WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods case study

  1. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  2. [Case-non case studies: Principles, methods, bias and interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillie, Jean-Luc

    2017-10-31

    Case-non case studies belongs to the methods assessing drug safety by analyzing the disproportionality of notifications of adverse drug reactions in pharmacovigilance databases. Used for the first time in the 1980s, the last few decades have seen a significant increase in the use of this design. The principle of the case-non case study is to compare drug exposure in cases of a studied adverse reaction with that of cases of other reported adverse reactions and called "non cases". Results are presented in the form of a reporting odds ratio (ROR), the interpretation of which makes it possible to identify drug safety signals. This article describes the principle of the case-non case study, the method of calculating the ROR and its confidence interval, the different modalities of analysis and how to interpret its results with regard to the advantages and limitations of this design. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a non-renewable resource with fundamental functions like filtering (e.g. water), storing (e.g. carbon), transforming (e.g. nutrients) and buffering (e.g. contamination). Degradation of soils is meanwhile not only to scientists a well known fact, also decision makers in politics have accepted this as a serious problem for several environmental aspects. National and international authorities have already worked out preservation and restoration strategies for soil degradation, though it is still work of active research how to put these strategies into real practice. But common to all strategies the description of soil state and dynamics is required as a base step. This includes collecting information from soils with methods ranging from direct soil sampling to remote applications. In an intermediate scale mobile geophysical methods are applied with the advantage of fast working progress but disadvantage of site specific calibration and interpretation issues. In the framework of the iSOIL project we present here some case studies for soil mapping performed using multiple geophysical methods. We will present examples of combined field measurements with EMI-, GPR-, magnetic and gammaspectrometric techniques carried out with the mobile multi-sensor-system of Kiel University (GER). Depending on soil type and actual environmental conditions, different methods show a different quality of information. With application of diverse methods we want to figure out, which methods or combination of methods will give the most reliable information concerning soil state and properties. To investigate the influence of varying material we performed mapping campaigns on field sites with sandy, loamy and loessy soils. Classification of measured or derived attributes show not only the lateral variability but also gives hints to a variation in the vertical distribution of soil material. For all soils of course soil water content can be a critical factor concerning a succesful

  4. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.

  5. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  6. Environmental reference materials methods and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm-Nielsen, Karina Edith

    1998-01-01

    . This study lasted 22 months as well. The samples were produced and stored according to a 2³ factorial design. The influences of storage temperature, UV radiation and ultra-filtration on the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous have been investigated. A Youden plot method is suggested for the graphical....... The methods have been evaluated with regard to their robustness towards variations in the chemical analytical method and with regard to the number of times a significant out of control situation is indicated. The second study regards the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous in autoclaved seawater samples...... with wastewater. The purpose was to improve ortho-phosphate (and total phosphorous) homogeneity. A procedure is suggested which includes freeze-drying and redissolving. All calculations have been performed in SAS® primarily by means of elementary procedures, analyses of variance procedures, SAS Insight and SAS...

  7. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  8. ABCD Matrix Method a Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Seidov, Zakir F; Yahalom, Asher

    2004-01-01

    In the Israeli Electrostatic Accelerator FEL, the distance between the accelerator's end and the wiggler's entrance is about 2.1 m, and 1.4 MeV electron beam is transported through this space using four similar quadrupoles (FODO-channel). The transfer matrix method (ABCD matrix method) was used for simulating the beam transport, a set of programs is written in the several programming languages (MATHEMATICA, MATLAB, MATCAD, MAPLE) and reasonable agreement is demonstrated between experimental results and simulations. Comparison of ABCD matrix method with the direct "numerical experiments" using EGUN, ELOP, and GPT programs with and without taking into account the space-charge effects showed the agreement to be good enough as well. Also the inverse problem of finding emittance of the electron beam at the S1 screen position (before FODO-channel), by using the spot image at S2 screen position (after FODO-channel) as function of quad currents, is considered. Spot and beam at both screens are described as tilted eel...

  9. Using the Case Study Method in Teaching College Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2016-01-01

    The case study teaching method has a long history (starting at least with Socrates) and wide current use in business schools, medical schools, law schools, and a variety of other disciplines. However, relatively little use is made of it in the physical sciences, specifically in physics or astronomy. The case study method should be considered by…

  10. Using the Case Study Method in Teaching College Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2016-10-01

    The case study teaching method has a long history (starting at least with Socrates) and wide current use in business schools, medical schools, law schools, and a variety of other disciplines. However, relatively little use is made of it in the physical sciences, specifically in physics or astronomy. The case study method should be considered by physics faculty as part of the effort to transition the teaching of college physics from the traditional frontal-lecture format to other formats that enhance active student participation. In this paper we endeavor to interest physics instructors in the case study method, and hope that it would also serve as a call for more instructors to produce cases that they use in their own classes and that can also be adopted by other instructors.

  11. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Backfitting decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This case study illustrates the process of using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method to evaluate proposed backfits of nuclear power plants (NPP), which are intended to enhance the plant safety by improving equipment operability. Some examples of situations in which PRA techniques have been used to address backfit issues at operating NPPs are summarized. 2 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Impacts modeling using the SPH particulate method. Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debord, R.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is the modeling of the impact of melted metal on the reactor vessel head in the case of a core-meltdown accident. Modeling using the classical finite-element method alone is not sufficient but requires a coupling with particulate methods in order to take into account the behaviour of the corium. After a general introduction about particulate methods, the Nabor and SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) methods are described. Then, the theoretical and numerical reliability of the SPH method is determined using simple cases. In particular, the number of neighbours significantly influences the preciseness of calculations. Also, the mesh of the structure must be adapted to the mesh of the fluid in order to reduce the edge effects. Finally, this study has shown that the values of artificial velocity coefficients used in the simulation of the BERDA test performed by the FZK Karlsruhe (Germany) are not correct. The domain of use of these coefficients was precised during a low speed impact. (J.S.)

  13. Methods of Teaching Reading to EFL Learners: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Dedi; Rahmah; Sinulingga, Johan; Lubis, Azhar Aziz; Yusuf, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Methods of teaching reading skill are not the same in different countries. It depends on the condition and situation of the learners. Observing the method of teaching in Malaysia was the purpose of this study and the result of the study shows that there are 5 methods that are applied in classroom activities namely Grammar Translation Method (GTM),…

  14. Novel Methods in Disease Biogeography: A Case Study with Heterosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Disease biogeography is currently a promising field to complement epidemiology, and ecological niche modeling theory and methods are a key component. Therefore, applying the concepts and tools from ecological niche modeling to disease biogeography and epidemiology will provide biologically sound and analytically robust descriptive and predictive analyses of disease distributions. As a case study, we explored the ecologically important fish disease Heterosporosis, a relatively poorly understood disease caused by the intracellular microsporidian parasite Heterosporis sutherlandae. We explored two novel ecological niche modeling methods, the minimum-volume ellipsoid (MVE and the Marble algorithm, which were used to reconstruct the fundamental and the realized ecological niche of H. sutherlandae, respectively. Additionally, we assessed how the management of occurrence reports can impact the output of the models. Ecological niche models were able to reconstruct a proxy of the fundamental and realized niche for this aquatic parasite, identifying specific areas suitable for Heterosporosis. We found that the conceptual and methodological advances in ecological niche modeling provide accessible tools to update the current practices of spatial epidemiology. However, careful data curation and a detailed understanding of the algorithm employed are critical for a clear definition of the assumptions implicit in the modeling process and to ensure biologically sound forecasts. In this paper, we show how sensitive MVE is to the input data, while Marble algorithm may provide detailed forecasts with a minimum of parameters. We showed that exploring algorithms of different natures such as environmental clusters, climatic envelopes, and logistic regressions (e.g., Marble, MVE, and Maxent provide different scenarios of potential distribution. Thus, no single algorithm should be used for disease mapping. Instead, different algorithms should be employed for a more

  15. A Case Study of a Mixed Methods Study Engaged in Integrated Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiazza, Daniela Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nascent field of mixed methods research has yet to develop a cohesive framework of guidelines and procedures for mixed methods data analysis (Greene, 2008). To support the field's development of analytical frameworks, this case study reflects on the development and implementation of a mixed methods study engaged in integrated data analysis.…

  16. Service life and sustainable design methods: a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc Duling, J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The design life of hospitals normally varies between 50 to 60 years. This paper presents a case study of a major academic hospital that reached the end of its service life only 30 years after commissioning due to a combination of unsustainable...

  17. Case Study Method in Business Education in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velushchak, Maryna

    2014-01-01

    Business Education is dynamic in nature and needs diverse information to deal with different business problems. To understand the peculiar situations and to manage them effectively, case studies are widely used. Researchers in education have already demonstrated that students' active participation in the educational process increases their…

  18. Child Geopolitical Agency: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…

  19. Analytical method of waste allocation in waste management systems: Concept, method and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, Francis C.

    2017-01-01

    Waste is not a rejected item to dispose anymore but increasingly a secondary resource to exploit, influencing waste allocation among treatment operations in a waste management (WM) system. The aim of this methodological paper is to present a new method for the assessment of the WM system, the “analytical method of the waste allocation process” (AMWAP), based on the concept of the “waste allocation process” defined as the aggregation of all processes of apportioning waste among alternative waste treatment operations inside or outside the spatial borders of a WM system. AMWAP contains a conceptual framework and an analytical approach. The conceptual framework includes, firstly, a descriptive model that focuses on the description and classification of the WM system. It includes, secondly, an explanatory model that serves to explain and to predict the operation of the WM system. The analytical approach consists of a step-by-step analysis for the empirical implementation of the conceptual framework. With its multiple purposes, AMWAP provides an innovative and objective modular method to analyse a WM system which may be integrated in the framework of impact assessment methods and environmental systems analysis tools. Its originality comes from the interdisciplinary analysis of the WAP and to develop the conceptual framework. AMWAP is applied in the framework of an illustrative case study on the household WM system of Geneva (Switzerland). It demonstrates that this method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of WM. - Highlights: • The study presents a new analytical method based on the waste allocation process. • The method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of the waste management system. • The paper provides a reproducible procedure for professionals, experts and academics. • It may be integrated into impact assessment or environmental system analysis tools. • An illustrative case study is provided based on household waste

  20. Analytical method of waste allocation in waste management systems: Concept, method and case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Francis C., E-mail: francis.b.c@videotron.ca

    2017-01-15

    Waste is not a rejected item to dispose anymore but increasingly a secondary resource to exploit, influencing waste allocation among treatment operations in a waste management (WM) system. The aim of this methodological paper is to present a new method for the assessment of the WM system, the “analytical method of the waste allocation process” (AMWAP), based on the concept of the “waste allocation process” defined as the aggregation of all processes of apportioning waste among alternative waste treatment operations inside or outside the spatial borders of a WM system. AMWAP contains a conceptual framework and an analytical approach. The conceptual framework includes, firstly, a descriptive model that focuses on the description and classification of the WM system. It includes, secondly, an explanatory model that serves to explain and to predict the operation of the WM system. The analytical approach consists of a step-by-step analysis for the empirical implementation of the conceptual framework. With its multiple purposes, AMWAP provides an innovative and objective modular method to analyse a WM system which may be integrated in the framework of impact assessment methods and environmental systems analysis tools. Its originality comes from the interdisciplinary analysis of the WAP and to develop the conceptual framework. AMWAP is applied in the framework of an illustrative case study on the household WM system of Geneva (Switzerland). It demonstrates that this method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of WM. - Highlights: • The study presents a new analytical method based on the waste allocation process. • The method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of the waste management system. • The paper provides a reproducible procedure for professionals, experts and academics. • It may be integrated into impact assessment or environmental system analysis tools. • An illustrative case study is provided based on household waste

  1. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  2. a Comparative Case Study of Reflection Seismic Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamooti, M.; Aydin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic imaging is the most common means of gathering information about subsurface structural features. The accuracy of seismic images may be highly variable depending on the complexity of the subsurface and on how seismic data is processed. One of the crucial steps in this process, especially in layered sequences with complicated structure, is the time and/or depth migration of seismic data.The primary purpose of the migration is to increase the spatial resolution of seismic images by repositioning the recorded seismic signal back to its original point of reflection in time/space, which enhances information about complex structure. In this study, our objective is to process a seismic data set (courtesy of the University of South Carolina) to generate an image on which the Magruder fault near Allendale SC can be clearly distinguished and its attitude can be accurately depicted. The data was gathered by common mid-point method with 60 geophones equally spaced along an about 550 m long traverse over a nearly flat ground. The results obtained from the application of different migration algorithms (including finite-difference and Kirchhoff) are compared in time and depth domains to investigate the efficiency of each algorithm in reducing the processing time and improving the accuracy of seismic images in reflecting the correct position of the Magruder fault.

  3. Estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements: Case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhifeng; CUI Baoshan; LIU Jingling

    2005-01-01

    Supplying water to the ecological environment with certain quantity and quality is significant for the protection of diversity and the realization of sustainable development. The conception and connotation of eco-environmental water requirements, including the definition of the conception, the composition and characteristics of eco-environmental water requirements, are evaluated in this paper. The classification and estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements are then proposed. On the basis of the study on the Huang-Huai-Hai Area, the present water use, the minimum and suitable water requirement are estimated and the corresponding water shortage is also calculated. According to the interrelated programs, the eco-environmental water requirements in the coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are estimated. The result indicates that the minimum and suitable eco-environmental water requirements fluctuate with the differences of function setting and the referential standard of water resources, and so as the water shortage. Moreover, the study indicates that the minimum eco-environmental water requirement of the study area ranges from 2.84×1010m3 to 1.02×1011m3, the suitable water requirement ranges from 6.45×1010m3 to 1.78×1011m3, the water shortage ranges from 9.1×109m3 to 2.16×1010m3 under the minimum water requirement, and it is from 3.07×1010m3 to 7.53×1010m3 under the suitable water requirement. According to the different values of the water shortage, the water priority can be allocated. The ranges of the eco-environmental water requirements in the three coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are 4.49×1010m3-1.73×1011m3, 5.99×10m3?2.09×1011m3, and 7.44×1010m3-2.52×1011m3, respectively.

  4. Describing Case Study Method and Identifying the Factors that Contribute to the Successful Conduct of Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad H. Juma'h; Mustafa Cavus

    2001-01-01

    This article has attempted to describe case study, the limitations and critiques on case study methodology and how the proponents have responded to these. Our special focus have been on the debate on theory building from case study research, and a framework for conducting case study research as well as the factors for a successful case study research. The overall conclusion is that the case study has been inappropriately used to generate theories.

  5. A Theoretical Perspective on the Case Study Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmak, Zafer; Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2018-01-01

    Ensuring that students reach the determined goals of the courses at the desired level is one of the primary goals of teaching. In order to achieve this purpose, educators use a variety of teaching strategies and methods, and teaching materials appropriate to the content and the subject of the courses in the teaching process. As a matter of fact,…

  6. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerida Hyett

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12, social sciences and anthropology (n=7, or methods (n=15 case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

  7. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners. PMID:24809980

  8. Saudi Arabia’s Counterterrorism Methods: A Case Study on Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SAUDI ARABIA’S COUNTERTERRORISM METHODS: A CASE STUDY ON HOMELAND SECURITY Majed M...examined in the previous chapter with examples from the case studies related to terrorist attacks and Saudi Arabia’s responses. Furthermore, the...COUNTERTERRORISM METHODS: A CASE STUDY ON HOMELAND SECURITY by Majed M. Bin Madhian June 2017 Thesis Advisor: James Russell Co-Advisor

  9. The Case Study as a Method for Exploring Expert Music Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Saunders

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explains how the case study method was used in an exploration of the career of an expert music teacher. The contextual and holistic qualities of the case study are discussed. In addition, insider research and the situated knowledge of participants in this case study are considered, leading to a brief summary of the research findings and an explication of the expert music teacher.

  10. Scientists' attitudes on science and values: Case studies and survey methods in philosophy of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Daniel; Gonnerman, Chad; O'Rourke, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This article examines the relevance of survey data of scientists' attitudes about science and values to case studies in philosophy of science. We describe two methodological challenges confronting such case studies: 1) small samples, and 2) potential for bias in selection, emphasis, and interpretation. Examples are given to illustrate that these challenges can arise for case studies in the science and values literature. We propose that these challenges can be mitigated through an approach in which case studies and survey methods are viewed as complementary, and use data from the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative to illustrate this claim. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CASE STUDY METHOD IN DISTANCE LEARNING OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP FUNDAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. R. Chepyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented publication is to show new opportunities of application of a a case study method (educational situations in modern edu cational process of the higher school in general, and in particular – in teaching fundementals of business and economy wherein this method has gained special popularity.Methods and results. By means of methods of aggregation, deduction and logical synthesis, the authors developed the principles of the organization of distance training of economic disciplines on the basis of the case study method. The structure of educational cases is designated; the standard set of the materials accompanying them is designed. These practical problems were solved within implementation of the project Tempus «Acquisition of Professional and Entrepreneurial Skills by means of Education of Entrepreneurial Spirit and Consultation of the Beginning Entrepreneurs». Possible types and forms of cases were studied; several options of adaptation of their content to the electronic training environment which possesses both restrictions, and extensive additional educational potential are allocated. Various types of cases are shown based on specific examples: illustrating processes and concepts; imitating sample processes; describing original situations in real business and having decisions which are already realized in practice; cases with an uncertain answer to the asked problematic issue. The choice of this or that type of case study tasks is determined by the educational purposes and necessary level of development of a discipline. Cases supplement each other when forming the fund of evaluative means.Scientific novelty. The majority of researches define the case study method as a group discussion in the educational purposes of any problem situation and collective search of its decision, i.e. application of this method assumes classroom full-time courses. The question of use the case study method in a distance format for individual

  12. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  13. Case study teaching method improves student performance and perceptions of learning gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Kevin M

    2015-05-01

    Following years of widespread use in business and medical education, the case study teaching method is becoming an increasingly common teaching strategy in science education. However, the current body of research provides limited evidence that the use of published case studies effectively promotes the fulfillment of specific learning objectives integral to many biology courses. This study tested the hypothesis that case studies are more effective than classroom discussions and textbook reading at promoting learning of key biological concepts, development of written and oral communication skills, and comprehension of the relevance of biological concepts to everyday life. This study also tested the hypothesis that case studies produced by the instructor of a course are more effective at promoting learning than those produced by unaffiliated instructors. Additionally, performance on quantitative learning assessments and student perceptions of learning gains were analyzed to determine whether reported perceptions of learning gains accurately reflect academic performance. The results reported here suggest that case studies, regardless of the source, are significantly more effective than other methods of content delivery at increasing performance on examination questions related to chemical bonds, osmosis and diffusion, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA structure and replication. This finding was positively correlated to increased student perceptions of learning gains associated with oral and written communication skills and the ability to recognize connections between biological concepts and other aspects of life. Based on these findings, case studies should be considered as a preferred method for teaching about a variety of concepts in science courses.

  14. Case Study Teaching Method Improves Student Performance and Perceptions of Learning Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Bonney

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Following years of widespread use in business and medical education, the case study teaching method is becoming an increasingly common teaching strategy in science education. However, the current body of research provides limited evidence that the use of published case studies effectively promotes the fulfillment of specific learning objectives integral to many biology courses. This study tested the hypothesis that case studies are more effective than classroom discussions and textbook reading at promoting learning of key biological concepts, development of written and oral communication skills, and comprehension of the relevance of biological concepts to everyday life. This study also tested the hypothesis that case studies produced by the instructor of a course are more effective at promoting learning than those produced by unaffiliated instructors. Additionally, performance on quantitative learning assessments and student perceptions of learning gains were analyzed to determine whether reported perceptions of learning gains accurately reflect academic performance. The results reported here suggest that case studies, regardless of the source, are significantly more effective than other methods of content delivery at increasing performance on examination questions related to chemical bonds, osmosis and diffusion, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA structure and replication. This finding was positively correlated to increased student perceptions of learning gains associated with oral and written communication skills and the ability to recognize connections between biological concepts and other aspects of life. Based on these findings, case studies should be considered as a preferred method for teaching about a variety of concepts in science courses.

  15. Recommendations for Using the Case Study Method in International Business Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissak, Tiia

    2010-01-01

    The case study method has not been as frequently used in international business (IB) research as quantitative methods. Moreover, it has been sometimes misused and quite often criticized. Still, it can be very useful for understanding such complex phenomena as the internationalization process or the management of multinational enterprises. Based on…

  16. Teaching the Properties of Chromium's Oxidation States with a Case Study Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdilek, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how a mixed-method case study affects pre-service science teachers' awareness of hexavalent chromium pollution and content knowledge about the properties of chromium's different oxidation states. The study was conducted in Turkey with 55 sophomores during the fall semester of 2013-2014. The students…

  17. Applying Case-Based Method in Designing Self-Directed Online Instruction: A Formative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Heng; Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Arnone, Marilyn P.; Choi, Ikseon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the case-based method (CBM) instructional-design theory and its application in designing self-directed online instruction. The purpose of this study was to validate and refine the theory for a self-directed online instruction context. Guided by formative research methodology, this study first developed an online tutorial…

  18. Actors’ Competencies or Methods? A Case Study of Successful Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Hans Olav; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2009-01-01

    and methods are exercised. Emphasising the intertwining of competencies and methods, we discuss the character of the intertwining process, how different actors relate to different methods, and how methods may be part of the problem rather than part of the solution to challenges in information systems...... between actors’ competencies and their deployment of methods, arguing that this relationship is described over-simplistically and needs a better explanation. Through a case study of a successful information systems development project we identify some central situations where a variety of competencies...... development. The paper suggests elements for a new model for explaining actors’ competencies and their use of methods....

  19. The Effect of English Language Learning on Creative Thinking Skills: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehic, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed-methods case study was to investigate the effects of English language learning on creative thinking skills in the domains of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration as measured with the Alternate Uses Test. Unlike the previous research studies that investigated the links between English…

  20. Treatment of uncertainty through the interval smart/swing weighting method: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Flávio Autran Monteiro Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasingly competitive market means that many decisions must be taken, quickly and with precision, in complex, high risk scenarios. This combination of factors makes it necessary to use decision aiding methods which provide a means of dealing with uncertainty in the judgement of the alternatives. This work presents the use of the MAUT method, combined with the INTERVAL SMART/SWING WEIGHTING method. Although multicriteria decision aiding was not conceived specifically for tackling uncertainty, the combined use of MAUT and the INTERVAL SMART/SWING WEIGHTING method allows approaching decision problems under uncertainty. The main concepts which are involved in these two methods are described and their joint application to the case study concerning the selection of a printing service supplier is presented. The case study makes use of the WINPRE software as a support tool for the calculation of dominance. It is then concluded that the proposed approach can be applied to decision making problems under uncertainty.

  1. Application of activity theory to analysis of human-related accidents: Method and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Sik; Ham, Dong-Han; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to human-related accident analysis based on activity theory. Most of the existing methods seem to be insufficient for comprehensive analysis of human activity-related contextual aspects of accidents when investigating the causes of human errors. Additionally, they identify causal factors and their interrelationships with a weak theoretical basis. We argue that activity theory offers useful concepts and insights to supplement existing methods. The proposed approach gives holistic contextual backgrounds for understanding and diagnosing human-related accidents. It also helps identify and organise causal factors in a consistent, systematic way. Two case studies in Korean nuclear power plants are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was also applied to the case studies. The results of using HFACS were then compared with those of using the proposed method. These case studies showed that the proposed approach could produce a meaningful set of human activity-related contextual factors, which cannot easily be obtained by using existing methods. It can be especially effective when analysts think it is important to diagnose accident situations with human activity-related contextual factors derived from a theoretically sound model and to identify accident-related contextual factors systematically. - Highlights: • This study proposes a new method for analysing human-related accidents. • The method was developed based on activity theory. • The concept of activity system model and contradiction was used in the method. • Two case studies in nuclear power plants are presented. • The method is helpful to consider causal factors systematically and comprehensively.

  2. The MIND method: A decision support for optimization of industrial energy systems - Principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Changes in complex industrial energy systems require adequate tools to be evaluated satisfactorily. The MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems) is a flexible method constructed as decision support for different types of analyses of industrial energy systems. It is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and developed at Linkoeping University in Sweden. Several industries, ranging from the food industry to the pulp and paper industry, have hitherto been modelled and analyzed using the MIND method. In this paper the principles regarding the use of the method and the creation of constraints of the modelled system are presented. Two case studies are also included, a dairy and a pulp and paper mill, that focus some measures that can be evaluated using the MIND method, e.g. load shaping, fuel conversion and introduction of energy efficiency measures. The case studies illustrate the use of the method and its strengths and weaknesses. The results from the case studies are related to the main issues stated by the European Commission, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, improvements regarding security of supply and increased use of renewable energy, and show great potential as regards both cost reductions and possible load shifting.

