of LPP3 in the termination of LPA signaling in models of cardiovascular disease involving vascular wall cells, investigate the role of LPP3 in the elimination of plasma LPA, and further characterize the elimination of plasma LPA. The central hypothesis is that LPP3 plays an important role in attenuating the pathological responses to LPA signaling and that it mediates the elimination of exogenously applied bioactive lipids from the plasma. These hypotheses were tested using molecular biological approaches, in vitro studies, synthetic lysophospholipid mimetics, modified surgical procedures, and mass spectrometry assays. My results indicated that LPP3 played a critical role in attenuating LPA signaling mediating the pathological processes of intimal hyperplasia and vascular leak in mouse models of disease. Additionally, enzymatic inactivation of lysophospholipids by LPP and PLA enzymes in the plasma was not a primary mechanism for the rapid elimination of plasma LPA and S1P. Instead, evidence strongly suggested a transcellular uptake mechanism by hepatic non-parenchymal cells as the predominant mechanism for elimination of these molecules. These results support a model in

  12. The determination of antipyrine elimination in saliva by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, J; Jäger, H

    1991-01-01

    A simple, fast and reliable liquid chromatographic method for the determination of antipyrine in saliva is described. The elimination of antipyrine is a good indicator for general evaluation of the liver function for dispositional purposes for example in occupational and environmental medicine. The described LC method was compared with a more extensive photometric procedure. The results obtained from both methods show very good correlation. Only one measurement is necessary to determine the antipyrine clearance. Furthermore the antipyrine dosage can be minimized, because of the sensitivity of the HPLC-method.

  13. ParTIES: a toolbox for Paramecium interspersed DNA elimination studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Sperling, Linda

    2016-02-15

    Developmental DNA elimination occurs in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, but ciliates are the only single-celled eukaryotes in which this phenomenon has been reported. Despite considerable interest in ciliates as models for DNA elimination, no standard methods for identification and characterization of the eliminated sequences are currently available. We present the Paramecium Toolbox for Interspersed DNA Elimination Studies (ParTIES), designed for Paramecium species, that (i) identifies eliminated sequences, (ii) measures their presence in a sequencing sample and (iii) detects rare elimination polymorphisms. ParTIES is multi-threaded Perl software available at https://github.com/oarnaiz/ParTIES. ParTIES is distributed under the GNU General Public Licence v3. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Prospects of eliminating pathogens by the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    Food-borne diseases are an increasing health hazard throughout the world. Some of these diseases, such as salmonellosis, staphylo-entero-toxicosis, botulism, vibriosis and parasitic infections have always played an important role, whereas some other food-borne pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and toxin-producing fungi have only been recognised in recent decades. Changing food-production methods, food processing and especially food habits, together with the enormous trade in foods and feeds from one part of the world to the other, are responsible for the increase of these diseases. To meet this situation, prevention and control of food-borne diseases, which involve large groups of persons and play a major socio-economic role in many parts of the world, are of utmost importance. In prevention and control programmes food irradiation can be applied successfully and may solve some of the food and feed contamination problems. The author summarizes to-day's most important food-borne diseases, the type of foods which are responsible for infections in man and animals, and the commodities in which low-dose food irradiation may be of great value in preventing these diseases. The advantages of irradiation versus the use of chemical additives and pesticides and with respect to the prevention of cross-contamination (which plays a very important role in initiating food-borne diseases) by pre-packaging, are emphasized. The required irradiaton doses to eliminate or reduce the number of pathogenic organisms which may be present in foods, the problem of radioresistance and the acceptability of irradiated food are discussed. Finally to-day's situation of irradiated foods with regard to legislation, consumers' information and economic feasibility is summarized. (author)

  15. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  16. Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Romulo G.; Daguro, Leonida I.; Paman, Meydalyn D.; Madrinan, Frederick P.; Rances, Polizena A.; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). Aims The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. Methods The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies

  17. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  18. Accelerating to Zero: Strategies to Eliminate Malaria in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Antonio M.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Clendenes, Martin; Cabezas, Cesar; Leon, Luis M.; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Moreno, Marta; Kaslow, David C.; Grogl, Max; Herrera, Sócrates; Magill, Alan J.; Kosek, Margaret; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Lescano, Andres G.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014, the Malaria Elimination Working Group, in partnership with the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MoH), hosted its first international conference on malaria elimination in Iquitos, Peru. The 2-day meeting gathered 85 malaria experts, including 18 international panelists, 23 stakeholders from different malaria-endemic regions of Peru, and 11 MoH authorities. The main outcome was consensus that implementing a malaria elimination project in the Amazon region is achievable, but would require: 1) a comprehensive strategic plan, 2) the altering of current programmatic guidelines from control toward elimination by including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic individuals for antimalarial therapy and transmission-blocking interventions, and 3) the prioritization of community-based active case detection with proper rapid diagnostic tests to interrupt transmission. Elimination efforts must involve key stakeholders and experts at every level of government and include integrated research activities to evaluate, implement, and tailor sustainable interventions appropriate to the region.

  19. Modification of Gaussian Elimination to the Complex Seismic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaglichenko, Tatyana A.

    2011-01-01

    A method for solution of large and sparse systems with complex seismic observations has been developed by revising of the classical Gaussian elimination. The observation matrix is divided into a set of smaller cells that can be determined based on clusters of a seismic activity. Reliable inversion solutions with minimum error rating are selected within each cell, then solutions that are non-stable with respect to the same unknown are rejected After the final sifting the found unknowns are eliminated from the initial system with subsequent decreasing of its size. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate how the method can be applied to a real data set (a case study of the Nagano fault area, Central Japan). Results of processing of a huge volume of data and their importance for the Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system are briefly discussed.

  20. Cut-elimination for the mu-calculus with one variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigori Mints

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We establish syntactic cut-elimination for the one-variable fragment of the modal mu-calculus. Our method is based on a recent cut-elimination technique by Mints that makes use of Buchholz' Omega-rule.

  1. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  2. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  3. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Duplicate Record Elimination in Large Data Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIJED CSTR -445 NL LmEE~hhE - I1.0 . 111112----5 1.~4 __112 ___IL25_ 1.4 111111.6 EI24 COMPUTER SCIENCES DEPARTMENT oUniversity of Wisconsin...we propose a combinatorial model for the use in the analysis of algorithms for duplicate elimination. We contend that this model can serve as a...duplicates in a multiset of records, knowing the size of the multiset and the number of distinct records in it. 3. Algorithms for Duplicate Elimination

  5. Human movement data for malaria control and elimination strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindolia, Deepa K; Garcia, Andres J; Wesolowski, Amy; Smith, David L; Buckee, Caroline O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-06-18

    Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM) in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important, as evidenced by previous elimination attempts that were undermined by the reintroduction of malaria through HPM. Strategic control and elimination planning, therefore, requires quantitative information on HPM patterns and the translation of these into parasite dispersion. HPM patterns and the risk of malaria vary substantially across spatial and temporal scales, demographic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and motivation for travel, so multiple data sets are likely required for quantification of movement. While existing studies based on mobile phone call record data combined with malaria transmission maps have begun to address within-country HPM patterns, other aspects remain poorly quantified despite their importance in accurately gauging malaria movement patterns and building control and detection strategies, such as cross-border HPM, demographic and socioeconomic stratification of HPM patterns, forms of transport, personal malaria protection and other factors that modify malaria risk. A wealth of data exist to aid filling these gaps, which, when combined with spatial data on transport infrastructure, traffic and malaria transmission, can answer relevant questions to guide strategic planning. This review aims to (i) discuss relevant types of HPM across spatial and temporal scales, (ii) document where datasets exist to quantify HPM, (iii) highlight where data gaps remain and (iv) briefly put forward methods for integrating these datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework for analysing and modelling human population and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection movements.

  6. Human movement data for malaria control and elimination strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pindolia Deepa K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important, as evidenced by previous elimination attempts that were undermined by the reintroduction of malaria through HPM. Strategic control and elimination planning, therefore, requires quantitative information on HPM patterns and the translation of these into parasite dispersion. HPM patterns and the risk of malaria vary substantially across spatial and temporal scales, demographic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and motivation for travel, so multiple data sets are likely required for quantification of movement. While existing studies based on mobile phone call record data combined with malaria transmission maps have begun to address within-country HPM patterns, other aspects remain poorly quantified despite their importance in accurately gauging malaria movement patterns and building control and detection strategies, such as cross-border HPM, demographic and socioeconomic stratification of HPM patterns, forms of transport, personal malaria protection and other factors that modify malaria risk. A wealth of data exist to aid filling these gaps, which, when combined with spatial data on transport infrastructure, traffic and malaria transmission, can answer relevant questions to guide strategic planning. This review aims to (i discuss relevant types of HPM across spatial and temporal scales, (ii document where datasets exist to quantify HPM, (iii highlight where data gaps remain and (iv briefly put forward methods for integrating these datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS framework for analysing and modelling human population and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection movements.

  7. The experimental study of digital reactivity meter with space effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.Q.; Jian, Z.B.; Zhang, Y.S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes a digital reactivity measurement theory with space effect elimination. On the basis of the theory, we have prepared an on-line digital reactivity meter with space effect elimination. This system is composed of neutron detector and magnifying, data acquisition channel, monoplate microprocessor and data output channel. Measured results of reactivity using the method described in this paper are in agreement with measured results of reactivity using the pulsed neutron method and 'ρ-shape' method within experimental error. (author)

  8. Taking Centrioles to the Elimination Round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoborg, Todd A; Rusan, Nasser M

    2016-07-11

    Two recent papers published in The Journal of Cell Biology (Borrego-Pinto et al., 2016) and Science (Pimenta-Marques et al., 2016) have begun to shed light on the mechanism of centriole elimination during female oogenesis, highlighting a protective role for Polo kinase and the pericentriolar material. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Elimination Problems in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inability to digest wheat (CELIAC DISEASE) or milk (LACTOSE INTOLERANCE) can cause these symptoms. Self CareEliminate foods that ... be an appropriate substitute for infants who have lactose intolerance. Start OverDiagnosisPain from HEMORRHOIDS or an ANAL FISSURE ...

  10. Eliminating Problems Caused by Multicollinearity: A Warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter E.

    1982-01-01

    Explains why an econometric practice introduced by J.C. Soper cannot eliminate the problems caused by multicollinearity. The author suggests that it can be a useful technique in that it forces researchers to pay more attention to the specifications of their models. (AM)

  11. Double elimination voltammetry of short oligonucleotides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikelová, R.; Trnková, L.; Jelen, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 17 (2007), s. 1807-1814 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100040602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : adsorptive stripping voltammetry * elimination voltammetry * oligodeoxynucleotide Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.949, year: 2007

  12. Strategy elimination in games with interaction structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witzel, A.; Apt, K.R.; Zvesper, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We study games in the presence of an interaction structure, which allows players to communicate their preferences, assuming that each player initially only knows his own preferences. We study the outcomes of iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies (IESDS) that can be obtained in any

  13. [Application of thermosetting plastics to eliminate undercuts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawski, T

    1989-01-01

    The author proposes to utilize the properties of thermosetting plastics used in other fields to use them in prosthetics in order to eliminate undercuts. Application of extra equipment in claspograph in the form of studs of three dimension makes formation of undercuts' blockade easier improving the result of work at the same time.

  14. Challenges for malaria elimination in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-05-20

    Brazil currently contributes 42 % of all malaria cases reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean, a region where major progress towards malaria elimination has been achieved in recent years. In 2014, malaria burden in Brazil (143,910 microscopically confirmed cases and 41 malaria-related deaths) has reached its lowest levels in 35 years, Plasmodium falciparum is highly focal, and the geographic boundary of transmission has considerably shrunk. Transmission in Brazil remains entrenched in the Amazon Basin, which accounts for 99.5 % of the country's malaria burden. This paper reviews major lessons learned from past and current malaria control policies in Brazil. A comprehensive discussion of the scientific and logistic challenges that may impact malaria elimination efforts in the country is presented in light of the launching of the Plan for Elimination of Malaria in Brazil in November 2015. Challenges for malaria elimination addressed include the high prevalence of symptomless and submicroscopic infections, emerging anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and the lack of safe anti-relapse drugs, the largely neglected burden of malaria in pregnancy, the need for better vector control strategies where Anopheles mosquitoes present a highly variable biting behaviour, human movement, the need for effective surveillance and tools to identify foci of infection in areas with low transmission, and the effects of environmental changes and climatic variability in transmission. Control actions launched in Brazil and results to come are likely to influence control programs in other countries in the Americas.

  15. Visceral Leishmaniasis : Potential for Control and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. le Rutte (Epke)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the past years there has been a steep increase in awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL); many large-scale interventions are being implemented and targets for control and elimination have been set. In this thesis the potential of reaching these targets will be explored. To

  16. Severe 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) intoxication: kinetics and trials to enhance elimination in two patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geusau, A. [Dept. of Dermatology, Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Schmaldienst, S.; Derfler, K. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany); Abraham, K. [Dept. of Pediatric Pneumology and Immunology, Children' s Hospital, Charite, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    In spring 1998, two women were diagnosed with severe 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) intoxication. Over the following 3 years, TCDD levels were monitored under various attempts to enhance its elimination, and the half-lives were evaluated. Olestra, a non-digestible, non-absorbable dietary fat substitute, was continuously administered to the patients either as pure substance or in potato-chips. Additionally, in the more severely contaminated patient, we studied whether low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis, an extracorporeal means of blood lipid elimination, was effective in reducing the TCDD body burden. The blood concentrations initially measured in spring 1998 were 144,000 pg/g blood fat in patient 1 and 26,000 pg/g in patient 2, the highest levels ever measured in adults. In March 2001, concentrations in blood fat were 35,900 and 9,500 pg/g, corresponding to overall elimination half-lives of 560 days (1.5 years) in patient 1 and 1050 days (2.9 years) in patient 2, which are considerably shorter than median values of 7-9 years reported for background and moderate exposure levels. Calculations of the TCDD half-lives and measurements of TCDD elimination via different routes allowed the calculation of an unidentified route of elimination, representing 78 and 62% of the overall elimination in patient 1 and 2, respectively, probably due to an induced hepatic metabolism caused by the high TCDD exposure. As previously reported, administration of olestra was found to be effective in increasing the fecal excretion of TCDD. Due to the short half-lives in our patients, the effect of olestra on the overall elimination was relatively small, but is expected to be much greater for 'normal' half-lives. LDL-apheresis was shown to eliminate TCDD, corresponding to the eliminated blood fat. When employed twice a week, the amount of TCDD excreted by this method was comparable to fecal excretion. In view of costs and time involved, LDL-apheresis does not seem to

  17. Severe 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) intoxication: kinetics and trials to enhance elimination in two patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geusau, A.; Schmaldienst, S.; Derfler, K.; Paepke, O.; Abraham, K.

    2002-01-01

    In spring 1998, two women were diagnosed with severe 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) intoxication. Over the following 3 years, TCDD levels were monitored under various attempts to enhance its elimination, and the half-lives were evaluated. Olestra, a non-digestible, non-absorbable dietary fat substitute, was continuously administered to the patients either as pure substance or in potato-chips. Additionally, in the more severely contaminated patient, we studied whether low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis, an extracorporeal means of blood lipid elimination, was effective in reducing the TCDD body burden. The blood concentrations initially measured in spring 1998 were 144,000 pg/g blood fat in patient 1 and 26,000 pg/g in patient 2, the highest levels ever measured in adults. In March 2001, concentrations in blood fat were 35,900 and 9,500 pg/g, corresponding to overall elimination half-lives of 560 days (1.5 years) in patient 1 and 1050 days (2.9 years) in patient 2, which are considerably shorter than median values of 7-9 years reported for background and moderate exposure levels. Calculations of the TCDD half-lives and measurements of TCDD elimination via different routes allowed the calculation of an unidentified route of elimination, representing 78 and 62% of the overall elimination in patient 1 and 2, respectively, probably due to an induced hepatic metabolism caused by the high TCDD exposure. As previously reported, administration of olestra was found to be effective in increasing the fecal excretion of TCDD. Due to the short half-lives in our patients, the effect of olestra on the overall elimination was relatively small, but is expected to be much greater for 'normal' half-lives. LDL-apheresis was shown to eliminate TCDD, corresponding to the eliminated blood fat. When employed twice a week, the amount of TCDD excreted by this method was comparable to fecal excretion. In view of costs and time involved, LDL-apheresis does not seem to be

  18. Robust Wavelet Estimation to Eliminate Simultaneously the Effects of Boundary Problems, Outliers, and Correlated Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsaidi M. Altaher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical wavelet thresholding methods suffer from boundary problems caused by the application of the wavelet transformations to a finite signal. As a result, large bias at the edges and artificial wiggles occur when the classical boundary assumptions are not satisfied. Although polynomial wavelet regression and local polynomial wavelet regression effectively reduce the risk of this problem, the estimates from these two methods can be easily affected by the presence of correlated noise and outliers, giving inaccurate estimates. This paper introduces two robust methods in which the effects of boundary problems, outliers, and correlated noise are simultaneously taken into account. The proposed methods combine thresholding estimator with either a local polynomial model or a polynomial model using the generalized least squares method instead of the ordinary one. A primary step that involves removing the outlying observations through a statistical function is considered as well. The practical performance of the proposed methods has been evaluated through simulation experiments and real data examples. The results are strong evidence that the proposed method is extremely effective in terms of correcting the boundary bias and eliminating the effects of outliers and correlated noise.

  19. Evaluating perspectives for PRRS virus elimination from pig dense areas with a risk factor based herd index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrion, A S; Beilage, E grosse; Nathues, H; Dürr, S; Doherr, M G

    2014-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is wide-spread in pig populations globally. In many regions of Europe with intensive pig production and high herd densities, the virus is endemic and can cause disease and production losses. This fuels discussion about the feasibility and sustainability of virus elimination from larger geographic regions. The implementation of a program aiming at virus elimination for areas with high pig density is unprecedented and its potential success is unknown. The objective of this work was to approach pig population data with a simple method that could support assessing the feasibility of a sustainable regional PRRSV elimination. Based on known risk factors such as pig herd structure and neighborhood conditions, an index characterizing individual herds' potential for endemic virus circulation and reinfection was designed. This index was subsequently used to compare data of all pig herds in two regions with different pig- and herd-densities in Lower Saxony (North-West Germany) where PRRSV is endemic. Distribution of the indexed herds was displayed using GIS. Clusters of high herd index densities forming potential risk hot spots were identified which could represent key target areas for surveillance and biosecurity measures under a control program aimed at virus elimination. In an additional step, for the study region with the higher pig density (2463 pigs/km(2) farmland), the potential distribution of PRRSV-free and non-free herds during the implementation of a national control program aiming at national virus elimination was modeled. Complex herd and trade network structures suggest that PRRSV elimination in regions with intensive pig farming like that of middle Europe would have to involve legal regulation and be accompanied by important trade and animal movement restrictions. The proposed methodology of risk index mapping could be adapted to areas varying in size, herd structure and density. Interpreted in the

  20. Investigation of scattering processes in quantum few-body systems involving long-range interaction by the complex-rotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M. V.; Elander, N.; Yakovlev, S. L.; Yarevsky, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    The complex-rotation method adapted to solving the multichannel scattering problem in the two-body system where the interaction potential contains the long-range Coulomb components is described. The scattering problem is reformulated as the problem of solving a nonhomogeneous Schrödinger equation in which the nonhomogeneous term involves a Coulomb potential cut off at large distances. The incident wave appearing in the nonhomogeneous term is a solution of the Schrödinger equation with longrange Coulomb interaction. This formulation is free from approximations associated with a direct cutoff of Coulomb interaction at large distances. The efficiency of this formalism is demonstrated by considering the example of solving scattering problems in the α-α and p-p systems.

  1. Sleep Can Eliminate List-Method Directed Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests a link between sleep and memory consolidation, indicating that sleep in comparison to wakefulness stabilizes memories. However, relatively little is known about how sleep affects forgetting. Here we examined whether sleep influences directed forgetting, the finding that people can intentionally forget obsolete memories when…

  2. UV-C radiation based methods for aqueous metoprolol elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, F.J.; Gimeno, O.; Borralho, T.; Carbajo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The endocrine disruptor metoprolol has been oxidised in aqueous solution by means of the systems UV-C, UV-C/H 2 O 2 , UV-C/percarbonate, UV-C/monopersulfate, UV-C/TiO 2 , UV-C/H 2 O 2 /TiO 2 and photo-Fenton. From simple photolysis experiments the quantum yield of metoprolol has been calculated (roughly 5 x 10 -3 mol Einstein -1 at circumneutral pH). Addition of free radicals promoters significantly enhanced the metoprolol depletion rate. Mineralization degree was negligible when no promoter was added, while low values were achieved in the presence of either inorganic peroxides or titanium dioxide. The combination of radiation, hydrogen peroxide and TiO 2 increased the mineralization level up to values in the proximity of 45-50% under the best conditions investigated. The photo-Fenton process was the best system in terms of total oxidation (mineralization degree 70%) when optimum conditions were applied.

  3. UV-C radiation based methods for aqueous metoprolol elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, F.J., E-mail: fjrivas@unex.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Facultad de Ciencias, Edificio Jose Luis Sotelo, Avenida de Elvas S/N, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gimeno, O.; Borralho, T.; Carbajo, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Facultad de Ciencias, Edificio Jose Luis Sotelo, Avenida de Elvas S/N, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The endocrine disruptor metoprolol has been oxidised in aqueous solution by means of the systems UV-C, UV-C/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV-C/percarbonate, UV-C/monopersulfate, UV-C/TiO{sub 2}, UV-C/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} and photo-Fenton. From simple photolysis experiments the quantum yield of metoprolol has been calculated (roughly 5 x 10{sup -3} mol Einstein{sup -1} at circumneutral pH). Addition of free radicals promoters significantly enhanced the metoprolol depletion rate. Mineralization degree was negligible when no promoter was added, while low values were achieved in the presence of either inorganic peroxides or titanium dioxide. The combination of radiation, hydrogen peroxide and TiO{sub 2} increased the mineralization level up to values in the proximity of 45-50% under the best conditions investigated. The photo-Fenton process was the best system in terms of total oxidation (mineralization degree 70%) when optimum conditions were applied.

