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Sample records for methods immunohistochemical analysis

  1. Immunohistochemical quantification of expression of a tight junction protein, claudin-7, in human lung cancer samples using digital image analysis method.

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    Lu, Zhe; Liu, Yi; Xu, Junfeng; Yin, Hongping; Yuan, Haiying; Gu, Jinjing; Chen, Yan-Hua; Shi, Liyun; Chen, Dan; Xie, Bin

    2018-03-01

    Tight junction proteins are correlated with cancer development. As the pivotal proteins in epithelial cells, altered expression and distribution of different claudins have been reported in a wide variety of human malignancies. We have previously reported that claudin-7 was strongly expressed in benign bronchial epithelial cells at the cell-cell junction while expression of claudin-7 was either altered with discontinued weak expression or completely absent in lung cancers. Based on these results, we continued working on the expression pattern of claudin-7 and its relationship with lung cancer development. We herein proposed a new Digital Image Classification, Fragmentation index, Morphological analysis (DICFM) method for differentiating the normal lung tissues and lung cancer tissues based on the claudin-7 immunohistochemical staining. Seventy-seven lung cancer samples were obtained from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University and claudin-7 immunohistochemical staining was performed. Based on C++ and Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV, version 2.4.4), the DICFM processing module was developed. Intensity and fragmentation of claudin-7 expression, as well as the morphological parameters of nuclei were calculated. Evaluation of results was performed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Agreement between these computational results and the results obtained by two pathologists was demonstrated. The intensity of claudin-7 expression was significantly decreased while the fragmentation was significantly increased in the lung cancer tissues compared to the normal lung tissues and the intensity was strongly positively associated with the differentiation of lung cancer cells. Moreover, the perimeters of the nuclei of lung cancer cells were significantly greater than that of the normal lung cells, while the parameters of area and circularity revealed no statistical significance. Taken together, our DICFM approach may be applied as an

  2. Delineation of Chondroid Lipoma: An Immunohistochemical and Molecular Biological Analysis

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    de Vreeze, Ronald S. A.; van Coevorden, Frits; Boerrigter, Lucie; Nederlof, Petra M.; Haas, Rick L.; Bras, Johannes; Rosenwald, Andreas; Mentzel, Thomas; de Jong, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Aims. Chondroid lipoma (CL) is a benign tumor that mimics a variety of soft tissue tumors and is characterized by translocation t(11;16). Here, we analyze CL and its histological mimics. Methods. CL (n = 4) was compared to a variety of histological mimics (n = 83) for morphological aspects and immunohistochemical features including cyclinD1(CCND1). Using FISH analysis, CCND1 and FUS were investigated as potential translocation partners. Results. All CLs were strongly positive for CCND1. One of 4 myoepitheliomas, CCND1, was positive. In well-differentiated lipomatous tumors and in chondrosarcomas, CCND1 was frequently expressed, but all myxoid liposarcomas were negative. FISH analysis did not give support for direct involvement of CCND1 and FUS as translocation partners. Conclusions. Chondroid lipoma is extremely rare and has several and more prevalent histological mimics. The differential diagnosis of chondroid lipomas can be unraveled using immunohistochemical and molecular support. PMID:21559269

  3. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ORAL MUCOSA LEUKOPLAKIA

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    Yu. G. KOLENKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the structure of oral mucosa diseases, in particular an increased ratio of precancerous diseases, so that an effective non-invasive detection of any sign of malignancy appears as an urgent and most actual task of dentistry. Aim: To study the proliferative activity of epithelial cells in Ki-67 antigenin patients with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa. Materials and method: A complex clinical and laboratory examination was performed on 155 patients with oral leukoplakia, who addressed the Operative Dentistry Department of the “A.A.Bogomolets” National Medical University of Kiev between 2010 and 2014. All patients have been subjected to a careful clinical examination, which included: dental anamnesis, visual inspection, oral examination and digital palpation of oral mucosa and tongue mucosa, biopsy of leukoplakia lesions for cytological and histological examination. Results: Histological evaluation of the material has been performed according to the WHO (2005 classification of leukoplakia. 10 (14% sites of unaltered mucosa, 10 (14% samples of hyperkeratosis without atypia, 14 (19% biopsy specimens of hyperkeratosis SIN1, 15 (21% – hyperkeratosis SIN2, 10 (14% - SIN3 and 13 (18% cases of squamous cell carcinoma were evidenced. Immunohistochemical investigation evidenced the presence of protein Ki-67 in the nuclei of epithelial cells. In the unmodified epithelium of the oral mucosa, all epithelial cells with stained nuclei are virtually located in the basal layer. Conclusion: Against the general increase of the proliferative activity of epithelial cells with increasing SIN, a characteristic distribution of proliferating cells in the thickness of the epithelium was revealed for each studied group, as follows: in the control group and in leukoplakia without atypia, immunopositive cells are located in the basal layer, in leukoplakia (SIN1, SIN2 and SIN3 – in parabasal position while, in squamous

  4. An immunohistochemical analysis of naturally occurring chancroid.

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    King, R; Gough, J; Ronald, A; Nasio, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Plummer, F; Wilkins, J A

    1996-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is a major cause of genital ulcer disease in many developing countries and is associated with augmented transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the mechanisms through which H. ducreyi produces ulceration are poorly understood. The characteristics of the host response to H. ducreyi and the pathobiology of its potential contribution to increased HIV susceptibility are not known. Chancroid ulcer biopsies from 8 patients were analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically. All biopsies had perivascular and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrates that extended deep into the dermis. The infiltrate, which contained macrophages and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, was consistent with a delayed hypersensitivity type cell-mediated immune response. The recruitment of CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages may in part explain the facilitation of HIV transmission in patients with chancroid.

  5. Direct comparison of enzyme histochemical and immunohistochemical methods to localize an enzyme

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    van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2002-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of enzymes is compared directly with localization of enzyme activity with (catalytic) enzyme histochemical methods. The two approaches demonstrate principally different aspects of an enzyme. The immunohistochemical method localizes the enzyme protein whether it is

  6. Immunohistochemical analysis of forensic evidence from a double homicide.

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    Miller, Rodney T; Grantham, Ross; Lockett, Bruce; Temple-Camp, Cynric; Pang, James

    2002-12-01

    We report the use of immunohistochemical staining for analysis of forensic evidence from a double homicide. A 38-year-old woman and her 7-year-old daughter were murdered by multiple blows to the head and face with a tomahawk, resulting in multiple fragments of brain tissue scattered about the murder scene. The victims' husband and father was the main suspect, who maintained that he was out of town on business during the evening of the murders. However, a shirt taken from the suspect's car on the morning after the murders (secured by the police before the suspect visited the murder scene) was found to have two small stains. DNA analysis on the stains showed the presence of the deceased wife's DNA, and immunohistochemical stains on shirt fragments conclusively documented the presence of deep central nervous system tissue, providing the critical piece of evidence needed to arrest and prosecute the suspect. This report demonstrates that shirt or similar cloth fragments can be processed into paraffin blocks and subsequently immunostained to search for and classify types of tissue fragments that may be present on the fabric.

  7. APPLICATION IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICALLY RESEARCH METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

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    S. A. Pulbere

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The actual problem of modern urology remains differential diagnostics of various diseases of the prostate gland. The purpose of the study. Increasing the effectiveness of differential diagnosis of diseases of the prostate. Materials and methods. In the biopsy specimens of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa, an immunohistochemical study of the production of the Ki-67 proliferation marker, matrix metalloproteinase-9, the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP-1, and the distribution of collagen type IV was performed. Results. A moderate positive correlation was found between Gleason gradation and the cell proliferation index for Ki 67 (rs = 0.674 and a moderate negative correlation of Gleason gradation with the level of production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (rs = -0.660. A weak significant negative correlation was established between the level of proliferative cell activity and the production of  MMP-9 tumor cells (rs = -0.369. A significant decrease in the level of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in adenocarcinoma of different grades was revealed. The invasive properties of tumor cells, expressed in the destruction of collagen of the IV type of the basal membrane and connective tissue prostatic stroma, are mediated by the imbalance between MMP-9 and the protein blocking this enzyme - TIMP-1, whose production decreases in adenocarcinomas of different grades compared with BPH. Conclusions: 1. BPH is characterized by high production of MMP-9 type, which destroys the collagen of the basal membranes and stroma, the proteolytic action of which is blocked by the high content of TIMP-1.

  8. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of 85 cases.

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    Mahta, Ali; Haghpanah, Vahid; Lashkari, Anahita; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas without clinically active hypersecretion are summarized under the term non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). Since there are no specific serum markers, the differential diagnosis and treatment imply special difficulties. By using immunohistochemical methods we will have new insight into the nature and pathogenesis of these tumours. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and its labelling index (LI) is considered a marker of normal and abnormal cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of immunohistochemistry and MIB1-LI determination in NFPAs to predict tumoural behaviour and better management. In this clinicopathological study, 85 cases of NFPAs were analysed immunohistochemically. MIB1-LI was also determined in studied cases. Clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up data were also reviewed and the correlation between clinical and pathologic findings was established. Eighteen adenomas (21.2%) were immunoreactive to one or two adenohypophysial hormones of which 4 GH positive adenomas had aggressive behaviour (2 significant juxtasellar extensions and 2 recurrences). MIB-1 LI was more than 5% in only 5 cases including 2 invasive adenomas but with no evidence of recurrence. No significant statistical difference between clinical presentations in immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive NFPAs was observed except for unilateral temporal hemianopia which was more common in immunoreactive adenomas (P=0.022). NFPAs comprise several pathologically different types of tumours, some of which are potentially hormone producing, but some defects in hormone secretion or production of biologically inactive or insufficient amount of hormone may be the culprit in the lack of evidence of rising serum hormone levels. MIB-1 LI may be indicative of invasiveness but not a predictor of recurrence. Silent somatotropinomas may have more aggressive behaviour in comparison with other NFPAs.

  9. Automated immunohistochemical method to analyze large areas of the human cortex.

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    Abbass, Mohamad; Trought, Kathleen; Long, David; Semechko, Anton; Wong, Albert H C

    2018-01-15

    There have been inconsistencies in the histological abnormalities found in the cerebral cortex from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Discrepancies in previously published reports may arise from small sample sizes, inconsistent methodology and biased cell counting. We applied automated quantification of neuron density, neuron size and cortical layer thickness in large regions of the cerebral cortex in psychiatric patients. This method accurately segments DAPI positive cells that are also stained with CUX2 and FEZF2. Cortical layer thickness, neuron density and neuron size were automatically computed for each cortical layer in numerous Brodmann areas. We did not find pronounced cytoarchitectural abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex or orbitofrontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. There were no significant differences in layer thickness measured in immunohistochemically stained slides compared with traditional Nissl stained slides. Automated cell counts were correlated, reliable and consistent with manual counts, while being much less time-consuming. We demonstrate the validity of using a novel automated analysis approach to post-mortem brain tissue. We were able to analyze large cortical areas and quantify specific cell populations using immunohistochemical markers. Future analyses could benefit from efficient automated analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative analysis of two immunohistochemical methods for antigen retrieval in the optical lobe of the honeybee Apis mellifera: Myosin-v assay

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    LUCIANA KAREN CALÁBRIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared two heating methods currently used for antigen retrieval (AR immunostaining: the microwave oven and the steam cooker. Myosin-V, a molecular motor involved in vesicle transport, was used as a neuronal marker in honeybee Apis mellifera brains fixed in formalin. Overall, the steam cooker showed the most satisfactory AR results. At 100 ºC, tissue morphology was maintained and revealed epitope recovery, while evaporation of the AR solution was markedly reduced; this is important for stabilizing the sodium citrate molarity of the AR buffer and reducing background effects. Standardization of heat-mediated AR of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections results in more reliable immunostaining of the honeybee brain.

  11. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Vimentin in Oral Sub mucous Fibrosis

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    Nayak, M. T.; Singh, A.; Desai, R. S.; Vanaki, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSF), a precancerous condition, is characterized by abnormal accumulation of collagen fibers in oral sub mucosa. Vimentin is a Class 2 intermediate filament (IF) and primarily expressed in cells of mesenchymal origin. Vimentin is also found to be involved in cell growth, cell cycling, and tumour differentiation. Objective. The purpose of the study was to compare the expression of vimentin in various histological grades of OSF. Materials and Methods. To assess the immunohistochemical expression of vimentin in 20 mild cases of OSF, 20 severe cases of OSF, and ten cases of normal oral buccal mucosa. Results. The overall staining intensity of vimentin significantly increased statistically (P<0.01) in OSF cases over normal control. A significant increase in the staining intensity of vimentin was also noted in the fibroblasts of severe cases of OSF (P=0.03). Conclusion. Considering the marked vimentin expression in the present study, future studies should include cytoskeleton IF and other filaments in the fibroblasts of OSF.

  12. Immunohistochemical analysis of breast tissue microarray images using contextual classifiers

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    Stephen J McKenna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue microarrays (TMAs are an important tool in translational research for examining multiple cancers for molecular and protein markers. Automatic immunohistochemical (IHC scoring of breast TMA images remains a challenging problem. Methods: A two-stage approach that involves localization of regions of invasive and in-situ carcinoma followed by ordinal IHC scoring of nuclei in these regions is proposed. The localization stage classifies locations on a grid as tumor or non-tumor based on local image features. These classifications are then refined using an auto-context algorithm called spin-context. Spin-context uses a series of classifiers to integrate image feature information with spatial context information in the form of estimated class probabilities. This is achieved in a rotationally-invariant manner. The second stage estimates ordinal IHC scores in terms of the strength of staining and the proportion of nuclei stained. These estimates take the form of posterior probabilities, enabling images with uncertain scores to be referred for pathologist review. Results: The method was validated against manual pathologist scoring on two nuclear markers, progesterone receptor (PR and estrogen receptor (ER. Errors for PR data were consistently lower than those achieved with ER data. Scoring was in terms of estimated proportion of cells that were positively stained (scored on an ordinal scale of 0-6 and perceived strength of staining (scored on an ordinal scale of 0-3. Average absolute differences between predicted scores and pathologist-assigned scores were 0.74 for proportion of cells and 0.35 for strength of staining (PR. Conclusions: The use of context information via spin-context improved the precision and recall of tumor localization. The combination of the spin-context localization method with the automated scoring method resulted in reduced IHC scoring errors.

  13. Immunohistochemical analysis of P53 protein in odontogenic cysts

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    Gaballah, Essam Taher M.A.; Tawfik, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    The p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor gene, the mutations of which are closely related to the decreased differentiation of cells. Findings of studies on immunohistochemical P53 expression in odontogenic cysts are controversial. The present study was carried-out to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of P53 protein in odontogenic cysts. Thirty paraffin blocks of diagnosed odontogenic cysts were processed to determine the immunohistochemical expression of P53 protein. Nine of the 11 odontogenic keratocysts (81.8%) expressed P53, one of three dentigerous cyst cases expressed P53, while none of the 16 radicular cysts expressed P53 protein. The findings of the present work supported the reclassification of OKC as keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:23960493

  14. Determination of HER2 and p53 Mutations by Sequence Analysis Method and EGFR/Chromosome 7 Gene Status by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization for the Predilection of Targeted Therapy Modalities in Immunohistochemically Triple Negative Breast Carcinomas in Turkish Population.

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    Pala, Emel Ebru; Bayol, Umit; Keskin, Elif Usturali; Ozguzer, Alp; Kucuk, Ulku; Ozer, Ozge; Koc, Altug

    2015-09-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), an agressive subtype accounts nearly 15 % of all breast carcinomas. Conventional chemotherapy is the only treatment modality thus new, effective targeted therapy methods have been investigated. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors give hope according to the recent studies results. Also therapeutic agents have been tried against aberrant p53 signal activity as TNBC show high p53 mutation rates. Our aim was to detect the incidence of mutations/amplifications identified in TNBC in our population. Here we used sequence analysis to detect HER2 (exon 18-23), p53 (exon 5-8) mutations; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method to analyse EGFR/chromosome 7 centromere gene status in 82 immunohistochemically TNBC. Basaloid phenotype was identified in 49 (59.8 %) patients. EGFR amplification was noted in 5 cases (6.1 %). All EGFR amplified cases showed EGFR overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). p53 mutations were identified in 33 (40.2 %) cases. Almost 60 % of the basal like breast cancer cases showed p53 mutation. Only one case showed HER2 mutation (exon 20:g.36830_3). Our results showed that gene amplification is not the unique mechanism in EGFR overexpression. IHC might be used in the decision of anti-EGFR therapy in routine practice. p53 mutation rate was lower than the rates reported in the literature probably due to ethnic differences and low sensitivity of sanger sequences in general mutation screening. We also established the rarity of HER2 mutation in TNBC. In conclusion EGFR and p53 are the major targets in TNBC also for our population.

  15. Immunohistochemical analysis of restenotic tissue after transjugular portosystemic shunt

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    Lu Qin; An Yanli; Deng Gang; Fang Wen; Zhu Guangyu; Li Guozhao; Wei Xiaoying; Liu Yuanyuan; Teng Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of several restenotic tissue elements after transjugular portosystemic shunt, and to provide more informations for the mechanism of TIPS restenosis. Methods: TIPS was performed in 6 swine to set up TIPS animal models. 14-21 days after operation, the models were sacrificed to obtain the TIPS tissues for pathological examinations, including electric microscope, HE staining, and immunohistochemical staining of anti-SMC-actin-α, PCNA, Vementin, myoglobulin, eNOS and iNOS. Then , the results were comparatively analyzed between TIPS obstructed shunt tissues and non-obstructed shunt tissues. Results: Restenosis was occurred with different degrees in 4 swine of the 6 TIPS models. Electric microscopic results showed that the restenosis tissues were composed of over proliferated collagen, SMCs and fibroblasts. Anti-SMC-actin-α and PCNA were strongly positive expression in restenotic tissues, and also positive in patent tissues. Vimentin expressed strongly in unstenotic tissues, on the contrary, it expressed obviously weaker in restenotic tissues. Myoglobulin expressed more strongly in restenotic tissues and weakened in unstenotic tissues. eNOS expressed positive in normal liver tissues, and expressed weaker near TIPS restenotic tissues. iNOS showed stronger expression in restenotic tissues and could hardly expressed in normal liver tissues. Conclusions: Restenotic rate may be 67% in TIPS swine models. Restenotic tissues may be mainly composed of proliferated SMCs positively expressed anti-SMC-actin-α with strong ability of movement. eNOS may be expressed in normal liver tissues and instead iNOS be expressed in strongly injured liver tissues. (authors)

  16. Immunohistochemical Analysis of P63 Expression in Odontogenic Lesions

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    Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Eini, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    P63 may have a role in tumorigenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic lesions. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of P63 in a total of 30 cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors. The percentage of positive cells was calculated in the lining of odontogenic cysts and islands of ameloblastoma. P63 expression was evident in all types of odontogenic lesions. P63 was expressed throughout the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst except surface parakeratinized layer. In addition, calcifying odontogenic cyst showed P63 expression in all layers. In almost all radicular and dentigerous cysts, the basal and parabasal layers were immunoreactive. Peripheral cells of ameloblastoma expressed P63; however, stellate reticulum had weaker immunostaining. No significant difference in P63 expression was observed between studied lesions (P = 0.86). Expression of P63 in odontogenic lesions suggests that this protein is important in differentiation and proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells. However, it seems that it could not be a useful marker to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive lesions. P63 also represents a progenitor or basal cell marker, and it is not expressed in mature differentiated cells. PMID:24350278

  17. Hyperplastic corneal pannus: an immunohistochemical analysis and review.

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    Jakobiec, Frederick A; Stacy, Rebecca C; Mendoza, Pia R; Chodosh, James

    2014-01-01

    An exuberant corneal pannus usually develops in adults with a history of surgery or trauma in the anterior central stroma and appears as a glistening, vascularized, moderately elevated, well circumscribed white nodule. We describe a 78-year-old woman with such a pannus, which in the past has typically been referred to as keloidal or hypertrophic. The involved eye had only light perception, and she underwent a penetrating keratoplasty that improved her vision to 20/100. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluations of a the specimen disclosed a reactive spindle cell stromal proliferation of myofibroblasts that were smooth muscle actin positive with a low Ki67 proliferation index. Desmin, caldesmon, and calponin were negative, in keeping with the incomplete myofilamentary differentiation of a myofibroblast. There was a generous admixture of CD68/163-positive histiocytes and dispersed C3/5-positive T-lymphocytes. An absence of CD138- and IgG4-positive plasma cells ruled out an IgG4-related disease. For a lesion to be keloidal, the collagen must have a thick hyaline character, sharp edges, and a sparsity of intervening cells and vessels. A hypertrophic pannus would be composed of large swollen cells not necessarily increased in number. We therefore recommend adoption of the term hyperplastic for lesions like that described here because of the obvious increase in cellularity from proliferating myofibroblasts and the lack of true keloidal collagen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunohistochemical Analysis of P63 Expression in Odontogenic Lesions

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    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available P63 may have a role in tumorigenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic lesions. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of P63 in a total of 30 cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors. The percentage of positive cells was calculated in the lining of odontogenic cysts and islands of ameloblastoma. P63 expression was evident in all types of odontogenic lesions. P63 was expressed throughout the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst except surface parakeratinized layer. In addition, calcifying odontogenic cyst showed P63 expression in all layers. In almost all radicular and dentigerous cysts, the basal and parabasal layers were immunoreactive. Peripheral cells of ameloblastoma expressed P63; however, stellate reticulum had weaker immunostaining. No significant difference in P63 expression was observed between studied lesions (. Expression of P63 in odontogenic lesions suggests that this protein is important in differentiation and proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells. However, it seems that it could not be a useful marker to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive lesions. P63 also represents a progenitor or basal cell marker, and it is not expressed in mature differentiated cells.

  19. Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy: Contribution of a Molecular and Immunohistochemical Analysis in Diagnosis in Morocco

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    Hanane Bellayou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutations of the DMD gene located at Xp21. In DMD patients, dystrophin is virtually absent; whereas BMD patients have 10% to 40% of the normal amount. Deletions in the dystrophin gene represent 65% of mutations in DMD/BMD patients. To explain the contribution of immunohistochemical and genetic analysis in the diagnosis of these dystrophies, we present 10 cases of DMD/BMD with particular features. We have analyzed the patients with immunohistochemical staining and PCR multiplex to screen for exons deletions. Determination of the quantity and distribution of dystrophin by immunohistochemical staining can confirm the presence of dystrophinopathy and allows differentiation between DMD and BMD, but dystrophin staining is not always conclusive in BMD. Therefore, only identification involved mutation by genetic analysis can establish a correct diagnosis.

  20. Comparison of new immunofluorescence method for detection of soy protein in meat products with immunohistochemical, histochemical, and ELISA methods

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    Michaela Petrášová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy proteins are commonly used in the food industry thanks to their technological properties. However, soy is, along with cow’s milk, eggs, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, responsible for around 90% of food allergies, and is also one of the foodstuffs that can cause anaphylaxis. The aim of this work was to compare the immunofluorescence method for the detection of soy protein in meat products purchased from the retail market with other microscopic methods (immunohistochemical and histochemical, with the ELISA reference method and with the confirmatory results. Within the research, 127 meat products purchased in the retail network were examined using the immunofluorescence method used for the detection of soy protein. The method was compared to Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA, immunohistochemical, and histochemical methods. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and immunohistochemical method was low. In addition, a significant difference between the fluorescence method and ELISA (P P < 0.01 was found. The immunofluorescence method was also compared with confirmatory results. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and confirmatory results was low. The results showed the possibilities of this new method to detect the content of soy protein in meat products.

  1. The Immunohistochemical Analysis of SOCS3 Protein Identifies a Subgroup of Prostatic Cancer Biopsies With Aggressive Behavior.

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    Pierconti, Francesco; Martini, Maurizio; Cenci, Tonia; Larocca, Luigi M

    Recently, we demonstrated that hypermethylation of SOCS3 determines a significant reduction of its mRNA and protein expression and identifies a subgroup of prostate cancer with aggressive behavior. In this paper, our objective was to investigate whether the immunohistochemical expression of the SOCS3 protein could represent an alternative method to molecular analysis for the individualization of aggressive prostate carcinoma. We analyzed the SOCS3 immunohistochemical expression in 65 patients undergoing biopsies at the Institute of Urology of our hospital between September 2011 and October 2011 (median age, 66.4 y; range, 50 to 73 y), and in 35 cases, a subset of 65 cases originally used for the immunohistochemical study, we studied the methylation status of the SOCS3 promoter. We found that the percentage of cases with SOCS3 negativity (-) or with SOCS3 weak staining in <50% of the neoplastic glands (+/-) correlated to the worst prognosis in terms of the Gleason score (P=0.0001; Fisher's exact test), the pT stage (P=0.012; Fisher's exact test), and progression-free survival (P=0.0334; hazard ratio, 0.34; and 95% confidence interval, from 0.1261 to 0.9188). Moreover, some cases with an SOCS3 unmethylated pattern showed SOCS3-negative immunostaining (-) or SOCS3-negative glands with weak cytoplasmatic staining in <50% of the neoplastic glands (+/-). Our data suggest that in prostatic cancer biopsies, the immunohistochemical analysis of SOCS3 protein expression may provide a method that is less expensive and easier to apply than SOCS3 methylation analysis for the distinction of a subgroup of prostate cancer with a more aggressive behavior.

  2. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

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    Zahra Hesami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, we used immunohistochemical analysis in male rats. Methods: In this project the 28 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 animals. The rats were divided into four experimental groups as follows: the first group (sham intraperitoneally received only olive oil as the solvent of carbon tetrachloride; second group (CCl4 intraperitoneally received carbon tetrachloride dissolved in olive oil (ratio of about 1: 1 at a concentration of 1 ml/kg and a twice a week for eight weeks; third group subcutaneously received only platelet extract at a concentration of 0.5 ml/kg twice a week for three weeks; and fourth group received both CCl4 intraperitoneally for eight weeks and platelet extract subcutaneously for last three weeks. After 8 weeks of trial blood and liver sampling were done. Blood samples sent for enzymatic (AST, ALT tests and liver samples tested for histological and immunohistochemical studies. The data were analyzed using  one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test by Graph pad Prism 5 software and data were considered significant at p≤ 0.05. Results: The results show that platelet extract causes a significant (p≤ 0.001 decrease in liver enzymes and albumin improves the function of liver. The level of alfa smooth muscle actin (α-SMA as an index of hepatic stellate cell activation was decreased by platelet extract administration which eventually reduced the necrosis and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in studied rats

  3. Alveolar bone healing in rats: micro-CT, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis

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    Jaqueline Suemi HASSUMI

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats is a classical model of preclinical studies. The underlying morphometric, cellular and molecular mechanism, however, remains imprecise in a unique study. Objectives The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the alveolar bone healing after upper incisor extraction in rats by micro computed tomographic (Micro-CT, immunohistochemical and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis. Material and Methods Thirty animals (Rattus norvegicus, Albinus Wistar were divided into three groups after upper incisors extraction at 7, 14, and 28 days. Micro-CT was evaluated based on the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, the histological analyses and immunostaining of osteoprotegerin (OPG, receptor activator of nuclear kappa B ligand (RANKL and tartrate resistant acid phosphate (TRAP was performed. In addition, RT-PCR analyses of OPG, RANKL, the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, osteocalcin (OC, osteopontin (OPN, osterix (OST and receptor activator of nuclear kappa B (RANK were performed to determine the expression of these proteins in the alveolar bone healing. Results Micro-CT: The morphometric parameters of bone volume and trabecular thickness progressively increased over time. Consequently, a gradual decrease in trabecular separation, trabecular space and total bone porosity was observed. Immunohistochemical: There were no differences statistically significant between the positive labeling for OPG, RANKL and TRAP in the different periods. RT-PCR: At 28 days, there was a significant increase in OPG expression, while RANKL expression and the RANKL/OPG ratio both decreased over time. Conclusion Micro-CT showed the newly formed bone had favorable morphometric characteristics of quality and quantity. Beyond the RUNX2, OC, OPN, OST, and RANK proteins expressed in the alveolar bone healing, OPG and RANKL activity showed to be essential for activation of basic

  4. Quantifying mast cells in bladder pain syndrome by immunohistochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M.S.; Mortensen, S.; Nordling, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate a simple method for counting mast cells, thought to have a role in the pathophysiology of bladder pain syndrome (BPS, formerly interstitial cystitis, a syndrome of pelvic pain perceived to be related to the urinary bladder and accompanied by other urinary symptoms, e. g....... frequency and nocturia), as > 28 mast cells/mm(2) is defined as mastocytosis and correlated with clinical outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS The current enzymatic staining method (naphtolesterase) on 10 mu m sections for quantifying mast cells is complicated. In the present study, 61 patients had detrusor...... sections between, respectively. Mast cells were counted according to a well-defined procedure. RESULTS The old and the new methods, on 10 and 3 mu m sections, showed a good correlation between mast cell counts. When using tryptase staining and 3 mu m sections, the mast cell number correlated well...

  5. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cabibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus (BO represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO, posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS, with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  6. Metallothionein - immunohistochemical cancer biomarker: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Gumulec

    Full Text Available Metallothionein (MT has been extensively investigated as a molecular marker of various types of cancer. In spite of the fact that numerous reviews have been published in this field, no meta-analytical approach has been performed. Therefore, results of to-date immunohistochemistry-based studies were summarized using meta-analysis in this review. Web of science, PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL databases were searched (up to April 30, 2013 and the eligibility of individual studies and heterogeneity among the studies was assessed. Random and fixed effects model meta-analysis was employed depending on the heterogeneity, and publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and Egger's tests. A total of 77 studies were included with 8,015 tissue samples (4,631 cases and 3,384 controls. A significantly positive association between MT staining and tumors (vs. healthy tissues was observed in head and neck (odds ratio, OR 9.95; 95% CI 5.82-17.03 and ovarian tumors (OR 7.83; 1.09-56.29, and a negative association was ascertained in liver tumors (OR 0.10; 0.03-0.30. No significant associations were identified in breast, colorectal, prostate, thyroid, stomach, bladder, kidney, gallbladder, and uterine cancers and in melanoma. While no associations were identified between MT and tumor staging, a positive association was identified with the tumor grade (OR 1.58; 1.08-2.30. In particular, strong associations were observed in breast, ovarian, uterine and prostate cancers. Borderline significant association of metastatic status and MT staining were determined (OR 1.59; 1.03-2.46, particularly in esophageal cancer. Additionally, a significant association between the patient prognosis and MT staining was also demonstrated (hazard ratio 2.04; 1.47-2.81. However, a high degree of inconsistence was observed in several tumor types, including colorectal, kidney and prostate cancer. Despite the ambiguity in some tumor types, conclusive results are provided in the tumors of

  7. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Platelet Extract Effects on Liver Injury Induced by CCl4 in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hesami; Maryam Ayatollahi; Bita Geramizadeh; Akram Jamshidzadeh; Akbar Vahdati

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds & objectives: Liver damage results in a large accumulation of external cellular matrix that affects the function of this important body organ in a long term and finally stops its function completely. The growth factors existing in platelet extract are more cost-effective, available, and stable than recombinant ones. To determine whether the platelet extract effects on histological changes in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), we used immunohistochemical analysis ...

  8. Analysis of human papilloma virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma using p16: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S.; Rao, R. S.; Amrutha, N.; Sanketh, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate the association of HPV in histological grades of OSCC using p16 (p16INK4a) immunohistochemistry (IHC). Subjects and Methods: This study consists of 30 histological diagnosed cases of OSCC (10-well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [WDOSCC], 10-moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [MDOSCC] and 10-poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma [PDOSCC]). The sections were subjected to IHC procedure using p16. Two parameters in immunohistochemical p16 expression were evaluated by 3 observers based on the criteria by Galgano M. Tetal (2010) (a) percentage of p16 positive cases (b) pattern of p16 staining in various grades of OSCC. Statistical Analysis Used: Kappa test. Results: Totally, 30 samples of 0SCC, p16 positivity was noted in 26/30 (86.66%). Of 26 positive cases, p16 staining was positive in 7/10 (70%) of WDOSCC, 9/10 (90%) in MDOSCC and, 10/10 (100%) PDOSCC. Incidentally, we also found single dispersed cell staining in WDOSCC, patchy staining in MDOSCC and more diffuse staining pattern predominant in PDOSCC. Conclusions: Our study revealed an association between HPV and OSCC. Diffuse staining pattern was noted in PDOSCC, which in turn depicts the increase viral overload, which might have an influence on its aggressive behavior. PMID:24818098

  9. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of infectious agents, T-cell subpopulations and inflammatory adhesion molecules in placentas from HIV-seropositive pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Cristina R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare histomorphometric changes and the results of immunohistochemical tests for VCAM, ICAM-1, CD4 and CD8 in normal placentas from HIV-seropositive pregnant women. Methods Samples of normal placentas were divided into 2 groups: healthy HIV-seronegative pregnant women (control group = C = 60 and HIV-seropositive women (experimental group = E = 57. Conventional histological sections were submitted to morphometric analysis and evaluated in terms of the immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1, VCAM, CD4 and CD8. Results The villi in group E were smaller than those in group C. The median for the CD8+ T cell count was higher in group E than in group C (p = 0.03. Immunohistochemical expression of ICAM-1 was observed in 57% of the cases in group E, compared with 21% of those in group C (p = 0.001. There was no difference in VCAM expression or CD4+ cell counts between groups and no correlation between the data for antiretroviral therapy and morphometric or immunohistochemical data. Conclusions The morphometric data showed that placentas of HIV-seropositive pregnant women tend to have smaller villi than those of seronegative women. In addition, immunohistochemical testing for infectious agents helped to identify cases that were positive for microorganisms (6/112 that routine pathological examination had failed to detect. The anti-p24 antibody had a limited ability to detect HIV viral protein in this study (2/57. Correlation of immunohistochemical expression of CD8+ T cells and ICAM-1 with the presence of HIV in the placenta revealed that those expressions can act as biomarkers of inflammatory changes. There was no correlation between the data for antiretroviral therapy and morphometric or immunohistochemical data.

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens in different histological types of breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostianets Olga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the past decade a plethora of investigations were directed on identification of molecules involved in breast tumorogenesis, which could represent a powerful tool for monitoring, diagnostics and treatment of this disease. In current study we analyzed six previously identified medullary breast carcinoma autoantigens including LGALS3BP, RAD50, FAM50A, RBPJ, PABPC4, LRRFIP1 with cancer restricted serological profile in different histological types of breast cancer. Methods Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 20 tissue samples including medullary breast carcinoma, invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma and non-cancerous tissues obtained from patients with fibrocystic disease (each of five was performed using specifically generated polyclonal antibodies. Differences in expression patterns were evaluated considering percent of positively stained cells, insensitivity of staining and subcellular localization in cells of all tissue samples. Results All 6 antigens predominantly expressed in the most cells of all histological types of breast tumors and non-cancerous tissues with slight differences in intensity of staining and subcellular localization. The most significant differences in expression pattern were revealed for RAD50 and LGALS3BP in different histological types of breast cancer and for PABPC4 and FAM50A antigens in immune cells infiltrating breast tumors. Conclusions This pilot study made possible to select 4 antigens LGALS3BP, RAD50, PABPC4, and FAM50A as promising candidates for more comprehensive research as potential molecular markers for breast cancer diagnostics and therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1860649350796892

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of desmoglein 1 and 2 in the skin of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Coli, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria P; Podestà, Adriano; Abramo, Francesca

    2005-11-01

    To compare the distribution of desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 2 in skin specimens obtained from dogs and cats to provide information about the possible role of the density of Dsg 1 and 2 in the localization of lesions attributable to pemphigus foliaceus in these 2 species. Skin biopsy specimens obtained from 4 dogs and 4 cats. Biopsy specimens were collected from the muzzle, bridge of the nose, ear, dorsum, abdomen, area adjacent to the teats, and footpads of each animal. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin samples by use of a biotinylated mouse monoclonal anti-Dsg 1 and 2 antibody raised against bovine muzzle. Color development was performed by use of the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method with a chromogenic substrate. Immunohistochemical staining yielded a positive reaction in skin samples obtained from all anatomic sites. The intensity and distribution of staining were related to the number of layers of the stratum spinosum. No differences were detected between samples obtained from dogs and cats. No differences in intensity of Dsg 1 and 2 antigen were observed in the stratum spinosum between skin samples obtained from dogs and cats. Analysis of this result suggests that factors other than the distribution of Dsg may be responsible for the differences in localization of primary clinical lesions in dogs and cats with pemphigus foliaceus.

  12. Tyrosine kinase receptor status in endometrial stromal sarcoma: an immunohistochemical and genetic-molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Contini, Marcella; Uras, Maria Gabriela; Muroni, Maria Rosaria; Pili, Francesca; Carru, Ciriaco; Bosincu, Luisanna; Massarelli, Giovannino; Nogales, Francisco F; De Miglio, Maria Rosaria

    2012-11-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) are rare uterine malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, which are currently treated by surgery, as effective adjuvant therapies have not yet been established. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have rarely been applied in ESS therapy, with few reports describing imatinib responsivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the status of different tyrosine kinase receptors in an ESS series, in order to evaluate their potential role as molecular targets. Immunohistochemistry was performed for EGFR, c-KIT, PDGFR-α, PDGFR-β, and ABL on 28 ESS. EGFR, PDGFR-α, and PDGFR-β gene expression was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected cases. "Hot-spot" mutations were screened for on EGFR, c-KIT, PDGFR-α, and PDGFR-β genes, by sequencing. All analysis was executed from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. Immunohistochemical overexpression of 2 or more tyrosine kinase receptors was observed in 18 of 28 tumors (64%), whereas only 5 tumors were consistently negative. Gene expression profiles were concordant with immunohistochemical overexpression in only 1 tumor, which displayed both high mRNA levels and specific immunoreactivity for PDGFR-α, and PDGFR-β. No activating mutations were found on the tumors included in the study. This study confirms that TKRs expression is frequently observed in ESS. Considering that the responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is known to be related to the presence of specific activating mutations or gene over-expression, which are not detectable in ESS, TKRs immunohistochemical over-expression alone should not be considered as a reliable marker for targeted therapies in ESS. Specific post-translational abnormalities, responsible for activation of TKRs, should be further investigated.

  13. Characterization of atherosclerosis by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Cornelia; Schmidt, Volker; Cramer, Kerstin; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize atherosclerotic changes in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.) by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Samples of the aorta ascendens and trunci brachiocephalici from 62 African grey parrots and 35 Amazon parrots were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson for grading of atherosclerosis in these birds. Four different stages were differentiated. The incidence of atherosclerosis in the examined parrots was 91.9% in African grey parrots and 91.4% in Amazon parrots. To evaluate the pathogenesis in birds, immunohistochemical methods were performed to demonstrate lymphocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and chondroitin sulfate. According to the missing lymphocytes and macrophages and the absence of invasion and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in each atherosclerotic stage, "response-to-injury hypothesis" seems inapplicable in parrots. Additionally, we found alterations of vitally important organs (heart, lungs) significantly correlated with atherosclerosis of the aorta ascendens.

  14. Image analysis as an adjunct to manual HER-2 immunohistochemical review: a diagnostic tool to standardize interpretation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dobson, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    AIMS: Accurate determination of HER-2 status is critical to identify patients for whom trastuzumab treatment will be of benefit. Although the recommended primary method of evaluation is immunohistochemistry, numerous reports of variability in interpretation have raised uncertainty about the reliability of results. Recent guidelines have suggested that image analysis could be an effective tool for achieving consistent interpretation, and this study aimed to assess whether this technology has potential as a diagnostic support tool. METHODS AND RESULTS: Across a cohort of 275 cases, image analysis could accurately classify HER-2 status, with 91% agreement between computer-aided classification and the pathology review. Assessment of the continuity of membranous immunoreactivity in addition to intensity of reactivity was critical to distinguish between negative and equivocal cases and enabled image analysis to report a lower referral rate of cases for confirmatory fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing. An excellent concordance rate of 95% was observed between FISH and the automated review across 136 informative cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study has validated that image analysis can robustly and accurately evaluate HER-2 status in immunohistochemically stained tissue. Based on these findings, image analysis has great potential as a diagnostic support tool for pathologists and biomedical scientists, and may significantly improve the standardization of HER-2 testing by providing a quantitative reference method for interpretation.

  15. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Travis, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly-differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemistry for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clone SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), Napsin A, Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma since they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly-differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly-differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25871623

  16. Biomechanical and immunohistochemical analysis of high hydrostatic pressure-treated Achilles tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, P.; Steinhauser, E.; Gollwitzer, H.; Heister, C.; Schauwecker, J.; Schmitt, M.; Milz, S.; Mittelmeier, W.

    2006-01-01

    Reconstruction of bone defects caused by malignant tumors is carried out in different ways. At present, tumor-bearing bone segments are devitalized mainly by extracorporeal irradiation or autoclaving, but both methods have substantial disadvantages. In this regard, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment of the bone is a new, advancing technology that has been used in preclinical testing to inactivate normal cells and tumor cells without altering the biomechanical properties of the bone. The aim of this study was to examine the biomechanical and immunohistochemical properties of tendons after exposure to HHP and to evaluate whether preservation of the bony attachment of tendons and ligaments is possible. For this, 19 paired Achilles tendons were harvested from both hindlimbs of 4-month-old pigs. After preparation, the cross-sectional area of each tendon was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For each animal, one of the two tendons was taken at random and exposed to a pressure of 300 MPa (n=9) or 600 MPa (n=10). The contralateral tendon served as an untreated control. The biomechanical properties of the tendons remained unchanged with respect to the tested parameters: Young's modulus (MPa) and tensile strength (MPa). This finding is in line with immunohistochemical labeling results, as no difference in the labeling pattern of collagen I and versican was observed when comparing the HHP group (at 600 MPa) to the untreated control group. We anticipate that during orthopedic surgery HHP can serve as a novel, promising methodical approach to inactivate Achilles tendon and bone cells without altering the biomechanical properties of the tendons. This should allow one to preserve the attachment of tendon and ligaments to the devitalized bone and to facilitate functional reconstruction. (author)

  17. Immunohistochemical analysis of Clara cell secretory protein expression in a transgenic model of mouse lung carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Sarah M.; Vassallo, Jeffrey D.; Dieter, Matthew Z.; Lewis, Cindy L.; Whiteley, Laurence O.; Fix, Andrew S.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunohistochemical methods have been widely used to determine the histogenesis of spontaneous and chemically-induced mouse lung tumors. Typically, antigens for either alveolar Type II cells or bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells are studied. In the present work, the morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype of a transgenic mouse designed to develop lung tumors arising from Clara cells was evaluated. In this model, Clara cell-specific transformation is accomplished by directed expression of the SV40 large T antigen (TAg) under the mouse Clara cell secretory protein (CC10) promoter. In heterozygous mice, early lesions at 1 month of age consisted of hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelial cells. These progressed to adenoma by 2 months as proliferating epithelium extended into adjacent alveolar spaces. By 4 months, a large portion of the lung parenchyma was composed of tumor masses. Expression of constitutive CC10 was diminished in transgenic animals at all time points. Only the occasional cell or segment of the bronchiolar epithelium stained positively for CC10 by immunohistochemistry, and all tumors were found to be uniformly negative for staining. These results were corroborated by Western blotting, where CC10 was readily detectable in whole lung homogenate from nontransgenic animals, but not detected in lung from transgenic animals at any time point. Tumors were also examined for expression of surfactant apoprotein C (SPC), an alveolar Type II cell-specific marker, and found to be uniformly negative for staining. These results indicate that, in this transgenic model, expression of CC10, which is widely used to determine whether lung tumors arise from Clara cells, was reduced and subsequently lost during Clara cell tumor progression

  18. Immunohistochemical Analysis on Cortex-to-Cortex Healing After Mandibular Vertical Ramus Osteotomy: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Sang Yoon; Jung, Han-Sung; Park, Hyung-Sik; Jung, Young-Soo

    2018-02-01

    The present study analyzed the expression of specific cytokines in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily postoperatively after mandibular vertical ramus osteotomy (VRO). Four beagle dogs were enrolled and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively for immunohistochemical analysis using 6 specific antibodies (bone morphogenetic protein [BMP]-2/4, BMP-7, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]). The results from the surgical site and control (adjacent area) were compared. Generalized upregulation of BMP-2/4 was observed in all healing periods, and the strongest expression of BMP-7 was observed at 1 week postoperatively. The strongest expression of TGF-β2 was observed at 8 weeks with increasing pattern. The strong expression of TGF-β3 was observed at 1 and 4 weeks, with the strongest expression of VEGF at 1 week, with a decreasing pattern. No notable uptake was detected with the 6 specific antibodies in the adjacent bone (control). The absence of internal fixation after VRO led to dynamic healing with a specific expression pattern of BMP-7 and TGF-β2. The anatomic factors, including sufficient preexisting vascularity, led to the earlier expression pattern of VEGF. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormonal receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: immunohistochemical and tissue microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Huan; Wang, Dehui; Hu, Li; Liu, Quan; Sun, Xicai

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrated that juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNAs) express high levels of hormone receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared with normal nasal mucosa. The interaction between hormone receptors and VEGF may be involved in the initiation and growth of JNA. JNA is a rare benign tumor that occurs almost exclusively in male adolescents. Although generally regarded as a hormone-dependent tumor, this has not been proven in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hormone receptors in JNA and the relationship with clinical characteristics. Standard immunohistochemical microarray analysis was performed on 70 JNA samples and 10 turbinate tissue samples. Specific antibodies for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), estrogen receptor-β (ER-β), progesterone receptor (PR), and VEGF were examined, and the relationships of receptor expression with age, tumor stage, and bleeding were evaluated. RESULTS showed that JNA expressed ER-α (92.9%), ER-β (91.4%), AR (65.7%), PR (12.8%), and VEGF (95.7%) at different levels. High level of VEGF was linked to elevated ER-α and ER-β. There was no significant relationship between hormonal receptors and age at diagnosis, tumor stage or bleeding. However, overexpression of ER-α was found to be an indicator of poor prognosis (p = 0.031).

  20. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of small intestinal biopsies in adults suspected of celiac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, R.; Jamal, S.; Zafar, A.; Saadia, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyse histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis of small intestinal biopsies in adults suspected of celiac disease. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from November 2014 to December 2015. Methodology: Fifty cases of small intestinal mucosal biopsies (duodenal and jejunal) were analysed in adult patients aged above 14 years suspected of celiac disease. Their histomorphological data was recorded using Modified Marsh Criteria. Type of intraepithelial lymphocytes was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were counted both by H and E stain and immunostain CD3 and CD20. Results: Thirty-four percent patients were aged between 21 - 30 years and 22% patients aged between 41 - 50 years. There were 84% (n=42) males. Thirteen (26%) cases showed focal villous atrophy, 32 (64%) cases showed partial villous atrophy and 5 (10%) cases showed complete villous atrophy. Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody was positive in 21 (42%) cases. CD3 immunomarker was positive for intraepithelial lymphocytes in all 50 cases while CD20 immunomarker showed focal positivity in areas with lymphoid follicle formation. The count of intraepithelial lymphocytes was found to be almost equal (with a difference of 3 - 4 lymphocytes) on both H and E stain and immunostain CD3 and CD20. Conclusion: Males aged 21 - 30 years were the most commonly affected group. The most frequent change in histology was partial villous atrophy along with lymphocytic enteritis. All the intraepithelial lymphocytes were present in crescendo-pattern of distribution. (author)

  1. Dynamics of bone healing after osteotomy with piezosurgery or conventional drilling - histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Marcantonio, Elcio; de Souza Faloni, Ana Paula; Rocha, Fernanda Regina Godoy; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana; Wilk, Katarzyna; Intini, Giuseppe

    2013-09-23

    Piezosurgery is an osteotomy system used in medical and dental surgery. Many studies have proven clinical advantages of piezosurgery in terms of quality of cut, maneuverability, ease of use, and safety. However, few investigations have tested its superiority over the traditional osteotomy systems in terms of dynamics of bone healing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of bone healing after osteotomies with piezosurgery and to compare them with those associated to traditional bone drilling. One hundred and ten rats were divided into two groups with 55 animals each. The animals were anesthetized and the tibiae were surgically exposed to create defects 2 mm in diameter by using piezosurgery (Piezo group) and conventional drilling (Drill group). Animals were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post-surgery. Bone samples were collected and processed for histological, histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis. The histological analysis was performed at all time points (n = 8) whereas the histomorphometrical analysis was performed at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post-surgery (n = 8). The immunolabeling was performed to detect Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Caspase-3 (CAS-3), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B Ligand (RANKL), and Osteocalcin (OC) at 3, 7, and 14 days (n = 3). For the molecular analysis, animals were sacrificed at 3, 7 and 14 days, total RNA was collected, and quantification of the expression of 21 genes related to BMP signaling, Wnt signaling, inflammation, osteogenenic and apoptotic pathways was performed by qRT-PCR (n = 5). Histologically and histomorphometrically, bone healing was similar in both groups with the exception of a slightly higher amount of newly formed bone observed at 30 days after piezosurgery (p piezosurgery are comparable to those observed with conventional drilling.

  2. Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas: Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of nine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Yilmaz Ozguven

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPPN of the pancreas is a distinctive tumor of low malignant potential with a predilection for female patients in the second and third decades of life. We studied nine cases of SPPN of the pancreas and reviewed the literature concerning these uncommon tumors. Materials and Methods: A total of 7 cases of SPPN located in the tail of the pancreas and two located in the head of the pancreas were presented. Distal pancreatectomy in three patients and distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy in two patients Whipple′s operation in four patients were performed. Histological diagnosis was made by performing hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining, immunohistochemical staining. Follow-up of the patients was between 2 months and 12 years. Results: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were found as equivocal for diagnosis. Mass containing cystic and solid areas were not characteristic but raised suspicion of SPPN. Pathologic examination showed SPPN in all patients. No metastasis or recurrence was detected during follow-up. Conclusions: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm is a relatively rare tumor, and patients tend to survive for a long period. Preoperative imaging is not characteristic. Pathologic examination is the mainstay in the diagnosis. Complete surgical removal is the best choice of treatment.