  3. Methods and Case Studies for Teaching and Learning about Failure and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignell, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Discusses methods for analyzing case studies of failures of technological systems. Describes two distance learning courses that compare standard models of failure and success with the actuality of given scenarios. Provides teaching and learning materials and information sources for application to aspects of design, manufacture, inspection, use,…

  4. Using the Case Study Method to Enhance the Learning Skills of Supply Chain Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, M.; Derera, E.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions need to align themselves more closely with the needs of businesses and equip students with the skills and experience necessary to make them more successful and value-adding employees. This paper explores undergraduate student perceptions of the effectiveness of the case study teaching and learning method in the…

  5. Application of a Novel Collaboration Engineering Method for Learning Design: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xusen; Li, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jianshan; Huang, Jianqing

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative case studies and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) play an important role in the modern education environment. A number of researchers have given significant attention to learning design in order to improve the satisfaction of collaborative learning. Although collaboration engineering (CE) is a mature method widely…

  6. Mixed Methods Case Study of Generational Patterns in Responses to Shame and Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Moral socialization and moral learning are antecedents of moral motivation. As many as 4 generations interact in workplace and education settings; hence, a deeper understanding of the moral motivation of members of those generations is needed. The purpose of this convergent mixed methods case study was to understand the moral motivation of 5…

  7. EXPLORATION BY MEANS OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS OF GEOTHERMAL FIELDS AND CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züheyr KAMACI

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy which is one of the reuseable energy resources, can save as much as 77 million barrels of petroleum equivalent annually when used in the production of electricity and heating-environment. Geophysical exploration methods plays in important role in the fields of geothermal exploration, development and observational studies. Thermal and geoelectrical methods are the most effective methods which shows the temperature variation anomalies and mechanical drilling places. But, when the other methods of gravity, magnetic, radiometric, well geophysics and well logs can be used in conjunction with seismic tomography, apart from the mentioned geophysical exploration method, better results could be obtained. From the above mentioned facts various case history reports are given from our country and worldwide to determine geothermal energy resources by using geophysical exploration technique application. From these results of studies a 55 °C hot water artessian aquifer is found in the Uşak-Banaz geothermal field by applying geoelectrical methods.

  8. Casing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2000-12-01

    An unorthodox method of casing drilling used by Tesco Corporation at a gas well in Wyoming to drill deeper using casings as drillpipe is discussed. The process involves either rotating the casing as drill string or using a downhole mud motor to rotate the bit. In this instance, the surface hole and the production hole were casing-drilled to a record 8,312 feet by rotating the casing. The 8 1/2-inch surface hole was drilled with 7-inch casing to 1,200 feet using a Tesco underreamer and a polycrystalline pilot bit; drilling and cementing was completed in 12 1/2 hours. The 6 1/4-inch production hole was drilled with 4 1/2-inch casing and the bottomhole assembly was retrieved after 191 hours rotating. This case was the first in which the entire well was casing-drilled from surface to TD. Penetration rate compared favorably with conventional methods: 12 1/2 hours for casing-drilling to 18.9 hours for conventional drilling, despite the fact that the casing-drilling technology is still in its infancy. It is suggested that casing-drilling has the potential to eliminate the need for the drillpipe entirely. If these expectations were to be realised, casing-drilling could be one of the most radical drilling changes in the history of the oil and gas industry. 1 photo.

  9. The use of the case study method in radiation worker continuing training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Typical methods of continuing training are often viewed by employees as boring, redundant and unnecessary. It is hoped that the operating experience lesson in the required course, Radiation Worker Requalification, will be well received by employees because actual RFP events will be presented as case studies. The interactive learning atmosphere created by the case study method stimulates discussion, develops analytical abilities, and motivates employees to use lessons learned in the workplace. This problem solving approach to continuing training incorporates cause and effect analysis, a technique which is also used at RFP to investigate events. A method of designing the operating experience lesson in the Radiation Worker Requalification course is described in this paper. 7 refs., 2 figs

  10. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  11. Method for mapping population-based case-control studies: an application using generalized additive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence and risk can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Disease registry data are often mapped by town or county of diagnosis and contain limited data on covariates. These maps often possess poor spatial resolution, the potential for spatial confounding, and the inability to consider latency. Population-based case-control studies can provide detailed information on residential history and covariates. Results Generalized additive models (GAMs provide a useful framework for mapping point-based epidemiologic data. Smoothing on location while controlling for covariates produces adjusted maps. We generate maps of odds ratios using the entire study area as a reference. We smooth using a locally weighted regression smoother (loess, a method that combines the advantages of nearest neighbor and kernel methods. We choose an optimal degree of smoothing by minimizing Akaike's Information Criterion. We use a deviance-based test to assess the overall importance of location in the model and pointwise permutation tests to locate regions of significantly increased or decreased risk. The method is illustrated with synthetic data and data from a population-based case-control study, using S-Plus and ArcView software. Conclusion Our goal is to develop practical methods for mapping population-based case-control and cohort studies. The method described here performs well for our synthetic data, reproducing important features of the data and adequately controlling the covariate. When applied to the population-based case-control data set, the method suggests spatial confounding and identifies statistically significant areas of increased and decreased odds ratios.

  12. Unsupervised text mining methods for literature analysis: a case study for Thomas Pynchon's V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Iraklis Tsatsoulis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of unsupervised text mining methods for the analysis of prose literature works, using Thomas Pynchon's novel 'V'. as a case study. Our results suggest that such methods may be employed to reveal meaningful information regarding the novel’s structure. We report results using a wide variety of clustering algorithms, several distinct distance functions, and different visualization techniques. The application of a simple topic model is also demonstrated. We discuss the meaningfulness of our results along with the limitations of our approach, and we suggest some possible paths for further study.

  13. Hospital branding in Italy: A pilot study based on the case method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates if, and in affirmative case how, Italian hospitals are managing corporate brand communication. Thanks to results of qualitative research, this article offers insights on Italian hospital branding. The pilot study based in the case method is to be considered a starting point for wider investigations on this topic, and it is useful for managers and practitioners who want to understand the role of corporate brand in hospital communication management and to connect health care professionals with the audience in a meaningful way in those countries in which the health care system is a mix of both public and private institutions.

  14. Application of the Analog Method to Modelling Heat Waves: A Case Study with Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    UNCLASSIFIED Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory APPLICATION OF THE ANALOG METHOD TO MODELLING HEAT WAVES: A CASE STUDY WITH...18 2 Calibration and validation statistics with the use of five atmospheric vari- ables to construct analogue diagnostics for JJA of transformer T2...electrical grid as a series of nodes (transformers) and edges (transmission lines) so that basic mathematical anal- ysis can be performed. The mathematics

  15. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  16. Estimating the economic impacts of ecosystem restoration—Methods and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Skrabis, Kristin; Sidon, Joshua

    2016-04-05

    Federal investments in ecosystem restoration projects protect Federal trusts, ensure public health and safety, and preserve and enhance essential ecosystem services. These investments also generate business activity and create jobs. It is important for restoration practitioners to be able to quantify the economic impacts of individual restoration projects in order to communicate the contribution of these activities to local and national stakeholders. This report provides a detailed description of the methods used to estimate economic impacts of case study projects and also provides suggestions, lessons learned, and trade-offs between potential analysis methods.

  17. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A; Lance, P E; Downs, A; Kier, Brian P [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  18. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs

  19. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs.

  20. The Keyimage Method of Learning Sound-Symbol Correspondences: A Case Study of Learning Written Khmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lavolette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available I documented my strategies for learning sound-symbol correspondences during a Khmer course. I used a mnemonic strategy that I call the keyimage method. In this method, a character evokes an image (the keyimage, which evokes the corresponding sound. For example, the keyimage for the character 2 could be a swan with its head tucked in. This evokes the sound "kaw" that a swan makes, which sounds similar to the Khmer sound corresponding to 2. The method has some similarities to the keyword method. Considering the results of keyword studies, I hypothesize that the keyimage method is more effective than rote learning and that peer-generated keyimages are more effective than researcher- or teacher-generated keyimages, which are more effective than learner-generated ones. In Dr. Andrew Cohen's plenary presentation at the Hawaii TESOL 2007 conference, he mentioned that more case studies are needed on learning strategies (LSs. One reason to study LSs is that what learners do with input to produce output is unclear, and knowing what strategies learners use may help us understand that process (Dornyei, 2005, p. 170. Hopefully, we can use that knowledge to improve language learning, perhaps by teaching learners to use the strategies that we find. With that in mind, I have examined the LSs that I used in studying Khmer as a foreign language, focusing on learning the syllabic alphabet.

  1. The Use of Qualitative Case Studies as an Experiential Teaching Method in the Training of Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseven, Ilhami

    2018-01-01

    This study presents the suitability of case studies, which is a qualitative research method and can be used as a teaching method in the training of pre-service teachers, for experiential learning theory. The basic view of experiential learning theory on learning and the qualitative case study paradigm are consistent with each other within the…

  2. Is the molecular statics method suitable for the study of nanomaterials? A study case of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, I-L; Chen, Y-C

    2007-01-01

    Both molecular statics and molecular dynamics methods were employed to study the mechanical properties of copper nanowires. The size effect on both elastic and plastic properties of square cross-sectional nanowire was examined and compared systematically using two molecular approaches. It was found consistently from both molecular methods that the elastic and plastic properties of nanowires depend on the lateral size of nanowires. As the lateral size of nanowires decreases, the values of Young's modulus decrease and dislocation nucleation stresses increase. However, it was shown that the dislocation nucleation stress would be significantly influenced by the axial periodic length of the nanowire model using the molecular statics method while molecular dynamics simulations at two distinct temperatures (0.01 and 300 K) did not show the same dependence. It was concluded that molecular statics as an energy minimization numerical scheme is quite insensitive to the instability of atomic structure especially without thermal fluctuation and might not be a suitable tool for studying the behaviour of nanomaterials beyond the elastic limit

  3. Teacher Methods in Teaching Arabic: A Case Study of One Senior High School in Jambi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Muspawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in one state senior high school in Jambi city aiming to get the whole picture about the methods of teachers in teaching Arabic vocabulary. We used a qualitative study with a case study approach. The participants of this research were teachers who taught Arabic vocabulary. The data were collected through interviews, documentation, and observation. The results showed that the methods used by the teachers in teaching Arabic vocabulary were mostly lecturing and demonstration. The obstacles faced by the teachers in Arabic vocabulary teaching were covered in several points namely, limited time allocation, teacher education background, infrastructure and lack of student interest in religious learning and expanding Arabic knowledge. We also presented the efforts by teachers to overcome the obstacles such as to motivate the students by telling them the importance of Arabic in international community as one of international students, to give practice tasks implementation, to sustainable evaluation and task.

  4. Case study on ventilation method development for Bar-Boljare highway tunnels construction in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetić Aleksandar S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes tunnel construction is a necessity regardless of its purpose due to many reasons, to mention some of them: limited space, safe operation, environmental protection etc. In those cases, one of the main aspects concerning an appropriate design of a tunnel construction is site ventilation. Ventilation is required during the construction of any tunnel regardless of technology used to construct it. Three major construction ventilation schemes are typically applied. Which one will be use are often in dependency of the site requirements. In this paper is presented case study on ventilation method development for the highway tunnels construction and it includes ventilation solutions for tunnels ‘Suka’, ‘Vežešnik’, ‘Mrke’ and ‘Vjeternik’ during construction phase. The tunnels are part of the Bar-Boljare highway which is also a part of the Trans-European Highway (THE through the Republic of Montenegro.

  5. The art and science of flow control - case studies using flow visualization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, F. S.; Cattafesta, L. N., III

    2010-04-01

    Active flow control (AFC) has been the focus of significant research in the last decade. This is mainly due to the potentially substantial benefits it affords. AFC applications range from the subsonic to the supersonic (and beyond) regime for both internal and external flows. These applications are wide and varied, such as controlling flow transition and separation over various external components of the aircraft to active management of separation and flow distortion in engine components and over turbine and compressor blades. High-speed AFC applications include control of flow oscillations in cavity flows, supersonic jet screech, impinging jets, and jet-noise control. In this paper we review some of our recent applications of AFC through a number of case studies that illustrate the typical benefits as well as limitations of present AFC methods. The case studies include subsonic and supersonic canonical flowfields such as separation control over airfoils, control of supersonic cavity flows and impinging jets. In addition, properties of zero-net mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators are also discussed as they represent one of the most widely studied actuators used for AFC. In keeping with the theme of this special issue, the flowfield properties and their response to actuation are examined through the use of various qualitative and quantitative flow visualization methods, such as smoke, shadowgraph, schlieren, planar-laser scattering, and Particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results presented here clearly illustrate the merits of using flow visualization to gain significant insight into the flow and its response to AFC.

  6. Dietary food groups intake and cooking methods associations with pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Zinab, Hassan Eini; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Rahimi, Roya; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-05-01

    The role of dietary habits in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the frequency of different food groups' intake and their cooking methods with PC risk based on a well-designed case-control study. A case-control study including 307 PC patients and 322 controls referred to four tertiary endosonography centers was conducted from January 2011 to January 2014 to compare the frequency intake of different food items and their cooking methods between cases and controls. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, years of education, diabetes and alcohol history, smoking status, and opium use, a significant direct relationship was observed between PC risk and intake frequency (time/week) of bread (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI 1.05-2.13; p-value 0.024), rice (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.82; p for trend 0.034), and red meat (OR = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.14; p for trend 0.033) (time/day), when comparing the highest category of intake frequency with the lowest, while increasing frequency of fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of PC (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI0.59-1.47; p for trend 0.009). Increasing consumption of barbecuing red meat and deep fried vegetables was associated with 67 % and 70 % increased risk of PC (p-value 0.025 and 0.006, respectively). Our results indicate that increased frequency of intake of bread, rice, and red meat (especially barbecued) and deep fried vegetables can aggregate PC risk, while increased frequency of fish consumption can protect against PC. However, more studies are still needed.

  7. Application of self-potential method in uranium exploration - a case study from Arbail, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, K.B.; Narasimha Rao, B.; Sethuram, S.; Rao, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    The application of non-radiometric geophysical methods like magnetic, electrical resistivity, induced polarisation, electromagnetic and seismic for uranium exploration has been discussed by many workers. In thispaper it has been demonstrated that the self-potential technique which is simple, fast and cheap can also be effectively and meaningfully employed. For this purpose, a case study from Arbail (Lat 14 0 , 50' 40'', Long 74 0 38' 25''), India where uranium mineralisation is known to occur in association with sulphides, is presented. The method of downward continuation is used to estimate the depth to the top of the target and the results thus obtained are correlated with the data obtained from subsequent borehole drilling. (author)

  8. Why carers use adult day respite: a mixed method case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Christine M; Dwan, Corinna A; McKenzie, Angela R

    2014-06-06

    We need to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between family carers' emotional relationships with care-recipients and carers use of support services. This study assessed carer's expectations and perceptions of adult day respite services and their commitment to using services. A mixed-method case study approach was used with psychological contract providing a conceptual framework. Data collection was situated within an organisational case study, and the total population of carers from the organisation's day respite service were approached. Fifty respondents provided quantitative and qualitative data through an interview survey. The conceptual framework was expanded to include Maslow's hierarchy of needs during analysis. Carers prioritised benefits for and experiences of care-recipients when making day respite decisions. Respondents had high levels of trust in the service and perceived that the major benefits for care-recipients were around social interaction and meaningful activity with resultant improved well-being. Carers wanted day respite experiences to include all levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs from the provision of physiological care and safety through to the higher levels of belongingness, love and esteem. The study suggests carers need to trust that care-recipients will have quality experiences at day respite. This study was intended as a preliminary stage for further research and while not generalizable it does highlight key considerations in carers' use of day respite services.

  9. Finite Element Method Application in Areal Rainfall Estimation Case Study; Mashhad Plain Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irani

    2016-10-01

    ArcGIS10.0 were calculated. The base of the comparison was isohyetal method, because it showed the relief and took into account the effect of rain gauges, therefore it could represent rainfall data and region condition completely. The most accurate method was isohyetal method in estimating mean precipitation. Cross-validation was usually used to compare the accuracy of interpolation method. In this study, root mean square error (RMSE was used as validation criteria. Meanwhile, in the present study, the effects of altitude were neglected for two reasons. First, partial correlation coefficient of rainfall/altitude gradients was weak and second, the storms data were not accessible. Conclusions: In this study, the estimation of areal rainfall by Galerkin’s method was an innovative step. The case study was Mashhad basin (9909 km2 which included 42 rain gauges. Comparing other methods indicated that: Galerkin’s method was more efficient in comparison with arithmetic mean and it had more accurate results. Result of Galerkin’s method was similar to Kriging, IDW and Thiessen method. Unlike other methods, mesh of finite element could be used for calculating runoff, sediment and temperature and it did not need station weights. Even within one network the number of interpolation points can be varied, so that in a rugged region the number can be increased with little increase in effort, while in a more uniform region fewer are necessary.

  10. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106

  11. A Suitable Method for DNA Extraction from Bones for Forensic Applications: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeela S. Abuidrees

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human identification techniques are constantly developing. Before the discovery of DNA, anthropology accompanied with odontology was the most applicable technique for human identification. With the new era of molecular biology and the revolution of DNA and PCR techniques, DNA profiling has become the core of the human forensic identification process. Different types of samples can be exploited in forensic DNA analysis. In some extreme cases, bone samples are the only accessible samples of DNA due to the bad conditions of putrefaction or degradation of other biological materials and tissues. Therefore, an appropriate method should be determined to yield a full and clean profile. A case study is presented here in order to identify human remains and conclude the most appropriate method of DNA extraction from human remains. In addition, this study looks at the best part of the skeletal remains to be considered in the extraction of DNA for the purposes of identification. A suspect admitted that he buried his aborted son six months ago. The remains were recovered and DNA analysis was performed in order to determine any genetic link of the remains to the suspect and the female who delivered the baby. Two extraction methods were compared, the standard organic (phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol and automated extraction using magnetic beads coated with silica (Qiagen EZ1 Advanced XL. Two bone parts, femur and clavicle, were also compared in terms of DNA yield. The efficiency of the two methods of DNA extraction from bones is illustrated quantitatively and qualitatively. Paternity testing was performed and the suspect was excluded from being the alleged father.

  12. Comparison of methods for calculating the health costs of endocrine disrupters: a case study on triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichystalova, Radka; Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Trasande, Leonardo; Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Maxim, Laura

    2017-06-09

    Socioeconomic analysis is currently used in the Europe Union as part of the regulatory process in Regulation Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH), with the aim of assessing and managing risks from dangerous chemicals. The political impact of the socio-economic analysis is potentially high in the authorisation and restriction procedures, however, current socio-economic analysis dossiers submitted under REACH are very heterogeneous in terms of methodology used and quality. Furthermore, the economic literature is not very helpful for regulatory purposes, as most published calculations of health costs associated with chemical exposures use epidemiological studies as input data, but such studies are rarely available for most substances. The quasi-totality of the data used in the REACH dossiers comes from toxicological studies. This paper assesses the use of the integrated probabilistic risk assessment, based on toxicological data, for the calculation of health costs associated with endocrine disrupting effects of triclosan. The results are compared with those obtained using the population attributable fraction, based on epidemiological data. The results based on the integrated probabilistic risk assessment indicated that 4894 men could have reproductive deficits based on the decreased vas deferens weights observed in rats, 0 cases of changed T 3 levels, and 0 cases of girls with early pubertal development. The results obtained with the Population Attributable Fraction method showed 7,199,228 cases of obesity per year, 281,923 girls per year with early pubertal development and 88,957 to 303,759 cases per year with increased total T 3 hormone levels. The economic costs associated with increased BMI due to TCS exposure could be calculated. Direct health costs were estimated at €5.8 billion per year. The two methods give very different results for the same effects. The choice of a toxicological-based or an epidemiological-based method in the

  13. [The use of entomologic methods in determining the time of death--case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorowska, Elzbieta; Pieśniak, Dorota; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a number of cases in which the determination of the time of death was based on entomological methods. These cases took place in the Pomorskie Province, and the autopsies were carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk.

  14. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.; van Zadelhoff, E.; van Loo, G.; Widdershoven, G.A.; Molewijk, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. Research questions: How did

  15. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Rien M J P A; van Zadelhoff, Ezra; van Loo, Ger; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Molewijk, Bert A C

    2015-12-01

    Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. How did participants evaluate moral case deliberation? What has moral case deliberation brought to them? What has moral case deliberation contributed to care practice? Should moral case deliberation be further implemented and, if so, how? Quantitative analysis of a questionnaire study among participants of moral case deliberation, both caregivers and team leaders. Qualitative analysis of written answers to open questions, interview study and focus group meetings among caregivers and team leaders. Caregivers and team leaders in a large organization for aged care in the Netherlands. A total of 61 moral case deliberation sessions, carried out on 16 care locations belonging to the organization, were evaluated and perceived results were assessed. Participants gave informed consent and anonymity was guaranteed. In the Netherlands, the law does not prescribe independent ethical review by an Institutional Review Board for this kind of research among healthcare professionals. Moral case deliberation was evaluated positively by the participants. Content and atmosphere of moral case deliberation received high scores, while organizational issues regarding the moral case deliberation sessions scored lower and merit further attention. Respondents indicated that moral case deliberation has the potential to contribute to care practice as relationships among team members improve, more openness is experienced and more understanding for different perspectives is fostered. If moral case deliberation is to be successfully implemented, top-down approaches should go hand in hand with bottom-up approaches. The relevance of moral case deliberation for care practice received wide acknowledgement from the respondents. It can contribute

  16. Methods for Estimating Environmental Effects and Constraints on NexGen: High Density Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, S.; Ermatinger, C.; Graham, M.; Thompson, T.

    2010-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the current methods developed by Metron Aviation for the estimate of environmental effects and constraints on the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). This body of work incorporates many of the key elements necessary to achieve such an estimate. Each section contains the background and motivation for the technical elements of the work, a description of the methods used, and possible next steps. The current methods described in this document were selected in an attempt to provide a good balance between accuracy and fairly rapid turn around times to best advance Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) System Modeling and Analysis Division (SMAD) objectives while also supporting the needs of the JPDO Environmental Working Group (EWG). In particular this document describes methods applied to support the High Density (HD) Case Study performed during the spring of 2008. A reference day (in 2006) is modeled to describe current system capabilities while the future demand is applied to multiple alternatives to analyze system performance. The major variables in the alternatives are operational/procedural capabilities for airport, terminal, and en route airspace along with projected improvements to airframe, engine and navigational equipment.

  17. DEBRIS FLOW ACTIVITY RECONSTRUCTION USING DENDROGEOMORPHOLOGICAL METHODS. STUDY CASE (PIULE IORGOVANU MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA VĂIDEAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Debris Flow Activity Reconstruction Using Dendrogeomorphological Methods. Study Case (Piule Iorgovanu Mountains. Debris flows are one of the most destructive mass-movements that manifest in the mountainous regions around the world. As they usually occur on the steep slopes of the mountain streams where human settlements are scarce, they are hardly monitored. But when they do interact with builtup areas or transportation corridors they cause enormous damages and even casualties. The rise of human pressure in the hazardous regions has led to an increase in the severity of the negative consequences related to debris flows. Consequently, a complete database for hazard assessment of the areas which show evidence of debris flow activity is needed. Because of the lack of archival records knowledge about their frequency remains poor. One of the most precise methods used in the reconstruction of past debris flow activity are dendrogeomorphological methods. Using growth anomalies of the affected trees, a valuable event chronology can be obtained. Therefore, it is the purpose of this study to reconstruct debris flow activity on a small catchment located on the northern slope of Piule Iorgovanu Mountains. The trees growing near the channel of transport and on the debris fan, exhibit different types of disturbances. A number of 98 increment cores, 19 cross-sections and 1 semi-transversal cross-section was used. Based on the growth anomalies identified in the samples there were reconstructed a number of 19 events spanning a period of almost a century.

  18. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... immunosuppression associated with HIV/AIDS puts them at a higher risk of developing oesophageal cancer. 47. CASE STUDY. A 49-year-old man was diagnosed as HIV infected, with a CD4 count of 60 cells/µl. He was started on an antiretroviral treatment regimen comprising zidovudine, lamivudine and ...

  19. "Geo-statistics methods and neural networks in geophysical applications: A case study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Sandoval, R.; Urrutia Fucugauchi, J.; Ramirez Cruz, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    The study is focus in the Ebano-Panuco basin of northeastern Mexico, which is being explored for hydrocarbon reservoirs. These reservoirs are in limestones and there is interest in determining porosity and permeability in the carbonate sequences. The porosity maps presented in this study are estimated from application of multiattribute and neural networks techniques, which combine geophysics logs and 3-D seismic data by means of statistical relationships. The multiattribute analysis is a process to predict a volume of any underground petrophysical measurement from well-log and seismic data. The data consist of a series of target logs from wells which tie a 3-D seismic volume. The target logs are neutron porosity logs. From the 3-D seismic volume a series of sample attributes is calculated. The objective of this study is to derive a set of attributes and the target log values. The selected set is determined by a process of forward stepwise regression. The analysis can be linear or nonlinear. In the linear mode the method consists of a series of weights derived by least-square minimization. In the nonlinear mode, a neural network is trained using the select attributes as inputs. In this case we used a probabilistic neural network PNN. The method is applied to a real data set from PEMEX. For better reservoir characterization the porosity distribution was estimated using both techniques. The case shown a continues improvement in the prediction of the porosity from the multiattribute to the neural network analysis. The improvement is in the training and the validation, which are important indicators of the reliability of the results. The neural network showed an improvement in resolution over the multiattribute analysis. The final maps provide more realistic results of the porosity distribution.