  4. Analysis of Implementation The Policy on Malaria Elimination in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Roosihermiatie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropic country Indonesia still faces malaria problems. In Asean, indonesia is one of three countries with the highest malaria morbidity. In 2007, 396 (80% of 495 districts/municipalities in indonesia are malaria. In 2009 the government issued a decree of the minister of health No 293 on malaria elimination. The study aimed to analyze the implementation decree of Ministry of Health No. 293/2009 on malaria elimination. Methods: It was a descriptive study. The study was conducted in 4 provinces, and 4 districts based on malaria elimination stages as in Bali province and Karangasem district, Riau islands province and Bintan district, West Nusa Tenggara province and west Lombok district, and Maluku province and South Halmahera district. The stakeholders were Heads and malaria programmers at province/district Health Offices and the related programs. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data were taken. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data. Analysis for Ministry of Health decree No.293 year 2009 on 1 Comphrehend, 2 Implementation, and, 3 Comittment, 4 Innovation intervension to support malaria elimination, 5 Sustainability of activity community empowerment, 6 Proportion of budget. Results: showed there was district that had not issued local policy on malaria elimination, the implementation with comittment especially that health centers in areas under study corfi rm diagnose by laboratory examination and malaria treatment by Artemisin Combined Therapy (ACT, although there were still treatment to clinical malaria, innovation activities were of bersifat local spesifi c, and reward for Juru Malaria Desa or malaria cadre to increase malaria suspect case detection, and with district budget for malaria program ranged 0,95-5,6% of the total budget. Recomendations: It suggested to advocate all malaria endemic areas to issue local policy on malaria elimination, decide intervension of the

  5. Liposomal clodronate selectively eliminates microglia from primary astrocyte cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumamaru Hiromi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in astrocyte biology because astrocytes have been demonstrated to play prominent roles in physiological and pathological conditions of the central nervous system, including neuroinflammation. To understand astrocyte biology, primary astrocyte cultures are most commonly used because of the direct accessibility of astrocytes in this system. However, this advantage can be hindered by microglial contamination. Although several authors have warned regarding microglial contamination in this system, complete microglial elimination has never been achieved. Methods The number and proliferative potential of contaminating microglia in primary astrocyte cultures were quantitatively assessed by immunocytologic and flow cytometric analyses. To examine the utility of clodronate for microglial elimination, primary astrocyte cultures or MG-5 cells were exposed to liposomal or free clodronate, and then immunocytologic, flow cytometric, and gene expression analyses were performed. The gene expression profiles of microglia-eliminated and microglia-contaminated cultures were compared after interleukin-6 (IL-6 stimulation. Results The percentage of contaminating microglia exceeded 15% and continued to increase because of their high proliferative activity in conventional primary astrocyte cultures. These contaminating microglia were selectively eliminated low concentration of liposomal clodronate. Although primary microglia and MG-5 cells were killed by both liposomal and free clodronate, free clodronate significantly affected the viability of astrocytes. In contrast, liposomal clodronate selectively eliminated microglia without affecting the viability, proliferation or activation of astrocytes. The efficacy of liposomal clodronate was much higher than that of previously reported methods used for decreasing microglial contamination. Furthermore, we observed rapid tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1b gene induction in

  6. Can Economic Analysis Contribute to Disease Elimination and Eradication? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuri, Elisa; Evans, David B; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases elimination and eradication have become important areas of focus for global health and countries. Due to the substantial up-front investments required to eliminate and eradicate, and the overall shortage of resources for health, economic analysis can inform decision making on whether elimination/eradication makes economic sense and on the costs and benefits of alternative strategies. In order to draw lessons for current and future initiatives, we review the economic literature that has addressed questions related to the elimination and eradication of infectious diseases focusing on: why, how and for whom? A systematic review was performed by searching economic literature (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and economic impact analyses) on elimination/eradication of infectious diseases published from 1980 to 2013 from three large bibliographic databases: one general (SCOPUS), one bio-medical (MEDLINE/PUBMED) and one economic (IDEAS/REPEC). A total of 690 non-duplicate papers were identified from which only 43 met the inclusion criteria. In addition, only one paper focusing on equity issues, the "for whom?" question, was found. The literature relating to "why?" is the largest, much of it focusing on how much it would cost. A more limited literature estimates the benefits in terms of impact on economic growth with mixed results. The question of how to eradicate or eliminate was informed by an economic literature highlighting that there will be opportunities for individuals and countries to free-ride and that forms of incentives and/or disincentives will be needed. This requires government involvement at country level and global coordination. While there is little doubt that eliminating infectious diseases will eventually improve equity, it will only happen if active steps to promote equity are followed on the path to elimination and eradication. The largest part of the literature has focused on costs and economic benefits of elimination

  7. McGuire snubber elimination program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud, R.L.; Leung, J.S.M.; Taylor, W.H.; Morgan, R.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An engineering program has been initiated at McGuire Nuclear Stations 1 and 2 to eliminate all existing snubbers. The elimination is achieved by replacing existing snubbers with limit stop pipe supports. The program establishes plant-wide modification procedures for one-to-one substitution under the 10 CFR 50.59 requirement. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) acceptance is based on the results of both comparison analyses and the hardware implementation of sample piping systems at McGuire nuclear stations. Experimental results obtained on shake table testing and from the NRC sponsored HDR research program are also used to formulate the technical basis and design procedures for plant-wide implementation of the snubber replacement effort. The overall program plan is for nearly 3,000 snubbers to be replaced in phases consistent with the plant scheduled outages. Duke Power estimates the program, when completed, will maintain ALARA, improve reliability, and reduce plant operating costs

  8. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Walking whilst defaecating was most likely to occur when cows were simultaneously engaged in an ‘active’ state, such as going to drink or catching up with the herd. Overall, standing to defaecate and moving forward...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... within 30 s of an eliminative event. Intentional, incidental or no avoidance of faeces was also recorded for each event. Activity, characterised as static (lying, grazing or loafing), or active (moving to a different area of field, going to drink and catching up with herd) was also recorded. Of the 437...

  9. High-throughput typing method to identify a non-outbreak-involved Legionella pneumophila strain colonizing the entire water supply system in the town of Rennes, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, D; Le Cann, P; Gerard, A; Jarraud, S; Lebeau, B; Loisy-Hamon, F; Vergnaud, G; Pourcel, C

    2011-10-01

    Two legionellosis outbreaks occurred in the city of Rennes, France, during the past decade, requiring in-depth monitoring of Legionella pneumophila in the water network and the cooling towers in the city. In order to characterize the resulting large collection of isolates, an automated low-cost typing method was developed. The multiplex capillary-based variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) (multiple-locus VNTR analysis [MLVA]) assay requiring only one PCR amplification per isolate ensures a high level of discrimination and reduces hands-on and time requirements. In less than 2 days and using one 4-capillary apparatus, 217 environmental isolates collected between 2000 and 2009 and 5 clinical isolates obtained during outbreaks in 2000 and 2006 in Rennes were analyzed, and 15 different genotypes were identified. A large cluster of isolates with closely related genotypes and representing 77% of the population was composed exclusively of environmental isolates extracted from hot water supply systems. It was not responsible for the known Rennes epidemic cases, although strains showing a similar MLVA profile have regularly been involved in European outbreaks. The clinical isolates in Rennes had the same genotype as isolates contaminating a mall's cooling tower. This study further demonstrates that unknown environmental or genetic factors contribute to the pathogenicity of some strains. This work illustrates the potential of the high-throughput MLVA typing method to investigate the origin of legionellosis cases by allowing the systematic typing of any new isolate and inclusion of data in shared databases.

  10. Isolation of Inositol Hexaphosphate (IHP)-Degrading Bacteria from Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphal Compartments Using a Modified Baiting Method Involving Alginate Beads Containing IHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shintaro; Saito, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate; IHP)-degrading microbes have been suggested to contribute to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-mediated P transfer from IHP to plants; however, no IHP degrader involved in AMF-mediated P transfer has been isolated to date. We herein report the isolation of IHP-degrading bacteria using a modified baiting method. We applied alginate beads as carriers of IHP powder, and used them as recoverable IHP in the AM fungal compartment of plant cultivation experiments. P transfer from IHP in alginate beads via AMF was confirmed, and extracted DNA from alginate beads was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis targeting the 16S rRNA gene and a clone library method for the beta-propeller phytase (BPP) gene. The diversities of the 16S rRNA and BPP genes of microbes growing on IHP beads were simple and those of Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter spp. dominated. A total of 187 IHP-utilizing bacteria were isolated and identified, and they were consistent with the results of DNA analysis. Furthermore, some isolated Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter sp. showed IHP-degrading activity. Therefore, we successfully isolated dominant IHP-degrading bacteria from IHP in an AMF hyphal compartment. These strains may contribute to P transfer from IHP via AMF. PMID:27383681

  11. Is there a role for physician involvement in introducing research to surrogate decision makers in the intensive care unit? (The Approach trial: a pilot mixed methods study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K E A; Rizvi, L; Smith, O M; Lee, Y; Lee, J; Wang, M; Brown, M; Parker, M; Premji, A; Leung, D; Hammond Mobilio, M; Gotlib-Conn, L; Nisenbaum, R; Santos, M; Li, Y; Mehta, S

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomized trial comparing two strategies [physician (MD) vs. non-physician (non-MD)] for approaching substitute decision makers (SDMs) for research and to evaluate SDMs' experiences in being approached for consent. A pilot mixed methods study of first encounters with SDMs. Of 137 SDMs (162 eligibility events), 67 and 70 were randomized to MD and non-MD introductions, respectively. Eighty SDMs (98 events) provided consent and 21 SDMs (24 events) declined consent for studies, including 2 SDMs who provided and declined consent. We identified few missed introductions [4/52 (7.7 %)] and protocol violations [6/117 (5.1 %)], high comfort, satisfaction and acceptance scores and similar consent rates in both arms. SDMs provided consent significantly more often when a patient update was provided in the MD arm. Most SDMs (85.7 %) felt that physician involvement was inconsequential and preferred physician time to be dedicated to patient care; however, SDM experiences were closely related to their recall of being approached and recall was poor. SDMs highlighted 7 themes of importance to them in research surrogate decision-making. SDMs prioritized the personal attributes of the person approaching them over professional designation and preferred physician time to be dedicated to patient care. A mixed methods design evaluated intervention fidelity and provided the rationale for not proceeding to a larger trial, despite achieving all feasibility metrics in the pilot trial. NCT01232621.

  12. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  13. Review. Elimination of viruses in plants: twenty years of progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panattoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To shed light on trends about elimination of viruses from plants, a bibliographic research was conducted to identify thermotherapy, chemotherapy and tissue culture trials published from 1991 through 2010. Among woody plants, grapevine, apple and peach are the most frequent targets of sanitation protocols because their health status is strictly regulated. Even if thermotherapy represents the preferred method for the host, grapevine viruses can also be eliminated with chemotherapy and tissue culture; apple viruses respond to chemotherapy as well. Although a similar trend was reported among herbaceous plants, chemotherapy was the most frequently used technique in potato. With regard to virus, thermotherapy was successfully applied against viruses belonging to 13 families and an unassigned genus. Instead, chemotherapy and tissue culture techniques eradicated viruses belonging to fewer families (nine. An interpretation of thermotherapy effects considers the new metabolic “pathways” triggered by the natural antiviral response emitted by the infected plant, with particular reference to virus-induced gene silencing. With regard to chemotherapy, several groups of antiviral drugs belong to inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors. Tissue culture, usually adopted to regenerate plantlets in biotechnological breeding programs, represents the less used tool for eliminate viruses from plants.

  14. Uptake and elimination of radiotungsten in black bullheads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Black bullheads, Ictalurus melas (Rafinesque), accumulated radiotungsten from food and water. Whole-body activity reached a plateau after the fish had been in tagged water 4 days (mean temperature 154 0 C). Whole-body elimination of radiotungsten varied with the method of uptake. Fish that had accumulated radiotungsten from water had a single exponential component of elimination with a biological half-life of 2.75 days. Fish that had received radioisotope in a single feeding lost activity at two rates; one component had a biological half-life of 14 hr and the second 6 days. The bone, skin, flesh, blood, and gills contained the greatest percentages of whole-body activity after 1 day of uptake from tagged water; after 8 days, the flesh, gills, bone, and gut together contained 78.6 percent of the total activity. The bone had the longest biological half-life (8.0 days) of the tissues examined and contained 69.8 percent of the whole-body acitivty after 16 days of elimination

  15. Comparing materials used in mist eliminators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Baleno, B.; Boles, G.L.; Telow, J. [Solvay Advanced Polyers (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, or wet scrubbers, are notoriously capital - and maintenance-intensive. Mist eliminators are an integral part of most wet FGD systems. These are available in a variety of materials - polypropylene, fiberglass reinforced polymer (FRP), polysulfone and stainless steel. The article discusses the material properties, performance attributes and relative cost differences associated with each of these four materials. It describes the common problems with mist eliminators - fouling and corrosion. These can be minimised by routine cleaning and use of chemical additives to prevent deposition. An analysis was carried out to compare the four materials at APS Cholla power plant. As a result the facility is retrofitting its remaining wet scrubber towers in Unit 2 with mist eliminators constructed from polysulfone as each of the current ones of the existing polypropylene needs replacing. Polysulfone is cheaper to clean and components require replacing less frequently than polypropylene. Switching from stainless steel to polypropylene has proved advantageous on 22 wet scrubbers operated by PPL Montana. 5 figs. 2 tabs.

  16. A new data-mining method to search for behavioral properties that induce alignment and their involvement in social learning in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ochiai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coordinated movement in social animal groups via social learning facilitates foraging activity. Few studies have examined the behavioral cause-and-effect between group members that mediates this social learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first established a behavioral paradigm for visual food learning using medaka fish and demonstrated that a single fish can learn to associate a visual cue with a food reward. Grouped medaka fish (6 fish learn to respond to the visual cue more rapidly than a single fish, indicating that medaka fish undergo social learning. We then established a data-mining method based on Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD to search for candidate behaviors that induce alignment and found that high-speed movement of a focal fish tended to induce alignment of the other members locally and transiently under free-swimming conditions without presentation of a visual cue. The high-speed movement of the informed and trained fish during visual cue presentation appeared to facilitate the alignment of naïve fish in response to some visual cues, thereby mediating social learning. Compared with naïve fish, the informed fish had a higher tendency to induce alignment of other naïve fish under free-swimming conditions without visual cue presentation, suggesting the involvement of individual recognition in social learning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Behavioral cause-and-effect studies of the high-speed movement between fish group members will contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of social behaviors. The data-mining method used in the present study is a powerful method to search for candidates factors associated with inter-individual interactions using a dataset for time-series coordinate data of individuals.

  17. miR2Pathway: A Novel Analytical Method to Discover MicroRNA-mediated Dysregulated Pathways Involved in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoxing; Dinu, Valentin

    2018-03-22

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have shown miRNAs as key regulators of a variety of biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, etc. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs influence individual gene expression level, but rewired miRNA-mRNA connections can influence the activity of biological pathways. Here, we define rewired miRNA-mRNA connections as the differential (rewiring) effects on the activity of biological pathways between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and normal phenotypes. Our work presented here uses a PageRank-based approach to measure the degree of miRNA-mediated dysregulation of biological pathways between HCC and normal samples based on rewired miRNA-mRNA connections. In our study, we regard the degree of miRNA-mediated dysregulation of biological pathways as disease risk of biological pathways. Therefore, we propose a new method, miR2Pathway, to measure and rank the degree of miRNA-mediated dysregulation of biological pathways by measuring the total differential influence of miRNAs on the activity of pathways between HCC and normal states. miR2Pathway proposed here systematically shows the first evidence for a mechanism of biological pathways being dysregulated by rewired miRNA-mRNA connections, and provides new insight into exploring mechanisms behind HCC. Thus, miR2Pathway is a novel method to identify and rank miRNA-dysregulated pathways in HCC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Information filtering based on corrected redundancy-eliminating mass diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Yang, Yujie; Chen, Guilin; Medo, Matus; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Methods used in information filtering and recommendation often rely on quantifying the similarity between objects or users. The used similarity metrics often suffer from similarity redundancies arising from correlations between objects' attributes. Based on an unweighted undirected object-user bipartite network, we propose a Corrected Redundancy-Eliminating similarity index (CRE) which is based on a spreading process on the network. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets-Movilens, Netflix and Amazon-show that when used in recommendation, the CRE yields significant improvements in terms of recommendation accuracy and diversity. A detailed analysis is presented to unveil the origins of the observed differences between the CRE and mainstream similarity indices.

  19. Prospects for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sócrates; Ochoa-Orozco, Sergio Andrés; González, Iveth J.; Peinado, Lucrecia; Quiñones, Martha L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains endemic in 21 countries of the American continent with an estimated 427,000 cases per year. Approximately 10% of these occur in the Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions. During the last decade, malaria transmission in Mesoamerica showed a decrease of ~85%; whereas, in the Caribbean region, Hispaniola (comprising the Dominican Republic [DR] and Haiti) presented an overall rise in malaria transmission, primarily due to a steady increase in Haiti, while DR experienced a significant transmission decrease in this period. The significant malaria reduction observed recently in the region prompted the launch of an initiative for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola (EMMIE) with the active involvement of the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) of nine countries, the Regional Coordination Mechanism (RCM) for Mesoamerica, and the Council of Health Ministries of Central America and Dominican Republic (COMISCA). The EMMIE initiative is supported by the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) with active participation of multiple partners including Ministries of Health, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as research centers. EMMIE’s main goal is to achieve elimination of malaria transmission in the region by 2020. Here we discuss the prospects, challenges, and research needs associated with this initiative that, if successful, could represent a paradigm for other malaria-affected regions. PMID:25973753

  20. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Ken; Hopkins, Adrian; Sauerbrey, Mauricio

    2011-10-25

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela), onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

  1. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrey Mauricio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela, onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

  2. QUEST: Eliminating Online Supervised Learning for Efficient Classification Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardjan Zwartjes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training, an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting raw sensor data puts high demands on the battery, reducing network life time. By merely transmitting partial results or classifications based on the sampled data, the amount of traffic on the network can be significantly reduced. Such classifications can be made by learning based algorithms using sampled data. An important issue, however, is the training phase of these learning based algorithms. Training a deployed sensor network requires a lot of communication and an impractical amount of human involvement. QUEST is a hybrid algorithm that combines supervised learning in a controlled environment with unsupervised learning on the location of deployment. Using the SITEX02 dataset, we demonstrate that the presented solution works with a performance penalty of less than 10% in 90% of the tests. Under some circumstances, it even outperforms a network of classifiers completely trained with supervised learning. As a result, the need for on-site supervised learning and communication for training is completely eliminated by our solution.

  3. QUEST: Eliminating Online Supervised Learning for Efficient Classification Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwartjes, Ardjan; Havinga, Paul J M; Smit, Gerard J M; Hurink, Johann L

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training), an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting raw sensor data puts high demands on the battery, reducing network life time. By merely transmitting partial results or classifications based on the sampled data, the amount of traffic on the network can be significantly reduced. Such classifications can be made by learning based algorithms using sampled data. An important issue, however, is the training phase of these learning based algorithms. Training a deployed sensor network requires a lot of communication and an impractical amount of human involvement. QUEST is a hybrid algorithm that combines supervised learning in a controlled environment with unsupervised learning on the location of deployment. Using the SITEX02 dataset, we demonstrate that the presented solution works with a performance penalty of less than 10% in 90% of the tests. Under some circumstances, it even outperforms a network of classifiers completely trained with supervised learning. As a result, the need for on-site supervised learning and communication for training is completely eliminated by our solution.

  4. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  5. Improving consensus structure by eliminating averaging artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Dukka B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, averaging of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are averaged, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure towards the 'averaged structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to Cα models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The average RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the average RMSD of the averaged structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the averaged structures. However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%; in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38 of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the averaged structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA 1, our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing averaging artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where averaging of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure averaging is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction 2, which

  6. In vivo thermoterapy: attempt to eliminate virus in potato tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Astarini, Ida; Margareth, Deborah; Temaja, I. Gede Rai Maya

    2018-03-01

    Potato is one of an important vegetable crop in Indonesia, including Bali. Main potato production areas in Bali are at Bedugul region, 1.200 m above sea level. Potato production in Bali continued to decrease due to diseases infection, such as early blight, late blight, black leg and virus diseases. Potato farmers in Bali usually set aside their harvest as seed potatoes, resulting in virus diseases being carried out on the next planting seasons and eventually would decrease potato production both in quantity and quality. Four types of virus were confirmed: PVY, PVX, PVS and PRLV. A number of studies have reported thermotherapy technique has been employed to eliminate potato virus in vitro. However, this technique is not readily available for farmers, since there is no established tissue culture laboratory to support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more practical method. The objective of this study was to eliminate virus on seed potatoes using thermotherapy on tuber. Seed potatoes with 1 cm sprout which were virus positive were placed on sterile charred rice paddy husk, and then put into a humidified incubator. Tubers were exposed to 37°C for four days followed by 34°C for three days alternately for two weeks and three weeks duration. Four tubers received heat exposure regime for each virus type. After thermotherapy, potato tubers were transferred to pots containing charred rice paddy husk and maintain for three weeks until new leaves emerge for virus analyses. Results show that seed tubers experienced delayed growth after thermotherapy. Control plants sprout one week after thermotherapy, while treated plants were not yet sprouting. Experiment is currently underway. It is expected that heat treatment on tuber will give a practical method for farmers to eliminate virus of seed potatoes.

  7. Advanced differential quadrature methods

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...

  8. Apparatus for eliminating electrodeposition of radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Ichiro; Ishibe, Tadao; Matsunaga, Masaaki; Konuki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Minoru; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional device for eliminating by radioactive nuclides electrodeposition, a liquid containing radioactive nuclides is electrolyzed under a presence of non-radioactive heavy metals and removing radioactive nuclides by electrodepositing them together with the heavy metals. Two anode plates are opposed in an electrolysis vessel of this device. A plurality (4 to 6) of cathode plates are arranged between the anodes in parallel with them and the cathode surfaces opposed to the anodes are insulated. Further, such a plurality of cathode plates are grouped into respective units. Alternatively, the anode plate is made of platinum-plated titanium material and the cathode plate is made of stainless steel. In the thus constituted electrodeposition eliminating device, since the cathode surface directed to the anodes on both ends are insulated, all of electric current from the anode reach the core cathode after flowing around the cathodes at both ends. As a result, there is no substantial difference in the flowing length of the electrolyzing current to each of the cathodes and these is neither difference in the electrodeposition amount. The electrodeposited products are adhered uniformly and densely to the electrodes and, simultaneously, Co-60 and Mn-54, etc. are also electrodeposited. (I.S.)