  3. Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in plaque and erosive oral lichen planus: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redder, C Pramod; Pandit, Siddharth; Desai, Dinkar; Kandagal, V Suresh; Ingaleshwar, Pramod S; Shetty, Sharan J; Vibhute, Nupura

    2014-05-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP) and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered lichen planus, erosive type (66.86%) showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%). Overall, P value was lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of mechanoreceptors in the human posterior cruciate ligament: a demonstration of its proprioceptive role and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, M E; Harwin, S F; Maestro, A; Murcia, A; Vega, J A

    1998-12-01

    Although long-term studies report successful results with total knee arthroplasty (TKA), performed with or without posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) retention, controversy exists as to which is preferable in regard to patient outcome and satisfaction. The possible proprioceptive role of the PCL may account for a more normal feeling of the arthroplasty. Although the PCL has been examined using various histological techniques, immunohistochemical techniques are the most sensitive for neural elements. Therefore an immunohistochemical study was designed to determine the patterns of innervation, the morphological types of the proprioceptors, and their immunohistochemical profile. During TKA, samples were obtained from 22 osteoarthritic PCLs and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis with mouse monoclonal antibodies against neurofilament protein (NFP), S100 protein (S100P), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and vimentin (all present in neuromechanoreceptors). Three normal PCLs from cadaveric specimens were also obtained and analyzed for comparison. Five types of sensory corpuscles were observed in both the normal and the arthritic PCLs: simple lamellar, Pacini-like, Ruffini, Krause-like, and morphologically unclassified. Their structure included a central axon, inner core, and capsule in lamellar and Pacini corpuscles and variable intracorpuscular axons and periaxonal cells in the Ruffini and Krause-like corpuscles. The immunohistochemical profile showed the central axon to have NFP immunoreactivity, periaxonal cells to have S100P and vimentin immunoreactivity, and the capsule to have EMA and vimentin immunoreactivity. Nerve fibers and free nerve endings displayed NFP and S100P immunoreactivity. The immunohistochemical profile of the PCL sensory corpuscles is almost identical to that of cutaneous sensory corpuscles. Some prior histological studies of the PCL reported Golgi-like mechanoreceptors, and others found encapsulated corpuscles but no Golgi-like structures

  5. Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in plaque and erosive oral lichen planus: An immunohistochemical study

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    C Pramod Redder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Detection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. This study has been carried out to evaluate the cell proliferation rate in oral lichen planus (OLP and comparison between plaque and erosive lichen planus, which indicates the potential for malignant transformation. Materials and Methods: This study was comprised of 64 cases of histologically proven lichen planus, out of which 32 cases of plaque and erosive each was taken. Two sections were taken from each, one for H and E staining to verify histological diagnosis according to Eisenberg criteria, other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horse radish peroxidise method for identifying immunohistochemical expression of PCNA. Data were statistically analyzed by Tukey high-range statistical domain test. Statistically significant P value was considered <0.05. Results: In two types of lichen planus, erosive type (66.86% showed higher expression of PCNA followed by plaque (17.07%. Overall, P value was <0.001, which was statistically significant. It indicates that proliferation activity is more in erosive lichen planus followed by plaque type, which ultimately results in increased rate of malignant transformation. Conclusion: PCNA is a good nuclear protein marker to evaluate the proliferation status of OLP. Out of the two types of lichen planus, erosive type possesses more proliferative ratio and chances of malignant change is more in this type. It emphasizes the importance of long-term follow-up with erosive type when compared with plaque type.

  6. Immunohistochemical analysis of FoxP3+ cells in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts.

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    Peixoto, Raniel Fernandes; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas da; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2012-09-01

    To compare the number of FoxP3(+) cells between periapical granulomas (PGs) and radicular cysts (RCs), and to correlate this number with the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate in these lesions and with epithelial thickness of RCs. Thirty PGs and 30 RCs were submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using an anti-FoxP3 polyclonal antibody. FoxP3(+) cells were counted under a light microscope (×400 magnification) in five fields and the mean value was calculated for each specimen. Statistical tests were used to evaluate differences in the number of FoxP3(+) cells according to type of lesion (PG vs. RC), intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate (grade I/II vs. grade III), and epithelial thickness of RCs (atrophic vs. hyperplastic). FoxP3(+) cells were detected in most PGs (93.3%) and RCs (93.3%). The median number of FoxP3(+) cells was 2.40 in PGs and 1.00 in RCs, with this difference being statistically significant (P=0.005). No significant differences in the number of FoxP3(+) cells were observed in terms of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate (P=0.465) or epithelial thickness of RCs (P=0.737). The present results suggest a greater participation of regulatory T cells in the modulation of the inflammatory response in PGs. In addition, the presence of a less effective regulatory environment in RCs, together with the high levels of inflammatory mediators as reported in the literature, may contribute to the greater growth potential of these lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in pancreatic somatostatin content in spontaneously diabetic mice, as determined by radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, H.; Matsushima, Y.; Kanatsuka, A.; Yamamoto, M.; Kumagai, A.; Nishimura, M.

    1979-01-01

    A specific RIA for somatostatin (SRIF) was used to determine the SRIF content of the pancreas and hypothalamus in spontaneously diabetic C57BL/KsJ dbdb and C57BL/6J obob mice. In addition, SRIF- and glucagon-containing cells were examined in the pancreatic islets with an immunohistochemical technique. In dbdb mice, immunoassayable pancreatic SRIF content was increased, as was the number of SRIF- or glucagon-containing cells. In obob mice, immunoassayable pancreatic SRIF content was also increased, but no increase was noted in the number of SRIF- or glucagon-containing cells. The hypothalamic SRIF content of either strain was not different from that of controls. These results regarding pancreatic SRIF content were in accord with some but not all previous reports. These differences may be related to the age of the mice or to the conditions in which they were bred. The pancreatic SRIF increase in both dbdb and obob mice may be attributable to hyperglucagonemia, hyperglycemia, or a decrease in insulin action. Further work is necessary to clearly delineate the mechanism

  8. Immunohistochemical Analysis Using Antipodocalyxin Monoclonal Antibody PcMab-47 Demonstrates Podocalyxin Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

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    Itai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-10-01

    Podocalyxin is a CD34-related type I transmembrane protein that is highly glycosylated with N-glycan, O-glycan, and keratan sulfate. Podocalyxin was originally found in the podocytes of rat kidney and is reportedly expressed in many types of tumors, including brain tumors, colorectal cancers, and breast cancers. Overexpression of podocalyxin is an independent predictor of progression, metastasis, and poor outcome. We recently immunized mice with recombinant human podocalyxin, which was produced using LN229 glioblastoma cells, and produced a novel antipodocalyxin monoclonal antibody (mAb), PcMab-47, which reacts with endogenous podocalyxin-expressing cancer cell lines and normal cell lines independent of glycosylation in Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analyses. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analysis against oral cancers using PcMab-47. PcMab-47-stained oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in a cytoplasmic pattern and detected 26/38 (68.4%) of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells on tissue microarrays. These results indicate that PcMab-47 is useful in detecting podocalyxin of oral cancers for immunohistochemical analysis.

  9. Dynamics of bone healing after osteotomy with piezosurgery or conventional drilling – histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Piezosurgery is an osteotomy system used in medical and dental surgery. Many studies have proven clinical advantages of piezosurgery in terms of quality of cut, maneuverability, ease of use, and safety. However, few investigations have tested its superiority over the traditional osteotomy systems in terms of dynamics of bone healing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of bone healing after osteotomies with piezosurgery and to compare them with those associated to traditional bone drilling. Methods One hundred and ten rats were divided into two groups with 55 animals each. The animals were anesthetized and the tibiae were surgically exposed to create defects 2 mm in diameter by using piezosurgery (Piezo group) and conventional drilling (Drill group). Animals were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post-surgery. Bone samples were collected and processed for histological, histomorphometrical, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis. The histological analysis was performed at all time points (n = 8) whereas the histomorphometrical analysis was performed at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post-surgery (n = 8). The immunolabeling was performed to detect Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Caspase-3 (CAS-3), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B Ligand (RANKL), and Osteocalcin (OC) at 3, 7, and 14 days (n = 3). For the molecular analysis, animals were sacrificed at 3, 7 and 14 days, total RNA was collected, and quantification of the expression of 21 genes related to BMP signaling, Wnt signaling, inflammation, osteogenenic and apoptotic pathways was performed by qRT-PCR (n = 5). Results Histologically and histomorphometrically, bone healing was similar in both groups with the exception of a slightly higher amount of newly formed bone observed at 30 days after piezosurgery (p piezosurgery are comparable to those observed with conventional drilling. PMID:24053147

  10. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Lymphomas

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    Roxana CORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas occur by clonal expansion of lymphoid cells and have distinctive morphological and immunophenotypic features. Determination of canine lymphoma immunophenotype is useful for accurate prognosis and further therapy. In the suggested study, we performed an immunohistochemical evaluation of some cases with canine lymphoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in order to characterize them. The investigation included 39 dogs diagnosed with different anatomical forms of lymphoma, following necropsy analysis or assessment of biopsies. The diagnosis of lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy and histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin stain examinations. The collected specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique (automatic method using the following antibodies: CD3, CD20, CD21 and CD79a. The analyzed neoplasms were characterized as follows: about 64.10% of cases were diagnosed as B-cell lymphomas, 33.34% of cases as T-cell lymphomas, whereas 2.56% of cases were null cell type lymphomas (neither B nor T. Most of multicentric (80%, mediastinal (60% and primary central nervous system lymphomas (100% had B immunophenotype, while the majority of cutaneous (80% and digestive (100% lymphomas had T immunophenotype. Immunohistochemical description of canine lymphomas can deliver some major details concerning their behavior and malignancy. Additionally, vital prognosis and efficacy of some therapeutic protocols are relying on the immunohistochemical features of canine lymphoma.

  11. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Oral Dysplasia: Diagnostic Assessment by Fascin and Podoplanin Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Yumiko; Abe, Takahiro; Nakahira, Mitsuhiko; Yoda, Tetsuya; Murata, Shin-ichi; Sugasawa, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fascin and podoplanin expression in oral dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS) immunohistochemically, and to evaluate their relationship to histopathological diagnosis based on architectural and cytological features. Fascin and podoplanin expression patterns were analyzed immunohistologically in 26 specimens of oral lesions, including benign disease (hyperplasia, papilloma, and others), intraepithelial neoplasia/borderline disease (dysplasia), and malignant disease (CIS, invasive squamous cell carcinoma). Fascin expression was scored into four original categories, and podoplanin expression was scored into five previously established categories. The relationship between the immunohistochemically determined scores of fascin and podoplanin expression and the architectural and cytological features in the hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides was analyzed statistically. The immunostaining scores for fascin and podoplanin were significantly higher in dysplasia and CIS than in benign disease (p=0.0011, p=0.00036), and they were significantly higher in dysplasia than in benign disease (p=0.0087, p=0.0032). In all cases of invasive SCC, fascin was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells and fascin expression extended from the destruction of the basal layer of the epithelium to the upper layer of the epithelium and podoplanin was expressed in the cytoplasm and membrane of the tumor cells. This was the first report of up-regulation of fascin in oral dysplasia. Our results suggest that it would be helpful for improving the diagnostic accuracy of oral dysplasia and CIS to assess the expression of fascin and podoplanin immunohistochemically

  12. An attempt to use immunohistochemical methods for semi-quantitative determination of surfactant in bronchial secretion after hyperbaric exposures

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    Piotr Siermontowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The most significant index of pulmonary oxygen toxicity is a decrease in vital capacity (VC dependent on the duration of exposure and partial pressure of oxygen. The only method to measure this decrease is spirometry performed directly after exposure. Objective The aim of the study was to check whether the extent of lung damage could be assessed by quantitative determination of pulmonary surfactant in bronchial secretion. Design Sputum samples were collected before, during and after hyperbaric air or oxygen exposures; histological preparations were prepared and stained immunohistochemically to visualize surfactant. Amongst 781 samples collected, only 209 contained sputum and only 126 were included in the study. In this group, only 64 preparations could be paired for comparison. Results The semi-quantitative method used and statistical findings have not demonstrated any significance. Conclusions The method suggested for assessing the extent of lung damage has been found unsuitable for practical use due to difficulties in obtaining the proper material; moreover, the study findings do not allow to draw conclusions concerning its effectiveness.

  13. Determination of ABO blood grouping from human oral squamous epithelium by the highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining method EnVision+.

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    Noda, Hiroshi; Yokota, Makoto; Tatsumi, Shinji; Sugiyama, Shizuyuki

    2002-03-01

    Using the highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining method EnVision+, which employs a dextran polymer reagent for the secondary antibody, the detection of the ABH antigens was attempted in the oral squamous epithelium. This new technique uses monoclonal antibody as a primary antibody and it takes about three hours for staining. The time is much shorter than conventional absorption-elution testing or absorption-inhibition testing for the determination of ABO blood grouping. Secretor saliva samples were stained at strong intensity by the antibody, which corresponded to its blood group and anti-H. On the one hand, nonsecretor saliva samples were stained at strong intensity only by the antibody that corresponded to its blood group, and at weak intensity only by anti-H. Since human oral squamous epithelium antigens were stained specifically by this method, we can examine the ABO blood group of saliva samples and perform cytodiagnosis at the same time. Our research suggested that the EnVision+ Method is a useful technique for ABO blood grouping of saliva in forensic cases.

  14. Complete chromogen separation and analysis in double immunohistochemical stains using Photoshop-based image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, H A; van der Loos, C M; Teeling, P; Gown, A M

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of two different antigens on paraffin-embedded and frozen tissues can be accomplished by double immunohistochemistry. However, many double chromogen systems suffer from signal overlap, precluding definite signal quantification. To separate and quantitatively analyze the different chromogens, we imported images into a Macintosh computer using a CCD camera attached to a diagnostic microscope and used Photoshop software for the recognition, selection, and separation of colors. We show here that Photoshop-based image analysis allows complete separation of chromogens not only on the basis of their RGB spectral characteristics, but also on the basis of information concerning saturation, hue, and luminosity intrinsic to the digitized images. We demonstrate that Photoshop-based image analysis provides superior results compared to color separation using bandpass filters. Quantification of the individual chromogens is then provided by Photoshop using the Histogram command, which supplies information on the luminosity (corresponding to gray levels of black-and-white images) and on the number of pixels as a measure of spatial distribution. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:119-125, 1999)

  15. Immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masami; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Hata, Jotaro; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Tahara, Eiichi.

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the biological characteristics of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, a total of 159 cases of colorectal cancers comprising 73 cases in exposed atomic bomb survivors and 86 cases in non-exposed individuals were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for various functioning proteins. No statistical differences could be demonstrated in the incidence of various marker expressions of colorectal cancers between the exposed group and control group. However, comparison by the site of colorectal cancer showed that sigmoid colon cancers in the exposed group or high dose group showed a significantly higher frequency of glycoproteins such as α 1 -antichymotrypsin (ACT), secretory component (SC), α 1 -antitrypsin (AAT), and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) when compared with the control group. These results correlated well with the epidemiological data that the radiation effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors was most remarkable in the sigmoid colon. (author)

  16. A multiple-well method for immunohistochemical testing of many reagents on a single microscopic slide.

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    McKeever, P E; Letica, L H; Shakui, P; Averill, D R

    1988-09-01

    Multiple wells (M-wells) have been made over tissue sections on single microscopic slides to simultaneously localize binding specificity of many antibodies. More than 20 individual 4-microliter wells over tissue have been applied/slide, representing more than a 5-fold improvement in wells/slide and a 25-fold reduction in reagent volume over previous methods. More than 30 wells/slide have been applied over cellular monolayers. To produce the improvement, previous strategies of placing specimens into wells were changed to instead create wells over the specimen. We took advantage of the hydrophobic properties of paint to surround the wells and to segregate the various different primary antibodies. Segregation was complete on wells alternating with and without primary monoclonal antibody. The procedure accommodates both frozen and paraffin sections, yielding slides which last more than a year. After monoclonal antibody detection, standard histologic stains can be applied as counterstains. M-wells are suitable for localizing binding of multiple reagents or sample unknowns (polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, hybridoma supernatants, body fluids, lectins) to either tissues or cells. Their small sample volume and large number of sample wells/slide could be particularly useful for early screening of hybridoma supernatants and for titration curves in immunohistochemistry (McKeever PE, Shakui P, Letica LH, Averill DR: J Histochem Cytochem 36:931, 1988).

  17. Host inflammatory response to polypropylene implants: insights from a quantitative immunohistochemical and birefringence analysis in a rat subcutaneous model

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    Alessandro Prudente

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To describe acute and sub acute aspects of histological and immunohistochemical response to PP implant in a rat subcutaneous model based on objective methods. Materials and Methods Thirty rats had a PP mesh subcutaneously implanted and the same dissection on the other side of abdomen but without mesh (sham. The animals were euthanized after 4 and 30 days. Six slides were prepared using the tissue removed: one stained with hematoxylin-eosin (inflammation assessment; one unstained (birefringence evaluation and four slides for immunohistochemical processing: IL-1 and TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-2 (collagen metabolism and CD-31 (angiogenesis. The area of inflammation, the birefringence index, the area of immunoreactivity and the number of vessels were objectively measured. Results A larger area of inflammatory reaction was observed in PP compared to sham on the 4th and on the 30th day (p=0.0002. After 4 days, PP presented higher TNF (p=0.0001 immunoreactivity than sham and no differences were observed in MMP-2 (p=0.06 and IL-1 (p=0.08. After 30 days, a reduction of IL-1 (p=0.010 and TNF (p=0.016 for PP and of IL-1 (p=0.010 for sham were observed. Moreover, area of MMP-2 immunoreactivity decreased over time for PP group (p=0.018. Birefringence index and vessel counting showed no differences between PP and sham (p=0.27 and p=0.58, respectively. Conclusions The implantation of monofilament and macroporous polypropylene in the subcutaneous of rats resulted in increased inflammatory activity and higher TNF production in the early post implant phase. After 30 days, PP has similar cytokines immunoreactivity, vessel density and extracellular matrix organization.

  18. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Scarring Trachoma Indicates Infiltration by Natural Killer and Undefined CD45 Negative Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Victor H; Luthert, Philip J; Derrick, Tamsyn; Pullin, James; Weiss, Helen A; Massae, Patrick; Mtuy, Tara; Makupa, William; Essex, David; Mabey, David C W; Bailey, Robin L; Holland, Martin J; Burton, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    The phenotype and function of immune cells infiltrating the conjunctiva in scarring trachoma have yet to be fully characterized. We assessed tissue morphology and immunophenotype of cellular infiltrates found in trachomatous scarring compared to control participants. Clinical assessments and conjunctival biopsy samples were obtained from 34 individuals with trachomatous scarring undergoing trichiasis surgery and 33 control subjects undergoing cataract or retinal detachment surgery. Biopsy samples were fixed in buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed for assessment of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. Immunohistochemical staining of single markers on individual sections was performed to identify cells expressing CD3 (T-cells), CD4 (helper T-cells), CD8 (suppressor/cytotoxic T-cells and Natural Killer, NK, cells), NCR1 (NK cells), CD20 (B-cells), CD45 (nucleated hematopoietic cells), CD56 (NK and T-cells), CD68 (macrophages/monocytes) and CD83 (mature dendritic cells). The degree of scarring was assessed histologically using cross-polarized light to visualize collagen fibres. Scarring, regardless of clinical inflammation, was associated with increased inflammatory cell infiltrates on H&E and CD45 staining. Scarring was also associated with increased CD8+ and CD56+ cells, but not CD3+ cells, suggestive of a NK cell infiltrate. This was supported by the presence of NCR1+ cells. There was some increase in CD20+ cells, but no evidence for increased CD4+, CD68+ or CD83+ cells. Numerous CD45 negative cells were also seen in the population of infiltrating inflammatory cells in scarred conjunctiva. Disorganization of the normal collagen architecture was strongly associated with clinical scarring. These data point to the infiltration of immune cells with a phenotype suggestive of NK cells in conjunctival trachomatous scarring. A large proportion of CD45 negative inflammatory cells were also present. Future work should

  19. Immunohistochemical Markers Distinguishing Cholangiocellular Carcinoma (CCC) from Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) Discovered by Proteomic Analysis of Microdissected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Juliet; Ahrens, Maike; Kälsch, Julia; Bertram, Stefanie; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Eisenacher, Martin; Kocabayoglu, Peri; Meyer, Helmut E; Sipos, Bence; Baba, Hideo A; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are two highly aggressive cancer types that arise from epithelial cells of the pancreatobiliary system. Owing to their histological and morphological similarity, differential diagnosis between CCC and metastasis of PDAC located in the liver frequently proves an unsolvable issue for pathologists. The detection of biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity for the differentiation of these tumor types would therefore be a valuable tool. Here, we address this problem by comparing microdissected CCC and PDAC tumor cells from nine and eleven cancer patients, respectively, in a label-free proteomics approach. The novel biomarker candidates were subsequently verified by immunohistochemical staining of 73 CCC, 78 primary, and 18 metastatic PDAC tissue sections. In the proteome analysis, we found 180 proteins with a significantly differential expression between CCC and PDAC cells (p value 2). Nine candidate proteins were chosen for an immunohistochemical verification out of which three showed very promising results. These were the annexins ANXA1, ANXA10, and ANXA13. For the correct classification of PDAC, ANXA1 showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 85% and ANXA10 a sensitivity of 90% at a specificity of 66%. ANXA13 was higher abundant in CCC. It presented a sensitivity of 84% at a specificity of 55%. In metastatic PDAC tissue ANXA1 and ANXA10 showed similar staining behavior as in the primary PDAC tumors (13/18 and 17/18 positive, respectively). ANXA13, however, presented positive staining in eight out of eighteen secondary PDAC tumors and was therefore not suitable for the differentiation of these from CCC. We conclude that ANXA1 and ANXA10 are promising biomarker candidates with high diagnostic values for the differential diagnosis of intrahepatic CCC and metastatic liver tumors deriving from PDAC. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of the mechanistic target of rapamycin and hypoxia signalling pathways in basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma.

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    Tjinta Brinkhuizen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Trichoepithelioma (TE is a benign neoplasm that strongly resembles BCC. Both are hair follicle (HF tumours. HFs are hypoxic microenvironments, therefore we hypothesized that hypoxia-induced signalling pathways could be involved in BCC and TE as they are in other human malignancies. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1 and mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR are key players in these pathways. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether HIF1/mTOR signalling is involved in BCC and TE. METHODS: We used immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded BCC (n = 45 and TE (n = 35 samples to assess activity of HIF1, mTORC1 and their most important target genes. The percentage positive tumour cells was assessed manually in a semi-quantitative manner and categorized (0%, 80%. RESULTS: Among 45 BCC and 35 TE examined, expression levels were respectively 81% and 57% (BNIP3, 73% and 75% (CAIX, 79% and 86% (GLUT1, 50% and 19% (HIF1α, 89% and 88% (pAKT, 55% and 61% (pS6, 15% and 25% (pMTOR, 44% and 63% (PHD2 and 44% and 49% (VEGF-A. CAIX, Glut1 and PHD2 expression levels were significantly higher in TE when only samples with at least 80% expression were included. CONCLUSIONS: HIF and mTORC1 signalling seems active in both BCC and TE. There are no appreciable differences between the two with respect to pathway activity. At this moment immunohistochemical analyses of HIF, mTORC1 and their target genes does not provide a reliable diagnostic tool for the discrimination of BCC and TE.

  1. Genetic and immunohistochemical analysis of HSPA5 in mouse and human retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Sumana R.; Wang, XiaoFei; Li, Huiling; Lau, Yin H. Chan; Williams, Robert W.; Jablonski, Monica M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor degenerative diseases are among the leading causes of vision loss. Although the causative genetic mutations are often known, mechanisms leading to photoreceptor degeneration remain poorly defined. We have previously demonstrated that the photoreceptor membrane-associated protein XAP-1 antigen is a product of the HSPA5 gene. In this study, we used systems genetic methods, statistical modeling, and immunostaining to identify and analyze candidate genes that modulate Hspa5 expression in the retina. Methods Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was used to map the genomic region that regulates Hspa5 in the cross between C57BL/6J X DBA/2J mice (BXD) genetic reference panel. The stepwise refinement of candidate genes was based on expression QTL mapping, gene expression correlation analyses (direct and partial), and analysis of regional sequence variants. The subcellular localization of candidate proteins and HSPA5 in mouse and human retinas was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Differences in the localization of extracellular HSPA5 were assessed between healthy human donor and atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donor eyes. Results In the eyes of healthy mice, extracellular HSPA5 was confined to the area around the cone photoreceptor outer segments. Mapping variation in Hspa5 mRNA expression levels in the retina revealed a statistically significant trans-acting expression QTL (eQTL) on Chromosome 2 (Chr 2) and a suggestive locus on Chr 15. Sulf2 on Chr 2 was the strongest candidate gene based on partial correlation analysis, Pearson correlation with Hspa5, expression levels in the retina, a missense variant in exon 14, and its reported function in the extracellular matrix and interphotoreceptor matrix. SULF2 is localized to the rod and cone photoreceptors in both human and mouse retinas. In human retinas with no pathology, extracellular HSPA5 was localized around many cones within the macular area. In contrast, fewer HSPA5

  2. Immunohistochemical analysis of the gingiva with periodontitis of type I plasminogen deficiency compared to gingiva with gingivitis and periodontitis and healthy gingiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus Waschulewski, Idil; Gökbuget, Aslan Y; Christiansen, Nina M; Ziegler, Maike; Schuster, Volker; Wahl, Gerhard; Götz, Werner

    2016-12-01

    Type I plasminogen deficiency (Plgdef) is an uncommon chronic inflammation of mucous membranes. Gingival enlargements usually proceed with progressive periodontal destruction and tooth-loss. Plasmin(ogen)-independent enzymatic mechanisms for fibrin clearance have already been discussed in the literature. Our primary objective was to verify, immunohistochemically, the occurrence of different enzymatic factors involved in tissue breakdown of inflamed compared to healthy gingiva. Secondly, we tried to find out, if these patients have a similar microbiological profile to the patients with known gingivitis and periodontitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of enzymes elastase, plasminogen (plg), cathepsin G, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and MMP-7 and of glycoprotein fibrinogen were performed with gingival tissues from 3 healthy controls, 8 patients with Plgdef and 3 patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Furthermore, plaque from 5 patients with plasminogen deficiency were also obtained to determine the microbiological profile. Significantly high numbers of elastase positive leukocytes were detected in all samples. Staining for MMP-3 and MMP-7 was seen in samples with gingivitis and periodontitis with a stronger staining in samples with periodontitis by Plgdef. Fibrinogen was detectable in all samples. Staining for plg was stronger in samples with periodontitis than in other samples. Staining for cathepsin G was weak in gingivitis and periodontitis. Subgingival microbial flora showed elevated colony forming units of Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, Fusobacterium spp., Eikenella corrodens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and viridans streptococci. Strong staining of elastase, MMP-3 and MMP-7 and weak staining of plg in Plgdef samples supports the plasmin(ogen) - independent fibrin clearance. Similar subgingival microbiological flora was observed in periodontitis with Plgdef as in other periodontal diseases. Further investigations should determine the exact pathomechanism

  3. TEM validation of immunohistochemical staining prior to assessment of tumour angiogenesis by computerised image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingsworth, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Counts of microvessel density (MVD) within solid tumours have been shown to be an independent predictor of outcome with higher counts generally associated with a worse prognosis. These assessments are commonly performed on immunoperoxidase stained (IPX) sections with antibodies to CD34, CD31 and Factor VIII-related antigen routinely used as vascular markers. Tumour vascular density is thought to reflect the demand the growing neoplasm is placing on its feeding blood supply. Vascular density also appears to be associated with spread of invasive cells to distant sites. The present study of tumour angiogenesis in prostate cancer specimens aims to assess new vessel growth in addition to MVD counts. The hypothesis being that an assessment which takes into account vascular migration and proliferation as well as the number of patent vessels present may have improved predictive power over assessments based on MVD counts alone. We are employing anti-CD34 stained IPX sections which are digitally photographed and assessed by a computerised image analysis system. Our aim is to develop parameters whereby tumour angiogenesis may be assessed at the light microscopic level and then correlated with existing histological methods of tumour assessment such as Gleason grading. In order to use IPX stained sections for angiogenic assessment validation and understanding of the anti-CD34 immunostaining pattern was necessary. This involved the following steps: i) Morphological assessment of angiogenic changes present in tumour blood vessels. Morphological changes in endothelial cells and pericytes indicative of angiogenic activation are generally below the level of resolution available with light microscopy. TEM examination revealed endothelial cell budding, pericyte retraction, basement membrane duplication and endothelial sprout formation in capillaries and venules surrounding tumour glands. This information assisted with the development of parameters by which IPX sections

  4. Genetic and immunohistochemical analysis of HSPA5 in mouse and human retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Sumana R; Wang, XiaoFei; Li, Huiling; Lau, Yin H Chan; Williams, Robert W; Jablonski, Monica M

    2016-01-01

    Photoreceptor degenerative diseases are among the leading causes of vision loss. Although the causative genetic mutations are often known, mechanisms leading to photoreceptor degeneration remain poorly defined. We have previously demonstrated that the photoreceptor membrane-associated protein XAP-1 antigen is a product of the HSPA5 gene. In this study, we used systems genetic methods, statistical modeling, and immunostaining to identify and analyze candidate genes that modulate Hspa5 expression in the retina. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was used to map the genomic region that regulates Hspa5 in the cross between C57BL/6J X DBA/2J mice (BXD) genetic reference panel. The stepwise refinement of candidate genes was based on expression QTL mapping, gene expression correlation analyses (direct and partial), and analysis of regional sequence variants. The subcellular localization of candidate proteins and HSPA5 in mouse and human retinas was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Differences in the localization of extracellular HSPA5 were assessed between healthy human donor and atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donor eyes. In the eyes of healthy mice, extracellular HSPA5 was confined to the area around the cone photoreceptor outer segments. Mapping variation in Hspa5 mRNA expression levels in the retina revealed a statistically significant trans -acting expression QTL (eQTL) on Chromosome 2 (Chr 2) and a suggestive locus on Chr 15. Sulf2 on Chr 2 was the strongest candidate gene based on partial correlation analysis, Pearson correlation with Hspa5 , expression levels in the retina, a missense variant in exon 14, and its reported function in the extracellular matrix and interphotoreceptor matrix. SULF2 is localized to the rod and cone photoreceptors in both human and mouse retinas. In human retinas with no pathology, extracellular HSPA5 was localized around many cones within the macular area. In contrast, fewer HSPA5-immunopositive cones were

  5. Joint Variable Selection and Classification with Immunohistochemical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Ghosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine if candidate cancer biomarkers have utility in a clinical setting, validation using immunohistochemical methods is typically done. Most analyses of such data have not incorporated the multivariate nature of the staining profiles. In this article, we consider modelling such data using recently developed ideas from the machine learning community. In particular, we consider the joint goals of feature selection and classification. We develop estimation procedures for the analysis of immunohistochemical profiles using the least absolute selection and shrinkage operator. These lead to novel and flexible models and algorithms for the analysis of compositional data. The techniques are illustrated using data from a cancer biomarker study.

  6. Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid gland and immunohistochemical analysis of expression of p53 protein in papillary microcarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal Ali R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (TPM is defined according to WHO criteria as a thyroid tumor smaller than 1–1.5 cm. TPMs are encountered in 0.5–35.6 % of autopsies or surgical specimens where carcinoma had been unsuspected. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patients who had TPMs in terms of clinical findings, histopathological features and immunohistochemical evidence of expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Methods A total of 44 patients with TPMs less than 1.0 cm in diameter were included in the study. The patients were evaluated clinically and the tumors were evaluated in terms of their histopathological and immunohistochemical features, including expression of p53. Results The female/male ratio was 2.8/1, and the median age at time of diagnosis was 49 years (range 20–71 years. The maximum diameter of the smallest focus was 0.1 mm, and that of the largest was 10 mm microscopically. The mean diameter of all tumors was 5.7 mm. There was no correlation between tumor size and age or gender. Of the TPMs, 72 % were found in the right lobe, 24 % in the left lobe and 4 % in the isthmus. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 43.2 % of the patients. All patients were treated with surgery, with 20 undergoing conservative surgery, i.e. lobectomy or isthmusectomy, and 24 undergoing total thyroidectomy. Frozen section provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 56.8 % of the patients. We found lymphocytic thyroiditis in 13.6% of patients, follicular variants in 11.9%, capsular invasion in 26.8%, lymph node involvement in 11.9%, soft tissue metastases in the neck in 12.1% and multifocality in 31.7 %, and none of these were related to age or gender (p > 0.05. No distant metastases were observed during approximately 10 years of follow up. We found p53 positivity in 34.5 % of TPM tumors. However, p53 expression was not statistically related to age or gender. Conclusion Our findings imply

  7. Genetic and immunohistochemical analysis of HSPA5 in mouse and human retinas

    OpenAIRE

    Chintalapudi, Sumana R.; Wang, XiaoFei; Li, Huiling; Lau, Yin H. Chan; Williams, Robert W.; Jablonski, Monica M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor degenerative diseases?are among the leading causes of vision loss. Although the causative genetic mutations are often known, mechanisms leading to photoreceptor degeneration remain poorly defined. We have previously demonstrated that the photoreceptor membrane-associated protein XAP-1 antigen is a product of the HSPA5 gene. In this study, we used systems genetic methods, statistical modeling, and immunostaining to identify and analyze candidate genes that modulate Hspa5 ...

  8. An adult multifocal medulloblastoma with diffuse acute postoperative cerebellar swelling: immunohistochemical and molecular genetics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balik, Vladimir; Trojanec, Radek; Holzerova, Milena; Tuckova, Lucie; Sulla, Igor; Megova, Magdalena; Vaverka, Miroslav; Hrabalek, Lumir; Ehrmann, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant tumor typically affecting children, occurs only exceptionally in adults. Multifocal presentation of this malignancy in adulthood is even much rarer—only four cases with favorable postoperative course have been reported, so far. The study illustrates a very rare rapid postoperative clinical deterioration due to diffuse cerebellar swelling (DCS) in an adult multifocal MB (MMB). To the best of their knowledge, authors for the first time performed genetic analysis of MMB and demonstrated expression patterns of selected markers that put the patient within the sonic hedgehog (SHH) molecular subgroup and at least partially explain her unsatisfactory clinical course. Herein, authors summarized the relevant literature concerning this issue with the aim to determine features that would facilitate diagnosis and therapy of such a scarce clinical entity.

  9. Endorsing cellular competitiveness in aberrant epithelium of oral submucous fibrosis progression: neighbourhood analysis of immunohistochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anura, Anji; Kazi, Anees; Pal, Mousumi; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2018-04-23

    Epithelial abnormality during the transformation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) into oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well studied and documented. However, the differential contribution of atrophy and hyperplasia for malignant potentiality of OSF is yet to be resolved. Existing diagnostic conjectures lack precise diagnostic attributes which may be effectively resolved by substantiation of specific molecular pathology signatures. Present study elucidates existence of cellular competitiveness in OSF conditions using computer-assisted neighbourhood analysis in quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) framework. The concept of field cancerization was contributory in finding correspondence among neighbouring cells of epithelial layers with reference to differential expression of cardinal cancer-related genes [c-Myc (oncogene), p53 (tumour suppressor), and HIF-1α (hypoxia regulator)] which are known to be important sensors in recognizing cellular competitive interface. Our analyses indicate that different states of OSF condition may be associated with different forms of competitiveness within epithelial neighbouring cells which might be responsible to shape the present and future of the pre-malignant condition. Analytical findings indicated association of atrophic epithelium with stress-driven competitive environment having low c-Myc, high-p53, and stable HIF-1α (the looser cells) which undergo apoptosis. Whereas, the cells with high c-Myc + (winner cells) give rise to hyperplastic epithelium via possible mutation in p53. The epithelial dysplasia plausibly occurs due to clonal expansion of c-Myc and p53 positive supercompetitor cells. Present study proposes quantitative IHC along with neighbourhood analysis which might help us to dig deeper on to the interaction among epithelial cell population to provide a better understanding of field cancerization and malignant transformation of pre-malignancy.

  10. Molecular spectral imaging system for quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of early diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; Zhang, Jingfa; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Guoteng

    2009-12-01

    A molecular spectral imaging system has been developed based on microscopy and spectral imaging technology. The system is capable of acquiring molecular spectral images from 400 nm to 800 nm with 2 nm wavelength increments. The basic principles, instrumental systems, and system calibration method as well as its applications for the calculation of the stain-uptake by tissues are introduced. As a case study, the system is used for determining the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and evaluating the therapeutic effects of erythropoietin. Some molecular spectral images of retinal sections of normal, diabetic, and treated rats were collected and analyzed. The typical transmittance curves of positive spots stained for albumin and advanced glycation end products are retrieved from molecular spectral data with the spectral response calibration algorithm. To explore and evaluate the protective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on retinal albumin leakage of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, an algorithm based on Beer-Lambert's law is presented. The algorithm can assess the uptake by histologic retinal sections of stains used in quantitative pathology to label albumin leakage and advanced glycation end products formation. Experimental results show that the system is helpful for the ophthalmologist to reveal the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and explore the protective effect of erythropoietin on retinal cells of diabetic rats. It also highlights the potential of molecular spectral imaging technology to provide more effective and reliable diagnostic criteria in pathology.

  11. Soft tissue angiofibroma: Clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of 14 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekers, Elise M; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Verdijk, Marian A J; Raaijmakers-van Geloof, Winny L; Roepman, Paul; Vink, Robert; Gilhuijs, Nathalie D B; van Gorp, Joost M; Bovée, Judith V M G; Creytens, David H; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Suurmeijer, Albert J H; Mentzel, Thomas; Arbajian, Elsa; Flucke, Uta

    2017-10-01

    Soft tissue angiofibroma is rare and has characteristic histomorphological and genetic features. For diagnostic purposes, there are no specific antibodies available. Fourteen lesions (6 females, 8 males; age range 7-67 years) of the lower extremities (12) and trunk (2) were investigated by immunohistochemistry, including for the first time NCOA2. NCOA2 was also tested in a control group of other spindle cell lesions. The known fusion-genes (AHRR-NCOA2 and GTF2I-NCOA2) were examined using RT-PCR in order to evaluate their diagnostic value. Cases in which no fusion gene was detected were additionally analysed by RNA sequencing. All cases tested showed nuclear expression of NCOA2. However, this was not specific since other spindle cell neoplasms also expressed this marker in a high percentage of cases. Other variably positive markers were EMA, SMA, desmin and CD34. STAT6 was negative in the cases tested. By RT-PCR for the most frequently observed fusions, an AHRR-NCOA2 fusion transcript was found in 9/14 cases. GTF2I-NCOA2 was not detected in the remaining cases (n = 3). RNA sequencing revealed three additional positive cases; two harbored a AHRR-NCOA2 fusion and one case a novel GAB1-ABL1 fusion. Two cases failed molecular analysis due to poor RNA quality. In conclusion, the AHRR-NCOA2 fusion is a frequent finding in soft tissue angiofibroma, while GTF2I-NCOA2 seems to be a rare genetic event. For the first time, we report a GAB1-ABL1 fusion in a soft tissue angiofibroma of a child. Nuclear expression of NCOA2 is not discriminating when compared with other spindle cell neoplasms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Immunohistochemical analysis of Langerhans cells in chronic gingivitis using anti-CD1a antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Jaitley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Langerhans cells (LCs are dendritic cells (DCs which belong to the group of antigen presenting cells (APCs. Their function is to recognize the antigen, capture it, and present it to the T lymphocytes; thus initiating an early immune response. The antigen presenting functional LCs may play an important part in initiation and development of gingivitis. The aim of this study was to analyze the density, intraepithelial distribution, and morphology of LCs in gingival epithelium among different age groups with chronic gingivitis and to compare it with that of normal gingiva. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to study LCs in normal gingival epithelium (n = 10 and gingival epithelium in chronic gingivitis (n = 30 using anti-CD1a antibody. Mann Whitney U test was performed to compare the density of LCs in normal gingiva with chronic gingivitis. The distribution of LCs in various layers of the epithelium within the three age groups was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The density of LCs in chronic gingivitis was significantly higher then that of normal gingiva. Comparing different age groups, the younger individuals had more number of LCs which were located in the superficial layers of gingival epithelium. In chronic gingivitis, higher number of LCs were located in deeper layers when compared with that of normal gingiva. Three morphological types of CD1a positive LCs were observed in normal gingiva, out of which the density of LCs with branched dendritic processes was highest in normal gingiva. Conclusion: The LCs showed variable number, location, and morphology which indicated their adaptation for function in chronic gingivitis.

  13. [Primary antisera before and after the expiration date. Comparative immunohistochemical observations and analysis of data sheets and labels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliani, R; Babache, N

    2002-06-01

    By means of positive and negative controls, the immunostaining properties of a series (B) of 78 primary antibodies (PAB) that had expired 7-77 months previously (mean, 26.3 months) were evaluated in comparison those of the same non expired (functioning) PAB. Qualitatively, no significative difference was observed in the specificity and sensitivity. Among all of the PAB (with the exception of one), no immunonegativity was observed. With special reference to immunohistochemical methods, dilution and retrieval procedures, as suggested on data sheets, were additionally considered. Moreover the residual availability of the reagents was checked. In fact 58 PAB were still available for further examination with probable prolongation of the duration of validity. Other observations are analytically reported as far as polyclonal, monoclonal, concentrated and predilluted expired PAB are concerned. In the same way, duration of available validity before the expiration date was examined for the expired PAB and for an additional series of 90 nonexpired PAB. Finally textual information (including intended use) reported on data sheets and labels has been scrutinized in detail. In conclusion, for the diagnostically applied immunohistochemistry on the basis of these findings and the recent American and European rules, the following propositions should be considered: (1) surveillance on methodological technical approach and diagnostic evaluation, with emphasis on accurate standardization and primary responsibility of the pathologist; (2) opportunity of a continuous feed-back between laboratories-customers and producers-traders, in order to render more uniform the information and establish more realistic parameters of utilization; and (3) possibility of cost reduction according to limited financial support from the health care administration.

  14. Nerve fibre studies in skin biopsies in peripheral neuropathies. I. Immunohistochemical analysis of neuropeptides in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberger, M; Schröder, H D; Schultzberg, M

    1989-01-01

    Standardised skin biopsies followed by immunohistochemical examination for the presence of terminal nerve fibres reacting for neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were evaluated. Healthy subjects regularly displayed free nerve endings of both fibre types in th...... a sensitive tool in evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathies....

  15. Immunohistochemical detection of VHS virus in paraffin-embedded specimens of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); The influence of primary antibody, fixative, and antigen unmasking on method sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    performed on parallel specimens, and the virus titer (TCID50/ml) was determined. Purified nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) of the virus was incorporated in an artificial antigen substrate (polymerized bovine serum albumin), fixed as described above, and embedded in paraffin wax. Microwave unmasking...... was performed an formalin-, PLP-, and Bouin's fluid-fixed specimens. The presence of virus peptides in situ or N-protein in the artificial antigen substrates was Visualized using an immunohistochemical method based on alkaline phosphatase or peroxidase and one polyclonal and five monoclonal polypeptide......-specific antibodies. VHS virus was identified in situ in specimens with high virus titers (10(7-8) TCID50/ml) regardless of the fixative and without the need of an unmasking procedure. A pronounced masking effect was observed for the cross-linking formalin and PLP fixatives. Regardless of the primary antibodies used...

  16. Computer-assisted assessment of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 immunohistochemical assay in imaged histologic sections using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative analysis of positive controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianosi-Irimie Monica

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancers that overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 are eligible for effective biologically targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab. However, accurately determining HER2 overexpression, especially in immunohistochemically equivocal cases, remains a challenge. Manual analysis of HER2 expression is dependent on the assessment of membrane staining as well as comparisons with positive controls. In spite of the strides that have been made to standardize the assessment process, intra- and inter-observer discrepancies in scoring is not uncommon. In this manuscript we describe a pathologist assisted, computer-based continuous scoring approach for increasing the precision and reproducibility of assessing imaged breast tissue specimens. Methods Computer-assisted analysis on HER2 IHC is compared with manual scoring and fluorescence in situ hybridization results on a test set of 99 digitally imaged breast cancer cases enriched with equivocally scored (2+ cases. Image features are generated based on the staining profile of the positive control tissue and pixels delineated by a newly developed Membrane Isolation Algorithm. Evaluation of results was performed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC analysis. Results A computer-aided diagnostic approach has been developed using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative use of positive immunostaining controls. By incorporating internal positive controls into feature analysis a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC in ROC analysis was achieved than feature analysis without positive controls. Evaluation of HER2 immunostaining that utilized membrane pixels, controls, and percent area stained showed significantly greater AUC than manual scoring, and significantly less false positive rate when used to evaluate immunohistochemically equivocal cases. Conclusion It has been shown that by incorporating both a membrane isolation algorithm and analysis of known

  17. Phenotypic and immunohistochemical characterization of sarcoglycanopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. B. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy presents with heterogeneous clinical and molecular features. The primary characteristic of this disorder is proximal muscular weakness with variable age of onset, speed of progression, and intensity of symptoms. Sarcoglycanopathies, which are a subgroup of the limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, are caused by mutations in sarcoglycan genes. Mutations in these genes cause secondary deficiencies in other proteins, due to the instability of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Therefore, determining the etiology of a given sarcoglycanopathy requires costly and occasionally inaccessible molecular methods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify phenotypic differences among limb-girdle muscular dystrophy patients who were grouped according to the immunohistochemical phenotypes for the four sarcoglycans. METHODS: To identify phenotypic differences among patients with different types of sarcoglycanopathies, a questionnaire was used and the muscle strength and range of motion of nine joints in 45 patients recruited from the Department of Neurology - HC-FMUSP (Clinics Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo were evaluated. The findings obtained from these analyses were compared with the results of the immunohistochemical findings. RESULTS: The patients were divided into the following groups based on the immunohistochemical findings: a-sarcoglycanopathies (16 patients, b-sarcoglycanopathies (1 patient, y-sarcoglycanopathies (5 patients, and nonsarcoglycanopathies (23 patients. The muscle strength analysis revealed significant differences for both upper and lower limb muscles, particularly the shoulder and hip muscles, as expected. No pattern of joint contractures was found among the four groups analyzed, even within the same family. However, a high frequency of tiptoe gait was observed in patients with a-sarcoglycanopathies, while calf pseudo-hypertrophy was most common in

  18. Texture analysis of high-resolution dedicated breast {sup 18}F-FDG PET images correlates with immunohistochemical factors and subtype of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscoso, Alexis; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Herranz, Michel; Argibay, Sonia; Silva-Rodriguez, Jesus [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ruibal, Alvaro [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fundacion Tejerina, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Ferreiro, Anxo [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Pharmacy Department and Pharmacology Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Albaina, Luis [University Hospital A Coruna (SERGAS), Department of General Surgery, A Coruna (Spain); Pardo-Montero, Juan [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), Medical Physics Department, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Aguiar, Pablo [Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela CHUS-IDIS, Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Group, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Molecular Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2018-02-15

    This study aims to determine whether PET textural features measured with a new dedicated breast PET scanner reflect biological characteristics of breast tumors. One hundred and thirty-nine breast tumors from 127 consecutive patients were included in this analysis. All of them underwent a {sup 18}F-FDG PET scan before treatment. Well-known PET quantitative parameters such as SUV{sub m} {sub a} {sub x}, SUV{sub m} {sub e} {sub a} {sub n}, metabolically active tumor volume (MATV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were extracted. Together with these parameters, local, regional, and global heterogeneity descriptors, which included five textural features (TF), were computed. Immunohistochemical classification of breast cancer considered five subtypes: luminal A like (LA), luminal B like/HER2 - (LB -), luminal B like/HER2+ (LB+), HER2-positive-non-luminal (HER2pnl), and triple negative (TN). Associations between PET features and tumor characteristics were assessed using non-parametric hypothesis tests. Along with well-established associations, new correlations were found. HER2-positive tumors had significantly higher uptake (p < 0.001, AUCs > 0.70) and presented different global and regional heterogeneity (p = 0.002, p = 0.016, respectively, AUCs < 0.70). Nine out of ten analyzed features were significantly associated with immunohistochemical subtype. Uptake was lower for LA tumors (p < 0.001) with AUCs ranging from 0.71 to 0.88 for each subgroup comparison. Heterogeneity metrics were significantly associated when comparing LA and LB - (p < 0.01), being regional heterogeneity metrics more discriminative than any other parameter (AUC = 0.80 compared to AUC = 0.71 for SUV). LB+ and HER2pnl tumors also showed more regional heterogeneity than LA tumors (AUCs = 0.79 and 0.84, respectively). After comparison with whole-body PET studies, we observed an overall improvement in the classification ability of both non-heterogeneity metrics and textural features. PET parameters

  19. The EnVision++ system: a new immunohistochemical method for diagnostics and research. Critical comparison with the APAAP, ChemMate, CSA, LABC, and SABC techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabattini, E; Bisgaard, K; Ascani, S; Poggi, S; Piccioli, M; Ceccarelli, C; Pieri, F; Fraternali-Orcioni, G; Pileri, S A

    1998-07-01

    To assess a newly developed immunohistochemical detection system, the EnVision++. A large series of differently processed normal and pathological samples and 53 relevant monoclonal antibodies were chosen. A chessboard titration assay was used to compare the results provided by the EnVision++ system with those of the APAAP, CSA, LSAB, SABC, and ChemMate methods, when applied either manually or in a TechMate 500 immunostainer. With the vast majority of the antibodies, EnVision++ allowed two- to fivefold higher dilutions than the APAAP, LSAB, SABC, and ChemMate techniques, the staining intensity and percentage of expected positive cells being the same. With some critical antibodies (such as the anti-CD5), it turned out to be superior in that it achieved consistently reproducible results with differently fixed or overfixed samples. Only the CSA method, which includes tyramide based enhancement, allowed the same dilutions as the EnVision++ system, and in one instance (with the anti-cyclin D1 antibody) represented the gold standard. The EnVision++ is an easy to use system, which avoids the possibility of disturbing endogenous biotin and lowers the cost per test by increasing the dilutions of the primary antibodies. Being a two step procedure, it reduces both the assay time and the workload.

  20. Detection of EGFR and COX-2 Expression by Immunohistochemical Method on a Tissue Microarray Section in Lung Cancer and Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyun WANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, which can regulate growth, invasion and metastasis of tumor through relevant signaling pathway, have been detected in a variety of solid tumors. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological significance of EGFR and COX-2 expression in lung cancer and the relationship between them. Methods The expression of EGFR and COX-2 was detected in 89 primary lung cancer tissues, 12 premaliganant lesions, 12 lymph node metastases, and 10 normal lung tissues as the control by immunohistochemical method on a tissue microarray section. Results EGFR protein was detectable in 59.6%, 41.7%, and 66.7% of primary lung cancer tissues, premalignant lesions and lymph node metastases, respectively; COX-2 protein was detectable in 52.8%, 41.7%, and 66.7% of primary lung cancer tissues, premalignant lesions and lymph node metastases, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the control (P 0.05. COX-2 expression was related to gross type (P < 0.05. A highly positive correlation was observed between EGFR and COX-2 expression (P < 0.01. Conclusion Overexpression of EGFR and COX-2 may play an important role in the tumorgenesis, progression and malignancy of lung cancer. Detection of EGFR and COX-2 expression might be helpful to diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancer.