  20. A Case Study of Teaching Marketing Research Using Client-Sponsored Projects: Method, Challenges, and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Liliana L.; Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    This case study outlines the use of client-sponsored research projects in a quantitative postgraduate marketing research subject conducted in a 12-week semester in a research-intensive Australian university. The case study attempts to address the dearth of recent literature on client-sponsored research projects in the discipline of marketing.…

  1. Use of Case Study Methods in Human Resource Management, Development, and Training Courses: Strategies and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James R.; Gilberti, Anthony F.; Mupinga, Davison M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will study some of the problems associated with case studies and make recommendations using standard and innovative methodologies effectively. Human resource management (HRM) and resource development cases provide context for analysis and decision-making designs in different industries. In most HRM development and training courses…

  2. Utilising a collective case study system theory mixed methods approach: a rural health example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robyn; Jones, Anne; Lefmann, Sophie; Sheppard, Lorraine

    2014-07-28

    Insight into local health service provision in rural communities is limited in the literature. The dominant workforce focus in the rural health literature, while revealing issues of shortage of maldistribution, does not describe service provision in rural towns. Similarly aggregation of data tends to render local health service provision virtually invisible. This paper describes a methodology to explore specific aspects of rural health service provision with an initial focus on understanding rurality as it pertains to rural physiotherapy service provision. A system theory-case study heuristic combined with a sequential mixed methods approach to provide a framework for both quantitative and qualitative exploration across sites. Stakeholder perspectives were obtained through surveys and in depth interviews. The investigation site was a large area of one Australian state with a mix of rural, regional and remote communities. 39 surveys were received from 11 locations within the investigation site and 19 in depth interviews were conducted. Stakeholder perspectives of rurality and workforce numbers informed the development of six case types relevant to the exploration of rural physiotherapy service provision. Participant perspective of rurality often differed with the geographical classification of their location. The numbers of onsite colleagues and local access to health services contributed to participant perceptions of rurality. The complexity of understanding the concept of rurality was revealed by interview participants when providing their perspectives about rural physiotherapy service provision. Dual measures, such as rurality and workforce numbers, provide more relevant differentiation of sites to explore specific services, such rural physiotherapy service provision, than single measure of rurality as defined by geographic classification. The system theory-case study heuristic supports both qualitative and quantitative exploration in rural health services

  3. Research on the localization method of protecting traditional village landscape: a case study on Tangyin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available China has over 271 million villages and less than the number in ten years ago in which there are 363 million villages. New rural construction indeed do some good for common villages but still destroy hundreds and thousands traditional village which contain great cultural, science, artistic values. In addition, traditional villages can't meet the increasing needs in more convenient and comfortable living conditions. Increasing population also makes traditional villages out of control in construction. With the background of this, we have to set up in traditional village protection. This article put forward an idea in protection which make use of landscape localization to pursue the sustainable development and vernacular landscape protection. Tangyin Town is a famous trade center in history and left many cultural heritage, especially historical buildings. Take Tangyin as a case study to apply the localization method which could guide other similar villages to achieve same goals.

  4. Retrieval method of aerosol extinction coefficient profile by an integral lidar system and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Junjian; Wang, Shenhao; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhang, Lianqing; Liu, Dong; Xie, Chenbo; Tao, Zongming

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol extinction coefficient profile is an essential parameter for atmospheric radiation model. But it is difficult to get the full aerosol extinction profile from the ground to the tropopause especially in near ground precisely using backscattering lidar. A combined measurement of side-scattering, backscattering and Raman-scattering lidar is proposed to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficient profile from the surface to the tropopause which covered a dynamic range of 5 orders. The side-scattering technique solves the dead zone and the overlap problem caused by the traditional lidar in the near range. Using the Raman-scattering the aerosol lidar ratio (extinction to backscatter ratio) can be obtained. The cases studies in this paper show the proposed method is reasonable and feasible.

  5. Viability and resilience of complex systems concepts, methods and case studies from ecology and society

    CERN Document Server

    Deffuant, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    One common characteristic of a complex system is its ability to withstand major disturbances and the capacity to rebuild itself. Understanding how such systems demonstrate resilience by absorbing or recovering from major external perturbations requires both quantitative foundations and a multidisciplinary view of the topic. This book demonstrates how new methods can be used to identify the actions favouring the recovery from perturbations on a variety of examples including the dynamics of bacterial biofilms, grassland savannahs, language competition and Internet social networking sites. The reader is taken through an introduction to the idea of resilience and viability and shown the mathematical basis of the techniques used to analyse systems. The idea of individual or agent-based modelling of complex systems is introduced and related to analytically tractable approximations of such models. A set of case studies illustrates the use of the techniques in real applications, and the final section describes how on...

  6. The application of method supplier’s complex evaluation. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Chytilová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article includes the illustration of selecting bidders evaluation with help Method of complex evaluation of suppliers (MCE. Nowadays the evaluation of suppliers has more importance is in the supply chain management. For SMEs with discontinuous custom manufacturing supplier evaluation at first stage becomes a priority to maintain and enhance the competitiveness of farm output and overall competitiveness. This article presents results of control MCE. The results of this article are results of suppliers’ evaluation conditions and eliminations of MCE application on the base of real enterprise data. MCE is oriented to small and medium-sized enterprises with discontinue manufacturing to order. Research is oriented to selecting procedure of existing suppliers at the first stage of supply chain. Nationality and geographic location haven’t importance to MCE application. Illustrative case study presents the evaluation process to the specific conditions and subsequently demonstrated viability of MCE.

  7. Water conservation and reuse using the Water Sources Diagram method for batch process: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources management has been an important factor for the sustainability of industrial processes, since there is a growing need for the development of methodologies aimed at the conservation and rational use of water. The objective of this work was to apply the heuristic-algorithmic method called Water Sources Diagram (WSD, which is used to define the target of minimum water consumption, to batch processes. Scenarios with reuse of streams were generated and evaluated with application of the method from the data of water quantity and concentration of contaminants in the operations. Two case studies aiming to show the reduction of water consumption and wastewater generation, and final treatment costs besides investment in storage tanks, were presented. The scenarios showed great promising, achieving reduction up to 45% in water consumption and wastewater generation, and a reduction of around 37% on cost of storage tanks, without the need to allocate regeneration processes. Thus, the WSD method showed to be a relevant and flexible alternative regarding to systemic tools aimed at minimizing the consumption of water in industrial processes, playing an important role within a program of water resources management.

  8. Estimation and Control in Agile Methods for Software Development: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre-Hernández Hugo A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of software (SW using agile methods is growing due to the productivity associated with these methodologies, in addition to the flexibility shown in small teams. However, these methods have clear weaknesses of software development in cost estimation and management, as well as the fact that project managers do not have enough evidence to verify the budget spending on a project due to the poor documentation generated and the lack of monitoring of resource spending. A proposal estimation and cost control in agile methods to solve these shortcomings. To this end, a case study was conducted in an agile software development company using the proposal for Software as a Service (SaaS and Web application projects. The results found were that the proposal generates a high degree of evidence for project managers, but it has shortcomings in the administration of the evidence for the control and decision making, which led to a definition of a decision making process to be coupled with the measurement proposal.

  9. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanistreet Debbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities, calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value X2: 24.236; p.value X2: 286.341; p.value Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities.

  10. A science methods course in a professional development school context: A case study of student teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Linda Diane

    The purpose of this case study was to explore how six student teachers constructed their personal understanding about teaching science to elementary students in the context of a professional development school (PDS). The science methods course was one of five university courses that they attended at the PDS site. The participants spent the remainder of the school day in an assigned classroom where they assisted the classroom teacher in a paraprofessional role. This study was an attempt to determine the knowledge that the participants constructed of science instruction and the school during the preservice semester of their PDS experience and what knowledge was transferred into their student teaching practices. The methodology selected was qualitative. A case study was conducted to determine the constructs of the participants. Data collection included documents concerning the PDS school and personal artifacts of the student teachers. Student teachers, cooperating teachers, and administrators were interviewed. The student teachers were also observed teaching. Triangulation was achieved with the use of multiple data sources, a reflexive journal, and peer debriefers. A cross case comparison was used to identify issues salient to the research questions. The PDS context immediately challenged the participants' prior conceptions about how children learn and should be instructed. Participants believed that the situational knowledge constructed during the PDS semester contributed to their self-confidence during student teaching. The instructional emphasis on standardized tests in the PDS and the limited emphasis on science curriculum and instruction constructed an image of science as a minor component in the elementary curriculum. The student teachers were able to transfer knowledge of inquiry-based instructional strategies, as modeled and practiced in their science methods course, into their science lesson during student teaching. One student teacher used inquiry

  11. Validation of verbal autopsy methods using hospital medical records: a case study in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hong Thi; Nguyen, Hoa Phuong; Walker, Sue M; Hill, Peter S; Rao, Chalapati

    2018-05-18

    Information on causes of death (COD) is crucial for measuring the health outcomes of populations and progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. In many countries such as Vietnam where the civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system is dysfunctional, information on vital events will continue to rely on verbal autopsy (VA) methods. This study assesses the validity of VA methods used in Vietnam, and provides recommendations on methods for implementing VA validation studies in Vietnam. This validation study was conducted on a sample of 670 deaths from a recent VA study in Quang Ninh province. The study covered 116 cases from this sample, which met three inclusion criteria: a) the death occurred within 30 days of discharge after last hospitalisation, and b) medical records (MRs) for the deceased were available from respective hospitals, and c) the medical record mentioned that the patient was terminally ill at discharge. For each death, the underlying cause of death (UCOD) identified from MRs was compared to the UCOD from VA. The validity of VA diagnoses for major causes of death was measured using sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV). The sensitivity of VA was at least 75% in identifying some leading CODs such as stroke, road traffic accidents and several site-specific cancers. However, sensitivity was less than 50% for other important causes including ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and diabetes. Overall, there was 57% agreement between UCOD from VA and MR, which increased to 76% when multiple causes from VA were compared to UCOD from MR. Our findings suggest that VA is a valid method to ascertain UCOD in contexts such as Vietnam. Furthermore, within cultural contexts in which patients prefer to die at home instead of a healthcare facility, using the available MRs as the gold standard may be meaningful to the extent that recall bias from the interval between last hospital discharge and death

  12. Method for Pedestrian Crossing Risk Assessment and Safety Level Determination: the Case Study of Tallinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, M.; Krasilnikova, A.; Antov, D.

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrians are a part of vulnerable road users which safety requires a special attention. Official statistics in Estonia from the last decade returns the following numbers: around 30 % of all road traffic accidents in the country were accidents with pedestrians, 32 % of all traffic fatalities were finished with pedestrian death. Pedestrian crossing has the biggest risk level between all kinds of pedestrian facilities, because it includes a direct conflict point between vehicle and pedestrian traffics. The article presents a method to assess risk of pedestrian crossing users and to determine safety level of this road infrastructure element. This approach is based on observation and collection of infrastructural as well as traffic data, which includes: (1) information about each pedestrian crossing facility, its location and state, (2) data about accidents with pedestrians and their features, (3) data from road traffic measurements. The main advantages of the described method are universality and comprehensiveness. The case study was done in Kristiine district of the city Tallinn, which was chosen as the most typical average district of Estonian capital. Results of this study are also presented in the article. (Author)

  13. A case study of multi-seam coal mine entry stability analysis with strength reduction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Ihsan Berk; Esterhuizen, Gabriel S; Klemetti, Ted; Murphy, Michael M; Sumner, James; Sloan, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the advantage of using numerical models with the strength reduction method (SRM) to evaluate entry stability in complex multiple-seam conditions is demonstrated. A coal mine under variable topography from the Central Appalachian region is used as a case study. At this mine, unexpected roof conditions were encountered during development below previously mined panels. Stress mapping and observation of ground conditions were used to quantify the success of entry support systems in three room-and-pillar panels. Numerical model analyses were initially conducted to estimate the stresses induced by the multiple-seam mining at the locations of the affected entries. The SRM was used to quantify the stability factor of the supported roof of the entries at selected locations. The SRM-calculated stability factors were compared with observations made during the site visits, and the results demonstrate that the SRM adequately identifies the unexpected roof conditions in this complex case. It is concluded that the SRM can be used to effectively evaluate the likely success of roof supports and the stability condition of entries in coal mines.

  14. Bodies in Contempt: A Mixed Methods Study of Federal ADA Employment Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Dick-Mosher, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on theories of gendered organizations to examine discrimination against people with disabilities in the workplace. A sample of 200 cases which document disability discrimination lawsuits was drawn from the Westlaw legal database. Each case was coded for gender, job, disability and discrimination type and analyzed using multinomial logistic models. Of those 200 cases, 34 were selected for in depth qualitative analysis. This study finds that disability type and gender do have a...

  15. Regional cerebral blood studies by the xenon-133 inhalation method in cases of cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Takahide

    1982-01-01

    rCBF was measured 428 times in 191 patients and 15 healthy volunteers by the Xenon-133 inhalation technique. The two-compartment analysis and the estimate of initial slope index were performed. There was no difference in blood flow between the two hemispheres in the 15 healthy volunteers, whose mean age was 36.5 +- 13.5 years (F 1 , right: 83.1 +- 11.4; left: 85.1 +- 12.1; 1Sl, right: 51.6 +- 6.3; left: 52.4 +- 6.0). Good correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.965 was observed between the value obtained by the Xenon-133 inhalation and intracarotid methods in 14 patients with brain diseases. Reproducibilities of the Xenon-133 inhalation technique by serial measurement of rCBF at intervals of 30 - 40 minutes and 3 - 5 days were almost the same, with a variation coefficient of 3.7% and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. Repeated rCBF measurement by the Xenon-133 inhalation was performed during a long follow-up period of up to 1 year after bypass surgery. In 28 adult patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, CBF values of most patients stabilized in normal range within 3 months after the operation. In 12 patients with Moyamoya disease, CBF values were distributed over a wide range preoperatively, and increased gradually and tended to stabilize in the relatively subnormal range within 3 months after operation. This clinical experience indicates that the Xenon-133 inhalation method is a useful and safe procedure for the determination of rCBF, especially for repeated studies in cases with bypass surgery during long postoperative follow-up periods and for measurement of rCBF in child cases. (J.P.N.)

  16. DATA MINING AND STATISTICS METHODS USAGE FOR ADVANCED TRAINING COURSES QUALITY MEASUREMENT: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim I. Galchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article we consider a case of the analysis of the data connected with educational statistics, namely – result of professional development courses students survey with specialized software usage. Need for expanded statistical results processing, the scheme of carrying out the analysis is shown. Conclusions on a studied case are presented. 

  17. A comparison of five methods of measuring mammographic density: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Susan M; Harkness, Elaine F; Sergeant, Jamie C; Warwick, Jane; Stavrinos, Paula; Warren, Ruth; Wilson, Mary; Beetles, Ursula; Gadde, Soujanya; Lim, Yit; Jain, Anil; Bundred, Sara; Barr, Nicola; Reece, Valerie; Brentnall, Adam R; Cuzick, Jack; Howell, Tony; Evans, D Gareth

    2018-02-05

    High mammographic density is associated with both risk of cancers being missed at mammography, and increased risk of developing breast cancer. Stratification of breast cancer prevention and screening requires mammographic density measures predictive of cancer. This study compares five mammographic density measures to determine the association with subsequent diagnosis of breast cancer and the presence of breast cancer at screening. Women participating in the "Predicting Risk Of Cancer At Screening" (PROCAS) study, a study of cancer risk, completed questionnaires to provide personal information to enable computation of the Tyrer-Cuzick risk score. Mammographic density was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS), thresholding (Cumulus) and fully-automated methods (Densitas, Quantra, Volpara) in contralateral breasts of 366 women with unilateral breast cancer (cases) detected at screening on entry to the study (Cumulus 311/366) and in 338 women with cancer detected subsequently. Three controls per case were matched using age, body mass index category, hormone replacement therapy use and menopausal status. Odds ratios (OR) between the highest and lowest quintile, based on the density distribution in controls, for each density measure were estimated by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for classic risk factors. The strongest predictor of screen-detected cancer at study entry was VAS, OR 4.37 (95% CI 2.72-7.03) in the highest vs lowest quintile of percent density after adjustment for classical risk factors. Volpara, Densitas and Cumulus gave ORs for the highest vs lowest quintile of 2.42 (95% CI 1.56-3.78), 2.17 (95% CI 1.41-3.33) and 2.12 (95% CI 1.30-3.45), respectively. Quantra was not significantly associated with breast cancer (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.67-1.54). Similar results were found for subsequent cancers, with ORs of 4.48 (95% CI 2.79-7.18), 2.87 (95% CI 1.77-4.64) and 2.34 (95% CI 1.50-3.68) in highest vs lowest quintiles of VAS, Volpara and Densitas

  18. Structuring research methods and data with the research object model: genomics workflows as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettne, Kristina M; Dharuri, Harish; Zhao, Jun; Wolstencroft, Katherine; Belhajjame, Khalid; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Mina, Eleni; Thompson, Mark; Cruickshank, Don; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Garrido, Julian; de Roure, David; Corcho, Oscar; Klyne, Graham; van Schouwen, Reinout; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Bechhofer, Sean; Goble, Carole; Roos, Marco

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges for biomedical research lies in the computer-assisted integrative study of large and increasingly complex combinations of data in order to understand molecular mechanisms. The preservation of the materials and methods of such computational experiments with clear annotations is essential for understanding an experiment, and this is increasingly recognized in the bioinformatics community. Our assumption is that offering means of digital, structured aggregation and annotation of the objects of an experiment will provide necessary meta-data for a scientist to understand and recreate the results of an experiment. To support this we explored a model for the semantic description of a workflow-centric Research Object (RO), where an RO is defined as a resource that aggregates other resources, e.g., datasets, software, spreadsheets, text, etc. We applied this model to a case study where we analysed human metabolite variation by workflows. We present the application of the workflow-centric RO model for our bioinformatics case study. Three workflows were produced following recently defined Best Practices for workflow design. By modelling the experiment as an RO, we were able to automatically query the experiment and answer questions such as "which particular data was input to a particular workflow to test a particular hypothesis?", and "which particular conclusions were drawn from a particular workflow?". Applying a workflow-centric RO model to aggregate and annotate the resources used in a bioinformatics experiment, allowed us to retrieve the conclusions of the experiment in the context of the driving hypothesis, the executed workflows and their input data. The RO model is an extendable reference model that can be used by other systems as well. The Research Object is available at http://www.myexperiment.org/packs/428 The Wf4Ever Research Object Model is available at http://wf4ever.github.io/ro.

  19. On the importance of methods in hydrological modelling. Perspectives from a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological community generally appreciates that developing any non-trivial hydrological model requires a multitude of modelling choices. These choices may range from a (seemingly) straightforward application of mass conservation, to the (often) guesswork-like selection of constitutive functions, parameter values, etc. The application of a model itself requires a myriad of methodological choices - the selection of numerical solvers, objective functions for model calibration, validation approaches, performance metrics, etc. Not unreasonably, hydrologists embarking on ever ambitious projects prioritize hydrological insight over the morass of methodological choices. Perhaps to emphasize "ideas" over "methods", some journals have even reduced the fontsize of the methodology sections of its articles. However, the very nature of modelling is that seemingly routine methodological choices can significantly affect the conclusions of case studies and investigations - making it dangerous to skimp over methodological details in an enthusiastic rush towards the next great hydrological idea. This talk shares modelling insights from a hydrological study of a 300 km2 catchment in Luxembourg, where the diversity of hydrograph dynamics observed at 10 locations begs the question of whether external forcings or internal catchment properties act as dominant controls on streamflow generation. The hydrological insights are fascinating (at least to us), but in this talk we emphasize the impact of modelling methodology on case study conclusions and recommendations. How did we construct our prior set of hydrological model hypotheses? What numerical solver was implemented and why was an objective function based on Bayesian theory deployed? And what would have happened had we omitted model cross-validation, or not used a systematic hypothesis testing approach?

  20. The use of gravity methods in the internal characterization of landfills—a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantlík, František; Matias, Manuel; Grangeia, Carlos; Tareco, Hélder; Lourenço, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Some examples of the use of gravity exploration methods in landfills were published recently. However, density contrast between the landfill and the host media as well as the cost involved may be limiting factors to the application of gravimetry to this problem. Herein a case study of the application of gravity methods to the internal characterization of a sealed landfill is presented. This landfill is installed in recent low-density quaternary sand formations. Two north–south gravity profiles were carried out. The first profile crossed the landfill at its centre, whilst a second profile was done some distance away from the landfill to provide general regional information. The first profile was modelled in order to obtain lateral variations of density within the landfill that might be caused by different types of waste and/or the age of the waste deposits. Gravity modelling and interpretation were supported with data from resistivity profiles carried out in the immediate vicinity of the gravity measurements, i.e. the resistivity profiles interpretation results constrained the thickness of landfill deposits

  1. Using Statistical and Probabilistic Methods to Evaluate Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic chemical and heavy metals within wastewater can cause serious adverse impacts on human health. Health risk assessment (HRA is an effective tool for supporting decision-making and corrective actions in water quality management. HRA can also help people understand the water quality and quantify the adverse effects of pollutants on human health. Due to the imprecision of data, measurement error and limited available information, uncertainty is inevitable in the HRA process. The purpose of this study is to integrate statistical and probabilistic methods to deal with censored and limited numbers of input data to improve the reliability of the non-cancer HRA of dermal contact exposure to contaminated river water by considering uncertainty. A case study in the Kelligrews River in St. John’s, Canada, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and capacity of the proposed approach. Five heavy metals were selected to evaluate the risk level, including arsenic, molybdenum, zinc, uranium and manganese. The results showed that the probability of the total hazard index of dermal exposure exceeding 1 is very low, and there is no obvious evidence of risk in the study area.

  2. Self-rostering applied to case studies - An ILP method to construct a feasible schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijland, Suzanne; van der Veen, Egbert; Hurink, Johann L.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Kjenstad, D.; Riise, A.; Nordlander, T.E.; McCollum, B.; Burke, E.

    We discuss the self-rostering problem, a concept receiving more and more attention from both theory and practice. We outline our methodology and discuss its application to a number of practical case studies.

  3. Integrating Legacy Data into a New Method for Studying Architecture: A case study from Isthmia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J.R. Ellis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a new methodology developed to disentangle the hitherto incomprehensible maze of poorly preserved architecture at the Archaic through late Roman period Panhellenic sanctuary at Isthmia, Greece, into clearly defined buildings with their relative construction phases. The methodology combines on-site architectural analyses with the digitisation and reintegration of the site's legacy data within a GIS. The results of this study, still in its preliminary stages, reveal an area east of the Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia as a built environment of rather large and complex units in contrast to the conventional interpretation of a series of small and unimportant structures.

  4. Exploring the use of storytelling in quantitative research fields using a multiple case study method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lori N. Hamlet

    The purpose of this study was to explore the emerging use of storytelling in quantitative research fields. The focus was not on examining storytelling in research, but rather how stories are used in various ways within the social context of quantitative research environments. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven professionals who had experience using storytelling in their work and my personal experience with the subject matter was also used as a source of data according to the notion of researcher-as-instrument. This study is qualitative in nature and is guided by two supporting theoretical frameworks, the sociological perspective and narrative inquiry. A multiple case study methodology was used to gain insight about why participants decided to use stories or storytelling in a quantitative research environment that may not be traditionally open to such methods. This study also attempted to identify how storytelling can strengthen or supplement existing research, as well as what value stories can provide to the practice of research in general. Five thematic findings emerged from the data and were grouped under two headings, "Experiencing Research" and "Story Work." The themes were found to be consistent with four main theoretical functions of storytelling identified in existing scholarly literature: (a) sense-making; (b) meaning-making; (c) culture; and (d) communal function. The five thematic themes that emerged from this study and were consistent with the existing literature include: (a) social context; (b) quantitative versus qualitative; (c) we think and learn in terms of stories; (d) stories tie experiences together; and (e) making sense and meaning. Recommendations are offered in the form of implications for various social contexts and topics for further research are presented as well.