  9. Herbivory eliminates fitness costs of mutualism exploiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Anna K; Stinchcombe, John R

    2014-04-01

    A common empirical observation in mutualistic interactions is the persistence of variation in partner quality and, in particular, the persistence of exploitative phenotypes. For mutualisms between hosts and symbionts, most mutualism theory assumes that exploiters always impose fitness costs on their host. We exposed legume hosts to mutualistic (nitrogen-fixing) and exploitative (non-nitrogen-fixing) symbiotic rhizobia in field conditions, and manipulated the presence or absence of insect herbivory to determine if the costly fitness effects of exploitative rhizobia are context-dependent. Exploitative rhizobia predictably reduced host fitness when herbivores were excluded. However, insects caused greater damage on hosts associating with mutualistic rhizobia, as a consequence of feeding preferences related to leaf nitrogen content, resulting in the elimination of fitness costs imposed on hosts by exploitative rhizobia. Our experiment shows that herbivory is potentially an important factor in influencing the evolutionary dynamic between legumes and rhizobia. Partner choice and host sanctioning are theoretically predicted to stabilize mutualisms by reducing the frequency of exploitative symbionts. We argue that herbivore pressure may actually weaken selection on choice and sanction mechanisms, thus providing one explanation of why host-based discrimination mechanisms may not be completely effective in eliminating nonbeneficial partners. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The exact method of solving radioactive transformations is presented. Nonsingular Bateman coefficients, which can be computed using recurrence formulas, greatly reduce computational time and eliminate singularities that often arise in problems involving nuclide transmutations. Depletion function power series expansion enables high accuracy of the performed calculations, specially in a case of a decay constants with closely spaced values. Generality and simplicity of the method make the method useful for many practical applications. (author)

  11. Voltage harmonic elimination with RLC based interface smoothing filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, K; Ramachandaramurthy, V K

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed for designing a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with RLC interface smoothing filter. The RLC filter connected between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is attempted to eliminate voltage harmonics in the busbar voltage and switching harmonics from VSI by producing a PWM controlled harmonic voltage. In this method, the DVR or series active filter produces PWM voltage that cancels the existing harmonic voltage due to any harmonic voltage source. The proposed method is valid for any distorted busbar voltage. The operating VSI handles no active power but only harmonic power. The DVR is able to suppress the lower order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI. Good dynamic and transient results obtained. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is minimized to zero at the sensitive load end. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of RLC filter. Simulated results are presented. (paper)

  12. Client-server computer architecture saves costs and eliminates bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darukhanavala, P.P.; Davidson, M.C.; Tyler, T.N.; Blaskovich, F.T.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that workstation, client-server architecture saved costs and eliminated bottlenecks that BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. experienced with mainframe computer systems. In 1991, BP embarked on an ambitious project to change technical computing for its Prudhoe Bay, Endicott, and Kuparuk operations on Alaska's North Slope. This project promised substantial rewards, but also involved considerable risk. The project plan called for reservoir simulations (which historically had run on a Cray Research Inc. X-MP supercomputer in the company's Houston data center) to be run on small computer workstations. Additionally, large Prudhoe Bay, Endicott, and Kuparuk production and reservoir engineering data bases and related applications also would be moved to workstations, replacing a Digital Equipment Corp. VAX cluster in Anchorage

  13. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-09-18

    Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). 12 UK children's hospitals. Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication and appropriate timing of deferred consent discussions

  14. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Design Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. Participants 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). Setting 12 UK children's hospitals. Results Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication

  15. Cut Elimination, Identity Elimination, and Interpolation in Super-Belnap Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přenosil, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 6 (2017), s. 1255-1289 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Super-Belnap logic s * Dunn–Belnap logic * Logic of Paradox * Strong Kleene logic * Exactly True Logic * Gentzen calculus * Cut elimination * Identity elimination * Interpolation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  16. A novel method, digital genome scanning detects KRAS gene amplification in gastric cancers: involvement of overexpressed wild-type KRAS in downstream signaling and cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagihara Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is the third most common malignancy affecting the general population worldwide. Aberrant activation of KRAS is a key factor in the development of many types of tumor, however, oncogenic mutations of KRAS are infrequent in gastric cancer. We have developed a novel quantitative method of analysis of DNA copy number, termed digital genome scanning (DGS, which is based on the enumeration of short restriction fragments, and does not involve PCR or hybridization. In the current study, we used DGS to survey copy-number alterations in gastric cancer cells. Methods DGS of gastric cancer cell lines was performed using the sequences of 5000 to 15000 restriction fragments. We screened 20 gastric cancer cell lines and 86 primary gastric tumors for KRAS amplification by quantitative PCR, and investigated KRAS amplification at the DNA, mRNA and protein levels by mutational analysis, real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, GTP-RAS pull-down assay and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of KRAS knock-down on the activation of p44/42 MAP kinase and AKT and on cell growth were examined by immunoblot and colorimetric assay, respectively. Results DGS analysis of the HSC45 gastric cancer cell line revealed the amplification of a 500-kb region on chromosome 12p12.1, which contains the KRAS gene locus. Amplification of the KRAS locus was detected in 15% (3/20 of gastric cancer cell lines (8–18-fold amplification and 4.7% (4/86 of primary gastric tumors (8–50-fold amplification. KRAS mutations were identified in two of the three cell lines in which KRAS was amplified, but were not detected in any of the primary tumors. Overexpression of KRAS protein correlated directly with increased KRAS copy number. The level of GTP-bound KRAS was elevated following serum stimulation in cells with amplified wild-type KRAS, but not in cells with amplified mutant KRAS. Knock-down of KRAS in gastric cancer cells that carried amplified wild

  17. Engineering New Catalysts for In-Process Elimination of Tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry G. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The key objective of this project was to develop a new and more efficient methodology for engineering and economically producing optimized robust catalysts for the reduction or elimination of tars in biomass gasification. Whereas current catalyst technology typically disposes thin layers of catalytically-active material onto rigid supports via wet chemistry-based methods, this project investigated novel thermal methods for directly incorporating catalytically active materials onto robust supports as well as novel approaches for incorporating catalytically active materials on and/or within an otherwise inert refractory support material which is then subsequently formed and processed to create a catalytically-active material on all exposed surfaces. Specifically, the focus of this engineered catalyst development was on materials which were derived from, or otherwise related to, olivine-like minerals, due to the inherent attrition resistance and moderate catalytic properties exhibited by natural olivine when used in a fluidized bed biomass gasifier. Task 1 of this project successfully demonstrated the direct thermal impregnation of catalytically-active materials onto an olivine substrate, with the production of a Ni-olivine catalyst. Nickel and nickel oxide were thermally impregnated onto an olivine substrate and when reduced were shown to demonstrate improved catalytic activity over the baseline olivine material and equal the tar-decomposing performance of Ni-olivine catalysts prepared by conventional wet impregnation. Task 2 involved coordination with our subcontracted project partners to further develop and characterize catalyst formulations and to optimize activity and production methods. Within this task, several significant new materials were developed. NexTech Materials developed a sintered ceramic nickel-magnesium-silicate catalyst that demonstrated superb catalytic activity and high resistance to deactivation by H2S. Alfred University developed both supported

  18. Eliminating oscillations in the Internet by time-delayed feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenglin; Tian Yuping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a time-delayed feedback control method is applied to congestion control in order to eliminate oscillations in the Internet. The stability of the proposed control method is demonstrated based on frequency-domain analysis. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using simulation

  19. Gas-chromatographic quantitative determination of argon in air samples, by elimination of oxigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronie, E.

    1982-08-01

    A method of gas-chromatographic quantitative determination of argon in air samples, by elimination of oxygen, is presented. Experiments were carried out in a static system. Conditions for the application of the method in dynamic systems are specified. Sensibility of the method: 5 10 -4 cm 3 Ar per cm 3 of air. (author)

  20. Eliminating oscillations in the Internet by time-delayed feedback control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chenglin [Department of Automatic Control, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Tian Yuping [Department of Automatic Control, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)], E-mail: yptian@seu.edu.cn

    2008-03-15

    In this paper, a time-delayed feedback control method is applied to congestion control in order to eliminate oscillations in the Internet. The stability of the proposed control method is demonstrated based on frequency-domain analysis. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using simulation.

  1. Four years experience with filtration systems in commercial nurseries for eliminating Phytophthora species from recirculation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ufer; M. Posner; H.-P. Wessels; S. Wagner; K. Kaminski; T. Brand; Werres S.

    2008-01-01

    In a four year project, three different filtration systems were tested under commercial nursery conditions to eliminate Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water. Five nurseries were involved in the project. Slow sand filtration systems were tested in three nurseries. In the fourth nursery, a filtration system with lava grains (Shieer® Bio filtration)...

  2. The elimination of charging in the PIXE analysis of thick biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papper, C.S.; Chaudhri, M.A.; Rouse, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A simple technique is described for the elimination of charging of thick biological samples subjected to proton bombardment. This involves evaporating a thin layer of carbon onto the target face and results in the reduction of background and therefore enhances the sensitivity of the technique. (Auth.)

  3. An effective comparison involving a novel spectral approach and finite difference method for the Schrödinger equation involving the Riesz fractional derivative in the quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Asim

    2018-03-01

    This paper displays the approach of the time-splitting Fourier spectral (TSFS) technique for the linear Riesz fractional Schrödinger equation (RFSE) in the semi-classical regime. The splitting technique is shown to be unconditionally stable. Further a suitable implicit finite difference discretization of second order has been manifested for the RFSE where the Riesz derivative has been discretized via an approach of fractional centered difference. Moreover the stability analysis for the implicit scheme has also been presented here via von Neumann analysis. The L2-norm and L^{∞}-norm errors are calculated for \\vert u(x,t)\\vert2, Re(u(x,t)) and Im(u(x,t)) for various cases. The results obtained by the methods are further tabulated for the absolute errors for \\vert u(x,t)\\vert2. Furthermore the graphs are depicted showing comparison of \\vert u(x,t)\\vert2 by both techniques. The derivatives are taken here in the context of the Riesz fractional sense. Apart from that, the comparative study put forth in the following section via tables and graphs between the implicit second-order finite difference method (IFDM) and the TSFS method is for the purpose of investigating the efficiency of the results obtained. Moreover the stability analysis of the presented techniques manifesting their unconditional stability makes the proposed approach more competing and accurate.

  4. Evaluation of bone involvement in patients with Gaucher disease: a semi-quantitative magnetic resonance imaging method (using ROI estimation of bone lesion) as an alternative method to semi-quantitative methods used so far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komninaka, Veroniki; Kolomodi, Dionysia; Christoulas, Dimitrios; Marinakis, Theodoros; Papatheodorou, Athanasios; Repa, Konstantina; Voskaridou, Ersi; Revenas, Konstantinos; Terpos, Evangelos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bone involvement in patients with Gaucher disease (GD) and to propose a novel semi-quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging. MRI of the lumbar spine, femur, and tibia was performed in 24 patients with GD and 24 healthy controls. We also measured circulating levels of C-C motif ligand-3 (CCL-3) chemokine, C-telopeptide of collagen type-1 (CTX), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform type-b (TRACP-5b). We used the following staging based on MRI data: stage I: region of interest (ROI) 1/2 of normal values and bone infiltration up to 30%; stage II: ROI 1/3 of normal values and bone infiltration from 30 to 60%; stage III: ROI 1/4 of normal values and bone infiltration from 60% to 80%; and stage IV: detection of epiphyseal infiltration, osteonecrosis and deformity regardless of the ROI's values. All but two patients had abnormal MRI findings: 9 (37.5%), 6 (25%), 3 (12.5%), and 4 (16.7%) had stages I-IV, respectively. Patients with GD had elevated chitotriosidase, serum TRACP-5b, and CCL-3 levels (P < 0.001). We propose an easily reproducible semi-quantitative scoring system and confirm that patients with GD have abnormal MRI bone findings and enhanced osteoclast activity possibly due to elevated CCL-3. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. For a convention for nuclear weapon elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document contains two texts linked with the project of an international convention for the elimination of nuclear weapons (the text of this project has been sent to the UN General Secretary and is part of an international campaign to abolish nuclear weapons, ICAN). These two texts are contributions presented in London at the Global Summit for a Nuclear Weapon-free World. The first one calls into question the deterrence principle and the idea of a nuclear weapon-based security. It calls for different forms of action to promote a nuclear weapon-free world. The second text stresses the role and the responsibility of states with nuclear weapons in nuclear disarmament and in the reinforcement of the nuclear non proliferation treaty (NPT)

  6. Adaptive elimination of synchronization in coupled oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shijie; Ji, Peng; Zhou, Qing; Feng, Jianfeng; Kurths, Jürgen; Lin, Wei

    2017-08-01

    We present here an adaptive control scheme with a feedback delay to achieve elimination of synchronization in a large population of coupled and synchronized oscillators. We validate the feasibility of this scheme not only in the coupled Kuramoto’s oscillators with a unimodal or bimodal distribution of natural frequency, but also in two representative models of neuronal networks, namely, the FitzHugh-Nagumo spiking oscillators and the Hindmarsh-Rose bursting oscillators. More significantly, we analytically illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme with a feedback delay and reveal how the exact topological form of the bimodal natural frequency distribution influences the scheme performance. We anticipate that our developed scheme will deepen the understanding and refinement of those controllers, e.g. techniques of deep brain stimulation, which have been implemented in remedying some synchronization-induced mental disorders including Parkinson disease and epilepsy.

  7. RESULTS of the "ELIMINATING NOISE" campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    From 4 to 6 August, CERN’s nurses conducted a screening campaign entitled "Eliminating noise". This campaign was especially aimed at young people exposed to noise during their leisure hours (playing in a band, listening to MP3 players, attending concerts, etc.). In all, 166 people attended the Infirmary, where they were able to receive personalised advice, documentation and, above all, a hearing test (audiogram). While the high attendance of people in the younger age category (18-30) was a success, their audiogram data were a cause for concern, with 24.5% showing abnormal results, hearing deficiencies which, we should remind you, are irreversible. It should be noted that such conditions are almost exclusively caused by noise exposure in a non-professional environment (leisure activities, music, etc.). This latest campaign confirms the harmful effects of noise on people’s hearing due to the absence or insufficiency of protective equipment during music-related activities; this further unde...

  8. RESULTS of the "ELIMINATING NOISE" campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    From 4 to 6 August, CERN’s nurses conducted a screening campaign entitled "Eliminating noise". This campaign was especially aimed at young people exposed to noise during their leisure hours (playing in a band, listening to MP3 players, attending concerts, etc.). In all, 166 people attended the infirmary, where they were able to receive personalised advice, documentation and, above all, a hearing test (audiogram). While the high attendance of people in the younger age category (18-30) was a success, their audiogram data were a cause for concern, with 24.5% showing abnormal results, hearing deficiencies which, we should remind you, are irreversible. It should be noted that such conditions are almost exclusively caused by noise exposure in a non-professional environment (leisure activities, music, etc.). This latest campaign confirms the harmful effects of noise on people’s hearing due to the absence or insufficiency of protective equipment during music-related activities; this further unde...

  9. Adaptive elimination of synchronization in coupled oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shijie; Lin, Wei; Ji, Peng; Feng, Jianfeng; Zhou, Qing; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We present here an adaptive control scheme with a feedback delay to achieve elimination of synchronization in a large population of coupled and synchronized oscillators. We validate the feasibility of this scheme not only in the coupled Kuramoto’s oscillators with a unimodal or bimodal distribution of natural frequency, but also in two representative models of neuronal networks, namely, the FitzHugh–Nagumo spiking oscillators and the Hindmarsh–Rose bursting oscillators. More significantly, we analytically illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme with a feedback delay and reveal how the exact topological form of the bimodal natural frequency distribution influences the scheme performance. We anticipate that our developed scheme will deepen the understanding and refinement of those controllers, e.g. techniques of deep brain stimulation, which have been implemented in remedying some synchronization-induced mental disorders including Parkinson disease and epilepsy. (paper)

  10. A siphon well model for hydraulic performance optimization and bubble elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Hui, E-mail: fuhui_iwhr@126.com; Ji, Ping; Xia, Qingfu; Guo, Xinlei

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new method was proposed to improve the hydraulic performance and bubble elimination. • The diversion pier and diversion grid were used to stabilize the flow pattern. • Double multi-hole orifices were arranged after the weir. • The new method has a simpler construction and greater bubble elimination. - Abstract: In coastal nuclear power plants, bubble entrainment at the hydraulic jump in the siphon well causes foam pollution and salt fog erosion near the outfall of the siphon well. Thus, bubble elimination in siphon wells has been a topic of considerable interest. This study presents a new hydraulic performance optimization and bubble elimination method based on model experiments. Compared to previous methods, the new method has a simple structure, is effective in eliminating bubbles and is well adapted to different tide levels. The method mainly uses a diversion pier, diversion grid and multi-hole orifices to improve the hydraulic performance, thus reducing bubble entrainment at the hydraulic jump and shortening the bubble movement length in the siphon well. This study provides a valuable reference for the future siphon well design of coastal power plants.

  11. A siphon well model for hydraulic performance optimization and bubble elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Hui; Ji, Ping; Xia, Qingfu; Guo, Xinlei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method was proposed to improve the hydraulic performance and bubble elimination. • The diversion pier and diversion grid were used to stabilize the flow pattern. • Double multi-hole orifices were arranged after the weir. • The new method has a simpler construction and greater bubble elimination. - Abstract: In coastal nuclear power plants, bubble entrainment at the hydraulic jump in the siphon well causes foam pollution and salt fog erosion near the outfall of the siphon well. Thus, bubble elimination in siphon wells has been a topic of considerable interest. This study presents a new hydraulic performance optimization and bubble elimination method based on model experiments. Compared to previous methods, the new method has a simple structure, is effective in eliminating bubbles and is well adapted to different tide levels. The method mainly uses a diversion pier, diversion grid and multi-hole orifices to improve the hydraulic performance, thus reducing bubble entrainment at the hydraulic jump and shortening the bubble movement length in the siphon well. This study provides a valuable reference for the future siphon well design of coastal power plants.

  12. The challenge of involving elderly patients in primary care using an electronic communication tool with their professionals : A mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Catharina C.; Ros, Wynand J.G.; Van Leeuwen, Mia; Schrijvers, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients in primary care often have multiple health problems, with different healthcare professionals involved. For consistency in care, it is required that communication amongst professionals and patient-systems (patient and informal-carers) be well tuned.

  13. Reactions of the ionized enol tautomer of acetanilide: elimination of HNCO via a novel rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, Lisa N; Carter, Lynn M; Bowen, Richard D; Terlouw, Johan K

    2003-01-01

    The reactions of ionised acetanilide, C(6)H(5)NH(=O)CH(3)(.+), and its enol, C(6)H(5)NH(OH)=CH(2)(.+), have been studied by a combination of tandem mass spectrometric and computational methods. These two isomeric radical cations have distinct chemistries at low internal energies. The keto tautomer eliminates exclusively CH(2)=C=O to give ionised aniline. In contrast, the enol tautomer loses H-N=C=O, via an unusual skeletal rearrangement, to form predominantly ionised methylene cyclohexadiene. Hydrogen atom loss also occurs from the enol tautomer, with the formation of protonated oxindole. The mechanisms for H-N=C=O and hydrogen atom loss both involve cyclisation; the former proceeds via a spiro transition state formed by attachment of the methylene group to the ipso position, whereas the latter entails the formation of a five-membered ring by attachment to the ortho position. The behaviour of labelled analogues reveals that these two processes have different site selectivities. Hydrogen atom loss involves a reverse critical energy and is subject to an isotope effect. Surprisingly, attempts to promote the enolisation of ionised acetanilide by proton-transport catalysis were unsuccessful. In a reversal of the usual situation for ionised carbonyl compounds, ionised acetanilide is actually more stable than its enol tautomer. The enol tautomer was resistant to proton-transport catalysed ketonisation to ionised acetanilide, possibly because the favoured geometry of the encounter complex with the base molecule is inappropriate for facilitating tautomerisation.

  14. 76 FR 24802 - Eliminating the Decision Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... 0960-AG80 Eliminating the Decision Review Board AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: We are eliminating the Decision Review Board (DRB) portions of part 405 of our rules...-level process. DSI also eliminated review by the Appeals Council, the final step in our administrative...

  15. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...--Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Proclamation 8823--Armed Forces Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Prison Rape Elimination Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Sexual... Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) was enacted with bipartisan support and established a ``zero...

  16. Recording {gamma} spectrometer with elimination of compton background; Spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur avec elimination du bruit de fond compton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This instrument, derived from the recording {gamma} spectrograph, gives better definition of photoelectric peaks by elimination of pulses caused by {gamma} photons incompletely absorbed in the scintillator (Compton effect). This system uses an original method devised by Peirson: the spectrum, devoid of photoelectric peak, supplied by a detector equipped with an anthracene scintillator, is cut off from the spectrum provided by a conventional detector equipped with a Nal (T1) scintillator. The regulation of the mechanical system, detector support and source allows the detection yields to be adjusted. The electronic system is identical in presentation with that of the recording spectrograph. (author) [French] Cet appareil derive du spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur permet d'obtenir une meilleure definition des pics photoelectriques, par elimination des impulsions provenant des photons {gamma} incompletement absorbes dans le scintillateur (effet Compton). Cet ensemble met en oeuvre une methode originale due a Peirson: le spectre, depourvu de pic photoelectrique, fourni par un detecteur, equipe avec un scintillateur d'anthracene, est retranche du spectre donne par un detecteur classique, equipe avec un scintillateur de NaI (T1). Le reglage de l'ensemble mecanique, support des detecteurs et de la source, permet d'ajuster les rendements de detection. L'ensemble electronique se presente sous un aspect identique a celui du spectrographe enregistreur. (auteur)

  17. A novel method, digital genome scanning detects KRAS gene amplification in gastric cancers: involvement of overexpressed wild-type KRAS in downstream signaling and cancer cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Hiroaki; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Fujita, Masahiro; Hosokawa, Masao; Kusano, Masanobu; Sabau, Sorin Vasile; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Tokino, Takashi; Toyota, Minoru; Aoki, Fumio; Akashi, Hirofumi; Maruyama, Reo; Sasaki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Idogawa, Masashi; Kashima, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third most common malignancy affecting the general population worldwide. Aberrant activation of KRAS is a key factor in the development of many types of tumor, however, oncogenic mutations of KRAS are infrequent in gastric cancer. We have developed a novel quantitative method of analysis of DNA copy number, termed digital genome scanning (DGS), which is based on the enumeration of short restriction fragments, and does not involve PCR or hybridization. In the current study, we used DGS to survey copy-number alterations in gastric cancer cells. DGS of gastric cancer cell lines was performed using the sequences of 5000 to 15000 restriction fragments. We screened 20 gastric cancer cell lines and 86 primary gastric tumors for KRAS amplification by quantitative PCR, and investigated KRAS amplification at the DNA, mRNA and protein levels by mutational analysis, real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, GTP-RAS pull-down assay and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of KRAS knock-down on the activation of p44/42 MAP kinase and AKT and on cell growth were examined by immunoblot and colorimetric assay, respectively. DGS analysis of the HSC45 gastric cancer cell line revealed the amplification of a 500-kb region on chromosome 12p12.1, which contains the KRAS gene locus. Amplification of the KRAS locus was detected in 15% (3/20) of gastric cancer cell lines (8–18-fold amplification) and 4.7% (4/86) of primary gastric tumors (8–50-fold amplification). KRAS mutations were identified in two of the three cell lines in which KRAS was amplified, but were not detected in any of the primary tumors. Overexpression of KRAS protein correlated directly with increased KRAS copy number. The level of GTP-bound KRAS was elevated following serum stimulation in cells with amplified wild-type KRAS, but not in cells with amplified mutant KRAS. Knock-down of KRAS in gastric cancer cells that carried amplified wild-type KRAS resulted in the inhibition of cell growth and

  18. Accuracy of ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination technique: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rahul; Al-Keraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Kathuria, Nidhi; Gandhi, P V; Bhide, S V

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination techniques can be combined to offer a cost-effective, clinically acceptable, and time-saving alternative for fabricating single unit castings in fixed prosthodontics. Sixty standardized wax copings were fabricated on a type IV stone replica of a stainless steel die. The wax patterns were divided into four groups. The first group was cast using the ringless investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the second group was cast using the ringless investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method; the third group was cast using the conventional metal ring investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the fourth group was cast using the metal ring investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method. The vertical marginal gap was measured at four sites per specimen, using a digital optical microscope at 100× magnification. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA to determine statistical significance. The vertical marginal gaps of castings fabricated using the ringless technique (76.98 ± 7.59 μm) were significantly less (p castings fabricated using the conventional metal ring technique (138.44 ± 28.59 μm); however, the vertical marginal gaps of the conventional (102.63 ± 36.12 μm) and accelerated wax-elimination (112.79 ± 38.34 μm) castings were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The ringless investment technique can produce castings with higher accuracy and can be favorably combined with the accelerated wax-elimination method as a vital alternative to the time-consuming conventional technique of casting restorations in fixed prosthodontics. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Determination of myocardial FFA elimination rates by functional images of uncorrected half-time values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, F.C.; Eenige, M.J. van; Wall, E.E. van der; Roos, J.P.; Lingen, A. van; Westera, G.; Hollander, W. den; Heidendal, G.A.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative method of demarcating regions of interest over the myocardium after administration of 123 I-heptadecanoic acid to patients with coronary artery disease. In a matrix of 32x32 pixels the elimination rates of the radioactivity, which are not corrected for background activity, are visualized per pixel in a functional image. The functional image showed areas in the myocardium with high values of uncorrected elimination rates. These areas corresponded with the tracer defects on the scintigram. Corrected elimination rates obtained from regions of interest of functional images were comparable with those of scintigrams. Thus based on functional images of uncorrected elimination rates a reliable, objective determination of regions of interest over normal and abnormal myocardium can be made. (orig.) [de

  20. Data communications method for mobile network in fourth generation communications system, involves delivering decoded data to mobile station from relay station, where mobile station receives data from both relay and base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The method involves utilizing a base station (BS) (100) to transmit data to a relay station (RS) (110) and a mobile station (MS) (120), where the data includes two messages. The BS is utilized to transmit the two messages by utilizing a linear combination method, and the data is received in the RS...

  1. Selective harmonic elimination strategy in eleven level inverter for PV system with unbalanced DC sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoudelbourk, Sihem.; Dib, D.; Meghni, B.; Zouli, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with the multilevel converters control strategy for photovoltaic system integrated in distribution grids. The objective of the proposed work is to design multilevel inverters for solar energy applications so as to reduce the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and to improve the power quality. The multilevel inverter power structure plays a vital role in every aspect of the power system. It is easier to produce a high-power, high-voltage inverter with the multilevel structure. The topologies of multilevel inverter have several advantages such as high output voltage, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and reduction of voltage ratings of the power semiconductor switching devices. The proposed control strategy ensures an implementation of selective harmonic elimination (SHE) modulation for eleven levels. SHE is a very important and efficient strategy of eliminating selected harmonics by judicious selection of the firing angles of the inverter. Harmonics elimination technique eliminates the need of the expensive low pass filters in the system. Previous research considered that constant and equal DC sources with invariant behavior; however, this research extends earlier work to include variant DC sources, which are typical of lead-acid batteries when used in system PV. This Study also investigates methods to minimize the total harmonic distortion of the synthesized multilevel waveform and to help balance the battery voltage. The harmonic elimination method was used to eliminate selected lower dominant harmonics resulting from the inverter switching action.