  1. [Immunohistochemical examination of MSH2, PMS2, MLH1, MSH6 compared with the analysis of microsatellite instability in colon adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, G A; Ianus, G A; Kornilov, A V; Orlova, R V; Petrov, S V; Protasova, A É; Pozharisskiĭ, K M; Imianitov, E N

    2014-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the colon in 10-20% is associated with microsatellite instability, which can occur both in sporadic cancers and in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer. Our analysis of 195 cases of adenocarcinoma of the colon showed that microsatellite instability (MSI-H) was found only in 1.5% of patients. Subsequent choice of patients with suspected hereditary Lynch syndrome led to the identification of additional 17 patients with microsatellite instability. They passed an analysis of genes of repair system of unpaired nucleotides of DNA. The study showed that immunohistochemical staining of MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2 could effectively conduct a preliminary screening of the Lynch syndrome but was unable to divide cases of sporadic and hereditary MSI-H colon cancer.

  2. Immunohistochemical detection and correlation between MHC antigen and cell-mediated immune system in recurrent glioma by APAAP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, K; Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Jacques, D B; Freshwater, D B; Sheldon, H

    1990-09-01

    As part of an on-going clinical trial of immunotherapy for recurrent malignant gliomas, using alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method with monoclonal antibodies, we investigated the correlation between expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and the subpopulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 38 glioma specimens (20 grade IV, 11 grade III, and 7 grade II) from 33 patients. Thirty specimens (78.9%) were positive to class I MHC antigen and 20 (52.6%) were positive to class II MHC antigen. The correlations between class I MHC antigen expression and the number of infiltrating T8 (p less than 0.01), and also between class II MHC antigen expression and the number of infiltrating T4 (p less than 0.05) were significant. We conclude that TILs are the result of immunoreaction (host-defense mechanism). 31.6% of specimens had perivascular infiltration of T cells. The main infiltrating lymphocyte subset in moderate to marked perivascular cuffing was T4. Our results may indicate that lack of MHC antigen on the glioma cell surface has a share in the poor immunogenicity in glioma-bearing patients. In addition, considering the effector/target ratio, the number of infiltrating lymphocytes against glioma cells was too small, so the immunological intervention seems to be essential in glioma therapy. Previous radiation therapy and chemotherapy, including steroid therapy, did not influence lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration.

  3. Morphologic alterations and immunohistochemical analysis of alpha-fetoprotein and CD34 in chorionic villi of anembryonic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, S.; Yenilmez, E.; Yulug, E.; Arvas, H.; Ozeren, M.; Cobanoglu, U.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the morphology of chorionic villi using light and electron microscopy, especially the expression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in trophoblastic cells and the process of maturation and margination vasculogenesis proper using CD34 immunohistochemistry in tissues from the first trimester of pregnancy loss due to anembryonic pregnancy in comparison with embryonic pregnancy. The study consisted of 2 groups: 9 patients with anembryonic pregnancies and 9 patients with embryonic pregnancies between 6 and 10 weeks of gestational age registered at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey, from March 2003 to December 2004. We examined the chorionic villi using light and electron microscopy. For immunohistochemical staining, we used AFP and CD 34. Microscopically, pathologic changes were shown in syncytiotrophoblast cells of anembryonic pregnancies and AFP was strongly expressed by villous trophoblastic cells compared to embryonic pregnancies. We determined the CD34 positivity in both groups. In anembryonic pregnancies, vascular elements were much fewer in number compared with embryonic pregnancies (p<0.001) and were located in the formed of hemangioblastic cords. Placental vasculogenesis is a basic feature in all types of pregnancy and a relationship exists between trophoblast cells and vessels in the chorionic villi with the potential to influence each other's functions. Defective chorionic villus vascularization is associated with embryonic death. This study may support the hypothesis, as suggested by previous studies, that anembryonic pregnancy results from early embryonic death and subsequent reabsorption rather than from the nondevelopment of an embryo. (author)

  4. Lipid-rich histology in a basal-type immunoprofile breast carcinoma: histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Maiello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinicopathological and morphological features of an unusual breast carcinoma classifiable as a lipid-rich variant of ductal invasive carcinoma, with a basal-type immunohistochemical profile. Basal-type breast cancers show no hormonal receptor expression, rarely over-express HER-2 but exhibit molecular high weight cytokeratins, EGFR and c-kit positivity. Special stains and histochemistry tests were used to elucidate the nature of vescicles in the neoplastic cells. Sudan IV was performed on formalin-fixed tissue. Commercially available antibodies tested were: ER, PgR, EGFR, HER2, c-kit, high molecular weight cytokeratins. Cytoplasmic lipids were highlighted as red-orange droplets on Sudan IV staining. As for immunohistochemistry, the tumor showed no reactivity to ER, PgR and HER2 (triple negative, and diffuse and strong positivity to high weight cytokeratins, EGFR and c-kit, such as a basal-type breast carcinoma. A basaloid phenotype in a lipid-rich carcinoma has not been previously reported.

  5. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Collagen IV and Laminin Expression in Spontaneous Melanoma Regression in the Melanoma-Bearing Libechov Minipig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planska, Daniela; Burocziova, Monika; Strnadel, Jan; Horak, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of human melanoma is a rare, well-documented phenomenon that is not still fully understood. Its detailed study cannot be performed in patients due to ethical reasons. Using the Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipig (MeLiM) animals of various ages (from 3 weeks to 8 months) we implemented a long-term monitoring of melanoma growth and SR. We focused on immunohistochemical detection of two important extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV and laminin, which are associated with cancer. We showed that SR of melanoma is a highly dynamic process. The expression of collagen IV and laminin correlated with changes in population of melanoma cells. Tumours of 3-week-old animals consisted primarily of melanoma cells with a granular expression of collagen IV and laminin around them. Thereafter, melanoma cells were gradually destroyed and tumour tissue was rebuilt into the connective tissue. Collagen IV expression slightly increased in tumours of 10-week-old pigs showing extracellular fibrous appearance. In tumours of older animals, areas lacking melanoma cells demonstrated a low expression and areas still containing melanoma cells a high expression of both proteins. We considered the age of 10 weeks as a turning point in the transition between tumour growth and SR of the MeLiM melanoma

  6. A Peripheral Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma in a 3-Year-Old Girl: Case Report, Immunohistochemical Analysis, and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO predominantly occurs in the jaw bones of children and young adults. Extraosseous AFO is extremely rare. We describe a peripheral ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in the maxillary gingiva of a 3-year-old girl. The clinical appearance resembled fiery red reactive gingival lesions. The histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed small islands and cords of odontogenic epithelium with cellular myxoid stroma in the subepithelial tissue. The mass contained calcified material and an enamel-like deposit. Many small blood vessels appeared in the connective tissue surrounding the odontogenic epithelium. The immunohistochemical assays showed strong reactivity for amelogenin, β-catenin, CD44, and CD31 in the tissue sections. There was no recurrence after the 1-year follow-up. Because this lesion clinically resembles other nonneoplastic lesions and is very rare in gingiva, establishing a correct diagnosis is achieved only based on specific histological characteristics. Conservative excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice.

  7. Really old-palaeoimmunology: immunohistochemical analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in historic and pre-historic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, G; Kalischnig, G; Maurer, H; Mayerl, C; Müller, P U

    2001-09-01

    In this review, we summarize data concerning the respective preservation and deterioration of antigenic determinants of various collagenous and non-collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in palaeontologic material of different ages. ECM proteins are the major quantitative constituents of mammalian organisms and were, therefore, selected as important representative proteins for these analyses. The specimens, studied by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques, included the skin of 500-1500 year-old human mummies from Peru, skin and striated muscle from the 5300-year-old glacier mummy ("Iceman") from Tyrol, Austria, and a 50-million-year-old bat with preserved soft body parts from the fossil excavation site of Messel, Germany. In frozen sections of the former two sources, epitopes recognized by specific antibodies for triple-helical antigenic determinants of different types of collagen resistant against conventional proteases were preserved, while non-helical domains, as well as the non-collagenous ECM proteins, could no longer be demonstrated. The fossil bat, although showing evidence of fibrous, collagen-like structures in conventional histology, revealed no collagenous or non-collagenous ECM proteins by any technique. It later turned out that this was due to the replacement of the original soft parts in these fossils by lawns of bacteria. These studies introduced immunological techniques into palaeontology and opened new approaches for studying physiologically- and pathologically-altered structures in tissues of animals and humans of considerable historical age.

  8. Prognostic value analysis of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchiocchi, Roberta; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Fazioli, Francesca; Rubini, Corrado; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Borghetti, Giulia; Procacci, Pasquale; Nocini, Pier Francesco; Santarelli, Andrea; Rocchetti, Romina; Ciavarella, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the most common oral malignancy. Despite recent advances in therapy, up to 50% of the cases have relapse and/or metastasis. There is therefore a strong need for the identification of new biological markers able to predict the clinical behaviour of these lesions in order to improve quality of life and overall survival. Among tumour progression biomarkers, already known for their involvement in other neoplasia, a crucial role is ascribed to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), which plays a multiple role in extracellular proteolysis, cell migration and tissue remodelling not only as a receptor for the zymogen pro-uPA but also as a component for cell adhesion and as a chemoattractant. The purpose of this study was to gain information on the expression of uPAR in OSCC and to verify whether this molecule can have a role as a prognostic/predictive marker for this neoplasia. In a retrospective study, a cohort of 189 OSCC patients was investigated for uPAR expression and its cellular localization by immunohistochemistry. As standard controls, 8 normal oral mucosal tissues free of malignancy, obtained from patients with no evidence or history of oral cavity tumours, were similarly investigated. After grouping for uPAR expression, OSCCs were statistically analyzed for the variables age, gender, histological grading (G), tumour size, recurrence, TNM staging and overall survival rate. In our immunohistochemical study, 74 cases (39.1%) of OSCC showed a mostly cytoplasmic positivity for uPAR, whereas 115 were negative. uPAR expression correlated with tumour differentiation grade and prognosis: percentage of positive cases was the greatest in G3 (70.4%) and patients positives for uPAR expression had an expectation of life lower than those for uPAR negatives. The results obtained in this study suggest a role of uPAR as a potential biomarker useful to identify higher risk subgroups of OSCC patients

  9. Immunohistochemical assessment of oestrogen and progesterone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabau, D A; Thorpe, S M; Knoop, A

    2000-01-01

    Two different methods to determine steroid receptors were analysed with respect to their ability to estimate prognosis in primary breast cancer patients. The immunohistochemical assay (IHA) was compared with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) method of receptor determination. A random sample of 28...... distinction between benign and malignant tissue is possible using the IHAmethod. Thus, IHAresults appear to be more clinically relevant....

  10. Immunohistochemical analysis of H3K27me3 demonstrates global reduction in group-A childhood posterior fossa ependymoma and is a powerful predictor of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwalkar, Pooja; Clark, Jonathan; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Hawes, Debra; Yang, Fusheng; Dunham, Christopher; Yip, Stephen; Hukin, Juliette; Sun, Yilun; Schipper, Matthew J; Chavez, Lukas; Margol, Ashley; Pekmezci, Melike; Chung, Chan; Banda, Adam; Bayliss, Jill M; Curry, Sarah J; Santi, Mariarita; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Snuderl, Matija; Karajannis, Matthias A; Saratsis, Amanda M; Horbinski, Craig M; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Wilson, Beverly; Johnston, Donna; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Zelcer, Shayna; Eisenstat, David; Silva, Marianna; Scheinemann, Katrin; Jabado, Nada; McNeely, P Daniel; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D; Hawkins, Cynthia; Korshunov, Andrey; Judkins, Alexander R; Venneti, Sriram

    2017-11-01

    Posterior fossa ependymomas (EPN_PF) in children comprise two morphologically identical, but biologically distinct tumor entities. Group-A (EPN_PFA) tumors have a poor prognosis and require intensive therapy. In contrast, group-B tumors (EPN_PFB) exhibit excellent prognosis and the current consensus opinion recommends future clinical trials to test the possibility of treatment de-escalation in these patients. Therefore, distinguishing these two tumor subtypes is critical. EPN_PFA and EPN_PFB can be distinguished based on DNA methylation signatures, but these assays are not routinely available. We have previously shown that a subset of poorly prognostic childhood EPN_PF exhibits global reduction in H3K27me3. Therefore, we set out to determine whether a simple immunohistochemical assay for H3K27me3 could be used to segregate EPN_PFA from EPN_PFB tumors. We assembled a cohort of 230 childhood ependymomas and H3K27me3 immunohistochemistry was assessed as positive or negative in a blinded manner. H3K27me3 staining results were compared with DNA methylation-based subgroup information available in 112 samples [EPN_PFA (n = 72) and EPN_PFB tumors (n = 40)]. H3K27me3 staining was globally reduced in EPN_PFA tumors and immunohistochemistry showed 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity in segregating EPN_PFA from EPN_PFB tumors. Moreover, H3K27me3 immunostaining was sufficient to delineate patients with worse prognosis in two independent, non-overlapping cohorts (n = 133 and n = 97). In conclusion, immunohistochemical evaluation of H3K27me3 global reduction is an economic, easily available and readily adaptable method for defining high-risk EPN_PFA from low-risk posterior fossa EPN_PFB tumors to inform prognosis and to enable the design of future clinical trials.

  11. Cutaneous Clear Cell Sarcoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of 12 cases emphasizing its distinction from dermal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantschke, Markus; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno; Palmedo, Gabriele; Calonje, Eduardo; Lazar, Alexander J.; Kutzner, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of tendons and aponeuroses / malignant melanoma of soft parts is a rare tumor and in the majority of cases presents a characteristic reciprocal translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) that results in fusion of the EWS and ATF1 genes. Although the melanocytic differentiation of CCS is indisputable, its precise lineage remains unclear. Typically, the slowly growing tumor affects the extremities of adolescents or young adults, especially around the ankle and foot. CCS is classically regarded as a deep soft tissue tumor associated with tendons or aponeuroses. This traditional view is put into perspective by the description of primary CCS of the gastrointestinal tract, which may have a variant fusion gene EWSR1-CREB1. We describe 12 cases of cutaneous CCS and discuss the differential diagnoses. These 12 cases share an identical immunohistochemical profile with malignant melanoma (MM) and thus can easily be confused with a dermal variant of spindle cell MM or metastasis of MM. The patients' ages ranged from 6 to 74 years (median: 25 y), and there was a female predominance (10 females, 2 males). Most tumors (n = 9) were located on the extremities, 2 tumors arose on the back, and 1 on the abdomen. The mean tumor size was 0,97 cm (range, 0,4 to 1,7 cm). Six cases showed invasion of the subcutis, the other 6 cases were entirely dermal. Tumor necrosis was evident in 2 cases, melanin pigment in 2 cases, and ulceration in 1 tumor. All cases showed uniform nests and fascicles of pale spindled or slightly epitheloid cells with finely granular eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm. There was fair pleomorphism with plump spindled nuclei and significantly prominent nucleoli. Multinucleated wreath-like tumor giant cells were observed in two-thirds of cases, but were usually present only focally. The dense cellular aggregates were encased by delicate fibrous septa. The stroma showed a sclerotic reticulated pattern. Partly, the nests of spindle cells bordered the epidermis

  12. The surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  13. Reflex test reminders in required cancer synoptic templates decrease order entry error: An analysis of mismatch repair immunohistochemical orders to screen for Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometrial carcinoma (EC is the most common extracolonic malignant neoplasm associated with Lynch syndrome (LS. LS is caused by autosomal dominant germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Screening for LS in EC is often evaluated by loss of immunohistochemical (IHC expression of DNA MMR enzymes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (MMR IHC. In July 2013, our clinicians asked that we screen all EC in patients ≤60 for loss of MMR IHC expression. Despite this policy, several cases were not screened or screening was delayed. We implemented an informatics-based approach to ensure that all women who met criteria would have timely screening. Subjects and Methods: Reports are created in PowerPath (Sunquest Information Systems, Tucson, AZ with custom synoptic templates. We implemented an algorithm on March 6, 2014 requiring pathologists to address MMR IHC in patients ≤60 with EC before sign out (S/O. Pathologists must answer these questions: is patient ≤60 (yes/no, if yes, follow-up questions (IHC done previously, ordered with addendum to follow, results included in report, N/A, or not ordered, if not ordered, one must explain. We analyzed cases from July 18, 2013 to August 31, 2016 preimplementation (PreImp and postimplementation (PostImp that met criteria. Data analysis was performed using the standard data package included with GraphPad Prism® 7.00 (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA. Results: There were 147 patients who met criteria (29 PreImp and 118 PostImp. IHC was ordered in a more complete and timely fashion PostImp than PreImp. PreImp, 4/29 (13.8% cases did not get any IHC, but PostImp, only 4/118 (3.39% were missed (P = 0.0448. Of cases with IHC ordered, 60.0% (15/25 were ordered before or at S/O PreImp versus 91.2% (104/114 PostImp (P = 0.0004. Relative to day of S/O, the mean days of order delay were longer and more variable PreImp versus PostImp (12.9 ± 40.7 vs. -0.660 ± 1.15; P = 0.0227, with the average

  14. A morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation of gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastric resections for carcinoma are common, but gastric carcinoma in South Africa, and particularly within the Western Cape province, has not been well documented. Method: The objective of the study was to immunohistochemically evaluate HER2/ neu overexpression, determine aberrations in β-catenin and ...

  15. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rencher, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  16. Reflex test reminders in required cancer synoptic templates decrease order entry error: An analysis of mismatch repair immunohistochemical orders to screen for Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Mark R; McIlwain, Carrie A; Schmidt, Rodney A; Norquist, Barbara M; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Garcia, Rochelle L; Rendi, Mara H

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common extracolonic malignant neoplasm associated with Lynch syndrome (LS). LS is caused by autosomal dominant germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Screening for LS in EC is often evaluated by loss of immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of DNA MMR enzymes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (MMR IHC). In July 2013, our clinicians asked that we screen all EC in patients ≤60 for loss of MMR IHC expression. Despite this policy, several cases were not screened or screening was delayed. We implemented an informatics-based approach to ensure that all women who met criteria would have timely screening. Reports are created in PowerPath (Sunquest Information Systems, Tucson, AZ) with custom synoptic templates. We implemented an algorithm on March 6, 2014 requiring pathologists to address MMR IHC in patients ≤60 with EC before sign out (S/O). Pathologists must answer these questions: is patient ≤60 (yes/no), if yes, follow-up questions (IHC done previously, ordered with addendum to follow, results included in report, N/A, or not ordered), if not ordered, one must explain. We analyzed cases from July 18, 2013 to August 31, 2016 preimplementation (PreImp) and postimplementation (PostImp) that met criteria. Data analysis was performed using the standard data package included with GraphPad Prism ® 7.00 (GraphPad Software, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). There were 147 patients who met criteria (29 PreImp and 118 PostImp). IHC was ordered in a more complete and timely fashion PostImp than PreImp. PreImp, 4/29 (13.8%) cases did not get any IHC, but PostImp, only 4/118 (3.39%) were missed ( P = 0.0448). Of cases with IHC ordered, 60.0% (15/25) were ordered before or at S/O PreImp versus 91.2% (104/114) PostImp ( P = 0.0004). Relative to day of S/O, the mean days of order delay were longer and more variable PreImp versus PostImp (12.9 ± 40.7 vs. -0.660 ± 1.15; P = 0.0227), with the average being before S/O PostImp. This algorithm

  17. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...

  18. Analysis of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  19. Variation of amino acid sequences of serum amyloid a (SAA) and immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid a (AA) in Japanese domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Meina; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Tamamoto, Takashi; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-02

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, a fatal systemic amyloid disease, occurs secondary to chronic inflammatory conditions in humans. Although persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) levels are required for its pathogenesis, not all individuals with chronic inflammation necessarily develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, many diseases in cats are associated with the elevated production of SAA, whereas only a small number actually develop AA amyloidosis. We hypothesized that a genetic mutation in the SAA gene may strongly contribute to the pathogenesis of feline AA amyloidosis. In the present study, genomic DNA from four Japanese domestic cats (JDCs) with AA amyloidosis and from five without amyloidosis was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and direct sequencing. We identified the novel variation combination of 45R-51A in the deduced amino acid sequences of four JDCs with amyloidosis and five without. However, there was no relationship between amino acid variations and the distribution of AA amyloid deposits, indicating that differences in SAA sequences do not contribute to the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis. Immunohistochemical analysis using antisera against the three different parts of the feline SAA protein-i.e., the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions-revealed that feline AA contained the C-terminus, unlike human AA. These results indicate that the cleavage and degradation of the C-terminus are not essential for amyloid fibril formation in JDCs.

  20. Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)- and Aromatic-L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC)-Immunoreactive Neurons of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) Brain: An Immunohistochemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Motoharu; Yamada, Keiki; Nagatsu, Ikuko; Iwasa, Mineo; Takeuchi, Terumi; Uematsu, Mitsutoshi; Watanabe, Kazuko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    From the perspective of comparative morphology, the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was investigated using an immunohistochemical method with specific antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). TH-immunoreactive (IR) neurons (but not AADC-IR) neurons were observed in the olfactory tubercle, preoptic suprachiasmatic nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, medial longitudinal fasciculus, substantia nigra, and nucleus solitaris. In contrast, AADC-IR (but not TH-IR), small, oval and spindle-shaped neurons were sparsely distributed in the following areas: the hypothalamus from the anterior nucleus to the lateral nucleus, the dorsomedial nucleus, the dorsomedial area of the medial mammillary nucleus and the arcuate nucleus; the midbrain, including the stria medullaris and substantia nigra; and the medulla oblongata, including the dorsal area of the nucleus solitaris and the medullary reticular nucleus. The distribution of AADC-IR neurons was not as extensive in the marmoset as it is in rats. However, these neurons were located in the marmoset, but not the rat substantia nigra. Furthermore, AADC-IR neurons that are present in the human striatum were absent in that of the marmoset. The present results indicate that the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the brain of the common marmoset is unique and different from that in humans and rodents. PMID:17653300

  1. Molecular cloning, immunohistochemical localization, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-9 from the purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dian; Xu, Zhen’e [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Hongmei [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Yannan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Min, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.min@gmail.com [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Jiangxi Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The cDNA of caspase-9 in common carp was cloned. •The evolutionary conservation including caspase recruitment domain, large and small subunits was clarified. •The mRNA level of caspase-9 cannot be used as a major marker at an earlier point in the apoptotic cascade. •Caspase-9 cleavage form was detected. •Immunopositive staining was limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells. -- Abstract: Caspase-9, the essential initiator caspase is believed to play a central role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signaling. In this study, we isolated the caspase-9 gene from common carp, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of caspase-9, composed of 436 amino acids, showed approximately 47.6% identity and 64.7% similarity to human caspase-9. It also possessed a conserved caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD), a large subunit and a small subunit. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that caspase-9 formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-9. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that caspase-9 transcripts were not significantly increased in kidney after exposure to cadmium (Cd). Whereas caspase-9 cleaved fragments were detected using Western blot analysis with the same Cd treatment condition. Furthermore, the result of immunohistochemical detection showed immunoreactivities were predominantly limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and no remarkable changes of immunopositive staining were observed after Cd treatment. Accordingly, the results signify that caspase-9 may play an essential role in Cd induced apoptosis.

  2. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prognostic significance of Cdx2 immunohistochemical expression in gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of published literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-Tong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cdx2 is a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor that is important in the development and differentiation of the intestinal cells, and served as a potential biomarker of tumor progression in early intestinal-type gastric cancer. However, its prognostic value and significance in gastric cancer remain controversial. A meta-analysis based on published studies was performed to obtain an accurate evaluation of the association between the presence of Cdx2-positive in clinical samples and clinical outcome. A total of 13 eligible retrospective cohort studies with 1513 patients were included. Cdx2-positive cases were significantly associated with higher male-to-female ratio (RR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38, PPP=0.002 fixed-effect and lymph node metastasis (RR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.33-1.73, PP

  4. Immunohistochemical evaluation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the epithelial lining of odontogenic cysts: A qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshatha, B K; Karuppiah, Karpagaselvi; Manjunath, G S; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Rao, Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    The three common odontogenic cysts include radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs), and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs). Among these 3 cysts, OKC is recently been classified as benign keratocystic odontogenic tumor attributing to its aggressive behavior, recurrence rate, and malignant potential. The present study involved qualitative and quantitative analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in epithelial lining of RCs, DCs, and OKCs, compare iNOS expression in epithelial linings of all the 3 cysts and determined overexpression of iNOS in OKCs which might contribute to its aggressive behavior and malignant potential. The present study is to investigate the role of iNOS in the pathogenesis of OKCs, DCs, and RCs by evaluating the iNOS expression in the epithelial lining of these cysts. Analysis of iNOS expression in epithelial lining cells of 20 RCs, 20 DCs, and 20 OKCs using immunohistochemistry done. The percentage of positive cells and intensity of stain was assessed and compared among all the 3 cysts using contingency coefficient. Kappa statistics for the two observers were computed for finding interobserver agreement. The percentage of iNOS-positive cells was found to be remarkably high in OKCs (12/20) -57.1% as compared to RCs (6/20) - 28.6% and DCs (3/20) - 14.3%. The interobserver agreement for iNOS-positive percentage cells was arrived with kappa values with OKCs → Statistically significant ( P > 0.000), RCs → statistically significant ( P > 0.001) with no significant values for DCs. No statistical difference exists among 3 study samples in regard to the intensity of staining with iNOS. Increased iNOS expression in OKCs may contribute to bone resorption and accumulation of wild-type p53, hence, making OKCs more aggressive.

  5. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of human maxillary sinus-floor augmentation using porous β-tricalcium phosphate for dental implant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shinji; Shinmyouzu, Kouhei; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Takeshita, Kenji; Terada, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2013-08-01

    This study utilized the constitution and expression of Runx2/Cbfa1 to conduct 6-month-post-operation histomorphometrical and histochemical analysis of osteocalcin in bone regeneration following sinus-floor augmentation procedures using β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and autogenous cortical bone. Thirteen sinuses of nine patients were treated with sinus-floor augmentation using 50% β-TCP and 50% autogenous cancellous bone harvested from the ramus of the mandible. Biopsies of augmented sinuses were taken at 6 months for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical measurements. Runx2/Cbfa1- and osteocalcin-positive cells were found around TCP particles and on the bone surface. Approximately 60% of cells found around TCP particles stained positive for Runx2/Cbfa1. Fewer cells stained positive for osteocalcin. These positive cells decreased apically with increasing vertical distance from the maxillary bone surface. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the augmented site close to residual bone and periosteum contained approximately 42% bony tissue and 42% soft connective tissue, and the remaining 16% consisted of TCP particles. On the other hand, the augmented bone far from residual bone and periosteum contained 35% bony tissue and 50% soft connective tissue. Our data suggest that TCP particles attract osteoprogenitor cells that migrate into the interconnecting micropores of the bone-substitute material by 6 months. The augmented site close to residual bone contained a higher proportion of bony tissue and a lower proportion of soft connective tissue than did the augmented site far from residual bone. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Methods for Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alverbro, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Many decision-making situations today affect humans and the environment. In practice, many such decisions are made without an overall view and prioritise one or other of the two areas. Now and then these two areas of regulation come into conflict, e.g. the best alternative as regards environmental considerations is not always the best from a human safety perspective and vice versa. This report was prepared within a major project with the aim of developing a framework in which both the environmental aspects and the human safety aspects are integrated, and decisions can be made taking both fields into consideration. The safety risks have to be analysed in order to be successfully avoided and one way of doing this is to use different kinds of risk analysis methods. There is an abundance of existing methods to choose from and new methods are constantly being developed. This report describes some of the risk analysis methods currently available for analysing safety and examines the relationships between them. The focus here is mainly on human safety aspects

  7. Elucidating the role of Cyclooxygenase-2 in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus - an immunohistochemical study with supportive histochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratyush; Grover, Jasleen; Byatnal, Aditi Amit; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Radhakrishnan, Raghu; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

    2017-05-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that affects the oral mucous membrane. During an inflammatory response, several chemokines and cytokines are released by the cells of the immune system. Activation of MMPs, along with mast cell-derived chymase and tryptase, degrades the basement membrane structural proteins, resulting in basement membrane breaks. To investigate the association between the COX-2 expressions, presence of intact or degranulating mast cells within the connective tissue and the extent of basement membrane discontinuity in OLP cases. This study included a total of 50 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens (FFPE) of histologically confirmed cases of idiopathic oral lichen planus. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out by immunohistochemistry to study the epithelial expression of COX-2 and by the use of special stains such as toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to study the mast cell count and basement membrane changes in the oral mucosal tissue, respectively. There was a significant (P = 0.03) association between the COX-2 expressions and mast cell count. As the intensity of COX-2 expression increased from mild to moderate or severe, the number of mast cell count almost doubled. Interaction between upregulation of COX-2, mast cell and basement membrane sets a vicious cycle which relates to the chronic nature of the disease. Inhibitors of COX-2 may reduce the inflammatory process preceding the immune dysregulation in OLP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs.

  9. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Maekawa

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1 is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1 or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs.

  10. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION OF HER2 IN ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE STOMACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Michelon DE CARLI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Worldwide, gastric cancer is the fourth cancer in incidence and the second most common cause of cancer death. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages and very often diagnosed at advanced stages, determining a dismal prognosis. Expression of the HER2 gene has been identified in about 20% of gastric cancer cases, and its hyper-expression is associated with poor prognosis. Objective To investigate HER2 immunohistochemical expression in gastric adenocarcinoma and its relationship to the histological type and anatomic location. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of HER2 in a sample of 48 specimens of gastric cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis were performed using avidin-biotin-peroxidase method with C-erb B2 (clone EP1045Y, as a primary antibody (Biocare Medical, USA. Standardized gastric adenocarcinoma‘s HER2 expression criteria has been used in the analysis of samples. Results There were seven cases with reactivity for HER2. Five were of intestinal-type while two cases were of mixed-type in which the expression occurred in the intestinal component. It was identified a significant association of HER2 expression in the intestinal subtype of gastric adenocarcinoma (P=0.003. Regarding the anatomical site, HER2 was positive in only one (16.6% of the six proximal cases and six (14.28% of the 42 distal cases (P=0.88. Conclusion HER2 immunoexpression was identified in 14.6% of the samples, and the expression was significantly associated to Lauren’s intestinal subtype.

  11. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and stereological analysis of the effect of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) on the hippocampus of rats exposed to long-term cellphone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevrek, Fikret

    2018-05-01

    Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate. Rats were divided into three groups: Control, EMR, and EMR+Egb761. The EMR and EMR+Egb761 groups were exposed to cellphone EMR for one month. Egb761 was also administered to the EMR+Egb761 group. Specifically, we evaluated the effect of RF exposure on rat hippocampi at harmful EMR levels (0.96 W/kg specific absorption rate [SAR]) for one month and also investigated the possible impact of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) using stereological, TUNEL-staining, and immunohistochemical methods. An increase in apoptotic proteins (Bax, Acas-3) and a decrease in anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) immunoreactivity along with a decrease in the total granule and pyramidal cell count were noted in the EMR group. A decrease in Bax and Acas-3 and an increase in Bcl-2 immunoreactivity were observed in rats treated with Egb761 in addition to a decrease in TUNEL-stained apoptotic cells and a higher total viable cell number. In conclusion, chronic cellphone EMR exposure may affect hippocampal cell viability, and Egb761 may be used to mitigate some of the deleterious effects.

  12. Method of signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthomier, Charles

    1975-01-01

    A method capable of handling the amplitude and the frequency time laws of a certain kind of geophysical signals is described here. This method is based upon the analytical signal idea of Gabor and Ville, which is constructed either in the time domain by adding an imaginary part to the real signal (in-quadrature signal), or in the frequency domain by suppressing negative frequency components. The instantaneous frequency of the initial signal is then defined as the time derivative of the phase of the analytical signal, and his amplitude, or envelope, as the modulus of this complex signal. The method is applied to three types of magnetospheric signals: chorus, whistlers and pearls. The results obtained by analog and numerical calculations are compared to results obtained by classical systems using filters, i.e. based upon a different definition of the concept of frequency. The precision with which the frequency-time laws are determined leads then to the examination of the principle of the method and to a definition of instantaneous power density spectrum attached to the signal, and to the first consequences of this definition. In this way, a two-dimensional representation of the signal is introduced which is less deformed by the analysis system properties than the usual representation, and which moreover has the advantage of being obtainable practically in real time [fr

  13. Spatial distribution of "tissue-specific" antigens in the developing human heart and skeletal muscle. I. An immunohistochemical analysis of creatine kinase isoenzyme expression patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, A.; Vermeulen, J. L.; Virágh, S.; Kálmán, F.; Morris, G. E.; Man, N. T.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1990-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies against the M and B subunit isoforms of creatine kinase (CK) we have investigated their distribution in developing human skeletal and cardiac muscle immunohistochemically. It is demonstrated that in skeletal muscle, a switch from CK-B to CK-M takes place around the week 8

  14. Methods for geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    The laboratories for analytical chemistry within the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey are administered by the Office of Mineral Resources. The laboratory analysts provide analytical support to those programs of the Geologic Division that require chemical information and conduct basic research in analytical and geochemical areas vital to the furtherance of Division program goals. Laboratories for research and geochemical analysis are maintained at the three major centers in Reston, Virginia, Denver, Colorado, and Menlo Park, California. The Division has an expertise in a broad spectrum of analytical techniques, and the analytical research is designed to advance the state of the art of existing techniques and to develop new methods of analysis in response to special problems in geochemical analysis. The geochemical research and analytical results are applied to the solution of fundamental geochemical problems relating to the origin of mineral deposits and fossil fuels, as well as to studies relating to the distribution of elements in varied geologic systems, the mechanisms by which they are transported, and their impact on the environment.

  15. COMPUTER METHODS OF GENETIC ANALYSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Osipov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic statistical methods used in conducting the genetic analysis of human traits. We studied by segregation analysis, linkage analysis and allelic associations. Developed software for the implementation of these methods support.

  16. Immunohistochemical analysis and prognostic significance of PD-L1, PD-1, and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Isidro; López-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Scotlandi, Katia; Picci, Piero; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) are aggressive neoplasms with scant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. We analyzed the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 and their prognostic significance in clinically localized neoplasms in a cohort of 370 ESFT. Slides prepared from tissue microarrays were stained for PD-L1, PD-1, and CD8. Membranous/cytoplasmic staining over 5% of tumor cells was regarded as positive for PD-L1 and PD-1. Prognostic analysis was done considering only clinically localized tumors (n = 217). PD-L1 expression was present in 19% of ESFT, while PD-1 was expressed in 26%. Forty-eight percent of tumors were negative and 12% were positive for both PD-L1 and PD-1. Metastatic tumors displayed higher expression of PD-L1 (p < 0.0001). Histological subtypes were not correlated with PD-L1 or PD-1 positivity. ESFT with elevated proliferation index (Ki-67) were associated with higher PD-L1 expression (p = 0.049). Regarding prognosis, no significant association was found between PD-L1 expression and progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS), whereas lack of PD-1 expression in tumor cells was correlated with both poor PFS (p = 0.02) and poor OS (p = 0.004). Tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes were observed in 15.4% of ESFT with informative results (347 tumors). No correlation was found between tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes and ESFT histological subtypes, tumor location, or PD-1 and PD-L1 expression, nor with PFS (p = 0.473) or OS (p = 0.087). PD-L1 expression was not significantly related to prognosis. PD-1 was expressed in 26% of ESFT tumor cells and may have prognostic and therapeutic implications. CD8 expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was not related to prognosis.

  17. Methods of nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard Ernest

    1970-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  18. High-level expression of podoplanin in benign and malignant soft tissue tumors: immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjun; Ogose, Akira; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hotta, Tetsuo; Ariizumi, Takashi; Li, Guidong; Umezu, Hajime; Endo, Naoto

    2011-03-01

    Podoplanin is a 38 kDa mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein that was first identified in rat glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes). It is expressed in normal lymphatic endothelium, but is absent from vascular endothelial cells. D2-40 is a commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody which binds to an epitope on human podoplanin. D2-40 immunoreactivity is therefore highly sensitive and specific for lymphatic endothelium. Recent investigations have shown widespread applications of immunohistochemical staining with D2-40 in evaluating podoplanin expression as an immunohistochemical marker for diagnosis and prognosis in various tumors. To determine whether the podoplanin (D2-40) antibody may be useful for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, 125 cases, including 4 kinds of benign tumors, 15 kinds of malignant tumors and 3 kinds of tumor-like lesions were immunostained using the D2-40 antibody. Total RNA was extracted from frozen tumor tissue obtained from 41 corresponding soft tissue tumor patients and 12 kinds of soft tissue tumor cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR reactions were performed. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated the expression of the podoplanin protein and mRNA in the majority of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and tumor-like lesions examined, with the exception of alveolar soft part sarcoma, embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor and lipoma, which were completely negative for podoplanin. Since it is widely and highly expressed in nearly all kinds of soft tissue tumors, especially in spindle cell sarcoma, myxoid type soft tissue tumors and soft tissue tumors of the nervous system, podoplanin is considered to have little value in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors.

  19. [Pheochromocytoma--pathohistologic and immunohistochemical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatić, Svetislav; Havelka, Marija; Paunović, Ivan; Bozić, Vesna; Diklic, Aleksandar; Brasanac, Dimitrije; Janković, Radovan; Jancić-Zguricas, Marija

    2002-07-01

    Pheochromocytoma originates in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Its incidence is similar in both sexes and most frequent between the ages of thirty and fifty. Multiple and bilateral pheochromocytomas constitute 5 to 10 percent of all cases. Pheochromocytoma occurs sporadically or is related to family syndromes such as: syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia--MEN IIA and IIB, neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease), von Hippel-Lindau's disease, Sturge-Weber's syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis. Cases in a family usually occur at a younger age and are mostly bilateral and with more aggressive biological behaviour. The aim of the study was to make histomorphological and immunohistochemical analyses of 52 pheochromocytomas. These cases are the surgical material from the Centre of Endocrine Surgery, Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Disorders, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, over the period from 1974 to 1997. Frozen and fixed sections, which were cut from paraffinembedded material and stained by both hematoxylin-eosin and PAS, were used in order to make pathohistological diagnoses. The expression of chromogranin A, S-100 protein and ACTH was examined using the PAP method, while neuronspecific enolase (NSE), synaptophysin and neurofilament were examined by the APAAP method with appropriate antibodies (DAKO). The patients were between 4 and 65 years of age (average age 38.5) and there were 28 females (63.64%) and 16 males (36.36%). The largest pheochromocytoma had the diameter of 12 cm, and weight of pheochromocytomas in question was from 13.5 to 370 grams, the average weight being 83.4 grams. On gross examination, the tumours proved to be well-defined, either by fibrous capsule, or by adrenocortical tissue. The cross-sections of tumours were mainly of pale red-grayish colour, and showed numerous foci of necrosis, haemorrhage and cystic softening. Histological appearance of pheochromocytomas was with significant irregularities in

  20. Multivariate analysis: models and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz Perucha, J.

    1990-01-01

    Data treatment techniques are increasingly used since computer methods result of wider access. Multivariate analysis consists of a group of statistic methods that are applied to study objects or samples characterized by multiple values. A final goal is decision making. The paper describes the models and methods of multivariate analysis

  1. Multivariate analysis methods in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, M.

    2007-01-01

    A review of multivariate methods based on statistical training is given. Several multivariate methods useful in high-energy physics analysis are discussed. Selected examples from current research in particle physics are discussed, both from the on-line trigger selection and from the off-line analysis. Also statistical training methods are presented and some new application are suggested [ru

  2. Methods in algorithmic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrushkin, Vladimir A

    2009-01-01

    …helpful to any mathematics student who wishes to acquire a background in classical probability and analysis … This is a remarkably beautiful book that would be a pleasure for a student to read, or for a teacher to make into a year's course.-Harvey Cohn, Computing Reviews, May 2010

  3. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  4. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  5. Tympanomastoid cholesterol granulomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Gioia, Cira; Carletti, Raffaella; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 in patients treated for middle ear and mastoid cholesterol granulomas to evaluate the angiogenesis and vascularization of this type of lesion. A correlation between the immunohistochemical data and the radiological and intraoperative evidence of temporal bone marrow invasion and blood source connection was performed to validate this hypothesis. Retrospective study. Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and CD34 in a group of 16 patients surgically treated for cholesterol granuloma was examined. Middle ear cholesteatomas with normal middle ear mucosa and external auditory canal skin were used as the control groups. The radiological and intraoperative features of cholesterol granulomas were also examined. In endothelial cells, there was an increased expression of angiogenetic growth factor receptors in all the cholesterol granulomas in this study. The quantitative analysis of VEGF showed a mean value of 37.5, whereas the CD34 quantitative analysis gave a mean value of 6.8. Seven patients presented radiological or intraoperative evidence of bone marrow invasion, hematopoietic potentialities, or blood source connections that might support the bleeding theory. In all of these cases there was computed tomography or intraoperative evidence of bone erosion of the middle ear and/or temporal bone structures. The mean values of VEGF and CD34 were 41.1 and 7.7, respectively. High values of VEGF and CD34 are present in patients with cholesterol granulomas. Upregulation of VEGF and CD34 is indicative of a remarkable angiogenesis and a widespread vascular concentration in cholesterol granulomas. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:E283-E290, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Computer-assisted assessment of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 immunohistochemical assay in imaged histologic sections using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative analysis of positive controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Bonnie H; Ianosi-Irimie, Monica; Javidian, Parisa; Chen, Wenjin; Ganesan, Shridar; Foran, David J

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancers that overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are eligible for effective biologically targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab. However, accurately determining HER2 overexpression, especially in immunohistochemically equivocal cases, remains a challenge. Manual analysis of HER2 expression is dependent on the assessment of membrane staining as well as comparisons with positive controls. In spite of the strides that have been made to standardize the assessment process, intra- and inter-observer discrepancies in scoring is not uncommon. In this manuscript we describe a pathologist assisted, computer-based continuous scoring approach for increasing the precision and reproducibility of assessing imaged breast tissue specimens. Computer-assisted analysis on HER2 IHC is compared with manual scoring and fluorescence in situ hybridization results on a test set of 99 digitally imaged breast cancer cases enriched with equivocally scored (2+) cases. Image features are generated based on the staining profile of the positive control tissue and pixels delineated by a newly developed Membrane Isolation Algorithm. Evaluation of results was performed using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. A computer-aided diagnostic approach has been developed using a membrane isolation algorithm and quantitative use of positive immunostaining controls. By incorporating internal positive controls into feature analysis a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC) in ROC analysis was achieved than feature analysis without positive controls. Evaluation of HER2 immunostaining that utilized membrane pixels, controls, and percent area stained showed significantly greater AUC than manual scoring, and significantly less false positive rate when used to evaluate immunohistochemically equivocal cases. It has been shown that by incorporating both a membrane isolation algorithm and analysis of known positive controls a computer-assisted diagnostic algorithm was

  7. STOCHASTIC METHODS IN RISK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra OSADSKÁ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review basic stochastic methods which can be used to extend state-of-the-art deterministic analytical methods for risk analysis. We can conclude that the standard deterministic analytical methods highly depend on the practical experience and knowledge of the evaluator and therefore, the stochastic methods should be introduced. The new risk analysis methods should consider the uncertainties in input values. We present how large is the impact on the results of the analysis solving practical example of FMECA with uncertainties modelled using Monte Carlo sampling.

  8. Determination to genotypes of human papillomavirus and analysis with immunohistochemical marker Ki67 in biopsy with cervical dysplasia patients of Hospital Dr. Max Peralta in Cartago during 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Chaves, Ana Lorely

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide, occupying in Costa Rica the fourth place. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is shown that is linked to at least 99.7% of cases, mainly associated with high risk genotypes. A study was conducted of type descriptive where were implemented molecular techniques such as: PCR, reverse hybridization for the determination of different HPV genotypes, and immunohistochemical detection of cell proliferation marker Ki67 in paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies from patients at the Hospital Dr. Max Peralta in Cartago, during the year 2013. The most frequent genotype that was determined among the study population has been 39, which was presented in 53% of cases. In addition, 65% of biopsies studied have showed mixed infections of HPV. (author) [es

  9. Immunohistochemical detection of XIAP in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Patrick O M; Phelps, Robert G; Mudgil, Adarsh; Shafir, Michail; Burstein, David E

    2008-03-01

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is the most potent of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of eight proteins. High levels of XIAP have been found in melanoma cell lines and are believed to play a role in therapeutic resistance in a number of malignancies. XIAP expression has not been investigated in clinically obtained melanoma tissue samples, nor have studies attempted to correlate XIAP expression with prognostic variables or clinical aggressiveness of melanomas. Sixty-seven patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma for whom clinical follow up was available were identified from the records of the Mount Sinai Hospital, comprising 37 thin melanomas (Breslow thickness 1.0 mm). Archival paraffin sections from primary lesions and corresponding metastases were stained with monoclonal anti-XIAP antibody using routine immunohistochemical methods. Six benign intradermal nevi and four in situ melanomas were XIAP negative. 9 of 37 thin melanomas (24%) were XIAP positive. In contrast, 21 of 30 (73%) thick melanomas were XIAP positive, including 3 of 4 ulcerated melanomas that were strongly positive. Over a follow-up period ranging from 6 months to 6 years, 23 melanomas metastasized (22 thick, 1 thin). In total, XIAP was immunohistochemically detected in 17 of 23 metastases (74%). Metastasis occurred in 1 of 9 XIAP-positive thin melanomas; 0 of 28 XIAP-negative thin melanomas; 17 of 22 XIAP-positive thick melanomas, and 5 of 8 XIAP-negative thick melanomas (63%). XIAP is immunohistochemically detectable nearly three times more frequently in thick compared with thin melanomas. These results suggest that XIAP elevation may be correlated with increasing melanoma thickness and tumor progression.

  10. Basic methods of isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Rozenkevich, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered [ru

  11. Probabilistic methods for rotordynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Torng, T. Y.; Millwater, H. R.; Fossum, A. F.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of dynamic systems that can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the eigenvalues or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on a fast probability integration concept and an efficient adaptive importance sampling method are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the methods.

  12. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  13. Analysis apparatus and method of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous streaming method developed for the excution of immunoassays is described in this patent. In addition, a suitable apparatus for the method was developed whereby magnetic particles are automatically employed for the consecutive analysis of a series of liquid samples via the RIA technique

  14. Nonlinear programming analysis and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avriel, Mordecai

    2012-01-01

    This text provides an excellent bridge between principal theories and concepts and their practical implementation. Topics include convex programming, duality, generalized convexity, analysis of selected nonlinear programs, techniques for numerical solutions, and unconstrained optimization methods.

  15. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  16. Prognostic factors for keratocystic odontogenic tumor (odontogenic keratocyst): analysis of clinico-pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in cysts treated by enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Norio; Sakuma, Hidenori; Miyabe, Satoru; Machida, Junichiro; Kaetsu, Atsuo; Yokoi, Motoo; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Nagao, Toru; Shimozato, Kazuo

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prognostic factors for the recurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) following simple enucleation by examining clinico-pathologic and immunohistochemical findings. Following enucleation, the frequency of recurrence among 32 subjects diagnosed with KCOT was analyzed for tumor site, radiographic and histologic features, and immunopositivity for Ki-67 and p53. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors in four out of 32 subjects (12.5%) recurred during the follow-up period (median: 33 months, range: 7-114 months). Three out of four subjects (75.0%) among recurrent group showed high expression of Ki-67 (LI >10%) in basal layer and four (4/28; 14.3%) among non-recurrence group (P = 0.025). Expression of p53 among non-recurrent group was observed in 11 subjects (11/28; 39.3%), and in three subjects (3/4; 75.0%) among the recurrent group (P = 0.295). Hazard risk for the recurrence of KCOT was 4.02 (95% CI 1.42-18.14) for high Ki-67 expression in the basal layer by the Cox proportional hazard model (P = 0.009). In our study, none of the other clinico-pathologic variables were associated with the recurrence of KCOT. The results suggested that the evaluation of Ki-67 expression in KCOT at the time of pathological diagnosis might be helpful for consideration of appropriate adjunctive surgical procedures to avoid a recurrence and may serve as a prognostic marker.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of Her-2/neu overexpression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for Her-2/neu was performed on 10% formalin-fixed, paraffinembedded primary carcinoma of the breast from 83 patients, between 2003 and 2007 using anti-Her-2/neu rabbit polyclonal antibody (DakoCytomation, CA, USA) and reactivity detected by an avidin-biotin ...

  18. Seismic design and analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpasuo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Seismic load is in many areas of the world the most important loading situation from the point of view of structural strength. Taking this into account it is understandable, that there has been a strong allocation of resources in the seismic analysis during the past ten years. In this study there are three areas of the center of gravity: (1) Random vibrations; (2) Soil-structure interaction and (3) The methods for determining structural response. The solution of random vibration problems is clarified with the aid of applications in this study and from the point of view of mathematical treatment and mathematical formulations it is deemed sufficient to give the relevant sources. In the soil-structure interaction analysis the focus has been the significance of frequency dependent impedance functions. As a result it was obtained, that the description of the soil with the aid of frequency dependent impedance functions decreases the structural response and it is thus always the preferred method when compared to more conservative analysis types. From the methods to determine the C structural response the following four were tested: (1) The time history method; (2) The complex frequency-response method; (3) Response spectrum method and (4) The equivalent static force method. The time history appeared to be the most accurate method and the complex frequency-response method did have the widest area of application. (orig.). (14 refs., 35 figs.)

  19. Homeostatic Mass Control in Gastric Non-Neoplastic Epithelia under Infection of Helicobacter pylori: An Immunohistochemical Analysis of Cell Growth, Stem Cells and Programmed Cell Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kenji; Hasui, Kazuhisa; Wang, Jia; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Aikou, Takashi; Murata, Fusayoshi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated homeostatic mass control in non-neoplastic gastric epithelia under Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in the macroscopically normal-appearing mucosa resected from the stomach with gastric cancer, immunohistochemically analyzing the proliferation, kinetics of stem cells and programmed cell death occurring in them. Ki67 antigen-positive proliferating cells were found dominantly in the elongated neck portion, sparsely in the fundic areas and sporadically in the stroma with chronic infiltrates. CD117 could monitor the kinetics of gastric stem cells and showed its expression in two stages of gastric epithelial differentiation, namely, in transient cells from the gastric epithelial stem cells to the foveolar and glandular cells in the neck portion and in what are apparently progenitor cells from the gastric stem cells in the stroma among the infiltrates. Most of the nuclei were positive for ssDNA in the almost normal mucosa, suggesting DNA damage. Cleaved caspase-3-positive foveolar cells were noted under the surface, suggesting the suppression of apoptosis in the surface foveolar cells. Besides such apoptosis of the foveolar cells, in the severely inflamed mucosa apoptotic cells were found in the neck portion where most of the cells were Ki67 antigen-positive proliferating cells. Beclin-1 was recognized in the cytoplasm and in a few nuclei of the fundic glandular cells, suggesting their autophagic cell death and mutated beclin-1 in the nuclei. Taken together, the direct and indirect effects of HP infection on the gastric epithelial proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death suggested the in-situ occurrence of gastric cancer under HP infection

  20. SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIS ANCA OANA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  1. Flows method in global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1994-12-01

    We study the gradient flows method for W r,p (M,N) where M and N are Riemannian manifold and r may be less than m/p. We localize some global analysis problem by constructing gradient flows which only change the value of any u in W r,p (M,N) in a local chart of M. (author). 24 refs

  2. Worse prognosis in breast cancer patients can be predicted by immunohistochemical analysis of positive MMP-2 and negative estrogen and progesterone receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edneia A. S. Ramos

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Breast cancer is the most cause of death, and approximately 90% of these deaths are due to metastases. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 gelatinase activity is able to degrade a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, type IV collagen. Two well-established proteins used as markers in clinical practice for breast cancer are the receptors for estrogen (ER and progesterone (PR. Although the presence of these receptors has been associated with a better prognosis, loss of these proteins can occur during tumor progression, with subsequent resistance to hormone therapy. Objective: To study the correlation among MMP-2, ER, and PR, as well as the establishment of the metastatic process in primary breast tumors. Method: Breast cancer samples (n=44 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for MMP-2, ER, and PR. Results: We observed that 90% of patients who had metastases and died showed positive staining for MMP-2 (p=0.0082 for both. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that negative ER patients who were also positive for MMP-2 had even worse disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (p= 0.012 and p=0.005, respectively. Similar results were found in PR-negative patients for DFS (a trend p=0.077 and OS (p=0.038. Conclusion: Regardless of our small sample size (n=44, the data obtained strongly suggest that MMP-2 in combination with already well-established markers could help to predict the emergence of metastases and death in patients with breast cancer.