  5. Methods for studying medical device technology and practitioner cognition : The case of user-interface issues with infusion pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Verhoeven, F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose : The aims of this study were to investigate how a variety of research methods is commonly employed to study technology and practitioner cognition. User-interface issues with infusion pumps were selected as a case because of its relevance to patient safety. Methods : Starting from a

  6. The importance of magnetic methods for soil mapping and process modelling. Case study in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Sukhorada, Anatoliy

    2016-04-01

    The correct planning of agriculture areas is fundamental for a sustainable future in Ukraine. After the recent political problems in Ukraine, new challenges emerged regarding sustainability questions. At the same time the soil mapping and modelling are intensively developing all over the world (Pereira et al., 2015; Brevik et al., in press). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) methods are low cost and accurate for the developing maps of agricultural areas, fundamental for Ukrain's economy.This allow to colleact a great amount of soil data, usefull for a better understading of the spatial distribution of soil properties. Recently, this method have been applied in other works in Ukraine and elsewhere (Jordanova et al., 2011; Menshov et al., 2015). The objective of this work is to study the spatial distribution of MS and humus content on the topsoils (0-5 cm) in two different areas. The first is located in Poltava region and the second in Kharkiv region. The results showed that MS depends of soil type, topography and anthropogenic influence. For the interpretation of MS spatial distribution in top soil we consider the frequency and time after the last tillage, tilth depth, fertilizing, and the puddling regarding the vehicle model. On average the soil MS of the top soil of these two cases is about 30-70×10-8 m3/kg. In Poltava region not disturbed soil has on average MS values of 40-50×10-8 m3/kg, for Kharkiv region 50-60×10-8 m3/kg. The tilled soil of Poltava region has on average an MS of 60×10-8 m3/kg, and 70×10-8 m3/kg in Kharkiv region. MS is higher in non-tilled soils than in the tilled ones. The correlation between MS and soil humus content is very high ( up to 0.90) in both cases. Breivik, E., Baumgarten, A., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Jordán, A. Soil mapping, classification, and modelling: history and future directions. Geoderma (in press), doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.05.017 Jordanova D., Jordanova N., Atanasova A., Tsacheva T., Petrov P

  7. THE USE OF AHP METHOD IN THE MULTI‐CRITERIA TASK SOLVING PROCESS – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt KORBAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the decision‐making process, both single‐ and multi‐criteria tasks are dealt with. In the majority of cases, the selection of a solution comes down to determination of the “best” decision (most often based on the subjective assessment or to organisation of the set of decisions. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is one of the methods used for evaluation of qualitative features in the multi‐criteria optimisation processes. This article discusses the possibilities of using the above‐mentioned method, illustrated with an example of purchasing technical equipment for one of the municipal landfill sites in the Silesian Province.

  8. Case Studies in Low-Energy District Heating Systems: Determination of Dimensioning Methods for Planning the Future Heating Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Svendsen, Svend

    suggests a plan for an energy efficient District Heating (DH) system with low operating temperatures, such as 55°C supply and 25°C return; connected to low-energy buildings. Different case studies referring to typical DH planning situations could show the rational basis for the integrated planning...... of the future’s sustainable and energy efficient heating infrastructure. In this paper, a case study which focuses on dimensioning method of piping network of low-energy DH system in a new settlement, located in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark, is presented. In addition to the developed dimensioning method......, results about the optimal network layout and substation type for low-energy DH systems are also pointed out regarding to this case study. A second case study, included in this paper, focuses on technical and economical aspects of replacing natural gas heating system to low-energy DH system in an existing...

  9. step by step process from logic model to case study method as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    Logic models and case study approach to programme evaluation have proven ... in qualitative methodology. There is ... Note: IEHPs= internationally educated health professionals, ... interviews with the programme managers. .... programme assessed to ensure that the IEHPs are ready to face the certification ..... Comparison.

  10. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infection has several oral manifestations, including oral candidiasis and oral hairy leucoplakia. Occasionally unusual presentations requiring rigorous investigations are seen, and in these cases the diagnosis sometimes remains a dilemma owing to limited investigation facilities.1-3 We present the case of a patient who.

  11. Reliability analysis of idealized tunnel support system using probability-based methods with case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharouni-Nik, Morteza; Naeimi, Meysam; Ahadi, Sodayf; Alimoradi, Zahra

    2014-06-01

    In order to determine the overall safety of a tunnel support lining, a reliability-based approach is presented in this paper. Support elements in jointed rock tunnels are provided to control the ground movement caused by stress redistribution during the tunnel drive. Main support elements contribute to stability of the tunnel structure are recognized owing to identify various aspects of reliability and sustainability in the system. The selection of efficient support methods for rock tunneling is a key factor in order to reduce the number of problems during construction and maintain the project cost and time within the limited budget and planned schedule. This paper introduces a smart approach by which decision-makers will be able to find the overall reliability of tunnel support system before selecting the final scheme of the lining system. Due to this research focus, engineering reliability which is a branch of statistics and probability is being appropriately applied to the field and much effort has been made to use it in tunneling while investigating the reliability of the lining support system for the tunnel structure. Therefore, reliability analysis for evaluating the tunnel support performance is the main idea used in this research. Decomposition approaches are used for producing system block diagram and determining the failure probability of the whole system. Effectiveness of the proposed reliability model of tunnel lining together with the recommended approaches is examined using several case studies and the final value of reliability obtained for different designing scenarios. Considering the idea of linear correlation between safety factors and reliability parameters, the values of isolated reliabilities determined for different structural components of tunnel support system. In order to determine individual safety factors, finite element modeling is employed for different structural subsystems and the results of numerical analyses are obtained in

  12. Application of multi-locus analytical methods to identify interacting loci in case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Sham, P.; Knight, J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify interacting loci in genetic epidemiological studies the application of multi-locus methods of analysis is warranted. Several more advanced classification methods have been developed in the past years, including multiple logistic regression, sum statistics, logic regression, and the

  13. Research and technology management in the electricity industry methods, tools and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Daim, Tugrul; Kim, Jisun

    2013-01-01

    Technologies such as renewable energy alternatives including wind, solar and biomass, storage technologies and electric engines are creating a different landscape for the  electricity industry. Using sources and ideas from technologies such as renewable energy alternatives, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry explores a different landscape for this industry and applies it to the electric industry supported by real industry cases. Divided into three sections, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry introduces a range of  methods and tools includ

  14. Differential scanning calorimetry method for purity determination: A case study on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestens, V.; Zeleny, R.; Auclair, G.; Held, A.; Roebben, G.; Linsinger, T.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Purity assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol by DSC. → DSC results compared with traditional purity methods. → Different methods give different results, multiple method approach recommended. → DSC sensitive to impurities that have similar structures as main component. - Abstract: In this study the validity and suitability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the purity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol has been investigated. The study materials were two candidate certified reference materials (CRMs), 6-methylchrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, and two different batches of commercially available highly pure chloramphenicol. The DSC results were compared with those obtained by other methods, namely gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, liquid chromatography with diode array detection, and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The purity results obtained by these different analytical methods confirm the well-known challenges of comparing results of different method-defined measurands. In comparison with other methods, DSC has a much narrower working range. This limits the applicability of DSC as purity determination method, for instance during the assignment of the purity value of a CRM. Nevertheless, this study showed that DSC can be a powerful technique to detect impurities that are structurally very similar to the main purity component. From this point of view, and because of its good repeatability, DSC can be considered as a valuable technique to investigate the homogeneity and stability of candidate purity CRMs.

  15. Case Study of CPT-based Design Methods for Axial Capacity of Driven Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    loaded offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil has until now been the β-method given in API. The API-method is based on the effective overburden pressure at the depth in question. Previous studies show deviations between full-scale load test measurements of the axial pile capacity and the predictions...... found by means of the API-method. Compared to the test measurements, the API-method under-estimates the capacity of short piles (piles in loose sand, and gives a shaft capacity less conservative for piles in tension than for piles in compression......Today the design of onshore axially loaded driven piles in cohesionless soil is commonly made on basis of CPT-based methods because field investigations have shown strong correlation between the local shaft friction and the CPT cone resistance. However, the recommended design method for axially...

  16. A method for under-sampled ecological network data analysis: plant-pollination as case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B. Sorensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a method, termed the Interaction Distribution (ID method, for analysis of quantitative ecological network data. In many cases, quantitative network data sets are under-sampled, i.e. many interactions are poorly sampled or remain unobserved. Hence, the output of statistical analyses may fail to differentiate between patterns that are statistical artefacts and those which are real characteristics of ecological networks. The ID method can support assessment and inference of under-sampled ecological network data. In the current paper, we illustrate and discuss the ID method based on the properties of plant-animal pollination data sets of flower visitation frequencies. However, the ID method may be applied to other types of ecological networks. The method can supplement existing network analyses based on two definitions of the underlying probabilities for each combination of pollinator and plant species: (1, pi,j: the probability for a visit made by the i’th pollinator species to take place on the j’th plant species; (2, qi,j: the probability for a visit received by the j’th plant species to be made by the i’th pollinator. The method applies the Dirichlet distribution to estimate these two probabilities, based on a given empirical data set. The estimated mean values for pi,j and qi,j reflect the relative differences between recorded numbers of visits for different pollinator and plant species, and the estimated uncertainty of pi,j and qi,j decreases with higher numbers of recorded visits.

  17. Implementing a virtual community of practice for family physician training: a mixed-methods case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen; Jones, Sandra C; Caton, Tim; Iverson, Don; Bennett, Sue; Robinson, Laura

    2014-03-12

    GP training in Australia can be professionally isolating, with trainees spread across large geographic areas, leading to problems with rural workforce retention. Virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) may provide a way of improving knowledge sharing and thus reducing professional isolation. The goal of our study was to review the usefulness of a 7-step framework for implementing a VCoP for general practitioner (GP) training and then evaluated the usefulness of the resulting VCoP in facilitating knowledge sharing and reducing professional isolation. The case was set in an Australian general practice training region involving 55 first-term trainees (GPT1s), from January to July 2012. ConnectGPR was a secure, online community site that included standard community options such as discussion forums, blogs, newsletter broadcasts, webchats, and photo sharing. A mixed-methods case study methodology was used. Results are presented and interpreted for each step of the VCoP 7-step framework and then in terms of the outcomes of knowledge sharing and overcoming isolation. Step 1, Facilitation: Regular, personal facilitation by a group of GP trainers with a co-ordinating facilitator was an important factor in the success of ConnectGPR. Step 2, Champion and Support: Leadership and stakeholder engagement were vital. Further benefits are possible if the site is recognized as contributing to training time. Step 3, Clear Goals: Clear goals of facilitating knowledge sharing and improving connectedness helped to keep the site discussions focused. Step 4, A Broad Church: The ConnectGPR community was too narrow, focusing only on first-term trainees (GPT1s). Ideally there should be more involvement of senior trainees, trainers, and specialists. Step 5, A Supportive Environment: Facilitators maintained community standards and encouraged participation. Step 6, Measurement Benchmarking and Feedback: Site activity was primarily driven by centrally generated newsletter feedback. Viewing

  18. Natural science methods in field archaeology, with the case study of Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekalova, T. N.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Garipov, A. S.; Pasumanskii, A. E.; Ketsko, R. S.; Chudin, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The natural science methods applied in archaeological field survey are briefly reviewed. They are classified into several groups: remote sensing (analysis of space and airspace photographs, viewshed analysis, study of detailed topographic and special maps, and three-dimensional photogrammetry), geophysical survey, and analysis of cultural layer elements (by geochemical, paleosol, and other methods). The most important principle is the integration of complementary nondestructive and fast natural science methods in order to obtain the most complete and reliable results. Emphasis is placed on the consideration of geophysical methods of the study, primarily, magnetic exploration. A multidisciplinary study of the monuments of ancient Chersonesos and its "barbarian" environment is described as an example of successful application of a complex technique.

  19. Software Design Reviews Using the Software Architecture Analysis Method: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Management, pp. 323-356, JAI Press Inc. Stake, R. E. (1994). Case Studies. In Handbook of Qualitative Research. (N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln . Eds.), pp. 236...Henderson and Gabb 1997). References Adler, P. A. and P. Adler (1994). Observational Techniques. In Handbook of Qualitative Research. (N. K. Denzin and Y...S. Lincoln . Eds.), pp. 377-392, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. ADO (1998). Electronic Systems Acquisition Division Compendium

  20. A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

    2010-01-01

    This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

  1. Development of a Reality-Based Multimedia Case Study Teaching Method and Its Effect on Students' Planned Food Safety Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Caitlin M.; Stevenson, Clinton D.

    2017-01-01

    There is opportunity to decrease the frequency of foodborne illnesses by improving food safety competencies and planned behaviors of college students before they begin careers in the food industry. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a multimedia case study teaching method that provides real world context for food science education;…

  2. case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elton

    particularly in patients who commence ART with low CD4 counts and established opportunistic infections. IRIS results from a pathological inflammatory response to pre-existing infective, host or other antigens, alive or dead, causing clinical deterioration in HIV-infected patients after initiating ART.1 A case definition for IRIS ...

  3. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-01

    Sep 1, 2010 ... of the two diseases surgery can be successful, recovery can be similar to that .... lymphocytes predominated in 68% of cases, and that there was an .... using ferritin is the fact that it acts as an acute-phase reactant and will be ...

  4. Evaluation of PDA Technical Report No 33. Statistical Testing Recommendations for a Rapid Microbiological Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas; Schwedock, Julie; Nguyen, Kham; Mills, Anna; Jones, David

    2015-01-01

    New recommendations for the validation of rapid microbiological methods have been included in the revised Technical Report 33 release from the PDA. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This case study applies those statistical methods to accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological methods system being evaluated for water bioburden testing. Results presented demonstrate that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report 33 chapter can all be successfully applied to the rapid microbiological method data sets and gave the same interpretation for equivalence to the standard method. The rapid microbiological method was in general able to pass the requirements of PDA Technical Report 33, though the study shows that there can be occasional outlying results and that caution should be used when applying statistical methods to low average colony-forming unit values. Prior to use in a quality-controlled environment, any new method or technology has to be shown to work as designed by the manufacturer for the purpose required. For new rapid microbiological methods that detect and enumerate contaminating microorganisms, additional recommendations have been provided in the revised PDA Technical Report No. 33. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This paper applies those statistical methods to analyze accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological method system being validated for water bioburden testing. The case study demonstrates that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report No. 33 chapter can be successfully applied to rapid microbiological method data sets and give the same comparability results for similarity or difference as the standard method. © PDA, Inc

  5. Comparison of different methods for work accidents investigation in hospitals: A Portuguese case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cláudia; Santos, Joana; da Silva, Manuela Vieira; Lourenço, Irina; Carvalhais, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The hospital environment has many occupational health risks that predispose healthcare workers to various kinds of work accidents. This study aims to compare different methods for work accidents investigation and to verify their suitability in hospital environment. For this purpose, we selected three types of accidents that were related with needle stick, worker fall and inadequate effort/movement during the mobilization of patients. A total of thirty accidents were analysed with six different work accidents investigation methods. The results showed that organizational factors were the group of causes which had the greatest impact in the three types of work accidents. The methods selected to be compared in this paper are applicable and appropriate for the work accidents investigation in hospitals. However, the Registration, Research and Analysis of Work Accidents method (RIAAT) showed to be an optimal technique to use in this context.

  6. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  7. Using network screening methods to determine locations with specific safety issues: A design consistency case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsick, Andrew J; Wood, Jonathan S; Jovanis, Paul P

    2017-09-01

    The Highway Safety Manual provides multiple methods that can be used to identify sites with promise (SWiPs) for safety improvement. However, most of these methods cannot be used to identify sites with specific problems. Furthermore, given that infrastructure funding is often specified for use related to specific problems/programs, a method for identifying SWiPs related to those programs would be very useful. This research establishes a method for Identifying SWiPs with specific issues. This is accomplished using two safety performance functions (SPFs). This method is applied to identifying SWiPs with geometric design consistency issues. Mixed effects negative binomial regression was used to develop two SPFs using 5 years of crash data and over 8754km of two-lane rural roadway. The first SPF contained typical roadway elements while the second contained additional geometric design consistency parameters. After empirical Bayes adjustments, sites with promise (SWiPs) were identified. The disparity between SWiPs identified by the two SPFs was evident; 40 unique sites were identified by each model out of the top 220 segments. By comparing sites across the two models, candidate road segments can be identified where a lack design consistency may be contributing to an increase in expected crashes. Practitioners can use this method to more effectively identify roadway segments suffering from reduced safety performance due to geometric design inconsistency, with detailed engineering studies of identified sites required to confirm the initial assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. EVALUATION OF WEB SEARCHING METHOD USING A NOVEL WPRR ALGORITHM FOR TWO DIFFERENT CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lakshmi Praba

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to web data and documents. Web content mining and web structure mining have important roles in identifying the relevant web page. Relevancy of web page denotes how well a retrieved web page or set of web pages meets the information need of the user. Page Rank, Weighted Page Rank and Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS are existing algorithms which considers only web structure mining. Vector Space Model (VSM, Cover Density Ranking (CDR, Okapi similarity measurement (Okapi and Three-Level Scoring method (TLS are some of existing relevancy score methods which consider only web content mining. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm, Weighted Page with Relevant Rank (WPRR which is blend of both web content mining and web structure mining that demonstrates the relevancy of the page with respect to given query for two different case scenarios. It is shown that WPRR’s performance is better than the existing algorithms.

  9. A Psychobiographical Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    man, and cancer fighter. This psychobiographical case study entailed a psychosocial-historical ... does not draw more attention as a research method, as this approach has .... of the applied Levinsonian theory to the life of Jobs against the ...

  10. Sensitivity analysis of the use of Life Cycle Impact Assessment methods: a case study on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, Cristiane; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rossignolo, Joao Adriano

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to perform a sensitivity analysis of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) case study to understand if the use of different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods may lead to different conclusions by decision makers and stakeholders. A complete LCA was applied to non...

  11. The multiple imputation method: a case study involving secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walani, Salimah R; Cleland, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate with the example of a secondary data analysis study the use of the multiple imputation method to replace missing data. Most large public datasets have missing data, which need to be handled by researchers conducting secondary data analysis studies. Multiple imputation is a technique widely used to replace missing values while preserving the sample size and sampling variability of the data. The 2004 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. The authors created a model to impute missing values using the chained equation method. They used imputation diagnostics procedures and conducted regression analysis of imputed data to determine the differences between the log hourly wages of internationally educated and US-educated registered nurses. The authors used multiple imputation procedures to replace missing values in a large dataset with 29,059 observations. Five multiple imputed datasets were created. Imputation diagnostics using time series and density plots showed that imputation was successful. The authors also present an example of the use of multiple imputed datasets to conduct regression analysis to answer a substantive research question. Multiple imputation is a powerful technique for imputing missing values in large datasets while preserving the sample size and variance of the data. Even though the chained equation method involves complex statistical computations, recent innovations in software and computation have made it possible for researchers to conduct this technique on large datasets. The authors recommend nurse researchers use multiple imputation methods for handling missing data to improve the statistical power and external validity of their studies.

  12. The use of marine geophysical methods in Geo-Engineering investigations of Dams/ Barrages - a case study of Kosi Barrage

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Naidu, P.D.

    Geophysical Methods in Geo-Engineering Investigations of Dams/ Barrages - A Case Study of Kosi Barrage INTRODUCTION KH. Vora* P. Divakar Naidu* Dams and barrages are such civil engineering structures where foundation is submerged. The impounded water column... etc. Some other on the spot observations using pole and other elementary probing methods are in vogue. However, usually such investigations would provide only a generalised picture based on isolated data. Advent of high technology, developed over...

  13. Comparison of two inductive learning methods: A case study in failed fuel identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Lee, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Two inductive learning methods, the ID3 and Rg algorithms, are studied as a means for systematically and automatically constructing the knowledge base of expert systems. Both inductive learning methods are general-purpose and use information entropy as a discriminatory measure in order to group objects of a common class. ID3 constructs a knowledge base by building decision trees that discriminate objects of a data set as a function of their class. Rg constructs a knowledge base by grouping objects of the same class into patterns or clusters. The two inductive methods are applied to the construction of a knowledge base for failed fuel identification in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Through analysis of the knowledge bases generated, the ID3 and Rg algorithms are compared for their knowledge representation, data overfitting, feature space partition, feature selection, and search procedure

  14. Comparison of two inductive learning methods: A case study in failed fuel identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifman, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lee, J.C. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1992-05-01

    Two inductive learning methods, the ID3 and Rg algorithms, are studied as a means for systematically and automatically constructing the knowledge base of expert systems. Both inductive learning methods are general-purpose and use information entropy as a discriminatory measure in order to group objects of a common class. ID3 constructs a knowledge base by building decision trees that discriminate objects of a data set as a function of their class. Rg constructs a knowledge base by grouping objects of the same class into patterns or clusters. The two inductive methods are applied to the construction of a knowledge base for failed fuel identification in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Through analysis of the knowledge bases generated, the ID3 and Rg algorithms are compared for their knowledge representation, data overfitting, feature space partition, feature selection, and search procedure.

  15. Comparison of two inductive learning methods: A case study in failed fuel identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifman, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Lee, J.C. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Two inductive learning methods, the ID3 and Rg algorithms, are studied as a means for systematically and automatically constructing the knowledge base of expert systems. Both inductive learning methods are general-purpose and use information entropy as a discriminatory measure in order to group objects of a common class. ID3 constructs a knowledge base by building decision trees that discriminate objects of a data set as a function of their class. Rg constructs a knowledge base by grouping objects of the same class into patterns or clusters. The two inductive methods are applied to the construction of a knowledge base for failed fuel identification in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Through analysis of the knowledge bases generated, the ID3 and Rg algorithms are compared for their knowledge representation, data overfitting, feature space partition, feature selection, and search procedure.

  16. Algebraic method for constructing singular steady solitary waves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamond, Didier; Dutykh, Denys; Galligo, André

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the use of algebraic methods in a phase plane analysis of ordinary differential equations. The method is illustrated by the study of capillary-gravity steady surface waves propagating in shallow water. We consider the (fully nonlinear, weakly dispersive) Serre-Green-Naghdi equation with surface tension, because it provides a tractable model that, at the same time, is not too simple, so interest in the method can be emphasized. In particular, we analyse a special class of solutions, the solitary waves, which play an important role in many fields of physics. In capillary-gravity regime, there are two kinds of localized infinitely smooth travelling wave solutions-solitary waves of elevation and of depression. However, if we allow the solitary waves to have an angular point, then the `zoology' of solutions becomes much richer, and the main goal of this study is to provide a complete classification of such singular localized solutions using the methods of the effective algebraic geometry.

  17. Pathways to false-positive diagnoses using molecular genetic detection methods; Phytophthora cinnamomi a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunadiya, Manisha; White, Diane; Dunstan, William A; Hardy, Giles E St J; Andjic, Vera; Burgess, Treena I

    2017-04-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the world's most invasive plant pathogens affecting ornamental plants, horticultural crops and natural ecosystems. Accurate diagnosis is very important to determine the presence or absence of this pathogen in diseased and asymptomatic plants. In previous studies, P. cinnamomi species-specific primers were designed and tested using various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques including conventional PCR, nested PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. In all cases, the primers were stated to be highly specific and sensitive to P. cinnamomi. However, few of these studies tested their primers against closely related Phytophthora species (Phytophthora clade 7). In this study, we tested these purported P. cinnamomi-specific primer sets against 11 other species from clade 7 and determined their specificity; of the eight tested primer sets only three were specific to P. cinnamomi. This study demonstrated the importance of testing primers against closely related species within the same clade, and not just other species within the same genus. The findings of this study are relevant to all species-specific microbial diagnosis. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Music therapy for early cognitive rehabilitation post-childhood TBI: an intrinsic mixed methods case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Janeen; Catroppa, Cathy; Grocke, Denise; Shoemark, Helen

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this case study was to explore the behavioural changes of a paediatric patient in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) during a music therapy session. A secondary objective was to measure the effect of the music therapy intervention on agitation. Video data from pre, during and post-music therapy sessions were collected and analysed using video micro-analysis and the Agitated Behaviour Scale. The participant displayed four discrete categories of behaviours: Neutral, Acceptance, Recruitment and Rejection. Further analysis revealed brief but consistent and repeated periods of awareness and responsiveness to the live singing of familiar songs, which were classified as Islands of Awareness. Song offered an Environment of Potential to maximise these periods of emerging consciousness. The quantitative data analysis yielded inconclusive results in determining if music therapy was effective in reducing agitation during and immediately post the music therapy sessions. The process of micro-analysis illuminated four discrete participant behaviours not apparent in the immediate clinical setting. The results of this case suggest that the use of familiar song as a music therapy intervention may harness early patient responsiveness to foster cognitive rehabilitation in the early acute phase post-TBI.

  19. Time-series-based hybrid mathematical modelling method adapted to forecast automotive and medical waste generation: Case study of Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Ruzgas, Tomas; Denafas, Gintaras

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to create a hybrid forecasting method that could produce higher accuracy forecasts than previously used 'pure' time series methods. Mentioned methods were already tested with total automotive waste, hazardous automotive waste, and total medical waste generation, but demonstrated at least a 6% error rate in different cases and efforts were made to decrease it even more. Newly developed hybrid models used a random start generation method to incorporate different time-series advantages and it helped to increase the accuracy of forecasts by 3%-4% in hazardous automotive waste and total medical waste generation cases; the new model did not increase the accuracy of total automotive waste generation forecasts. Developed models' abilities to forecast short- and mid-term forecasts were tested using prediction horizon.