  2. Designing programs for eliminating canine rabies from islands: Bali, Indonesia as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Sunny E; Sumantra, I Putu; Pudjiatmoko; Bagus, Gusti Ngurah; Brum, Eric; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crafter, Sally; Dewi, Ayu P M; Dharma, Dewa Made Ngurah; Dushoff, Jonathan; Girardi, Janice; Gunata, I Ketut; Hiby, Elly F; Kalalo, Corlevin; Knobel, Darryn L; Mardiana, I Wayan; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Schoonman, Luuk; Scott-Orr, Helen; Shand, Mike; Sukanadi, I Wayan; Suseno, Pebi Purwo; Haydon, Daniel T; Hampson, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Canine rabies is one of the most important and feared zoonotic diseases in the world. In some regions rabies elimination is being successfully coordinated, whereas in others rabies is endemic and continues to spread to uninfected areas. As epidemics emerge, both accepted and contentious control methods are used, as questions remain over the most effective strategy to eliminate rabies. The Indonesian island of Bali was rabies-free until 2008 when an epidemic in domestic dogs began, resulting in the deaths of over 100 people. Here we analyze data from the epidemic and compare the effectiveness of control methods at eliminating rabies. Using data from Bali, we estimated the basic reproductive number, R(0), of rabies in dogs, to be ~1 · 2, almost identical to that obtained in ten-fold less dense dog populations and suggesting rabies will not be effectively controlled by reducing dog density. We then developed a model to compare options for mass dog vaccination. Comprehensive high coverage was the single most important factor for achieving elimination, with omission of even small areas (Bali will not be achieved through achievable reductions in dog density. To ensure elimination, concerted high coverage, repeated, mass dog vaccination campaigns are necessary and the cooperation of all regions of the island is critical. Momentum is building towards development of a strategy for the global elimination of canine rabies, and this study offers valuable new insights about the dynamics and control of this disease, with immediate practical relevance.

  3. Carbon elimination from silicon kerf: Thermogravimetric analysis and mechanistic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Pufleau, Miguel; Chadha, Tandeep S; Yablonsky, Gregory; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-01-18

    40% of ultrapure silicon is lost as kerf during slicing to produce wafers. Kerf is currently not being recycled due to engineering challenges and costs associated with removing its abundant impurities. Carbon left behind from the lubricant remains as one of the most difficult contaminants to remove in kerf without significant silicon oxidation. The present work enables to better understand the mechanism of carbon elimination in kerf which can aid the design of better processes for kef recycling and low cost photovoltaics. In this paper, we studied the kinetics of carbon elimination from silicon kerf in two atmospheres: air and N 2, under a regime of no-diffusion-limitation. We report the apparent activation energy in both atmospheres using three methods: Kissinger, and two isoconversional approaches. In both atmospheres, a bimodal apparent activation energy is observed, suggesting a two stage process. A reaction mechanism is proposed in which (a) C-C and C-O bond cleavage reactions occur in parallel with polymer formation; (b) at higher temperatures, this polymer fully degrades in air but leaves a tarry residue in N 2 that accounts for about 12% of the initial total carbon.

  4. On the Importance of Elimination Heuristics in Lazy Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Læsø; Butz, Cory J.

    2012-01-01

    elimination orders on-line. This paper considers the importance of elimination heuristics in LP when using Variable Elimination (VE) as the message and single marginal computation algorithm. It considers well-known cost measures for selecting the next variable to eliminate and a new cost measure....... The empirical evaluation examines dierent heuristics as well as sequences of cost measures, and was conducted on real-world and randomly generated Bayesian networks. The results show that for most cases performance is robust relative to the cost measure used and in some cases the elimination heuristic can have...

  5. Artifact Elimination Technique in Tomogram of X-ray Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasif Mohd Zain

    2015-01-01

    Artifacts of tomogram are main commonly problems occurred in x-ray computed tomography. The artifacts will be appearing in tomogram due to noise, beam hardening, and scattered radiation. The study has been carried out using CdTe time pix detector. The new technique has been developed to eliminate the artifact occurred in hardware and software. The hardware setup involved the careful alignment all of the components of the system and the introduction of a collimator beam. Meanwhile, in software development deal with the flat field correction, noise filter and data projection algorithm. The results show the technique developed produce good quality images and eliminate the artifacts. (author)

  6. Designing Programs for Eliminating Canine Rabies from Islands: Bali, Indonesia as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Sunny E.; Sumantra, I Putu; Pudjiatmoko; Bagus, Gusti Ngurah; Brum, Eric; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crafter, Sally; Dewi, Ayu P. M.; Dharma, Dewa Made Ngurah; Dushoff, Jonathan; Girardi, Janice; Gunata, I Ketut; Hiby, Elly F.; Kalalo, Corlevin; Knobel, Darryn L.; Mardiana, I Wayan; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Schoonman, Luuk; Scott–Orr, Helen; Shand, Mike; Sukanadi, I Wayan; Suseno, Pebi Purwo; Haydon, Daniel T.; Hampson, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine rabies is one of the most important and feared zoonotic diseases in the world. In some regions rabies elimination is being successfully coordinated, whereas in others rabies is endemic and continues to spread to uninfected areas. As epidemics emerge, both accepted and contentious control methods are used, as questions remain over the most effective strategy to eliminate rabies. The Indonesian island of Bali was rabies-free until 2008 when an epidemic in domestic dogs began, resulting in the deaths of over 100 people. Here we analyze data from the epidemic and compare the effectiveness of control methods at eliminating rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from Bali, we estimated the basic reproductive number, R 0, of rabies in dogs, to be ∼1·2, almost identical to that obtained in ten–fold less dense dog populations and suggesting rabies will not be effectively controlled by reducing dog density. We then developed a model to compare options for mass dog vaccination. Comprehensive high coverage was the single most important factor for achieving elimination, with omission of even small areas (<0.5% of the dog population) jeopardizing success. Parameterizing the model with data from the 2010 and 2011 vaccination campaigns, we show that a comprehensive high coverage campaign in 2012 would likely result in elimination, saving ∼550 human lives and ∼$15 million in prophylaxis costs over the next ten years. Conclusions/Significance The elimination of rabies from Bali will not be achieved through achievable reductions in dog density. To ensure elimination, concerted high coverage, repeated, mass dog vaccination campaigns are necessary and the cooperation of all regions of the island is critical. Momentum is building towards development of a strategy for the global elimination of canine rabies, and this study offers valuable new insights about the dynamics and control of this disease, with immediate practical relevance. PMID:23991233

  7. Elimination of onchocerciasis from Colombia: first proof of concept of river blindness elimination in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Duque, Sofía; Olaya, Luz Adriana; López, Myriam Consuelo; Sánchez, Sol Beatriz; Morales, Alba Lucía; Palma, Gloria Inés

    2018-04-11

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection originally endemic in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries of Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela). In Colombia, this disease was discovered in 1965 in the Pacific Coast of the country. The National Onchocerciasis Elimination Program was established in 1993 with the aim of eliminating disease morbidity and infection transmission. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) verified Colombia as free of onchocerciasis, becoming the first country in the world to reach such a goal. This report provides the empirical evidence of the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium exiguum (s.l.) after 12 years of 6-monthly mass drug administration of Mectizan® (ivermectin) to all the eligible residents living in this endemic area. From 1996 onwards, a biannual community-based mass ivermectin administration programme was implemented, complemented by health education and community participation. In-depth parasitological, serological and entomological surveys were conducted periodically between 1998 and 2007 to evaluate the impact of ivermectin treatment according to the 2001 WHO guidelines. When the interruption of parasite transmission was demonstrated, the drug distribution ceased and a three-year post-treatment surveillance (PTS) period (2008-2010) was initiated. After 23 rounds of treatment, parasitological and ophthalmological assessments showed absence of microfilariae in skin and anterior chamber of the eyes. Serological tests proved lack of antibodies against O. volvulus in children under 10 years-old. A total of 10,500 S. exiguum flies tested by PCR had no L3 infection (infectivity rate = 0.0095%; 95% CI: 0.0029-0.049) during 2004, indicating interruption of parasite transmission. However, biannual ivermectin treatments continued until 2007 followed by a 3-year PTS period at the end of which 13,481 flies were analyzed and no infective flies were

  8. Polio elimination in Nigeria: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Usman Nakakana; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda Sankar; Montagnani, Francesca; Akite, Jacqueline Elaine; Mungu, Etaluka Blanche; Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; Ismaila, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-03-03

    Nigeria has made tremendous strides towards eliminating polio and has been free of wild polio virus (WPV) for more than a year as of August 2015. However, sustained focus towards getting rid of all types of poliovirus by improving population immunity and enhancing disease surveillance will be needed to ensure it sustains the polio-free status. We reviewed the pertinent literature including published and unpublished, official reports and working documents of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners as well as other concerned organizations. The literature were selected based on the following criteria: published in English Language, published after year 2000, relevant content and conformance to the theme of the review and these were sorted accordingly. The challenges facing the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) in Nigeria were found to fall into 3 broad categories viz failure to vaccinate, failure of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and epidemiology of the virus. Failure to vaccinate resulted from insecurity, heterogeneous political support, programmatic limitation in implementation of vaccination campaigns, poor performance of vaccination teams in persistently poor performing Local Government areas and sporadic vaccine refusals in Northern Nigeria. Sub optimal effectiveness of OPV in some settings as well as the rare occurrence of VDPVs associated with OPV type 2 in areas of low immunization coverage were also found to be key issues. Some of the innovations which helped to manage the threats to the PEI include a strong government accountability frame work, change from type 2 containing OPV to bi valent OPVs for supplementary immunization activities (SIA), enhancing environmental surveillance in key states (Sokoto, Kano and Borno) along with an overall improvement in SIA quality. There has been an improvement in coverage of routine immunization and vaccination campaigns, which has resulted in Nigeria being removed from the list of endemic countries

  9. Elimination of Taenia solium Transmission in Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; O'Neal, Seth E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Romero, Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moyano, Luz M; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre; Hightower, Allen; Craig, Philip S; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Gauci, Charles G; Leontsini, Elli; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-06-16

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are major causes of seizures and epilepsy. Infection by the causative parasite Taenia solium requires transmission between humans and pigs. The disease is considered to be eradicable, but data on attempts at regional elimination are lacking. We conducted a three-phase control program in Tumbes, Peru, to determine whether regional elimination would be feasible. We systematically tested and compared elimination strategies to show the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of T. solium infection in a region of highly endemic disease in Peru. In phase 1, we assessed the effectiveness and feasibility of six intervention strategies that involved screening of humans and pigs, antiparasitic treatment, prevention education, and pig replacement in 42 villages. In phase 2, we compared mass treatment with mass screening (each either with or without vaccination of pigs) in 17 villages. In phase 3, we implemented the final strategy of mass treatment of humans along with the mass treatment and vaccination of pigs in the entire rural region of Tumbes (107 villages comprising 81,170 people and 55,638 pigs). The effect of the intervention was measured after phases 2 and 3 with the use of detailed necropsy to detect pigs with live, nondegenerated cysts capable of causing new infection. The necropsy sampling was weighted in that we preferentially included more samples from seropositive pigs than from seronegative pigs. Only two of the strategies implemented in phase 1 resulted in limited control over the transmission of T. solium infection, which highlighted the need to intensify the subsequent strategies. After the strategies in phase 2 were implemented, no cyst that was capable of further transmission of T. solium infection was found among 658 sampled pigs. One year later, without further intervention, 7 of 310 sampled pigs had live, nondegenerated cysts, but no infected pig was found in 11 of 17 villages, including all the villages in which mass

  10. Reward eliminates retrieval-induced forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hisato; Kim, Dongho; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2014-12-02

    Although it is well known that reward enhances learning and memory, how extensively such enhancement occurs remains unclear. To address this question, we examined how reward influences retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) in which the retrieval of a nonpracticed item under the same category as a practiced item is worse than the retrieval of a nonpracticed item outside the category. Subjects were asked to try to encode category-exemplar pairs (e.g., FISH-salmon). Then, they were presented with a category name and a two-letter word stem (e.g., FISH-sa) and were asked to complete an encoded word (retrieval practice). For a correct response, apple juice was given as a reward in the reward condition and a beeping sound was presented in the no-reward condition. Finally, subjects were asked to report whether each exemplar had been presented in the first phase. RIF was replicated in the no-reward condition. However, in the reward condition, RIF was eliminated. These results suggest that reward enhances processing of retrieval of unpracticed members by mechanisms such as spreading activation within the same category, irrespective of whether items were practiced or not.

  11. Eliminating Residents Increases the Cost of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Deborah M; Forster, Richard; Gakis, Thomas; Finberg, Robert W

    2017-08-01

    Academic health centers are facing a potential reduction in Medicare financing for graduate medical education (GME). Both the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission and the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform (Deficit Commission) have suggested cutting approximately half the funding that teaching hospitals receive for indirect medical education. Because of the effort that goes into teaching trainees, who are only transient employees, hospital executives often see teaching programs as a drain on resources. In light of the possibility of a Medicare cut to GME programs, we undertook an analysis to assess the financial risk of training programs to our institution and the possibility of saving money by reducing resident positions. The chief administrative officer, in collaboration with the hospital chief financial officer, performed a financial analysis to examine the possibility of decreasing costs by reducing residency programs at the University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center. Despite the real costs of our training programs, the analysis demonstrated that GME programs have a positive impact on hospital finances. Reducing or eliminating GME programs would have a negative impact on our hospital's bottom line.

  12. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilcher, Ronald O; McCombs, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    This review is designed to help readers understand seasonal blood shortages and provide solutions through the use of technology that can increase the number of red blood cell units collected and the use of recruitment and marketing initiatives that appeal to the increasingly diverse donor base. Seasonal shortages are, in reality, mostly shortages of group O red blood cells and occur most commonly during midsummer and early winter. The shortages occur primarily from increased use of group O red blood cells at times of decreased donor availability. While reducing the disproportionate use of red cells will help, blood centers can more quickly reduce the seasonal deficits by using automated red cell technology to collect double red blood cell units; targeted marketing programs to provide effective messages; seasonal advertising campaigns; and recognition, benefits, and incentives to enhance the donor motivation donation threshold. A multi-level approach to increasing blood donations at difficult times of the year can ensure that donations are increased at a time when regular donor availability is decreased. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated by understanding the nature of the shortages, why and when they occur, and using more sophisticated recruitment and marketing strategies as well as automated collection technologies to enhance the blood supply.

  13. Minimizing or eliminating refueling of nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncals, Richard A.; Paik, Nam-Chin; Andre, Sandra V.; Porter, Charles A.; Rathbun, Roy W.; Schwallie, Ambrose L.; Petras, Diane S.

    1989-01-01

    Demand for refueling of a liquid metal fast nuclear reactor having a life of 30 years is eliminated or reduced to intervals of at least 10 years by operating the reactor at a low linear-power density, typically 2.5 kw/ft of fuel rod, rather than 7.5 or 15 kw/ft, which is the prior art practice. So that power of the same magnitude as for prior art reactors is produced, the volume of the core is increased. In addition, the height of the core and it diameter are dimensioned so that the ratio of the height to the diameter approximates 1 to the extent practicable considering the requirement of control and that the pressure drop in the coolant shall not be excessive. The surface area of a cylinder of given volume is a minimum if the ratio of the height to the diameter is 1. By minimizing the surface area, the leakage of neutrons is reduced. By reducing the linear-power density, increasing core volume, reducing fissile enrichment and optimizing core geometry, internal-core breeding of fissionable fuel is substantially enhanced. As a result, core operational life, limited by control worth requirements and fuel burnup capability, is extended up to 30 years of continuous power operation.

  14. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  15. Elimination device for decontaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct efficient decontamination injecting solid carbon dioxide particles at a high speed by using a simple and compact device. Constitution: Liquid carbon dioxide is injected from a first vessel containing liquid carbon dioxide by way of a carbon dioxide supply tube to a solid carbon dioxide particle jetting device. The liquid carbon dioxide is partially converted into fine solid carbon dioxide particles due to the temperature reduction caused by adiabatic expansion of the gaseous carbon dioxide in an expansion space for the gaseous carbon dioxide formed in the jetting device and arrives at a solid carbon dioxide injection nozzle in communication with the expansion space. Then, the fine solid carbon dioxide particles are further cooled and accelerated by the nitrogen gas jetted out from a nitrogen gas nozzle at the top of a nitrogen gas supply tube in communication with a second vessel containing liquid nitrogen disposed within the nozzle, and jetted out from the solid carbon dioxide injection nozzle to collide against the surface to be decontaminated and eliminate the surface contamination. (Seki, T.)

  16. Elimination of excess molybdenum by cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelgyesi, G.; Elmoty, I.A.

    1967-01-01

    It was found that cattle would ingest spontaneously 5-15 g of molybdenum on one occasion. The uptake of this quantity caused but moderate loss of appetite and mild enteritis, both normalizing in one week. The occurrence of a severe acute molybdenum poisoning can be practically excluded, owing to refusal of the poisoned feed. Spontaneously ingested molybdenum caused on the first day a 30-100 fold rise of ruminal Mo-level, decreasing to the order of the normal value in about one week. But in the urine and faeces, Mo-level was at least 10 fold, in the blood and milk about 4 fold of the normal one, even one or two weeks after ingestion. During this period at least 90% of ingested Mo was eliminated with the faeces, urine and milk. One week after the ingestion of molybdenum, the rumen content showed no evidence on poisoning and no trace of molybdenum. Oral administration of ammonium molybdenate in an amount equivalent to 40 g molybdenum caused no fatality. In fact, cattle would never ingest spontaneously such a large dose.

  17. Interocularly merged face percepts eliminate binocular rivalry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P. Christiaan; Boucherie, Daphne; Denys, Damiaan; Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Self, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Faces are important visual objects for humans and other social animals. A complex network of specialized brain areas is involved in the recognition and interpretation of faces. This network needs to strike a balance between being sensitive enough to distinguish between different faces with similar

  18. Stereochemistry of 1,2-elimination and proton-transfer reactions: toward a unified understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrig, Jerry R

    2013-07-16

    Many mechanistic and stereochemical studies have focused on the breaking of the C-H bond through base-catalyzed elimination reactions. When we began our research, however, chemists knew almost nothing about the stereospecificity of addition-elimination reactions involving conjugated acyclic carbonyl compounds, even though the carbonyl group is a pivotal functional group in organic chemistry. Over the last 25 years, we have studied the addition-elimination reactions of β-substituted acyclic esters, thioesters, and ketones in order to reach a comprehensive understanding of how electronic effects influence their stereochemistry. This Account brings together our understanding of the stereochemistry of 1,2-elimination and proton-transfer reactions, describing how each study has built upon previous work and contributed to our understanding of this field. When we began, chemists thought that anti stereospecificity in base-catalyzed 1,2-elimination reactions occurred via concerted E2 mechanisms, which provide a smooth path for anti elimination. Unexpectedly, we discovered that some E1cBirrev reactions produce the same anti stereospecificity as E2 reactions even though they proceed through diffusionally equilibrated, "free" enolate-anion intermediates. This result calls into question the conventional wisdom that anti stereochemistry must result from a concerted mechanism. While carrying out our research, we developed insights ranging from the role of historical contingency in the evolution of hydratase-dehydratase enzymes to the influence of buffers on the stereochemistry of H/D exchange in D2O. Negative hyperconjugation is the most important concept for understanding our results. This idea provides a unifying view for the largely anti stereochemistry in E1cBirrev elimination reactions and a basis for understanding the stereoelectronic influence of electron-withdrawing β-substituents on proton-transfer reactions.

  19. Food allergy diagnosis in patients with elimination diet history. Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Maureen Navarrete-Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy diagnosis is performed by a double blind placebo controlled challenge; however, in a lot of patients, it is only based on clinical history, skin prick tests, or parents’ perception. There is a high frequency of elimination diets without an adequate approach. Objective: To analyze the results of diagnostic tests in a group of children with elimination diet-based on suspected food allergy and verify such studies with double blind placebo-controlled test challenge. Material and method: An observational, analytical and prospective study was done in a group of patients with elimination diet for suspected food allergy. We performed prick test, Prick-to-Prick test and patch test and the positive ones were verified by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge. Results: Fourty-three patients were included within a total of 1,935 tests. Both approach for immediate and late sensitivity had not statistically significant relationship between a positive test and the elimination of food. Until now, we had 4 (8% positive challenges out of 50. Conclusion: The frequency of allergy proved by double-blind placebo-controlled test in 50 challenges was of 8% (4/50, thus, in the preliminary report we found a high frequency of elimination diets without adequate support. It is very important that food allergy diagnosis is accurate and based on an appropriate approach; since the implementation of an elimination diet in pediatric population can have a negative influence on their growth and development.

  20. Information filtering based on corrected redundancy-eliminating mass diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhen Zhu

    Full Text Available Methods used in information filtering and recommendation often rely on quantifying the similarity between objects or users. The used similarity metrics often suffer from similarity redundancies arising from correlations between objects' attributes. Based on an unweighted undirected object-user bipartite network, we propose a Corrected Redundancy-Eliminating similarity index (CRE which is based on a spreading process on the network. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets-Movilens, Netflix and Amazon-show that when used in recommendation, the CRE yields significant improvements in terms of recommendation accuracy and diversity. A detailed analysis is presented to unveil the origins of the observed differences between the CRE and mainstream similarity indices.

  1. Elimination of striation in laser cutting of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobih, M; Crouse, P L; Li, L

    2007-01-01

    High-power laser cutting is extensively used in many industrial applications. An important weakness of this process is the formation of striations (regular lines down the cut surface), which affect the quality of the surfaces produced. The elimination of striation formation is of considerable importance, since it could open up a variety of novel high-precision applications. This study presents the results of oxygen-assisted laser cutting of EN43 mild steel sheets, using a high-power fibre laser. Striation-free laser cuts are demonstrated for cutting 1 and 2 mm thick mild steel sheets. The optimal operating windows are presented and a mathematical method is proposed to estimate the critical speed at which striation-free cut can be obtained

  2. Elimination of striation in laser cutting of mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobih, M; Crouse, P L; Li, L [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street Building, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-21

    High-power laser cutting is extensively used in many industrial applications. An important weakness of this process is the formation of striations (regular lines down the cut surface), which affect the quality of the surfaces produced. The elimination of striation formation is of considerable importance, since it could open up a variety of novel high-precision applications. This study presents the results of oxygen-assisted laser cutting of EN43 mild steel sheets, using a high-power fibre laser. Striation-free laser cuts are demonstrated for cutting 1 and 2 mm thick mild steel sheets. The optimal operating windows are presented and a mathematical method is proposed to estimate the critical speed at which striation-free cut can be obtaine000.

  3. Diagnosing Allergic Contact Dermatitis Through Elimination, Perception, Detection and Deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Puangpet, Pailin; Thaiwat, Supitchaya; McFadden, John P

    2017-10-01

    Several authors have commented upon the skills of detection required in making a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we emphasise the search for clues in a systematic manner. We describe four stages as part of a systematic method for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis. Firstly, elimination (or inclusion) of non-allergic diagnoses. Secondly, perception: the pre-patch test diagnosis and the 'three scenarios' principle. Thirdly, detection: optimising the sensitivity of the patch test process. Fourthly, deduction: diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis by associating the dermatitis with the allergen exposure. We further compare and contrast the pre-patch test history and examination with the markedly different one ('microhistory' and 'microexamination') used after patch testing. The importance of knowledge of contact dermatitis literature is emphasised with a review of recent publications. Finally, we also highlight the use of contact allergy profiling as an investigative tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.