  3. Data Analysis Methods for Paleogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    (Danmarks Grundforskningfond) 'Centre of Excellence in GeoGenetics' grant, with additional funding provided by the Danish Council for Independent Research 'Sapere Aude' programme. The thesis comprises five chapters, all of which represent different projects that involved the analysis of massive amounts......, thanks to the introduction of NGS and the implementation of data analysis methods specific for each project. Chapters 1 to 3 have been published in peer-reviewed journals and Chapter 4 is currently in review. Chapter 5 consists of a manuscript describing initial results of an ongoing research project......The work presented in this thesis is the result of research carried out during a three-year PhD at the Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, under supervision of Professor Tom Gilbert. The PhD was funded by the Danish National Research Foundation...

  4. A New Boron Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitman, J; Daaverhoeg, N; Farvolden, S

    1970-07-01

    In connection with fast neutron (n, {alpha}) cross section measurements a novel boron analysis method has been developed. The boron concentration is inferred from the mass spectrometrically determined number of helium atoms produced in the thermal and epithermal B-10 (n, {alpha}) reaction. The relation between helium amount and boron concentration is given, including corrections for self shielding effects and background levels. Direct and diffusion losses of helium are calculated and losses due to gettering, adsorption and HF-ionization in the release stage are discussed. A series of boron determinations is described and the results are compared with those obtained by other methods, showing excellent agreement. The lower limit of boron concentration which can be measured varies with type of sample. In e.g. steel, concentrations below 10-5 % boron in samples of 0.1-1 gram may be determined.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of human papilloma virus in conjunctival neoplasias: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjana; Panda, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Background: The extent of association of human papilloma virus (HPV) in human conjunctival neoplasias has been debated in studies originating from different parts of the world, but no substantial evidence has been generated on Indian subjects. This prompted us to carry out a retrospective study on conjunctival neoplasias diagnosed over the past 12 years. Materials and Methods: Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 65 specimens of ocular neoplasias and 30 normal controls diagnosed between 1991 and 2002 at a tertiary eye care hospital, was undertaken. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were reviewed for confirming histopathological diagnosis, presence of koilocytosis and changes related to actinic keratosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was done using HPV-specific monoclonal antibodies. Clinicopathological correlation and the association of HPV antigen with the histopathological features were performed. Results: Out of the 65 cases analyzed, 35 were papillomas and 30 were ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSN). The mean age was 48 years with a male preponderance. Histologically, koilocytosis was observed in 17.1% of papillomas and 36.6% of OSSN. Actinic keratosis was present in 33% of OSSN. Immunohistochemically 17.1% conjunctival papillomas stained positive for HPV antigen, all cases of OSSN were negative for HPV. There was no correlation between koilocytosis or actinic keratosis and the detection of HPV antigen. Conclusions: The association between HPV and conjunctival neoplasias is variable in different geographical areas and also depends on the methods of detection used. This study warrants the need for applying more advanced techniques at a molecular level to determine the possible etiology of HPV in conjunctival neoplasias among Asian-Indians. PMID:17699945

  6. Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Triple Negative/Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Ebru PALA; Ümit BAYOL; Süheyla CUMURCU; Elif KESKİN

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Triple-negative-breast-cancer that accounts for 10-20% of all breast carcinomas is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 expression, and agressive clinical behavior. Triple-negative-breast-cancer is categorized into basal like and other types. The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers.Material and Method: We studied 41 immunohistochemically triplenegative- breast-cancer patients to determine EGFR, Cytoke...

  7. Immunohistochemical localisation of d-β-aspartic acid in pingueculae

    OpenAIRE

    Kaji, Y; Oshika, T; Okamoto, F; Fujii, N

    2009-01-01

    Background: D-β-Aspartic acid residues, which are biologically uncommon, have been reported to accumulate in various proteins of the living body with age. In the present study, D-β-aspartic acid-containing proteins were found to be localised in pingueculae, which represent one of the most prominent age-related ocular changes.Methods: Surgical specimens of conjunctivae with or without pingueculae were obtained from eight patients. Immunohistochemical localisation of D-β-aspartic acid-containin...

  8. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  9. A simplified immunohistochemical classification of skeletal muscle fibres in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kammoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The classification of muscle fibres is of particular interest for the study of the skeletal muscle properties in a wide range of scientific fields, especially animal phenotyping. It is therefore important to define a reliable method for classifying fibre types. The aim of this study was to establish a simplified method for the immunohistochemical classification of fibres in mouse. To carry it out, we first tested a combination of several anti myosin heavy chain (MyHC antibodies in order to choose a minimum number of antibodies to implement a semi-automatic classification. Then, we compared the classification of fibres to the MyHC electrophoretic pattern on the same samples. Only two anti MyHC antibodies on serial sections with the fluorescent labeling of the Laminin were necessary to classify properly fibre types in Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles in normal physiological conditions. This classification was virtually identical to the classification realized by the electrophoretic separation of MyHC. This immunohistochemical classification can be applied to the total area of Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles. Thus, we provide here a useful, simple and time-efficient method for immunohistochemical classification of fibres, applicable for research in mouse

  10. Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, R.D.; Bruks, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis are considered. Methods of complexometric titration are mentioned, as well as methods of increasing sensitivity in titrimetry. Gravimetry and titrimetry are applied during analysis for traces of geological materials

  11. Langerhans cells in lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Devi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate Langerhans cell (LC in lichen planus (LP, lichenoid mucositis (LM and normal mucosa (NM using CD1a monoclonal antibody immunohistochemically. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 cases of oral lichen planus and 15 cases of LM were selected based on clinical examination and confirmed by histopathological analysis. The biopsies from the 10 patients were taken from normal buccal mucosa as control. Paraffin blocks of tissue were made, which are used for routine hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining using biotin streptavidin methods (CD1a monoclonal antibody. Analysis of CD1a expression was performed by evaluating the labeling index (LI for each slide. Results: The mean CD1a LI for LP was significantly higher than that of LM and NM in the basal and supra basal layer. The mean CD1a positive cells in the connective tissues for LP were higher than that of LM and NM. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates a statistically significant increase in number of LC in LP than in LM, indicating the possible different immunopathogenic mechanisms.

  12. Immunohistochemical Ki-67/KL1 double stains increase accuracy of Ki-67 indices in breast cancer and simplify automated image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Patricia S; Bentzer, Nina K; Jensen, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    observers and automated image analysis. RESULTS: Indices were predominantly higher for single stains than double stains (P≤0.002), yet the difference between observers was statistically significant (PPearson correlation coefficient for manual and automated indices ranged from 0.......69 to 0.85 (Pcorrelating automated indices with tumor characteristics, for example, tumor size (P... stains, Ki-67 should be quantified on double stains to reach a higher accuracy. Automated indices correlated well with manual estimates and tumor characteristics, and they are thus possibly valuable tools in future exploration of Ki-67 in breast cancer....

  13. A list of image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical staining - Plabrain DB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Plabrain DB A list of image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical...tu hybridication and also protein distribution by immunohistochemical staining in intact planarians or plana...planarians analyzed by In situ hybridication and immunohistochemical staining . D..._image#en Data acquisition method Whole-mount in situ hybridication, immunohistochemical...te Policy | Contact Us A list of image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical staining - Plabrain DB | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical staining - Plabrain DB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Plabrain DB Image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical... staining Data detail Data name Image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical...sion patterns by whole-mount in situ hybridication and also protein distribution by immunohistochemical...Images are displayed in A list of image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical...le search URL - Data acquisition method Whole-mount in situ hybridication, immunohistochemical staining Data

  15. Comparative histological and immunohistochemical study of ameloblastomas and ameloblastic carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Carlos-Bregni, Román; Pires, Fabio-Ramoa; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Neves-Silva, Rodrigo; Aldape-Barrios, Beatriz; Paes-de Almeida, Oslei

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of ameloblastomas (AM) and ameloblastic carcinomas (AC). Material and Methods Fifteen cases of AM and 9 AC were submitted to hematoxilin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical analysis with the following antibodies: cytokeratins 5,7,8,14 and 19, Ki-67, p53, p63 and the cellular adhesion molecules CD138 (Syndecan-1), E-cadherin and β-catenin. The mean score of the expression of Ki-67 and p53 labelling index (LIs) were compared between the groups using the t test. A value of p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results All cases were positive for CKs 5, 14 and 19, but negative for CKs 7 and 8. CKs 5 and 19 were positive mainly in the central regions of the ameloblastic islands, while the expression in AC was variable in intensity and localization. CK14 was also variably expressed in both AM and AC. Ki-67 (P=.001) and p53 (P=.004) immunoexpression was higher in AC. All cases were positive for p63, but values were higher in AC. CD138 was mainly expressed in peripheral cells of AM, with a weak positivity in the central areas, while it was positive in most areas of ACs, except in less differentiated regions, where expression was decreased or lost. E-cadherin and β-catenin were weakly positive in both AM and AC. Conclusions These results shows that Ki-67, p53 and p63 expression was higher in AC as compared to AM, suggesting that these markers can be useful when considering diagnosis of malignancy, and perhaps could play a role in malignant transformation of AM. Pattern of expression of CKs 5 and 19 in AC were different to those found in AM, suggesting genetic alterations of these proteins in malignant cells. It was confirmed that CK19 is a good marker for benign odontogenic tumors, such as AM, but it is variably expressed in malignant cases. Key words:Ameloblastoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, immunohistochemistry, odontogenic tumors. PMID:28390135

  16. Histopathological Assessment and Immunohistochemical Study of Nasopharyngeal Low Grade MALT Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: MALT lymphoma arises in a variety of body tissues, but most often in the stomach. Though relatively rare, these MALT lymphomas may arise within several sites in the head and neck, and often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Immunohistochemical analysis are helpful in confirming the diagnosis between the MALT-lymphoma and the reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. MALT-type lymphoma demonstrated characteristic negative staining for CD3, CD5 and CD43, positive staining for CD20, and monotypic staining for either kappa or lambda light chain immunoglobulin markers, whereas reactive lymphoid hyperplasia all expressed Band T cell markers. Material and Methods: 41 cases of nasopharyngeal masses were obtained from the files at pathology department, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine through the period from 2002 till 2006. 31 cases were corresponded histomorphologically to low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and 10 patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the adenoid. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections using the labeled streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with DAB as chromogen. The following antibodies were evaluated CD20, CD3, Kappa, lambda and cytokeratin antibodies. Results: All cases of low grade MALT lymphoma show Iymphoepitheliallesion and proliferation of centrocyte like cells. 14 cases (45.1 %) show subepithelial plasma cells. Dutcher bodies were demonstrated in 10 cases (32.2%). Monocytoid B-cells were seen in 12 cases (38.7%). Six (60%) out of the ten cases of adenoids show transmigrating lymphocyte without formation of lymphoepithelial lesion. All cases with MALT-type lymphoma expressed CD20 and not CD3 whereas 10 cases of adenoid, all expressed Band T cell markers. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 31 cases of low grade MALT lymphoma were positive for immunoglobin

  17. Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Activation Status of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 Signaling Pathway in Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Prodromidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aberrations of the Akt/mTOR/pS6 pathway have been linked to various types of human cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activation status of Akt, mTOR, and pS6 in oral lichen planus (OLP in comparison with oral premalignant and malignant lesions and normal oral mucosa (NM. Materials and Methods. Immunohistochemistry for p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 was performed in 40 OLP, 20 oral leukoplakias (OL, 10 OSCC, and 10 control samples of NM. Results. Nuclear p-Akt expression was detected in the vast majority of cases in all categories, being significantly higher in OL. Cytoplasmic p-Akt and p-mTOR staining was present only in a minority of OLP cases, being significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Phospho-pS6 showed cytoplasmic positivity in most OLP cases, which however was significantly lower compared to OL and OSCC. Conclusions. Overall, cytoplasmic p-Akt, p-mTOR, and phospho-pS6 levels appear to be significantly lower in OLP compared to OL and OSCC. However, the expression of these molecules in a subset of OLP cases suggests that activation of Akt/mTOR/pS6 may occur in the context of OLP, possibly contributing to the premalignant potential of individual cases.

  18. False Immunohistochemical Results for Herpesviridae and Other Clusters of Differentiation Due To Biotin Intranuclear Inclusions in the Gestational Endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rivasi

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions. Immunohistochemical investigations of the gestational endometrium (particularly in pregnancies near to term may yield false results for several herpes viruses, as well as for other immunohistochemical reactions obtained using the ABC method without prior biotin inactivation. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(1.000: 32-37

  19. The iron-binding protein lactotransferrin is present in pathologic lesions in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders: a comparative immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveugle, B; Spik, G; Perl, D P; Bouras, C; Fillit, H M; Hof, P R

    1994-07-04

    Lactotransferrin is a glycoprotein that specifically binds and transports iron. This protein is also believed to transport other metals such as aluminum. Several lines of evidence indicate that iron and aluminum are involved in the pathogenesis of many dementing diseases. In this context, the analysis of the iron-binding protein distribution in the brains of patients affected by neurodegenerative disorders is of particular interest. In the present study, the distribution of lactotransferrin was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the cerebral cortex from patients presenting with Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam, sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or Pick's disease. The results show that lactotransferrin accumulates in the characteristic lesions of the different pathologic conditions investigated. For instance, in Alzheimer's disease and Guamanian cases, a subpopulation of neurofibrillary tangles was intensely labeled in the hippocampal formation and inferior temporal cortex. Senile plaques and Pick bodies were also consistently labeled. These staining patterns were comparable to those obtained with antibodies to the microtubule-associated protein tau and the amyloid beta A4 protein, although generally fewer neurofibrillary tangles were positive for lactotransferrin than for tau protein. Neuronal cytoplasmic staining with lactotransferrin antibodies, was observed in a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons in normal aging, and was more pronounced in Alzheimer's disease, Guamanian cases, Pick's disease, and particularly in Down syndrome. Lactotransferrin was also strongly associated with Betz cells and other motoneurons in the primary motor cortex of control, Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, Guamanian and Pick's disease cases. These same lactotransferrin-immunoreactive motoneurons were severely affected in the cases with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is possible that in these

  20. Comparative analysis of three- and two-antibody cocktails to AMACR and basal cell markers for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of prostate carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabir Parag

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunohistochemistry using antibody cocktails against basal cell specific and cancer-associated markers is important in the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma in needle biopsies. We compared the usefulness for detecting prostate carcinoma of a three-marker cocktail of antibodies to α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR, p63 and cytokeratin (CK 5 with a traditional two-marker cocktail of AMACR and p63. Methods Sixty-six prostate needle biopsies were analysed prospectively. Serial sections were immunostained with the two- and three- antibody cocktails. Blinded slides were assessed individually by two pathologists and sensitivity, specificity and kappa statistics were calculated. Results Both antibody cocktails contributed to the detection of prostate carcinoma in needle biopsies. There was an acceptable level of agreement between the pathologists for both the cocktails. Sensitivity was similar for one pathologist comparing both the cocktails (76.4% and 75.7%, but was slightly lower comparing the three-antibody with the two-antibody cocktail for the other pathologist (66.6% vs. 77.4%, respectively. Higher specificity values of 90.3% were achieved by both pathologists using three-antibody as compared with two-antibody cocktails (68.7% and 71.8%. Conclusions Antibody cocktails are important in diagnosing prostate carcinoma in needle biopsies. Adding an extra basal cell marker to the traditional two-antibody cocktail improves the specificity of detecting prostate carcinoma in limited needle biopsy material, and should be considered for routine diagnostic use. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2492231327330327

  1. Comprehensive Analysis of the Association of Clinically Relevant Values of Ki-67 Labeling Index with Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Criteria in Female Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba El-Gendi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Breast cancer aggressiveness is related to tumor cell proliferation. Despite this, the Ki-67 index is not recommended for routine use in newly diagnosed breast carcinomas. Material and Methods: A total of 164 invasive breast carcinomas were stratified into the intrinsic molecular subtypes based on estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR, HER2, and Ki-67 immunostaining. We studied the distribution of Ki-67 among the molecular subtypes and correlated it with clinicopathologic parameters. Furthermore, the change in the Ki-67 index with tumor size, grade and lymph node (LN status among the molecular subtypes was examined. Results: As a continuous variable, the median Ki-67 did not show significant differences with the clinicopathological variables. At a cutoff ≥14%, it correlated significantly with the mitotic index. At a cutoff ≥20%, it additionally correlated with the PR status. The median Ki-67 level varied significantly between luminal A and all other molecular subtypes. The median Ki-67 level in T1/T2 tumors compared to T3/T4 tumors was slightly higher in luminal B HER2+, slightly lower in HER2 enriched, and nearly similar among luminal A, triple negative and luminal B HER2-subtypes, yet without statistical significance. The median Ki-67 was lower in G1/G2 compared to G3 tumors in all-except luminal B HER2-positive subtype but without statistical significance. The Ki-67 distribution change between N0/N1 and N2/N3 cases among the molecular subtypes was significant. Conclusions: The impact of Ki-67 as a proliferation marker on the biological behavior of breast carcinomas is context dependent, and its clinical utility increases when interpreted in combination with other prognostic markers in the context of the molecular subtypes. Further studies, on larger sample sizes are recommended to unravel how the molecular types can affect the relation between Ki-67 and clinicopathological characteristics, particularly the LN status. [J

  2. Immunohistochemical Expression of COX-2 in Uterine Serous Carcinoma Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Menczer

    2016-03-01

    Material and methods. Cox-2 expression assessment by immunohistochemistry was performed on deparaffinized sections of paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of consecutive available USC uterine specimens of patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2014. Staining of more than 10% of the cells was considered positive. Staining intensity was graded on a 0 and ndash;3 scale. A scoring index was calculated by multiplying the intensity grade by the percentage of stained cells and considered low when it was equal to 1 or less and high when it was more than 1. Clinicopathological data were retrospectively abstracted from the records of the study group patients Results. The study comprised uterine specimens of 31 USC patients. Positive immunohistochemical staining was observed in 25 (80.6% USC specimens and a high score in 6 (19.4% of them. No association between immunohistochemical staining parameters and clinicopathological prognostic factors was observed. Conclusion. Although our findings should be verified in larger series, it seems that in view of the lack of association between immunohistochemical Cox-2 staining parameters in USC tissue and clinicopathological prognostic factors, this aggressive tumor is not a candidate for the use of selective Cox-2 inhibitors. Key words: Cox-2 expression, uterine carcinosarcoma, clinicopathological prognostic factors [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2016; 4(1.000: 9-12

  3. Analysis methods (from 301 to 351)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis methods of materials used in the nuclear field (uranium, plutonium and their compounds, zirconium, magnesium, water...) and determination of impurities. Only reliable methods are selected [fr

  4. DTI analysis methods : Voxel-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Emsell, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data permits the investigation of voxel-wise differences or changes in DTI metrics in every voxel of a brain dataset. It is applied primarily in the exploratory analysis of hypothesized group-level alterations in DTI parameters, as it does

  5. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Human Vallate Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Grigereit, Laura; Shultz, Nicole; Clary, Matthew S; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of the vallate papillae from postmortem human samples was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Microscopically, taste buds were present along the inner wall of the papilla, and in some cases in the outer wall as well. The typical taste cell markers PLCβ2, GNAT3 (gustducin) and the T1R3 receptor stain elongated cells in human taste buds consistent with the Type II cells in rodents. In the human tissue, taste bud cells that stain with Type II cell markers, PLCβ2 and GNAT3, also stain with villin antibody. Two typical immunochemical markers for Type III taste cells in rodents, PGP9.5 and SNAP25, fail to stain any taste bud cells in the human postmortem tissue, although these antibodies do stain numerous nerve fibers throughout the specimen. Car4, another Type III cell marker, reacted with only a few taste cells in our samples. Finally, human vallate papillae have a general network of innervation similar to rodents and antibodies directed against SNAP25, PGP9.5, acetylated tubulin and P2X3 all stain free perigemmal nerve endings as well as intragemmal taste fibers. We conclude that with the exception of certain molecular features of Type III cells, human vallate papillae share the structural, morphological, and molecular features observed in rodents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Bayesian methods for data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    2009-01-01

    Approaches for statistical inference Introduction Motivating Vignettes Defining the Approaches The Bayes-Frequentist Controversy Some Basic Bayesian Models The Bayes approach Introduction Prior Distributions Bayesian Inference Hierarchical Modeling Model Assessment Nonparametric Methods Bayesian computation Introduction Asymptotic Methods Noniterative Monte Carlo Methods Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Model criticism and selection Bayesian Modeling Bayesian Robustness Model Assessment Bayes Factors via Marginal Density Estimation Bayes Factors

  7. Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)

  8. Elastofibroma dorsi: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Vito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi (ED is considered a member of a heterogeneous group of benign fibrous (fibroblastic or myofibroblastic soft-tissue tumors, frequently localized in the periscapular region in middle aged or older individuals. However, the pathogenesis of ED is still unclear and many authors believe that ED results from a reactive hyperproliferation of fibroblastic tissue, while others suggest that it may be a consequence of a mechanical friction. In our study, we examined 11 cases of ED using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, in order to extend the knowledge about extracellular matrix composition and histopathogenesis of ED. From the results it appeared that stroma and interspersed spindle cells of ED were positive for both periostin and tenascin-C. Mast cells tryptase-positive were also abundant throughout the lesion. The perivascular distribution of periostin and tenascin-C, associated with the CD34 positivity, suggest that endothelial-mesenchymal transition events can account for neovascularization and production of fibroelastic tissue characteristic of elastofibroma. Our data obtained in endothelial cells cultures demonstrated that elastin production is higher when the status of confluence of the cells is low. So, we can assume that such a phenomenon is a characteristic of mesenchymal/endothelial cells CD34 positive, in which elastin production results to be inversely proportional to the vascular differentiation of cellular elements. In the light of these considerations, we think that a cancerous nature of ED is unlikely. Overall, our study report, for the first time, a detailed description of extracellular matrix composition in ED, suggesting that a mechanical strain-dependent reactivation of periostin and tenascin-C expression, as well as of elastin deposition, could be responsible for development of ED.

  9. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical immunohistochemical studies on placenta have shown that there is a linear increase in iron storage in the placenta in the first half of a normal pregnancy, however, these stocks are decreased in normal 3rd trimester placenta. Iron accumulation in term placentas of preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were ...

  10. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    .... Such methods include those based upon spectrophotometry, flame emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, as well as gravimetry, titrimetry and the use of ion-selective electrodes...

  11. Probabilistic methods in combinatorial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sachkov, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    This 1997 work explores the role of probabilistic methods for solving combinatorial problems. These methods not only provide the means of efficiently using such notions as characteristic and generating functions, the moment method and so on but also let us use the powerful technique of limit theorems. The basic objects under investigation are nonnegative matrices, partitions and mappings of finite sets, with special emphasis on permutations and graphs, and equivalence classes specified on sequences of finite length consisting of elements of partially ordered sets; these specify the probabilist

  12. Methods in quantitative image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, M; Ostreicher, M; Christen, H; Brühlmann, M

    1996-05-01

    The main steps of image analysis are image capturing, image storage (compression), correcting imaging defects (e.g. non-uniform illumination, electronic-noise, glare effect), image enhancement, segmentation of objects in the image and image measurements. Digitisation is made by a camera. The most modern types include a frame-grabber, converting the analog-to-digital signal into digital (numerical) information. The numerical information consists of the grey values describing the brightness of every point within the image, named a pixel. The information is stored in bits. Eight bits are summarised in one byte. Therefore, grey values can have a value between 0 and 256 (2(8)). The human eye seems to be quite content with a display of 5-bit images (corresponding to 64 different grey values). In a digitised image, the pixel grey values can vary within regions that are uniform in the original scene: the image is noisy. The noise is mainly manifested in the background of the image. For an optimal discrimination between different objects or features in an image, uniformity of illumination in the whole image is required. These defects can be minimised by shading correction [subtraction of a background (white) image from the original image, pixel per pixel, or division of the original image by the background image]. The brightness of an image represented by its grey values can be analysed for every single pixel or for a group of pixels. The most frequently used pixel-based image descriptors are optical density, integrated optical density, the histogram of the grey values, mean grey value and entropy. The distribution of the grey values existing within an image is one of the most important characteristics of the image. However, the histogram gives no information about the texture of the image. The simplest way to improve the contrast of an image is to expand the brightness scale by spreading the histogram out to the full available range. Rules for transforming the grey value

  13. Moyer's method of mixed dentition analysis: a meta-analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The applicability of tables derived from the data Moyer used to other ethnic groups has ... This implies that Moyer's method of prediction may have population variations. ... Key Words: meta-analysis, mixed dentition analysis, Moyer's method

  14. Applying critical analysis - main methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araujo Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the usefulness of critical appraisal of literature? Critical analysis is a fundamental condition for the correct interpretation of any study that is subject to review. In epidemiology, in order to learn how to read a publication, we must be able to analyze it critically. Critical analysis allows us to check whether a study fulfills certain previously established methodological inclusion and exclusion criteria. This is frequently used in conducting systematic reviews although eligibility criteria are generally limited to the study design. Critical analysis of literature and be done implicitly while reading an article, as in reading for personal interest, or can be conducted in a structured manner, using explicit and previously established criteria. The latter is done when formally reviewing a topic.

  15. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  16. Immunohistochemical studies of the periodontal membrane in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Marie-Louise Bastholm; Nolting, Dorrit; Kjær, Inger

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the periodontal membrane of human primary teeth immunohistochemically, while focusing on the epithelial layer of Malassez, fibers, and peripheral nerves, and to compare the findings with those of a previous study of human permanent teeth. Material and methods. Nineteen human...... could be identical to those in regions with no resorption. Conclusion. In regions without resorption, spatial organization of the periodontal membrane of primary teeth was similar to that of permanent teeth, although the number and distribution of epithelial cells and fibers differed. In regions...

  17. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  18. Fluoxetine effects on periodontogenesis: histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silva REGUEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Reports have indicated that serotonin plays an important role in cell migration and differentiation during the organogenesis of several tissues, including the oral types. Administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI drugs during pregnancy could affect the delivery of serotonin to embryonic tissues altering its development. Objective This study aimed to assess the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the formation of the periodontal ligament during pregnancy and lactation in rat pups. Material and Methods Twelve pregnant rats of Wistar lineage were divided into four study groups. In the control group, 0.9% sodium chloride solution was administered orally, throughout the entire period of the 21 days of pregnancy (CG group and in the CGL group, it was administrated during pregnancy and lactation (from day 1 of pregnancy to the 21st day after birth. Fluoxetine was administered orally at the dose of 20 mg/kg in a group treated during pregnancy only (FG group, and during pregnancy and lactation (FGL group. Histometrical, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of the maxillary first molar periodontium region of the 24 rat pups was made under light microscopy, and periodontal ligament collagen was qualitatively evaluated under a polarizing light microscope. Results The quantity of fibroblasts (p=0.006, osteoblasts (p=0.027 and cementoblasts (p=0.001 was reduced in pups from the rats that received fluoxetine during pregnancy and lactation. No alterations were seen in the collagen fibers. Conclusion These findings suggest that periodontal tissue may be sensitive to fluoxetine, and its interference in reducing periodontal cells depends on exposure time during lactation.

  19. Microparticle analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A device for analyzing microparticles is provided which includes a chamber with an inlet and an outlet for respectively introducing and dispensing a flowing fluid comprising microparticles, a light source for providing light through the chamber and a photometer for measuring the intensity of light transmitted through individual microparticles. The device further includes an imaging system for acquiring images of the fluid. In some cases, the device may be configured to identify and determine a quantity of the microparticles within the fluid. Consequently, a method for identifying and tracking microparticles in motion is contemplated herein. The method involves flowing a fluid comprising microparticles in laminar motion through a chamber, transmitting light through the fluid, measuring the intensities of the light transmitted through the microparticles, imaging the fluid a plurality of times and comparing at least some of the intensities of light between different images of the fluid.

  20. Immunohistochemical demonstration of glial markers in retinoblastomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1987-01-01

    Twenty retinoblastomas were studied immunohistochemically in order to visualize glial cells. In the retina, the glial cells in the ganglion cell layer and the Müller cells were GFAP positive, while only the glial cells of the ganglion cell layer expressed S-100 reactivity. In the tumours S-100/GFAP...... cells reactive for both S-100 and GFAP were demonstrated. The latter findings may represent differentiation in a glial direction in the more mature parts of retinoblastoma....

  1. Infinitesimal methods of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, J S

    2004-01-01

    This modern introduction to infinitesimal methods is a translation of the book Métodos Infinitesimais de Análise Matemática by José Sousa Pinto of the University of Aveiro, Portugal and is aimed at final year or graduate level students with a background in calculus. Surveying modern reformulations of the infinitesimal concept with a thoroughly comprehensive exposition of important and influential hyperreal numbers, the book includes previously unpublished material on the development of hyperfinite theory of Schwartz distributions and its application to generalised Fourier transforms and harmon

  2. Development of advanced MCR task analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary

  3. Current status of methods for shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed

  4. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, H Kazem

    2011-01-01

    Intrathyroid lymphoid tissue is accrued in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Histologically, this acquired lymphoid tissue bears a close resemblance to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and can evolve to lymphoma. To demonstrate the morphological, and immunohistochemical profiles of Hashimoto thyroiditis and to ascertain the importance of light chain restriction in distinguishing HT with extensive lymphoplasmacytoid infiltrate from MALT lymphoma. We studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically (CD20, CD3, Igk, Igl and cytokeratin) 30 cases of HT for evaluation of the lymphoid infiltrate and the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs). Distinguishing between early thyroid lymphoma and HT was evaluated by light chain restriction. These findings were compared with two cases of primary thyroid lymphoma. The histopathological findings were characteristic of HT. Immunohistochemistry confirmed inconspicuous, rare B-cell LELs as well as a prominent T-lymphocyte population. Testing for light chain restriction showed polyclonal population of plasma cells. The cases of MALT lymphoma had distinct destructive lymphoepithelial lesions, B-cell immunophenotyping and showed kappa light chain restriction in the plasmacytoid population. Hashimoto thyroiditis differs both histopathologically and immunohistochemically from thyroid lymphoma. In suspicious cases, immunohistochemistry could be helpful in reaching a definitive diagnosis.

  5. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  6. Parametric Methods for Order Tracking Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm

    2017-01-01

    Order tracking analysis is often used to find the critical speeds at which structural resonances are excited by a rotating machine. Typically, order tracking analysis is performed via non-parametric methods. In this report, however, we demonstrate some of the advantages of using a parametric method...

  7. The delayed neutron method of uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of delayed neutron analysis (DNA) is discussed. The DNA rig installed on the MOATA reactor, the assay standards and the types of samples which have been assayed are described. Of the total sample throughput of about 55,000 units since the uranium analysis service began, some 78% has been concerned with analysis of uranium ore samples derived from mining and exploration. Delayed neutron analysis provides a high sensitivity, low cost uranium analysis method for both uranium exploration and other applications. It is particularly suitable for analysis of large batch samples and for non-destructive analysis over a wide range of matrices. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Radiochemistry and nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides both the fundamentals of radiochemistry as well as specific applications of nuclear techniques to analytical chemistry. It includes such areas of application as radioimmunoassay and activation techniques using very short-lined indicator radionuclides. It emphasizes the current nuclear methods of analysis such as neutron activation PIXE, nuclear reaction analysis, Rutherford backscattering, isotope dilution analysis and others

  9. Computational methods in power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Idema, Reijer

    2014-01-01

    This book treats state-of-the-art computational methods for power flow studies and contingency analysis. In the first part the authors present the relevant computational methods and mathematical concepts. In the second part, power flow and contingency analysis are treated. Furthermore, traditional methods to solve such problems are compared to modern solvers, developed using the knowledge of the first part of the book. Finally, these solvers are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally, clearly showing the benefits of the modern approach.

  10. Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: immunohistochemical findings and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha JJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jianjun Sha,1,2 Juanjie Bo,1 Jiahua Pan,1 Lianhua Zhang,1 Hanqing Xuan,1 Wei Chen,1 Dong Li,1 Zhaoliang Wang,1 Dongming Liu,1 Yiran Huang1,2 1Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 2School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Introduction: To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods: The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data of seven patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, bone scan, cystoscopy, and computed tomography (CT scan. The level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA before and after surgery was assessed. Different prostate cancer markers were used for immunohistochemical staining. Results: The mean age of the seven patients diagnosed with prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma in this study was 76.2 years (range 57–88. Five patients presented with intermittent and painless gross hematuria, one patient with progressive dysuria, and one patient with elevated serum PSA on routine health examination. The level of PSA before surgery ranged from 1.3 to 45.0 ng/mL. Immunohistochemical staining results of the prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma confirmed positivity for PSA, prostatic acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, and alpha-methyacyl co-enzyme A (CoA-reductase markers. Two of the patients underwent bilateral orchiectomy combined with anti-androgen therapy, three underwent transurethral resection of prostate, one received radical prostatectomy, and one received medical castration therapy. The clinical outcomes of all patients were satisfactory, based on follow-up data. The symptoms of hematuria and dysuria were ameliorated well, and the postoperative PSA level decreased below 4.0 ng/mL. Recurrence or metastasis of disease was

  11. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  12. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  13. Nuclear analysis methods. Rudiments of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear analysis methods are generally used to analyse radioactive elements but they can be used also for chemical analysis, with fields such analysis and characterization of traces. The principles of radiation protection are explained (ALARA), the biological effects of ionizing radiations are given, elements and units used in radiation protection are reminded in tables. A part of this article is devoted to how to use radiation protection in a nuclear analysis laboratory. (N.C.)

  14. Hemangiopericytoma in a young dog: Evaluation of histopathological and immunohistochemical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Namazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we describe a subcutaneous mass between the left flank and hip in a 2-year-old male Great Dane dog. Histopathologically, cells appeared to be spindle shaped around a central capillary together with a fingerprint pattern. Immunohistochemical analysis presented that the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, but did not stain for S-100 protein. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, the present tumor was diagnosed as canine hemangiopericytoma. Hemangiopericytoma could be considered in differential diagnosis list of any mass in the skin (even in young dogs and must be identified histopathologically.

  15. Microlocal methods in the analysis of the boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The application of the boundary element method in numerical analysis is based upon the use of boundary integral operators stemming from multiple layer potentials. The regularity properties of these operators are vital in the development of boundary integral equations and error estimates. We show...

  16. Statistical methods for categorical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to methods and models for categorical data analysis and their applications in social science research. Companion website also available, at https://webspace.utexas.edu/dpowers/www/

  17. Development of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Method for Analysis of Lornoxicam in Solid Dosage. Forms. Sunit Kumar Sahoo ... testing. Mean recovery was 100.82 % for tablets. Low values of % RSD indicate .... Saharty E, Refaat YS, Khateeb ME. Stability-. Indicating. Spectrophotometric.

  18. Comparative evaluation of diode laser ablation and surgical stripping technique for gingival depigmentation: A clinical and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakutra, Gaurav; Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Mathur, Lalit; Manohar, Balaji

    2017-01-01

    There are various treatment modalities to remove the black patches of melanin pigmentation. The aim of the study is to clinically compare the diode laser ablation and surgical stripping technique for gingival depigmentation and to evaluate their effect on the histological changes in melanocyte activity. A total of 40 sites of 20 patients with bilateral melanin hyperpigmentation were treated with the surgical stripping and diode laser ablation technique. Change in Hedin index score, change in area of pigmentation using image analyzing software, pain perception, patient preference of treatment were recorded. All 40 sites were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using HMB-45 immunohistochemical marker. At 12 months post-operative visit, in all sites, repigmentation was observed with different grades of Hedin index. Paired t -test, analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Repigmentation in surgical stripping is significantly lesser compared to laser ablation. Lesser numbers of melanocytes were found on immunohistological examination at 12 months postoperatively. Comparison for patient preference and pain indices give statistically significant values for diode laser techniques. Gingival hyperpigmentation is effectively managed by diode laser ablation technique and surgical stripping method. In this study, surgical stripping technique found to be better compared to diode laser ablation.

  19. An introduction to numerical methods and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Epperson, James F

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . outstandingly appealing with regard to its style, contents, considerations of requirements of practice, choice of examples, and exercises.""-Zentralblatt MATH "". . . carefully structured with many detailed worked examples.""-The Mathematical Gazette The Second Edition of the highly regarded An Introduction to Numerical Methods and Analysis provides a fully revised guide to numerical approximation. The book continues to be accessible and expertly guides readers through the many available techniques of numerical methods and analysis. An Introduction to

  20. Cellient™ automated cell block versus traditional cell block preparation: a comparison of morphologic features and immunohistochemical staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David G; Russell, Donna K; Benson, Jenna M; Schneider, Ashley E; Hoda, Rana S; Bonfiglio, Thomas A

    2011-10-01

    Traditional cell block (TCB) sections serve as an important diagnostic adjunct to cytologic smears but are also used today as a reliable preparation for immunohistochemical (IHC) studies. There are many ways to prepare a cell block and the methods continue to be revised. In this study, we compare the TCB with the Cellient™ automated cell block system. Thirty-five cell blocks were obtained from 16 benign and 19 malignant nongynecologic cytology specimens at a large university teaching hospital and prepared according to TCB and Cellient protocols. Cell block sections from both methods were compared for possible differences in various morphologic features and immunohistochemical staining patterns. In the 16 benign cases, no significant morphologic differences were found between the TCB and Cellient cell block sections. For the 19 malignant cases, some noticeable differences in the nuclear chromatin and cellularity were identified, although statistical significance was not attained. Immunohistochemical or special stains were performed on 89% of the malignant cases (17/19). Inadequate cellularity precluded full evaluation in 23% of Cellient cell block IHC preparations (4/17). Of the malignant cases with adequate cellularity (13/17), the immunohistochemical staining patterns from the different methods were identical in 53% of cases. The traditional and Cellient cell block sections showed similar morphologic and immunohistochemical staining patterns. The only significant difference between the two methods concerned the lower overall cell block cellularity identified during immunohistochemical staining in the Cellient cell block sections. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Uterine Carcinosarcomas: Clinical, Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Arend, Rebecca; Hamele-Bena, Diane; Tergas, Ana I; Hawver, Melanie; Tong, Guo-Xia; Wright, Thomas C; Wright, Jason D

    2017-09-01

    Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Müllerian tumors or MMMT) are rare malignant tumors in the female genital tract composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal components. They comprise 1995 and 2011 were retrieved from the gynecologic pathology files at Columbia University Medical Center. Representative tissue blocks containing both epithelial and mesenchymal components were selected from each case for histologic and immunohistochemical studies. Clinical data from each case were retrieved. The epithelial component was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in the majority (80.7%) of cases; in 17.7%, the carcinoma was moderately differentiated, and in only 1.6% the carcinoma was well differentiated. 53% of the tumors had homologous stromal elements and 47% displayed heterologous stromal elements. Immunohistochemical study revealed almost equal staining in both epithelial and mesenchymal components of carcinosarcomas for p16 and p53. PAX8 positivity was noted in 73% of epithelial components, but only 13% of stromal components, and PAX8 stromal positivity was never seen in the absence of PAX8 epithelial positivity. Expression of p16, p53, and PAX8 in both malignant components lends support to the monoclonal theory of uterine carcinosarcoma tumorigenesis. The roles of these tumor markers in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of this tumor and associations between clinical characteristics, tumor pathologic features, and prognosis are discussed.

  2. Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P [Richland, WA; Cowell, Andrew J [Kennewick, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Baddeley, Robert L [Richland, WA; Paulson, Patrick R [Pasco, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA

    2012-03-20

    Hypothesis analysis methods, hypothesis analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a hypothesis analysis method includes providing a hypothesis, providing an indicator which at least one of supports and refutes the hypothesis, using the indicator, associating evidence with the hypothesis, weighting the association of the evidence with the hypothesis, and using the weighting, providing information regarding the accuracy of the hypothesis.

  3. Relating Actor Analysis Methods to Policy Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Lei, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    For a policy analyst the policy problem is the starting point for the policy analysis process. During this process the policy analyst structures the policy problem and makes a choice for an appropriate set of methods or techniques to analyze the problem (Goeller 1984). The methods of the policy

  4. Nodal method for fast reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shober, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, a nodal method applicable to fast reactor diffusion theory analysis has been developed. This method has been shown to be accurate and efficient in comparison to highly optimized finite difference techniques. The use of an analytic solution to the diffusion equation as a means of determining accurate coupling relationships between nodes has been shown to be highly accurate and efficient in specific two-group applications, as well as in the current multigroup method

  5. Inelastic analysis methods for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.T.; Spence, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of pipework systems which operate in an environment where local inelastic strains are evident is one of the most demanding problems facing the stress analyst in the nuclear field. The spatial complexity of even the most modest system makes a detailed analysis using finite element techniques beyond the scope of current computer technology. For this reason the emphasis has been on simplified methods. It is the aim of this paper to provide a reasonably complete, state-of-the-art review of inelastic pipework analysis methods and to attempt to highlight areas where reliable information is lacking and further work is needed. (orig.)

  6. Excitation methods for energy dispersive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklevic, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid development in recent years of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis has been based primarily on improvements in semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometers. However, the whole analysis system performance is critically dependent on the availability of optimum methods of excitation for the characteristic x rays in specimens. A number of analysis facilities based on various methods of excitation have been developed over the past few years. A discussion is given of the features of various excitation methods including charged particles, monochromatic photons, and broad-energy band photons. The effects of the excitation method on background and sensitivity are discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Recent developments such as pulsed excitation and polarized photons are also discussed

  7. A strategy for evaluating pathway analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenggang; Woo, Hyung Jun; Yu, Xueping; Oyama, Tatsuya; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2017-10-13

    Researchers have previously developed a multitude of methods designed to identify biological pathways associated with specific clinical or experimental conditions of interest, with the aim of facilitating biological interpretation of high-throughput data. Before practically applying such pathway analysis (PA) methods, we must first evaluate their performance and reliability, using datasets where the pathways perturbed by the conditions of interest have been well characterized in advance. However, such 'ground truths' (or gold standards) are often unavailable. Furthermore, previous evaluation strategies that have focused on defining 'true answers' are unable to systematically and objectively assess PA methods under a wide range of conditions. In this work, we propose a novel strategy for evaluating PA methods independently of any gold standard, either established or assumed. The strategy involves the use of two mutually complementary metrics, recall and discrimination. Recall measures the consistency of the perturbed pathways identified by applying a particular analysis method to an original large dataset and those identified by the same method to a sub-dataset of the original dataset. In contrast, discrimination measures specificity-the degree to which the perturbed pathways identified by a particular method to a dataset from one experiment differ from those identifying by the same method to a dataset from a different experiment. We used these metrics and 24 datasets to evaluate six widely used PA methods. The results highlighted the common challenge in reliably identifying significant pathways from small datasets. Importantly, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed dual-metric strategy by showing that previous comparative studies corroborate the performance evaluations of the six methods obtained by our strategy. Unlike any previously proposed strategy for evaluating the performance of PA methods, our dual-metric strategy does not rely on any ground truth

  8.  Immunohistochemical Expression of ki-67 and p53 in Colorectal Adenomas: A Clinicopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Hasson Ali

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To evaluate the significance of P53 and Ki-67 expression as immunohistochemical markers in early detection of premalignant changes in different types of colorectal adenomas. Also, to correlate immunohistochemical expression of the two markers with different clinicopathological parameters including; age, and sex of the patient, type, site, size and grade of dysplasia of colorectal adenomas.Methods: Forty-seven polypectomy specimens of colorectal adenomas were retrieved from the archival materials of the Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Diseases Teaching Hospital in Baghdad from 2009 - 2010. Four µm section specimens were stained by immunohistochemical technique with Ki-67 and P53 tumor markers. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Immunohistochemical expressions of Ki-67 and P53 had a significant correlation with the size and grade of dysplasia in colorectal adenomas. However, there was no significant correlation among the immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 and P53 with the age and gender of the patient, and the type and site of colorectal adenomas. There was no significant correlation between Ki-67 and P53 expressions in colorectal adenomas. Villous adenomas of colorectum showed a significant correlation with the grade of dysplasia, while there was no significant correlation between size and site of colorectal adenoma with the grade of dysplasia.Conclusion: High grade dysplasia with significant positive immunohistochemical markers of Ki-67 and P53 could be valuable parameters for selecting from the total colorectal adenoma population, those most deserving of close surveillance in follow-up cancer prevention programs. It is closely linked with increasing age particularly in patients with a large size adenoma of villous component in their histology.

  9. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, MLH1 IN EVALUATION OF DIFFERENTIATION GRADE OF COLON ADENOCARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Raskin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability is associated with dysfunction of the MSH2, MLH1, PMS2 and MSH6 genes, which participate in the repair of unpaired nucleotides of DNA. It is known that microsatellite instability is an independent prognostic factor in determining the differentiation grade of colon cancer. The use of immunohistochemistry to study the repair system of unpaired nucleotides has its own characteristics and limitations. Materials and methods. The study included 39 patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Moderately-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type (72 %. There were 8 % of well-differentiated and 12 % poorly-differentiated carcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis of SH2, MSH6, PMS2 and MLH1 proteins was done according to the standard protocol. Results. Out of 39 cases, 6 (15 % had loss of expression of at least one of the studied proteins. Out of these 6 cases with indirect signs of MSI-H, 3 were poorlydifferentiated, 1 was mucinous and 2 were moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas. Conclusion. Thus, immunohistochemical analysis of DNA repair genes can be used to determine the histological differentiation of colon adenocarcinoma.

  10. Instrumental methods of analysis, 7th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, H.H.; Merritt, L.L. Jr.; Dean, J.A.; Settle, F.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have prepared an organized and generally polished product. The book is fashioned to be used as a textbook for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course, a supporting textbook for graduate-level courses, and a general reference work on analytical instrumentation and techniques for professional chemists. Four major areas are emphasized: data collection and processing, spectroscopic instrumentation and methods, liquid and gas chromatographic methods, and electrochemical methods. Analytical instrumentation and methods have been updated, and a thorough citation of pertinent recent literature is included

  11. Ebola Virus Disease in Pregnancy: Clinical, Histopathologic, and Immunohistochemical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; de la Rosa Vázquez, Olimpia; Bausch, Daniel G; Schafer, Ilana J; Paddock, Christopher D; Nyakio, Jean Paul; Lame, Papys; Bergeron, Eric; McCollum, Andrea M; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Bollweg, Brigid C; Prieto, Miriam Alía; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nichol, Stuart T; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E; Zaki, Sherif R

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs. In the Gulu case, ebolavirus antigen localized to malarial parasite pigment-laden macrophages. These data suggest that trophoblast infection may be a mechanism of transplacental ebolavirus transmission. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  13. Comparision of Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Odontogenic Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisekhar, M.S.; Suri, Charu; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; M.R., Pradeep; Gothe, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expression of CD10 has been documented in various tumors like nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic tumors. Aim: To evaluate and compare CD10 expression in odontogenic cysts like radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Materials and Methods: Total 60 cases were included in the study, comprising 20 cases each of radicular, dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst. Each case was evaluated and compared for immunohistochemical expression of CD10. Results obtained were statistically analysed using ANOVA test followed by post hoc test Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons Test for continuous variable and Chi-square test for discrete variable. Results: More number of cases showing sub-epithelial stromal CD10 expression were found in OKC among the cysts. Conclusion: CD10 expression was more in OKC compared to radicular and dentigerous cysts. PMID:25584313

  14. Limitations of systemic accident analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Venera BALAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of system theory, the description of complex accidents is not limited to the analysis of the sequence of events / individual conditions, but highlights nonlinear functional characteristics and frames human or technical performance in relation to normal functioning of the system, in safety conditions. Thus, the research of the system entities as a whole is no longer an abstraction of a concrete situation, but an exceeding of the theoretical limits set by analysis based on linear methods. Despite the issues outlined above, the hypothesis that there isn’t a complete method for accident analysis is supported by the nonlinearity of the considered function or restrictions, imposing a broad vision of the elements introduced in the analysis, so it can identify elements corresponding to nominal parameters or trigger factors.

  15. Application of Software Safety Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, G. Y.; Hur, S.; Cheon, S. W.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, S. J.; Koo, Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    A fully digitalized reactor protection system, which is called the IDiPS-RPS, was developed through the KNICS project. The IDiPS-RPS has four redundant and separated channels. Each channel is mainly composed of a group of bistable processors which redundantly compare process variables with their corresponding setpoints and a group of coincidence processors that generate a final trip signal when a trip condition is satisfied. Each channel also contains a test processor called the ATIP and a display and command processor called the COM. All the functions were implemented in software. During the development of the safety software, various software safety analysis methods were applied, in parallel to the verification and validation (V and V) activities, along the software development life cycle. The software safety analysis methods employed were the software hazard and operability (Software HAZOP) study, the software fault tree analysis (Software FTA), and the software failure modes and effects analysis (Software FMEA)

  16. Spatial analysis statistics, visualization, and computational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Oyana, Tonny J

    2015-01-01

    An introductory text for the next generation of geospatial analysts and data scientists, Spatial Analysis: Statistics, Visualization, and Computational Methods focuses on the fundamentals of spatial analysis using traditional, contemporary, and computational methods. Outlining both non-spatial and spatial statistical concepts, the authors present practical applications of geospatial data tools, techniques, and strategies in geographic studies. They offer a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to spatial analysis-containing hands-on problem-sets that can be worked out in MS Excel or ArcGIS-as well as detailed illustrations and numerous case studies. The book enables readers to: Identify types and characterize non-spatial and spatial data Demonstrate their competence to explore, visualize, summarize, analyze, optimize, and clearly present statistical data and results Construct testable hypotheses that require inferential statistical analysis Process spatial data, extract explanatory variables, conduct statisti...