  20. Meta-analytic methods for pooling rates when follow-up duration varies: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Fredric M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. Methods We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD, stratified incidence rate differences (IRD, and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR. We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. Results For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04. IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11, while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90. For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09. IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03, while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74. In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99. Conclusions Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the

  1. Assessment of Three Flood Hazard Mapping Methods: A Case Study of Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizat, Nazirah; Omar, Wan Mohd Sabki Wan

    2018-03-01

    Flood is a common natural disaster and also affect the all state in Malaysia. Regarding to Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) in 2007, about 29, 270 km2 or 9 percent of region of the country is prone to flooding. Flood can be such devastating catastrophic which can effected to people, economy and environment. Flood hazard mapping can be used is an important part in flood assessment to define those high risk area prone to flooding. The purposes of this study are to prepare a flood hazard mapping in Perlis and to evaluate flood hazard using frequency ratio, statistical index and Poisson method. The six factors affecting the occurrence of flood including elevation, distance from the drainage network, rainfall, soil texture, geology and erosion were created using ArcGIS 10.1 software. Flood location map in this study has been generated based on flooded area in year 2010 from DID. These parameters and flood location map were analysed to prepare flood hazard mapping in representing the probability of flood area. The results of the analysis were verified using flood location data in year 2013, 2014, 2015. The comparison result showed statistical index method is better in prediction of flood area rather than frequency ratio and Poisson method.

  2. Taguchi optimization: Case study of gold recovery from amalgamation tailing by using froth flotation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudibyo, Aji, B. B.; Sumardi, S.; Mufakir, F. R.; Junaidi, A.; Nurjaman, F.; Karna, Aziza, Aulia

    2017-01-01

    Gold amalgamation process was widely used to treat gold ore. This process produces the tailing or amalgamation solid waste, which still contains gold at 8-9 ppm. Froth flotation is one of the promising methods to beneficiate gold from this tailing. However, this process requires optimal conditions which depends on the type of raw material. In this study, Taguchi method was used to optimize the optimum conditions of the froth flotation process. The Taguchi optimization shows that the gold recovery was strongly influenced by the particle size which is the best particle size at 150 mesh followed by the Potassium amyl xanthate concentration, pH and pine oil concentration at 1133.98, 4535.92 and 68.04 gr/ton amalgamation tailing, respectively.

  3. Meta-analytic methods for pooling rates when follow-up duration varies: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, James P; Berlin, Jesse A; Wolf, Fredric M

    2004-07-12

    Meta-analysis can be used to pool rate measures across studies, but challenges arise when follow-up duration varies. Our objective was to compare different statistical approaches for pooling count data of varying follow-up times in terms of estimates of effect, precision, and clinical interpretability. We examined data from a published Cochrane Review of asthma self-management education in children. We selected two rate measures with the largest number of contributing studies: school absences and emergency room (ER) visits. We estimated fixed- and random-effects standardized weighted mean differences (SMD), stratified incidence rate differences (IRD), and stratified incidence rate ratios (IRR). We also fit Poisson regression models, which allowed for further adjustment for clustering by study. For both outcomes, all methods gave qualitatively similar estimates of effect in favor of the intervention. For school absences, SMD showed modest results in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.14, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.04). IRD implied that the intervention reduced school absences by 1.8 days per year (IRD -0.15 days/child-month, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.11), while IRR suggested a 14% reduction in absences (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90). For ER visits, SMD showed a modest benefit in favor of the intervention (SMD -0.27, 95% CI: -0.45 to -0.09). IRD implied that the intervention reduced ER visits by 1 visit every 2 years (IRD -0.04 visits/child-month, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03), while IRR suggested a 34% reduction in ER visits (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74). In Poisson models, adjustment for clustering lowered the precision of the estimates relative to stratified IRR results. For ER visits but not school absences, failure to incorporate study indicators resulted in a different estimate of effect (unadjusted IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.99). Choice of method among the ones presented had little effect on inference but affected the clinical interpretability of the findings. Incidence rate

  4. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siregar Ikhsan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at an electronic field assembly company. The company implements a production system that starts from semi-finished goods to finished products. The problem of the company is the imbalance of the production trajectory. The track balance in the final assembly will affect the amount of product that can be produced. The unbalanced track conditions resulted a bottleneck condition in the material flow from one work center to the other, resulting in delay time on the production floor. The problems are caused by large cycle times, thus resulting in different production capacities for each workcenter. The implementation of the theory of constraints is to identify the existing constraints and to obtain the optimum amount of workcenter as well as to allocate elements of activity in the workcenter, thereby improving the efficiency of the production line.. In actual trajectory there are 7 work centers with track path efficiency 59,80%, balance delay 40,20%, and smoothing index 74,47. The result of balancing in the production line using theory of constraint method obtained the repair solution by number of work center as many as 5 work centers with track efficiency value 88,65%, balance delay 11,35% and smoothing index 17,07.

  5. The Paradox of "Structured" Methods for Software Requirements Management: A Case Study of an e-Government Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Kieran; Lang, Michael

    This chapter outlines the alternative perspectives of "rationalism" and "improvisation" within information systems development and describes the major shortcomings of each. It then discusses how these shortcomings manifested themselves within an e-government case study where a "structured" requirements management method was employed. Although this method was very prescriptive and firmly rooted in the "rational" paradigm, it was observed that users often resorted to improvised behaviour, such as privately making decisions on how certain aspects of the method should or should not be implemented.

  6. A method to assess soil erosion from smallholder farmers' fields: a case study from Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamoud, Yusuf M

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion by water is a major threat to sustainable food production systems in Africa. This study presents a qualitative soil erosion assessment method that links the number of broken ridges (NBRS) observed on a smallholder farmer's field after a rain event to factors of soil erosion (e.g., rainfall intensity, slope steepness, crop canopy height, and conservation practice) and to soil loss data measured from a runoff plot and receiving small streams. The assessment method consists of a rapid survey of smallholder farmers combined with field monitoring. Results show an indirect relationship between NBRS and factors of soil erosion. Results also show a direct relationship between NBRS and suspended sediment concentrations measured from an experimental runoff plot and receiving streams that drain the sub-watersheds where farmers' fields are located. Given the limited human and financial resources available to soil erosion research in developing countries, monitoring NBRS is a simple, cost-effective, and reliable erosion assessment method for regions where smallholder farmers practice contour ridging.

  7. Model uncertainty of various settlement estimation methods in shallow tunnels excavation; case study: Qom subway tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademian, Amir; Abdollahipour, Hamed; Bagherpour, Raheb; Faramarzi, Lohrasb

    2017-10-01

    In addition to the numerous planning and executive challenges, underground excavation in urban areas is always followed by certain destructive effects especially on the ground surface; ground settlement is the most important of these effects for which estimation there exist different empirical, analytical and numerical methods. Since geotechnical models are associated with considerable model uncertainty, this study characterized the model uncertainty of settlement estimation models through a systematic comparison between model predictions and past performance data derived from instrumentation. To do so, the amount of surface settlement induced by excavation of the Qom subway tunnel was estimated via empirical (Peck), analytical (Loganathan and Poulos) and numerical (FDM) methods; the resulting maximum settlement value of each model were 1.86, 2.02 and 1.52 cm, respectively. The comparison of these predicted amounts with the actual data from instrumentation was employed to specify the uncertainty of each model. The numerical model outcomes, with a relative error of 3.8%, best matched the reality and the analytical method, with a relative error of 27.8%, yielded the highest level of model uncertainty.

  8. Power sector investment risk and renewable energy: A Japanese case study using portfolio risk optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Kojima, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    The conventional pricing mechanism used for electricity systematically hides huge investment risks which are embedded in the overall cost of production. Although consumers are often unaware of these risks, they present a large financial burden on the economy. This study applies the portfolio optimization concepts from the field of finance to demonstrate the scope of greater utilization of renewable energies (RE) while reducing the embedded investment risk in the conventional electricity sector and its related financial burden. This study demonstrates that RE investment can compensate for the risks associated with the total input costs; such costs being external volatilities of fossil fuel prices, capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the carbon costs. By means of example, this case study shows that Japan could in theory obtain up to 9% of its electricity supply from green sources, as compared to the present 1.37%, based on the utilization of a portfolio risk-analysis evaluation. Explicit comparison of the monetary values of the investment risks of conventional and renewable energy sources shows that renewable energies have high market competitiveness. The study concludes with a recommendation that, as a business objective, investors would benefit by focusing on electricity supply portfolio risk minimization instead of cost. This could also inherently increase the supply of renewable energy in the market. - Research highlights: ►Energy sector investors should not be bothered only about the absolute cost figures of the input factors like fossil fuels but should also be careful about the fluctuation of their costs while making the investment decisions. ►Inclusion of renewable energy in the investment portfolio can increase the cost apparently but can reduce the risk hedging costs, too. ►International carbon price may not be a good factor to encourage renewable energy investment in the market.

  9. Groundwater potential prediction by using geoelectricity method a case study in Simpang Lima and around it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, D. R.; Supriyadi; Aryani, N. P.; Naufal, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    Water is an important natural resource, which is available both on surface as well as in recharge zone of weathered layer and in various other suitable water reservoir formations/structures below the surface. The study was conducted in Semarang City, Indonesian. Simpang Lima area were chosen since they have geology record of thick alluvium. The condition of Simpang Lima and around it which currently has developed into the main business area in Semarang City. This is marked by the presence like hotels, super market, that is more than one. This condition certainly requires a supply of water for various purposes that support economic efforts in the region. During this time the water needs are met by drilling wells and used as much as possible without taking into account the impact of water utilization. This study aims to determine the zones that have the potential existence of groundwater. The method used is Geoelectric method with Shlumberger configuration in 7 distributed spatial point. The results showed that there is a potential groundwater in eastern Pekunden, Erlanga, behind The Hotel Horizon, and Simpang Lima. Groundwater is found successively at an average depth of 15 meters under earth’s surface.

  10. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management methods: Ankara case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeler, D; Yetiş, U; Demirer, G N

    2006-04-01

    Different solid waste management system scenarios were developed and compared for the Municipal Solid Waste Management System of Ankara by using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The solid waste management methods considered in the scenarios were collection and transportation of wastes, source reduction, Material Recovery Facility (MRF)/Transfer Stations (TS), incineration, anaerobic digestion and landfilling. The goal of the study was to determine the most environmentally friendly option of MSWM system for Ankara. The functional unit of the study was the amount of solid waste generated in the system area of concern, which are the districts of Ankara. The life cycle inventory analysis was carried out by IWM Model-1. The inputs and outputs of each management stage were defined and the inventory emissions calculated by the model were classified in to impact categories; non-renewable energy sources exhausting potential, final solid waste as hazardous and non-hazardous, global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human toxicity. The impacts were quantified with the weighing factors of each category to develop the environmental profiles of each scenario. In most of the categories, Source Reduction Scenario was found to be the most feasible management method, except the global warming category. The lowest contribution to GWP was calculated for the anaerobic digestion process. In the interpretation and improvement assessment stage, the results were further evaluated and recommendations were made to improve the current solid waste management system of Ankara.

  11. Method of evaluating the impact of ERP implementation critical success factors - a case study in oil and gas industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic, Gordana; Stankovski, Stevan; Ostojic, Gordana; Tesic, Zdravko; Miladinovic, Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    The so far implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have in many cases failed to meet the requirements regarding the business process control, decrease of business costs and increase of company profit margin. Therefore, there is a real need for an evaluation of the influence of ERP on the company's performance indicators. Proposed in this article is an advanced model for the evaluation of the success of ERP implementation on organisational and operational performance indicators in oil-gas companies. The recommended method establishes a correlation between a process-based method, a scorecard model and ERP critical success factors. The method was verified and tested on two case studies in oil-gas companies using the following procedure: the model was developed, tested and implemented in a pilot gas-oil company, while the results were implemented and verified in another gas-oil company.

  12. Methods for Probabilistic Fault Diagnosis: An Electrical Power System Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Brian W.; Mengshoel, Ole J.

    2009-01-01

    Health management systems that more accurately and quickly diagnose faults that may occur in different technical systems on-board a vehicle will play a key role in the success of future NASA missions. We discuss in this paper the diagnosis of abrupt continuous (or parametric) faults within the context of probabilistic graphical models, more specifically Bayesian networks that are compiled to arithmetic circuits. This paper extends our previous research, within the same probabilistic setting, on diagnosis of abrupt discrete faults. Our approach and diagnostic algorithm ProDiagnose are domain-independent; however we use an electrical power system testbed called ADAPT as a case study. In one set of ADAPT experiments, performed as part of the 2009 Diagnostic Challenge, our system turned out to have the best performance among all competitors. In a second set of experiments, we show how we have recently further significantly improved the performance of the probabilistic model of ADAPT. While these experiments are obtained for an electrical power system testbed, we believe they can easily be transitioned to real-world systems, thus promising to increase the success of future NASA missions.

  13. A multi-method approach toward de novo glycan characterization: a Man-5 case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prien, Justin M; Prater, Bradley D; Cockrill, Steven L

    2010-05-01

    Regulatory agencies' expectations for biotherapeutic approval are becoming more stringent with regard to product characterization, where minor species as low as 0.1% of a given profile are typically identified. The mission of this manuscript is to demonstrate a multi-method approach toward de novo glycan characterization and quantitation, including minor species at or approaching the 0.1% benchmark. Recently, unexpected isomers of the Man(5)GlcNAc(2) (M(5)) were reported (Prien JM, Ashline DJ, Lapadula AJ, Zhang H, Reinhold VN. 2009. The high mannose glycans from bovine ribonuclease B isomer characterization by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS). J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 20:539-556). In the current study, quantitative analysis of these isomers found in commercial M(5) standard demonstrated that they are in low abundance (2-aminobenzoic acid to detect and chromatographically resolve multiple M(5) isomers in bovine ribonuclease B. With this multi-method approach, we have the capabilities to comprehensively characterize a biotherapeutic's glycan array in a de novo manner, including structural isomers at >/=0.1% of the total chromatographic peak area.

  14. COMPARABLE VALUATION METHOD A NEW APPROACH. CASE STUDY: A ROMANIAN FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Imola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the valuation scheme of a flexographic printing industry firm. The industry, the technology used and most importantly the firm being young ones, it is not possible to use the classical comparable valuation methods. The new approach in this matter is to use as benchmark financial ratios not those related to the price of the firm (as P/E, P/S, P/BV, P/CF, P/CAPEX, but those related to the structure of the income statement, financial and operating leverage using 13 Romanian and 6 Hungarian reference firms data. Our main contribution to this line of research is to solve the problem of lack of reference data regarding the price, the benchmark companies not being listed on any stock exchange.

  15. Using Technologies in Nursing Research Education: A Mixed Methods Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuhong; Yang, Harrison Hao

    2018-02-28

    To better prepare nurses for the new and expanding roles required in healthcare, faculty are expected to integrate emerging technology into educational processes. Using a mixed methods research design, this study aimed to examine nursing student reactions and learning based on their participation in an online research course through two technology-enhanced assignments: (1) annotation of the structure of a research article and (2) reflection on the content of a research article. Quantitative analysis examined students' questionnaire responses, and qualitative analysis explored students' reflective learning journals and the instructor's notes. These two separate strands of data were then integrated using a joint display. The discussion was guided by two components of the New World Kirkpatrick model, reaction and learning. Our findings suggest that the use of technology in the design of assignments is a way to engage students in learning and can be used to enhance nursing students' research learning online.

  16. Comparison of field swept ferromagnetic resonance methods - A case study using Ni-Mn-Sn films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, R.; Samantaray, B.; Mandal, P.; Srinivasu, V. V.; Srinivasan, A.

    2018-05-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to understand the magnetic behavior of Ni-Mn-Sn Heusler alloy film. Two popular experimental methods available for recording FMR spectra are presented here. In plane angular (φH) variation of magnetic relaxation is used to evaluate the in plane anisotropy (Ku) of the film. The out of plane (θH) variation of FMR spectra has been numerically analyzed to extract the Gilbert damping coefficient, effective magnetization and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (K1). Magnetic homogeneity of the film had also been evaluated in terms of 2-magnon contribution from FMR linewidth. The advantage and limitations of these two popular FMR techniques are discussed on the basis of the results obtained in this comparative study.

  17. Ongoing challenges to finding people with Parkinson's disease for epidemiological studies: a comparison of population-level case ascertainment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M Anne; Koehoorn, Mieke; Teschke, Kay

    2011-07-01

    Locating Parkinson's disease cases for epidemiological studies has long been challenging. Self reports, secondary records of physician diagnosis and drug tracer methods each exhibit known disadvantages but have rarely been compared directly. Prescriptions of levodopa have in some studies been considered to comprise a reasonable proxy for Parkinson's disease diagnosis. We tested this assumption by comparing three methods of population-level case ascertainment. We compared the number of Parkinson's disease cases in British Columbia derived from self-reports in the 2001 Canadian Community Health Survey to those obtained from administrative records of filled levodopa prescriptions and to Parkinson's disease diagnoses from physician visit billing and hospital discharge records in 1996 and 2005. We directly compared a case definition based on levodopa prescriptions with a definition based on records of physician diagnosis by calculating positive predictive value and sensitivity. Crude prevalence estimates ranged from approximately 100 to 200 per 100,000. Levodopa-based case definitions overestimated prevalence, while physician- and hospital-record-based case definitions provided lower prevalence estimates compared to survey derived estimates. The proportion of levodopa users with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease declined from 62% to 52% between 1996 and 2005. This decrease was most dramatic among women (64%-44%) and those under age 65 (54%-39%). Sex and age trends suggest increasing use of levodopa among patients with conditions other than Parkinson's disease, such as restless legs syndrome. Increased non-Parkinson's levodopa use decreases the efficiency of levodopa as a Parkinson's disease case tracer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Teaching Agricultural Policy with the Case Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhler, E. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two groups of agriculture students were taught with case studies and one group without (about 30 students in each group). Case-method groups had greater gains in cognitive performance and changed motivation and attitudes. Case studies had a positive effect on the development of problem-solving skills. (SK)

  19. The application of systems thinking concepts, methods, and tools to global health practices: An analysis of case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jessica; Goff, Morgan; Rusoja, Evan; Hanson, Carl; Swanson, Robert Chad

    2018-06-01

    This review of systems thinking (ST) case studies seeks to compile and analyse cases from ST literature and provide practitioners with a reference for ST in health practice. Particular attention was given to (1) reviewing the frequency and use of key ST terms, methods, and tools in the context of health, and (2) extracting and analysing longitudinal themes across cases. A systematic search of databases was conducted, and a total of 36 case studies were identified. A combination of integrative and inductive qualitative approaches to analysis was used. Most cases identified took place in high-income countries and applied ST retrospectively. The most commonly used ST terms were agent/stakeholder/actor (n = 29), interdependent/interconnected (n = 28), emergence (n = 26), and adaptability/adaptation (n = 26). Common ST methods and tools were largely underutilized. Social network analysis was the most commonly used method (n = 4), and innovation or change management history was the most frequently used tool (n = 11). Four overarching themes were identified; the importance of the interdependent and interconnected nature of a health system, characteristics of leaders in a complex adaptive system, the benefits of using ST, and barriers to implementing ST. This review revealed that while much has been written about the potential benefits of applying ST to health, it has yet to completely transition from theory to practice. There is however evidence of the practical use of an ST lens as well as specific methods and tools. With clear examples of ST applications, the global health community will be better equipped to understand and address key health challenges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Mapping biomass with remote sensing: a comparison of methods for the case study of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Matieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+. In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC dataset (estimating 468 Tg, maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg, while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg. The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the

  1. New methods for solving a vertex p-center problem with uncertain demand-weighted distance: A real case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Nematian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertex and p-center problems are two well-known types of the center problem. In this paper, a p-center problem with uncertain demand-weighted distance will be introduced in which the demands are considered as fuzzy random variables (FRVs and the objective of the problem is to minimize the maximum distance between a node and its nearest facility. Then, by introducing new methods, the proposed problem is converted to deterministic integer programming (IP problems where these methods will be obtained through the implementation of the possibility theory and fuzzy random chance-constrained programming (FRCCP. Finally, the proposed methods are applied for locating bicycle stations in the city of Tabriz in Iran as a real case study. The computational results of our study show that these methods can be implemented for the center problem with uncertain frameworks.

  2. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar's Dry Forest Reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie J Gardner

    Full Text Available There are insufficient resources available to manage the world's existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar's dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i species richness; ii an index based on species' Red List status; iii irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning; and, iv a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI, which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can

  3. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar's Dry Forest Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Charlie J; Raxworthy, Christopher J; Metcalfe, Kristian; Raselimanana, Achille P; Smith, Robert J; Davies, Zoe G

    2015-01-01

    There are insufficient resources available to manage the world's existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar's dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i) species richness; ii) an index based on species' Red List status; iii) irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning); and, iv) a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI), which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can require access to

  4. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study...Rinehart & Winston 39. Stake, R. E. (1994) Case Studies. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage

  5. The improved quasi-static method vs the direct method: a case study for CANDU reactor transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaveh, S.; Koclas, J.; Roy, R.

    1999-01-01

    Among the large number of methods for the transient analysis of nuclear reactors, the improved quasi-static procedure is one of the most widely used. In recent years, substantial increase in both computer speed and memory has motivated a rethinking of the limitations of this method. The overall goal of the present work is a systematic comparison between the improved quasi-static and the direct method (mesh-centered finite difference) for realistic CANDU transient simulations. The emphasis is on the accuracy of the solutions as opposed to the computational speed. Using the computer code NDF, a typical realistic transient of CANDU reactor has been analyzed. In this transient the response of the reactor regulating system to a substantial local perturbation (sudden extraction of the five adjuster rods) has been simulated. It is shown that when updating the detector responses is of major importance, it is better to use a well-optimized direct method rather than the improved quasi-static method. (author)

  6. Methods for studying medical device technology and practitioner cognition: the case of user-interface issues with infusion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Verhoeven, Fenne

    2013-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate how a variety of research methods is commonly employed to study technology and practitioner cognition. User-interface issues with infusion pumps were selected as a case because of its relevance to patient safety. Starting from a Cognitive Systems Engineering perspective, we developed an Impact Flow Diagram showing the relationship of computer technology, cognition, practitioner behavior, and system failure in the area of medical infusion devices. We subsequently conducted a systematic literature review on user-interface issues with infusion pumps, categorized the studies in terms of methods employed, and noted the usability problems found with particular methods. Next, we assigned usability problems and related methods to the levels in the Impact Flow Diagram. Most study methods used to find user interface issues with infusion pumps focused on observable behavior rather than on how artifacts shape cognition and collaboration. A concerted and theory-driven application of these methods when testing infusion pumps is lacking in the literature. Detailed analysis of one case study provided an illustration of how to apply the Impact Flow Diagram, as well as how the scope of analysis may be broadened to include organizational and regulatory factors. Research methods to uncover use problems with technology may be used in many ways, with many different foci. We advocate the adoption of an Impact Flow Diagram perspective rather than merely focusing on usability issues in isolation. Truly advancing patient safety requires the systematic adoption of a systems perspective viewing people and technology as an ensemble, also in the design of medical device technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Documenting Elementary Teachers' Sustainability of Instructional Practices: A Mixed Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Bridget A.

    School reform programs focus on making educational changes; however, research on interventions past the funded implementation phase to determine what was sustained is rarely done (Beery, Senter, Cheadle, Greenwald, Pearson, et al., 2005). This study adds to the research on sustainability by determining what instructional practices, if any, of the Teaching SMARTRTM professional development program that was implemented from 2005--2008 in elementary schools with teachers in grades third through eighth were continued, discontinued, or adapted five years post-implementation (in 2013). Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: What do teachers who participated in Teaching SMARTRTM and district administrators share about the sustainability of Teaching SMARTRTM practices in 2013? What teaching strategies do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use in their science classrooms five years postimplementation (2013)? What perceptions about the roles of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) have five years later (2013)? And, What classroom management techniques do the teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use five years post implementation (2013)? A mixed method approach was used to answer these questions. Quantitative teacher survey data from 23 teachers who participated in 2008 and 2013 were analyzed in SAS v. 9.3. Descriptive statistics were reported and paired t-tests were conducted to determine mean differences by survey factors identified from an exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring, and parallel analysis conducted with teacher survey baseline data (2005). Individual teacher change scores (2008 and 2013) for identified factors were computed using the Reliable Change Index statistic. Qualitative data consisted of interviews with two district administrators and three teachers who responded to the survey in both

  8. Metal Removal Process Optimisation using Taguchi Method - Simplex Algorithm (TM-SA) with Case Study Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ajibade, Oluwaseyi A.; Agunsoye, Johnson O.; Oke, Sunday A.