  4. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  5. Radiologically- detectable sacroiliac involvement in behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadji, A.; Shabani, M.; Jamshidi, A.; Shahram, F.; Davatchi, F.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The association of Behcet's disease and ankylosing spondylitis is still a matter of debate. Objective: As the presence of sacroiliac joint involvement is an essential criterion in diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis . We decided to determined the prevalence of sacroiliac joint involvement in Behcet's disease and compare it with that of a control group. Patients and Methods: We randomly selected two groups of 199 Behcet's disease patients and 168 non- Behcet's disease cases (the controls). All cases were over 20 years of ages. Standard anteroposterior radiographs of the sacroiliac joint were obtained and interpreted by two rheumatologists and a radiologists blinded to the diagnosis. To determined the severity of the condition, the following 5-point scale was employed: Normal (O), pseudo-widening (1), sclerosis (2), erosion (3), and bony fusion (4). The eliminate any doubt, only grades 3 and 4 were considered as sacroiliitis. Both group were separately evaluated for age (≤ 30, and ≥ 30), and gender. Results were compared using Chi square test. Results: The groups were matched for age and sex: There were 98 (49.2%) females in Behcet's disease vs. 91 (54.2%) in the control group (p=O.35). The mean ±SD age was 35±8.3 years in Behcet's disease and 35 ±10 in control group (p=1). The sacroiliac joint was involved in 9 (4.6%) patients in Behcet's disease and 7 (4.2%) patients in control group (p=O.93). Comparisons between the results of the unisexual cohorts revealed to significance either (p=O.68 for males, and p=O.64 for females). The age subdivisions (under- and over-30) again showed no significant difference (p=O.96 and p=O.69 for under- and over -30 patients, respectively). Conclusion: The presence of radiographic signs of sacroiliac joint involvement is not mandatory for the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis

  6. The challenge of involving elderly patients in primary care by using an electronic communication tool with their professionals: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Carolina de Jong

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Congredi was usable for patient-systems. The barriers found seem not to be tool-related but primarily user-related. An important barrier for daily use was limited active participation of involved professionals in a complete feedback loop. Potential for future implementation was found, as patient-systems were intrinsically motivated for better feedback with the professionals, even though in this study it only partly met their expectations.

  7. Fabrication techniques to eliminate postweld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochhead, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Postweld heat treatments to reduce residual stresses (stress relief operations) have been a common practice in the pressure vessel industry for a large number of years. A suitable heat treatment operation can, in particular for low alloy steels, have additional beneficial effects, i.e. a reduction in peak hardness values in the heat-affected zone, an improvement in weld metal properties, and a lowering of the adverse effects of the welding process on the mechanical properties of the parent material adjacent to the weld metal. However, continuing studies in the field of brittle fracture, improved parent materials, and more sophisticated nondestructive testing techniques have led to the elimination of such a practice in ever-increasing thickness ranges and types of material. For instance, the recently issued BS 5500 compared with BS 1113 (1969) lifts the thickness limit requiring stress relief in certain circumstances from 19 to 35mm for C steels. With respect to materials the CEGB has stated that as a result of successful operational experience it will no longer be necessary to postweld heat treat butt welds in 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo tubes of certain dimensions. Despite this trend, over a period of years a number of instances have arisen where, because of some factor, postweld heat treatment, although perhaps desirable, is not possible. This Paper describes several such examples. It must be noted that the examples quoted consist of relatively important and major items. It has been necessary within the confines of this Paper to condense the reports. It is hoped that no significant factors have been omitted. (author)

  8. Harmonic elimination in diode-clamped multilevel inverter using evolutionary algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkati, Said [Laboratoire d' analyse des Signaux et Systemes (LASS), Universite de M' sila, BP. 166, rue Ichbilia 28000 M' sila (Algeria); Baghli, Lotfi [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), CNRS UMR 7030, Universite Henri Poincare Nancy 1, BP. 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Berkouk, El Madjid; Boucherit, Mohamed-Seghir [Laboratoire de Commande des Processus (LCP), Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, BP. 182, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, 16200 El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2008-10-15

    This paper describes two evolutionary algorithms for the optimized harmonic stepped-waveform technique. Genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization are applied to compute the switching angles in a three-phase seven-level inverter to produce the required fundamental voltage while, at the same time, specified harmonics are eliminated. Furthermore, these algorithms are also used to solve the starting point problem of the Newton-Raphson conventional method. This combination provides a very effective method for the harmonic elimination technique. This strategy is useful for different structures of seven-level inverters. The diode-clamped topology is considered in this study. (author)

  9. Real-time detection and elimination of nonorthogonality error in interference fringe processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haijiang; Zhang Fengdeng

    2011-01-01

    In the measurement system of interference fringe, the nonorthogonality error is a main error source that influences the precision and accuracy of the measurement system. The detection and elimination of the error has been an important target. A novel method that only uses the cross-zero detection and the counting is proposed to detect and eliminate the nonorthogonality error in real time. This method can be simply realized by means of the digital logic device, because it does not invoke trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions. And it can be widely used in the bidirectional subdivision systems of a Moire fringe and other optical instruments.

  10. Eliminating the Effect of Rating Bias on Reputation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rapid development of the e-commercial and interest-base websites makes it more pressing to evaluate objects’ accurate quality before recommendation. The objects’ quality is often calculated based on their historical information, such as selected records or rating scores. Usually high quality products obtain higher average ratings than low quality products regardless of rating biases or errors. However, many empirical cases demonstrate that consumers may be misled by rating scores added by unreliable users or deliberate tampering. In this case, users’ reputation, that is, the ability to rate trustily and precisely, makes a big difference during the evaluation process. Thus, one of the main challenges in designing reputation systems is eliminating the effects of users’ rating bias. To give an objective evaluation of each user’s reputation and uncover an object’s intrinsic quality, we propose an iterative balance (IB method to correct users’ rating biases. Experiments on two datasets show that the IB method is a highly self-consistent and robust algorithm and it can accurately quantify movies’ actual quality and users’ stability of rating. Compared with existing methods, the IB method has higher ability to find the “dark horses,” that is, not so popular yet good movies, in the Academy Awards.

  11. Paired Pulse Basis Functions for the Method of Moments EFIE Solution of Electromagnetic Problems Involving Arbitrarily-shaped, Three-dimensional Dielectric Scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Anne I.; Rao, Sadasiva M.; Baginski, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    A pair of basis functions is presented for the surface integral, method of moment solution of scattering by arbitrarily-shaped, three-dimensional dielectric bodies. Equivalent surface currents are represented by orthogonal unit pulse vectors in conjunction with triangular patch modeling. The electric field integral equation is employed with closed geometries for dielectric bodies; the method may also be applied to conductors. Radar cross section results are shown for dielectric bodies having canonical spherical, cylindrical, and cubic shapes. Pulse basis function results are compared to results by other methods.

  12. Alan Turing and the origins of modern Gaussian elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dopico, Froilán M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The solution of a system of linear equations is by far the most important problem in Applied Mathematics. It is important both in itself and because it is an intermediate step in many other important problems. Gaussian elimination is nowadays the standard method for solving this problem numerically on a computer and it was the first numerical algorithm to be subjected to rounding error analysis. In 1948, Alan Turing published a remarkable paper on this topic: “Rounding-off errors in matrix processes” (Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 1, pp. 287-308. In this paper, Turing formulated Gaussian elimination as the matrix LU factorization and introduced the “condition number of a matrix”, both of them fundamental notions of modern Numerical Analysis. In addition, Turing presented an error analysis of Gaussian elimination for general matrices that deeply influenced the spirit of the definitive analysis developed by James Wilkinson in 1961. Alan Turing’s work on Gaussian elimination appears in a fascinating period for modern Numerical Analysis. Other giants of Mathematics, as John von Neumann, Herman Goldstine, and Harold Hotelling were also working in the mid-1940s on Gaussian elimination. The goal of these researchers was to find an efficient and reliable method for solving systems of linear equations in modern “automatic computers”. At that time, it was not clear at all whether Gaussian elimination was a right choice or not. The purpose of this paper is to revise, at an introductory level, the contributions of Alan Turing and other authors to the error analysis of Gaussian elimination, the historical context of these contributions, and their influence on modern Numerical Analysis.La resolución de sistemas de ecuaciones lineales es sin duda el problema más importante en Matemática Aplicada. Es importante en sí mismo y también porque es un paso intermedio en la resolución de muchos otros problemas de gran relevancia. La eliminaci

  13. Evaluating performance of high efficiency mist eliminators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, Charles A.; Parsons, Michael S.; Giffin, Paxton K. [Mississippi State University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Processing liquid wastes frequently generates off gas streams with high humidity and liquid aerosols. Droplet laden air streams can be produced from tank mixing or sparging and processes such as reforming or evaporative volume reduction. Unfortunately these wet air streams represent a genuine threat to HEPA filters. High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are one option for removal of liquid aerosols with high dissolved or suspended solids content. HEMEs have been used extensively in industrial applications, however they have not seen widespread use in the nuclear industry. Filtering efficiency data along with loading curves are not readily available for these units and data that exist are not easily translated to operational parameters in liquid waste treatment plants. A specialized test stand has been developed to evaluate the performance of HEME elements under use conditions of a US DOE facility. HEME elements were tested at three volumetric flow rates using aerosols produced from an iron-rich waste surrogate. The challenge aerosol included submicron particles produced from Laskin nozzles and super micron particles produced from a hollow cone spray nozzle. Test conditions included ambient temperature and relative humidities greater than 95%. Data collected during testing HEME elements from three different manufacturers included volumetric flow rate, differential temperature across the filter housing, downstream relative humidity, and differential pressure (dP) across the filter element. Filter challenge was discontinued at three intermediate dPs and the filter to allow determining filter efficiency using dioctyl phthalate and then with dry surrogate aerosols. Filtering efficiencies of the clean HEME, the clean HEME loaded with water, and the HEME at maximum dP were also collected using the two test aerosols. Results of the testing included differential pressure vs. time loading curves for the nine elements tested along with the mass of moisture and solid

  14. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  15. Equivalence between the methods involving Fourier series and the Poisson's summation formula and evaluation of a class of lattice sums in arbitrary dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.; Chaba, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The similarities between the Fourier series method and the Poisson's summation formula method are brought out by evaluating the lattice sum g(r) sup(→) identical to Σ sub(tau) sup(→) exp(-lambda [r sup(→) - t sup(→)])/[r sup(→) - tau sup(→)] over a Bravais lattice [tau sup(→)] in three dimensions, lambda and r sup(→) being independent of tau sup(→). It is shown that the two approaches are actually equivalent by proving that the Poisson's summation formula (in any dimensionality) can, itself, be derived from the Fourier series method. An expression is also presented, ready for quick user, for a class of lattice sums Σ sub(tau) sup(→) F([r sup(→) - tau sup(→)]) over a Brafais lattice [r sup(→)] in arbitrary dimensions. (Author) [pt

  16. Wildlife disease elimination and density dependence

    KAUST Repository

    Potapov, A.; Merrill, E.; Lewis, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Disease control by managers is a crucial response to emerging wildlife epidemics, yet the means of control may be limited by the method of disease transmission. In particular, it is widely held that population reduction, while effective

  17. Electroplating eliminates gas leakage in brazed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Electroplating method seals brazed or welded joints against gas leakage under high pressure. Any conventional electroplating process with many different metal anodes can be used, as well as the build up of layers of different metals to any required thickness.

  18. Multiview point clouds denoising based on interference elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Wu, Qian; Wang, Le; Jiang, Huanyu

    2018-03-01

    Newly emerging low-cost depth sensors offer huge potentials for three-dimensional (3-D) modeling, but existing high noise restricts these sensors from obtaining accurate results. Thus, we proposed a method for denoising registered multiview point clouds with high noise to solve that problem. The proposed method is aimed at fully using redundant information to eliminate the interferences among point clouds of different views based on an iterative procedure. In each iteration, noisy points are either deleted or moved to their weighted average targets in accordance with two cases. Simulated data and practical data captured by a Kinect v2 sensor were tested in experiments qualitatively and quantitatively. Results showed that the proposed method can effectively reduce noise and recover local features from highly noisy multiview point clouds with good robustness, compared to truncated signed distance function and moving least squares (MLS). Moreover, the resulting low-noise point clouds can be further smoothed by the MLS to achieve improved results. This study provides the feasibility of obtaining fine 3-D models with high-noise devices, especially for depth sensors, such as Kinect.

  19. The NUC and blind pixel eliminating in the DTDI application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao Feng; Chen, Fan Sheng; Pan, Sheng Da; Gong, Xue Yi; Dong, Yu Cui

    2013-12-01

    AS infrared CMOS Digital TDI (Time Delay and integrate) has a simple structure, excellent performance and flexible operation, it has been used in more and more applications. Because of the limitation of the Production process level, the plane array of the infrared detector has a large NU (non-uniformity) and a certain blind pixel rate. Both of the two will raise the noise and lead to the TDI works not very well. In this paper, for the impact of the system performance, the most important elements are analyzed, which are the NU of the optical system, the NU of the Plane array and the blind pixel in the Plane array. Here a reasonable algorithm which considers the background removal and the linear response model of the infrared detector is used to do the NUC (Non-uniformity correction) process, when the infrared detector array is used as a Digital TDI. In order to eliminate the impact of the blind pixel, the concept of surplus pixel method is introduced in, through the method, the SNR (signal to noise ratio) can be improved and the spatial and temporal resolution will not be changed. Finally we use a MWIR (Medium Ware Infrared) detector to do the experiment and the result proves the effectiveness of the method.

  20. Mutation choice to eliminate buried free cysteines in protein therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xue; Longo, Liam M; Blaber, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Buried free-cysteine (Cys) residues can contribute to an irreversible unfolding pathway that promotes protein aggregation, increases immunogenic potential, and significantly reduces protein functional half-life. Consequently, mutation of buried free-Cys residues can result in significant improvement in the storage, reconstitution, and pharmacokinetic properties of protein-based therapeutics. Mutational design to eliminate buried free-Cys residues typically follows one of two common heuristics: either substitution by Ser (polar and isosteric), or substitution by Ala or Val (hydrophobic); however, a detailed structural and thermodynamic understanding of Cys mutations is lacking. We report a comprehensive structure and stability study of Ala, Ser, Thr, and Val mutations at each of the three buried free-Cys positions (Cys16, Cys83, and Cys117) in fibroblast growth factor-1. Mutation was almost universally destabilizing, indicating a general optimization for the wild-type Cys, including van der Waals and H-bond interactions. Structural response to Cys mutation characteristically involved changes to maintain, or effectively substitute, local H-bond interactions-by either structural collapse to accommodate the smaller oxygen radius of Ser/Thr, or conversely, expansion to enable inclusion of novel H-bonding solvent. Despite the diverse structural effects, the least destabilizing average substitution at each position was Ala, and not isosteric Ser. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Design Optimization for a Maglev System Employing Flux Eliminating Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Kent R.

    1996-01-01

    Flux eliminating coils have received no little attention over the past thirty years as an alternative for realizing lift in a MAGLEV system. When the magnets on board the vehicle are displaced from the equilibrium or null flux point of these coils, they induce current in those coils which act to restore the coil to its null flux or centerline position. The question being addressed in this paper is that of how to choose the best coil for a given system. What appears at first glance to be an innocent question is in fact one that is actually quite involved, encompassing both the global economics and physics of the system. The real key in analyzing that question is to derive an optimization index or functional which represents the cost of the system subject to constraints, the primary constraint being that the vehicle lift itself at a certain threshold speed. Outlined in this paper is one scenario for realizing a total system design which uses sequential quadratic programming techniques.

  2. Human Elimination of Phthalate Compounds: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Lobo, Rebecca A.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individual members of the phthalate family of chemical compounds are components of innumerable everyday consumer products, resulting in a high exposure scenario for some individuals and population groups. Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated statistically significant exposure-disease relationships involving phthalates and toxicological studies have shown estrogenic effects in vitro. Data is lacking in the medical literature, however, on effective means to facilitate phthalate excretion. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for parent phthalate compounds as well as phthalate metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some parent phthalates as well as their metabolites were excreted into sweat. All patients had MEHP (mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) in their blood, sweat, and urine samples, suggesting widespread phthalate exposure. In several individuals, DEHP (di (2-ethylhexl) phthalate) was found in sweat but not in serum, suggesting the possibility of phthalate retention and bioaccumulation. On average, MEHP concentration in sweat was more than twice as high as urine levels. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may be useful to facilitate elimination of some potentially toxic phthalate compounds including DEHP and MEHP. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of accrued DEHP in the human body. PMID:23213291

  3. Homeostatic and toxic mechanisms regulating manganese uptake, retention, and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEROME A ROTH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This review attempts to summarize and clarify our basic knowledge as to the various factors that potentially influence the risks imposed from chronic exposure to high atmospheric levels of manganese (Mn. The studies describe the interrelationship of the different systems in the body that regulate Mn homeostasis by characterizing specific, biological components involved in its systemic and cellular uptake and its elimination from the body. A syndrome known as manganism occurs when individuals are exposed chronically to high levels of Mn, consisting of reduced response speed, intellectual deficits, mood changes, and compulsive behaviors in the initial stages of the disorder to more prominent and irreversible extrapyramidal dysfunction resembling Parkinson's disease upon protracted exposure. Mn intoxication is most often associated with occupations in which abnormally high atmospheric concentrations prevail, such as in welding and mining. There are three potentially important routes by which Mn in inspired air can gain access the body to: 1 direct uptake into the CNS via uptake into the olfactory or trigeminal presynaptic nerve endings located in the nasal mucosa and the subsequent retrograde axonal transport directly into the CNS; 2 transport across the pulmonary epithelial lining and its subsequent deposition into lymph or blood; and/or 3 mucocilliary elevator clearance from the lung and the subsequent ingestion of the metal in the gastrointestinal tract. Each of these processes and their overall contribution to the uptake of Mn in the body is discussed in this review as well as a description of the various mechanisms that have been proposed for the transport of Mn across the blood-brain barrier which include both a transferrin-dependent and a transferrin-independent process that may involve store-operated Ca channels.

  4. Dynamical equations for a Regge theory with crossing symmetry and unitarity. II. The case of strong coupling, and elimination of ghost poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.W.; Warnock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Equations for the construction of a crossing-symmetric unitary Regge theory of meson-meson scattering are described. In the case of strong coupling, Regge trajectories are to be generated dynamically as zeros of the D function in a nonlinear N/D system. This paper is concerned mainly with writing the inputs to the N/D system in such a way that a convergent theory with exact crossing symmetry is defined. The scheme demands elimination of ghosts, i.e., bound-state poles at energies below threshold where trajectories pass through zero. A method for ghost elimination is proposed which entails an s-wave subtraction constant, and allows the physical s wave to be different from the l-analytic amplitude evaluated at l = 0. A dynamical model is suggested in which the subtraction constant alone generates the meson-meson interaction. An alternative ghost-elimination scheme proposed by Gell-Mann, in which only l-analytic amplitudes are involved, can be discussed in a formalism including channels with spin

  5. Reactor R ampersand D programs tough to eliminate; just ask NRC staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, E.

    1993-01-01

    Even if the Clinton administration succeeds in eliminating funding for the advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR) and modular high-temperature gas reactor (MHTGR) in the fiscal year 1994 budget, it will not wipe out the programs entirely as shown by a recent exchange of letters between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Energy Department. This article examines the political and bureaucratic maneuverings involved in the funding of nuclear power projects

  6. Conformal anomaly and elimination of infrared divergences in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A.A.; Nesteruk, A.V.; Pritomanov, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The relation between the problem of eliminating the infrared divergences and the conformal anomaly of the regularized energy-momentum tensor is studied in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic spacetime. It is shown that elimination of the infrared divergence by means of a cutoff or the introduction of a conformally invariant mass of the field leads to the absence of the conformal anomaly

  7. The Role of Quantifier Alternations in Cut Elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhardy, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    Extending previous results on the complexity of cut elimination for the sequent calculus LK, we discuss the role of quantifier alternations and develop a measure to describe the complexity of cut elimination in terms of quantifier alternations in cut formulas and contractions on such formulas...

  8. Rabies Elimination in Dogs in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Rabies has been eliminated from dogs in the United States through efforts to promote annual vaccination, but it's still a problem in wildlife in the U.S. and in wild and domesticated animals abroad. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Charles Rupprecht discusses a study which provides proof of the elimination of rabies in dogs and what this means for the average American.

  9. Malaria elimination practices in rural community residents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53. Rwanda Journal Series F: Medicine and Health Sciences Vol. 2 No. 1, 2015. Malaria elimination practices in rural community residents in Rwanda: A cross sectional study ... is an entirely preventable and treatable disease, provided that effective .... The most way used for malaria prevention, control and elimination.

  10. Making Career Decisions--A Sequential Elimination Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Itamar

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for career decision making based on the sequential elimination of occupational alternatives, an adaptation for career decisions of Tversky's (1972) elimination-by-aspects theory of choice. The expected utility approach is reviewed as a representative compensatory model for career decisions. Advantages, disadvantages, and…

  11. 75 FR 65238 - Loan Guaranty: Elimination of Redundant Regulations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 36 RIN 2900-AN71 Loan Guaranty: Elimination of... June 15, 2010 (75 FR 33704), amending its loan guaranty regulations to eliminate redundant regulations... INFORMATION CONTACT: William White, Acting Assistant Director for Loan Processing and Valuation (262...

  12. Engaging the private sector in malaria surveillance: a review of strategies and recommendations for elimination settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Adam; Avanceña, Anton L V; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Cotter, Chris; Roberts, Kathryn; Gosling, Roly

    2017-06-14

    In malaria elimination settings, all malaria cases must be identified, documented and investigated. To facilitate complete and timely reporting of all malaria cases and effective case management and follow-up, engagement with private providers is essential, particularly in settings where the private sector is a major source of healthcare. However, research on the role and performance of the private sector in malaria diagnosis, case management and reporting in malaria elimination settings is limited. Moreover, the most effective strategies for private sector engagement in malaria elimination settings remain unclear. Twenty-five experts in malaria elimination, disease surveillance and private sector engagement were purposively sampled and interviewed. An extensive review of grey and peer-reviewed literature on private sector testing, treatment, and reporting for malaria was performed. Additional in-depth literature review was conducted for six case studies on eliminating and neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa. The private health sector can be categorized based on their commercial orientation or business model (for-profit versus nonprofit) and their regulation status within a country (formal vs informal). A number of potentially effective strategies exist for engaging the private sector. Conducting a baseline assessment of the private sector is critical to understanding its composition, size, geographical distribution and quality of services provided. Facilitating reporting, referral and training linkages between the public and private sectors and making malaria a notifiable disease are important strategies to improve private sector involvement in malaria surveillance. Financial incentives for uptake of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy should be combined with training and community awareness campaigns for improving uptake. Private sector providers can also be organized and better engaged through social

  13. Is air-displacement plethysmography a reliable method of detecting ongoing changes in percent body fat within obese children involved in a weight management program?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewane, Cecile; McConkey, Stacy A; Kreiter, Clarence D

    2010-01-01

    (percent body fat) over time. The gold standard method, hydrodensitometry, has severe limitations for the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the reliability of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in detecting percent body fat changes within obese children over time. METHODS: Percent...... body fat by ADP, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured for eight obese children aged 5-12 years enrolled in a weight management program over a 12-month period. These measurements were taken at initial evaluation, 1.5 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months to monitor the progress...... of the subjects and detect any changes in these measures over time. Statistical analysis was used to determine the reliability of the data collected. RESULTS: The reliability estimate for percent body fat by ADP was 0.78. This was much lower than the reliability of BMI, 0.98, and weight measurements, 0...

  14. Comparison of revegetation of a gas pipeline right-of-way in two forested wetland crossings involving conventional methods of pipeline installation and horizontal drilling, Nassau County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    One year after pipeline installation, vegetation in the right-of-way (ROW) was inventoried at two stream floodplain crossings in Nassau County, Florida. Both sites were forested wetlands composed of Acer rubrum, Fraxinus caroliniana, Liquidamber styraciflua, Nyssa ogecho, Quercus laurifolia, and Taxodium distichum, together with other wetland trees. Pipeline installation across the Brandy Branch floodplain was by conventional ditching and backfill methods. Installation across the Deep Creek floodplain was by horizontal drilling after clearcutting the ROW. The latter method left tree stumps, understory vegetation, and soil layers intact, except for disruptions caused by logging. According to the inventory, vegetation at the drilled site was more diverse (nearly twice as many species occurring in the ROW as at the trenched site) and more robust (no unvegetated exposed soil compared to 15% at the trenched site). Differences between the ROW vegetation at the two sites can be attributed to both site differences and installation technologies used.