  17. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  18. Review of strain buckling: analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report represents an attempt to review the mechanical analysis methods reported in the literature to account for the specific behaviour that we call buckling under strain. In this report, this expression covers all buckling mechanisms in which the strains imposed play a role, whether they act alone (as in simple buckling under controlled strain), or whether they act with other loadings (primary loading, such as pressure, for example). Attention is focused on the practical problems relevant to LMFBR reactors. The components concerned are distinguished by their high slenderness ratios and by rather high thermal levels, both constant and variable with time. Conventional static buckling analysis methods are not always appropriate for the consideration of buckling under strain. New methods must therefore be developed in certain cases. It is also hoped that this review will facilitate the coding of these analytical methods to aid the constructor in his design task and to identify the areas which merit further investigation

  19. Analysis of mixed data methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive source on mixed data analysis, Analysis of Mixed Data: Methods & Applications summarizes the fundamental developments in the field. Case studies are used extensively throughout the book to illustrate interesting applications from economics, medicine and health, marketing, and genetics. Carefully edited for smooth readability and seamless transitions between chaptersAll chapters follow a common structure, with an introduction and a concluding summary, and include illustrative examples from real-life case studies in developmental toxicolog

  20. Scope-Based Method Cache Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Benedikt; Hepp, Stefan; Schoeberl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The quest for time-predictable systems has led to the exploration of new hardware architectures that simplify analysis and reasoning in the temporal domain, while still providing competitive performance. For the instruction memory, the method cache is a conceptually attractive solution, as it req......The quest for time-predictable systems has led to the exploration of new hardware architectures that simplify analysis and reasoning in the temporal domain, while still providing competitive performance. For the instruction memory, the method cache is a conceptually attractive solution...

  1. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  2. Piping dynamic analysis by the synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Curreri, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Since piping systems are a frequent source of noise and vibrations, their efficient dynamic analysis is imperative. As an alternate to more conventional analyses methods, an application of the synthesis method to piping vibrations analyses is demonstrated. Specifically, the technique is illustrated by determining the normal modes and natural frequencies of a composite bend from the normal mode and natural frequency data of two component parts. A comparison of the results to those derived for the composite bend by other techniques is made

  3. Probabilistic Analysis Methods for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper discusses a general approach for the application of probabilistic analysis methods in the design of ventilation systems. The aims and scope of probabilistic versus deterministic methods are addressed with special emphasis on hybrid ventilation systems. A preliminary application...... of stochastic differential equations is presented comprising a general heat balance for an arbitrary number of loads and zones in a building to determine the thermal behaviour under random conditions....

  4. Chemical analysis by nuclear methods. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfassi, Z.B.

    1998-01-01

    'Chemical analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B. and translated into Farsi version collected in two volumes. The second volume consists of the following chapters: Detecting ion recoil scattering and elastic scattering are dealt in the eleventh chapter, the twelfth chapter is devoted to nuclear reaction analysis using charged particles, X-ray emission is discussed at thirteenth chapter, the fourteenth chapter is about using ion microprobes, X-ray fluorescence analysis is discussed in the fifteenth chapter, alpha, beta and gamma ray scattering in chemical analysis are dealt in chapter sixteen, Moessbauer spectroscopy and positron annihilation are discussed in chapter seventeen and eighteen; The last two chapters are about isotope dilution analysis and radioimmunoassay

  5. Numerical methods in software and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, John R

    1992-01-01

    Numerical Methods, Software, and Analysis, Second Edition introduces science and engineering students to the methods, tools, and ideas of numerical computation. Introductory courses in numerical methods face a fundamental problem-there is too little time to learn too much. This text solves that problem by using high-quality mathematical software. In fact, the objective of the text is to present scientific problem solving using standard mathematical software. This book discusses numerous programs and software packages focusing on the IMSL library (including the PROTRAN system) and ACM Algorithm

  6. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new formulation termed the Integrated Force Method (IFM) was proposed by Patnaik ... nated ``Structure (nY m)'' where (nY m) are the force and displacement degrees of ..... Patnaik S N, Yadagiri S 1976 Frequency analysis of structures.

  7. Modern methods of wine quality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Зуфарівна Гайда

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper physical-chemical and enzymatic methods of quantitative analysis of the basic wine components were reviewed. The results of own experiments were presented for the development of enzyme- and cell-based amperometric sensors on ethanol, lactate, glucose, arginine

  8. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  9. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  10. Reliability and risk analysis methods research plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This document presents a plan for reliability and risk analysis methods research to be performed mainly by the Reactor Risk Branch (RRB), Division of Risk Analysis and Operations (DRAO), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. It includes those activities of other DRAO branches which are very closely related to those of the RRB. Related or interfacing programs of other divisions, offices and organizations are merely indicated. The primary use of this document is envisioned as an NRC working document, covering about a 3-year period, to foster better coordination in reliability and risk analysis methods development between the offices of Nuclear Regulatory Research and Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It will also serve as an information source for contractors and others to more clearly understand the objectives, needs, programmatic activities and interfaces together with the overall logical structure of the program

  11. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Storlie, Curtis B.

    2006-08-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present.

  12. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  13. Computational methods for nuclear criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragni, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear criticality safety analyses require the utilization of methods which have been tested and verified against benchmarks results. In this work, criticality calculations based on the KENO-IV and MCNP codes are studied aiming the qualification of these methods at the IPEN-CNEN/SP and COPESP. The utilization of variance reduction techniques is important to reduce the computer execution time, and several of them are analysed. As practical example of the above methods, a criticality safety analysis for the storage tubes for irradiated fuel elements from the IEA-R1 research has been carried out. This analysis showed that the MCNP code is more adequate for problems with complex geometries, and the KENO-IV code shows conservative results when it is not used the generalized geometry option. (author)

  14. Angiomyolipoma of the kidney: Clinico pathological and immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esheba, Gh.E.; Esheba, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Overview: Although angiomyolipoma (AML) is a relatively rare entity, it is the most common benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the kidney. The aim of this study: To highlight the clinicopathological characteristics of AML and to assess the role of Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45), Melan-A, smooth muscle actin (SMA), S-100 and cytokeratin in its diagnosis. Materials and methods: The study included 15 cases of AML. Clinical and radiological data were retrieved from the archival files and all cases were subjected to a histopathological evaluation as well as immunohistochemical staining for HMB-45, Melan-A, SMA, S-100, and cytokeratin. Results: AML was more common in females (female:male = 4:1), the mean age was 53.9 ± 6.45 years. 60% of patients were symptomatic while the remaining 40% were asymptomatic. A statistically significant relationship was found between size of the tumor and the presence of the symptoms (P = 0.02). Patients with tumor size less than 4 cm were asymptomatic, while those with tumor size larger than 4 cm had different symptoms. Thirteen cases were classic AML, while 2 cases were epithelioid AML. Classic AML demonstrated admixture of fatty tissue, thick-walled blood vessels, and smooth muscle, while epithelioid AML was composed mainly of epithelioid cells and contained no fat. HMB-45 was positive in all cases of AML (100%), Melan-A was positive in 13/15 (87%) while SMA was positive in 11/15 (73%) of AML with variable staining intensity. All cases of AML were negative for S-100 and cytokeratin. Conclusion: AMLs have characteristic clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features and their recognition is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment

  15. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterisation of seminomas in Norwegian dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorvaldsen Tor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seminomas in the dog have traditionally been assumed to resemble human spermatocytic seminomas, based on their low malignancy and high occurrence in old individuals. However, recently published studies indicate that canine seminomas can be classified as classical and spermatocytic seminomas in a similar way as in man, and that classical seminomas comprise a substantial proportion of seminomas in the dog. These two factors both contribute to increasing the potential of canine seminoma as a relevant model for human testicular cancer. The aim of the present study was to characterise seminoma in Norwegian dogs using morphology and immunohistochemistry, and determine whether these tumours are comparable with human classical seminoma. Methods By applying diagnostic criteria from human pathology, 45 seminomas from the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register were examined histologically with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stains. All sections were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP and the transmembrane receptor c-KIT. Results Although two of the seminomas showed immunohistochemical staining characteristics indicative of classical seminoma (PLAP+/c-KIT+, all 45 examined seminomas were morphologically consistent with spermatocytic seminoma. Conclusions The value of canine seminoma as a model for SE in man remains unclear. Among the 45 investigated tumours from Norwegian dogs, none were classified as classical seminoma based on morphological criteria consistent with human seminomas. Regional or breed differences in the occurrence of classical seminoma in the dog, as well as the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria, might explain the discrepancy between the findings in the current study and the results presented by other authors.

  16. PIXE - a new method for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.A.E.

    1983-01-01

    With elemental analysis we mean the determination of which chemical elements are present in a sample and of their concentration. This is an old and important problem in chemistry. The earliest methods were purely chemical and many such methods are still used. However, various methods based on physical principles have gradually become more and more important. One such method is neutron activation. When the sample is bombarded with neutrons it becomes radioactive and the various radioactive isotopes produced can be identified by the radiation they emit. From the measured intensity of the radiation one can calculate how much of a certain element that is present in the sample. Another possibility is to study the light emitted when the sample is excited in various ways. A spectroscopic investigation of the light can identify the chemical elements and allows also a determination of their concentration in the sample. In the same way, if a sample can be brought to emit X-rays, this radiation is also characteristic for the elements present and can be used to determine the elemental concentration. One such X-ray method which has been developed recently is PIXE. The name is an acronym for Particle Induced X-ray Emission and indicates the principle of the method. Particles in this context means heavy, charged particles such as protons and a-particles of rather high energy. Hence, in PIXE-analysis the sample is irradiated in the beam of an accelerator and the emitted X-rays are studied. (author)

  17. Dependability Analysis Methods For Configurable Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahll, Gustav; Pulkkinen, Urho

    1996-01-01

    Configurable software systems are systems which are built up by standard software components in the same way as a hardware system is built up by standard hardware components. Such systems are often used in the control of NPPs, also in safety related applications. A reliability analysis of such systems is therefore necessary. This report discusses what configurable software is, and what is particular with respect to reliability assessment of such software. Two very commonly used techniques in traditional reliability analysis, viz. failure mode, effect and criticality analysis (FMECA) and fault tree analysis are investigated. A real example is used to illustrate the discussed methods. Various aspects relevant to the assessment of the software reliability in such systems are discussed. Finally some models for quantitative software reliability assessment applicable on configurable software systems are described. (author)

  18. [Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies on mucous cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, N

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated the histopathology, histochemistry of mucopolysaccharides, and immunohistochemistry of oral mucous cysts. The materials were obtained from ninety cases that were histopathologically diagnosed as oral mucous cysts at the Department of Oral Pathology, Meikai University School of Dentistry. Mucopolysaccharide staining was done with PAS, alcian blue (AB, pH 2.5) and high iron diamine (HID). Immunohistochemical studies were focused on secretory component (SC), lactoferrin (Lf), alpha-amylase (Am), IgA, lysozyme (Ly), and keratin (Kr). The following results were obtained: 1. Histopathological findings. (1) Retention and/or retention-like type cysts occurred in was twenty-six cases and the extravasation type in sixty-four cases. (2) Cases showing epithelial lining of the cystic wall were only eight in number, and many cystic walls were contained granulation tissue (fifty cases). (3) As for inflammation of the cystic wall, the degree was slight, and infiltrated cells were mainly macrophages (so-called mucinophages) and lymphocytes. (4) Regarding adjoining salivary glands, acinar cells showed atrophic changes, and hypertrophy of mucous acinar cells was evident. Many ducts showed dilatation, and stromal connective tissue showed fibrosis and hyalinization. 2. Histochemical findings on mucopolysaccharides. (1) Mucous materials in cystic cavity, mucous acinar cells, and secretory materials in ductal lumens were intensely stained by PAS and AB. But stainability with AB was less than that with PAS staining. Serous acinar cells and ductal epithelium were negative to PAS and AB staining. (2) Stainability of the above with HID was less than at with PAS or AB. Cystic walls were not stained by HID. Mucous acinar cells reactive with HID were intensely stained, but the number of the positive cells was limited when compared with the numbers of PAS-and AB-positive cells. 3. Immunohistochemical findings. (1) As for mucous materials in the cystic cavity

  19. Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach

  20. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat

    2001-10-03

    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  1. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  2. Simple gas chromatographic method for furfural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Elvira M S M; Lopes, João F

    2009-04-03

    A new, simple, gas chromatographic method was developed for the direct analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), 2-furfural (2-F) and 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) in liquid and water soluble foods, using direct immersion SPME coupled to GC-FID and/or GC-TOF-MS. The fiber (DVB/CAR/PDMS) conditions were optimized: pH effect, temperature, adsorption and desorption times. The method is simple and accurate (RSDfurfurals will contribute to characterise and quantify their presence in the human diet.

  3. Hidradenocarcinoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Christine J; Cochran, Alistair J; Eng, William; Binder, Scott W

    2006-11-01

    The diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma is difficult due to a combination of factors including inconsistent nomenclature/ classification, rarity of the neoplasm, and variable morphology of cells composing the neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry has not been previously performed on a series of hidradenocarcinomas. We evaluated six cases of hidradenocarcinoma histologically and immunohistochemically using antibodies to gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), S-100 protein, keratin AE1/3, cytokeratin 5/6, p53, bcl-1, bcl-2, and Ki67. Histology suggested concurrent eccrine and apocrine differentiation of the cases. Ki67 and p53 staining was strongly positive in five of six tumors. The neoplasms stained with antibodies to CEA, S-100 protein, GCDFP-15, EMA, bcl-1, and bcl-2 in no consistent pattern. All tumors studied stained positively for keratin AE1/3 and cytokeratin 5/6. In making the diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma, it may be unnecessary to separate hidradenocarcinoma into eccrine and apocrine categories, and although Ki67 and p53 may be helpful, histological parameters remain paramount.

  4. Immunohistochemical markers of cancerogenesis in the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for people of both sexes worldwide. Early diagnosis of precancer lesions may be of crucial significance to lowering lung cancer mortality. The World Health Organization has defined three preneoplastic lesions of the bronchial epithelium: squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. These lesions are believed to progress to squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors, respectively. Apart from WHO classification, two other lesions such as bronchiolization and bronchiolar columnar cell dysplasia (BCCD can be observed and thought to be preneoplastic lesions leading to adenocarcinoma. In this review we summarize the data of morphological and cell cycle related proteins changes in both central and peripheral compartments of lung. Many molecular changes, which accompany the multistep process of the development of invasive types of cancer, may be observed thanks to the application of immunohistochemical markers. A deeper knowledge of molecular and genetic changes accompanying pre-cancer states may show new directions of early diagnostics of cancer development.

  5. Neutron activation analysis: principle and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful isotope specific nuclear analytical technique for simultaneous determination of elemental composition of major, minor and trace elements in diverse matrices. The technique is capable of yielding high analytical sensitivity and low detection limits (ppm to ppb). Due to high penetration power of neutrons and gamma rays, NAA experiences negligible matrix effects in the samples of different origins. Depending on the sample matrix and element of interest NAA technique is used non-destructively, known as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), or through chemical NAA methods. The present article describes principle of NAA, different methods and gives a overview some applications in the fields like environment, biology, geology, material sciences, nuclear technology and forensic sciences. (author)

  6. Digital dream analysis: a revised method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2014-10-01

    This article demonstrates the use of a digital word search method designed to provide greater accuracy, objectivity, and speed in the study of dreams. A revised template of 40 word search categories, built into the website of the Sleep and Dream Database (SDDb), is applied to four "classic" sets of dreams: The male and female "Norm" dreams of Hall and Van de Castle (1966), the "Engine Man" dreams discussed by Hobson (1988), and the "Barb Sanders Baseline 250" dreams examined by Domhoff (2003). A word search analysis of these original dream reports shows that a digital approach can accurately identify many of the same distinctive patterns of content found by previous investigators using much more laborious and time-consuming methods. The results of this study emphasize the compatibility of word search technologies with traditional approaches to dream content analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical methods and analysis of multiscale problems

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Alexandre L

    2017-01-01

    This book is about numerical modeling of multiscale problems, and introduces several asymptotic analysis and numerical techniques which are necessary for a proper approximation of equations that depend on different physical scales. Aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, engineering and physics – or researchers seeking a no-nonsense approach –, it discusses examples in their simplest possible settings, removing mathematical hurdles that might hinder a clear understanding of the methods. The problems considered are given by singular perturbed reaction advection diffusion equations in one and two-dimensional domains, partial differential equations in domains with rough boundaries, and equations with oscillatory coefficients. This work shows how asymptotic analysis can be used to develop and analyze models and numerical methods that are robust and work well for a wide range of parameters.

  8. Qualitative data analysis a methods sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Matthew B; Saldana, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    The Third Edition of Miles & Huberman's classic research methods text is updated and streamlined by Johnny SaldaNa, author of The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Several of the data display strategies from previous editions are now presented in re-envisioned and reorganized formats to enhance reader accessibility and comprehension. The Third Edition's presentation of the fundamentals of research design and data management is followed by five distinct methods of analysis: exploring, describing, ordering, explaining, and predicting. Miles and Huberman's original research studies are profiled and accompanied with new examples from SaldaNa's recent qualitative work. The book's most celebrated chapter, "Drawing and Verifying Conclusions," is retained and revised, and the chapter on report writing has been greatly expanded, and is now called "Writing About Qualitative Research." Comprehensive and authoritative, Qualitative Data Analysis has been elegantly revised for a new generation of qualitative r...

  9. An exergy method for compressor performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, J A; Harte, S [Trinity Coll., Dublin (Ireland)

    1995-07-01

    An exergy method for compressor performance analysis is presented. The purpose of this is to identify and quantify defects in the use of a compressor`s shaft power. This information can be used as the basis for compressor design improvements. The defects are attributed to friction, irreversible heat transfer, fluid throttling, and irreversible fluid mixing. They are described, on a common basis, as exergy destruction rates and their locations are identified. The method can be used with any type of positive displacement compressor. It is most readily applied where a detailed computer simulation program is available for the compressor. An analysis of an open reciprocating refrigeration compressor that used R12 refrigerant is given as an example. The results that are presented consist of graphs of the instantaneous rates of exergy destruction according to the mechanisms involved, a pie chart of the breakdown of the average shaft power wastage by mechanism, and a pie chart with a breakdown by location. (author)

  10. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies.

    OpenAIRE

    Feingold, E; Lamb, N E; Sherman, S L

    1995-01-01

    Certain genetic disorders are rare in the general population, but more common in individuals with specific trisomies. Examples of this include leukemia and duodenal atresia in trisomy 21. This paper presents a linkage analysis method for using trisomic individuals to map genes for such traits. It is based on a very general gene-specific dosage model that posits that the trait is caused by specific effects of different alleles at one or a few loci and that duplicate copies of "susceptibility" ...

  11. Machine Learning Methods for Production Cases Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Nataliya V.; Mokrov, Alexander M.; Safonova, Alexandra V.; Vishnyakov, Igor V.

    2018-03-01

    Approach to analysis of events occurring during the production process were proposed. Described machine learning system is able to solve classification tasks related to production control and hazard identification at an early stage. Descriptors of the internal production network data were used for training and testing of applied models. k-Nearest Neighbors and Random forest methods were used to illustrate and analyze proposed solution. The quality of the developed classifiers was estimated using standard statistical metrics, such as precision, recall and accuracy.

  12. Safety relief valve alternate analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.H.; Javid, A.; Khatua, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental test program was started in the United States in 1976 to define and quantify Safety Relief Valve (SRV) phenomena in General Electric Mark I Suppression Chambers. The testing considered several discharged devices and was used to correlate SRV load prediction models. The program was funded by utilities with Mark I containments and has resulted in a detailed SRV load definition as a portion of the Mark I containment program Load Definition Report (LDR). The (USNRC) has reviewed and approved the LDR SRV load definition. In addition, the USNRC has permitted calibration of structural models used for predicting torus response to SRV loads. Model calibration is subject to confirmatory in-plant testing. The SRV methodology given in the LDR requires that transient dynamic pressures be applied to a torus structural model that includes a fluid added mass matrix. Preliminary evaluations of torus response have indicated order of magnitude conservatisms, with respect to test results, which could result in unrealistic containment modifications. In addition, structural response trends observed in full-scale tests between cold pipe, first valve actuation and hot pipe, subsequent valve actuation conditions have not been duplicated using current analysis methods. It was suggested by others that an energy approach using current fluid models be utilized to define loads. An alternate SRV analysis method is defined to correct suppression chamber structural response to a level that permits economical but conservative design. Simple analogs are developed for the purpose of correcting the analytical response obtained from LDR analysis methods. Analogs evaluated considered forced vibration and free vibration structural response. The corrected response correlated well with in-plant test response. The correlation of the analytical model at test conditions permits application of the alternate analysis method at design conditions. (orig./HP)

  13. Analysis and comparison of biometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Zatloukal, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with biometrics and biometric systems and the possibility to use these systems in the enterprise. Aim of this study is an analysis and description of selected types of biometric identification methods and their advantages and shortcomings. The work is divided into two parts. The first part is theoretical, describes the basic concepts of biometrics, biometric identification criteria, currently used identification systems, the ways of biometric systems use, performance measurem...

  14. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Poern, K.

    1997-04-01

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods

  15. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, (Finland); Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods. 14 refs, 10 figs.

  16. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Ho [Inzest Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun Sang [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  17. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun Ho; Lee, Kun Sang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  18. Probabilistic methods in fire-risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandyberry, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this work outlines a method for assessing the frequency of ignition of a consumer product in a building and shows how the method would be used in an example scenario utilizing upholstered furniture as the product and radiant auxiliary heating devices (electric heaters, wood stoves) as the ignition source. Deterministic thermal models of the heat-transport processes are coupled with parameter uncertainty analysis of the models and with a probabilistic analysis of the events involved in a typical scenario. This leads to a distribution for the frequency of ignition for the product. In second part, fire-risk analysis as currently used in nuclear plants is outlines along with a discussion of the relevant uncertainties. The use of the computer code COMPBRN is discussed for use in the fire-growth analysis along with the use of response-surface methodology to quantify uncertainties in the code's use. Generalized response surfaces are developed for temperature versus time for a cable tray, as well as a surface for the hot gas layer temperature and depth for a room of arbitrary geometry within a typical nuclear power plant compartment. These surfaces are then used to simulate the cable tray damage time in a compartment fire experiment

  19. Immunohistochemical characterization and evaluation of prognostic factors in canine oral melanomas with osteocartilaginous differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J; Ramirez, G A; Buendia, A J; Vilafranca, M; Martinez, C M; Altimira, J; Navarro, J A

    2007-09-01

    Melanomas are the most common malignant oral neoplasm in dogs. Osteocartilaginous differentiation in oral melanomas is a rare feature described both in veterinary and human medicine. Here, 10 cases of this type of neoplasm were used to study their immunohistochemical, biological, and clinical characteristics. Reactivity for S100 and melan A antigen was evaluated, and 4 prognosis factors (mitotic index, invasiveness of epithelium, nuclear atypia, and proliferation index) were analyzed and correlated with the clinical course of the neoplasms after diagnosis. Immunohistochemical analysis of the studied neoplasms, including the osteocartilaginous areas, showed positive immunoreaction for S100 and melan A, except in one dog, which was negative for melan A. Analysis of the results showed that oral melamonas with osteocartilaginous differentiation have a clinical course similar to that of other melanomas in the oral cavity. Analysis of the mitotic index and the expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 could be useful tools for predicting the biological behavior of these neoplasms.

  20. Cutaneous hidradenocarcinoma: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic study of 14 cases, including Her2/neu gene expression/amplification, TP53 gene mutation analysis, and t(11;19) translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Dmitry V; Ivan, Doina; Kutzner, Heinz; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Grossmann, Petr; Vanecek, Tomas; Sima, Radek; Kacerovska, Denisa; Shelekhova, Ksenia V; Denisjuk, Natalja; Hillen, Uwe; Kuroda, Naoto; Mukensnabl, Petr; Danis, Dusan; Michal, Michal

    2009-05-01

    We present a series of 14 cases of cutaneous hidradenocarcinomas. The patients included 6 women and 8 men ranging in age at diagnosis from 34 to 93 years. All but 1 patient presented with a solitary nodule. There was no predilection site. One patient presented with multiple lesions representing metastatic nodules. Of 12 patients with available follow-up, 2 died of disease, whereas the remaining 10 patients were alive but 3 of them experienced a local recurrence in the course of the disease. Grossly, the tumors ranged in size from 1.2 to 6 cm. Microscopically, of the 14 primary tumors, 9 showed low-grade cytomorphology, whereas the remaining 5 neoplasms were high-grade lesions. The residuum of a hidradenoma was present in 5 of the 14 primaries. The mitotic rate was highly variable, ranging from 2 to 64 mitoses per 10 high-power field. The cellular composition of the tumors varied slightly, with clear cells, epidermoid cells, and transitional forms being present in each case. In 1 case, there was metaplastic transformation into sarcomatoid carcinoma. Glandular differentiation varied from case to case and appeared most commonly as simple round glands or as cells with intracytoplasmic lumens. Necrosis en masse was detected in 8 specimens. One specimen represented a reexcision and was unusual as it showed a well-demarcated intradermal proliferation of relatively bland clear cells accompanied by an overlying intraepidermal growth of clear cells resembling hidradenoacanthoma simplex. Despite the bland appearance, the tumor metastasized to a lymph node. Immunohistochemically, 5 of the 8 specimens studied for Her2/neu expression were negative, whereas 3 specimens from 2 cases yielded score +2, but all the 3 specimens with score 2+ subsequently proved negative for Her2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 10 primaries studied, 4 tumors showed positive p53 immunoreaction in more than 25% of the cells comprising the malignant portion of the lesions

  1. An unconventional method of quantitative microstructural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastani, M.

    1995-01-01

    The experiment described here introduces a simple methodology which could be used to replace the time-consuming and expensive conventional methods of metallographic and quantitative analysis of thermal treatment effect on microstructure. The method is ideal for the microstructural evaluation of tungsten filaments and other wire samples such as copper wire which can be conveniently coiled. Ten such samples were heat treated by ohmic resistance at temperatures which were expected to span the recrystallization range. After treatment, the samples were evaluated in the elastic recovery test. The normalized elastic recovery factor was defined in terms of these deflections. Experimentally it has shown that elastic recovery factor depends on the degree of recrystallization. In other words this factor is used to determine the fraction of unrecrystallized material. Because the elastic recovery method examines the whole filament rather than just one section through the filament as in metallographical method, it more accurately measures the degree of recrystallization. The method also takes a considerably shorter time and cost compared to the conventional method

  2. Homotopy analysis method for neutron diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavdar, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), proposed in 1992 by Shi Jun Liao and has been developed since then, is based on a fundamental concept in differential geometry and topology, the homotopy. It has proved useful for problems involving algebraic, linear/non-linear, ordinary/partial differential and differential-integral equations being an analytic, recursive method that provides a series sum solution. It has the advantage of offering a certain freedom for the choice of its arguments such as the initial guess, the auxiliary linear operator and the convergence control parameter, and it allows us to effectively control the rate and region of convergence of the series solution. HAM is applied for the fixed source neutron diffusion equation in this work, which is a part of our research motivated by the question of whether methods for solving the neutron diffusion equation that yield straightforward expressions but able to provide a solution of reasonable accuracy exist such that we could avoid analytic methods that are widely used but either fail to solve the problem or provide solutions through many intricate expressions that are likely to contain mistakes or numerical methods that require powerful computational resources and advanced programming skills due to their very nature or intricate mathematical fundamentals. Fourier basis are employed for expressing the initial guess due to the structure of the problem and its boundary conditions. We present the results in comparison with other widely used methods of Adomian Decomposition and Variable Separation.

  3. Detector Simulation: Data Treatment and Analysis Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, J

    2011-01-01

    Detector Simulation in 'Data Treatment and Analysis Methods', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '4.1 Detector Simulation' of Chapter '4 Data Treatment and Analysis Methods' with the content: 4.1 Detector Simulation 4.1.1 Overview of simulation 4.1.1.1 Uses of detector simulation 4.1.2 Stages and types of simulation 4.1.2.1 Tools for event generation and detector simulation 4.1.2.2 Level of simulation and computation time 4.1.2.3 Radiation effects and background studies 4.1.3 Components of detector simulation 4.1.3.1 Geometry modeling 4.1.3.2 External fields 4.1.3.3 Intro...

  4. Data Analysis Methods for Library Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Toshiro; Kim, Eunja

    Our society is rapidly changing to information society, where the needs and requests of the people on information access are different widely from person to person. Library's mission is to provide its users, or patrons, with the most appropriate information. Libraries have to know the profiles of their patrons, in order to achieve such a role. The aim of library marketing is to develop methods based on the library data, such as circulation records, book catalogs, book-usage data, and others. In this paper we discuss the methodology and imporatnce of library marketing at the beginning. Then we demonstrate its usefulness through some examples of analysis methods applied to the circulation records in Kyushu University and Guacheon Library, and some implication that obtained as the results of these methods. Our research is a big beginning towards the future when library marketing is an unavoidable tool.

  5. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  6. Methods of charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Chaudhri, M. Nasir; Jabbar, Q.; Nadeem, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of Chaudhri's method for charged-particle activation analysis published in J. Radioanal. Chem. (1977) v. 37 p. 243 has been further demonstrated by extensive calculations. The nuclear reactions 12 C(d,n) 13 N, 63 Cu( 3 He,p) 65 Zn, 107 Ag(α,n) 110 In and 208 Pb(d,p) 209 Pb, the cross sections of which were easily available, have been examined for the detection of 12 C, 63 Cu, 107 Ag and 208 Pb, respectively, in matrices of Cu, Zr and Pb, at the bombarding energies of 4 - 22 MeV. The 'standard' is assumed to be in a carbon matrix. It has been clearly demonstrated that Chaudhri's method, which makes the charged particle activation analysis as simple as neutron activation analysis, provides results which are almost identical to, or only about 1-2 % different, from the results obtained using the full 'Activity Equation' involving solving complex integrals. It is valid even when the difference in the average atomic weights of matrices of the standard and the sample is large. (author)

  7. Development and analysis of finite volume methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, P.

    2010-05-01

    This document is a synthesis of a set of works concerning the development and the analysis of finite volume methods used for the numerical approximation of partial differential equations (PDEs) stemming from physics. In the first part, the document deals with co-localized Godunov type schemes for the Maxwell and wave equations, with a study on the loss of precision of this scheme at low Mach number. In the second part, discrete differential operators are built on fairly general, in particular very distorted or nonconforming, bidimensional meshes. These operators are used to approach the solutions of PDEs modelling diffusion, electro and magneto-statics and electromagnetism by the discrete duality finite volume method (DDFV) on staggered meshes. The third part presents the numerical analysis and some a priori as well as a posteriori error estimations for the discretization of the Laplace equation by the DDFV scheme. The last part is devoted to the order of convergence in the L2 norm of the finite volume approximation of the solution of the Laplace equation in one dimension and on meshes with orthogonality properties in two dimensions. Necessary and sufficient conditions, relatively to the mesh geometry and to the regularity of the data, are provided that ensure the second-order convergence of the method. (author)

  8. Creep analysis by the path function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, J.E.; Pardue, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The finite element method has become a common analysis procedure for the creep analysis of structures. The most recent programs are designed to handle a general class of material properties and are able to calculate elastic, plastic, and creep components of strain under general loading histories. The constant stress approach is too crude a model to accurately represent the actual behaviour of the stress for large time steps. The true path of a point in the effective stress-effective strain (sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c)) plane is often one in which the slope is rapidly changing. Thus the stress level quickly moves away from the initial stress level and then gradually approaches the final one. The result is that the assumed constant stress level quickly becomes inaccurate. What is required is a better method of approximation of the true path in the sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c) space. The method described here is called the path function approach because it employs an assumed function to estimate the motion of points in the sigmasup(e)-epsilonsup(c) space. (Auth.)

  9. Earthquake Hazard Analysis Methods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, A. M.; Fakhrurrozi, A.

    2018-02-01

    One of natural disasters that have significantly impacted on risks and damage is an earthquake. World countries such as China, Japan, and Indonesia are countries located on the active movement of continental plates with more frequent earthquake occurrence compared to other countries. Several methods of earthquake hazard analysis have been done, for example by analyzing seismic zone and earthquake hazard micro-zonation, by using Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (N-DSHA) method, and by using Remote Sensing. In its application, it is necessary to review the effectiveness of each technique in advance. Considering the efficiency of time and the accuracy of data, remote sensing is used as a reference to the assess earthquake hazard accurately and quickly as it only takes a limited time required in the right decision-making shortly after the disaster. Exposed areas and possibly vulnerable areas due to earthquake hazards can be easily analyzed using remote sensing. Technological developments in remote sensing such as GeoEye-1 provide added value and excellence in the use of remote sensing as one of the methods in the assessment of earthquake risk and damage. Furthermore, the use of this technique is expected to be considered in designing policies for disaster management in particular and can reduce the risk of natural disasters such as earthquakes in Indonesia.

  10. DNAJB9 Is a Specific Immunohistochemical Marker for Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samih H. Nasr

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: DNAJB9 immunohistochemistry is sensitive and specific for FGN. Incorporation of this novel immunohistochemical biomarker into clinical practice will now allow more rapid and accurate diagnosis of this disease.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in oral submucous fibrosis: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Gauri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a form of pathological fibrosis affecting the oral mucosa. There is compelling evidence to implicate the habitual chewing of areca nut with the development of OSF. Because collagens are the major structural components of connective tissues, including oral submucosa, the composition of collagen within each tissue needs to be precisely regulated to maintain tissue integrity. Arecoline stimulates fibroblasts to increase the production of collagen by 150%. Aim: As the role of collagenase is implicated in cleaving the collagen under physical conditions, this study was carried out to evaluate the role of collagenase-1 (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1 in a pathologic condition like OSF. Settings and Design: A total of 40 patients were included in the study, comprising of 30 OSF as Group 1 and 10 normal buccal mucosa tissue as Group 2. Materials and Methods: Both the groups were stained for MMP-1 by the immunohistochemical method using the streptavidin HRP-biotin labeling technique. MMP-1 expression intensity in the epithelium and connective tissue was decreased in Group 1 when compared to Group 2. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test of association was used to determine the difference in the expression of MMP-1 between OSF and normal buccal mucosa and among different histological gradings of OSF. Results: The results were statistically significant. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the expression of MMP-1 among different histological grades of OSF in Group 1.

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of HE4 in benign, borderline, and malignant lesions of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Penelope; Mehmood, Saira; Akalin, Ali; Shroyer, Kenneth R

    2012-11-01

    Despite advances in the development of novel methods to improve treatment, ovarian carcinoma is still the leading cause of gynecologic cancer death in the United States and other industrialized nations. Improvements in the clinical outcome of ovarian cancer will be achieved if methods can be developed to enable the detection of these tumors at the earliest possible stage. Thus, it is critically important to identify and validate new biomarkers of ovarian cancer. HE4 expression was defined by immunohistochemical analysis of a wide range of benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian lesions, including serous, endometrioid, mucinous, and clear cell lesions of the ovary and in primary tubal carcinomas and the normal fallopian tube. At the cellular level, HE4 was highly expressed in malignant ovarian tumors and in a wide range of benign and borderline ovarian lesions. In addition, HE4 was highly expressed in primary fallopian tube carcinomas and benign fallopian tubal epithelial cells. These results support the conclusion that HE4 is widely expressed in most benign, borderline, and malignant lesions of the ovary and the fallopian tube. The detection of HE4 expression at high levels in some benign lesions and normal tissues suggests that HE4 could have limited specificity as a marker of ovarian or tubal carcinoma. Furthermore, the relatively weak expression that was observed in many ovarian carcinomas indicates that HE4 could fail to detect some cases of primary or recurrent disease.

  13. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas: an immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dizon, M A; Multhaupt, H A; Paskin, D L

    1996-01-01

    A case of an osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas is presented. Immunohistochemical studies were performed, which showed keratin (CAM, AE1) and epithelial membrane antigen positivity in the tumor cells. The findings support an epithelial origin for this tumor.......A case of an osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas is presented. Immunohistochemical studies were performed, which showed keratin (CAM, AE1) and epithelial membrane antigen positivity in the tumor cells. The findings support an epithelial origin for this tumor....

  14. Sensitivity analysis of the Two Geometry Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichers, V.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Two Geometry Method (TGM) was designed specifically for the verification of the uranium enrichment of low enriched UF 6 gas in the presence of uranium deposits on the pipe walls. Complications can arise if the TGM is applied under extreme conditions, such as deposits larger than several times the gas activity, small pipe diameters less than 40 mm and low pressures less than 150 Pa. This report presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the TGM. The impact of the various sources of uncertainty on the performance of the method is discussed. The application to a practical case is based on worst case conditions with regards to the measurement conditions, and on realistic conditions with respect to the false alarm probability and the non detection probability. Monte Carlo calculations were used to evaluate the sensitivity for sources of uncertainty which are experimentally inaccessible. (orig.)

  15. Blood proteins analysis by Raman spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, D. N.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Khristoforova, Yu. A.; Lykina, A. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Kuzmina, T. P.; Davydkin, I. L.; Zakharov, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    This work is devoted to study the possibility of plasma proteins (albumin, globulins) concentration measurement using Raman spectroscopy setup. The blood plasma and whole blood were studied in this research. The obtained Raman spectra showed significant variation of intensities of certain spectral bands 940, 1005, 1330, 1450 and 1650 cm-1 for different protein fractions. Partial least squares regression analysis was used for determination of correlation coefficients. We have shown that the proposed method represents the structure and biochemical composition of major blood proteins.

  16. Moessbauer lineshape analysis by the DISPA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the Moessbauer spectral parameters and hence, the structural and magnetic properties the lineshape should be known. A plot of dispersion versus absorption (DISPA plot) for a pure Lorentzian gives a perfect circle. Directions and magnitudes of DISPA distortions from this reference circle point out the kind of line-broadening mechanism observed. A possibility of the application of the DISPA technique in the Moessbauer lineshape analysis is dealt with in this paper. The method is verified on Moessbauer spectra of sodium nitroprusside, natural iron, and stainless steel. The lineshape of an amorphous metallic alloy Fe 40 Ni 40 B 20 is studied by means of the DISPA plots. (author)

  17. Electromagnetic compatibility methods, analysis, circuits, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2016-01-01

    Revised, updated, and expanded, Electromagnetic Compatibility: Methods, Analysis, Circuits, and Measurement, Third Edition provides comprehensive practical coverage of the design, problem solving, and testing of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in electrical and electronic equipment and systems. This new edition provides novel information on theory, applications, evaluations, electromagnetic computational programs, and prediction techniques available. With sixty-nine schematics providing examples for circuit level electromagnetic interference (EMI) hardening and cost effective EMI problem solving, this book also includes 1130 illustrations and tables. Including extensive data on components and their correct implementation, the myths, misapplication, misconceptions, and fallacies that are common when discussing EMC/EMI will also be addressed and corrected.

  18. Method and apparatus for simultaneous spectroelectrochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Bryan, Samuel A; Schroll, Cynthia A; Heineman, William R

    2013-11-19

    An apparatus and method of simultaneous spectroelectrochemical analysis is disclosed. A transparent surface is provided. An analyte solution on the transparent surface is contacted with a working electrode and at least one other electrode. Light from a light source is focused on either a surface of the working electrode or the analyte solution. The light reflected from either the surface of the working electrode or the analyte solution is detected. The potential of the working electrode is adjusted, and spectroscopic changes of the analyte solution that occur with changes in thermodynamic potentials are monitored.

  19. [Esophageal sarcomatoid carcinoma: report of a case with morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regragui, Asmaa; Lakhdar, Hind; Abderrahman Alaoui Belabbas, Moulay; Amrani, Meryem; Gamra, Lamia; Alaoui Belabbas, Mohamed

    2004-05-01

    Sarcomatoïd carcinoma is a rare tumor of the esophagus, characterized macroscopically by a polypoid aspect and histologically by the association of spindle cell carcinoma with sarcomatous pleomorphic component. We report here a case of esophagus sarcomatoïd carcinoma. Diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical analysis of tIssue samples. Human papillomavirus (HVP) detection by PCR amplification of DNA extracted from tumoral tIssue was negative, ruling out the role of HPV infection in this tumor.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of the digestive tract of Oligosarcus hepsetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Lopes, Danielle A; Pinheiro, Nadja L; Sales, Armando; Ventura, Adriana; Araújo, Francisco G; Gomes, Iracema D; Nascimento, Aparecida A

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To describe the histology of the digestive tract and to investigate the occurrence of endocrine cells in Oligosarcus hepsetus (O. hepsetus). METHODS: The digestive tract (DT) of O. hepsetus was divided into esophagus, two stomach regions (glandular and non-glandular) and two intestinal regions (anterior and posterior). These specimens were processed by routine histological techniques and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gomori’s trichrome, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue (AB). An immunohistochemical method using avidin-biotin-peroxidase was employed. RESULTS: The esophagus is lined with a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is reactive to PAS and AB. The stomach has a mucosa lined with a simple columnar epithelium with mucus-secreting cells that are reactive only to PAS. The intestine has a simple columnar epithelium with a brush border and goblet cells that are reactive to PAS and AB. Somatostatin, serotonin and cholecystokinin immunoreactive cells were identified throughout the DT. CONCLUSION: This study revealed adaptations for the species’ diet and showed that the distribution and relative frequency of immunoreactive cells are similar to those of other fish. PMID:23569337

  1. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 2, Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    ideas behind the analysis methods are described as well as the mathematics on which they are based and also how the methods are supported by computer tools. Some parts of the volume are theoretical while others are application oriented. The purpose of the volume is to teach the reader how to use......This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets (CP-nets). The second volume contains a detailed presentation of the analysis methods for CP-nets. They allow the modeller to investigate dynamic properties of CP-nets. The main...... the formal analysis methods, which does not require a deep understanding of the underlying mathematical theory....

  2. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.; Queenan, C.J. III

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  3. Analysis of methods. [information systems evolution environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J. (Editor); Ackley, Keith A.; Wells, M. Sue; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Decker, Louis P.; Toland, Joel A.; Crump, J. Wesley; Menzel, Christopher P.; Bodenmiller, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Information is one of an organization's most important assets. For this reason the development and maintenance of an integrated information system environment is one of the most important functions within a large organization. The Integrated Information Systems Evolution Environment (IISEE) project has as one of its primary goals a computerized solution to the difficulties involved in the development of integrated information systems. To develop such an environment a thorough understanding of the enterprise's information needs and requirements is of paramount importance. This document is the current release of the research performed by the Integrated Development Support Environment (IDSE) Research Team in support of the IISEE project. Research indicates that an integral part of any information system environment would be multiple modeling methods to support the management of the organization's information. Automated tool support for these methods is necessary to facilitate their use in an integrated environment. An integrated environment makes it necessary to maintain an integrated database which contains the different kinds of models developed under the various methodologies. In addition, to speed the process of development of models, a procedure or technique is needed to allow automatic translation from one methodology's representation to another while maintaining the integrity of both. The purpose for the analysis of the modeling methods included in this document is to examine these methods with the goal being to include them in an integrated development support environment. To accomplish this and to develop a method for allowing intra-methodology and inter-methodology model element reuse, a thorough understanding of multiple modeling methodologies is necessary. Currently the IDSE Research Team is investigating the family of Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) DEFinition (IDEF) languages IDEF(0), IDEF(1), and IDEF(1x), as well as ENALIM, Entity

  4. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  5. Cleanup standards and pathways analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Remediation of a radioactively contaminated site requires that certain regulatory criteria be met before the site can be released for unrestricted future use. Since the ultimate objective of remediation is to protect the public health and safety, residual radioactivity levels remaining at a site after cleanup must be below certain preset limits or meet acceptable dose or risk criteria. Release of a decontaminated site requires proof that the radiological data obtained from the site meet the regulatory criteria for such a release. Typically release criteria consist of a composite of acceptance limits that depend on the radionuclides, the media in which they are present, and federal and local regulations. In recent years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a pathways analysis model to determine site-specific soil activity concentration guidelines for radionuclides that do not have established generic acceptance limits. The DOE pathways analysis computer code (developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the DOE) is called RESRAD (Gilbert et al. 1989). Similar efforts have been initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and use dose-related criteria based on genetic pathways analyses rather than simplistic numerical limits on residual radioactivity. The focus of this paper is radionuclide contaminated soil. Cleanup standards are reviewed, pathways analysis methods are described, and an example is presented in which RESRAD was used to derive cleanup guidelines

  6. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daaviittila, A.

    2003-10-01

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  7. Generalized Analysis of a Distribution Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Separating two probability distributions from a mixture model that is made up of the combinations of the two is essential to a wide range of applications. For example, in information retrieval (IR, there often exists a mixture distribution consisting of a relevance distribution that we need to estimate and an irrelevance distribution that we hope to get rid of. Recently, a distribution separation method (DSM was proposed to approximate the relevance distribution, by separating a seed irrelevance distribution from the mixture distribution. It was successfully applied to an IR task, namely pseudo-relevance feedback (PRF, where the query expansion model is often a mixture term distribution. Although initially developed in the context of IR, DSM is indeed a general mathematical formulation for probability distribution separation. Thus, it is important to further generalize its basic analysis and to explore its connections to other related methods. In this article, we first extend DSM’s theoretical analysis, which was originally based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, to entropy-related measures, including the KL-divergence (Kullback–Leibler divergence, the symmetrized KL-divergence and the JS-divergence (Jensen–Shannon divergence. Second, we investigate the distribution separation idea in a well-known method, namely the mixture model feedback (MMF approach. We prove that MMF also complies with the linear combination assumption, and then, DSM’s linear separation algorithm can largely simplify the EM algorithm in MMF. These theoretical analyses, as well as further empirical evaluation results demonstrate the advantages of our DSM approach.

  8. Method development for trace and ultratrace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Method development, that is, selection of a mode of chromatography and the right column and mobile-phase combination for trace and ultratrace analysis, requires several main considerations. The method should be useful for resolving various trace and ultratrace components present in the sample. If the nature of these components is known, the choice of method may be straightforward, that is, a selection can be made from the following modes of HPLC: (1) adsorption chromatography; (2) normal-phase chromatography; (3) reversed-phase chromatography; (4) ion-pair chromatography; (5) ion-exchange chromatography; (6) ion chromatography. Unfortunately, the nature of all of the components is frequently unknown. However, several intelligent judgments can be made on the nature of impurities. This chapter deals with some basic approaches to mobile-phase selection and optimization. More detailed information may be found in basic texts. Techniques for separation of high-molecular-weight compounds (macromolecules) and chiral compounds may be found elsewhere. Mainly compounds with molecular weight lower than 2,000 are discussed here. 123 refs

  9. Novel Method of Production Decline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan; Lan, Yifei; He, Lei; Jiao, Yang; Wu, Yong

    2018-02-01

    ARPS decline curves is the most commonly used in oil and gas field due to its minimal data requirements and ease application. And prediction of production decline which is based on ARPS analysis rely on known decline type. However, when coefficient index are very approximate under different decline type, it is difficult to directly recognize decline trend of matched curves. Due to difficulties above, based on simulation results of multi-factor response experiments, a new dynamic decline prediction model is introduced with using multiple linear regression of influence factors. First of all, according to study of effect factors of production decline, interaction experimental schemes are designed. Based on simulated results, annual decline rate is predicted by decline model. Moreover, the new method is applied in A gas filed of Ordos Basin as example to illustrate reliability. The result commit that the new model can directly predict decline tendency without needing recognize decline style. From arithmetic aspect, it also take advantage of high veracity. Finally, the new method improves the evaluation method of gas well production decline in low permeability gas reservoir, which also provides technical support for further understanding of tight gas field development laws.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony and likelihood methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z

    1996-02-01

    The assumptions underlying the maximum-parsimony (MP) method of phylogenetic tree reconstruction were intuitively examined by studying the way the method works. Computer simulations were performed to corroborate the intuitive examination. Parsimony appears to involve very stringent assumptions concerning the process of sequence evolution, such as constancy of substitution rates between nucleotides, constancy of rates across nucleotide sites, and equal branch lengths in the tree. For practical data analysis, the requirement of equal branch lengths means similar substitution rates among lineages (the existence of an approximate molecular clock), relatively long interior branches, and also few species in the data. However, a small amount of evolution is neither a necessary nor a sufficient requirement of the method. The difficulties involved in the application of current statistical estimation theory to tree reconstruction were discussed, and it was suggested that the approach proposed by Felsenstein (1981, J. Mol. Evol. 17: 368-376) for topology estimation, as well as its many variations and extensions, differs fundamentally from the maximum likelihood estimation of a conventional statistical parameter. Evidence was presented showing that the Felsenstein approach does not share the asymptotic efficiency of the maximum likelihood estimator of a statistical parameter. Computer simulations were performed to study the probability that MP recovers the true tree under a hierarchy of models of nucleotide substitution; its performance relative to the likelihood method was especially noted. The results appeared to support the intuitive examination of the assumptions underlying MP. When a simple model of nucleotide substitution was assumed to generate data, the probability that MP recovers the true topology could be as high as, or even higher than, that for the likelihood method. When the assumed model became more complex and realistic, e.g., when substitution rates were

  11. External event analysis methods for NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, M.P.; Lambright, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring probabilistic risk assessments of six operating commercial nuclear power plants as part of a major update of the understanding of risk as provided by the original WASH-1400 risk assessments. In contrast to the WASH-1400 studies, at least two of the NUREG-1150 risk assessments will include an analysis of risks due to earthquakes, fires, floods, etc., which are collectively known as eternal events. This paper summarizes the methods to be used in the external event analysis for NUREG-1150 and the results obtained to date. The two plants for which external events are being considered are Surry and Peach Bottom, a PWR and BWR respectively. The external event analyses (through core damage frequency calculations) were completed in June 1989, with final documentation available in September. In contrast to most past external event analyses, wherein rudimentary systems models were developed reflecting each external event under consideration, the simplified NUREG-1150 analyses are based on the availability of the full internal event PRA systems models (event trees and fault trees) and make use of extensive computer-aided screening to reduce them to sequence cut sets important to each external event. This provides two major advantages in that consistency and scrutability with respect to the internal event analysis is achieved, and the full gamut of random and test/maintenance unavailabilities are automatically included, while only those probabilistically important survive the screening process. Thus, full benefit of the internal event analysis is obtained by performing the internal and external event analyses sequentially

  12. Spectral Analysis Methods of Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks (such as Facebook, Twitter, VKontakte, etc. being an important channel for disseminating information are often used to arrange an impact on the social consciousness for various purposes - from advertising products or services to the full-scale information war thereby making them to be a very relevant object of research. The paper reviewed the analysis methods of social networks (primarily, online, based on the spectral theory of graphs. Such methods use the spectrum of the social graph, i.e. a set of eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix, and also the eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix.Described measures of centrality (in particular, centrality based on the eigenvector and PageRank, which reflect a degree of impact one or another user of the social network has. A very popular PageRank measure uses, as a measure of centrality, the graph vertices, the final probabilities of the Markov chain, whose matrix of transition probabilities is calculated on the basis of the adjacency matrix of the social graph. The vector of final probabilities is an eigenvector of the matrix of transition probabilities.Presented a method of dividing the graph vertices into two groups. It is based on maximizing the network modularity by computing the eigenvector of the modularity matrix.Considered a method for detecting bots based on the non-randomness measure of a graph to be computed using the spectral coordinates of vertices - sets of eigenvector components of the adjacency matrix of a social graph.In general, there are a number of algorithms to analyse social networks based on the spectral theory of graphs. These algorithms show very good results, but their disadvantage is the relatively high (albeit polynomial computational complexity for large graphs.At the same time it is obvious that the practical application capacity of the spectral graph theory methods is still underestimated, and it may be used as a basis to develop new methods.The work

  13. Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Albuquerque, NM; Phillips, Cynthia A [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-03-14

    A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

  14. Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblast density in odontogenic cysts and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Halimi, Monireh; Jabbari, Golchin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate myofibroblast (MF) density in a broad spectrum of odontogenic cysts and tumors and the relation between the density of MFs and the clinical behavior of these lesions. Methods. A total of 105 cases of odontogenic lesions, including unicystic ameloblastoma (UAM), solid ameloblastoma (SA), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), radicular cyst (RC) (15 for each category), and odontogenic myxoma (OM), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) (10 for each category), were immunohistochemically stained with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The mean percentage of positive cells in 10 high-power fields was considered as MF density for each case. Results. A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean scores between the study groups (P 0.05). The number of MFs was significantly higher in OKC and lower in COC compared to other odontogenic cysts (P = 0.007 and P = 0.045, respectively). Conclusion. The results of the present study suggest a role for MFs in the aggressive behavior of odontogenic lesions. MFs may represent an important target of therapy, especially for aggressive odontogenic lesions. Our findings support the classification of OKC in the category of odontogenic tumors.