    2018-01-01

    In the metal removal process industry, the current practice to optimise cutting parameters adoptsa conventional method. It is based on trial and error, in which the machine operator uses experience,coupled with handbook guidelines to determine optimal parametric values of choice. This method is notaccurate, is time-consuming and costly. Therefore, there is a need for a method that is scientific, costeffectiveand precise. Keeping this in mind, a different direction for process optimisation is ...

  9. A Case Study on a Combination NDVI Forecasting Model Based on the Entropy Weight Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Ming, Bo; Huang, Qiang; Leng, Guoyong; Hou, Beibei

    2017-05-05

    It is critically meaningful to accurately predict NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), which helps guide regional ecological remediation and environmental managements. In this study, a combination forecasting model (CFM) was proposed to improve the performance of NDVI predictions in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) based on three individual forecasting models, i.e., the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) models. The entropy weight method was employed to determine the weight coefficient for each individual model depending on its predictive performance. Results showed that: (1) ANN exhibits the highest fitting capability among the four orecasting models in the calibration period, whilst its generalization ability becomes weak in the validation period; MLR has a poor performance in both calibration and validation periods; the predicted results of CFM in the calibration period have the highest stability; (2) CFM generally outperforms all individual models in the validation period, and can improve the reliability and stability of predicted results through combining the strengths while reducing the weaknesses of individual models; (3) the performances of all forecasting models are better in dense vegetation areas than in sparse vegetation areas.

  10. Monitoring progression of clinical reasoning skills during health sciences education using the case method - a qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Kristina; Ekelin, Maria; Edgren, Gudrun; Sandgren, Olof; Hovbrandt, Pia; Persson, Eva K

    2017-09-11

    Outcome- or competency-based education is well established in medical and health sciences education. Curricula are based on courses where students develop their competences and assessment is also usually course-based. Clinical reasoning is an important competence, and the aim of this study was to monitor and describe students' progression in professional clinical reasoning skills during health sciences education using observations of group discussions following the case method. In this qualitative study students from three different health education programmes were observed while discussing clinical cases in a modified Harvard case method session. A rubric with four dimensions - problem-solving process, disciplinary knowledge, character of discussion and communication - was used as an observational tool to identify clinical reasoning. A deductive content analysis was performed. The results revealed the students' transition over time from reasoning based strictly on theoretical knowledge to reasoning ability characterized by clinical considerations and experiences. Students who were approaching the end of their education immediately identified the most important problem and then focused on this in their discussion. Practice knowledge increased over time, which was seen as progression in the use of professional language, concepts, terms and the use of prior clinical experience. The character of the discussion evolved from theoretical considerations early in the education to clinical reasoning in later years. Communication within the groups was supportive and conducted with a professional tone. Our observations revealed progression in several aspects of students' clinical reasoning skills on a group level in their discussions of clinical cases. We suggest that the case method can be a useful tool in assessing quality in health sciences education.

  11. Energy Sustainability Evaluation Model Based on the Matter-Element Extension Method: A Case Study of Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy sustainability is of vital importance to regional sustainability, because energy sustainability is closely related to both regional economic growth and social stability. The existing energy sustainability evaluation methods lack a unified system to determine the relevant influencing factors, are relatively weak in quantitative analysis, and do not fully describe the ‘paradoxical’ characteristics of energy sustainability. To solve those problems and to reasonably and objectively evaluate energy sustainability, we propose an energy sustainability evaluation model based on the matter-element extension method. We first select energy sustainability evaluation indexes based on previous research and experience. Then, a variation coefficient method is used to determine the weights of these indexes. Finally, the study establishes the classical domain, joint domain, and the matter-element relationship to evaluate energy sustainability through matter-element extension. Data from Shandong Province is used as a case study to evaluate the region’s energy sustainability. The case study shows that the proposed energy sustainability evaluation model, based on the matter-element extension method, can effectively evaluate regional energy sustainability.

  12. An Introduction to the Material Point Method using a Case Study from Gas Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, L. T.; Kim, J.; Berzins, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Material Point Method (MPM) developed by Sulsky and colleagues is currently being used to solve many challenging problems involving large deformations and/or fragementations with considerable success as part of the Uintah code created by the CSAFE project. In order to understand the properties of this method an analysis of the considerable computational properties of MPM is undertaken in the context of model problems from gas dynamics. One aspect of the MPM method in the form used here is shown to have first order accuracy. Computational experiments using particle redistribution are described and show that smooth results with first order accuracy may be obtained.

  13. The prioritization and categorization method (PCM) process evaluation at Ericsson : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohlsson, Jens; Han, Shengnan; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate and evaluate the prioritization and categorization method (PCM), which facilitates the active participation of process stakeholders (managers, owners, customers) in process assessments. Stakeholders evaluate processes in terms of effectiveness,

  14. The comparative method of language acquisition research: a Mayan case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Clifton; Pfeiler, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    This article demonstrates how the Comparative Method can be applied to cross-linguistic research on language acquisition. The Comparative Method provides a systematic procedure for organizing and interpreting acquisition data from different languages. The Comparative Method controls for cross-linguistic differences at all levels of the grammar and is especially useful in drawing attention to variation in contexts of use across languages. This article uses the Comparative Method to analyze the acquisition of verb suffixes in two Mayan languages: K'iche' and Yucatec. Mayan status suffixes simultaneously mark distinctions in verb transitivity, verb class, mood, and clause position. Two-year-old children acquiring K'iche' and Yucatec Maya accurately produce the status suffixes on verbs, in marked distinction to the verbal prefixes for aspect and agreement. We find evidence that the contexts of use for the suffixes differentially promote the children's production of cognate status suffixes in K'iche' and Yucatec.

  15. A quantitative method to analyse an open answer questionnaire: A case study about the Boltzmann Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario; Di Paola, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative method to analyse an openended questionnaire. Student responses to a specially designed written questionnaire are quantitatively analysed by not hierarchical clustering called k-means method. Through this we can characterise behaviour students with respect their expertise to formulate explanations for phenomena or processes and/or use a given model in the different context. The physics topic is about the Boltzmann Factor, which allows the students to have a unifying view of different phenomena in different contexts.

  16. Water supply management using an extended group fuzzy decision-making method: a case study in north-eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatour, Yasser; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zarghami, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Maryam Ali

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a group fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method to be applied in rating problems associated with water resources management. Thus, here Chen's group fuzzy TOPSIS method extended by a difference technique to handle uncertainties of applying a group decision making. Then, the extended group fuzzy TOPSIS method combined with a consistency check. In the presented method, initially linguistic judgments are being surveyed via a consistency checking process, and afterward these judgments are being used in the extended Chen's fuzzy TOPSIS method. Here, each expert's opinion is turned to accurate mathematical numbers and, then, to apply uncertainties, the opinions of group are turned to fuzzy numbers using three mathematical operators. The proposed method is applied to select the optimal strategy for the rural water supply of Nohoor village in north-eastern Iran, as a case study and illustrated example. Sensitivity analyses test over results and comparing results with project reality showed that proposed method offered good results for water resources projects.

  17. Demographic methods to assess food insecurity: a North Korean case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Lee, M K; Hill, K; Hsu, E; Burnham, G

    2001-01-01

    In complex emergencies, especially those involving famine and/or widespread food insecurity, assessments of malnutrition are critical to understanding the population's health status and to assessing the effectiveness of relief interventions. Although the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has benefited from some of the largest, most sustained appeals in the history of the World Food Program (WFP), the government in Pyongyang has placed restrictions on international efforts to gather data on the health and nutritional status of the affected population. Lacking direct means to assess the nutritional status of the North Korean populace, what other methodologies could be employed to measure the public health impacts of chronic food shortage? The paper begins with a review of methods for assessing nutritional status, particularly in emergencies; a brief history of the North Korean food crisis (1995-2001), and a review of the available nutritional and health data on the DPRK. The main focus of the paper is on the results of a survey of 2,692 North Korean adult migrants in China. Recognizing certain biases and limitations, the study suggests that sample households have experienced an overall decline in food security, as evidenced by both the decline in government rations from an average of 120 grams per person per day to less than 60 grams per day, and by the increase in the percentage of households relying on foraging or bartering of assets as their principal source of food. It also is apparent that the period 1995-1998 has been marked by elevated household mortality, declining fertility, and steadily rising out-migration. Taken together, the signs point toward famine, whether that is defined as a discrete event--that is, as a regional failure in food production or distribution leading to elevated mortality from starvation and associated disease--or as a more complex social process whose sub-states include not only elevated mortality, but declining fertility

  18. A successful method for severe gestational thrombocytopenia: A rare case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan İncebıyık

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a normally progressing pregnancy, especially in thethird trimester thrombocyte numbers reduce by about10%. The reason for this reduction is thought to be thehemodilution and increased consumption in pregnancy.Generally, it is recognized by chance during routine bloodcount and it is the second most common hematologicanomaly during pregnancy. Once thrombocytopenia isdiagnosed in pregnancy, research must be done to determinewhether it is a life-threatening risk factor in terms ofthe mother-fetus-infant. The majority of thrombocytopeniaseen in pregnancy is gestational thrombocytopenia. Thispaper examines an active labor, normal birthing case witha thrombocyte count of 7916/mm3.Key words: Gestational thrombocytopenia, idiopathicthrombocytopenic purpura, normal birth

  19. New Hybrid Features Selection Method: A Case Study on Websites Phishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairan D. Rajab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the serious web threats that involves mimicking authenticated websites to deceive users in order to obtain their financial information. Phishing has caused financial damage to the different online stakeholders. It is massive in the magnitude of hundreds of millions; hence it is essential to minimize this risk. Classifying websites into “phishy” and legitimate types is a primary task in data mining that security experts and decision makers are hoping to improve particularly with respect to the detection rate and reliability of the results. One way to ensure the reliability of the results and to enhance performance is to identify a set of related features early on so the data dimensionality reduces and irrelevant features are discarded. To increase reliability of preprocessing, this article proposes a new feature selection method that combines the scores of multiple known methods to minimize discrepancies in feature selection results. The proposed method has been applied to the problem of website phishing classification to show its pros and cons in identifying relevant features. Results against a security dataset reveal that the proposed preprocessing method was able to derive new features datasets which when mined generate high competitive classifiers with reference to detection rate when compared to results obtained from other features selection methods.

  20. Impacts modeling using the SPH particulate method. Case study; Modelisation d'impacts par la methode particulaire SPH. Etude de cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debord, R

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study is the modeling of the impact of melted metal on the reactor vessel head in the case of a core-meltdown accident. Modeling using the classical finite-element method alone is not sufficient but requires a coupling with particulate methods in order to take into account the behaviour of the corium. After a general introduction about particulate methods, the Nabor and SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) methods are described. Then, the theoretical and numerical reliability of the SPH method is determined using simple cases. In particular, the number of neighbours significantly influences the preciseness of calculations. Also, the mesh of the structure must be adapted to the mesh of the fluid in order to reduce the edge effects. Finally, this study has shown that the values of artificial velocity coefficients used in the simulation of the BERDA test performed by the FZK Karlsruhe (Germany) are not correct. The domain of use of these coefficients was precised during a low speed impact. (J.S.)

  1. Impacts modeling using the SPH particulate method. Case study; Modelisation d'impacts par la methode particulaire SPH. Etude de cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debord, R

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study is the modeling of the impact of melted metal on the reactor vessel head in the case of a core-meltdown accident. Modeling using the classical finite-element method alone is not sufficient but requires a coupling with particulate methods in order to take into account the behaviour of the corium. After a general introduction about particulate methods, the Nabor and SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) methods are described. Then, the theoretical and numerical reliability of the SPH method is determined using simple cases. In particular, the number of neighbours significantly influences the preciseness of calculations. Also, the mesh of the structure must be adapted to the mesh of the fluid in order to reduce the edge effects. Finally, this study has shown that the values of artificial velocity coefficients used in the simulation of the BERDA test performed by the FZK Karlsruhe (Germany) are not correct. The domain of use of these coefficients was precised during a low speed impact. (J.S.)

  2. An assessment method and a case study of rural electrification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguerza, D.; Santander, P.R.; Bordon, H.C.; Gomez, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    From 1985 to 1987, a research team from the Institute of Energy Economics and the National University of Misiones, Argentina, in co-operation with Obera University Foundation, Argentina and the International Development Research Centre, Canada, developed a comprehensive method for analyzing electric power supply alternatives in depressed rural areas as an integral part of the development planning. The method compares the economics of centralized and decentralized power supply systems, including all conventional and non-conventional technology alternatives, and is based on the natural resources and development of the region. It also provides a method for the analytical processing of data on the energy requirements of rural populations and makes it possible to determine energy consumption by use and income level of a rural family resulting in a realistic estimation of the electric power supply needs. 3 tabs

  3. Measuring consistency in translation memories: a mixed-methods case study

    OpenAIRE

    Moorkens, Joss

    2012-01-01

    Introduced in the early 1990s, translation memory (TM) tools have since become widely used as an aid to human translation based on commonly‐held assumptions that they save time, reduce cost, and maximise consistency. The purpose of this research is twofold: it aims to develop a method for measuring consistency in TMs; and it aims to use this method to interrogate selected TMs from the localisation industry in order to find out whether the use of TM tools does, in fact, promote consistency in ...

  4. A case study on the design and development of minigames for research methods and statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Rosmalen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research methodology involves logical reasoning and critical thinking skills which are core competences in developing a more sophisticated understanding of the world. Acquiring expertise in research methods and statistics is not easy and poses a significant challenge for many students. The subject material is challenging because it is highly abstract and complex and requires the coordination of different but inter-related knowledge and skills that are all necessary to develop a coherent and usable skills base in this area. Additionally, while many students embrace research methods enthusiastically, others find the area dry, abstract and boring. In this paper we discuss the design and the first evaluation of a set of mini-games to practice research methods. Games are considered to be engaging and allow students to test out scenarios which provide concrete examples in a way that they typically only do once they are out in the field. The design of a game is a complex task. First, we describe how we used cognitive task analysis to identify the knowledge and competences required to develop a comprehensive and usable understanding of research methods. Next, we describe the games designed and how 4C-ID, an instructional design model, was used to underpin the games with a sound instructional design basis. Finally, the evaluation approach is discussed and how the findings of the first evaluation phase were used to improve the games.

  5. International manufacturing and logistics: application of a design method in five case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, G.C.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    International manufacturing and logistics has become an important topic for an increasing number of industrial firms. In this paper, a design method will be described which is aimed at supporting managers in decisions regarding the (re)design of international logistic structures. The heart of this

  6. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  7. Pioneering a Nursing Home Quality Improvement Learning Collaborative: A Case Study of Method and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Suzanne M; Olsan, Tobie; Liebel, Dianne; Cai, Xueya; Stewart, Reginald; Katz, Paul R; Karuza, Jurgis

    2016-02-01

    To describe the development of a nursing home (NH) quality improvement learning collaborative (QILC) that provides Lean Six Sigma (LSS) training and infrastructure support for quality assurance performance improvement change efforts. Case report. Twenty-seven NHs located in the Greater Rochester, NY area. The learning collaborative approach in which interprofessional teams from different NHs work together to improve common clinical and organizational processes by sharing experiences and evidence-based practices to achieve measurable changes in resident outcomes and system efficiencies. NH participation, curriculum design, LSS projects. Over 6 years, 27 NHs from urban and rural settings joined the QILC as organizational members and sponsored 47 interprofessional teams to learn LSS techniques and tools, and to implement quality improvement projects. NHs, in both urban and rural settings, can benefit from participation in QILCs and are able to learn and apply LSS tools in their team-based quality improvement efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. THE ROLE OF QUALITY METHODS IN IMPROVING EDUCATION PROCESS: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Pavlović

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for applying the Lean Six Sigma method on the educational process. After defining defects that have negative influence on the final quality evaluation of higher education and how these defects can be remedied, the Pareto analysis is done, and that is used for establishing a vital minority of the exams that are critical for examination of faculty. The next step is the Statistical Process Control (SPC analysis that is performed on the exams that are classified as vital minority in Pareto analysis. Ishikawa diagram shows a relation between considered consequence (small number of passed exams and all factors that influence this consequence. Based on the results of implementation of the Lean Six Sigma method in the educational process and implementation of all suggested improvements, the comparative overview of Pareto analysis is given for 2009/2010 and 2012/2013 academic year at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš.

  9. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Station blackout risk at Millstone Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    In Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, severe accidents sequences resulting from station blackout have been recognized to be significant contributors to risk of core damage and public consequences. To properly quantify the risk of station blackout it is necessary to consider all possible types of core damage scenarios. Having obtained an accurate representation of the types of core damage scenarios involved specific areas of vulnerability can be pinpointed for further improvement. In performing this analysis it was decided to use time dependent probabilistic safety assessment method to provide a more realistic treatment of time dependent failure and recovery. Overview of the analysis, calculation procedures and methods, interpretation of the results are discussed. Peer review process is described. 13 refs, 19 figs

  10. Designing Web-based GIS Application by CSF Method: A Case Study in Boven Digoel Papua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsoin, Hendrykus Saritangdan; JSantoso, Albertus Joko; Suyoto

    2018-02-01

    Since Boven Digoel Regency was established in 2003, to this day its infrastructures are very limited, the region is still not developed, Human Resources (SDM) and Information and Communication Technology are still manual. The development of Geographic Information System was expected to contribute to ICT development in Papua, particularly Boven Digoel Regency, in displaying data of existing local potentials, e.g. tourism, plantation and forestry. Critical Success Factor Method was the right method in considering factors determining the success of the implementation of a strategy, in good information management and in providing data of local potentials of geographic information system for people in Boven Digoel Regency and the people of Indonesia in general to introduce Boven Digoel Regency, Papua. Framework Laravel with PHP programming language was expected to support Geographic Information System well to determine the distribution of local potentials in Boven Digoel Regency‥

  11. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, S.

    2010-01-01

    Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaT Scan and Cluster Seer) and a non spatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana) regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the over story and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp.) but were negatively associated with the abundance of hay scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia). In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  12. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  13. Designing Web-based GIS Application by CSF Method: A Case Study in Boven Digoel Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritangdan Letsoin Hendrykus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Boven Digoel Regency was established in 2003, to this day its infrastructures are very limited, the region is still not developed, Human Resources (SDM and Information and Communication Technology are still manual. The development of Geographic Information System was expected to contribute to ICT development in Papua, particularly Boven Digoel Regency, in displaying data of existing local potentials, e.g. tourism, plantation and forestry. Critical Success Factor Method was the right method in considering factors determining the success of the implementation of a strategy, in good information management and in providing data of local potentials of geographic information system for people in Boven Digoel Regency and the people of Indonesia in general to introduce Boven Digoel Regency, Papua. Framework Laravel with PHP programming language was expected to support Geographic Information System well to determine the distribution of local potentials in Boven Digoel Regency‥

  14. A hybrid Kano-fuzzy AHP method for measuring customer satisfaction: A case study of transportation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hemati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An increase competition on today's economy has created motivation for many organizations to look for different alternatives on better serving the customers. There are always some budget limitations on any customer relationship method, which leads us to prioritize different alternatives. In this paper, we present an empirical method based on an integrated Kano and fuzzy analytical hierarchy procedure to rank suitable alternatives. The proposed model of this paper uses a questionnaire survey to gather customer's opinions and implements the method for a real-world case study of transportation planning. The questionnaire includes 37 questions distributed among 976 passengers for two trips in Iran. The results indicate that driver's physical and mental health, buss equipments with GPS functionality and familiarity of drivers with road and road's conditions play important role on choosing a transportation company.

  15. A method for risk analysis across governance systems: a Great Barrier Reef case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Allan; Vella, Karen; Potts, Ruth; Pressey, Robert L; Brodie, Jon; Yorkston, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Healthy governance systems are key to delivering sound environmental management outcomes from global to local scales. There are, however, surprisingly few risk assessment methods that can pinpoint those domains and sub-domains within governance systems that are most likely to influence good environmental outcomes at any particular scale, or those if absent or dysfunctional, most likely to prevent effective environmental management. This paper proposes a new risk assessment method for analysing governance systems. This method is then tested through its preliminary application to a significant real-world context: governance as it relates to the health of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The GBR exists at a supra-regional scale along most of the north eastern coast of Australia. Brodie et al (2012 Mar. Pollut. Bull. 65 81–100) have recently reviewed the state and trend of the health of the GBR, finding that overall trends remain of significant concern. At the same time, official international concern over the governance of the reef has recently been signalled globally by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). These environmental and political contexts make the GBR an ideal candidate for use in testing and reviewing the application of improved tools for governance risk assessment. (letter)

  16. A Case Study of Academic Writing Development Through Principled Versus Standard Clt Method at Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almodad Biduk Asmani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research project is to investigate how far the academic writing skills of Binus University students can be developed through two conflicting CLT methods: standard and principled. The research project is expected to result in computer-animated format which can be used as one of the main tools in teaching and learning grammar at Binus University. The research project uses the qualitative approach, and thus uses verbal data. The research project involves two subject groups (experimental and control. The experimental group will receive the treatment of grammar learning by using the Principled CLT approach, while the control group receives the standard CLT approach. Survey is then conducted to the two groups so as to find out their comments on the two teaching methods. From the results of the questionnaires, it is found that Principled CLT method is favored for its knowledge and accuracy factors, while the Standard CLT is preferred for its fun and independence factors.   

  17. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning ...

  18. Seeking perfection in healthcare. A case study in adopting Toyota Production System methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gary S; Patterson, Sarah H

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Mason Health System's vision to be the quality leader in healthcare means continually adopting new ways of thinking. One change has been shifting from believing defects are to be expected to believing zero defects in healthcare is not only possible, but also necessary. Generally, healthcare has advanced in technology and understanding of disease, but its business and management systems have changed little since the 1950s. Virginia Mason realized it needed a management method to help make real and measurable improvements in safety, quality, service and staff satisfaction.

  19. Comparison of floods non-stationarity detection methods: an Austrian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Non-stationarities in flood regimes have a huge impact in any mid and long term flood management strategy. In particular the estimation of design floods is very sensitive to any kind of flood non-stationarity, as they should be linked to a return period, concept that can be ill defined in a non-stationary context. Therefore it is crucial when analyzing existent flood time series to detect and, where possible, attribute flood non-stationarities to changing hydroclimatic and land-use processes. This works presents the preliminary results of applying different non-stationarity detection methods on annual peak discharges time series over more than 400 gauging stations in Austria. The kind of non-stationarities analyzed include trends (linear and non-linear), breakpoints, clustering beyond stochastic randomness, and detection of flood rich/flood poor periods. Austria presents a large variety of landscapes, elevations and climates that allow us to interpret the spatial patterns obtained with the non-stationarity detection methods in terms of the dominant flood generation mechanisms.

  20. Analyzing the subsurface structure using seismic refraction method: Case study STMKG campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, Bagus Adi; Ngadmanto, Drajat; Daryono

    2015-01-01

    A geophysic survey is performed to detect subsurface structure under STMKG Campus in Pondok Betung, South Tangerang, Indonesia, using seismic refraction method. The survey used PASI 16S24-U24. The waveform data is acquired from 3 different tracks on the research location with a close range from each track. On each track we expanded 24 geofons with spacing between receiver 2 meters and the total length of each track about 48 meters. The waveform data analysed using 2 different ways. First, used a seismic refractionapplication WINSISIM 12 and second, used a Hagiwara Method. From both analysis, we known the velocity of P-wave in the first and second layer and the thickness of the first layer. From the velocity and the thickness informations we made 2-D vertical subsurface profiles. In this research, we only detect 2 layers in each tracks. The P-wave velocity of first layer is about 200-500 m/s with the thickness of this layer about 3-6 m/s. The P-wave velocity of second layer is about 400-900 m/s. From the P-wave velocity data we interpreted that both layer consisted by similar materials such as top soil, soil, sand, unsaturated gravel, alluvium and clay. But, the P-wave velocity difference between those 2 layers assumed happening because the first layer is soil embankment layer, having younger age than the layer below

  1. Solvent Flux Method (SFM): A Case Study of Water Access to Candida antarctica Lipase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sven P; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2014-11-11

    The solvent flux method (SFM) was developed to comprehensively characterize the influx of solvent molecules from the solvent environment into the active site of a protein in the framework of molecular dynamics simulations. This was achieved by introducing a solvent concentration gradient as well as partially reorienting and rescaling the velocity vector of all solvent molecules contained within a spherical volume enclosing the protein, thus inducing an accelerated solvent influx toward the active site. In addition to the detection of solvent access pathway within the protein structure, it is hereby possible to identify potential amino acid positions relevant to solvent-related enzyme engineering with high statistical significance. The method is particularly aimed at improving the reverse hydrolysis reaction rates in nonaqueous media. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) binds to a triglyceride-water interface with its substrate entrance channel oriented toward the hydrophobic substrate interface. The lipase-triglyceride-water system served as a model system for SFM to evaluate the influx of water molecules to the active site. As a proof of principle for SFM, a previously known water access pathway in CALB was identified as the primary water channel. In addition, a secondary water channel and two pathways for water access which contribute to water leakage between the protein and the triglyceride-water interface were identified.