  15. A method for sensible heat flux model parameterization based on radiometric surface temperature and environmental factors without involving the parameter KB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qifeng; Wu, Bingfang; Yan, Nana; Zhu, Weiwei; Xing, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Sensible heat flux is a key component of land-atmosphere interaction. In most parameterizations it is calculated with surface-air temperature differences and total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer (Rae) that is related to the KB-1 parameter. Suitable values are hard to obtain since KB-1 is related both to canopy characteristics and environmental conditions. In this paper, a parameterize method for sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces (maize field and grass land in the Heihe river basin of northwest China) was proposed based on the radiometric surface temperature, surface resistance (Rs) and vapor pressures (saturated and actual) at the surface and the atmosphere above the canopy. A biophysics-based surface resistance model was revised to compute surface resistance with several environmental factors. The total aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer is directly calculated by combining the biophysics-based surface resistance and vapor pressures. One merit of this method is that the calculation of KB-1 can be avoided. The method provides a new way to estimate sensible heat flux over vegetated surfaces and its performance compares well to the LAS measured sensible heat and other empirical or semi-empirical KB-1 based estimations.

  16. Behaviour change techniques: the development and evaluation of a taxonomic method for reporting and describing behaviour change interventions (a suite of five studies involving consensus methods, randomised controlled trials and analysis of qualitative data).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Wood, Caroline E; Johnston, Marie; Abraham, Charles; Francis, Jill J; Hardeman, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Meeting global health challenges requires effective behaviour change interventions (BCIs). This depends on advancing the science of behaviour change which, in turn, depends on accurate intervention reporting. Current reporting often lacks detail, preventing accurate replication and implementation. Recent developments have specified intervention content into behaviour change techniques (BCTs) - the 'active ingredients', for example goal-setting, self-monitoring of behaviour. BCTs are 'the smallest components compatible with retaining the postulated active ingredients, i.e. the proposed mechanisms of change. They can be used alone or in combination with other BCTs' (Michie S, Johnston M. Theories and techniques of behaviour change: developing a cumulative science of behaviour change. Health Psychol Rev 2012;6:1-6). Domain-specific taxonomies of BCTs have been developed, for example healthy eating and physical activity, smoking cessation and alcohol consumption. We need to build on these to develop an internationally shared language for specifying and developing interventions. This technology can be used for synthesising evidence, implementing effective interventions and testing theory. It has enormous potential added value for science and global health. (1) To develop a method of specifying content of BCIs in terms of component BCTs; (2) to lay a foundation for a comprehensive methodology applicable to different types of complex interventions; (3) to develop resources to support application of the taxonomy; and (4) to achieve multidisciplinary and international acceptance for future development. Four hundred participants (systematic reviewers, researchers, practitioners, policy-makers) from 12 countries engaged in investigating, designing and/or delivering BCIs. Development of the taxonomy involved a Delphi procedure, an iterative process of revisions and consultation with 41 international experts; hierarchical structure of the list was developed using inductive

  17. Elimination of ionic interference effects in the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Defrawy, M.M.M.; Posta, J.; Beck, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with work on the catalytic effect of ruthenium complexes, new compounds were prepared. Atomic absorption spectrometry (a.a.s.) was to be used for their analysis. The standard methods could not be applied to the complexes studied, therefore the effect of cyanide ions for elimination of interfering effects has been studied, because of the great stability of cyanide complexes. (Auth.)

  18. Closed-loop surface-related multiple elimination and its application to simultaneous data reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, G.A.; Verschuur, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is one of the most commonly used methods for suppressing surface multiples. However, to obtain an accurate surface multiple estimation, dense source and receiver sampling is required. The traditional approach to this problem is performing data

  19. Establishment of first engineering specifications for environmental modification to eliminate schistosomiasis epidemic foci in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shibo; Tan, Xiaodong; Deng, Zhiqing; Xie, Yaofei; Yang, Fen; Zheng, Zengwang

    2017-08-01

    Snail control is a key link in schistosomiasis control, but no unified methods for eliminating snails have been produced to date. This study was conducted to explore an engineering method for eliminating Oncomelania hupensis applicable to urban areas. The engineering specifications were established using the Delphi method. An engineering project based on these specifications was conducted in Hankou marshland to eliminate snails, including the transformation of the beach surface and ditches. Molluscicide was used as a supplement. The snail control effect was evaluated by field investigation. The engineering results fulfilled the requirements of the design. The snail density decreased to 0/0.11m 2 , and the snail area dropped to 0m 2 after the project. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of frames with snails before and after the project (Pengineering specifications for environmental modification were successfully established. Environmental modification, mainly through beach and ditch remediation, can completely change the environment of Oncomelania breeding. This method of environmental modification combined with mollusciciding was highly effective at eliminating snails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Substructure analysis techniques and automation. [to eliminate logistical data handling and generation chores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennrich, C. W.; Konrath, E. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A basic automated substructure analysis capability for NASTRAN is presented which eliminates most of the logistical data handling and generation chores that are currently associated with the method. Rigid formats are proposed which will accomplish this using three new modules, all of which can be added to level 16 with a relatively small effort.

  1. Hepatic, renal, and total body galactose elimination in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Tygstrup, N

    1993-01-01

    Galactose elimination capacity is used as a quantitative measure of liver function on the assumption that galactose elimination outside the liver is negligible or easily corrected for. The relationship between hepatic and extrahepatic removal of galactose was studied in anesthetized pigs during...... reabsorption (Tm 178 +/- 3.0 mumol/min, Km 3.8 +/- 0.9 mmol/l, n = 20). Metabolic conversion of galactose in the kidney was not demonstrable. At all concentrations studied (0.4-5.8 mmol/l), total galactose elimination from the body exceeded the sum of hepatic and renal elimination by approximately 100 mumol....../min, independent of the concentration. At blood concentrations usually used for clinical estimation of the galactose elimination capacity (approximately 4 mmol/l), hepatic removal in the pig accounted for 55% and renal removal for 30% of total removal; 15% of removal occurred in other organs. We conclude...

  2. Elimination of americium-241 after a case of accidental inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Lindgren, L.

    1976-01-01

    In handling a 241 Am source one person received an internal contamination of about 140 nCi of americium oxide, which was deposited in the lung region. Elimination of the activity was followed for more than 3 months by external gamma counting and excreta analyses. During the first week after the inhalation about 80% of the total intake was eliminated with an effective half-life of less than 2 days. The remaining activity, deposited in the lung region, was eliminated with an effective half-life of about 17 days. About 15% of the activity eliminated from the lung region from the 10th to the 50th day was eliminated in the faeces. (author)

  3. Leakage Current Elimination of Four-Leg Inverter for Transformerless Three-Phase PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; He, Ran; Jian, Jiamin

    2016-01-01

    Eliminating the leakage current is one of the most important issues for transformerless three phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this paper, the leakage current elimination of a three-phase four-leg PV inverter is investigated. With the common mode loop model established, the generation mechanism...... of the leakage current is clearly identified. Different typical carrier-based modulation methods and their corresponding common mode voltages are discussed. A new modulation strategy with Boolean logic function is proposed to achieve the constant common mode voltage for the leakage current reduction. Finally...

  4. Elimination of Proteus mirabilis /sup 51/Cr endotoxin from the liver in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska-Piotrowska, I [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland)

    1977-01-01

    Using isotope methods, elimination of the endotoxin of Proteus mirabilis labelled with chromium (CrEPm) from the liver of rats was studied. The following studies were carried out: intravital exploration of the liver with a scintillation probe, measurements of radioactivity of organs and excreted urine and stools, scintigraphy of the liver, binding of CrEPm by subcellular fractions of hepatocytes, and the influence of selected drugs (polymyxin and hydrocortisone) on elimination of CrEPm from the liver and organelles of hepatocytes.

  5. SERS substrates fabricated using ceramic filters for the detection of bacteria: Eliminating the citrate interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier-Boss, P. A.; Sorensen, K. C.; George, R. D.; Sims, P. C.; O'braztsova, A.

    2017-06-01

    It was found that spectra obtained for bacteria on SERS substrates fabricated by filtering citrate-generated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) onto rigid, ceramic filters exhibited peaks due to citrate as well as the bacteria. In many cases the citrate spectrum overwhelmed that of the bacteria. Given the simplicity of the method to prepare these substrates, means of eliminating this citrate interference were explored. It was found that allowing a mixture of bacteria suspension and citrate-generated Ag NPs to incubate prior to filtering onto the ceramic filter eliminated this interference.

  6. Elimination of Proteus mirabilis 51Cr endotoxin from the liver in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinska-Piotrowska, I.

    1977-01-01

    Using isotope methods, elimination of the endotoxin of Proteus mirabilis labelled with chromium (CrEPm) from the liver of rats was studied. The following studies were carried out: intravital exploration of the liver with a scintillation probe, measurements of radioactivity of organs and excreted urine and stools, scintigraphy of the liver, binding of CrEPm by subcellular fractions of hepatocytes, and the influence of selected drugs (polymyxin and hydrocortisone) on elimination of CrEPm from the liver and organelles of hepatocytes. (author)

  7. Verifying Elimination Programs with a Special Emphasis on Cysticercosis Endpoints and Postelimination Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukwan Handali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods are needed for determining program endpoints or postprogram surveillance for any elimination program. Cysticercosis has the necessary effective strategies and diagnostic tools for establishing an elimination program; however, tools to verify program endpoints have not been determined. Using a statistical approach, the present study proposed that taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis antibody assays could be used to determine with a high statistical confidence whether an area is free of disease. Confidence would be improved by using secondary tests such as the taeniasis coproantigen assay and necropsy of the sentinel pigs.

  8. Self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion as a method of salt-reduction education: a parallel, randomized trial involving two groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Miyoshi, Emiko; Misumi, Yukiko; Kajiyama, Tomomi; Fukuda, Tamami; Ishii, Taeko; Moriguchi, Ririko; Murata, Yusuke; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2018-02-20

    The present study aimed to evaluate salt-reduction education using a self-monitoring urinary salt-excretion device. Parallel, randomized trial involving two groups. The following parameters were checked at baseline and endline of the intervention: salt check sheet, eating behaviour questionnaire, 24 h home urine collection, blood pressure before and after urine collection. The intervention group self-monitored urine salt excretion using a self-measuring device for 4 weeks. In the control group, urine salt excretion was measured, but the individuals were not informed of the result. Seventy-eight individuals (control group, n 36; intervention group, n 42) collected two 24 h urine samples from a target population of 123 local resident volunteers. The samples were then analysed. There were no differences in clinical background or related parameters between the two groups. The 24 h urinary Na:K ratio showed a significant decrease in the intervention group (-1·1) compared with the control group (-0·0; P=0·033). Blood pressure did not change in either group. The results of the salt check sheet did not change in the control group but were significantly lower in the intervention group. The score of the eating behaviour questionnaire did not change in the control group, but the intervention group showed a significant increase in eating behaviour stage. Self-monitoring of urinary salt excretion helps to improve 24 h urinary Na:K, salt check sheet scores and stage of eating behaviour. Thus, usage of self-monitoring tools has an educational potential in salt intake reduction.

  9. Optimum Resource Allocation and Eliminating Waste Inside Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandru Nagarajan Sathiyabama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to allocate optimum resources for wrapping section and suggesting a suitable method that need to be in place for successful elimination of waste inside the food industry wrapping section. It also includes identifying the main reasons for various types of wastages inside wrapping section and cost of all the wastages. The paper is based on the observation and research using the approach of lean tools and techniques. The methodology used for evaluating data is value stream mapping and some statistical SPSS tools for analysis. Data’s are real and are gathered from three different production shifts inside a food industry wrapping section. The main reasons for wastages inside the wrapping section are highlighted. Finally, the paper was concluded by estimating total cost of wastages and recommended suitable way to save the wastage costs. The need of change of jaws inside the wrapping machines, regular maintenance of all machines throughout the industry and training the personnel are recommended. The possible methods along with its benefits to reduce waste, operators, improve productivity and business growth was also highlighted.

  10. Elimination of radionuclides and heavy metals from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarcik, I.; Cipakova, A.; Palagyl, S.

    1994-01-01

    Sorption and desorption of radionuclides and heavy metals, their vertical migration and gradual extraction from soils were studied. Tessier sequential extraction method was used for determination the physicochemical forms of radionuclides and heavy metals absorbed by root system of plants and leached into ground water. Fixed forms of heavy metals and radionuclides are prevailing in soils. As to artificial ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs) isotope ratio of fixed forms bound with soil components, it is higher for 137 Cs (black earth - 95%, sandy soil - 62%) as compared to 90 Sr. Mobilization procedures for elimination of unfavourable influence of these pollutants in soils were used. The bacteria Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus l. are applied for this purpose. At the same time the growing of technical plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Brassica napus L. var.) was studied as a method for mobilizing the heavy metals and radionuclides from soils. Retardation influence of bacteria on 85 Sr was noticed after as much as 3 months. The sum of water-soluble and exchangeable fractions reached 60%. Values of Cs distribution proved that microorganisms or plants used had no appreciable influence on Cs-mobility. After 3 months the relative ratio of accessible fraction increased with about 5%. As to heavy metals, both bacteria and plant growing influenced their retardation. In the case of Cd, one month operation of microorganisms resulted in important increase of easily available Cd-ratio (about 25%) in soils. (author)

  11. A Novel Algorithm of Surface Eliminating in Undersurface Optoacoustic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulina Yulia V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the task of optoacoustic imaging of the objects located under the surface covering them. In this paper, we suggest the algorithm of the surface eliminating based on the fact that the intensity of the image as a function of the spatial point should change slowly inside the local objects, and will suffer a discontinuity of the spatial gradients on their boundaries. The algorithm forms the 2-dimensional curves along which the discontinuity of the signal derivatives is detected. Then, the algorithm divides the signal space into the areas along these curves. The signals inside the areas with the maximum level of the signal amplitudes and the maximal gradient absolute values on their edges are put equal to zero. The rest of the signals are used for the image restoration. This method permits to reconstruct the picture of the surface boundaries with a higher contrast than that of the surface detection technique based on the maximums of the received signals. This algorithm does not require any prior knowledge of the signals' statistics inside and outside the local objects. It may be used for reconstructing any images with the help of the signals representing the integral over the object's volume. Simulation and real data are also provided to validate the proposed method.

  12. Environmental effects on energy metabolism and 86Rb elimination rates of fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between energy metabolism and the turnover rates of number of important chemical and radiological elements (particularly the Group IA alkali metals: K, Rb, and Cs) have been observed in fishes. Using response surface statistics and fractional factorial ANOVA, the author examined the relative influences of temperature, salinity, food intake rate, mass, and their first order interactions on routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates. Routine metabolic rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity, with a strong body mass effect and a significant effect of food intake. 86 Rb elimination rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity. There were no interactive effects between mass and either temperature or salinity for either routine energy metabolism or 86 Rb elimination rates. There was a significant interaction effect between temperature and salinity on routine energy metabolism rates, but not on 86 Rb elimination. The authors also observed a relationship between routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates that may possibly be exploited as a means of estimating energy metabolic rates of fishes in the field. The statistical techniques used in this experiment have broad potential applications in assessing the contributions of combinations of environmental variables on contaminant kinetics, as well as in multiple toxicity testing, in that they greatly simplify experimental designs compared with traditional full-factorial methods

  13. Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazdins Janis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilaricidal drug for the elimination of onchocerciasis under different epidemiological conditions, as characterized by previous intervention strategies, vectorial capacity and levels of coverage. Results With a high vector biting rate and poor coverage, a very effective macrofilaricide would appear to have a substantially higher potential for achieving elimination of the parasite than does ivermectin. Conclusions Macrofilaricides have a substantially higher potential for achieving onchocerciasis elimination than ivermectin, but high coverage levels are still key. When these drugs become available, onchocerciasis elimination strategies should be reconsidered. In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts.

  14. Community participation for malaria elimination in tafea province, vanuatu: part ii. social and cultural aspects of treatment-seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Ian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis and prompt effective case management are important components of any malaria elimination strategy. Tafea Province, Vanuatu has a rich history of traditional practices and beliefs, which have been integrated with missionary efforts and the introduction of modern constructions of health. Gaining a detailed knowledge of community perceptions of malarial symptomatology and treatment-seeking behaviours is essential in guiding effective community participation strategies for malaria control and elimination. Method An ethnographic study involving nine focus group discussions (FGD, 12 key informant interviews (KII and seven participatory workshops were carried out on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Villages in areas of high and low malaria transmission risk were selected. Four ni-Vanuatu research officers, including two from Tanna, were trained and employed to conduct the research. Data underwent thematic analysis to examine treatment-seeking behaviour and community perceptions of malaria. Results Malaria was perceived to be a serious, but relatively new condition, and in most communities, identified as being apparent only after independence in 1980. Severe fever in the presence of other key symptoms triggered a diagnosis of malaria by individuals. Use of traditional or home practices was common: perceived vulnerability of patient and previous experience with malaria impacted on the time taken to seek treatment at a health facility. Barriers to health care access and reasons for delay in care-seeking included the availability of health worker and poor community infrastructure. Conclusion Due to programme success of achieving low malaria transmission, Tafea province has been identified for elimination of malaria by 2012 in the Government of Vanuatu Malaria Action Plans (MAP. An effective malaria elimination programme requires interactions between the community and its leaders, malaria workers and health providers for success in

  15. Elimination of spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos by the pulse with a specific spatiotemporal configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guoyong; Yang Shiping; Wang Guangrui; Chen Shigang

    2008-01-01

    Spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos are sometimes harmful and should be controlled. In this paper spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos are successfully eliminated by the pulse with a very specific spatiotemporal configuration. The excited position D of spiral waves or spatiotemporal chaos is first recorded at an arbitrary time (t 0 ). When the system at the domain D enters a recovering state, the external pulse is injected into the domain. If the intensity and the working time of the pulse are appropriate, spiral waves and spatiotemporal chaos can finally be eliminated because counter-directional waves can be generated by the pulse. There are two advantages in the method. One is that the tip can be quickly eliminated together with the body of spiral wave, and the other is that the injected pulse may be weak and the duration can be very short so that the original system is nearly not affected, which is important for practical applications

  16. Common voltage eliminating of SVM diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong

    2011-01-01

    A novel method of common voltage eliminating is put forward for SVM diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid by calculation of common voltage of its various switching states. PLECS is used to model this three-level inverter connected to grid and good results are obtained. First...... analysis of common mode voltage for switching states of diode clamping 3-level inverter is given in detail. Second the common mode voltage eliminating control strategy of SVM is described for diode clamping three-level inverter. Third, PLECS is briefly introduced. Fourth, the modeling of diode clamping...... three-level inverter is presented with PLECS. Finally, a series of simulations are carried out. The simulation results tell us PLECS is a very powerful tool to real power circuits modeling. They have also verified that proposed common mode voltage eliminating control strategy of SVM is feasible...

  17. Eliminating traditional reference services in an academic health sciences library: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Stephanie J

    2011-01-01

    Question: How were traditional librarian reference desk services successfully eliminated at one health sciences library? Setting: The analysis was done at an academic health sciences library at a major research university. Method: A gap analysis was performed, evaluating changes in the first eleven months through analysis of reference transaction and instructional session data. Main Results: Substantial increases were seen in the overall number of specialized reference transactions and those conducted by librarians lasting more than thirty minutes. The number of reference transactions overall increased after implementing the new model. Several new small-scale instructional initiatives began, though perhaps not directly related to the new model. Conclusion: Traditional reference desk services were eliminated at one academic health sciences library without negative impact on reference and instructional statistics. Eliminating ties to the confines of the physical library due to staffing reference desk hours removed one significant barrier to a more proactive liaison program. PMID:22022221

  18. Evaluation of human papillomavirus elimination from cervix uteri by infrared laser exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymkovets, V P; Ezhov, V V; Manykin, A A; Belov, S V; Danileiko, Yu K; Osiko, V V; Salyuk, V A

    2011-12-01

    Elimination of types 16 and 18 human papilloma virus from the surface of cervix uteri for secondary prevention of cervical cancer was evaluated. The method is protected by patent of invention of the Russian Federation. Infrared laser therapy of cervix uteri was carried out in patients with precancer diseases of cervix uteri at Department of Gynecology of Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 52 (Moscow). Papillomavirus infection was eliminated using a Russian diode laser (lambda=1.06 μ, radiation power 10 W) with a collimating headpiece using carbon die at a distance of 10-12 cm from the exposed surface. The treatment resulted in a high percentage of elimination of types 16 and 18 oncogenic virus 4-6 weeks and during delayed periods after exposure.

  19. Eliminating thermal violin spikes from LIGO noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamore, D. H.; Levin, Yuri

    2001-08-15

    We have developed a scheme for reducing LIGO suspension thermal noise close to violin-mode resonances. The idea is to monitor directly the thermally induced motion of a small portion of (a 'point' on) each suspension fiber, thereby recording the random forces driving the test-mass motion close to each violin-mode frequency. One can then suppress the thermal noise by optimally subtracting the recorded fiber motions from the measured motion of the test mass, i.e., from the LIGO output. The proposed method is a modification of an analogous but more technically difficult scheme by Braginsky, Levin and Vyatchanin for reducing broad-band suspension thermal noise. The efficiency of our method is limited by the sensitivity of the sensor used to monitor the fiber motion. If the sensor has no intrinsic noise (i.e. has unlimited sensitivity), then our method allows, in principle, a complete removal of violin spikes from the thermal-noise spectrum. We find that in LIGO-II interferometers, in order to suppress violin spikes below the shot-noise level, the intrinsic noise of the sensor must be less than {approx}2 x 10{sup -13} cm/Hz. This sensitivity is two orders of magnitude greater than that of currently available sensors.

  20. Eliminating thermal violin spikes from LIGO noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamore, D. H.; Levin, Yuri

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a scheme for reducing LIGO suspension thermal noise close to violin-mode resonances. The idea is to monitor directly the thermally induced motion of a small portion of (a 'point' on) each suspension fiber, thereby recording the random forces driving the test-mass motion close to each violin-mode frequency. One can then suppress the thermal noise by optimally subtracting the recorded fiber motions from the measured motion of the test mass, i.e., from the LIGO output. The proposed method is a modification of an analogous but more technically difficult scheme by Braginsky, Levin and Vyatchanin for reducing broad-band suspension thermal noise. The efficiency of our method is limited by the sensitivity of the sensor used to monitor the fiber motion. If the sensor has no intrinsic noise (i.e. has unlimited sensitivity), then our method allows, in principle, a complete removal of violin spikes from the thermal-noise spectrum. We find that in LIGO-II interferometers, in order to suppress violin spikes below the shot-noise level, the intrinsic noise of the sensor must be less than ∼2 x 10 -13 cm/Hz. This sensitivity is two orders of magnitude greater than that of currently available sensors

  1. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  2. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Špirková, M., E-mail: marta.spirkova@stuba.sk; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J. [Paulínska 16, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava (Slovakia)

    2016-04-21

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  3. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  4. PHYTOREMEDIATION: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ELIMINATE POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto Garcia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation consists of a set of technologies that exploit the ability of some plants to absorb, accumulate, metabolize, volatilize or stabilize pollutants that are present in soil, air, water or sediments such as: heavy metals, radioactive metals, organic compounds, and compounds derived from petroleum. Phytoremediation offers numerous advantages in relation to the physicochemical methods that are used nowadays, for example, its wide applicability and low cost. This review provides an overview of the various phytocorrective techniques employed for remediation of polluted soil and water; as well as the potencial that offers the use of transgenic plants.

  5. Comparative metabolism and elimination of acetanilide compounds by rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, K L; Larsen, G L; Feil, V J

    1994-10-01

    1. 14C-labelled propachlor, alachlor, butachlor, metolachlor, methoxypropachlor and some of their mercapturic acid pathway metabolites (MAP) were given to rat either by gavage or by perfusion into a renal artery. MAP metabolites were isolated from bile and urine. 2. Rat gavaged with propachlor and methoxypropachlor eliminated 14C mostly in urine, whereas rat gavaged with alachlor, butachlor and metolachlor eliminated 14C about equally divided between urine and faeces. When bile ducts were cannulated, the gavaged rat eliminated most of the 14C in bile for all compounds. The amount of 14C in bile from the propachlor-gavaged rat was less than that for the other acetanilides, with the difference being in the urine. 3. The mercapturic acid metabolites 2-methylsulphinyl-N-(1-methylhydroxyethyl)-N-phenylacetam ide and 2-methylsulphinyl-N-(1-methylmethoxyethyl)-N-phenylacetam ide were isolated from the urine and bile of the methoxypropachlor-gavaged rat. 4. Bile was the major route for 14C elimination when MAP metabolites of alachlor, butachlor and metolachlor were perfused into a renal artery. Urine was the major route for 14C elimination when MAP metabolites of propachlor and methoxypropachlor were perfused. Mercapturic acid conjugates were major metabolites in bile and urine when MAP metabolites were perfused. 5. We conclude that alkyl groups on the phenyl portion of the acetanilide causes biliary elimination to be favoured over urinary elimination.