  15. Immunohistochemical Assessment of HER3 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Marieh; Saravani, Shirin; Kamyab, Nazanin; Jahantigh, Mehdi; Torabi Parizi, Molouk

    2015-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that HER3 plays an important role in some human cancers and the HER3 expression is associated with worse survival in solid tumors. This study was conducted to compare HER3 expression in epithelial lining of radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs). This was a descriptive-analytical study, which assessed all 57 paraffin blocks of RCs, DCs and OKCs (21 RCs, 16 DCs, 20 OKC) from pathological archive of Dentistry College of Zahedan, Iran. The HER3 expression in cytoplasm and membrane was examined by immunohistochemical method. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS16 by ANOVA and Chi-square. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The HER3 expression had positive results in 52.4% of OKC, 50% of DC and only 20% of RC samples. There was a significant difference between HER3 expression in OKCs and RCs. The HER3 expression in developmental odontogenic cysts was higher than that in inflammatory odontogenic cysts. The higher rate of HER3 expression in OKC may justify inherent growth potential, stimulation-independent proliferation capability, invasive growth and high recurrence rate of the cyst accepted today as a tumor.

  16. Hirschsprung's disease diagnosis: Comparison of immunohistochemical, hematoxilin and eosin staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Talebi, Ardeshir; Edalaty, Masod; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Vahidi, Nasrin

    2009-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is based on the absence of ganglion cells. In hemotoxilin and eosin (H and E) as well as acetylcholine esterase staining there are limitations in the diagnosis of immature ganglion cells in neonates. Methods: In this prospective study, 54 biopsies taken from suspected HD patients (five mucosal specimens and 49 full thickness specimens) were studied. In the laboratory, after preparing sections of paraffin embedded tissues, H and E staining slides were compared with immunohistochemical (IHC) staining including: S100, NSE, CD117, CD56, Cathepsin D, Vimentin, BCL2, GFAP, Synaptophysin and chromogranin. Results: The study revealed 30 negative (absence of ganglion cells) cases (55.5%), 17 positive cases (31.04%) and seven suspected cases (12.9%) of ganglion cells on the H and E staining. On IHC staining with CD56 and Cathepsin D, all of the 17 positive cases detected through H and E, were confirmed for having ganglion cells and out of 30 cases reported negative on H and E staining, 28(93.3%) were reported negative and two (6.7%) positive by IHC staining. Of the seven suspected cases H and E staining), IHC staining detectedganglion cells only in five slides; two remained negative. Conclusions: IHC staining using CD56 and Cathepsin D improved the accuracy of diagnosis in HD when used in addition to H and E staining technique, especially for negative or suspicious slides. PMID:20671847

  17. Estrogen receptors in human thyroid gland. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, Shaukat A.; Shah, Munawar H.; Jamal, Qamar; Meo, Sultan A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the estrogen receptors (ER) status (present in the nucleous of cell) in the thyroid gland tissues. For this purpose 50 previously diagnosed cases of various thyroid lesions were selected from the Surgical Pathology Records of Pathology Department, Basic Medical Sciences Institute,Jinnah Postgraduate. Medical Center,Karachi,Pakistan between March and August 2000.The staining was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embeded tissues using monoclonal anti-ER anti-body (clone1D5).Out of 50 cases,8 were noduler goiter,9 cases of adenoma 19 papillary carcinoma, 10 follicular and 4 cases were of medullary carcinoma. Surrounding normal tissue was available in 25 (50%) cases, 4 non-neoplastic and 21 neoplastic lesions.Out of 50 cases ,10(20%) and 40(80%) were females, the youngest patient was a 15-year-old female and the eldest patient was a 56-years-old male. Despite the availability of normal thyroid tissue and a wide range of lesions, none of our cases showed the positive staining. In contrary to many earlier reports by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibody (clone1D5) on formalin- fixed praffin-embedded thyroid tissues, the ER is not detectable. The effect of Estrogen on thyroid gland may be indirect one. (author)

  18. Quantitative Risk Analysis: Method And Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass BAYAGA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent and past studies (King III report, 2009: 73-75; Stoney 2007;Committee of Sponsoring Organisation-COSO, 2004, Bartell, 2003; Liebenberg and Hoyt, 2003; Reason, 2000; Markowitz 1957 lament that although, the introduction of quantifying risk to enhance degree of objectivity in finance for instance was quite parallel to its development in the manufacturing industry, it is not the same in Higher Education Institution (HEI. In this regard, the objective of the paper was to demonstrate the methods and process of Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA through likelihood of occurrence of risk (phase I. This paper serves as first of a two-phased study, which sampled hundred (100 risk analysts in a University in the greater Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.The analysis of likelihood of occurrence of risk by logistic regression and percentages were conducted to investigate whether there were a significant difference or not between groups (analyst in respect of QRA.The Hosmer and Lemeshow test was non-significant with a chi-square(X2 =8.181; p = 0.300, which indicated that there was a good model fit, since the data did not significantly deviate from the model. The study concluded that to derive an overall likelihood rating that indicated the probability that a potential risk may be exercised within the construct of an associated threat environment, the following governing factors must be considered: (1 threat source motivation and capability (2 nature of the vulnerability (3 existence and effectiveness of current controls (methods and process.

  19. Fas/FasL expression in colorectal cancer. An immunohistochemical study.

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    Katarzyna Guzińska-Ustymowicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to assess the expression of Fas ligand (FasL and Fas receptor (FasR as the proteins of the post-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in colorectal carcinoma and to investigate correlations between their expression and chosen clinico-pathological parameters. The protein expression was analyzed in 50 colorectal carcinoma patients, using the immunohistochemical method. Reaction for FasR was weak in 75.5% and strong in 24.5% of the study patients, as compared to normal glandular epithelium where FasR expression was strong in 100% of cases. On the other hand, FasL expression was found to be weak in 30% and strong in 70% of colorectal cancer patients, as compared to its lack in 100% of normal colorectal epithelium. Statistical analysis showed strong expression of FasL was found to correlate statistically significantly with vascular invasion (p = 0.005. No correlations of FasL and FasR expression in the main mass of tumor was found between other clinic-pathological parameters. Fas ligand and Fas receptor appeared to be of little usefulness as prognostic factors for different groups of colorectal carcinoma patients. However, these proteins could become good therapeutic targets for colorectal carcinoma since their expression differs distinctly between normal intestinal epithelium and cancer cells, and known is the mechanism by which cancer cells escape death via apoptosis-inducing Fas/FasL pathway disorders.

  20. Innervation and immunohistochemical characteristics of epididymis in Alpaca camelid (Vicugna pacos

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    Giovanna Liguori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpacas (Vicugna pacos are domesticated camelids indigenous to south America and recently also bred in Europe and Italy for their high quality wool. There is little data available regarding the innervation of the male reproductive tract of this species. In the present study, the distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5, neuropeptide Y (NPY, tyrosine hydroxilase (TH, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP was analyzed in the epididymis by using immunohistochemical methods. Specimens of the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis were fixed in Bouin’s fluid and processed for immunohistochemistry analysis with primary antibodies against PGP 9.5, NPY, TH, CGRP and SP. Immunopositivity to PGP 9.5 and TH and NPY was observed in nerve fibre bundles and in single nerve fibres contained into the peritubular connective tissue. Many TH and NPY immunopositive cells were found to innervate blood vessels. Rare CGRP and SP immunopositive nerves were observed. Several PGP 9,5 and NPY immunopositive epithelial cells were observed in the caput epididymis. The results of the present study suggest a role for the innervations in modulate reproductive functions in the alpaca epididymis.

  1. Detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis with cathepsin D: An immunohistochemical approach

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    Seema Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CD has been associated with tumor progression in malignant tumors including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The purpose of this study was to find out any association between the CD and lymph node metastasis and to study the correlation of CD with various clinicopathological parameters to aid in assessment of its role as a prognostic indicator. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 20 OSCC samples with polyclonal antibody against CD. Positive results indicative of the presence of CD were further analyzed to determine any correlation between the CD and other clinicopathological parameters. Pearson Chi-square analyses, Spearsman correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal Wallis test and student t test were used for statistical analysis (P < 0.05. Results: Patients with lymph node metastasis showed statistically significant increase in CD expression (P < 0.01. Increasing tumor size seemed to correlate with increased CD expression (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Based on its association with other clinicopathological variables, CD expression can be used for the assessment of patient survival in cases of OSCC.

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of ezrin in oral potentially malignant disorders-A descriptive study

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    Raghini Mohanraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ezrin, also known as cytovillin, is a member of the ERM family of protein. Ezrin cross-links actin filament with the plasma membrane. They are involved in the formation of microvilli, cell–cell adhesion, maintenance of cell shape, cell motility, and membrane trafficking. Recent analysis reveals their involvement in signaling pathways. Ezrin is highly expressed in several types of human cancers, and correlation between its immunoreactivity and histopathological data as well as the patient outcome has previously been studied. Objective: The objective of the study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression pattern of ezrin in oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs, namely, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF with different grades and clinically leucoplakia (hyperkeratosis with various degree of dysplasia and its use as a predictive marker for malignant transformation. Subjects and Methods: Sample size n = 43, histopathologically confirmed cases of OPMDs (13 cases of OSMF with different grades and 30 cases of clinically leukoplakia were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Immunohistochemistry was done using anti-ezrin antibody, and the expression was graded in terms of proportion and intensity. Results: There was a significant expression of ezrin in OPMDs, and its cytoplasmic shift can be used as a predictive marker for malignant transformation. Conclusion: The findings of the current study revealed that the expression of ezrin in OPMDs may be related to the progression of the disease.

  3. The mammographic correlations of a new immunohistochemical classification of invasive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sheeba_taneja@yahoo.co.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Rakha, E.A.; Green, A.R. [Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ball, G. [Nottingham Trent University, School of Biomedical and Natural Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ellis, I.O. [Division of Pathology, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Aim: Recent protein expression profiling of breast cancer has identified specific subtypes with clinical, biological, and therapeutic implications. The aim of this study was to identify the mammographic correlates of these novel molecular classes of invasive breast cancer. Materials and methods: The mammographic findings of 415 patients with operable breast cancer were correlated with the previously described protein expression classes identified by our group using immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of a large series of breast cancer cases prepared as tissue microarrays (TMAs). Twenty-five proteins of known relevance in breast cancer were assessed, including hormone receptors, HER-2 status, basal and luminal markers, p53 expression, and E-cadherin. Results: The mammographic background pattern and proportion of lesions that were mammographically occult were similar in all groups. Groups characterized by luminal and hormone receptor positivity had significantly more spiculate lesions at mammography. Groups characterized by HER-2 overexpression, basal characteristics, and E-cadherin positivity had a significantly higher proportion of ill-defined masses. These findings were independent of histological grade. Conclusion: The mammographic features of breast cancer show significant correlation with molecular classes of invasive breast cancer identified by protein expression IHC analysis. The biological reasons for the findings and implications of these regarding imaging protocols require further study and may provide mechanisms for improvement of detection of these lesions.

  4. Cutting needle biopsy combined with immunohistochemical study of myeloperoxidase for the diagnosis of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakawa, Hiroyuki; Orita, Yorihisa; Sato, Yasuharu; Takeuchi, Mai; Ohno, Kyotaro; Iwaki, Noriko; Ito, Toshihiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2013-12-01

    Cutting needle biopsy (CNB) combined with immunohistochemical study of myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a useful minimally invasive diagnostic procedure for histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL). HNL is mainly diagnosed by pathological findings of open surgical biopsy (OSB) specimens. Recently the appearance of anti-MPO positive histiocytes has been reported as a highly specific pathological diagnosis for HNL. Considering the cosmetic impact and burden on the patients, we performed CNB combined with immunohistochemical study of MPO for the diagnosis of HNL. Few studies have reported the utility of this method in the diagnosis of HNL. A retrospective study was conducted using clinical data from 20 HNL patients. CNB was performed in 8 patients and OSB in 13 (OSB after CNB in 1). MPO-positive histiocytes were observed in all of the 20 cases. The accuracy of the diagnoses was finally confirmed by the clinical courses in all cases.

  5. Immunohistochemical evaluation of proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenic enzymes in the ovary of rats with polycystic ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Leonardo Augusto; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Maganhin, Carla Cristina; Baracat, Maria Cândida Pinheiro; Silva-Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Soares, José Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2014-07-01

    to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferative, apoptotic and steroidogenic enzyme markers in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). twenty rats were divided into two groups: GCtrl - estrous phase, and PCOS - with polycystic ovaries. The GCtrl animals were subjected to a lighting period from 7 am to 7 pm, while the animals with PCOS group remained with continuous lighting for 60 days. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized, the ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formaldehyde, prior to paraffin embedding. Sections were stained using H.E. or subjected to immunohistochemical methods for the detection of Ki-67, cleaved caspase-3, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test (p ovaries of rats with PCOS, responsible for the high levels of androgens and estradiol.

  6. Preliminary hazard analysis using sequence tree method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huiwen; Shih Chunkuan; Hung Hungchih; Chen Minghuei; Yih Swu; Lin Jiinming

    2007-01-01

    A system level PHA using sequence tree method was developed to perform Safety Related digital I and C system SSA. The conventional PHA is a brainstorming session among experts on various portions of the system to identify hazards through discussions. However, this conventional PHA is not a systematic technique, the analysis results strongly depend on the experts' subjective opinions. The analysis quality cannot be appropriately controlled. Thereby, this research developed a system level sequence tree based PHA, which can clarify the relationship among the major digital I and C systems. Two major phases are included in this sequence tree based technique. The first phase uses a table to analyze each event in SAR Chapter 15 for a specific safety related I and C system, such as RPS. The second phase uses sequence tree to recognize what I and C systems are involved in the event, how the safety related systems work, and how the backup systems can be activated to mitigate the consequence if the primary safety systems fail. In the sequence tree, the defense-in-depth echelons, including Control echelon, Reactor trip echelon, ESFAS echelon, and Indication and display echelon, are arranged to construct the sequence tree structure. All the related I and C systems, include digital system and the analog back-up systems are allocated in their specific echelon. By this system centric sequence tree based analysis, not only preliminary hazard can be identified systematically, the vulnerability of the nuclear power plant can also be recognized. Therefore, an effective simplified D3 evaluation can be performed as well. (author)

  7. CARBON SEQUESTRATION: A METHODS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher J. Koroneos; Dimitrios C. Rovas

    2008-01-01

    All human activities are related with the energy consumption. Energy requirements will continue to rise, due to the modern life and the developing countries growth. Most of the energy demand emanates from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels combustion has negative environmental impacts, with the CO 2 production to be dominating. The fulfillment of the Kyoto protocol criteria requires the minimization of CO 2 emissions. Thus the management of the CO 2 emissions is an urgent matter. The use of appliances with low energy use and the adoption of an energy policy that prevents the unnecessary energy use, can play lead to the reduction of carbon emissions. A different route is the introduction of ''clean'' energy sources, such as renewable energy sources. Last but not least, the development of carbon sequestration methods can be promising technique with big future potential. The objective of this work is the analysis and comparison of different carbon sequestration and deposit methods. Ocean deposit, land ecosystems deposit, geological formations deposit and radical biological and chemical approaches will be analyzed

  8. Recent improvement of the resonance analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirakov, I.; Lukyanov, A.

    2000-01-01

    By the use of a two-step method called Combined, the R-matrix Wigner-Eisenbud representation in the resonance reaction theory has been converted into other equivalent representations (parameterizations) of the collision matrix with Poles in E domain. Two of them called Capture Elimination (CE) and Reaction Elimination (RE) representation respectively, have energy independent parameters and are both rigorous and applicable. The CE representation is essentially a generalization of the Reich-Moore (RM) formalism. The RE representation, in turn, offers some distinct advantages when analyzing fissile nuclei. The latter does not require any approximation for the capture channels and does not need any assumption about the number of fission channels in contrast to the RM representation. Unlike the RM parameters the RE ones are uniquely determined for applications in the resonance analysis. When given in the RE representation, neutron cross sections of fissile nuclei in the resolved resonance region are presented through simple scalar expressions without the need of matrix inversion. Various computer codes have been developed to demonstrate the viability of the new method. The RM parameters of the fissile nuclei have been converted into equivalent RE parameters implying the RM assumptions (REFINE code). Conversely, the RE parameters have been converted into corresponding RM parameters when one fission channel is present and the RM parameter set is unique, e.g. Pu-239, J =1 (REVERSE code). To further enhance the flexibility of the proposed method the obtained RE parameters have been converted into equivalent Generalized Pole parameters (REFILE code), which are parameters of the rigorous pole expansion of the collision matrix in √E domain. equi valent sets of RM, RE and GP parameters of 239 Pu are given as an example. It has been pointed out that all the advantages of the newly proposed representation can be implemented through an independent evaluation of the RE resonance

  9. Immunohistochemical investigations of xenotransplanted human adenocarcinomas on nude mice: Correlation to radioimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejkova, E.

    1987-01-01

    Immunohistochemical investigations of xenotransplanted human adenocarcinomas on nude mice; correlation to radioimaging Human carcinomas were subcutanously grafted to nude mice (Balb/c-nu/nu) and were investigated in four passages by immunohistochemical methods and by the fluorochrome bisbenzimid. In this way there could be observed a successful differentiation between the nourishing murine stroma and the human tumor parenchym. Especially the use of a monoclonal antibody (rat/mouse fusion) directed against human tissue turned out to be a suitable method. Four adenocarcinomas were tested: Colon-, mamma-, stomach- and testicle carcinoma. During the first four passages atypical parts of murine connective tissue and some changes in the human parenchyma could be seen. These results demonstrate that also in nude mice variations of the transplanted tumor material could happen. They could be detected in time with a routine immunohistochemical test. The consequences of tumor morphological variations for the development of therapeutic and diagnostic tools were studied with the help of radioimaging by external scintigraphy. Furthermore the biodistribution, tumoruptake and the whole body counting were studied by means of radionuclid marked monoclonal antibodies. The morphological variations of the passages of mammary, testicle and colon carcinomas were not big enough to influence the results in a certain way. Therefore especially the relation between the activity uptake in the tissue, the size of the tumor and the whole body uptake was studied in view of immunoscintigraphy. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Immunohistochemical features of progesterone receptors expression of placental barrier in women with multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Zadorozhna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal disorders are one of the main known causes of miscarriage and preterm birth in multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART. Progesterone and the number of its receptors play an important role in the preservation and prolongation of pregnancy and it is the pressing issue of our time. The study of placentas, as the main site of synthesis of progesterone, has high informative potential and it is the most important diagnostic object, and information received by its research is essential for the full conclusion on the causes, mechanisms, close and long-term effects of multiple pregnancy pathology. Aim. The aim of our study was to investigate immunohistochemical features of placentas from women with dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies in spontaneous fertilization and after use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. Methods and results. According to this goal we examined 94 women, 44 of whom had multiple pregnancies due to ART, 42 with separate multiple pregnancy and 38 women with a singleton pregnancy. We carried out clinical and statistical analysis of the course of pregnancy and childbirth in the studied groups. During the study it was found that multiple pregnancies due to assisted reproduction belong to the high risk of gestation, at which premature births occur much more frequently than in singleton pregnancies. We were the first to carry out the immunohistochemical study of placentas in which the highest expression of progesterone receptors in the nuclei of cells of decidua (45% related to the parent structure of the placenta from women with multiple pregnancies caused by ART is found. It is also found that with increasing gestational age, there has been a significant decrease in the expression of the activity of progesterone receptors (from 45 to 2.5%, regardless of the method of conception and the number of fetuses. Conclusions. The results of the study point to the definitive link of structures of

  11. Effects of Melatonin on the Cerebellum of Infant Rat Following Kaolin-Induced Hydrocephalus: a Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanıkgil, Yiğit; Turgut, Mehmet; Baka, Meral

    2017-02-01

    Hydrocephalus is a developmental disorder causing abnormally collected cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles. It leads to bigger skulls and many dysfunctions related to the nervous system. Here, we addressed whether exogenous melatonin administration could reverse the clinical features of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in infantile rats. A controlled double-blinded study was conducted in 2-week-old 45 Wistar albino rats, which were divided into three groups: Group A, the control group, received intracisternal sham injection with solely the needle insertion; group B, the hydrocephalus group, was treated with isotonic NaCl after kaolin injection; and group C, the hydrocephalus + melatonin group, was given i.p. exogenous melatonin at a dose of 0.5 mg/100 g body weight after kaolin injection. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed after the induction of hydrocephalus and melatonin administration. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was stained by immunohistochemical method. TUNEL method was used to define and quantitate apoptosis in the cerebellar tissues. Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test, and once significance was determined among means, post hoc pairwise comparisons were carried out using Mann-Whitney U test. We found that melatonin administration significantly ameliorated ratio of substantia grisea area/substantia alba area in the cerebellum of infantile rats. Histologically, there was a significant reduction in the number of cerebellar apoptotic cells after the hydrocephalus induced by kaolin (P cerebellum were reversed by systemic melatonin administration in infantile rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to suggest melatonin as a candidate protective drug in children with hydrocephalus.

  12. Analysis of thermal power calibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Persic, A.

    2000-01-01

    The methods for determining fuel element burnup have recently become interesting because of activities related to the shipment of highly enriched fuel elements back to the United States for final disposal before 2009. The most common and practical method for determining fuel element burnup in research reactors is reactor calculation. Experience has shown that burnup calculations become complicated and biased with uncertainties if a long period of reactor operation must be reproduced. Besides this, accuracy of calculated burnup is always limited with accuracy of reactor power calibration, since burnup calculation is based on calculated power density distribution, which is usually expressed in terms of power released per fuel element and normalised to the reactor power It is obvious that reactor thermal power calibration is very important for precise fuel element burnup calculation. Calculated fuel element burnup is linearly dependent on the thermal reactor power. The reactor power level may be determined from measured absolute thermal flux distribution across the core in the horizontal and vertical planes. Flux distributions are measured with activation of cadmium covered and bare foils irradiated by the steady reactor power. But it should be realised that this method is time consuming and not accurate. This method is practical only for zero power reactors and is in practice very seldom performed for other reactors (e.g. for TRIGA reactor in Ljubljana absolute thermal flux distribution was not performed since reactor reconstruction in 1991). In case of power reactors and research reactors in which a temperature rise across the core is produced and measured than a heat balance method is the most common and accurate method of determining the power output of the core. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the accuracy of calorimetric reactor power calibration method and to analyse the influence of control rod position on nuclear detector reading for TRIGA reactors

  13. DORIAN, Bayes Method Plant Age Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DORIAN is an integrated package for performing Bayesian aging analysis of reliability data; e.g. for identifying trends in component failure rates and/or outage durations as a function of time. The user must specify several alternative hypothesized 'aging models' (i.e., possible trends) along prior probabilities indicating the subject probability that each trend is actually the correct one. DORIAN then uses component failure and/or repair data over time to update these prior probabilities and develop a posterior probability for each aging model, representing the probability that each model is the correct one in light of the observed data rather than a priori. Mean, median, and 5. and 95. percentile trends are also compiled from the posterior probabilities. 2 - Method of solution: DORIAN carries out a Bayesian analysis of failure data and a prior distribution on a time-dependent failure rate to obtain a posterior distribution on the failure rate. The form of the time-dependent failure rate is arbitrary, because DORIAN approximates the form by a step-function, constant within specified time intervals. Similarly, the parameters may have any prior distribution, because DORIAN uses a discrete distribution to approximate this. Likewise, the database file produced by DORIAN approximates the entire range of possible failure rates or outage durations developed by means of a discrete probability distribution containing no more than 20 distinct values with their probabilities. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Prior distribution is discrete with up to 25 values. Up to 60 times are accommodated in the discrete time history

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in rat and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide which stimulates cell mitotic activity and differentiation, has a cytoprotective effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa, and inhibits gastric acid secretion. The immunohistochemical localization of EGF in the Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands is...... antisera against human urinary EGF worked in rat as well as man. EGF was found only in cells with an exocrine function.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide which stimulates cell mitotic activity and differentiation, has a cytoprotective effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa, and inhibits gastric acid secretion. The immunohistochemical localization of EGF in the Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands...... is well documented. The localization of EGF in other tissues is still unclarified. In the present study, the immunohistochemical localization of EGF in tissues from rat, man and a 20 week human fetus were investigated. In man and rat, immunoreaction was found in the submandibular glands, the serous glands...

  15. An Analysis of the SURF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Oyallon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SURF method (Speeded Up Robust Features is a fast and robust algorithm for local, similarity invariant representation and comparison of images. Similarly to many other local descriptor-based approaches, interest points of a given image are defined as salient features from a scale-invariant representation. Such a multiple-scale analysis is provided by the convolution of the initial image with discrete kernels at several scales (box filters. The second step consists in building orientation invariant descriptors, by using local gradient statistics (intensity and orientation. The main interest of the SURF approach lies in its fast computation of operators using box filters, thus enabling real-time applications such as tracking and object recognition. The SURF framework described in this paper is based on the PhD thesis of H. Bay [ETH Zurich, 2009], and more specifically on the paper co-written by H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars and L. Van Gool [Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 110 (2008, pp. 346–359]. An implementation is proposed and used to illustrate the approach for image matching. A short comparison with a state-of-the-art approach is also presented, the SIFT algorithm of D. Lowe [International Journal of Computer Vision, 60 (2004, pp. 91–110], with which SURF shares a lot in common.

  16. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To correlate the results of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results The authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%. At PET/CT, 53 (89.8% of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5. A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas.

  17. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira; Chojniak, Rubens; Marques, Elvira Ferreira; Souza, Juliana Alves de; Graziano, Luciana; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Osorio, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno de Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to correlate the results of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results: the authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%). At PET/CT, 53 (89.8%) of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18 F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5). A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion: PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas. (author)

  18. Analysis methods used by the geochemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthollet, P.

    1958-06-01

    This note presents various analytical techniques which are respectively used for the dosing of uranium in soils (fluorescence method, chromatographic method), for the dosing of uranium in natural waters (ion exchange method, evaporation method), and for the dosing of uranium in plants. Principles, equipment and products, reactant preparation, operation mode, sample preparation and measurements, expression of results and calculations) are indicated for each of these methods

  19. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.

  20. [Immunohistochemical characteristics of triple negative/basal-like breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Emel Ebru; Bayol, Ümit; Cumurcu, Süheyla; Keskın, Elif

    2012-01-01

    Triple-negative-breast-cancer that accounts for 10-20% of all breast carcinomas is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 expression, and agressive clinical behavior. Triple-negative-breast-cancer is categorized into basal like and other types. The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers. We studied 41 immunohistochemically triplenegative- breast-cancer patients to determine EGFR, Cytokeratine 5/6, p53, Ki67, GCDFP-15 expression profiles, HER2 and Chromosome 17 centromere gene status by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization method. Histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma in 90.2% of the tumors. p53, Ki67, GCDFP-15 mean positivity rates were 55.6%, 51.7%, and 3.2%, respectively. GCDFP-15 positivity was noted in 8 cases of which 6 were Cytokeratine 5/6 negative. The cut-off value for Cytokeratine 5/6 positivity was 5%. EGFR immunoreactivity was grouped into 0, 1+ as negative; 2+, 3+ as positive categories. Cytokeratine 5/6 was positive in 56,1%, EGFR was positive in 51.2% of the patients. The relation between Cytokeratine 5/6 and EGFR expression was statistically significant (p < 0.01). None of the cases showed HER2 amplification by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization method. GCDFP-15 alone is not a useful marker to detect the metastasis of basaloid type breast cancers. Cytokeratine 5/6 and EGFR expressions showed correlation so these markers are reliable to diagnose basaloid type tumors with a 5% cut-off value.

  1. Assessment of Canine Mast Cell Tumor Mortality Risk Based on Clinical, Histologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rodrigo S; Lavalle, Gleidice E; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Souza, Mayara C C; Cassali, Geovanni D; Araújo, Roberto B

    2018-03-01

    Mast cell tumor (MCT) is a frequent cutaneous neoplasm in dogs that is heterogeneous in clinical presentation and biological behavior, with a variable potential for recurrence and metastasis. Accurate prediction of clinical outcomes has been challenging. The study objective was to develop a system for classification of canine MCT according to the mortality risk based on individual assessment of clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features. The study included 149 dogs with a histologic diagnosis of cutaneous or subcutaneous MCT. By univariate analysis, MCT metastasis and related death was significantly associated with clinical stage ( P < .0001, r P = -0.610), history of tumor recurrence ( P < .0001, r P = -0.550), Patnaik ( P < .0001, r P = -0.380) and Kiupel grades ( P < .0001, r P = -0.500), predominant organization of neoplastic cells ( P < .0001, r P = -0.452), mitotic count ( P < .0001, r P = -0.325), Ki-67 labeling index ( P < .0001, r P = -0.414), KITr pattern ( P = .02, r P = 0.207), and c-KIT mutational status ( P < .0001, r P = -0.356). By multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazard model, only 2 features were independent predictors of overall survival: an amendment of the World Health Organization clinical staging system (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.824 [1.210-4.481]; P = .01) and a history of tumor recurrence (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 9.250 [2.158-23.268]; P < .001]. From these results, we propose an amendment of the WHO staging system, a method of risk analysis, and a suggested approach to clinical and laboratory evaluation of dogs with cutaneous MCT.

  2. Caracterización clínica y molecular de individuos con el síndrome frágil X detectados por análisis inmunohistoquímico Clinical and molecular characterization of individuals with fragile X syndrome detected by immunohistochemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Hernández García

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio de 50 varones con retraso mental y/o autismo de etiología desconocida a fin de detectar individuos afectados con el síndrome frágil X a través del análisis inmunohistoquímico y caracterizarlos clínica y molecularmente. Entre los casos pesquisados se detectaron 3 individuos con baja expresión de la proteína relacionada con el síndrome, a quienes se les realizó la caracterización molecular. La correlación inmunohistoquímica y molecular en 2 de ellos fue positiva. La no correlación de un tercero sugiere que pudiera tratarse de una mutación puntual o una deleción del gen relacionado con la enfermedad. En otro paciente con el fenotipo neuropsicológico y físico característicos de la enfermedad se observó una expresión promedio normal baja, lo que motivó la indicación de la caracterización molecular, que resultó ser positiva. Se discuten los mecanismos genéticos y fisiopatológicos que pudieran explicar la presencia de la proteína en las células analizadas.50 males with mental retardation and/or autism of unknown etiology were studied aimed at detecting individuals affected with the Fragile X syndrome by the immunohistochemical analysis and at characterizing them from the clinical and molecular point of view. Among the screneed subjects, 3 individuals with low expression of the protein related to the syndrome were detected. Molecular characterization was performed in these cases. The immunohistochemical and molecular correlation was positive in 2 of them. The non correlation of the third suggests that it may be a punctual mutation or a deletion of the gene connected with the disease. In another patient with the neuropsychological and physical phenotype characteristic of the disease, it was observed an average normal low expression that led to the indication of the molecular characterization, which proved to be positive. The genetic and physiopathological mechanisms that could explain the presence of

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  4. Basic methods of linear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pryce, John D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to the themes of mathematical analysis, geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Topics include operators, function spaces, Hilbert spaces, and elementary Fourier analysis. Numerous exercises and worked examples.1973 edition.

  5. Applying homotopy analysis method for solving differential-difference equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zou Li; Zhang Hongqing

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, we apply the homotopy analysis method to solving the differential-difference equations. A simple but typical example is applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the generalized homotopy analysis method in solving differential-difference equation. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. The results show that the homotopy analysis method is an attractive method in solving the differential-difference equations

  6. Herpesviruses in asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions: an immunohistochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboia-Dantas, C J; Coutrin de Toledo, L F; Sampaio-Filho, H R; Siqueira, J F

    2007-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been recently detected in samples from apical periodontitis lesions by means of molecular biology techniques and a role in the pathogenesis of this disease has been suggested. The present study was designed to survey asymptomatic primary apical periodontitis lesions for the presence of HCMV- and/or EBV-infected cells by means of immunohistochemistry. Apical periodontitis lesions were obtained from 35 patients [26 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -seronegative patients and nine HIV-seropositive patients] after tooth extraction and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV and EBV. Fifteen of the 35 apical periodontitis lesions were positive for the target herpesviruses. Overall, EBV was found in 31% of the samples and HCMV in 23%, with 14% of the lesions showing EBV and HCMV dual infection. No association was found between HCMV or EBV with any particular histopathological type of apical periodontitis (P > 0.05). HCMV was significantly more frequent in apical periodontitis lesions from HIV-positive patients (67%) than in lesions from HIV-negative patients (8%) (P = 0.001). EBV was detected in 44% of lesions from HIV-positive patients and in 27% of lesions from HIV-negative patients, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.91). Our results showed that cells infected by HCMV and EBV can be found in apical periodontitis lesions, with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive patients. The specific role that these viruses play in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis remains to be described.

  7. 2. Methods of elemental analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The principles of activation analysis are outlined including the preparation of samples and reference materials, the choice of suitable activation sources, interfering effects, detection of radiation emitted and analysis of mixtures of emitters, and the potential of activation analysis in various fields of science and technology. The principles of X-ray fluorescence analysis and the associated instrumentation are also dealt with, and examples of applications are given. Described are also the physical nature of the Moessbauer effect, Moessbauer sources and spectrometers, and the applicability of this effect in physical research and in the investigation of iron-containing materials. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 20 figs., 90 refs

  8. Extension and Validation of UNDEX Analysis Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahue, L

    2004-01-01

    .... Adaptive grid schemes for underwater shock and bubble analysis, hydrostatic pressure and airwater/seafloor boundaries, underwater explosion profiles, and fluid-backed shapes were also implemented...

  9. A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic

  10. Activity and immunohistochemical localization of porphobilinogen deaminase in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Erlandsen, E J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    the activity and the immunohistochemical localization of PBGD in the following tissues of wistar female rats: brain, heart, submandibular gland, liver, kidney, pancreas, ovary, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and musculature. The PBGD activity varied considerably among the tissues. It was highest...

  11. Isomyosin expression patterns during rat heart morphogenesis: an immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, I. J.; Lamers, W. H.; Moorman, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of cardiac alpha and beta myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression during rat heart morphogenesis was performed. In tubular hearts (embryonic days, ED10-11) coexpression of both cardiac alpha and beta MHC was found throughout the heart, except for the left free wall of the

  12. CD3 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Engel, Ulla; Holck, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    and eosin (HE) stainings were available. At the second assessment, a supplementary CD3 immunohistochemical staining was also available. The aim was to evaluate whether a supplementary CD3 would increase the diagnostic agreement among pathologists, and whether a CD3 stain would change the diagnosis based...

  13. Immunohistochemical studies on the effect of Aloe vera on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Address for Correspondence. Immunohistochemical studies on the effect of Aloe vera on the pancreatic β-cells in neonatal streptozotocin-induced type-II diabetic rats. Sema Bolkent 1, Nuriye Akev 2*, Ayşe Can 2, Sehnaz Bolkent 3, Refiye Yanardag 4 &. Alper Okyar 5. 1. Department of Medical Biology, Cerrahpasa Faculty ...

  14. Response matrix method for large LMFBR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.J.

    1977-06-01

    The feasibility of using response matrix techniques for computational models of large LMFBRs is examined. Since finite-difference methods based on diffusion theory have generally found a place in fast-reactor codes, a brief review of their general matrix foundation is given first in order to contrast it to the general strategy of response matrix methods. Then, in order to present the general method of response matrix technique, two illustrative examples are given. Matrix algorithms arising in the application to large LMFBRs are discussed, and the potential of the response matrix method is explored for a variety of computational problems. Principal properties of the matrices involved are derived with a view to application of numerical methods of solution. The Jacobi iterative method as applied to the current-balance eigenvalue problem is discussed

  15. Climate Action Benefits: Methods of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides detailed information on the methods used in the CIRA analyses, including the overall framework, temperature projections, precipitation projections, sea level rise projections, uncertainty, and limitations.

  16. Numerical analysis in electromagnetics the TLM method

    CERN Document Server

    Saguet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this book is to give a broad overview of the TLM (Transmission Line Matrix) method, which is one of the "time-domain numerical methods". These methods are reputed for their significant reliance on computer resources. However, they have the advantage of being highly general.The TLM method has acquired a reputation for being a powerful and effective tool by numerous teams and still benefits today from significant theoretical developments. In particular, in recent years, its ability to simulate various situations with excellent precision, including complex materials, has been

  17. Methods for Mediation Analysis with Missing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite wide applications of both mediation models and missing data techniques, formal discussion of mediation analysis with missing data is still rare. We introduce and compare four approaches to dealing with missing data in mediation analysis including list wise deletion, pairwise deletion, multiple imputation (MI), and a two-stage maximum…

  18. Development of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeng-Hoi

    2002-01-01

    KAERI's contributions to the project entitled Development of Analysis Methods for Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structures under IAEA CRP of the intercomparison of analysis methods for predicting the behaviour of seismically isolated nuclear structures during 1996-1999 in effort to develop the numerical analysis methods and to compare the analysis results with the benchmark test results of seismic isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures provided by participating countries are briefly described. Certain progress in the analysis procedures for isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures has been made throughout the IAEA CRPs and the analysis methods developed can be improved for future nuclear facility applications. (author)

  19. Oncocytic carcinoma of parotid gland: a case report with clinical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Giovanna

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncocytic carcinoma is an extremely rare neoplasm of the salivary glands. We report a case of oncocytic carcinoma arising in a parotid gland in a 66-year-old female. Method An excisional biopsy of the parotid tumor was performed. The specimen was submitted for histology and after fixation in formalin solution and inclusion in paraffin, 3–5 μm sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for conventional evaluation and Periodic acid Schiff stain. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies against mitochondrial antigen, keratin, S-100, alpha-actin, vimentin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin as well as an ultrastructural analysis was performed. Results Frozen sections revealed an infiltrative growth pattern and the diagnosis of a malignant epithelial lesion was made. Permanent sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin revealed a neoplasm that had replaced a wide area of the parotid gland and had invaded subcutaneous adipose tissue. Perineural invasion was evident, but vascular invasion was not found. Neoplastic elements were large, round or polyhedral cells and were arranged in solid sheets, islands and cords. The cytoplasm was abundant, eosinophilic and finely granular. The nuclei were large and located centrally or peripherally. The nucleoli were distinct and large. Periodic acid Schiff stain demonstrated a granular cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated mithochondrial antigen, keratin, and chymotrypsin immunoreactivity in the neoplastic cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed numerous mitochondria packed into the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. Thus, the final diagnosis was that of oncocytic carcinoma of parotid gland. Conclusion This neoplasm shows clinical, microscopical, histological and ultrastructural features of oncocytic carcinoma and this must be considered in the differential diagnosis of other proliferations in the parotid gland with abundant granular cytoplasm and metastatic oncocytic

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of Notch signaling in the lining epithelium of periapical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliou, Eleni; Kerezoudis, Nikolaos; Tosios, Konstantinos; Lafkas, Daniel; Kiaris, Hippokratis

    2011-02-01

    In this study we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of the receptors Notch 1 and Notch 2, the ligand Delta 1, and the transcription factors HES 1 and HES 5 in the epithelium of well-defined periapical cysts. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on 55 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, well-defined periapical cysts with minimum inflammation, obtained from the archival tissue database of the Department of Oral Pathology and Surgery. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the specificity of the anti-Notch antibody and the expression of Notch signaling in 5 fresh-frozen periapical cysts. The levels of staining intensity were estimated by the performance of a semiautomated image analysis system. Descriptive statistic of mean values obtained by computerized image analysis method was performed. Immunostaining reaction of all Notch signaling components was observed in the cytoplasm and/or the cytoplasmic membrane in the majority of epithelial cells of periapical cysts. Nuclear staining was observed occasionally in all cases. Notch 2 showed strong staining in 52.83% of the cases, followed by Notch 1 (35.85%), HES 1 and HES 5 moderate staining in 72.73% and 57.69% of the cases, respectively, and Delta 1 weak staining in 58.33% of the cases. No statistical correlation was found between the antibodies and the sex or the age of the study group. Notch is an evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism that regulates cell fate decisions during development and postnatal life in organisms as diverse as worms, flies, and humans. The present observations indicate that Notch pathway is active downstream in the lining epithelium of periapical cysts, suggesting an involvement of this pathway in periapical cyst growth and expansion. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods of stability analysis in nonlinear mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.D.; Gabella, W.; Ecklund, K.

    1989-01-01

    We review our recent work on methods to study stability in nonlinear mechanics, especially for the problems of particle accelerators, and compare our ideals to those of other authors. We emphasize methods that (1) show promise as practical design tools, (2) are effective when the nonlinearity is large, and (3) have a strong theoretical basis. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Nuclear analysis methods in monitoring occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.

    1985-01-01

    With the increasing industrialisation of the world has come an increase in exposure to hazardous chemicals. Their effect on the body depends upon the concentration of the element in the work environment; its chemical form; the possible different routes of intake; and the individual's biological response to the chemical. Nuclear techniques of analysis such as neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), have played an important role in understanding the effects hazardous chemicals can have on occupationally exposed workers. In this review, examples of their application, mainly in monitoring exposure to heavy metals is discussed

  3. Effect of image compression and scaling on automated scoring of immunohistochemical stainings and segmentation of tumor epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsti Juho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital whole-slide scanning of tissue specimens produces large images demanding increasing storing capacity. To reduce the need of extensive data storage systems image files can be compressed and scaled down. The aim of this article is to study the effect of different levels of image compression and scaling on automated image analysis of immunohistochemical (IHC stainings and automated tumor segmentation. Methods Two tissue microarray (TMA slides containing 800 samples of breast cancer tissue immunostained against Ki-67 protein and two TMA slides containing 144 samples of colorectal cancer immunostained against EGFR were digitized with a whole-slide scanner. The TMA images were JPEG2000 wavelet compressed with four compression ratios: lossless, and 1:12, 1:25 and 1:50 lossy compression. Each of the compressed breast cancer images was furthermore scaled down either to 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, 1:64 or 1:128. Breast cancer images were analyzed using an algorithm that quantitates the extent of staining in Ki-67 immunostained images, and EGFR immunostained colorectal cancer images were analyzed with an automated tumor segmentation algorithm. The automated tools were validated by comparing the results from losslessly compressed and non-scaled images with results from conventional visual assessments. Percentage agreement and kappa statistics were calculated between results from compressed and scaled images and results from lossless and non-scaled images. Results Both of the studied image analysis methods showed good agreement between visual and automated results. In the automated IHC quantification, an agreement of over 98% and a kappa value of over 0.96 was observed between losslessly compressed and non-scaled images and combined compression ratios up to 1:50 and scaling down to 1:8. In automated tumor segmentation, an agreement of over 97% and a kappa value of over 0.93 was observed between losslessly compressed images and

  4. Computational methods for corpus annotation and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews computational tools for lexical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic and discourse analysis, with instructions on how to obtain, install and use each tool. Covers studies using Natural Language Processing, and offers ideas for better integration.

  5. Progress in spatial analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Páez, Antonio; Buliung, Ron N; Dall'erba, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    This book brings together developments in spatial analysis techniques, including spatial statistics, econometrics, and spatial visualization, and applications to fields such as regional studies, transportation and land use, population and health.

  6. Analysis of queues methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gautam, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Analysis of Queues: Where, What, and How?Systems Analysis: Key ResultsQueueing Fundamentals and Notations Psychology in Queueing Reference Notes Exercises Exponential Interarrival and Service Times: Closed-Form Expressions Solving Balance Equations via Arc CutsSolving Balance Equations Using Generating Functions Solving Balance Equations Using Reversibility Reference Notes ExercisesExponential Interarrival and Service Times: Numerical Techniques and Approximations Multidimensional Birth and Death ChainsMultidimensional Markov Chains Finite-State Markov ChainsReference Notes Exerci

  7. Analysis of Non Local Image Denoising Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Álvaro

    Image denoising is probably one of the most studied problems in the image processing community. Recently a new paradigm on non local denoising was introduced. The Non Local Means method proposed by Buades, Morel and Coll attracted the attention of other researches who proposed improvements and modifications to their proposal. In this work we analyze those methods trying to understand their properties while connecting them to segmentation based on spectral graph properties. We also propose some improvements to automatically estimate the parameters used on these methods.

  8. Analysis of the sweeped actuator line method

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Jörn; Masson Christian; Dufresne Louis; Churchfield Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The actuator line method made it possible to describe the near wake of a wind turbine more accurately than with the actuator disk method. Whereas the actuator line generates the helicoidal vortex system shed from the tip blades, the actuator disk method sheds a vortex sheet from the edge of the rotor plane. But with the actuator line come also temporal and spatial constraints, such as the need for a much smaller time step than with actuator disk. While the latter one only has to obey the Cour...

  9. Contributions to robust methods of creep analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    Robust methods for the predictions of deformations and lifetimes of components operating in the creep range are presented. The ingredients used for this are well-tried numerical techniques combined with the concepts of continuum damage and so-called reference stresses. The methods described are derived in order to obtain the maximum benefit during the early stages of design where broad assessments of the influences of material choice, loadings and geometry need to be made quickly and with economical use of computers. It is also intended that the same methods will be of value during operation if estimates of damage or if exercises in life extension or inspection timing are required. (orig.)

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of latent membrane protein 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NPC biopsies were evaluated in 23 Moroccan patients for the presence of LMP1 and p53 using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: No LMP1 expression was observed whereas 8 of 23 cases (34. 7%) had detectable p53 protein in the nuclei of tumor cells.

  11. A method of uranium isotopes concentration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yuangen; Jiang Meng; Wu Changli; Duan Zhanyuan; Guo Chunying

    2010-01-01

    A basic method of uranium isotopes concentration is described in this paper. The iteration method is used to calculate the relative efficiency curve, by analyzing the characteristic γ energy spectrum of 235 U, 232 U and the daughter nuclide of 238 U, then the relative activity can be calculated, at last the uranium isotopes concentration can be worked out, and the result is validated by the experimentation. (authors)

  12. Comparative analysis of accelerogram processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goula, X.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1986-01-01

    The work described here inafter is a short development of an on-going research project, concerning high-quality processing of strong-motion recordings of earthquakes. Several processing procedures have been tested, applied to synthetic signals simulating ground-motion designed for this purpose. The methods of correction operating in the time domain are seen to be strongly dependent upon the sampling rate. Two methods of low-frequency filtering followed by an integration of accelerations yielded satisfactory results [fr

  13. General method of quantitative spectrographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1966-01-01

    A spectrographic method was developed to determine 23 elements in a wide range of concentrations; the method can be applied to metallic or refractory samples. Previous melting with lithium tetraborate and germanium oxide is done in order to avoid the influence of matrix composition and crystalline structure. Germanium oxide is also employed as internal standard. The resulting beads ar mixed with graphite powder (1:1) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc. (Author) 12 refs

  14. AVIS: analysis method for document coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.Y.; Elsensohn, O.

    1994-06-01

    The present document intends to give a short insight into AVIS, a method which permits to verify the quality of technical documents. The paper includes the presentation of the applied approach based on the K.O.D. method, the definition of quality criteria of a technical document, as well as a description of the means of valuating these criteria. (authors). 9 refs., 2 figs

  15. Analysis of methods for quantitative renography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambaud, F.; Maksud, P.; Prigent, A.; Perrin-Fayolle, O.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the main methods using renography to estimate renal perfusion indices and to quantify differential and global renal function. The review addresses the pathophysiological significance of estimated parameters according to the underlying models and the choice of the radiopharmaceutical. The dependence of these parameters on the region of interest characteristics and on the methods of background and attenuation corrections are surveyed. Some current recommendations are proposed. (authors). 66 refs., 8 figs

  16. Electromagnetic modeling method for eddy current signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. H.; Jung, H. K.; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, Y. S.; Huh, H.; Yang, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    An electromagnetic modeling method for eddy current signal analysis is necessary before an experiment is performed. Electromagnetic modeling methods consists of the analytical method and the numerical method. Also, the numerical methods can be divided by Finite Element Method(FEM), Boundary Element Method(BEM) and Volume Integral Method(VIM). Each modeling method has some merits and demerits. Therefore, the suitable modeling method can be chosen by considering the characteristics of each modeling. This report explains the principle and application of each modeling method and shows the comparison modeling programs

  17. The ethnographic method and its relationship with the domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Romero Quesada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the theoretical and conceptual relationship of the ethnographic method with domain analysis. A documentary analysis was performed, exploring the categories of domain analysis and ethnographic method.It was obtained as a result: the analysis of the points of contact between domain analysis and the ethnographic method from an epistemological, methodological and procedural terms. It is concluded that the ethnographic method is an important research tool to scan the turbulent socio-cultural scenarios that occur within discursive communities that constitute the domains of knowledge.