  2. ERRORS MEASUREMENT OF INTERPOLATION METHODS FOR GEOID MODELS: STUDY CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arana

    Full Text Available Abstract: The geoid is an equipotential surface regarded as the altimetric reference for geodetic surveys and it therefore, has several practical applications for engineers. In recent decades the geodetic community has concentrated efforts on the development of highly accurate geoid models through modern techniques. These models are supplied through regular grids which users need to make interpolations. Yet, little information can be obtained regarding the most appropriate interpolation method to extract information from the regular grid of geoidal models. The use of an interpolator that does not represent the geoid surface appropriately can impair the quality of geoid undulations and consequently the height transformation. This work aims to quantify the magnitude of error that comes from a regular mesh of geoid models. The analysis consisted of performing a comparison between the interpolation of the MAPGEO2015 program and three interpolation methods: bilinear, cubic spline and neural networks Radial Basis Function. As a result of the experiments, it was concluded that 2.5 cm of the 18 cm error of the MAPGEO2015 validation is caused by the use of interpolations in the 5'x5' grid.

  3. The use of the case study method in the teaching of management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Business and Administrative Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Case study for one-piece removal method of reactor vessel of nuclear ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagane, Satoru; Kitahara, Katsumi; Yoshikawa, Seiji; Miyasaka, Yasuhiko; Fukumura, Nobuo; Nisizawa, Ichiou

    2010-01-01

    A reactor installed at the center part of the nuclear ship 'Mutsu' has been stored safely and exhibited in a reactor room building since 1996. The reactor vessel and its internals are key components because of main radioactive wastes for the reasonable decommissioning plan in the future. This report describes the one-piece removal method as the one package of the reactor vessel with its internals intact with a shipping container or additional shields. The reactor vessel package (Max.100ton) will be classified acceptable for burial at the low level radioactive waste (LLW), which will be buried at a LLW pit facility under waste disposal regulations. And also, the package will be classified as an IP-2-equivalent package according to the requirement for Shipments and Packagings. (author)

  5. Measurement of productive efficiency with frontier methods. A case study for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Guillermo; Castellanos, Pablo; Seijas, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we measure the productive efficiency of a group of wind farms during the period 2001-2004 using the frontier methods Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Taking an extensive definition of the productive process of wind electricity as our starting point, we obtain results which allow us to identify, on the one hand, an essentially ex ante efficiency measure and, on the other hand, aspects of relevance for wind farm development companies (developers), technology suppliers and operators in terms of their economic impact. These results may also be of interest for regulators and other stakeholders in the sector. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of the simultaneous use of DEA and SFA methodologies. (author)

  6. Identification groundwater aquifer by using geoelectrical method: case study Pondok Pesantren Darussallam, Kradenan, Grobogan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowo, B.; Darsono; Putra, A. G.; Kurniawan, M. F. R.

    2018-03-01

    Geoelectrical is one of the geophysical methods that used to characteristic of rocks for early stage exploration. Geoelectrical using Wenner-Schlumberger configuration has been used to estimate the aquifer at Pondok Pesantren Darussallam. Based on the geological map of Grobogan, Kradenan is consist of Alluvium. There are three lines acquisition which length 500 meters and the space of electrode is 25 meters. The data processed using Res2Dinv and the 2D inversion show that the maximum depth is 78.2 meters. The result of this researh show that there is a aquifer at depth 30 - 50 meters. Based on the values of resistivity, 1 - 10 ohm,m identified as clay, then resistivity 10 - 100 ohm.m is sandstone indicated as aquifer, and resistivity 100 - 1338,9 ohm.m is limestone.

  7. Methods for Analysis of Urban Energy Systems: A New York City Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bianca

    This dissertation describes methods developed for analysis of the New York City energy system. The analysis specifically aims to consider the built environment and its' impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several contributions to the urban energy systems literature were made. First, estimates of annual energy intensities of the New York building stock were derived using a statistical analysis that leveraged energy consumption and tax assessor data collected by the Office of the Mayor. These estimates provided the basis for an assessment of the spatial distribution of building energy consumption. The energy consumption estimates were then leveraged to estimate the potential for combined heat and power (CHP) systems in New York City at both the building and microgrid scales. In aggregate, given the 2009 non-baseload GHG emissions factors for electricity production, these systems could reduce citywide GHG emissions by 10%. The operational characteristics of CHP systems were explored further considering different prime movers, climates, and GHG emissions factors. A combination of mixed integer linear programing and controlled random search algorithms were the methods used to determine the optimal capacity and operating strategies for the CHP systems under the various scenarios. Lastly a multi-regional unit commitment model of electricity and GHG emissions production for New York State was developed using data collected from several publicly available sources. The model was used to estimate average and marginal GHG emissions factors for New York State and New York City. The analysis found that marginal GHG emissions factors could reduce by 30% to 370 g CO2e/kWh in the next 10 years.

  8. Methods to estimate the transfer of contaminants into recycling products - A case study from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Julika; Allesch, Astrid; Müller, Wolfgang; Bockreis, Anke

    2017-11-01

    Recycling of waste materials is desirable to reduce the consumption of limited primary resources, but also includes the risk of recycling unwanted, hazardous substances. In Austria, the legal framework demands secondary products must not present a higher risk than comparable products derived from primary resources. However, the act provides no definition on how to assess this risk potential. This paper describes the development of different quantitative and qualitative methods to estimate the transfer of contaminants in recycling processes. The quantitative methods comprise the comparison of concentrations of harmful substances in recycling products to corresponding primary products and to existing limit values. The developed evaluation matrix, which considers further aspects, allows for the assessment of the qualitative risk potential. The results show that, depending on the assessed waste fraction, particular contaminants can be critical. Their concentrations were higher than in comparable primary materials and did not comply with existing limit values. On the other hand, the results show that a long-term, well-established quality control system can assure compliance with the limit values. The results of the qualitative assessment obtained with the evaluation matrix support the results of the quantitative assessment. Therefore, the evaluation matrix can be suitable to quickly screen waste streams used for recycling to estimate their potential environmental and health risks. To prevent the transfer of contaminants into product cycles, improved data of relevant substances in secondary resources are necessary. In addition, regulations for material recycling are required to assure adequate quality control measures, including limit values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the clinical process in a critical care information system using the Lean method: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof Maryati Mohd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous applications for Health Information Systems (HIS that support specific tasks in the clinical workflow. The Lean method has been used increasingly to optimize clinical workflows, by removing waste and shortening the delivery cycle time. There are a limited number of studies on Lean applications related to HIS. Therefore, we applied the Lean method to evaluate the clinical processes related to HIS, in order to evaluate its efficiency in removing waste and optimizing the process flow. This paper presents the evaluation findings of these clinical processes, with regards to a critical care information system (CCIS, known as IntelliVue Clinical Information Portfolio (ICIP, and recommends solutions to the problems that were identified during the study. Methods We conducted a case study under actual clinical settings, to investigate how the Lean method can be used to improve the clinical process. We used observations, interviews, and document analysis, to achieve our stated goal. We also applied two tools from the Lean methodology, namely the Value Stream Mapping and the A3 problem-solving tools. We used eVSM software to plot the Value Stream Map and A3 reports. Results We identified a number of problems related to inefficiency and waste in the clinical process, and proposed an improved process model. Conclusions The case study findings show that the Value Stream Mapping and the A3 reports can be used as tools to identify waste and integrate the process steps more efficiently. We also proposed a standardized and improved clinical process model and suggested an integrated information system that combines database and software applications to reduce waste and data redundancy.

  10. A watershed-based method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Liem T., E-mail: ltran1@utk.edu [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); O& #x27; Neill, Robert V. [OTIE and Associates, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Elizabeth R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-04-15

    The paper presents a method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region. The method is based on the concept of 'self-/peer-appraisal' of a watershed in term of vulnerability. The self-/peer-appraisal process is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. The analysis provided insights on the environmental conditions, in general, and the relative vulnerability pattern, in particular, of the Mid-Atlantic region. The suggested method offers a simple but effective and objective way to perform a regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Consequently the method can be used in various steps in environmental assessment and planning. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a method for regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on the self-/peer-appraisal concept in term of vulnerability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method provides insights on the regional relative vulnerability pattern.

  11. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method. Susqueda Dam case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-07-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  12. Landslides Monitoring on Salt Deposits Using Geophysical Methods, Case study - Slanic Prahova, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu, Avram; Rusu, Emil; Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Ulmeanu, Antonio; Scutelnicu, Ioan; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Electrometry is most frequently applied geophysical method to examine dynamical phenomena related to the massive salt presence due to resistivity contrasts between salt, salt breccia and geological covering formations. On the vertical resistivity sections obtained with VES devices these three compartments are clearly differentiates by high resistivity for the massive salt, very low for salt breccia and variable for geological covering formations. When the land surface is inclined, shallow formations are moving gravitationally on the salt back, producing a landslide. Landslide monitoring involves repeated periodically measurements of geoelectrical profiles into a grid covering the slippery surface, in the same conditions (climate, electrodes position, instrument and measurement parameters). The purpose of monitoring landslides in Slanic Prahova area, was to detect the changes in resistivity distribution profiles to superior part of subsoil measured in 2014 and 2015. Measurement grid include several representative cross sections in susceptibility to landslides point of view. The results are graphically represented by changing the distribution of topography and resistivity differences between the two sets of geophysical measurements.

  13. Merits and Demerits of Teaching Method Using Case Studies of Scientific Management

    OpenAIRE

    工藤, 市兵衛; 尾藤, 信

    1981-01-01

    The practical aspects of scientific management were neglected in management education although its theory and knowledge have been taught. Knowledge and practice are not mutually exclusive. It is important that both of them, which are well-balanced, should be taught in management class. Academic societies are tend to neglect the practical aspects while business societies slack off the theory. This study pursed a well-balanced course by introducing the practical aspects of scientific management...

  14. Exploration methods for granitic natural stones – geological and topographical aspects from case studies in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Selonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional and local geological constraints for location of natural stone deposits in glaciated terrains of southern and central Finland have been studied and applied to practical exploration for natural stone. A list of geological and topographical aspects to be considered in exploration, is presented. Important aspects refer to: 1. Regional geology of the target area. 2. Magmatism (type and structure of intrusion, relative time of pluton emplacement. 3. Metamorphism (grade, mineral composition, parent material. 4. Deformation (lineaments, shear zones, folding, fault zones, fracture zones, shape preferred mineral orientations, and 5. Topography (relative elevation, micro topography. The proposed aspects can be used as geological guidelines in exploration for granitic natural stones.

  15. Validation study by finite element method: the case of the Daniel Johnson Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lariviere, R.; Phat, T. M.; Poirier, C.; Thibeault, N.

    1997-01-01

    A structural study of the Daniel-Johnson multi-arch dam undertaken by Hydro-Quebec to determine the safest way of grouting the cracks at the base of some arches was described. A numerical model in the linear elastic domain was constructed. The model will be modified to incorporate other features such as the cracks at the base of arches, the cracks at the concrete-rock foundation contact area, and the restraining effect of downstream rock foundation. This paper highlights the quality assurance procedure related to model validation as recommended by the International Committee on Large Dams. 2 refs., 11 figs

  16. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The overall objective of treating human reliability in a probabilistic safety analysis is to ensure that the key human interactions of typical crews are accurately and systematically incorporated into the study in a traceable manner. An additional objective is to make the human reliability analysis (HRA) as realistic as possible, taking into account the emergency procedures, the man-machine interface, the focus of training process, and the knowledge and experience of the crews. Section 3 of the paper describes an overview of this analytical process which leads to three more detailed example problems described in Section 4. Section 5 discusses a peer review process. References are presented that are useful in performing HRAs. In addition appendices are provided for definitions, selected data and a generic list of performance shaping factors. 35 refs, figs and tabs

  17. A simple chemical free arsenic removal method for community water supply - A case study from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen Gupta, B.; Chatterjee, S.; Rott, U.; Kauffman, H.; Bandopadhyay, A.; DeGroot, W.; Nag, N.K.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Mukherjee, S.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a simple chemical free method that was successfully used by a team of European and Indian scientists ( (www.qub.ac.uk/tipot)) to remove arsenic (As) from groundwater in a village in West Bengal, India. Six such plants are now in operation and are being used to supply water to the local population ( (www.insituarsenic.org)). The study was conducted in Kasimpore, a village in North 24 Parganas District, approximately 25 km from Kolkata. In all cases, total As in treated water was less than the WHO guideline value of 10 μg L -1 . The plant produces no sludge and the operation cost is 1.0 US$ per day for producing 2000 L of potable water. - This work presents the chemical free arsenic removal method from groundwater and its successful implementation in West Bengal for community water supply.

  18. Supervised artificial neural network-based method for conversion of solar radiation data (case study: Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidi, Maamar; Hanini, Salah; Rezrazi, Ahmed; Yaiche, Mohamed Redha; El Hadj, Abdallah Abdallah; Chellali, Farouk

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model is used as an alternative approach to predict solar radiation on tilted surfaces (SRT) using a number of variables involved in physical process. These variables are namely the latitude of the site, mean temperature and relative humidity, Linke turbidity factor and Angstrom coefficient, extraterrestrial solar radiation, solar radiation data measured on horizontal surfaces (SRH), and solar zenith angle. Experimental solar radiation data from 13 stations spread all over Algeria around the year (2004) were used for training/validation and testing the artificial neural networks (ANNs), and one station was used to make the interpolation of the designed ANN. The ANN model was trained, validated, and tested using 60, 20, and 20 % of all data, respectively. The configuration 8-35-1 (8 inputs, 35 hidden, and 1 output neurons) presented an excellent agreement between the prediction and the experimental data during the test stage with determination coefficient of 0.99 and root meat squared error of 5.75 Wh/m2, considering a three-layer feedforward backpropagation neural network with Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm, a hyperbolic tangent sigmoid and linear transfer function at the hidden and the output layer, respectively. This novel model could be used by researchers or scientists to design high-efficiency solar devices that are usually tilted at an optimum angle to increase the solar incident on the surface.

  19. Studies on Romanian archaeological objects using nuclear methods: cases of Pietroasa hoard and Cucuteni ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cojocaru, V.; Bugoi, R.; Dumitriu, D.E.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Secleman, D.; Popovici, M.

    2003-01-01

    The study of trace-elements in archaeological metallic objects can provide important clues about the metal provenance and the involved manufacturing procedures, leading to important conclusions regarding the commercial, cultural and religious exchanges between the antique populations. Ancient metallic materials are usually inhomogeneous on a scale of 20 microns or less: they contain remains of imperfect smelting, segregated phases in alloys, inclusions. Due to their exceptional chemical stability, gold artifacts remain essentially unchanged during weathering and aging processes. Several fragments of ancient gold objects coming from an Eneolithic treasury and from Pietroasa 'Closca cu Puii de Aur' ('The Golden Brood Hen with Its Chickens') hoard, unearthed on Romanian territory and two Romanian native gold nuggets samples were analyzed using micro-PIXE technique at the Rossendorf TANDETRON microbeam facility. The purpose of the study was to clarify the metal provenance, establishing if the hypothesis of local gold holds. To reach this goal, trace elements (Cu, Te, Sn, Pb, Hg, As, Zr, Sb) and PGE (Platinum Group Elements) concentrations were determined. The presence of inclusions (micrometric size areas of composition different from the surroundings) was also checked. We found some Si, Ca, Fe ones on two Eneolithic samples, and a Ta-Cr one on a sample from Pietroasa hoard. The measurements led to conclusions regarding the alluvial origin of the gold for the Eneolithic samples and gave some indications for the possible gold ore sources of Pietroasa treasury - Urals mountains and north-eastern Turkey, confirming the heterogeneity of this treasury (the two analyzed pieces belonged to different stylistic and compositional groups). Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Powder Diffraction was used at MAXLAB synchrotron (Lund, Sweden) to distinguish different clays and mineral pigments of various neolithic pottery-producing centres on Romanian territory. As main results we can be

  20. Indicators for wild animal offtake: methods and case study for African mammals and birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Ingram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable exploitation of wild animals is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity and to millions of people depending on wild meat for food and income. The international conservation and development community has committed to implementing plans for sustainable use of natural resources and has requested development of monitoring systems of bushmeat offtake and trade. Although offtake monitoring systems and indicators for marine species are more developed, information on harvesting terrestrial species is limited. Building on approaches developed to monitor exploitation of fisheries and population trends, we have proposed two novel indicators for harvested terrestrial species: the mean body mass indicator (MBMI assessing whether hunters are relying increasingly on smaller species over time, as a measure of defaunation, by tracking body mass composition of harvested species within samples across various sites and dates; and the offtake pressure indicator (OPI as a measure of harvesting pressure on groups of wild animals within a region by combining multiple time series of the number of harvested individuals across species. We applied these two indicators to recently compiled data for West and Central African mammals and birds. Our exploratory analyses show that the MBMI of harvested mammals decreased but that of birds rose between 1966/1975 and 2010. For both mammals and birds the OPI increased substantially during the observed time period. Given our results, time-series data and information collated from multiple sources are useful to investigate trends in body mass of hunted species and offtake volumes. In the absence of comprehensive monitoring systems, we suggest that the two indicators developed in our study are adequate proxies of wildlife offtake, which together with additional data can inform conservation policies and actions at regional and global scales.

  1. Methods and uncertainty estimations of 3-D structural modelling in crystalline rocks: a case study

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    R. Schneeberger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exhumed basement rocks are often dissected by faults, the latter controlling physical parameters such as rock strength, porosity, or permeability. Knowledge on the three-dimensional (3-D geometry of the fault pattern and its continuation with depth is therefore of paramount importance for applied geology projects (e.g. tunnelling, nuclear waste disposal in crystalline bedrock. The central Aar massif (Central Switzerland serves as a study area where we investigate the 3-D geometry of the Alpine fault pattern by means of both surface (fieldwork and remote sensing and underground ground (mapping of the Grimsel Test Site information. The fault zone pattern consists of planar steep major faults (kilometre scale interconnected with secondary relay faults (hectometre scale. Starting with surface data, we present a workflow for structural 3-D modelling of the primary faults based on a comparison of three extrapolation approaches based on (a field data, (b Delaunay triangulation, and (c a best-fitting moment of inertia analysis. The quality of these surface-data-based 3-D models is then tested with respect to the fit of the predictions with the underground appearance of faults. All three extrapolation approaches result in a close fit (> 10 % when compared with underground rock laboratory mapping. Subsequently, we performed a statistical interpolation based on Bayesian inference in order to validate and further constrain the uncertainty of the extrapolation approaches. This comparison indicates that fieldwork at the surface is key for accurately constraining the geometry of the fault pattern and enabling a proper extrapolation of major faults towards depth. Considerable uncertainties, however, persist with respect to smaller-sized secondary structures because of their limited spatial extensions and unknown reoccurrence intervals.

  2. Methods and uncertainty estimations of 3-D structural modelling in crystalline rocks: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Raphael; de La Varga, Miguel; Egli, Daniel; Berger, Alfons; Kober, Florian; Wellmann, Florian; Herwegh, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Exhumed basement rocks are often dissected by faults, the latter controlling physical parameters such as rock strength, porosity, or permeability. Knowledge on the three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the fault pattern and its continuation with depth is therefore of paramount importance for applied geology projects (e.g. tunnelling, nuclear waste disposal) in crystalline bedrock. The central Aar massif (Central Switzerland) serves as a study area where we investigate the 3-D geometry of the Alpine fault pattern by means of both surface (fieldwork and remote sensing) and underground ground (mapping of the Grimsel Test Site) information. The fault zone pattern consists of planar steep major faults (kilometre scale) interconnected with secondary relay faults (hectometre scale). Starting with surface data, we present a workflow for structural 3-D modelling of the primary faults based on a comparison of three extrapolation approaches based on (a) field data, (b) Delaunay triangulation, and (c) a best-fitting moment of inertia analysis. The quality of these surface-data-based 3-D models is then tested with respect to the fit of the predictions with the underground appearance of faults. All three extrapolation approaches result in a close fit ( > 10 %) when compared with underground rock laboratory mapping. Subsequently, we performed a statistical interpolation based on Bayesian inference in order to validate and further constrain the uncertainty of the extrapolation approaches. This comparison indicates that fieldwork at the surface is key for accurately constraining the geometry of the fault pattern and enabling a proper extrapolation of major faults towards depth. Considerable uncertainties, however, persist with respect to smaller-sized secondary structures because of their limited spatial extensions and unknown reoccurrence intervals.

  3. Comparative Study of Regional Estimation Methods for Daily Maximum Temperature (A Case Study of the Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamar Fadavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As the statistical time series are in short period and the meteorological station are not distributed well in mountainous area determining of climatic criteria are complex. Therefore, in recent years interpolation methods for establishment of continuous climatic data have been considered. Continuous daily maximum temperature data are a key factor for climate-crop modeling which is fundamental for water resources management, drought, and optimal use from climatic potentials of different regions. The main objective of this study is to evaluate different interpolation methods for estimation of regional maximum temperature in the Isfahan province. Materials and Methods: Isfahan province has about 937,105 square kilometers, between 30 degree and 43 minutes to 34 degree and 27 minutes North latitude equator line and 49 degree and 36 minutes to 55 degree and 31 minutes east longitude Greenwich. It is located in the center of Iran and it's western part extend to eastern footage of the Zagros mountain range. It should be mentioned that elevation range of meteorological stations are between 845 to 2490 in the study area. This study was done using daily maximum temperature data of 1992 and 2007 years of synoptic and climatology stations of I.R. of Iran meteorological organization (IRIMO. In order to interpolate temperature data, two years including 1992 and 2007 with different number of meteorological stations have been selected the temperature data of thirty meteorological stations (17 synoptic and 13 climatologically stations for 1992 year and fifty four meteorological stations (31 synoptic and 23 climatologically stations for 2007 year were used from Isfahan province and neighboring provinces. In order to regionalize the point data of daily maximum temperature, the interpolation methods, including inverse distance weighted (IDW, Kriging, Co-Kriging, Kriging-Regression, multiple regression and Spline were used. Therefore, for this allocated

  4. Focused Ethnography as Research Method: A Case Study of Techno Music Producers in Home-Recording Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michael Kühn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translator's Introduction: Jan-Michael Kühn's essay introduces the reader to Hubert Knoblauch's focused ethnography [fokussierte Ethnographie] as an ethnographic fieldwork method. More than a decade after Knoblauch's first publications on this method, there are precious few guides to focused ethnography in the English language, save one (Knoblauch 2005. At any rate, there are certainly no introductions to this methodology that also use EDM scenes as a case study. Kühn's article was originally published in German in Soziologie Magazin, a student-run journal published from Martin Luther University in Halle (Saale but operated by an editorial network that spans Germany. As a result, Kühn orients his writing towards an audience of junior researchers, post-docs and graduate students, highlighting the ways in which focused ethnography suits the circumstances of early research careers, where one may have difficulty securing long-term research stays for fieldwork of broader scope. In particular, he notes that Knoblauch's methods require a very narrow scope for the project (i.e., a "field sector" rather than the whole field, a reliance on the researcher's previous knowledge of the field, and short bursts of intense ethnographic activity in order to create work that is tightly focused but still rigorous and generative of fresh knowledge and new concepts.KEYWORDS: qualitative methods; cultural production; music production; home-recording; technoculture

  5. A new experimental method to prevent paraffin - wax formation on the crude oil wells: A field case study in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhaddad Elnori E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wax formation and deposition is one of the most common problems in oil producing wells. This problem occurs as a result of the reduction of the produced fluid temperature below the wax appearance temperature (range between 46°C and 50°C and the pour point temperature (range between 42°C and 44°C. In this study, two new methods for preventing wax formation were implemented on three oil wells in Libya, where the surface temperature is, normally, 29°C. In the first method, the gas was injected at a pressure of 83.3 bar and a temperature of 65°C (greater than the pour point temperature during the gas-lift operation. In the second method, wax inhibitors (Trichloroethylene-xylene (TEX, Ethylene copolymers, and Comb polymers were injected down the casings together with the gas. Field observations confirmed that by applying these techniques, the production string was kept clean and no wax was formed. The obtained results show that the wax formation could be prevented by both methods.

  6. How is adult patient adherence recorded in orthodontists’ clinical notes? A mixed-method case-note study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shammary N

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nawaf Al Shammary,1 Koula Asimakopoulou,1 Fraser McDonald,2 Jonathon T Newton,1 Sasha Scambler1 1Division of Population and Patient Health, 2Craniofacial Development and Stem Cell Biology Department, King’s College London Dental Institute, London, UKBackground: Patient adherence in orthodontic treatment is extremely important as it is linked with better treatment outcomes. Despite its importance, however, there is no shared definition of the concept. This makes the recording of adherence-related behaviors in patient notes difficult. The current study explored how, and to what extent adherence is recorded in adult patients’ medical records by orthodontists working in a large National Health Service (NHS London hospital.Materials and methods: A mixed-methods approach was used. A total of 17 clinicians with a mean age of 31 years (SD =4.87 provided N=20 case notes spanning N=324 appointments with patients they judged to be non-adherent. The notes were inspected for evidence of recording of patient adherence using adherence indicators identified in the literature.Results: The term “adherence” did not feature in any notes. The quantitative analysis showed that the three most frequent adherence-related behaviors recorded in notes were “oral hygiene,” “appointment attendance” and “breakages of appliances.” Qualitative analysis not only confirmed these factors but also showed that 1 the clinical aspects of treatment, 2 clinician–patient interaction factors and 3 patient attitudes also featured. This part of the analysis also highlighted inconsistencies across case notes in terms of the amount of information being recorded.Conclusion: Adherence as a term does not feature in the clinical case notes of clinician-identified non-adherent adult patients, while predictors of adherence are recorded with varying degrees of consistency. Keywords: adherence, adults, orthodontic treatment

  7. Finite-difference method Stokes solver (FDMSS) for 3D pore geometries: Software development, validation and case studies

    KAUST Repository

    Gerke, Kirill M.