  6. Uptake, disposition, and elimination of acrylamide in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, D.W.; Kleinow, K.M.; Kraska, R.C.; Lech, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The uptake, disposition, and elimination of [2,3- 14 C]acrylamide was studied in fingerling rainbow trout exposed to 0.388 and 0.710 mg/liter [2,3- 14 C]acrylamide at 12 degrees C under static water conditions for 72 hr. 14 C in carcass and viscera was determined at times ranging from 4 to 72 hr after the beginning of the exposure period and 4 to 96 hr after transfer of the fish to fresh flowing water for the elimination studies. Uptake of 14 C was initially rapid and plateaued after 72 hr of acrylamide exposure. No appreciable bioaccumulation occurred in carcass or viscera at either exposure concentration and 14 C distributed approximately equally to all tissues studied. Elimination of 14 C from carcass and viscera was biphasic with a terminal half-life of approximately 7 days. 14 C elimination was not uniform in all tissues studied with the most rapid elimination occurring in blood and gill and the slowest elimination occurring in muscle and intestine. In addition, 10 to 15% of the initial total 14 C in carcass or viscera was nonextractable and was associated with the protein fraction of the sample at all time points in the depuration period. Approximately 20% of an ip administered dose of [ 14 C]acrylamide was eliminated via the gills, 7% via the urine, and less than 1% via the bile in 2 hr. At least three biliary metabolites were isolated by HPLC

  7. Progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Rakers, Lindsay J; Richards, Frank O

    2018-03-01

    The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA) is a regional initiative and international partnership that has made considerable progress toward its goal since it was launched in 1993. Its strategy is based on mass drug administration of ivermectin (Mectizan, donated by MSD, also known as Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA), twice or four times per year, with at least 85% coverage of eligible populations. From 1989 to 2016, 11 741 276 ivermectin treatments have been given in the Americas, eliminating transmission in 11 of 13 foci. The OEPA's success has had a great influence on programs in Africa, especially Sudan and Uganda, which moved from a control to an elimination strategy in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The successes in the Americas have also greatly influenced WHO guidelines for onchocerciasis transmission elimination. With four of the six originally endemic American countries now WHO verified as having eliminated onchocerciasis transmission, and 95% of ivermectin treatments in the region halted, the regional focus is now on the remaining active transmission zone, called the Yanomami Area, on the border between Venezuela and Brazil. Both countries have difficult political climates that hinder the elimination task in this remote and relatively neglected region. As with other elimination efforts, 'the final inch' is often the most difficult task of all.

  8. Application of unconventional geoelectrical methods to the hydrogeological examination of the Mt. S. Croce rock formations (Umbria, Italy involved in a railway tunnel project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available he project of doubling and developing of the railway line Orte-Falconara, committed by the Italian State Railway Company to the COMAVI Consortium (Rome, Italy, envisaged building the Mt. S. Croce tunnel, about 3200 m long between the stations of Narni and Nera Montoro (Umbria, ltaly. During the last phase of the feasibility project, a geophysical research based on geoelectrical prospecting methods was carried out to complement other geognostic investigations with the following goals: a to outline the complex geotectonic model of the rock system, which will be affected by the new railway layout; b to gain information on the hydrogeologic features of the survey area, in relation to the existing geologic situation and the consequent effects on the digging conditions of the tunnel and on the operation conditions of the railway layout. The geophysical work was thus organized according to the following scheme: a execution of dipole electrical sounding pro-files, to depict a series of significant tomographic pseudosections, both across and along the new railway layout; b execution of self-potential measurements, to draw an anomaly map over the whole hydrogeological network system in the survey area. The research provided information which has helped to improve the geological-structural model of the area and disclosed the hydrogelogic network, conforming to the classified field surface manifestations. At present, further detailed field investigations are being carried out, which confirm all the results obtained by the geoelectrical survey.

  9. Eliminating the OUCH in OUtreaCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, J. L.; Manduca, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    ``I'm a scientist who knows how to conduct research, not an expert in teaching pre-college students!'' is a common complaint within the scientific community in response to recent funding agency mandates that research proposals explicitly address education, public outreach or other broader impacts. Yet, these new requirements address several important goals - fostering public support for research funding in the Earth and Space sciences, recruiting the next generation of talented geoscientists in the face of declining student enrollments, and educating the citizenry for informed decision making and advocacy, chief among them. Further, the phrase ``broader impacts'' is not meant to be synonymous with outreach to pre-college students and teachers - agency program managers actually encourage many different types of activity for meeting these obligations. AGU and its Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) are committed to offering an array of programs that facilitate our members' ability to meet these new education, outreach, and broader impacts criteria in support of the research enterprise. CEHR has an on-going need for scientists willing to speak about their research in Geophysical Information for Teacher (GIFT) Workshops, sponsored lectures at annual and regional conventions of the National Science Teachers Association, special symposia for minority high school students attending annual AGU meetings, and career planning workshops for students and early career investigators. More extensive involvement as meeting mentors for minority undergraduate and graduate students is available through AGU's partnership with the new MSPHDS initiative (A. Pyrtle, P.I.). A new AGU outreach web site now under development will make available scientist biographies and abstracts derived from recent scientific articles originally published in AGU journals, which have been rewritten for a public audience. This resource is expected to serve as an important vehicle for AGU members

  10. An elimination diet for chronic urticaria of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A S; Schembri, G

    1985-09-16

    Twenty-three children with chronic urticaria were treated with an elimination diet for two weeks. Eighteen completed the period of dietary elimination; in seven of the 18 children there was a marked remission of the urticaria during the second week of the diet. The administration of challenge capsules provoked an exacerbation of urticaria in five of the 14 (36%) children given aspirin. The incidence of reactions to tartrazine, sodium benzoate and yeast (7%) was not significantly different from those to the lactose placebo (9%). In selected cases, elimination diets with controlled reintroduction of foods have a role in the management of chronic urticaria in childhood.

  11. Criteria for eliminating items of a Test of Figural Analogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Blum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the steps taken to eliminate two of the items in a Test of Figural Analogies (TFA. The main guidelines of psychometric analysis concerning Classical Test Theory (CTT and Item Response Theory (IRT are explained. The item elimination process was based on both the study of the CTT difficulty and discrimination index, and the unidimensionality analysis. The a, b, and c parameters of the Three Parameter Logistic Model of IRT were also considered for this purpose, as well as the assessment of each item fitting this model. The unfavourable characteristics of a group of TFA items are detailed, and decisions leading to their possible elimination are discussed.

  12. Dust emissions eliminated in pneumatic harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, M.

    1998-01-01

    Pneumatic harvesting is the most efficient milled peat production method in unsteady weather conditions. In good summers, the best contractors harvest more than 1 000 m 3 /ha milled peat from suitable production fields. The greatest problem of the method is caused by dust emissions, in particular in fields close to settled areas. About 15 % of Finland's present peat production is collected using pneumatic harvesters. A pneumatic harvester with smaller dust emissions has been developed by VTT Energy and Vapo Oy. The wagon is based on two-stage separation of peat. The main part of the coarser milled peat is first separated, e.g. in a settling chamber, and fine dry peat dust in correctly dimensioned side by side cyclones. The first series of pneumatic harvesters based on the new separation technology was employed in summer 1996. Besides decreasing the dust emissions the harvesting capacity of the new equipment was increased. The collection capacity of the pneumatic harvester can be made more effective by enlarging the container size, be decreasing the weight, by increasing the driving speed and by developing the suction capacity. Using lighter and durable construction materials combined with advanced design lighter and stronger pneumatic harvesters have been constructed. Nozzles and their mounting have also been developed. In the improvement of nozzles, the former studies with pneumatic simulator of VTT Energy, have been of great help. Studies with the pneumatic simulator and field conditions have been made in collaboration with Turveruukki Oy, Turvemetalli Oy, Raussin Metalli Oy and Vapo Oy, as well as VNIITP of St. Petersburg, Russia

  13. Improvement of soybean transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens methods involving α-aminooxyacetic acid and sonication treatments enlightened by gene expression profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Min; Liu, Zi-Hui; Yang, Rui-Juan; Li, Guo-Liang; Guo, Xiu-Lin; Zhang, Hua-Ning; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Di, Rui; Zhao, Qing-Song; Zhang, Meng-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Antagonists and sonication treatment relieved the structural barriers of Agrobacterium entering into cells; hindered signal perception and transmission; alleviated defense responses and increased cell susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection. Soybean gene expression analysis was performed to elucidate the general response of soybean plant to Agrobacterium at an early stage of infection. Agrobacterium infection stimulated the PAMPs-triggered immunity (BRI1, BAK1, BZR1, FLS2 and EFR) and effector-triggered immunity (RPM1, RPS2, RPS5, RIN4, and PBS1); up-regulated the transcript factors (WRKY25, WRKY29, MEKK1P, MKK4/5P and MYC2) in MAPK pathway; strengthened the biosynthesis of flavonoid and isoflavonoid in the second metabolism; finally led to a fierce defense response of soybean to Agrobacterium infection and thereby lower transformation efficiency. To overcome it, antagonist α-aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) and sonication treatment along with Agrobacterium infection were applied. This novel method dramatically decreased the expression of genes coding for F3'H, HCT, β-glucosidase and IF7GT, etc., which are important for isoflavone biosynthesis or the interconversion of aglycones and glycon; genes coding for peroxidase, FLS2, PBS1 and transcription factor MYC2, etc., which are important components in plant-pathogen interaction; and genes coding for GPAT and α-L-fucosidase, which are important in polyesters formation in cell membrane and the degradation of fucose-containing glycoproteins and glycolipids on the external surface of cell membrane, respectively. This analysis implied that AOA and sonication treatment not only relieved the structural membrane barriers of Agrobacterium entering into cells, but also hindered the perception of 'invasion' signal on cell membrane and intercellular signal transmission, thus effectively alleviated the defense responses and increased the cell susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection. All these factors benefit the transformation

  14. Method for manufacturing carrier containing e.g. proteins for human during oral drug delivery operation for food and drug administration application in pharmaceutical industry, involves providing active ingredient to core layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    NOVELTY - The method involves preparing a multi-layered film comprising a core layer and a barrier layer, where the core layer comprises active ingredient. The multi-layered film is subjected to a hot embossing step using an embossing stamp including protrusions that allows for generation...... delivery operation for a food and drug administration (FDA) application in a pharmaceutical industry. ADVANTAGE - The method enables allowing an individual micro-structure stuck in an embossing stamp to be demolded under the conditions such that demolding operation is done by treating elastically...

  15. A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Erling

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1 identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2 submitting those data to a quantitative analysis thereby characterizing perspective(s of value added by health management programs among farmers; and 3 to characterize perceptions of farmers' goals among veterinarians. Methods The subject was initially explored by means of literature, interviews and discussions with farmers, herd health management consultants and researchers to provide an understanding (a concourse of the research entity. The concourse was then broken down into 46 statements. Sixteen Danish dairy farmers and 18 veterinarians associated with one large nationwide veterinary practice were asked to rank the 46 statements that defined the concourse. Next, a principal component analysis was applied to identify correlated statements and thus families of perspectives between respondents. Q-methodology was utilized to represent each of the statements by one row and each respondent by one column in the matrix. A subset of the farmers participated in a series of semi-structured interviews to face validate the concourse and to discuss subjects like animal welfare, veterinarians' competences as experienced by the farmers and time constraints in the farmers' everyday life. Results Farmers' views could be described by four families of perspectives: Teamwork, Animal welfare, Knowledge dissemination, and Production. Veterinarians believed that farmers' primary focus was on production and profit, however, farmers' valued teamwork and animal welfare more. Conclusion The veterinarians in this study appear to focus too much on financial performance and increased

  16. Impacts of the elimination of the proportionate consolidation on Itaúsa financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Wille Sarquis; Ariovaldo dos Santos

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research aims to evaluate the impacts of the elimination of the proportionate consolidation method to recognize joint ventures investments, with the adoption of the Technical Pronouncement CPC 19 (R2), on the accounting amounts reported by Itaúsa - Investimentos Itaú S.A., and identify which accounting adjustments are necessary to explain the differences in reported amounts. Until December 31, 2012, there were two methods to recognize these investments: proportionate consolidati...

  17. Improving drug delivery strategies for lymphatic filariasis elimination in urban areas in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF advocates for the treatment of entire endemic communities, in order to achieve its elimination targets. LF is predominantly a rural disease, and achieving the required treatment coverage in these areas is much easier compared to urban areas that are more complex. In Ghana, parts of the Greater Accra Region with Accra as the capital city are also endemic for LF. Mass Drug Administration (MDA in Accra started in 2006. However, after four years of treatment, the coverage has always been far below the 65% epidemiologic coverage for interrupting transmission. As such, there was a need to identify the reasons for poor treatment coverage and design specific strategies to improve the delivery of MDA. This study therefore set out to identify the opportunities and barriers for implementing MDA in urban settings, and to develop appropriate strategies for MDA in these settings. An experimental, exploratory study was undertaken in three districts in the Greater Accra region. The study identified various types of non-rural settings, the social structures, stakeholders and resources that could be employed for MDA. Qualitative assessment such as in-depth interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs with community leaders, community members, health providers, NGOs and other stakeholders in the community was undertaken. The study was carried out in three phases: pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention phases, to assess the profile of the urban areas and identify reasons for poor treatment coverage using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The outcomes from the study revealed that, knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members to MDA improved slightly from the pre-intervention phase to the post-intervention phase, in the districts where the interventions were readily implemented by health workers. Many factors such as adequate leadership, funding, planning and

  18. The Practice of Waste Disposal in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; Methodes Employees par l'Atomic Energy Authority du Royaume-Uni pour Eliminer les Dechets Radioactifs; 041f 041e 0420 042f 0414 041e 041a 0423 0414 ; Sistemas de Evacuacion de Desechos en la United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunster, H. J.; Wix, L. F.U. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Health and Safety Branch (United Kingdom)

    1960-07-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority operates establishments in locations ranging from the South of England to the North coast of Scotland. The functions of these establishments include the production and processing of nuclear fuels, the production of electricity and isotopes for commercial sale, the development of new types of reactors and the conduct of research in all the associated fields. The Authority therefore has a wide variety of wastes to deal with and they arise in a number of different places. The main high-activity wastes, both liquid and solid, are stored in special tanks and containers, while the low-activity large-volume liquid wastes are released in carefully controlled amounts to the sea or to rivers. Low-and medium- activity solid wastes are buried in selected areas where there will be no interference with water supplies, or sunk on to the sea bed. The paper summarizes the methods in use and gives typical quantities of liquid and solid waste arising annually for disposal by the various methods. (author) [French] Les divers etablissements de VAtomic Energy Authority du Royaume-Uni sont echelonnes entre le sud de l'Angleterre et la cote septentrionale de l'Ecosse. Ces etablissements sont notamment charges de la fabrication et du traitement des combustibles nucleaires, de la production d'electricite et de la production d'isotopes a des fins commerciales, de la mise au point de nouveaux modeles de reacteurs et des recherches effectuees dans tous les domaines connexes. L' Atomic Energy Authority doit donc proceder, en plusieurs points du territoire, a l'elimination de toute une serie de dechets radioactifs d'origines diverses. Les principaux dechets, liquides et solides, a radioactivite elevee sont enfermes dans des reservoirs et recipients speciaux, tandis que les volumineux dechets liquides a faible radioactivite sont evacues, par quantites soigneusement controlees, dans la mer ou les cours d'eau. Les dechets solides, de radioactivite faible

  19. Eliminating line of sight in elliptic guides using gravitational curving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleno, Kaspar H.; Willendrup, Peter K.; Knudsen, Erik; Lefmann, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Eliminating fast neutrons (λ<0.5A) by removing direct line of sight between the source and the target sample is a well established technique. This can be done with little loss of transmission for a straight neutron guide by horizontal curving. With an elliptic guide shape, however, curving the guide would result in a breakdown of the geometrical focusing mechanism inherent to the elliptical shape, resulting in unwanted reflections and loss of transmission. We present a new and yet untried idea by curving a guide in such a way as to follow the ballistic curve of a neutron in the gravitational field, while still retaining the elliptic shape seen from the accelerated reference frame of the neutron. Analytical calculations and ray-tracing simulations show that this method is useful for cold neutrons at guide lengths in excess of 100 m. We will present some of the latest results for guide optimization relevant for instrument design at the ESS, in particular an off-backscattering spectrometer which utilizes the gravitational curving, for 6.66 A neutrons over a guide length of 300 m.

  20. Elimination of seaweed odour and its effect on antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyimu, Xiren Guli; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the most effective method to remove odour from Sargassum muticum seaweeds and studied their antioxidant properties. Ten grams of wet seaweeds (10 grams dried seaweeds soaked in 100 ml water for 2 hours) were soaked in 100 mL of 1%, 3% and 5% of gum Arabic, rice flour, lemon juice, respectively, and 1% of vinegar. There effect of each treatment on antioxidant level were determined by using the total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging ability expressed as a DPPH value, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and compared to control seaweeds sample (soaked in water only). For sensory attribute, seven trained panellists were asked to evaluate the fishy odour of 11 treated seaweed samples. The fishy odour characteristics and antioxidant activity of treated seaweeds were compared against the control sample (soaked seaweeds), and subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that 3% and 5% lemon juice and 5% rice flour were able to eliminate the fishy odour of seaweed. However, the antioxidant activity was significantly higher (Plemon juice compared to other treatments. Therefore, 5% of lemon juice-treated seaweeds contained the least fishy odour and retained the highest antioxidant activity.

  1. Elimination of spurious lattice fermion solutions and noncompact lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.D.

    1997-09-22

    It is well known that the Dirac equation on a discrete hyper-cubic lattice in D dimension has 2{sup D} degenerate solutions. The usual method of removing these spurious solutions encounters difficulties with chiral symmetry when the lattice spacing l {ne} 0, as exemplified by the persistent problem of the pion mass. On the other hand, we recall that in any crystal in nature, all the electrons do move in a lattice and satisfy the Dirac equation; yet there is not a single physical result that has ever been entangled with a spurious fermion solution. Therefore it should not be difficult to eliminate these unphysical elements. On a discrete lattice, particle hop from point to point, whereas in a real crystal the lattice structure in embedded in a continuum and electrons move continuously from lattice cell to lattice cell. In a discrete system, the lattice functions are defined only on individual points (or links as in the case of gauge fields). However, in a crystal the electron state vector is represented by the Bloch wave functions which are continuous functions in {rvec {gamma}}, and herein lies one of the essential differences.

  2. Wildlife disease elimination and density dependence

    KAUST Repository

    Potapov, A.

    2012-05-16

    Disease control by managers is a crucial response to emerging wildlife epidemics, yet the means of control may be limited by the method of disease transmission. In particular, it is widely held that population reduction, while effective for controlling diseases that are subject to density-dependent (DD) transmission, is ineffective for controlling diseases that are subject to frequency-dependent (FD) transmission. We investigate control for horizontally transmitted diseases with FD transmission where the control is via culling or harvest that is non-selective with respect to infection and the population can compensate through DD recruitment or survival. Using a mathematical model, we show that culling or harvesting can eradicate the disease, even when transmission dynamics are FD. Eradication can be achieved under FD transmission when DD birth or recruitment induces compensatory growth of new, healthy individuals, which has the net effect of reducing disease prevalence by dilution. We also show that if harvest is used simultaneously with vaccination, and there is high enough transmission coefficient, application of both controls may be less efficient than vaccination alone. We illustrate the effects of these control approaches on disease prevalence for chronic wasting disease in deer where the disease is transmitted directly among deer and through the environment.

  3. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation...

  4. A symmetrical subtraction combined with interpolated values for eliminating scattering from fluorescence EEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Yutian

    2016-08-01

    Parallel factor analysis is a widely used method to extract qualitative and quantitative information of the analyte of interest from fluorescence emission-excitation matrix containing unknown components. Big amplitude of scattering will influence the results of parallel factor analysis. Many methods of eliminating scattering have been proposed. Each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages. The combination of symmetrical subtraction and interpolated values has been discussed. The combination refers to both the combination of results and the combination of methods. Nine methods were used for comparison. The results show the combination of results can make a better concentration prediction for all the components.

  5. Elimination kinetic model for organic chemicals in earthworms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, N.; Dimitrov, S.; Georgieva, D.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Hankard, P.; Spurgeon, D.J.; Li, H.; Mekenyan, O.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of bioaccumulation in different organisms and environments should take into account the influence of organism and chemical depending factors on the uptake and elimination kinetics of chemicals. Lipophilicity, metabolism, sorption (bioavailability) and biodegradation of

  6. Elimination of the Landau ghost from chiral solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, J.; Beck, F.; Bentz, W.

    1994-01-01

    We show a practical way based on the Kaellen-Lehmann representation for the two-point functions to eliminate the instability of the vacuum against formation of small sized meson configurations in the chiral σ model

  7. Eliminating Adversary Weapons of Mass Destruction: What's at Stake?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hersman, Rebecca K

    2004-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, the current preoccupation with intelligence might mask other issues and shortcomings in the American ability to eliminate the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction in the hands of its enemies...

  8. QUEST : Eliminating online supervised learning for efficient classification algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, Ardjan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce QUEST (QUantile Estimation after Supervised Training), an adaptive classification algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that eliminates the necessity for online supervised learning. Online processing is important for many sensor network applications. Transmitting

  9. Performance modeling and analysis of parallel Gaussian elimination on multi-core computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi N. Sibai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian elimination is used in many applications and in particular in the solution of systems of linear equations. This paper presents mathematical performance models and analysis of four parallel Gaussian Elimination methods (precisely the Original method and the new Meet in the Middle –MiM– algorithms and their variants with SIMD vectorization on multi-core systems. Analytical performance models of the four methods are formulated and presented followed by evaluations of these models with modern multi-core systems’ operation latencies. Our results reveal that the four methods generally exhibit good performance scaling with increasing matrix size and number of cores. SIMD vectorization only makes a large difference in performance for low number of cores. For a large matrix size (n ⩾ 16 K, the performance difference between the MiM and Original methods falls from 16× with four cores to 4× with 16 K cores. The efficiencies of all four methods are low with 1 K cores or more stressing a major problem of multi-core systems where the network-on-chip and memory latencies are too high in relation to basic arithmetic operations. Thus Gaussian Elimination can greatly benefit from the resources of multi-core systems, but higher performance gains can be achieved if multi-core systems can be designed with lower memory operation, synchronization, and interconnect communication latencies, requirements of utmost importance and challenge in the exascale computing age.

  10. The Formation of the Eastern Africa Rabies Network: A Sub-Regional Approach to Rabies Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieracci, Emily G; Scott, Terence P; Coetzer, Andre; Athman, Mwatondo; Mutembei, Arithi; Kidane, Abraham Haile; Bekele, Meseret; Ayalew, Girma; Ntegeyibizaza, Samson; Assenga, Justine; Markalio, Godson; Munyua, Peninah; Nel, Louis H; Blanton, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    International rabies networks have been formed in many of the canine-rabies endemic regions around the world to create unified and directed regional approaches towards elimination. The aim of the first sub-regional Eastern Africa rabies network meeting, which included Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Uganda, was to discuss how individual country strategies could be coordinated to address the unique challenges that are faced within the network. The Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination and the Global Dog Rabies Elimination Pathway tool were used to stimulate discussion and planning to achieve the elimination of canine-mediated human rabies by 2030. Our analysis estimated a total dog population of 18.3 million dogs in the Eastern Africa region. The current dog vaccination coverage was estimated to be approximately 5% (915,000 dogs), with an estimated 4910 vaccinators available. Assuming that every vaccinator performs rabies vaccination, this equated to each vaccinator currently vaccinating 186 dogs per year, whilst the target would be to vaccinate 2609 dogs every year for the community to reach 70% coverage. In order to achieve the World Health Organization-recommended 70% vaccination coverage, an additional 11 million dogs need to be vaccinated each year, pointing to an average annual shortfall of $ 23 million USD in current spending to achieve elimination by 2030 across the region. Improved vaccination efficiency within the region could be achieved by improving logistics and/or incorporating multiple vaccination methods to increase vaccinator efficiency, and could serve to reduce the financial burden associated with rabies elimination. Regional approaches to rabies control are of value, as neighboring countries can share their unique challenges while, at the same time, common approaches can be developed and resource-saving strategies can be implemented.