  18. Methods of Fourier analysis and approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Different facets of interplay between harmonic analysis and approximation theory are covered in this volume. The topics included are Fourier analysis, function spaces, optimization theory, partial differential equations, and their links to modern developments in the approximation theory. The articles of this collection were originated from two events. The first event took place during the 9th ISAAC Congress in Krakow, Poland, 5th-9th August 2013, at the section “Approximation Theory and Fourier Analysis”. The second event was the conference on Fourier Analysis and Approximation Theory in the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM), Barcelona, during 4th-8th November 2013, organized by the editors of this volume. All articles selected to be part of this collection were carefully reviewed.

  19. A catalog of automated analysis methods for enterprise models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Hector; Sánchez, Mario; Villalobos, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Enterprise models are created for documenting and communicating the structure and state of Business and Information Technologies elements of an enterprise. After models are completed, they are mainly used to support analysis. Model analysis is an activity typically based on human skills and due to the size and complexity of the models, this process can be complicated and omissions or miscalculations are very likely. This situation has fostered the research of automated analysis methods, for supporting analysts in enterprise analysis processes. By reviewing the literature, we found several analysis methods; nevertheless, they are based on specific situations and different metamodels; then, some analysis methods might not be applicable to all enterprise models. This paper presents the work of compilation (literature review), classification, structuring, and characterization of automated analysis methods for enterprise models, expressing them in a standardized modeling language. In addition, we have implemented the analysis methods in our modeling tool.

  20. Game data analysis tools and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Coupart, Thibault

    2013-01-01

    This book features an introduction to the basic theoretical tenets of data analysis from a game developer's point of view, as well as a practical guide to performing gameplay analysis on a real-world game.This book is ideal for video game developers who want to try and experiment with the game analytics approach for their own productions. It will provide a good overview of the themes you need to pay attention to, and will pave the way for success. Furthermore, the book also provides a wide range of concrete examples that will be useful for any game data analysts or scientists who want to impro

  1. Wavelet methods in mathematical analysis and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Damlamian, Alain

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of both the fundamentals of wavelet analysis and related tools, and of the most active recent developments towards applications. It offers a stateoftheart in several active areas of research where wavelet ideas, or more generally multiresolution ideas have proved particularly effective. The main applications covered are in the numerical analysis of PDEs, and signal and image processing. Recently introduced techniques such as Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and new trends in the recovery of missing data, such as compressed sensing, are also presented.

  2. Future directions in shielding methods and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.

    1987-01-01

    Over the nearly half century history of shielding against reactor radiation, there has been a see-saw battle between theory and measurement. During that period the capability and accuracy of calculational methods have been enormously improved. The microscopic cross sections needed as input to the theoretical computations are now also known to adequate accuracy (with certain exceptions). Nonetheless, there remain substantial classes of shielding problems not yet accessible to satisfactory computational methods, particularly where three-dimensional geometries are involved. This paper discusses promising avenues to approach such problems, especially in the light of recent and expected advances in supercomputers. In particular, it seems that Monte Carlo methods should be much more advantageous in the new computer environment than they have been in the past

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of androgen receptor in rat caput epididymis during postnatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Timurkaan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental pattern of androgen receptor (AR in caput epididymis.Materials and methods: In this study three randomly selected rats were sacrificed at ages 21, 56, 90 and 120 days old. All male rats were anesthetized with ethyl ether before killing. Then, the caput epididymides were removed and fixed in Bouin’s fixative at +4°C for 36 hour. Afterwards the tissue samples were embedded in paraffin for routine histological methods. Later the tissues were sectioned at 5μm and mounted on poly-L-lysin-coated slides. To solve the antigen masking problem, we performed microwave stimulated antigen retrieval technique before the immunohistochemical staining. Avidin-Biotin-Peroxidase Complex (ABC method was applied for immunohistochemical staining.Results: In all age groups of rats studied, positive immunohistochemical staining for the AR appeared in nuclei of epididymal cells. The staining intensity of AR positive cells did not change depending on age. In caput epididymis, immunostainable AR was found in tubular epithelial cells (principal cells, basal cells and apical cells and peritubular smooth muscle cells. The AR staining in the epithelial cells appeared to be stronger than in the peritubular smooth muscle cells. In the epithelial cells; staining intensity was stronger in principal cells than in basal cells and apical cells.Conclusion: Staining intensity of AR positive epididymal cells irrespective of age indicated the necessity of androgens for postnatal differentiation and maintaining the structure of the epididymis. Stronger staining intensity in principal cells suggested that principal cells are more sensitive to androgen stimulation. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 260-266.

  4. DETERMINISTIC METHODS USED IN FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICULEAC Melania Elena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic methods are those quantitative methods that have as a goal to appreciate through numerical quantification the creation and expression mechanisms of factorial and causal, influence and propagation relations of effects, where the phenomenon can be expressed through a direct functional relation of cause-effect. The functional and deterministic relations are the causal relations where at a certain value of the characteristics corresponds a well defined value of the resulting phenomenon. They can express directly the correlation between the phenomenon and the influence factors, under the form of a function-type mathematical formula.

  5. Geometrical methods for power network analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Tiwari, Bhupendra Nath [Istituto Nazioneale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, Rome (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Frascati; Gupta, Neeraj [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Uses advanced geometrical methods to analyse power networks. Provides a self-contained and tutorial introduction. Includes a fully worked-out example for the IEEE 5 bus system. This book is a short introduction to power system planning and operation using advanced geometrical methods. The approach is based on well-known insights and techniques developed in theoretical physics in the context of Riemannian manifolds. The proof of principle and robustness of this approach is examined in the context of the IEEE 5 bus system. This work addresses applied mathematicians, theoretical physicists and power engineers interested in novel mathematical approaches to power network theory.

  6. Method for nonlinear exponential regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkin, B. G.

    1972-01-01

    Two computer programs developed according to two general types of exponential models for conducting nonlinear exponential regression analysis are described. Least squares procedure is used in which the nonlinear problem is linearized by expanding in a Taylor series. Program is written in FORTRAN 5 for the Univac 1108 computer.

  7. Implicitly Weighted Methods in Robust Image Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2012), s. 449-462 ISSN 0924-9907 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robustness * high breakdown point * outlier detection * robust correlation analysis * template matching * face recognition Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2012

  8. Mixed Methods Analysis of Enterprise Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Richter, Alexander; Trier, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of enterprise social networks (ESN) generates vast amounts of data, giving researchers and managerial decision makers unprecedented opportunities for analysis. However, more transparency about the available data dimensions and how these can be combined is needed to yield accurate...

  9. Analysis of Two Methods to Evaluate Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasina, Florencia; Carabio, Claudio; Celano, Laura; Thomson, Leonor

    2012-01-01

    This exercise is intended to introduce undergraduate biochemistry students to the analysis of antioxidants as a biotechnological tool. In addition, some statistical resources will also be used and discussed. Antioxidants play an important metabolic role, preventing oxidative stress-mediated cell and tissue injury. Knowing the antioxidant content…

  10. Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  11. Monte Carlo method in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majerle, M.; Krasa, A.; Svoboda, O.; Wagner, V.; Adam, J.; Peetermans, S.; Slama, O.; Stegajlov, V.I.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron activation detectors are a useful technique for the neutron flux measurements in spallation experiments. The study of the usefulness and the accuracy of this method at similar experiments was performed with the help of Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA

  12. An ESDIRK Method with Sensitivity Analysis Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Rode; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2004-01-01

    of the sensitivity equations. A key feature is the reuse of information already computed for the state integration, hereby minimizing the extra effort required for sensitivity integration. Through case studies the new algorithm is compared to an extrapolation method and to the more established BDF based approaches...

  13. Evaluation of several immunohistochemical markers in malignant mesothelioma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoguang

    1992-01-01

    The role of CEA, keratin, vimentin and secretary component (SC) in the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PA) was evaluated by immunohistochemical method. 30 and 22 PA exhibited positive reactions for CEA and SC respectively. In contrast, all MM (8 cases) failed to stain for CEA and SC. We conclude that use of anti-keratin serum can not provide a help for the differential diagnosis of MM and PA. Positive reaction for CEA and SC favours a diagnosis of PA, while positive staining for vimentin but negative for CEA and SC favours the diagnosis of MM

  14. Immunohistochemical study of the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at different stages of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; von der Maase, Hans; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The cell cycle is known to be deregulated in cancer. We therefore analyzed the expression of the cell cycle related proteins p21, p27, p16, Rb, and L-myc by immunohistochemical staining of bladder tumors.METHODS: The tissue material consisted of bladder tumors from three groups of patients......; group 1, 23 patients with recurrent stage Ta (non-invasive) tumors; group 2, 22 patients presenting at their first admission with T2-4 (muscle invasive) tumors; group 3, 24 patients who experienced disease progression from Ta or T1 (invasive in connective tissue) to a higher stage...

  15. Immunohistochemical study on gastrointestinal endocrine cells of four reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Gen; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the types, regional distributions and distribution densities as well as morphological features of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in various parts of the gastrointestinal track (GIT) of four reptiles, Gekko japonicus, Eumeces chinensis, Sphenomorphus indicus and Eumeces elegans. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections (5 μm) of seven parts (cardia, fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum) of GIT dissected from the four reptiles were prepared. GI endocrine cells were revealed by using immunohistochemical techniques of streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method. Seven types of antisera against 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin (SS), gastrin (GAS), glucagon (GLU), substance P (SP), insulin and pancreatic polypeptide were identified and then GI endocrine cells were photomicrographed and counted. RESULTS: The GI endocrine system of four reptiles was a complex structure containing many endocrine cell types similar in morphology to those found in higher vertebrates. Five types of GI endocrine cells, namely 5-HT, SS, GAS, SP and GLU immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified in the GIT of G. japonicus, E. chinensis and S. indicus; while in the GIT of E. elegans only the former three types of endocrine cells were observed. No PP- and INS- IR cells were found in all four reptiles. 5-HT-IR cells, which were most commonly found in the pylorus or duodenum, distributed throughout the whole GIT of four reptiles. However, their distribution patterns varied from each other. SS-IR cells, which were mainly found in the stomach especially in the pylorus and/or fundus, were demonstrated in the whole GIT of E. chinensis, only showed restricted distribution in the other three species. GAS-IR cells, with a much restricted distribution, were mainly demonstrated in the pylorus and/or the proximal small intestine of four reptiles. GLU-IR cells exhibited a limited and species-dependent variant distribution in the GIT of four reptiles. SP-IR cells were found

  16. Statistical methods for astronomical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces “Astrostatistics” as a subject in its own right with rewarding examples, including work by the authors with galaxy and Gamma Ray Burst data to engage the reader. This includes a comprehensive blending of Astrophysics and Statistics. The first chapter’s coverage of preliminary concepts and terminologies for astronomical phenomenon will appeal to both Statistics and Astrophysics readers as helpful context. Statistics concepts covered in the book provide a methodological framework. A unique feature is the inclusion of different possible sources of astronomical data, as well as software packages for converting the raw data into appropriate forms for data analysis. Readers can then use the appropriate statistical packages for their particular data analysis needs. The ideas of statistical inference discussed in the book help readers determine how to apply statistical tests. The authors cover different applications of statistical techniques already developed or specifically introduced for ...

  17. comparison of elastic-plastic FE method and engineering method for RPV fracture mechanics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yingxue; Zheng Bin; Zhang Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    This paper described the FE analysis of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics for a crack in RPV belt line using ABAQUS code. It calculated and evaluated the stress intensity factor and J integral of crack under PTS transients. The result is also compared with that by engineering analysis method. It shows that the results using engineering analysis method is a little larger than the results using FE analysis of 3D elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, thus the engineering analysis method is conservative than the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics method. (authors)

  18. The effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands: an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Maria Folador Mattioli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on the quantity of myoepithelial cells and on the proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands. INTRODUCTION: Hyposalivation, xerostomia, and alterations in saliva composition are important clinical side effects related to the use of antidepressants. METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats were allocated to nine groups. The control groups received saline for 30 (group C30 or 60 days (group C60 or pilocarpine for 60 days (group Pilo. The experimental groups were administered fluoxetine (group F30 or venlafaxine for 30 days (group V30; fluoxetine (group FS60 or venlafaxine (group VS60 with saline for 60 days; or fluoxetine (group FP60 or venlafaxine (group VP60 with pilocarpine for 60 days. Parotid gland specimens were processed, and the immunohistochemical expression of calponin and proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen on the myoepithelial and parenchymal cells, respectively, was evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey HSD and Games-Howell tests were applied to detect differences among groups (p<0.05. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, chronic exposure to antidepressants was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for calponin. In addition, venlafaxine administration for 30 days was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen. Fluoxetine and pilocarpine (group FP60 induced a significant decrease in the number of positively stained cells for calponin compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The number of positively stained cells for calponin increased after chronic administration of antidepressants. The proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands was not altered by the use of antidepressants for 60 days.

  19. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of lung invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma based on computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Katsuhiko Shimizu, Riki Okita, Shinsuke Saisho, Ai Maeda, Yuji Nojima, Masao Nakata Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan Background: We performed an analysis to clarify differences in clinicopathological and molecular features of lung invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA based on computed tomography (CT findings and their impact on prognosis.Patients and methods: On the basis of CT findings, we divided lung IMA into three subtypes: solid, bubbling, and pneumonic. We then investigated differences in clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, and the expressions of well-identified biomarkers, including cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2, excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1, ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1, class III beta-tubulin, thymidylate synthase (TS, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, programmed cell death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1, and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, among the three subtypes.Results: A total of 29 patients with resected lung IMA were analyzed. Compared with the solid or bubbling type, the pneumonic type had a higher proportion of symptoms, a larger tumor size, a higher pathological stage, and a significantly worse prognosis. The immunohistochemical findings tended to show high expression of RRM1, class III beta-tubulin, and Cox-2 in the tumor and of SPARC in the stroma, but not of ERCC1, TS, and PD-L1 in the tumor. None of the biomarkers with high expression levels in the tumor were prognostic biomarkers, but the expression of SPARC in the stroma was correlated with a poor outcome.Conclusion: Clinical and pathological features, in conjunction with molecular data, indicate that IMA should be divided into different subgroups. In our results, the pneumonic type was correlated with a significantly worse outcome. Further studies should be performed to confirm our conclusion and to explore its molecular implications. Keywords: non-small cell

  20. Decreased Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagouri Flora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated Hsp90 expression has been documented in breast ductal carcinomas, whereas decreased Hsp90 expression has been reported in precursor lobular lesions. This study aims to assess Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinomas of the breast. Methods Tissue specimens were taken from 32 patients with infiltrative lobular carcinoma. Immunohistochemical assessment of Hsp90 was performed both in the lesion and the adjacent normal breast ducts and lobules; the latter serving as control. Concerning Hsp90 assessment: i the percentage of positive cells and ii the intensity were separately analyzed. Subsequently, the Allred score was adopted and calculated. The intensity was treated as an ordinal variable-score (0: negative, low: 1, moderate: 2, high: 3. Statistical analysis followed. Results All infiltrative lobular carcinoma foci mainly presented with a positive cytoplasmic immunoreaction for Hsp90. Compared to the adjacent normal ducts and lobules, infiltrative lobular carcinoma exhibited a statistically significant decrease in Hsp90 expression, both in terms of Hsp90 positive cells (% and Allred score (74.2 ± 11.2 vs. 59.1 ± 14.2 p = 0.0001; 7.00 ± 0.95 vs. 6.22 ± 1.01, p = 0.007, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Concerning the intensity of Hsp90 immunostaining only a marginal decrease was noted (2.16 ± 0.68 vs. 1.84 ± 0.63, p = 0.087, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Conclusion ILC lesions seem to exhibit decreased Hsp90 expression, a finding contrary to what might have been expected, given that high Hsp90 expression is a trait of invasive ductal carcinomas.

  1. Análise imuno-histoquímica de cães naturalmente infectados pelo parvovírus canino Immunohistochemical analysis of dogs infected naturally by canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo C. Oliveira

    2009-02-01

    immunohistochemistry test was performed in tissues of small intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, tonsils, tongue, and bone marrow in all the 96 selected cases. Parvovirus antigen was detected in 91.6% (88/96 of the dogs necropsied. The best result of the IHC test was seen in samples of small intestine which was positive in 77% (74/96 of the cases. The statistical analysis (Fisher test showed a weak association between intestinal autolysis and positive result of the IHC test. The chance of the autolysed intestine showing a positive result in the immunohistochemistry test was 0.33 less (OR=0.33, 95% CI:0.10-1.17 when compared with small intestine not autolysed.

  2. Robustness analysis method for orbit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Yang, Keying; Qi, Rui; Zhao, Shuge; Li, Yanyan

    2017-08-01

    Satellite orbits require periodical maintenance due to the presence of perturbations. However, random errors caused by inaccurate orbit determination and thrust implementation may lead to failure of the orbit control strategy. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the robustness of the orbit control methods. Feasible strategies which are tolerant to errors of a certain magnitude can be developed to perform reliable orbit control for the satellite. In this paper, first, the orbital dynamic model is formulated by Gauss' form of the planetary equation using the mean orbit elements; the atmospheric drag and the Earth's non-spherical perturbations are taken into consideration in this model. Second, an impulsive control strategy employing the differential correction algorithm is developed to maintain the satellite trajectory parameters in given ranges. Finally, the robustness of the impulsive control method is analyzed through Monte Carlo simulations while taking orbit determination error and thrust error into account.

  3. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  4. Immunohistochemical structural pecularities of uterine tube of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Сергеевна Куприянова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim - immunohistochemical detection of structural features of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection.Methods: anthropometric, macroscopic, organometric, histological, immunohistochemical, statistical.Object of research - the uterine tubes of antenatal dead fetuses. The control group consisted of 25 fetuses of healthy mothers; the comparison group is 15 fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Fetal infection confirmed by laboratory methods; the presence of TORCH infections, cytomegalovirus, herpes infection and chlamydial infection is determined.Results: indicators of weight and body length of the fetus of the comparison group were significantly reduced. Unidirectional changes are established in the definition of the mass and the length of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Massive growth of connective tissue in the mucosa, the mucous membrane and muscle membrane of wall of the uterine tube of fetus in the comparison group is shown by histological methods. Violation of collagen formation in the connective tissue in the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection is found by immunohistochemistry method.Conclusions: The reduction of anthropometric and organometric indicators in fetuses of comparison group is shown. Sclerosis and atrophy, as well as violations of collagen-synthesizing function are predominated in the main structural components of the wall of the uterine tube of fetuses in the comparison group. The revealed changes in the future ontogenesis may lead to the development of primary infertility

  5. Transform and filtration methods in fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Digitized fluctuation signals from an ex-core ion-chamber of a PWR were analysed to produce a Power Spectral Density, (PSD), curve by two means: (1) by digital filter techniques and (2) by a Fast Fourier Transform program. For both these methods, the effects of the precision of the input data were investigated and it is shown that reasonably good PSD curves may be obtained using very poor input precision. (author)

  6. Cementation Analysis by Eddy Current Method

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zergoug; H. Oubouchou; N. Amimeur

    2009-01-01

    Increase the hardness, the endurance and the life time of material can be realised by surface treatments and remetallings, the electromagnetic properties of steels depend on their composition, their microstructures and constraints applied. We can use the electric and magnetic parameters to evaluate their microstructure. The object of this work is the characterization of cementation by the non-destructive methods and the determination of physicochemical parameters. Samples of low carbon tenor ...

  7. A method for nonlinear exponential regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkin, B. G.

    1971-01-01

    A computer-oriented technique is presented for performing a nonlinear exponential regression analysis on decay-type experimental data. The technique involves the least squares procedure wherein the nonlinear problem is linearized by expansion in a Taylor series. A linear curve fitting procedure for determining the initial nominal estimates for the unknown exponential model parameters is included as an integral part of the technique. A correction matrix was derived and then applied to the nominal estimate to produce an improved set of model parameters. The solution cycle is repeated until some predetermined criterion is satisfied.

  8. Digital methods for mediated discourse analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Malene; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    , restrictions or privately mediated settings. Having used mediated discourse analysis (Scollon 2002, Scollon & Scollon, 2004) as a framework in two different research projects, we show how the framework, in correlation with digital resources for data gathering, provides new understandings of 1) the daily......In this paper we discuss methodological strategies for collecting multimodal data using digital resources. The aim is to show how digital resources can provide ethnographic insights into mediated actions (Scollon, 2002) that can otherwise be difficult to observe or engage in, due to, for instance......) and online questionnaire data in order to capture mediated actions and discourses in practice....

  9. Chemical analysis of cyanide in cyanidation process: review of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova-Alonso, F.; Elorza-Rodriguez, E.; Uribe-Salas, A.; Perez-Garibay, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cyanidation, the world wide method for precious metals recovery, the chemical analysis of cyanide, is a very important, but complex operation. Cyanide can be present forming different species, each of them with different stability, toxicity, analysis method and elimination technique. For cyanide analysis, there exists a wide selection of analytical methods but most of them present difficulties because of the interference of species present in the solution. This paper presents the different available methods for chemical analysis of cyanide: titration, specific electrode and distillation, giving special emphasis on the interferences problem, with the aim of helping in the interpretation of the results. (Author)

  10. Immunohistochemical Study of Scrub Typhus: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Yuan Tseng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is transmitted by chiggers. The target cells of this rickettsia are poorly defined in humans. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections of patients with scrub typhus is helpful in investigating the target cells of this rickettsia in different organs. We studied two autopsy specimens by immunohistochemical staining using a specific antibody against O. tsutsugamushi. Rickettsiae were located in endothelial cells in all of the organs evaluated, namely heart, lung, brain, kidney, appendix and skin, within cardiac muscle cells and renal tubular epithelial cells, and in macrophages located in the lymph node, liver and spleen. In conclusion, O. tsutsugamushi may disseminate into multiple organs through endothelial cells and macrophages, resulting in the development of fatal complications.

  11. Spontaneous cholangiohepatitis in broiler chickens: immunohistochemical study of Ito cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Handharyani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of Ito cells is expanding from a fat-storing site to a center of extracellular matrix metabolism and mediator production in the liver. Immunohistochemical reactivities of Ito cells were examined in eight livers of broiler chickens affected with spontaneous cholangiohepatitis and six chicken livers with malformation of extrahepatic biliary tracts. The livers in both groups revealed severe diffuse fibrosis. Ito cells expressing HHF35 muscle actin and desmin actively proliferated in the fibrotic foci of the all livers. The immunoreactivities of Ito cells to antibodies were enhanced compared with those in normal livers. There were no immunohistochemical differences between the Ito cells of two groups. From these findings, it was suggested that Ito cells actively proliferate and show enhanced immunoreactivities in the livers affected with cholangiohepatitis andmalformation of extrahepatic biliary tracts.

  12. Immunohistochemical findings in rectal duplication mimicking rectal prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, M G; Pucci, A; Macchieraldo, R; Sacco Casamassima, M G; Canavese, F

    2008-08-01

    Alimentary tract duplications represent rare anomalies, with only 5 % occurring in the rectum. The variety in clinical presentation may lead to a delay in diagnosis or to incorrect and multiple surgical procedures. We report the clinical, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a rectal duplication occurring in a 3-month-old male with an unusual clinical presentation. Using routine histology and immunohistochemistry, the rectal duplication showed the diffuse presence of gastric mucosa with a characteristic immunophenotype (i.e., diffuse cytokeratin 7 positivity and scattered chromogranin immunoreactivity). As far as we know, this is the first report showing an immunohistochemical differentiation pattern of gastric lining in a rectal duplication. Our results, showing the presence of gastric mucosa, are suggestive of a possible origin from the embryonic foregut.

  13. Risk uncertainty analysis methods for NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Boyd, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation and display of risk uncertainties for NUREG-1150 constitute a principal focus of the Severe Accident Risk Rebaselining/Risk Reduction Program (SARRP). Some of the principal objectives of the uncertainty evaluation are: (1) to provide a quantitative estimate that reflects, for those areas considered, a credible and realistic range of uncertainty in risk; (2) to rank the various sources of uncertainty with respect to their importance for various measures of risk; and (3) to characterize the state of understanding of each aspect of the risk assessment for which major uncertainties exist. This paper describes the methods developed to fulfill these objectives

  14. Paired comparisons analysis: an axiomatic approach to ranking methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, J.; Hendrickx, Ruud; Lohmann, E.R.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an axiomatic analysis of several ranking methods for general tournaments. We find that the ranking method obtained by applying maximum likelihood to the (Zermelo-)Bradley-Terry model, the most common method in statistics and psychology, is one of the ranking methods that

  15. Analysis of Vibration Diagnostics Methods for Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kalinov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of existing vibration diagnostics methods. In order to evaluate an efficiency of method application the following criteria have been proposed: volume of input data required for establishing diagnosis, data content, software and hardware level, execution time for vibration diagnostics. According to the mentioned criteria a classification of vibration diagnostics methods for determination of their advantages and disadvantages, search for their development and improvement has been presented in paper. The paper contains a comparative estimation of methods in accordance with the proposed  criteria. According to this estimation the most efficient methods are a spectral analysis and spectral analysis of the vibration signal envelope.

  16. Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov; Ivica Gjurovski; Trpe Ristoski; Goran Nikolovski; Pandorce Trenkoska; Plamen Trojacanec; Ksenija Ilievska; Toni Dovenski; Gordana Petrushevska

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs.They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC) measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of m...

  17. Immunohistochemical Studies of the Kynurenine Pathway in Morphea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Noakes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous sclerosis, resembling that seen in subcutaneous morphea, is a feature of eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, two conditions in which the kynurenine pathway is known to be activated. To investigate the possibility of activation of the kynurenine pathway in morphea, skin biopsies were taken from involved and non-involved sites in a series of three patients with morphea. Immunohistochemical stains for quinolinic acid and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO were performed.

  18. Immunohistochemical Studies of the Kynurenine Pathway in Morphea

    OpenAIRE

    Noakes, Rowland; Mellick, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous sclerosis, resembling that seen in subcutaneous morphea, is a feature of eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, two conditions in which the kynurenine pathway is known to be activated. To investigate the possibility of activation of the kynurenine pathway in morphea, skin biopsies were taken from involved and non-involved sites in a series of three patients with morphea. Immunohistochemical stains for quinolinic acid and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) were perf...

  19. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinsu; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Utilizing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle shows considerable potential for the possibility of MSR. The concept of MSBR should be revised because of molten salt reactor's advantage such as outstanding neutron economy, possibility of continuous online reprocessing and refueling, a high level of inherent safety, and economic benefit by keeping off the fuel fabrication process. For the development of MSR research, this paper provides the MSBR single-cell, two-cell and whole core model for computer code input, and several calculation results including depletion calculation of each models. The calculations are carried out by using MCNP6, a Monte Carlo computer code, which has CINDER90 for depletion calculation using ENDF-VII nuclear data. From the calculation results of various reactor design parameters, the temperature coefficients are all negative at the initial state and MTC becomes positive at the equilibrium state. From the results of core rod worth, the graphite control rod alone cannot makes the core subcritical at initial state. But the equilibrium state, the core can be made subcritical state only by graphite control rods. Through the comparison of the results of each models, the two-cell method can represent the MSBR core model more accurately with a little more computational resources than the single-cell method. Many of the thermal spectrum MSR have adopted a multi-region single-fluid strategy.

  20. Simplified piping analysis methods with inelastic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.W.; Romanko, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy absorbing supports (EAS) which contain x-shaped plates or dampers with heavy viscous fluid can absorb a large amount of energy during vibratory motions. The response of piping systems supported by these types of energy absorbing devices can be markedly reduced as compared with ordinary supports using rigid rods, hangers or snubbers. In this paper, a simple multiple support response spectrum technique is presented, which would allow the energy dissipation nature of the EAS be factored in the piping response calculation. In the meantime, the effect of lower system frequencies due to the reduced support stiffness from local yielding is also included in the analysis. Numerical results obtained show that this technique is more conservative than the time history solution by an acceptable and realistic margin; and it has less than 10 percent of the computation cost

  1. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  2. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  3. IMP: Integrated method for power analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    An integrated, easy to use, economical package of microcomputer programs has been developed which can be used by small hydro developers to evaluate potential sites for small scale hydroelectric plants in British Columbia. The programs enable evaluation of sites located far from the nearest stream gauging station, for which streamflow data are not available. For each of the province's 6 hydrologic regions, a streamflow record for one small watershed is provided in the data base. The program can then be used to generate synthetic streamflow records and to compare results obtained by the modelling procedure with the actual data. The program can also be used to explore the significance of modelling parameters and to develop a detailed appreciation for the accuracy which can be obtained under various circumstances. The components of the program are an atmospheric model of precipitation; a watershed model that will generate a continuous series of streamflow data, based on information from the atmospheric model; a flood frequency analysis system that uses site-specific topographic data plus information from the atmospheric model to generate a flood frequency curve; a hydroelectric power simulation program which determines daily energy output for a run-of-river or reservoir storage site based on selected generation facilities and the time series generated in the watershed model; and a graphic analysis package that provides direct visualization of data and modelling results. This report contains a description of the programs, a user guide, the theory behind the model, the modelling methodology, and results from a workshop that reviewed the program package. 32 refs., 16 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Histological and Immunohistochemical Revision of Hepatocellular Adenomas: A Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Light has been shed on the genotype/phenotype correlation in hepatocellular adenoma (HCA recognizing HNF1α-inactivated HCA (H-HCA, inflammatory HCA (IHCA, and β-catenin-activated HCA (b-HCA. We reviewed retrospectively our surgical HCA series to learn how to recognize the different subtypes histopathologically and how to interpret adequately their immunohistochemical staining. From January 1992 to January 2012, 37 patients underwent surgical resection for HCA in our institution. Nine had H-HCA (25% characterized by steatosis and loss of L-FABP expression; 20 had IHCA (55.5% showing CRP and/or SAA expression, sinusoidal dilatation, and variable inflammation; and 1 patient had both H-HCA and IHCA. In 5 patients (14%, b-HCA with GS and β-catenin nuclear positivity was diagnosed, two already with hepatocellular carcinoma. Two cases (5.5% remained unclassified. One of the b-HCA showed also the H-HCA histological and immunohistochemical characteristics suggesting a subgroup of β-catenin-activated/HNF1α-inactivated HCA, another b-HCA exhibited the IHCA histological and immunohistochemical characteristics suggesting a subgroup of β-catenin-activated/inflammatory HCA. Interestingly, three patients had underlying vascular abnormalities. Using the recently published criteria enabled us to classify histopathologically our retrospective HCA surgical series with accurate recognition of b-HCA for which we confirm the higher risk of malignant transformation. We also underlined the association between HCA and vascular abnormalities.

  5. Standard methods for analysis of phosphorus-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Methods are described for the determination of the radiochemical purity and the absolute disintegration rate of 32 P radioisotope preparations. The 32 P activity is determined by β counting, and other low-energy β radioactive contaminants are determined by aluminum-absorption curve data. Any γ-radioactive contaminants are determined by γ counting. Routine chemical testing is used to establish the chemical characteristics. The presence or absence of heavy metals is established by spot tests; free acid is determined by use of a pH meter; total solids are determined gravimetrically by evaporation and ignition at a temperature sufficient to evaporate the mineral acids, HCl and HNO 3 ; and nonvolatile matter, defined as that material which does not evaporate or ignite at a temperature sufficient to convert C to CO or CO 2 , is determined gravimetrically after such ignition

  6. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus : histological, immunohistochemical and direct immunofluorescence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Fogagnolo

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: O lúpus eritematoso cutâneo (LEC) é classificado em agudo, subagudo, crônico e túmido. A sequência de eventos que deflagram a autoimunidade é pouco entendida. Neste trabalho foram estudados os aspectos histológicos, de imunofluorescência direta (IFD) e imuno-histoquímicos no LEC discoide (subtipo mais comum da forma crônica),subagudo e túmido, relacionando-os com a presença ou não de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) concomitante, visando compreender melhor a imunopatogênese destes su...

  7. Stochastic seismic floor response analysis method for various damping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Y.; Hattori, K.; Ogata, M.; Kanda, J.

    1991-01-01

    A study using the stochastic seismic response analysis method which is applicable for the estimation of floor response spectra is carried out. It is pointed out as a shortcoming in this stochastic seismic response analysis method, that the method tends to overestimate floor response spectra for low damping systems, e.g. 1% of the critical damping ratio. An investigation on the cause of the shortcoming is carried out and a number of improvements in this method were also made to the original method by taking correlation of successive peaks in a response time history into account. The application of the improved method to a typical BWR reactor building is carried out. The resultant floor response spectra are compared with those obtained by deterministic time history analysis. Floor response spectra estimated by the improved method consistently cover the response spectra obtained by the time history analysis for various damping ratios. (orig.)

  8. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  9. O critério de positividade para a análise imunoistoquímica da p53 na confirmação da displasia do esôfago de Barrett faz diferença? Does positive criterium for p53 immunohistochemical analysis in the confirmation of Barrett's dysplasia make difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Vivian Lopes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O esôfago de Barrett é uma complicação da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico com importante potencial de malignização. Relata-se que a expressão do marcador tumoral p53 se acentua com a progressão displasia-adenocarcinoma. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a expressão da p53 no epitélio de Barrett com presença ou não de displasia conforme dois critérios de positividade. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O material foi constituído por biopsias endoscópicas de 42 doentes com esôfago de Barrett. Cortes histológicos foram corados pela hematoxilina-eosina, pelo PAS-alcian blue e avaliados quanto à expressão imunoistoquímica da p53. O diagnóstico de displasia foi firmado pela concordância entre três patologistas. Foram utilizados dois critérios de positividade para a p53: 1. a coloração de, pelo menos, metade dos núcleos e 2. o encontro de qualquer núcleo corado. RESULTADOS: O número total de fragmentos foi de 229, com média de 5,4 por paciente. A displasia foi detectada em seis (14,3% casos. Para diferentes critérios de positividade, a p53 foi detectada, respectivamente, em 5 (13,9% e 14 (38,9% com epitélio metaplásico não-displásico. Especificamente nos seis casos displásicos, a p53 foi detectada, conforme o critério de positividade, em um (16,7% e quatro (66,7% casos, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Nesta pequena série, a expressão imunoistoquímica da p53, independente do critério de positividade, não foi de auxílio para a confirmação de alterações displásicas no esôfago de Barrett.BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus is the most serious complication of the gastroesophageal reflux disease and presents a malignant potential. The expression of the tumoral marker p53 increases with the dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. AIMS: To evaluate the p53 expression in Barrett's esophagus with or without dysplasia according to the two positive immunostaining criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The material was constituted by endoscopic

  10. RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: ANALYSIS METHODS

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Five-yearly review of employment conditions   Article S V 1.02 of our Staff Rules states that the CERN “Council shall periodically review and determine the financial and social conditions of the members of the personnel. These periodic reviews shall consist of a five-yearly general review of financial and social conditions;” […] “following methods […] specified in § I of Annex A 1”. Then, turning to the relevant part in Annex A 1, we read that “The purpose of the five-yearly review is to ensure that the financial and social conditions offered by the Organization allow it to recruit and retain the staff members required for the execution of its mission from all its Member States. […] these staff members must be of the highest competence and integrity.” And for the menu of such a review we have: “The five-yearly review must include basic salaries and may include any other financial or soc...

  11. Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kubeček, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate

  12. [Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in splenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Karen Ingrid; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke; Tenorio, Michely da Silva; Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Lima, Flávia Luna; de Queiroz, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Souza; Neves, Maria Francisca; de Noronha, Antonio Carlos Faconti; de Assis, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis--CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics (8 dogs), oligosymptomatics (17 dogs) and symptomatics (9 dogs). After the accomplishment of all diagnostic tests, 22 dogs were considered positives (64.7%) and 12 (35.3%) were negatives to CVL. From these positive dogs, 1/22 (4.5%) was asymptomatic, 12/22(54.5%) were oligosymptomatics and 8/22 (40.1%) were symptomatics. The histopathological study in spleen tissues from positive, especially symptomatic dogs, showed a diffuse chronic inflammation with thickness of capsular and trabecular regions and there was extensive morphologic alteration of the red and white pulp by the presence of abundant macrophages full with amastigotes, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction and haemorrhagic areas. The data of this work from histopathologic examination and direct microscopic visualization of L. (L.) chagasi showed that the spleen was an useful organ to collect sample tissues for CVL diagnosis. The immunostaining detected the highest number of positive dogs and were considered an important and conclusive method to be used in addition to parasitological methods for CVL, particularly in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic dogs.

  13. An advanced probabilistic structural analysis method for implicit performance functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, H. R.; Cruse, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    In probabilistic structural analysis, the performance or response functions usually are implicitly defined and must be solved by numerical analysis methods such as finite element methods. In such cases, the most commonly used probabilistic analysis tool is the mean-based, second-moment method which provides only the first two statistical moments. This paper presents a generalized advanced mean value (AMV) method which is capable of establishing the distributions to provide additional information for reliability design. The method requires slightly more computations than the second-moment method but is highly efficient relative to the other alternative methods. In particular, the examples show that the AMV method can be used to solve problems involving non-monotonic functions that result in truncated distributions.

  14. 21 CFR 2.19 - Methods of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULINGS AND DECISIONS General Provisions § 2.19 Methods of analysis. Where the method of analysis... issues of the “Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists”), which are incorporated by...

  15. Basic methods of isotope analysis; Osnovnye metody analiza izotopov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochkin, A V; Rozenkevich, M B

    2000-07-01

    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered.

  16. Nonlinear nonstationary analysis with the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, after some introductory remarks on numerical methods for the integration of initial value problems, the applicability of the finite element method for transient diffusion analysis as well as dynamic and inelastic analysis is discussed, and some examples are presented. (RW) [de

  17. Probabilistic structural analysis methods for space transportation propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Moore, N.; Anis, C.; Newell, J.; Nagpal, V.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    Information on probabilistic structural analysis methods for space propulsion systems is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on deterministic certification methods, probability of failure, component response analysis, stress responses for 2nd stage turbine blades, Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) structural durability, and program plans. .

  18. Immunohistochemical features of multifocal melanoacanthoma in the hard palate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    das Chagas e Silva de Carvalho Luis Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoacanthoma (MA has been described in the oral mucosa as a solitary lesion or, occasionally, as multiple lesions. MA mainly affects dark skinned patients and grows rapidly, showing a plane or slightly raised appearance and a brown to black color. The differential diagnosis includes oral nevi, amalgam tattoos, and melanomas. We report here the case of a 58-year-old black woman who presented multiple pigmented lesions on the hard palate. Case presentation Based on the differential diagnosis of melanoma, a punch biopsy (4 mm in diameter was performed. The material was fixed in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin or submitted to immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against protein S-100, melan-A, HMB-45, MCM-2, MCM-5, Ki-67 and geminin was performed. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of dendritic melanocytes for proteinS-100, HMB-45 and melan-A.Positive staining for proliferative markers (MCM-2, MCM-5, Ki-67 was only observed in basal and suprabasal epithelial cells, confirming the reactive etiology of the lesion. The diagnosis was oral Melanoacanthoma (MA. Conclusion The patient has been followed up for 30 months and shows no clinical alterations. MA should be included in the differential diagnosis of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity.

  19. Alternative methods for the seismic analysis of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a review of 12 methods and criteria for the seismic analysis of piping systems. Each of the twelve chapters in this document cover the important technical aspects of a given method. The technical aspects presented are those the Subcommittee on Dynamic Stress Criteria believe important to the application of the method, and should not be considered as a positive or negative endorsement for any of the methods. There are many variables in an analysis of a piping system that can influence the selection of the analysis method and criteria to be applied. These variable include system configuration, technical issues, precedent, licensing considerations, and regulatory acceptance. They must all be considered in selecting the appropriate seismic analysis method and criteria. This is relevant for nuclear power plants

  20. A new rapid immunohistochemical staining technique using the EnVision antibody complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmerer, U; Kapp, M; Gassel, A M; Richter, T; Tank, C; Dietl, J; Ruck, P

    2001-05-01

    Rapid immunohistochemical investigation, in addition to staining with hematoxylin and eosin, would be useful during intraoperative frozen section diagnosis in some cases. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the recently described EnVision system, a highly sensitive two-step immunohistochemical technique, could be modified for rapid immunostaining of frozen sections. Forty-five primary antibodies were tested on frozen sections from various different tissues. After fixation in acetone for 1 min and air-drying, the sections were incubated for 3 min each with the primary antibody, the EnVision complex (a large number of secondary antibodies and horseradish peroxidase coupled to a dextran backbone), and the chromogen (3,3'diaminobenzidine or 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole). All reactions were carried out at 37C. Specific staining was seen with 38 antibodies (including HMB-45 and antibodies against keratin, vimentin, leukocyte common antigen, smooth muscle actin, synaptophysin, CD34, CD3, CD20, and prostate-specific antigen). A modification of the EnVision method allows the detection of a broad spectrum of antigens in frozen sections in less than 13 min. This method could be a useful new tool in frozen section diagnosis and research. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:623-630, 2001)

  1. Analysis of the immunohistochemical expressions of p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 in colorectal adenocarcinoma and their correlations with the prognostic factors Análise das expressões imunoistoquímicas da p53, bcl-2 e Ki-67 no adenocarcinoma colorretal e suas correlações com os fatores prognósticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunaldo Lima de Menezes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Search of tumors markers that allow treatment with higher survival rates, and indicate the response to treatment and recurrence of cancer OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immunoexpression of the proteins p53, bcl-2 and Ki-67 in colorectal adenocarcinoma and correlate them with the clinical-pathological prognostic factors. METHOD: Tissue microarray paraffin blocks were made from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue resected from 82 patients who had undergone surgery but not chemotherapy or radiotherapy, at "Hospital São Paulo", São Paulo, SP, Brazil, between 2002 and 2005. Thin sections (4 µm were subjected to immunohistochemical reactions, and immunoexpression staining scores were obtained. The scores were correlated with the degree of cell differentiation, staging, disease-free interval, recurrence, survival and specific mortality. The study variables were analyzed using the chi-square and Kaplan-Meier tests to investigate associations with the markers. The significance of the differences between the curves of the disease-free interval and survival was analyzed using the Logrank and Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of p53 was positive in 70 tumors (85.4% and negative in 12 (14.6%. The expression of bcl-2 was positive in 26 (31.7% and negative in 56 (68.3%. The expression of Ki-67 was positive in 62 (75.6% and negative in 20 (24.4%. There was no statistically significant correlation between the expressions of these markers separately or in conjunction, in relation to the degree of cell differentiation, staging, disease-free interval, survival and specific mortality. In relation to recurrence, there was a statistically significant correlation with positive expression of Ki-67 (P = 0.035. CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 in colorectal cancer is associated with recurrence of this disease.CONTEXTO: Pesquisa de marcadores tumorais que permitam tratamento com maiores índices de sobrevida, além de

  2. Method and procedure of fatigue analysis for nuclear equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jing; Fang Yonggang; Lu Yan; Zhang Yue; Sun Zaozhan; Zou Mingzhong

    2014-01-01

    As an example, the fatigue analysis for the upper head of the pressurizer in one NPP was carried out by using ANSYS, a finite element method analysis software. According to RCC-M code, only two kinds of typical transients of temperature and pressure were considered in the fatigue analysis. Meanwhile, the influence of earthquake was taken into account. The method and procedure of fatigue analysis for nuclear safety equipment were described in detail. This paper provides a reference for fatigue analysis and assessment of nuclear safety grade equipment and pipe. (authors)

  3. Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

  4. Use of some nuclear methods for materials analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbani, Farouk

    1994-01-01

    A review is given about the use of two nuclear-related analytical methods, namely: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), for the determination of elemental composition of various materials. Special emphasis is given to the use of XRF for the analysis of geological samples, and NAA for the analysis of food - stuffs for their protein content. (Author)

  5. direct method of analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate direct

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This work evaluates the static analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate with various the static analysis ... method according to Ritz is used to obtain the total potential energy of the plate by employing the used to ..... for rectangular plates analysis, as the behavior of the ... results obtained by previous research work that used.

  6. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil: Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Pena, Hilda F J; Talebi, Mauricio G; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Kanamura, Cristina T; Diaz-Delgado, Josué; Gennari, Solange M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2018-04-01

    We report the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of fatal acute systemic toxoplasmosis in an adult, female, free-living southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil. PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis identified the #21 genotype of Toxoplasma gondii. This represents the first report of acute toxoplasmosis involving this genotype in humans and animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Pannus Tissue in Patients with Prosthetic Valve Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoyun, Süleyman; Ozan Gürsoy, Mustafa; Yesin, Mahmut; Kalçık, Macit; Astarcıoğlu, Mehmet Ali; Gündüz, Sabahattin; Emrah Oğuz, Ali; Çoban Kökten, Şermin; Nimet Karadayı, Ayşe; Tuncer, Altuğ; Köksal, Cengiz; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Özkan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic valve dysfunction due to pannus formation is a rare but serious complication. Currently, limited data are available concerning the pathogenesis and immunohistochemical properties of pannus. The study aim was to investigate the morphological, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of pannus formation in patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction. A total of 35 patients (10 males, 25 females; mean age 44 ± 16 years) who had undergone re-do valve surgery due to prosthetic valve obstruction was enrolled in the study. Immunohistochemical studies were aimed at evaluating the expression of alphasmooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin in myofibroblasts and smooth muscle cells; epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in epithelial cells; and CD34, Factor VIII and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in endothelial cells. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were used to demonstrate cytokine release from macrophages, leukocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Pannus appeared as a tough and thick tissue hyperplasia which began from outside the suture ring in the periannular region and extended to the inflow and outflow surfaces of the prosthetic valves. Histopathological analysis showed the pannus tissue to consist of chronic inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and foreign body giant cells), spindle cells such as myofibroblasts, capillary blood vessels and endothelial cells laying down the lumens. Calcification was present in the pannus tissue of 19 explanted prostheses. Immunohistochemical studies revealed positive α-SMA expression in all patients, whereas 60.5% of patients were positive for desmin, 50% for EMA, 42.1% for VEGF, 39.5% for TBF-β, 42.1% for MMP-2, 86.8% for CD34, and 97.4% for Factor VIII. MMP-9 was negative in all patients. Pannus tissue appears to be formed as the result of a neointimal response in periannular regions of prosthetic valves that consist

  8. Analysis and study on core power capability with margin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tongxian; Wu Lei; Yu Yingrui; Zhou Jinman

    2015-01-01

    Core power capability analysis focuses on the power distribution control of reactor within the given mode of operation, for the purpose of defining the allowed normal operating space so that Condition Ⅰ maneuvering flexibility is maintained and Condition Ⅱ occurrences are adequately protected by the reactor protection system. For the traditional core power capability analysis methods, such as synthesis method or advanced three dimension method, usually calculate the key safety parameters of the power distribution, and then verify that these parameters meet the design criteria. For PWR with on-line power distribution monitoring system, core power capability analysis calculates the most power level which just meets the design criteria. On the base of 3D FAC method of Westinghouse, the calculation model of core power capability analysis with margin method is introduced to provide reference for engineers. The core power capability analysis of specific burnup of Sanmen NPP is performed with the margin method. The results demonstrate the rationality of the margin method. The calculation model of the margin method not only helps engineers to master the core power capability analysis for AP1000, but also provides reference for engineers for core power capability analysis of other PWR with on-line power distribution monitoring system. (authors)

  9. Immunohistochemical positive stained p53 protein in bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimi Monireh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular genetics and immunopathologic analysis of bladder cancer have shown some abnormalities in a number of genes and proteins that have been implicated in the development and progression of such tumors, mainly in the p53 pathway. Aims: To investigate the rate of positively stained p53 protein in patients with urothelial papillary carcinoma of the bladder (UCB by immunohistochemistry and its relationship with tumor grade, gender and age of the patients. Settings and Design: During the present cross-sectional study, 100 paraffin-embedded specimens of UCB, which were provided from biopsies of the bladder by transurethral access, were immunohistochemically stained and studied for p53 protein from May 2006 to May 2007 in our referral center pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: First, 4 µm slices of paraffin sections were provided and then stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase method. The rate of positively stained p53 protein (defined as positive nuclear staining in over 10% of the cells was assessed. This rate was also estimated and compared between grades, genders and age-related groups (< 70 years, ≥70 years. Statistical Analysis: The χ2 , Fisher′s exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparing. Results: The overall rate of positively stained specimens was 11% for nuclear p53 protein. This rate was significantly higher in females (10/29 vs. 1/71; P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.43-306.08, patients with 70 or older than 70 years (8/42 vs. 3/58; P = 0.04; OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 1.07-17.39 and in high-grade tumors (10/58 vs. 1/42; P = 0.02; OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.01-0.95. Conclusions: The rate of positively stained p53 protein for UCB was lower in our population. This rate was also higher in females, patients with 70 or older than 70 years and high grade of UCB.

  10. A review of analysis methods about thermal buckling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.; Combescure, A.; Acker, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper highlights the main items emerging from a large bibliographical survey carried out on strain-induced buckling analysis methods applicable in the building of fast neutron reactor structures. The work is centred on the practical analysis methods used in construction codes to account for the strain-buckling of thin and slender structures. Methods proposed in the literature concerning past and present studies are rapidly described. Experimental, theoretical and numerical methods are considered. Methods applicable to design and their degree of validation are indicated

  11. Dynamic relaxation method in analysis of reinforced concrete bent elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szcześniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for the analysis of nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete bent elements subjected to short-term static load. The considerations in the range of modelling of deformation processes of reinforced concrete element were carried out. The method of structure effort analysis was developed using the finite difference method. The Dynamic Relaxation Method, which — after introduction of critical damping — allows for description of the static behaviour of a structural element, was used to solve the system of nonlinear equilibrium equations. In order to increase the method effectiveness in the range of the post-critical analysis, the Arc Length Parameter on the equilibrium path was introduced into the computational procedure.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete elements, physical nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity, dynamic relaxation method, arc-length method

  12. Statistical learning methods in high-energy and astrophysics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, 52425 Juelich (Germany) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: zimmerm@mppmu.mpg.de; Kiesling, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2004-11-21

    We discuss several popular statistical learning methods used in high-energy- and astro-physics analysis. After a short motivation for statistical learning we present the most popular algorithms and discuss several examples from current research in particle- and astro-physics. The statistical learning methods are compared with each other and with standard methods for the respective application.