  11. Natural elimination of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons from the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harress, H.M.; Grathwohl, P.; Torunski, H.

    1987-01-01

    Recently carried out field investigations of groundwater contaminations with volatile halogenated hydrocarbons have shown evidence of natural elimination of these hazardous substances. This elimination effects is rare and observed in connection with special geological conditions. With regard to some contaminated sites, the following mechanisms for this behaviour are discussed: 1. Stripping by naturally ascending gases. 2. Sorption on soil organic matter. 3. Biodegradation. The so far compiled knowledge allowed to develop further research programmes, which are pursued in various projects.

  12. Lacunarity Elimination in the Translation of Nonequivalent Juridical Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Lazarev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors refer to the problem of lacunarity elimination in legal texts reflecting national specific features in the legal sphere. Various ways of filling gaps when translating from English into Russian are suggested using legal-dogmatic theoretical texts as an example. Different variants of the lacunae elimination are proposed, which take into account the peculiarities of this type of text and can assist in the work of a legal translator.

  13. Which structural rules admit cut elimination? An algebraic criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Terui, Kazushige

    2007-01-01

    Consider a general class of structural inference rules such as exchange, weakening, contraction and their generalizations. Among them, some are harmless but others do harm to cut elimination. Hence it is natural to ask under which condition cut elimination is preserved when a set of structural rules is added to a structure-free logic. The aim of this work is to give such a condition by using algebraic semantics. ¶ We consider full Lambek calculus (FL), i.e., intuitioni...

  14. Asymptomatic Malaria and its Challenges in the Malaria Elimination Program in Iran: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholmreza Hassanpour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ob­jective of this study was to find an appropriate approach to asymptomatic malaria in elimination setting through a systematic review.Methods: A broad search was conducted to find articles with the words ‘malaria’ in their titles and ‘asymptomatic’ or ‘submicroscopic’ in their texts, irrespective of the type of study conducted. The Cochrane, Medline/PubMed, and Scopus databases, as well as Google Scholar were systematically searched for English articles and reports and Iran’s databases- IranMedex, SID and Magiran were searched for Persian reports and articles, with no time limitation. The study was qualitatively summarized if it contained precise information on the role of asymptomatic malaria in the elimination phase.Results: Six articles were selected from the initial 2645 articles. The results all re-emphasize the significance of asymptomatic malaria in the elimination phase, and empha­size the significance of diagnostic tests of higher sensitivity to locate these patients and perform interventions to re­duce the asymptomatic parasitic reservoirs particularly in regions of low transmission. However, we may infer from the results that the current evidence cannot yet specify an accurate strategy on the role of asymptomatic malaria in the elimination phase.Conclusion: To eliminate malaria, alongside vector control, and treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic pa­tients, active and inactive methods of case detection need to be employed. The precise monitoring of asymptomatic individuals and submicroscopic cases of malaria through molecular assays and valid serological methods, especially in regions where seasonal and low transmission exists can be very helpful at this phase.

  15. Study on the Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Silver Loaded ZSM-5 Zeolite for Bacterial Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Le Thi Hoai; Vinh, Tran Quang; Loan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Nhiem, Nguyen Thi; Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Tan, Nguyen Minh; Radnik, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of nano silver coated ZSM-5 zeolite (Ag/ZSM-5) by ion exchange method combined with anaerobic thermal treatment and its bacterial elimination performance were studied. The various Ag content of different samples was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The Ag/ZSM-5 sample with 0.251 wt% Ag (denoted as ZAg3) was characterized by using atomic absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and pulsed CO chemisorption methods. The results showed that silver nanoparticles with a small nano-size of 2-3 nm were formed and distributed on the surface of ZSM-5 zeolite with a dispersion value of 59%. The samples denoted as ZAg1, ZAg2, ZAg3, ZAg4 correspond to a Ag content of 0.064; 0.128; 0.251; 0.253 wt% Ag. In the evaluation series, after 10 min of contact time between bacterial and Ag/ZSM-5, over 99% of E.coli (initial concentration was 10(6) cfu/ml) could be eliminated by Ag/ZSM-5 with the Ag content of at least 0.251 wt% (ZAg3). In addition, over 99% of Coliform (initial concentration was 10(5) cfu/ml) could be eliminated by Ag/ZSM-5 with Ag content of at least 0.128 wt% (ZAg2). In a further evaluation series varying the contact time, ZAg3 sample could eliminate over 99% and 100% of Ecoli after 10 min and 60 min, respectively (initial concentrations of both E.coli and Coliform were 10(5) cfu/ml). In addition, it could eliminate 100% of Coliform in only 10 min of contact time.

  16. On the elimination of cerium in lanthanides such as lanthanum, yttrium and europium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Eiichi; Miyake, Yoshizo

    1974-01-01

    The following two methods have been investigated for the separation of Ce, containing 0.002-1.0% in lanthanides such as La, Y and Eu. (1) Treatment of lanthanide oxides containing Ce by dilute acids. (2) Elimination of Ce by the conversion of its valency state and by the additional effect using scavenger. The concentration of Ce was determined using radiotracer techniques. The first method was unsuitable because Ce was highly soluble even in dilute acetic acid. In the case of the second method, the percentage of separaton of Ce in La or Y were 97-99% by the use of the scavenger, regardless of Ce contents. When 0.002-0.5% of Ce was contained in Y or Eu, high elimination percentage (98-99%) of Ce was obtained by the conversion of the valency state of Ce because of the formation of colloidal solutions

  17. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  18. Progress Toward Regional Measles Elimination - Worldwide, 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Alya; Patel, Minal K; Dumolard, Laure; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Mulders, Mick N; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Kretsinger, Katrina; Papania, Mark J; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2017-10-27

    The fourth United Nations Millennium Development Goal, adopted in 2000, set a target to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015. One indicator of progress toward this target was measles vaccination coverage (1). In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (2).* In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan, † with the objective of eliminating measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015 and in five regions by 2020. Countries in all six WHO regions have adopted goals for measles elimination by or before 2020. Measles elimination is defined as the absence of endemic measles virus transmission in a region or other defined geographic area for ≥12 months, in the presence of a high quality surveillance system that meets targets of key performance indicators. This report updates a previous report (3) and describes progress toward global measles control milestones and regional measles elimination goals during 2000-2016. During this period, annual reported measles incidence decreased 87%, from 145 to 19 cases per million persons, and annual estimated measles deaths decreased 84%, from 550,100 to 89,780; measles vaccination prevented an estimated 20.4 million deaths. However, the 2015 milestones have not yet been met; only one WHO region has been verified as having eliminated measles. Improved implementation of elimination strategies by countries and their partners is needed, with focus on increasing vaccination coverage through substantial and sustained additional investments in health systems, strengthening surveillance systems, using surveillance data to drive programmatic actions, securing political commitment, and raising

  19. Elimination of copper in tissues and organs of rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaye Dogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu elimination was investigated in the tissue and organs of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792, after Cu-free diets exposure. In the current study, fish were fed to satiation on diets containing 0.022 (Group 1; Control, 0.043 (Group 2, 0.123 (Group 3, 0.424 (Group 4 g Cu*kg-1 diet for 60 days before elimination experiment. A total of 288 fish (mean weight 84.28±1.05 g were randomly transferred to 12 fibreglass tanks. The fish were fed the Cu-free diet twice daily, until apparent satiation, during 60 days. Subsequently, the experiment was established for a period of elimination, during which samples were taken at days 15, 30, 45 and 60. Cu concentration in the muscle, gill tissue, digestive system, liver and whole body of fish were determined after 60 days depuration. Cu concentrations in tissues of rainbow trout decreased during depuration period, and the order of Cu elimination in tissue and organs of rainbow trout was: digestive system (73.1 %, then gill (41.1 %, muscle (31.5 % and liver (17.2 % for group 2; digestive system (74.1%, then muscle (65.8%, gill (60.0% and liver (34.6% for group 3; and digestive system (85.8%, then muscle (80.8%, liver (50.5% and less/equal in gill (50.2% for group 4. In statistical analysis, both groups and time were significant factors (P less than 0.05 on elimination rate. Moreover, significant interaction between groups and time were identified on elimination rate. Digestive system showed the fastest elimination rates of Cu at all groups compared with other tissues.

  20. Failure of erythromycin to eliminate airway colonization with ureaplasma urealyticum in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruger Thomas E

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway colonization of mechanically ventilated very low birth weight infants (birth weight Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu is associated with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. While Uu is sensitive to erythromycin in vitro, the efficacy of intravenous (IV erythromycin to eliminate Uu from the airways has not been studied. Methods 17 very low birth weight infants with Uu positive tracheal aspirate (TA cultures were randomized to either 5 (8 infants or 10 days (9 infants of IV erythromycin lactobionate (40 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses. Tracheal aspirate cultures for Uu were performed on days 0, 5, 10 and 15. Results Intravenous erythromycin failed to eliminate airway colonization in a large proportion of infants regardless of whether they received 5 or 10 days of treatment. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 4/15 (27% of TAs obtained at 5 days, 5/12 TAs (42% obtained at 10 days and 6/11(55% TAs obtained at 15 days (combined group data. Conclusions Erythromycin administered IV does not eliminate Uu from the airways in a large proportion of infants. Failure of erythromycin to eliminate Uu from the airways may contribute to the lack of efficacy of this drug in reducing the incidence of BPD in very low birth weight infants.

  1. Rabies elimination research: juxtaposing optimism, pragmatism and realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Sarah; Hampson, Katie

    2017-12-20

    More than 100 years of research has now been conducted into the prevention, control and elimination of rabies with safe and highly efficacious vaccines developed for use in human and animal populations. Domestic dogs are a major reservoir for rabies, and although considerable advances have been made towards the elimination and control of canine rabies in many parts of the world, the disease continues to kill tens of thousands of people every year in Africa and Asia. Policy efforts are now being directed towards a global target of zero human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030 and the global elimination of canine rabies. Here we demonstrate how research provides a cause for optimism as to the feasibility of these goals through strategies based around mass dog vaccination. We summarize some of the pragmatic insights generated from rabies epidemiology and dog ecology research that can improve the design of dog vaccination strategies in low- and middle-income countries and which should encourage implementation without further delay. We also highlight the need for realism in reaching the feasible, although technically more difficult and longer-term goal of global elimination of canine rabies. Finally, we discuss how research on rabies has broader relevance to the control and elimination of a suite of diseases of current concern to human and animal health, providing an exemplar of the value of a 'One Health' approach. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. TH-C-BRD-12: Robust Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Plan Can Eliminate Junction Shifts for Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, L; Jiang, S; Li, Y; Wang, X; Li, H; Zhu, X; Sahoo, N; Gillin, M; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D; Zhang, X; Lim, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) technique is the commonly used radiotherapy technique for craniospinal irradiation (CSI). However, PSPT involves many numbers of junction shifts applied over the course of treatment to reduce the cold and hot regions caused by field mismatching. In this work, we introduced a robust planning approach to develop an optimal and clinical efficient techniques for CSI using intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) so that junction shifts can essentially be eliminated. Methods: The intra-fractional uncertainty, in which two overlapping fields shift in the opposite directions along the craniospinal axis, are incorporated into the robust optimization algorithm. Treatment plans with junction sizes 3,5,10,15,20,25 cm were designed and compared with the plan designed using the non-robust optimization. Robustness of the plans were evaluated based on dose profiles along the craniospinal axis for the plans applying 3 mm intra-fractional shift. The dose intra-fraction variations (DIV) at the junction are used to evaluate the robustness of the plans. Results: The DIVs are 7.9%, 6.3%, 5.0%, 3.8%, 2.8% and 2.2%, for the robustly optimized plans with junction sizes 3,5,10,15,20,25 cm. The DIV are 10% for the non-robustly optimized plans with junction size 25 cm. The dose profiles along the craniospinal axis exhibit gradual and tapered dose distribution. Using DIVs less than 5% as maximum acceptable intrafractional variation, the overlapping region can be reduced to 10 cm, leading to potential reduced number of the fields. The DIVs are less than 5% for 5 mm intra-fractional shifts with junction size 25 cm, leading to potential no-junction-shift for CSI using IMPT. Conclusion: This work is the first report of the robust optimization on CSI based on IMPT. We demonstrate that robust optimization can lead to much efficient carniospinal irradiation by eliminating the junction shifts

  3. Elimination of Gaseous Microemboli from Cardiopulmonary Bypass using Hypobaric Oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Keith E.; Rosinski, David J.; Schonberger, Robert B.; Kubera, Cathryn; Mathew, Eapen S.; Nichols, Frank; Dyckman, William; Courtin, Francois; Sherburne, Bradford; Bordey, Angelique F; Gross, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous gaseous microemboli (GME) are delivered into the arterial circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These emboli damage end organs through multiple mechanisms that are thought to contribute to neurocognitive deficits following cardiac surgery. Here, we use hypobaric oxygenation to reduce dissolved gases in blood and greatly reduce GME delivery during CPB. Methods Variable subatmospheric pressures were applied to 100% oxygen sweep gas in standard hollow fiber microporous membrane oxygenators to oxygenate and denitrogenate blood. GME were quantified using ultrasound while air embolism from the surgical field was simulated experimentally. We assessed end organ tissues in swine postoperatively using light microscopy. Results Variable sweep gas pressures allowed reliable oxygenation independent of CO2 removal while denitrogenating arterial blood. Hypobaric oxygenation produced dose-dependent reductions of Doppler signals produced by bolus and continuous GME loads in vitro. Swine were maintained using hypobaric oxygenation for four hours on CPB with no apparent adverse events. Compared with current practice standards of O2/air sweep gas, hypobaric oxygenation reduced GME volumes exiting the oxygenator (by 80%), exiting the arterial filter (95%), and arriving at the aortic cannula (∼100%), indicating progressive reabsorption of emboli throughout the CPB circuit in vivo. Analysis of brain tissue suggested decreased microvascular injury under hypobaric conditions. Conclusions Hypobaric oxygenation is an effective, low-cost, common sense approach that capitalizes on the simple physical makeup of GME to achieve their near-total elimination during CPB. This technique holds great potential for limiting end-organ damage and improving outcomes in a variety of patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. PMID:24206970

  4. On the elimination of infinitesimal Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Antonio D.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F.

    2013-01-01

    An alternative method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in gauge theories is presented. It is shown that, to eliminate Gribov ambiguities, at infinitesimal level, it is required to break the BRST symmetry in a soft manner. This can be done by introducing a suitable extra constraint that eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies. It is shown that the present approach is consistent with the well established known cases in the literature, i.e., the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The method is valid for gauges depending exclusively on the gauge field and is restricted to classical level. However, occasionally, we deal with quantum aspects of the technique, which are used to improve the results. (orig.)

  5. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric systema family site, a clinical site and a policy sitethe first author (J.O.) investigated how...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  6. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodrigues Coura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS, (ii anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by

  7. Traditional Technology of Chromium-Tungsten Steels Facing, its Disadvantages and Suggestions for their Eliminations

    OpenAIRE

    Valuev, Denis Viktorovich; Malushin, N. N.; Valueva, Anna Vladimirovna; Dariev, R. S.; Mamadaliev, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the disadvantages of the traditional technology of facing with chromium-tungsten steels analysis of the given technology was completed. The analysis showed that the main disadvantages of the technology are high-temperature heating and underutilization of high-alloyed metal properties. To eliminate the disadvantages we developed the methods of facing allowing obtaining faced metal which state is close to that of the hardened one without cracks.

  8. Interactive Realizability and the elimination of Skolem functions in Peano Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Aschieri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new syntactical proof that first-order Peano Arithmetic with Skolem axioms is conservative over Peano Arithmetic alone for arithmetical formulas. This result – which shows that the Excluded Middle principle can be used to eliminate Skolem functions – has been previously proved by other techniques, among them the epsilon substitution method and forcing. In our proof, we employ Interactive Realizability, a computational semantics for Peano Arithmetic which extends Kreisel's modified realizability to the classical case.

  9. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  10. Sliding Control with Chattering Elimination for Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a sliding mode control scheme with chattering elimination, generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed control scheme requires only common data sheet information, no knowledge on load characteri......This paper presents the development of a sliding mode control scheme with chattering elimination, generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed control scheme requires only common data sheet information, no knowledge on load...... controller is developed for the control derivative based on a reduced order model. Simulation results demonstrate strong robustness when subjected to parameter perturbations and that chattering is eliminated....

  11. Risk Management - Variance Minimization or Lower Tail Outcome Elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    on future cash flows (the budget), while risk managers concerned about costly lower tail outcomes will hedge (considerably) less depending on the level of uncertainty. A risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination is in line with theoretical recommendations in a corporate value......This paper illustrates the profound difference between a risk management strategy of variance minimization and a risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination. Risk managers concerned about the variability of cash flows will tend to center their hedge decisions on their best guess......-adding perspective. A cross-case study of blue-chip industrial companies partly supports the empirical use of a risk management strategy of lower tail outcome elimination but does not exclude other factors from (co-)driving the observations....

  12. Hypothyroidism in patients after thyroid elimination by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, S.; Nemec, J.; Reisenauer, R.

    1979-01-01

    Patients after elimination of the thyroid gland with radioiodine 131 I develop hypothyroidism only slowly, the peripheral parameters lagging behind the protein bound iodine especially till the fiftieth day after elimination. In young patients the Achilles tendon reflex and the preejection period lag behind symmetrically, in older patients the effect of the supply of thyroid hormones to the skeletal muscles disappear faster, whereas the heart retains the reserves of the thyroid hormones or systems dependent on thyroid hormones affecting the rapidity of myocardial contraction for a relatively longer period of time. Thus, in older patients after elimination of the thyroid gland with radioiodine 131 I the Achilles tendon reflex is a better criterion of hypothyroidism than the preejection period of heart contraction. (author)

  13. Soil-biofilters for elimination of xenobiotics from wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bester, Kai; Schäfer, D; Janzen, N.

    treatment plants are not designed to eliminate these compounds. Even more of these compounds are discharged by storm waters and combined sewer overflows. It is generally suggested that separating sewers into waste water and rainwater systems might help to improve the situation. However in the last few years...... it has been demonstrated, that storm waters can be heavily polluted with biocides, lubricants and PAHs. In this study we investigated the possibilities to eliminate lipophilic fragrances, bactericides, UV blockers, lubricants etc, as well as more hydrophilic organophosphate flame retardants, biocides...... and other components with low cost soil biofilter techniques suited for on-site decentralised treatment of storm waters and combined sewer overflows. On the other hand the same systems and compounds were tested in for polishing treated waste water in respect of further elimination of xenobiotic compounds....

  14. Biologic phosphorus elimination - influencing parameters, boundary conditions, process optimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaohu.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first presents a systematic study of the basic process of biologic phosphorus elimination as employed by the original 'Phoredox (Main Stream) Process'. The conditions governing the process and the factors influencing its performance were determined by trial operation. A stationary model was developed for the purpose of modelling biologic phosphorus elimination in such a main stream process and optimising the dimensioning. The validity of the model was confirmed by operational data given in the literature and by operational data from the authors' own semitechnical-scale experimental plant. The model permits simulation of the values to be expected for effluent phosphorus and phosphate concentrations for given influent data and boundary conditions. It is thus possible to dimension a plant for accomodation of the original Phoredox (Main Stream) Process or any similar phosphorus eliminating plant that is to work according to the principle of the main stream process. (orig./EF) [de

  15. Rayleigh Instability-Assisted Satellite Droplets Elimination in Inkjet Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Li, Huizeng; Li, Mingzhu; Li, Yanan; Chen, Shuoran; Bao, Bin; Song, Yanlin

    2017-11-29

    Elimination of satellite droplets in inkjet printing has long been desired for high-resolution and precision printing of functional materials and tissues. Generally, the strategy to suppress satellite droplets is to control ink properties, such as viscosity or surface tension, to assist ink filaments in retracting into one drop. However, this strategy brings new restrictions to the ink, such as ink viscosity, surface tension, and concentration. Here, we report an alternative strategy that the satellite droplets are eliminated by enhancing Rayleigh instability of filament at the break point to accelerate pinch-off of the droplet from the nozzle. A superhydrophobic and ultralow adhesive nozzle with cone morphology exhibits the capability to eliminate satellite droplets by cutting the ink filament at breakup point effectively. As a result, the nozzles with different sizes (10-80 μm) are able to print more inks (1 printing electronics and biotechnologies.

  16. Eliminating the Neglected Tropical Diseases: Translational Science and New Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12], additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.

  17. Tissue distribution and elimination of rotenone in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The fate of a single i.v. dose (120 μg/kg) of the piscicide [14C]rotenone was evaluated in rainbow trout for periods up to 72 h after dosing. Rotenone was rapidly cleared from the plasma; less than 2% of the dose remained in the plasma compartment after 20 min. The highest concentrations of rotenone residues (% dose/g tissue) were in the hepatobiliary system, bile, intestine, and in heart, lateral line swimming muscle, and posterior kidney; tissues that are highly dependent on oxidative metabolism. Although rotenone activity was present in all cell fractions examined, greater than 40% was associated with the mitochondrial fraction of liver, kidney, and muscle. More than 85% of the activity extracted from these tissues, except the liver, was parent rotenone. Elimination from whole body and major tissue depots conformed to simple first-order kinetics; the estimated half-life from whole body was 68.5 h. Branchial elimination accounted for 5% of the injected dose over a 4-h period, and urinary elimination was less than 2% over a 48-h period. Rotenone was eliminated essentially unchanged across the gills; however, parent rotenone was not found in either urine or bile. More than 80% of the activity in both urine and bile eluted from HPLC chromatographs as a highly polar fraction that was not hydrolyzed by incubation with either β-glucuronidase or sulfatase. The results imply that hepatobiliary excretion is the major route of elimination for rotenone residues in the trout and that metabolism to a more polar form is a prerequisite for elimination in both the bile and the urine

  18. Use of gamma radiation to eliminate fungi from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, C.M.; Morrell, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation for eliminating pests from imported wood products was investigated, using ponderosa pine blocks colonized by Aspergillus niger, Ophiostoma piceae, O. perfectum, Penicillium spp., Phlebia subserialis, or Postia placenta. While previous studies suggest that a dosage of 2.5 Mrads is required to eliminate fungi from wood, only one isolation was made from wafers exposed to 1.5 Mrad. This suggests that lower dosages may be adequate for mitigating pests in wood, although further studies using other fungi are recommended

  19. Feasibility and roadmap analysis for malaria elimination in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Wang, Ru-Bo; Qian, Ying-Jun; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Kramer, Randall; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    To understand the current status of the malaria control programme at the county level in accordance with the criteria of the World Health Organisation, the gaps and feasibility of malaria elimination at the county and national levels were analysed based on three kinds of indicators: transmission capacity, capacity of the professional team, and the intensity of intervention. Finally, a roadmap for national malaria elimination in the People's Republic of China is proposed based on the results of a feasibility assessment at the national level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eliminating Undesirable Variation in Neonatal Practice: Balancing Standardization and Customization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Maya; Raghavan, Aarti; Suresh, Gautham K

    2017-09-01

    Consistency of care and elimination of unnecessary and harmful variation are underemphasized aspects of health care quality. This article describes the prevalence and patterns of practice variation in health care and neonatology; discusses the potential role of standardization as a solution to eliminating wasteful and harmful practice variation, particularly when it is founded on principles of evidence-based medicine; and proposes ways to balance standardization and customization of practice to ultimately improve the quality of neonatal care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.