  13. Statistical learning methods in high-energy and astrophysics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.; Kiesling, C.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss several popular statistical learning methods used in high-energy- and astro-physics analysis. After a short motivation for statistical learning we present the most popular algorithms and discuss several examples from current research in particle- and astro-physics. The statistical learning methods are compared with each other and with standard methods for the respective application

  14. Immunohistochemical testing for Helicobacter Pylori existence in neoplasms of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Nurgul

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is a common pathogen, and its prevalence varies with socioeconomic conditions (10–80%. It has recently been recognized as a class I carcinogen in relation to gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori in neoplasms of the colon by immunohistochemical methods. Methods The polypectomy materials of 51 patients (19 male and 32 female who had undergone colonoscopic polypectomy were retrieved for retrospective examination. The endoscopic size and colonic localization of the polyps were recorded. Hematoxylin and eosin stains were evaluated according to histological type and grade of dysplasia. Biopsy stains were immunohistochemically treated with Helicobacter pylori antibodies by the streptavidine-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. Helicobacter pylori staining in the gastric mucosa was used as the control for the immunohistochemical method. Specimens were classified according to the presence of Helicobacter pylori under an optical microscope, and Helicobacter pylori positive specimens were stratified according to the respective staining pattern. Results Mean age was 61.88 ± 10.62 (40–82 years. Polyp sizes were 1.45 ± 0.92 (1–4 cm; and 25.5% of polyps were localized in the right colon, 68.6% in the left colon and 5.9% in the transverse colon. Presence of Helicobacter pylori was not correlated with localization (p > 0.05 or size of the polyps (p > 0.05. Eleven (21.6% of all specimens included in the study were Helicobacter pylori positive by immunohistochemical methods. Of the Helicobacter pylori positive specimens, the staining pattern was diffuse: Equivocal in 90.9%, nonspecific with a finely granular type concentrated on the luminal surface in 90.9%, dot-like granular in 54.5%, and spiral in 9.1%. Of the tubular polyps, 17.9% were H. pylori positive, and the staining pattern was equivocal in 100%, luminal in 85.7%, and dot-like granular in 57.1%. Of the

  15. Immunohistochemically determined total epidermal growth factor receptor levels not of prognostic value in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: Report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Arnab; Seiferheld, Wendy; Tu Xiaoyu; Wang Huijun; Zhang Huazhong; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth; Curran, Walter; Mehta, Minesh

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) performed an analysis of patterns of immunohistochemically detected total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression levels and their prognostic significance on archival tissue in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients from prior prospective RTOG clinical trials. Methods and materials: Patients in this study had been treated on previous RTOG GBM trials (RTOG 7401, 7918, 8302, 8409, 9006, 9305, 9602, and 9806). Tissue microarrays were prepared from 155 patients enrolled in these trials. These specimens were stained using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for the extracellular binding domain of EGFR to detect total EGFR (including both wild-type phosphorylated and wild-type unphosphorylated isoforms with some cross-reactivity with EGFRvIII). The intensity of total EGFR protein expression was measured by computerized quantitative image analysis using the SAMBA 4000 Cell Image Analysis System. The parameters measured were the mean optical densities over the labeled areas and the staining index, which represents the proportion of stained area relative to the mean stain concentration. Both parameters were correlated with the clinical outcome. Results: No differences in either overall or progression-free survival could be demonstrated by the mean optical density class or mean optical density quartile or the staining index of total EGFR immunostaining among the representative RTOG GBM cases. Conclusion: Total EGFR protein expression levels, as measured immunohistochemically, do not appear to be of prognostic value in newly diagnosed GBM patients. Given the accumulating clinical evidence of the activity of anti-EGFR agents in GBM and the preclinical data suggesting the important role of downstream mediators as effectors of EGFR signaling, the RTOG is conducting additional investigations into the prognostic value of activation patterns of EGFR signaling, both at the level of the receptor

  16. A biosegmentation benchmark for evaluation of bioimage analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvilekval Kristian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a biosegmentation benchmark that includes infrastructure, datasets with associated ground truth, and validation methods for biological image analysis. The primary motivation for creating this resource comes from the fact that it is very difficult, if not impossible, for an end-user to choose from a wide range of segmentation methods available in the literature for a particular bioimaging problem. No single algorithm is likely to be equally effective on diverse set of images and each method has its own strengths and limitations. We hope that our benchmark resource would be of considerable help to both the bioimaging researchers looking for novel image processing methods and image processing researchers exploring application of their methods to biology. Results Our benchmark consists of different classes of images and ground truth data, ranging in scale from subcellular, cellular to tissue level, each of which pose their own set of challenges to image analysis. The associated ground truth data can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods, to improve methods and to compare results. Standard evaluation methods and some analysis tools are integrated into a database framework that is available online at http://bioimage.ucsb.edu/biosegmentation/. Conclusion This online benchmark will facilitate integration and comparison of image analysis methods for bioimages. While the primary focus is on biological images, we believe that the dataset and infrastructure will be of interest to researchers and developers working with biological image analysis, image segmentation and object tracking in general.

  17. Endurance time method for Seismic analysis and design of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estekanchi, H.E.; Vafai, A.; Sadeghazar, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for performance based earthquake analysis and design has been introduced. In this method, the structure is subjected to accelerograms that impose increasing dynamic demand on the structure with time. Specified damage indexes are monitored up to the collapse level or other performance limit that defines the endurance limit point for the structure. Also, a method for generating standard intensifying accelerograms has been described. Three accelerograms have been generated using this method. Furthermore, the concept of Endurance Time has been described by applying these accelerograms to single and multi degree of freedom linear systems. The application of this method for analysis of complex nonlinear systems has been explained. Endurance Time method provides a uniform approach to seismic analysis and design of complex structures that can be applied in numerical and experimental investigations

  18. Study on mixed analysis method for fatigue analysis of oblique safety injection nozzle on main piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xifeng; Zhang Yixiong; Ai Honglei; Wang Xinjun; He Feng

    2014-01-01

    The simplified analysis method and the detailed analysis method were used for the fatigue analysis of the nozzle on the main piping. Because the structure of the oblique safety injection nozzle is complex and some more severe transients are subjected. The results obtained are more penalized and cannot be validate when the simplified analysis method used for the fatigue analysis. It will be little conservative when the detailed analysis method used, but it is more complex and time-consuming and boring labor. To reduce the conservatism and save time, the mixed analysis method which combining the simplified analysis method with the detailed analysis method is used for the fatigue analysis. The heat transfer parameters between the fluid and the structure which used for analysis were obtained by heat transfer property experiment. The results show that the mixed analysis which heat transfer property is considered can reduce the conservatism effectively, and the mixed analysis method is a more effective and practical method used for the fatigue analysis of the oblique safety injection nozzle. (authors)

  19. Inverse thermal analysis method to study solidification in cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dioszegi, Atilla; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Solidification modelling of cast metals is widely used to predict final properties in cast components. Accurate models necessitate good knowledge of the solidification behaviour. The present study includes a re-examination of the Fourier thermal analysis method. This involves an inverse numerical...... solution of a 1-dimensional heat transfer problem connected to solidification of cast alloys. In the analysis, the relation between the thermal state and the fraction solid of the metal is evaluated by a numerical method. This method contains an iteration algorithm controlled by an under relaxation term...... inverse thermal analysis was tested on both experimental and simulated data....

  20. Placental heat shock proteins: no immunohistochemical evidence for a differential stress response in preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, M J; Bulmer, J N; Miller, D; Lilford, R J

    1995-01-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic preterm labour remains obscure. The hypothesis that a stress response induced by low-grade bacterial infection in utero-placental tissues was investigated. Distribution of cognate and inducible isoforms of heat shock proteins (HSP) 70 kD, HSP 60 kD and HSP 90 kD were investigated in an immunohistochemical study of placental and decidual tissues before and after labour at varying gestations. Subjects were pregnant women undergoing singleton delivery after idiopathic preterm labour at less than 34 weeks' gestation (n = 23); spontaneous term labour at 37-42 weeks' gestation (n =24); preterm caesarean sections at less than 34 weeks' gestation for preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation (n=14); elective caesarean section at 37-42 weeks' gestation for cephalopelvic disproportion (n = 6). HSP expression was constant throughout the third trimester of pregnancy and did not change following the onset of labour, regardless of gestational age. A stress response in decidual tissues as determined by immunohistochemical analysis is apparently not associated with preterm labour.

  1. Immunohistochemical study of p53 overexpression in radiation-induced colon cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazunori; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Mokarim, A.; Matsuzaki, Sumihiro; Ito, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro.

    1998-01-01

    The expressions of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied immunohistochemically from paraffin sections of 7 cases (9 lesions) of radiation-induced colon cancer and 42 cases of spontaneous colon cancer. Age distribution of radiation-induced and spontaneous colon cancer were 68.1 years (range, 56 to 77 years) and 67.4 years (range, 31 to 85 years), respectively. Among the radiation-induced colon cancers, there were 3 lesions of mucinous carcinoma (33%), a much higher than found for spontaneous mucinous cancer. Immunohistochemically, p53 protein expression was detected in 7/9 (78%) of radiation-induced cancers and in 23/42 (55%) of spontaneous colon cancers. χ 2 analysis found no significant differences between radiation-induced and spontaneous colon cancers in age distribution or p53-positive staining for frequency, histopathology, or Dukes'' classification. In radiation colitis around the cancers including aberrant crypts, spotted p53 staining and abnormal and scattered PCNA-positive staining were observed. In histologically normal cells, p53 staining was almost absent and PCNA-positive staining was regularly observed in the lower half of the crypt. In radiation colitis including aberrant glands, cellular proliferation increased and spotted p53 expression was observed. This study suggests that radiation colitis and aberrant glands might possess malignant potential and deeply associate with carcinogenesis of radiation-induced colon cancer. (author)

  2. Succinate Dehydrogenase B Subunit Immunohistochemical Expression Predicts Aggressiveness in Well Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milione, Massimo [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Pusceddu, Sara [Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Gasparini, Patrizia [Molecular Cytogenetics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Melotti, Flavia [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Maisonneuve, Patrick [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan 20141 (Italy); Mazzaferro, Vincenzo [Division of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Braud, Filippo G. de [Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Pelosi, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.pelosi@unimi.it [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan I-20133 (Italy); Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Università degli Studi, Facoltà di Medicina, Milan 20122 (Italy)

    2012-08-16

    Immunohistochemical loss of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) has recently been reported as a surrogate biomarker of malignancy in sporadic and familial pheocromocytomas and paragangliomas through the activation of hypoxia pathways. However, data on the prevalence and the clinical implications of SDHB immunoreactivity in ileal neuroendocrine tumors are still lacking. Thirty-one consecutive, advanced primary midgut neuroendocrine tumors and related lymph node or liver metastases from 24 males and seven females were immunohistochemically assessed for SDHB. All patients were G1 tumors (Ki-67 labeling index ≤2%). SDHB immunohistochemistry results were expressed as immunostaining intensity and scored as low or strong according to the internal control represented by normal intestinal cells. Strong positivity for SDHB, with granular cytoplasmatic reactivity, was found in 77% of primary tumors (T), whilst low SDHB expression was detected in 90% of metastases (M). The combined analysis (T+M) confirmed the loss of SDHB expression in 82% of metastases compared to 18% of primary tumors. SDHB expression was inversely correlated with Ki-67 labeling index, which accounted for 1.54% in metastastic sites and 0.7% in primary tumors. A correlation between SDHB expression loss, increased Ki-67 labeling index and biological aggressiveness was shown in advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors, suggesting a role of tumor suppressor gene.

  3. Succinate Dehydrogenase B Subunit Immunohistochemical Expression Predicts Aggressiveness in Well Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milione, Massimo; Pusceddu, Sara; Gasparini, Patrizia; Melotti, Flavia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Braud, Filippo G. de; Pelosi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Immunohistochemical loss of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) has recently been reported as a surrogate biomarker of malignancy in sporadic and familial pheocromocytomas and paragangliomas through the activation of hypoxia pathways. However, data on the prevalence and the clinical implications of SDHB immunoreactivity in ileal neuroendocrine tumors are still lacking. Thirty-one consecutive, advanced primary midgut neuroendocrine tumors and related lymph node or liver metastases from 24 males and seven females were immunohistochemically assessed for SDHB. All patients were G1 tumors (Ki-67 labeling index ≤2%). SDHB immunohistochemistry results were expressed as immunostaining intensity and scored as low or strong according to the internal control represented by normal intestinal cells. Strong positivity for SDHB, with granular cytoplasmatic reactivity, was found in 77% of primary tumors (T), whilst low SDHB expression was detected in 90% of metastases (M). The combined analysis (T+M) confirmed the loss of SDHB expression in 82% of metastases compared to 18% of primary tumors. SDHB expression was inversely correlated with Ki-67 labeling index, which accounted for 1.54% in metastastic sites and 0.7% in primary tumors. A correlation between SDHB expression loss, increased Ki-67 labeling index and biological aggressiveness was shown in advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors, suggesting a role of tumor suppressor gene

  4. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features of Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Landa, Victoria; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro María; Santos-Briz, Angel; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Alegre, Victor; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is a rare histopathologic variant of Sweet syndrome. The nature of the histiocytoid infiltrate has generated considerable controversy in the literature. The main goal of this study was to conduct a comprehensive overview of the immunohistochemical phenotype of the infiltrate in histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. We also analyze whether this variant of Sweet syndrome is more frequently associated with hematologic malignancies than classic Sweet syndrome. This is a retrospective case series study of the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of 33 patients with a clinicopathologic diagnosis of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was conducted in the dermatology departments of 5 university hospitals and a private laboratory of dermatopathology. The clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and follow-up features of 33 patients with histiocytoid Sweet syndrome were analyzed. In some cases, cytogenetic studies of the dermal infiltrate were also performed. We compare our findings with those of the literature. The dermal infiltrate from the 33 study patients (20 female; median age, 49 years; age range, 5-93 years; and 13 male; median age, 42 years; age range, 4-76 years) was mainly composed of myeloperoxidase-positive immature myelomonocytic cells with histiocytoid morphology. No cytogenetic anomalies were found in the infiltrate except in 1 case in which neoplastic cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia were intermingled with the cells of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. Authentic histiocytes were also found in most cases, with a mature immunoprofile, but they appeared to be a minor component of the infiltrate. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was not more frequently related with hematologic malignancies than classic neutrophilic Sweet syndrome. The dermal infiltrate of cutaneous lesions of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is composed mostly of immature cells of myeloid lineage. This infiltrate should not be interpreted as leukemia cutis.

  5. Life cycle analysis of electricity systems: Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Marheineke, T.

    1996-01-01

    The two methods for full energy chain analysis, process analysis and input/output analysis, are discussed. A combination of these two methods provides the most accurate results. Such a hybrid analysis of the full energy chains of six different power plants is presented and discussed. The results of such analyses depend on time, site and technique of each process step and, therefore have no general validity. For renewable energy systems the emissions form the generation of a back-up system should be added. (author). 7 figs, 1 fig

  6. Digital spectral analysis parametric, non-parametric and advanced methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castanié, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Digital Spectral Analysis provides a single source that offers complete coverage of the spectral analysis domain. This self-contained work includes details on advanced topics that are usually presented in scattered sources throughout the literature.The theoretical principles necessary for the understanding of spectral analysis are discussed in the first four chapters: fundamentals, digital signal processing, estimation in spectral analysis, and time-series models.An entire chapter is devoted to the non-parametric methods most widely used in industry.High resolution methods a

  7. Intramural Ganglion Structures in Esophageal Atresia: A Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Zuccarello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Disorders of esophageal motility causing dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux are frequent in survivors to esophageal atresia (EA and distal tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF. The aim of the present study was to investigate the histologic and immunohistochemical features in both esophageal atretic segments to further understand the nature of the motor disorders observed in these patients. Material and Methods. Esophageal specimens from 12 newborns with EA/TEF and 5 newborns dead of unrelated causes were examined. The specimens were fixed in 5% buffered formalin, included in paraffin and cut in 5 micron sections that were stained with hematoxilin and eosin (H and E, and immunohistochemical stainings for Actin, S-100 protein, Neurofilament, Neuron-Specific-Enolase, Chromogranin A and Peripherin were evaluated under the microscope. Results. In controls, the distribution of the neural elements was rather homogenous at both levels of the esophagus. In contrast, the atretic segments showed quantitative and qualitative differences between them with sparser nervous tissue in the distal one in comparison with the proximal one and with controls. Conclusions. These results further support the assumption that histomorphological alterations of the muscular and nervous elements within the esophageal wall might contribute to esophageal dysmotility in patients surviving neonatal operations for EA/TEF.

  8. Immunohistochemical distribution of phosphatidylglucoside using anti-phosphatidylglucoside monoclonal antibody (DIM21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yukisato; Okazaki, Toshiro; Nagatsuka, Yasuko; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Kato, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2007-01-01

    The immunohistochemical distribution of phosphatidylglucoside (PhGlc) in organs obtained from human autopsy cases was investigated using the DIM21 antibody. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formaline-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections using the simple stain peroxidase method. The sections were then subjected to antigen retrieval by microwave irradiation in citrate buffer. PhGlc expression was observed in not only the epithelial but also the non-epithelial components of several visceral organs. Squamous and glandular epithelial cells were positive for PhGlc in several organs. The surface areas of the epithelium, particularly the squamous epithelium, were positive. Mesothelial cells were also positive in some organs. Endothelial cells, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are positive in several organs. Macrophage is positive in many organs. Epithelial cells of the gallbladder were positive, however, the intrahepatic bile ducts were not positive. In the brain tissue, astroglial cells, the chorioide plexus, the pituitary gland, and ependymal cells were positive. Further investigation is indispensable in order to establish a relationship between cell differentiation and PhGlc expression

  9. Immunohistochemical profiles of claudin-3 in primary and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becich Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Claudins are integral membrane proteins that are involved in forming cellular tight junctions. One member of the claudin family, claudin-3, has been shown to be overexpressed in breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer. Here we use immunohistochemistry to evaluate its expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, normal tissue adjacent to prostatic adenocarcinoma (NAC, primary prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa, and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma (Mets. Methods Tissue microarrays were immunohistochemically stained for claudin-3, with the staining intensities subsequently quantified and statistically analyzed using a one-way ANOVA with subsequent Tukey tests for multiple comparisons or a nonparametric equivalent. Fifty-three cases of NAC, 17 cases of BPH, 35 cases of PIN, 107 cases of PCa, and 55 cases of Mets were analyzed in the microarrays. Results PCa and Mets had the highest absolute staining for claudin-3. Both had significantly higher staining than BPH (p Conclusions To our knowledge, this represents one of the first studies comparing the immunohistochemical profiles of claudin-3 in PCa and NAC to specimens of PIN, BPH, and Mets. These findings provide further evidence that claudin-3 may serve as an important biomarker for prostate cancer, both primary and metastatic, but does not provide evidence that claudin-3 can be used to predict risk of metastasis.

  10. Ultra-small particles of iron oxide as peroxidase for immunohistochemical detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yihang; Song Mengjie; Zhang Xiaoqing; Zhang Yu; Wang Chunyu; Gu Ning; Xin Zhuang; Li Suyi

    2011-01-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) modified ultra-small particles of iron oxide (USPIO) were synthesized through a two-step process. The first step: oleic acid (OA) capped Fe 3 O 4 (OA-USPIO) were synthesized by a novel oxidation coprecipitation method in H 2 O/DMSO mixing system, where DMSO acts as an oxidant simultaneously. The second step: OA was replaced by DMSA to obtain water-soluble nanoparticles. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, FTIR, TGA, VSM, DLS, EDS and UV-vis. Hydrodynamic sizes and Peroxidase-like catalytic activity of the nanoparticles were investigated. The hydrodynamic sizes of the nanoparticles (around 24.4 nm) were well suited to developing stable nanoprobes for bio-detection. The kinetic studies were performed to quantitatively evaluate the catalytic ability of the peroxidase-like nanoparticles. The calculated kinetic parameters indicated that the DMSA-USPIO possesses high catalytic activity. Based on the high activity, immunohistochemical experiments were established: using low-cost nanoparticles as the enzyme instead of expensive HRP, Nimotuzumab was conjugated onto the surface of the nanoparticles to construct a kind of ultra-small nanoprobe which was employed to detect epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-expressed on the membrane of esophageal cancer cell. The proper sizes of the probes and the result of membranous immunohistochemical staining suggest that the probes can be served as a useful diagnostic reagent for bio-detection.

  11. Immunohistochemical evaluation: The effects of propolis on osseointegration of dental implants in rabbit′s tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Habeeb Al-Molla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental implant is an artificial tooth root-fixed into the jaws to hold a replacement tooth or bridge. Functional surface modifications by organic material such as propolis coating seem to enhance early peri-implant bone formation, enhancing the initial cell attachment. The aim of the study was to study the expression of osteocalcin (OC and type I collagen (COLL1 as bone formation markers in propolis-coated and -uncoated implant in interval periods (1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Materials and Methods: Commercially pure titanium (cpTi implants, coated with propolis protein, were placed in the tibias of 40 New Zealand white rabbits, histological and immunohistochemical tests for detection of expression of OC and COLL1were performed on all the implants of both control and experimental groups for (1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks healing intervals. Results: Histological finding for coated titanium implant with propolis illustrated an early bone formation, mineralization, and maturation in comparison to control. Immunohistochemical finding showed that positive reaction for OC and COLL1 was expressed by osteoblast cells at implants coated with propolis, indicating that bone formation and maturation was accelerated by adding biological materials as a modification modality of implant surface. Conclusion: The present study concludes that coating of implants with propolis showed increment in osseointegration in short interval period.

  12. Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst with Complex Odontoma: Histological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Mohtasham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is a rare odontogenic cyst. Only 2% of all odontogenic cysts and tumors are COC. COC associated with odontoma (COCaO reported in 24% of COCs. COCaO presents a greater incidence in female, with a ratio of 2 to 1. The highest incidence of COCaO occurs during the second decade with a mean age of 16 years, most frequently occurring in the maxilla (61.5%. Here, we describe a classic case of COCaO of the maxillary incisor-canine region in 17-year-old girl, and discuss the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical finding of this tumor.

  13. Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst with Complex Odontoma: Histological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Merati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is a rare odontogenic cyst. Only 2% of all odontogenic cysts and tumors are COC. COC associated with odontoma (COCaO reported in 24% of COCs. COCaO presents a greater incidence in female, with a ratio of 2 to 1. The highest incidence of COCaO occurs during the second decade with a mean age of 16 years, most frequently occurring in the maxilla (61.5%. Here, we describe a classic case of COCaO of the maxillary incisor-canine region in 17-year-old girl, and discuss the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical finding of this tumor.

  14. P53 expression in prostatic cancer: an immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nuaimy, W.M.; Al-Allaf, L.I.; Alnaimi, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and second leading cause of cancer death in the Western world. P53 alterations are the most frequent genetic changes in human cancers. Mutation of the p53 gene has been implicated in the development of >50% of all human cancer. The current study aims at evaluating the immuno-histochemical expression of p53 protein in patients with cancer of prostate, as prognostic parameter in correlation with other parameters including PSA receptors, and to correlate the results with those of other studies. (authors).

  15. Cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue with an immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gregório Wrublevski; Pereira, Volnei David; Pereira Junior, José Antonio de Castro; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici

    2012-01-01

    By definition, choristomas are normal tissues found in anomalous topography. The cartilaginous features of these lesions are rare in the soft tissues of the oral cavity. The majority of cartilaginous choristomas of the tongue—the primary site of emergence of the oropharynx—are associated with adipose, fibrous or bone tissues—apart from that, only a few of these were confirmed by an immunohistochemical study. The neoplasm exclusively composed of chondromatous tissue is extremely rare in the tongue. This paper reports the clinical, surgical and pathological characteristics of a cartilaginous choristoma of the tongue diagnosed in a 64-year-old woman. PMID:23220826

  16. Significance Of Immunohistochemical Markers In Diagnostics Of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Medvedeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of surgical and biopsy material 106 patients with diseases of urinary bladder have been under study. They received treatment at Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Uronephrology of Saratov State Medical University. 13 immunohistochemical markers have been evaluated: markers of proliferative activity - Ki-67, PCNA, p63, suppressor of tumor growth - p53, markers of apoptosis - Bcl-2, Bax, receptor of epidermal growth factors - EGFR, cytokeratin profile - (CK7, CK8, CK10/13, CK 17, CK18, CK19, as well as their diagnostic significance for identifying the urinary bladder cancer

  17. Advanced symbolic analysis for VLSI systems methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Guoyong; Tlelo Cuautle, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the recent advances in symbolic analysis techniques for design automation of nanometer VLSI systems. The presentation is organized in parts of fundamentals, basic implementation methods and applications for VLSI design. Topics emphasized include  statistical timing and crosstalk analysis, statistical and parallel analysis, performance bound analysis and behavioral modeling for analog integrated circuits . Among the recent advances, the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) based approaches are studied in depth. The BDD-based hierarchical symbolic analysis approaches, have essentially broken the analog circuit size barrier. In particular, this book   • Provides an overview of classical symbolic analysis methods and a comprehensive presentation on the modern  BDD-based symbolic analysis techniques; • Describes detailed implementation strategies for BDD-based algorithms, including the principles of zero-suppression, variable ordering and canonical reduction; • Int...

  18. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  19. An operational modal analysis method in frequency and spatial domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Zhang, Lingmi; Tamura, Yukio

    2005-12-01

    A frequency and spatial domain decomposition method (FSDD) for operational modal analysis (OMA) is presented in this paper, which is an extension of the complex mode indicator function (CMIF) method for experimental modal analysis (EMA). The theoretical background of the FSDD method is clarified. Singular value decomposition is adopted to separate the signal space from the noise space. Finally, an enhanced power spectrum density (PSD) is proposed to obtain more accurate modal parameters by curve fitting in the frequency domain. Moreover, a simulation case and an application case are used to validate this method.

  20. Methods for seismic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantenbein, F.

    1990-01-01

    The seismic analysis of a complex structure, such as a nuclear power plant, is done in various steps. An overview of the methods, used in each of these steps will be given in the following chapters: Seismic analysis of the buildings taking into account structures with important mass or stiffness. The input to the building analysis, called ground motion, is described by an accelerogram or a response spectra. In this step, soil structure interaction has to be taken into account. Various methods are available: Impedance, finite element. The response of the structure can be calculated by spectral method or by time history analysis; advantages and limitations of each method will be shown. Calculation of floor response spectrum which are the data for the equipment analysis. Methods to calculate this spectrum will be described. Seismic analysis of the equipments. Presentation of the methods for both monosupported and multisupported equipment will be given. In addition methods to analyse equipments which present non-linearities associated to the boundary conditions such as impacts, sliding will be presented. (author). 30 refs, 15 figs

  1. Multiple Beta Spectrum Analysis Method Based on Spectrum Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Jung, Yun Song; Kim, Hee Reyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    When the sample of several mixed radioactive nuclides is measured, it is difficult to divide each nuclide due to the overlapping of spectrums. For this reason, simple mathematical analysis method for spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source has been studied. However, existing research was in need of more accurate spectral analysis method as it has a problem of accuracy. The study will describe the contents of the separation methods of the mixed beta ray source through the analysis of the beta spectrum slope based on the curve fitting to resolve the existing problem. The fitting methods including It was understood that sum of sine fitting method was the best one of such proposed methods as Fourier, polynomial, Gaussian and sum of sine to obtain equation for distribution of mixed beta spectrum. It was shown to be the most appropriate for the analysis of the spectrum with various ratios of mixed nuclides. It was thought that this method could be applied to rapid spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source.

  2. Multivariate Methods for Meta-Analysis of Genetic Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimou, Niki L; Pantavou, Katerina G; Braliou, Georgia G; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2018-01-01

    Multivariate meta-analysis of genetic association studies and genome-wide association studies has received a remarkable attention as it improves the precision of the analysis. Here, we review, summarize and present in a unified framework methods for multivariate meta-analysis of genetic association studies and genome-wide association studies. Starting with the statistical methods used for robust analysis and genetic model selection, we present in brief univariate methods for meta-analysis and we then scrutinize multivariate methodologies. Multivariate models of meta-analysis for a single gene-disease association studies, including models for haplotype association studies, multiple linked polymorphisms and multiple outcomes are discussed. The popular Mendelian randomization approach and special cases of meta-analysis addressing issues such as the assumption of the mode of inheritance, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and gene-environment interactions are also presented. All available methods are enriched with practical applications and methodologies that could be developed in the future are discussed. Links for all available software implementing multivariate meta-analysis methods are also provided.

  3. A novel immunohistochemical sequential multi-labelling and erasing technique enables epitope characterization of bone marrow pericytes in primary myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Ann; Bzorek, Michael; Bondo, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    : In Philadelphia (Ph)-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, increased microvascular density, bizarre vessel architecture and increased number of pericytes are among the distinct histopathological features. The aim of this study was to characterize bone marrow pericytes in primary myelofibrosis (PMF) using...... a novel multi-labelling immunohistochemical technique. Methods and results: Bone marrow biopsies from a normal donor (n = 1) and patients with PMF (n = 3) were subjected to an immunohistochemical sequential multi-labelling and erasing technique (SE-technique). Antigens of interest in the first and....../or second layer were detected with an immunoperoxidase system and visualized with aminoethylcarbazole. After imaging, erasing and blocking of immunoreagents, the slides were stained with a traditional double immunolabelling procedure. In addition, we applied a Photoshop(®) colour palette, creating a single...

  4. CARCINOMA PROSTATE HISTOPATHOLOGY IN NEEDLE BIOPSIES INCLUDING REVISED GLEASON’S GRADING AND ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Priyadarsini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adenocarcinoma of prostate is the most common form of cancer in men accounting for 29% of cancers in developed nations and the incidence of prostatic cancer is 6.4% in males of Trivandrum District. MATERIALS AND METHODS All prostatic biopsies taken per rectally and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. In suspected cases of malignancy immunohistochemical markers, the AMACR P504S and high molecular weight cytokeratin 34E12 were done. RESULTS The total number of cases studied were 142. The final diagnosis with histomorphological features show that maximum cases were prostatic carcinoma constituting 45.5% of the samples received. CONCLUSION All prostatic carcinomas were graded by revised Gleason’s grade (ISUP 2005 and the use of immunohistochemical markers in arriving at a definite diagnosis in carcinoma prostate was confirmed.

  5. Social network analysis: Presenting an underused method for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, James Michael; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2018-06-01

    This paper introduces social network analysis as a versatile method with many applications in nursing research. Social networks have been studied for years in many social science fields. The methods continue to advance but remain unknown to most nursing scholars. Discussion paper. English language and interpreted literature was searched from Ovid Healthstar, CINAHL, PubMed Central, Scopus and hard copy texts from 1965 - 2017. Social network analysis first emerged in nursing literature in 1995 and appears minimally through present day. To convey the versatility and applicability of social network analysis in nursing, hypothetical scenarios are presented. The scenarios are illustrative of three approaches to social network analysis and include key elements of social network research design. The methods of social network analysis are underused in nursing research, primarily because they are unknown to most scholars. However, there is methodological flexibility and epistemological versatility capable of supporting quantitative and qualitative research. The analytic techniques of social network analysis can add new insight into many areas of nursing inquiry, especially those influenced by cultural norms. Furthermore, visualization techniques associated with social network analysis can be used to generate new hypotheses. Social network analysis can potentially uncover findings not accessible through methods commonly used in nursing research. Social networks can be analysed based on individual-level attributes, whole networks and subgroups within networks. Computations derived from social network analysis may stand alone to answer a research question or incorporated as variables into robust statistical models. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Review of assessment methods discount rate in investment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaletdinova Guzel Hamidullovna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the current methods of calculating discount rate in investment analysis and business valuation, as well as analyzes the key problems using various techniques in terms of the Russian economy.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Kernel Methods for Statistical Shape Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathi, Yogesh; Dambreville, Samuel; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-01-01

    .... In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of shape learning techniques such as linear PCA, kernel PCA, locally linear embedding and propose a new method, kernelized locally linear embedding...

  8. Meshless methods in biomechanics bone tissue remodelling analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Belinha, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the complete formulation of a new advanced discretization meshless technique: the Natural Neighbour Radial Point Interpolation Method (NNRPIM). In addition, two of the most popular meshless methods, the EFGM and the RPIM, are fully presented. Being a truly meshless method, the major advantages of the NNRPIM over the FEM, and other meshless methods, are the remeshing flexibility and the higher accuracy of the obtained variable field. Using the natural neighbour concept, the NNRPIM permits to determine organically the influence-domain, resembling the cellulae natural behaviour. This innovation permits the analysis of convex boundaries and extremely irregular meshes, which is an advantage in the biomechanical analysis, with no extra computational effort associated.   This volume shows how to extend the NNRPIM to the bone tissue remodelling analysis, expecting to contribute with new numerical tools and strategies in order to permit a more efficient numerical biomechanical analysis.

  9. Solving system of DAEs by homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awawdeh, Fadi; Jaradat, H.M.; Alsayyed, O.

    2009-01-01

    Homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to systems of differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). The HAM is proved to be very effective, simple and convenient to give approximate analytical solutions to DAEs.

  10. Overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design analysis method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design method, from its development in the early 1970s to the present, is presented. Material characterization, structural analysis, and pavement life prediction are discussed...

  11. Immunohistochemical evidence for an endocrine/paracrine role for ghrelin in the reproductive tissues of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Yvonne A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut hormone, ghrelin, is involved in the neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to hunger. In monogastric species, circulating ghrelin levels show clear meal-related and body weight-related changes. The pattern of secretion and its role in ruminant species is less clear. Ghrelin acts via growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSR-1a to alter food intake, fat utilization, and cellular proliferation. There is also evidence that ghrelin is involved in reproductive function. In the present study we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the presence of ghrelin and GHSR-1a in sheep reproductive tissues. In addition, we examined whether ghrelin and GHSR-1a protein expression is developmentally regulated in the adult and fetal ovine testis, and whether there is an association with markers of cellular proliferation, i.e. stem cell factor (SCF and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Methods Antibodies raised against ghrelin and its functional receptor, GHSR-type 1a, were used in standard immunohistochemical protocols on various reproductive tissues collected from adult and fetal sheep. GHSR-1a mRNA presence was also confirmed by in situ hybridisation. SCF and PCNA immunoexpression was investigated in fetal testicular samples. Adult and fetal testicular immunostaining for ghrelin, GHSR-1a, SCF and PCNA was analysed using computer-aided image analysis. Image analysis data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, with differences in immunostaining between time-points determined by Fisher's least significant difference. Results In adult sheep tissue, ghrelin and GHSR-1a immunostaining was detected in the stomach (abomasum, anterior pituitary gland, testis, ovary, and hypothalamic and hindbrain regions of the brain. In the adult testis, there was a significant effect of season (photoperiod on the level of immunostaining for ghrelin (p Conclusion Evidence is presented for the presence of ghrelin and its receptor in various reproductive

  12. Task analysis methods applicable to control room design review (CDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moray, N.P.; Senders, J.W.; Rhodes, W.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a research study conducted in support of the human factors engineering program of the Atomic Energy Control Board in Canada. It contains five products which may be used by the Atomic Enegy Control Board in relation to Task Analysis of jobs in CANDU nuclear power plants: 1. a detailed method for preparing for a task analysis; 2. a Task Data Form for recording task analysis data; 3. a detailed method for carrying out task analyses; 4. a guide to assessing alternative methods for performing task analyses, if such are proposed by utilities or consultants; and 5. an annotated bibliography on task analysis. In addition, a short explanation of the origins, nature and uses of task analysis is provided, with some examples of its cost effectiveness. 35 refs

  13. Expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in leukoplakia and oral cancer: an immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Dutra da SILVA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical correlation of adhesion (E-cadherin and cell differentiation (involucrin molecules in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytological samples and biopsies were obtained from male and female patients aged over 30 years with oral leukoplakia (n = 30 and oral squamous cell carcinoma (n = 22. Cell scrapings and the biopsy were performed at the site of the lesion and histological slides were prepared for the immunocytochemical analysis of exfoliated oral mucosal cells and for the immunohistochemical analysis of biopsy tissues using E-cadherin and involucrin. Spearman’s correlation and kappa coefficients were used to assess the correlation and level of agreement between the techniques. Immunostaining for E-cadherin and involucrin by both techniques was similar in the superficial layers of the histological sections compared with cell scrapings. However, there was no statistical correlation and agreement regarding the immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and involucrin in oral leukoplakia (R = 0.01, p = 0.958 (Kappa = 0.017, p = 0.92 or in oral squamous cell carcinoma (R = 0.26, p = 0.206 (Kappa = 0.36, p = 0.07. The immunoexpression of E-cadherin and involucrin in tissues is consistent with the expression patterns observed in exfoliated oral mucosal cells, despite the lack of a statistically significant correlation. There is an association of the histopathological characteristics of leukoplakia with the expression E-cadherin and of the microscopic aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma with immunohistochemical expression of involucrin.

  14. Application of econometric and ecology analysis methods in physics software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Cheol; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Sung Hun; Grazia Pia, Maria; Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Saracco, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Some data analysis methods typically used in econometric studies and in ecology have been evaluated and applied in physics software environments. They concern the evolution of observables through objective identification of change points and trends, and measurements of inequality, diversity and evenness across a data set. Within each analysis area, various statistical tests and measures have been examined. This conference paper summarizes a brief overview of some of these methods.

  15. Managerial Methods Based on Analysis, Recommended to a Boarding House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomia Andreş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a few theoretical and practical contributions regarding the implementing of analysis based methods, respectively a SWOT and an economic analysis, from the perspective and the demands of a firm management which functions with profits due to the activity of a boarding house. The two types of managerial methods recommended to the firm offer real and complex information necessary for the knowledge of the firm status and the elaboration of prediction for the maintaining of business viability.

  16. Analysis of spectral methods for the homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    KAUST Repository

    Filbet, Francis

    2011-04-01

    The development of accurate and fast algorithms for the Boltzmann collision integral and their analysis represent a challenging problem in scientific computing and numerical analysis. Recently, several works were devoted to the derivation of spectrally accurate schemes for the Boltzmann equation, but very few of them were concerned with the stability analysis of the method. In particular there was no result of stability except when the method was modified in order to enforce the positivity preservation, which destroys the spectral accuracy. In this paper we propose a new method to study the stability of homogeneous Boltzmann equations perturbed by smoothed balanced operators which do not preserve positivity of the distribution. This method takes advantage of the "spreading" property of the collision, together with estimates on regularity and entropy production. As an application we prove stability and convergence of spectral methods for the Boltzmann equation, when the discretization parameter is large enough (with explicit bound). © 2010 American Mathematical Society.

  17. Analysis of spectral methods for the homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    KAUST Repository

    Filbet, Francis; Mouhot, Clé ment

    2011-01-01

    The development of accurate and fast algorithms for the Boltzmann collision integral and their analysis represent a challenging problem in scientific computing and numerical analysis. Recently, several works were devoted to the derivation of spectrally accurate schemes for the Boltzmann equation, but very few of them were concerned with the stability analysis of the method. In particular there was no result of stability except when the method was modified in order to enforce the positivity preservation, which destroys the spectral accuracy. In this paper we propose a new method to study the stability of homogeneous Boltzmann equations perturbed by smoothed balanced operators which do not preserve positivity of the distribution. This method takes advantage of the "spreading" property of the collision, together with estimates on regularity and entropy production. As an application we prove stability and convergence of spectral methods for the Boltzmann equation, when the discretization parameter is large enough (with explicit bound). © 2010 American Mathematical Society.

  18. Uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods of pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunar, O V; Sakhno, N G

    2015-12-30

    The total uncertainty of quantitative microbiological methods, used in pharmaceutical analysis, consists of several components. The analysis of the most important sources of the quantitative microbiological methods variability demonstrated no effect of culture media and plate-count techniques in the estimation of microbial count while the highly significant effect of other factors (type of microorganism, pharmaceutical product and individual reading and interpreting errors) was established. The most appropriate method of statistical analysis of such data was ANOVA which enabled not only the effect of individual factors to be estimated but also their interactions. Considering all the elements of uncertainty and combining them mathematically the combined relative uncertainty of the test results was estimated both for method of quantitative examination of non-sterile pharmaceuticals and microbial count technique without any product. These data did not exceed 35%, appropriated for a traditional plate count methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Global metabolite analysis of yeast: evaluation of sample preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Højer-Pedersen, Jesper; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Sample preparation is considered one of the limiting steps in microbial metabolome analysis. Eukaryotes and prokaryotes behave very differently during the several steps of classical sample preparation methods for analysis of metabolites. Even within the eukaryote kingdom there is a vast diversity...

  20. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  1. Scalable Kernel Methods and Algorithms for General Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksa, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of large-scale sequential data has become an important task in machine learning and pattern recognition, inspired in part by numerous scientific and technological applications such as the document and text classification or the analysis of biological sequences. However, current computational methods for sequence comparison still lack…

  2. Collagenase-3 expression in periapical lesions: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, G; Astekar, M S; Ramesh, G; Kaur, P; Sowmya, G V

    2014-08-01

    Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) is a metalloproteinase (MMP) that is associated with bone lesions and exhibits variable expression patterns in odontogenic cysts; it may play a role in regulating focal proliferation and maturation of jaw cyst epithelium. We studied the localization, staining intensity and distribution of collagenase-3 in 13 periapical granulomas with epithelium, 16 periapical granulomas without epithelium and 10 radicular cysts using archived formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues. A monoclonal antibody against human collagenase-3 was used to evaluate its expression. Immunohistochemical staining intensities of collagenase-3 in all periapical lesions were (-), 4 (10%); (+), 1 (3%); (++), 22 (56%) and (+++), 12 (31%); differences were not statistically significant. Immunohistochemical distribution of collagenase-3 in epithelial cells was (-), 17 (44%); (+), 17 (44%); (++), 5 (13%); in fibroblasts it was (-), 8 (20%); (+), 23 (59%); (++), 8 (21%); in plasma cells it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), 22 (56%); (++), 10 (26%); in macrophages it was (-), 7 (18%); (+), and 15 (38%); and (++), 17 (44%). Statistically significant differences were found in epithelial cells (p = 0.00) and fibroblasts (p = 0.02), whereas differences were not statistically significant for plasma cells and macrophages. Collagenase-3 may play a role in the conversion of a periapical granuloma with epithelium to radicular cyst. MMP's influence not only epithelial rest cell migration, but also invasion of various stromal cells into granulomatous tissue.

  3. Mathematical Methods in Survival Analysis, Reliability and Quality of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Catherine; Mesbah, Mounir

    2008-01-01

    Reliability and survival analysis are important applications of stochastic mathematics (probability, statistics and stochastic processes) that are usually covered separately in spite of the similarity of the involved mathematical theory. This title aims to redress this situation: it includes 21 chapters divided into four parts: Survival analysis, Reliability, Quality of life, and Related topics. Many of these chapters were presented at the European Seminar on Mathematical Methods for Survival Analysis, Reliability and Quality of Life in 2006.

  4. A Stirling engine analysis method based upon moving gas nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    A Lagrangian nodal analysis method for Stirling engines (SEs) is described, validated, and applied to a conventional SE and an isothermalized SE (with fins in the hot and cold spaces). The analysis employs a constant-mass gas node (which moves with respect to the solid nodes during each time step) instead of the fixed gas nodes of Eulerian analysis. The isothermalized SE is found to have efficiency only slightly greater than that of a conventional SE.

  5. Review of analysis methods for prestressed concrete reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, W.G.; Bazant, Z.P.; Gallagher, R.H.

    1977-02-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of analytical models and numerical procedures for detailed analysis of prestressed concrete reactor vessels are reviewed. Constitutive models and numerical algorithms for time-dependent and nonlinear response of concrete and various methods for modeling crack propagation are discussed. Published comparisons between experimental and theoretical results are used to assess the accuracy of these analytical methods

  6. Investigating Convergence Patterns for Numerical Methods Using Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the patterns that arise in the convergence of numerical methods, particularly those in the errors involved in successive iterations, using data analysis and curve fitting methods. In particular, the results obtained are used to convey a deeper level of understanding of the concepts of linear, quadratic, and cubic…

  7. A comparison of analysis methods to estimate contingency strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Blair P; Staubitz, Johanna L; Tapp, Jon T

    2018-05-09

    To date, several data analysis methods have been used to estimate contingency strength, yet few studies have compared these methods directly. To compare the relative precision and sensitivity of four analysis methods (i.e., exhaustive event-based, nonexhaustive event-based, concurrent interval, concurrent+lag interval), we applied all methods to a simulated data set in which several response-dependent and response-independent schedules of reinforcement were programmed. We evaluated the degree to which contingency strength estimates produced from each method (a) corresponded with expected values for response-dependent schedules and (b) showed sensitivity to parametric manipulations of response-independent reinforcement. Results indicated both event-based methods produced contingency strength estimates that aligned with expected values for response-dependent schedules, but differed in sensitivity to response-independent reinforcement. The precision of interval-based methods varied by analysis method (concurrent vs. concurrent+lag) and schedule type (continuous vs. partial), and showed similar sensitivities to response-independent reinforcement. Recommendations and considerations for measuring contingencies are identified. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Application of numerical analysis methods to thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Ros, J. M.; Delgado, A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the application of numerical methods to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD), showing the advantages obtained over conventional evaluation systems. Different configurations of the analysis method are presented to operate in specific dosimetric applications of TLD, such as environmental monitoring and mailed dosimetry systems for quality assurance in radiotherapy facilities. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Structures by Virtual Distortion Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gierlinski, J.T.; Holnicki-Szulc, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1991-01-01

    are used in structural optimization, see Haftka [4]. The recently developed Virtual Distortion Method (VDM) is a numerical technique which offers an efficient approach to calculation of the sensitivity derivatives. This method has been orginally applied to structural remodelling and collapse analysis, see...

  10. Bayesian data analysis in population ecology: motivations, methods, and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, Robert

    2016-01-01

    During the 20th century ecologists largely relied on the frequentist system of inference for the analysis of their data. However, in the past few decades ecologists have become increasingly interested in the use of Bayesian methods of data analysis. In this article I provide guidance to ecologists who would like to decide whether Bayesian methods can be used to improve their conclusions and predictions. I begin by providing a concise summary of Bayesian methods of analysis, including a comparison of differences between Bayesian and frequentist approaches to inference when using hierarchical models. Next I provide a list of problems where Bayesian methods of analysis may arguably be preferred over frequentist methods. These problems are usually encountered in analyses based on hierarchical models of data. I describe the essentials required for applying modern methods of Bayesian computation, and I use real-world examples to illustrate these methods. I conclude by summarizing what I perceive to be the main strengths and weaknesses of using Bayesian methods to solve ecological inference problems.

  11. A Review of Classical Methods of Item Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christine L.

    Item analysis is a very important consideration in the test development process. It is a statistical procedure to analyze test items that combines methods used to evaluate the important characteristics of test items, such as difficulty, discrimination, and distractibility of the items in a test. This paper reviews some of the classical methods for…

  12. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.; Nash, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  13. Multifunctional Collaborative Modeling and Analysis Methods in Engineering Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers are challenged to produce better designs in less time and for less cost. Hence, to investigate novel and revolutionary design concepts, accurate, high-fidelity results must be assimilated rapidly into the design, analysis, and simulation process. This assimilation should consider diverse mathematical modeling and multi-discipline interactions necessitated by concepts exploiting advanced materials and structures. Integrated high-fidelity methods with diverse engineering applications provide the enabling technologies to assimilate these high-fidelity, multi-disciplinary results rapidly at an early stage in the design. These integrated methods must be multifunctional, collaborative, and applicable to the general field of engineering science and mechanics. Multifunctional methodologies and analysis procedures are formulated for interfacing diverse subdomain idealizations including multi-fidelity modeling methods and multi-discipline analysis methods. These methods, based on the method of weighted residuals, ensure accurate compatibility of primary and secondary variables across the subdomain interfaces. Methods are developed using diverse mathematical modeling (i.e., finite difference and finite element methods) and multi-fidelity modeling among the subdomains. Several benchmark scalar-field and vector-field problems in engineering science are presented with extensions to multidisciplinary problems. Results for all problems presented are in overall good agreement with the exact analytical solution or the reference numerical solution. Based on the results, the integrated modeling approach using the finite element method for multi-fidelity discretization among the subdomains is identified as most robust. The multiple-method approach is advantageous when interfacing diverse disciplines in which each of the method's strengths are utilized. The multifunctional methodology presented provides an effective mechanism by which domains with diverse idealizations are

  14. Determination of resonance parameters in QCD by functional analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciulli, S.; Geniet, F.; Papadopoulos, N.A.; Schilcher, K.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematically rigorous method based on functional analysis is used to determine resonance parameters of an amplitude from its given asymptotic expression in the space-like region. This method is checked on a model amplitude where both the asymptotic expression and the exact function are known. This method is then applied to the determination of the mass and the width of the ρ-meson from the corresponding space-like asymptotic QCD expression. (orig.)

  15. New experimental and analysis methods in I-DLTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.U.; Middelkamp, P.; Li, Z.; Eremin, V.

    1998-02-01

    A new experimental apparatus to perform I-DLTS measurements is presented. The method is shown to be faster and more sensitive than traditional double boxcar I-DLTS systems. A novel analysis technique utilizing multiple exponential fits to the I-DLTS signal from a highly neutron irradiated silicon sample is presented with a discussion of the results. It is shown that the new method has better resolution and can deconvolute overlapping peaks more accurately than previous methods

  16. Method for statistical data analysis of multivariate observations

    CERN Document Server

    Gnanadesikan, R

    1997-01-01

    A practical guide for multivariate statistical techniques-- now updated and revised In recent years, innovations in computer technology and statistical methodologies have dramatically altered the landscape of multivariate data analysis. This new edition of Methods for Statistical Data Analysis of Multivariate Observations explores current multivariate concepts and techniques while retaining the same practical focus of its predecessor. It integrates methods and data-based interpretations relevant to multivariate analysis in a way that addresses real-world problems arising in many areas of inte

  17. Investigations on application of multigrid method to MHD equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuno, Soichiro

    2000-01-01

    The potentiality of application for Multi-grid method to MHD equilibrium analysis is investigated. The nonlinear eigenvalue problem often appears when the MHD equilibria are determined by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation numerically. After linearization of the equation, the problem is solved by use of the iterative method. Although the Red-Black SOR method or Gauss-Seidel method is often used for the solution of the linearized equation, it takes much CPU time to solve the problem. The Multi-grid method is compared with the SOR method for the Poisson Problem. The results of computations show that the CPU time required for the Multi-grid method is about 1000 times as small as that for the SOR method. (author)

  18. The surface analysis methods; Les methodes d`analyse des surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville, J.P. [Institut de Physique et Chimie, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1998-11-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.) 11 refs.

  19. Statistical models and methods for reliability and survival analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Couallier, Vincent; Huber-Carol, Catherine; Mesbah, Mounir; Huber -Carol, Catherine; Limnios, Nikolaos; Gerville-Reache, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Statistical Models and Methods for Reliability and Survival Analysis brings together contributions by specialists in statistical theory as they discuss their applications providing up-to-date developments in methods used in survival analysis, statistical goodness of fit, stochastic processes for system reliability, amongst others. Many of these are related to the work of Professor M. Nikulin in statistics over the past 30 years. The authors gather together various contributions with a broad array of techniques and results, divided into three parts - Statistical Models and Methods, Statistical

  20. X-ray fluorescence method for trace analysis and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Shinjiro

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis has a long history as conventional bulk elemental analysis with medium sensitivity. However, with the use of synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence method has become a unique analytical technique which can provide tace elemental information with the spatial resolution. To obtain quantitative information of trace elemental distribution by using the x-ray fluorescence method, theoretical description of x-ray fluorescence yield is described. Moreover, methods and instruments for trace characterization with a scanning x-ray microprobe are described. (author)