    2018-01-17

    Permeability is one of the fundamental properties of porous media and is required for large-scale Darcian fluid flow and mass transport models. Whilst permeability can be measured directly at a range of scales, there are increasing opportunities to evaluate permeability from pore-scale fluid flow simulations. We introduce the free software Finite-Difference Method Stokes Solver (FDMSS) that solves Stokes equation using a finite-difference method (FDM) directly on voxelized 3D pore geometries (i.e. without meshing). Based on explicit convergence studies, validation on sphere packings with analytically known permeabilities, and comparison against lattice-Boltzmann and other published FDM studies, we conclude that FDMSS provides a computationally efficient and accurate basis for single-phase pore-scale flow simulations. By implementing an efficient parallelization and code optimization scheme, permeability inferences can now be made from 3D images of up to 109 voxels using modern desktop computers. Case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of the FDMSS software for both natural and artificial porous media.

  8. Finite-difference method Stokes solver (FDMSS) for 3D pore geometries: Software development, validation and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Kirill M.; Vasilyev, Roman V.; Khirevich, Siarhei; Collins, Daniel; Karsanina, Marina V.; Sizonenko, Timofey O.; Korost, Dmitry V.; Lamontagne, Sébastien; Mallants, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    Permeability is one of the fundamental properties of porous media and is required for large-scale Darcian fluid flow and mass transport models. Whilst permeability can be measured directly at a range of scales, there are increasing opportunities to evaluate permeability from pore-scale fluid flow simulations. We introduce the free software Finite-Difference Method Stokes Solver (FDMSS) that solves Stokes equation using a finite-difference method (FDM) directly on voxelized 3D pore geometries (i.e. without meshing). Based on explicit convergence studies, validation on sphere packings with analytically known permeabilities, and comparison against lattice-Boltzmann and other published FDM studies, we conclude that FDMSS provides a computationally efficient and accurate basis for single-phase pore-scale flow simulations. By implementing an efficient parallelization and code optimization scheme, permeability inferences can now be made from 3D images of up to 109 voxels using modern desktop computers. Case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of the FDMSS software for both natural and artificial porous media.

  9. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  10. Case study method and problem-based learning: utilizing the pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Michelle A; Christopher, Kimberly A

    2011-08-19

    As the complexity of health care delivery continues to increase, educators are challenged to determine educational best practices to prepare BSN students for the ambiguous clinical practice setting. Integrative, active, and student-centered curricular methods are encouraged to foster student ability to use clinical judgment for problem solving and informed clinical decision making. The proposed pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education suggests gradually introducing students to complex and multi-contextual clinical scenarios through the utilization of case studies and problem-based learning activities, with the intention to transition nursing students into autonomous learners and well-prepared practitioners at the culmination of a nursing program. Exemplar curricular activities are suggested to potentiate student development of a transferable problem solving skill set and a flexible knowledge base to better prepare students for practice in future novel clinical experiences, which is a mutual goal for both educators and students.

  11. Improvement of the customer satisfaction through Quality Assurance Matrix and QC-Story methods: A case study from automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicoe, G. M.; Belu, N.; Rachieru, N.; Nicolae, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    Presently, in the automotive industry, the tendency is to adapt permanently to the changes and introduce the market tendency in the new products that leads of the customer satisfaction. Many quality techniques were adopted in this field to continuous improvement of product and process quality and advantages were also gained. The present paper has focused on possibilities that offers the use of Quality Assurance Matrix (QAM) and Quality Control Story (QC Story) to provide largest protection against nonconformities in the production process, throughout a case study in the automotive industry. There is a direct relationship from the QAM to a QC Story analysis. The failures identified using QAM are treated with QC Story methodology. Using this methods, will help to decrease the PPM values and will increase the quality performance and the customer satisfaction.

  12. Using evaluation methods to guide the development of a tobacco-use prevention curriculum for youth: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, P D; Gallagher, R E; Berry-Bobovski, L C

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental to the development of educational programs and curricula is the evaluation of processes and outcomes. Unfortunately, many otherwise well-designed programs do not incorporate stringent evaluation methods and are limited in measuring program development and effectiveness. Using an advertising lesson in a school-based tobacco-use prevention curriculum as a case study, the authors examine the role of evaluation in the development, implementation, and enhancement of the curricular lesson. A four-phase formative and summative evaluation design was developed to divide the program-evaluation continuum into a structured process that would aid in the management of the evaluation, as well as assess curricular components. Formative and summative evaluation can provide important guidance in the development, implementation, and enhancement of educational curricula. Evaluation strategies identified unexpected barriers and allowed the project team to make necessary "time-relevant" curricular adjustments during each stage of the process.

  13. An application of a hybrid MCDM method for the evaluation of entrepreneurial intensity among the SMEs: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamzadeh, Reza; Ismail, Kamariah; Bodaghi Khajeh Noubar, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study presents one of the first attempts to focus on critical success factors influencing the entrepreneurial intensity of Malaysian small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) as they attempt to expand internationally. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and prioritize the entrepreneurial intensity among the SMEs using multicriteria decision (MCDM) techniques. In this research FAHP is used for finding the weights of criteria and subcriteria. Then for the final ranking of the companies, VIKOR (in Serbian: VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) method was used. Also, as an additional tool, TOPSIS technique, is used to see the differences of two methods applied over the same data. 5 main criteria and 14 subcriteria were developed and implemented in the real-world cases. As the results showed, two ranking methods provided different ranking. Furthermore, the final findings of the research based on VIKOR and TOPSIS indicated that the firms A3 and A4 received the first rank, respectively. In addition, the firm A4 was known as the most entrepreneurial company. This research has been done in the manufacturing sector, but it could be also extended to the service sector for measurement.

  14. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  15. A mixed method to evaluate burden of malaria due to flooding and waterlogging in Mengcheng County, China: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guoyong; Gao, Lu; Li, Xuewen; Zhou, Maigeng; Liu, Qiyong; Ren, Hongyan; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a highly climate-sensitive vector-borne infectious disease that still represents a significant public health problem in Huaihe River Basin. However, little comprehensive information about the burden of malaria caused by flooding and waterlogging is available from this region. This study aims to quantitatively assess the impact of flooding and waterlogging on the burden of malaria in a county of Anhui Province, China. A mixed method evaluation was conducted. A case-crossover study was firstly performed to evaluate the relationship between daily number of cases of malaria and flooding and waterlogging from May to October 2007 in Mengcheng County, China. Stratified Cox models were used to examine the lagged time and hazard ratios (HRs) of the risk of flooding and waterlogging on malaria. Years lived with disability (YLDs) of malaria attributable to flooding and waterlogging were then estimated based on the WHO framework of calculating potential impact fraction in the Global Burden of Disease study. A total of 3683 malaria were notified during the study period. The strongest effect was shown with a 25-day lag for flooding and a 7-day lag for waterlogging. Multivariable analysis showed that an increased risk of malaria was significantly associated with flooding alone [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)  = 1.467, 95% CI = 1.257, 1.713], waterlogging alone (AHR = 1.879, 95% CI = 1.696, 2.121), and flooding and waterlogging together (AHR = 2.926, 95% CI = 2.576, 3.325). YLDs per 1000 of malaria attributable to flooding alone, waterlogging alone and flooding and waterlogging together were 0.009 per day, 0.019 per day and 0.022 per day, respectively. Flooding and waterlogging can lead to higher burden of malaria in the study area. Public health action should be taken to avoid and control a potential risk of malaria epidemics after these two weather disasters.

  16. A case study to optimum selection of deliquification method for gas condensate well design: South Pars gas field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khamehchi

    2016-06-01

    Today, the most effective liquid-removal devices are pumping, the combination of liquid-diverter with gas lift and velocity string. Considering mentioned complexities, the most efficient method of liquid removal is different from one well to the others. This paper discusses a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM strategy for ranking these methods based on ELECTRE and TOPSIS techniques in a gas condensate reservoir. The most efficient model in this case, regarding its high efficiency and level of reliability is continuous gas lift. These procedures can be extended to other cases easily by changing the comparison matrix and user defined weights.

  17. Evaluation of technical problems in 177 cases using 123I-IMP. Autoradiography method for quantitative rCBF study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Takenori; Shoji, Yasuaki; Sugawara, Shigeki; Iida, Hidehiro; Hatazawa, Jun.

    1997-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow can be quantified using SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-iodoamphetamine (IMP) according to the IMP-ARG method. This study was intended to review our 177 studies including the six technical procedures in this technique, such as the blood sampling volume, the blood sampling time, the radioactivity in blood samples, the PaCO 2 in blood, the scanning started time, and correlations between injection dose and radioactivity in the blood samples. The blood sample was obtained at 10 min in most of studies. The blood volume was 0.7-1.0 ml. The blood radioactivity concentration was 300-500 cps/g in our well-type scintillation counter system. The PaC0 2 was around 40 mmHg in most cases. Significant correlation was observed between the injection dose and the radioactivity counts in the blood (r=0.45), but this study did not suggest the use of the injection dose the cariblation of standardized input function. (author)

  18. An Empirical Fitting Method for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves: A Case Study of SN 2011fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V., E-mail: zwk@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We present a new empirical fitting method for the optical light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We find that a variant broken-power-law function provides a good fit, with the simple assumption that the optical emission is approximately the blackbody emission of the expanding fireball. This function is mathematically analytic and is derived directly from the photospheric velocity evolution. When deriving the function, we assume that both the blackbody temperature and photospheric velocity are constant, but the final function is able to accommodate these changes during the fitting procedure. Applying it to the case study of SN 2011fe gives a surprisingly good fit that can describe the light curves from the first-light time to a few weeks after peak brightness, as well as over a large range of fluxes (∼5 mag, and even ∼7 mag in the g band). Since SNe Ia share similar light-curve shapes, this fitting method has the potential to fit most other SNe Ia and characterize their properties in large statistical samples such as those already gathered and in the near future as new facilities become available.

  19. Biogas plants site selection integrating Multicriteria Decision Aid methods and GIS techniques: A case study in a Portuguese region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sandra; Alçada-Almeida, Luís; Dias, Luís C.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of determining the most suitable sites for locating biogas plants using dairy manure as feedstock, specifically in the Entre-Douro-e-Minho Region in Portugal. A Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support System is developed to tackle this complex multicriteria decision-making problem, involving constraints and many environmental, economic, safety, and social factors. The approach followed combines the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to manage and process spatial information with the flexibility of Multicriteria Decision Aid (MCDA) to assess factual information (e.g. soil type, slope, infrastructures) with more subjective information (e.g. expert opinion). The MCDA method used is ELECTRE TRI, an outranking-type method that yields a classification of the possible alternatives. The results of the performed analysis show that the use of ELECTRE TRI is suitable to address real-world problems of land suitability, leading towards a flexible and integrated assessment. - Highlights: • We present a spatial multi-criteria methodology to decide biogas plants siting. • Methodology combines ELECTRE TRI with GIS for spatial analysis. • Constraints and environmental, economic and social factors have been identified. • The methodology is illustrated with application to a case study in the EDM Region. • A suitability map was generated, identifying the most suitable biogas plant locations

  20. A Method of Evaluating Water Resource Assets and Liabilities: A Case Study of Jinan City, Shandong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concepts of water resource development and utilization have caused serious hydrological and environmental issues in some regions. In addition, policy issues in China have led to a severe water crisis. The quantitative accounting of water resources is a theoretical approach to solving these problems. In this paper, 13 indicators were selected from four classes, including resources, the environment, society, and efficiency, and a case study of Jinan, Shandong Province, was performed using a set pair analysis model to calculate the water resource assets from 2011–2015. In previous methods of water resource accounting, the water quality was not considered; therefore, the loss coefficient of water resource assets was proposed to improve the reliability of accounting. According to the relationships among the unit price of water, water quantity, and water quality, physical and quantitative accounting methods were used to create water balance sheets from 2011–2015. The calculation results showed that the physical change in water resource assets in Jinan City was −30 million m 3 , and water resource assets initially increased and then decreased. In 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015, water resource assets totalled 36.5 million USD, 45.9 million USD, 66.7 million USD, 35.5 million USD, and 37.5 million USD, respectively (at 6.4588, 6.3125, 6.1932, 6.2166, 6.2284 USRMB, respectively. This initial accounting provides quantitative and physical support for the improved management of water resources.

  1. Health Literacy Demands of Patient-Reported Evaluation Tools in Orthopedics: A Mixed-Methods Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Kristie; Prince, Latrina Y; Barnes, C Lowry

    In response to an assessment of organizational health literacy practices at a major academic health center, this case study evaluated the health literacy demands of patient-reported outcome measures commonly used in orthopedic surgery practices to identify areas for improvement. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze the readability and patient feedback of orthopedic patient-reported outcome materials. Qualitative results were derived from focus group notes, observations, recordings, and consensus documents. Results were combined to formulate recommendations for quality improvement. Readability results indicated that narrative portions of sample patient outcome tools were written within or below the recommended eighth-grade reading level (= 5.9). However, document literacy results were higher than the recommended reading level (= 9.8). Focus group results revealed that participants had consensus on 8 of 12 plain language best practices, including use of bullet lists and jargon or technical words in both instruments. Although the typical readability of both instruments was not exceedingly high, appropriate readability formula and assessment methods gave a more comprehensive assessment of true readability. In addition, participant feedback revealed the need to reduce jargon and improve formatting to lessen the health literacy demands on patients. As clinicians turn more toward patient-reported measures to assess health care quality, it is important to consider the health literacy demands that are inherent in the instruments they are given in our health systems.

  2. Addressing implementation challenges during guideline development - a case study of Swedish national guidelines for methods of preventing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Sundberg, Linda; Kardakis, Therese; Weinehall, Lars; Garvare, Rickard; Nyström, Monica E

    2015-01-22

    Many of the world's life threatening diseases (e.g. cancer, heart disease, stroke) could be prevented by eliminating life-style habits such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and excessive alcohol use. Incorporating evidence-based research on methods to change unhealthy lifestyle habits in clinical practice would be equally valuable. However gaps between guideline development and implementation are well documented, with implications for health care quality, safety and effectiveness. The development phase of guidelines has been shown to be important both for the quality in guideline content and for the success of implementation. There are, however, indications that guidelines related to general disease prevention methods encounter specific barriers compared to guidelines that are diagnosis-specific. In 2011 the Swedish National board for Health and Welfare launched guidelines with a preventive scope. The aim of this study was to investigate how implementation challenges were addressed during the development process of these disease preventive guidelines. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of the guideline development management group. Archival data detailing the guideline development process were also collected and used in the analysis. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis as the analytical framework. The study identified several strategies and approaches that were used to address implementation challenges during guideline development. Four themes emerged from the analysis: broad agreements and consensus about scope and purpose; a formalized and structured development procedure; systematic and active involvement of stakeholders; and openness and transparency in the specific guideline development procedure. Additional factors concerning the scope of prevention and the work environment of guideline developers were perceived to influence the possibilities to address implementation issues. This case study

  3. Resident Perspectives of an Interactive Case Review Following Independent Didactic Study as a Method of Teaching a Pediatric Imaging Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Aleksandr; Dheer, Sachin; Nazarian, Levon N; Long, Suzanne S

    The ABR has recently changed the format of the board examination, in which the oral examination was replaced by a computer based multiple-choice test. The purpose of this study was to determine resident's perceptions of a new conference resembling the new ABR format. Residents were requested to review a series of didactic pediatric imaging presentations prior to attending case conference. During conference, unknown cases reflecting the subject matter from the didactic presentations were presented along with multiple-choice questions. We then surveyed resident perspectives after each case conference. Between 14 and 18 residents were surveyed at the end of each subspecialty case review presentation. About 94% of resident respondents felt that the independent didactic study followed by an interactive case review session would better prepare them for the ABR certification exams, compared to didactic lectures alone. Furthermore, 95% of the respondents indicated that they preferred the independent didactic review followed by interactive case review versus didactic lecture alone. Most the respondents (85%) felt that combining independent didactic review with interactive unknown case sessions made the material more interesting and provided greater understanding of the material. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of answers across the subspecialty sessions (p > .05). Radiology residents favorably reviewed the combination of independent review of didactic material prior to interactive case review. Material presented in this fashion is felt to be more interesting and is thought to result in enhanced understanding of pediatric radiology material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Designing a Community Engagement Framework for a New Dengue Control Method: A Case Study from Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Darlene; Duong, Thi Thu Huong

    2014-01-01

    Background The Wolbachia strategy aims to manipulate mosquito populations to make them incapable of transmitting dengue viruses between people. To test its efficacy, this strategy requires field trials. Public consultation and engagement are recognized as critical to the future success of these programs, but questions remain regarding how to proceed. This paper reports on a case study where social research was used to design a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method, at a potential release site in central Vietnam. Methodology/Principal Findings The approach described here, draws on an anthropological methodology and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to design an engagement framework tailored to the concerns, expectations, and socio-political setting of a potential trial release site for Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The process, research activities, key findings and how these were responded to are described. Safety of the method to humans and the environment was the most common and significant concern, followed by efficacy and impact on local lives. Residents expected to be fully informed and engaged about the science, the project, its safety, the release and who would be responsible should something go wrong. They desired a level of engagement that included regular updates and authorization from government and at least one member of every household at the release site. Conclusions/Significance Results demonstrate that social research can provide important and reliable insights into public concerns and expectations at a potential release site, as well as guidance on how these might be addressed. Findings support the argument that using research to develop more targeted, engagement frameworks can lead to more sensitive, thorough, culturally comprehensible and therefore ethical consultation processes. This approach has now been used successfully to seek public input and eventually support for releases Wolbachia

  5. A resilience perspective to water risk management: case-study application of the adaptation tipping point method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersonius, Berry; Ashley, Richard; Jeuken, Ad; Nasruddin, Fauzy; Pathirana, Assela; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2010-05-01

    start the identification and analysis of adaptive strategies at the end of PSIR scheme: impact and examine whether, and for how long, current risk management strategies will continue to be effective under different future conditions. The most noteworthy application of this approach is the adaptation tipping point method. Adaptation tipping points (ATP) are defined as the points where the magnitude of change is such that the current risk management strategy can no longer meet its objectives. In the ATP method, policy objectives, determining aspirational functioning, are taken as the starting point. Also, the current measures to achieve these objectives are described. This is followed by a sensitivity analysis to determine the optimal and critical boundary conditions (state). Lastly, the state is related to pressures in terms of future change. It should be noted that in the ATP method the driver for adopting a new risk management strategy is not future change as such, but rather failing to meet the policy objectives. In the current paper, the ATP method is applied to the case study of an existing stormwater system in Dordrecht (the Netherlands). This application shows the potential of the ATP method to reduce the complexity of implementing a resilience-focused approach to water risk management. It is expected that this will help foster greater practical relevance of resilience as a perspective for the planning of water management structures.

  6. Optimization of a Coastal Environmental Monitoring Network Based on the Kriging Method: A Case Study of Quanzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring is fundamental in assessing environmental quality and to fulfill protection and management measures with permit conditions. However, coastal environmental monitoring work faces many problems and challenges, including the fact that monitoring information cannot be linked up with evaluation, monitoring data cannot well reflect the current coastal environmental condition, and monitoring activities are limited by cost constraints. For these reasons, protection and management measures cannot be developed and implemented well by policy makers who intend to solve this issue. In this paper, Quanzhou Bay in southeastern China was selected as a case study; and the Kriging method and a geographic information system were employed to evaluate and optimize the existing monitoring network in a semienclosed bay. This study used coastal environmental monitoring data from 15 sites (including COD, DIN, and PO4-P to adequately analyze the water quality from 2009 to 2012 by applying the Trophic State Index. The monitoring network in Quanzhou Bay was evaluated and optimized, with the number of sites increased from 15 to 24, and the monitoring precision improved by 32.9%. The results demonstrated that the proposed advanced monitoring network optimization was appropriate for environmental monitoring in Quanzhou Bay. It might provide technical support for coastal management and pollutant reduction in similar areas.

  7. Implementing service improvement projects within pre-registration nursing education: a multi-method case study evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Lesley; Bromley, Barbara; Walker, Moira; Jones, Rebecca; Mhlanga, Fortune

    2014-01-01

    Preparing healthcare students for quality and service improvement is important internationally. A United Kingdom (UK) initiative aims to embed service improvement in pre-registration education. A UK university implemented service improvement teaching for all nursing students. In addition, the degree pathway students conducted service improvement projects as the basis for their dissertations. The study aimed to evaluate the implementation of service improvement projects within a pre-registration nursing curriculum. A multi-method case study was conducted, using student questionnaires, focus groups with students and academic staff, and observation of action learning sets. Questionnaire data were analysed using SPSS v19. Qualitative data were analysed using Ritchie and Spencer's (1994) Framework Approach. Students were very positive about service improvement. The degree students, who conducted service improvement projects in practice, felt more knowledgeable than advanced diploma students. Selecting the project focus was a key issue and students encountered some challenges in practice. Support for student service improvement projects came from action learning sets, placement staff, and academic staff. Service improvement projects had a positive effect on students' learning. An effective partnership between the university and partner healthcare organisations, and support for students in practice, is essential. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of a Coastal Environmental Monitoring Network Based on the Kriging Method: A Case Study of Quanzhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Ni, Minjie; Wang, Jun; Huang, Dongren; Chen, Huorong; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Mengyang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is fundamental in assessing environmental quality and to fulfill protection and management measures with permit conditions. However, coastal environmental monitoring work faces many problems and challenges, including the fact that monitoring information cannot be linked up with evaluation, monitoring data cannot well reflect the current coastal environmental condition, and monitoring activities are limited by cost constraints. For these reasons, protection and management measures cannot be developed and implemented well by policy makers who intend to solve this issue. In this paper, Quanzhou Bay in southeastern China was selected as a case study; and the Kriging method and a geographic information system were employed to evaluate and optimize the existing monitoring network in a semienclosed bay. This study used coastal environmental monitoring data from 15 sites (including COD, DIN, and PO4-P) to adequately analyze the water quality from 2009 to 2012 by applying the Trophic State Index. The monitoring network in Quanzhou Bay was evaluated and optimized, with the number of sites increased from 15 to 24, and the monitoring precision improved by 32.9%. The results demonstrated that the proposed advanced monitoring network optimization was appropriate for environmental monitoring in Quanzhou Bay. It might provide technical support for coastal management and pollutant reduction in similar areas. PMID:27777951

  9. Case studies within a mixed methods paradigm: toward a resolution of the alienation between researcher and practitioner in psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M; Edwards, David J A; Fishman, Daniel B

    2010-12-01

    This article addresses the long-standing divide between researchers and practitioners in the field of psychotherapy, regarding what really works in treatment and the extent to which interventions should be governed by outcomes generated in a "laboratory atmosphere." This alienation has its roots in a positivist paradigm, which is epistemologically incomplete because it fails to provide for context-based practical knowledge. In other fields of evaluation research, it has been superseded by a mixed methods paradigm, which embraces pragmatism and multiplicity. On the basis of this paradigm, we propose and illustrate new scientific standards for research on the evaluation of psychotherapeutic treatments. These include the requirement that projects should comprise several parallel studies that involve randomized controlled trials, qualitative examinations of the implementation of treatment programs, and systematic case studies. The uniqueness of this article is that it contributes a guideline for involving a set of complementary publications, including a review that offers an overall synthesis of the findings from different methodological approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The order and priority of research and design method application within an assistive technology new product development process: a summative content analysis of 20 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, George Edward

    2018-01-01

    Summative content analysis was used to define methods and heuristics from each case study. The review process was in two parts: (1) A literature review to identify conventional research methods and (2) a summative content analysis of published case studies, based on the identified methods and heuristics to suggest an order and priority of where and when were used. Over 200 research and design methods and design heuristics were identified. From the review of the 20 case studies 42 were identified as being applied. The majority of methods and heuristics were applied in phase two, market choice. There appeared a disparity between the limited numbers of methods frequently used, under 10 within the 20 case studies, when hundreds were available. Implications for Rehabilitation The communication highlights a number of issues that have implication for those involved in assistive technology new product development: •The study defined over 200 well-established research and design methods and design heuristics that are available for use by those who specify and design assistive technology products, which provide a comprehensive reference list for practitioners in the field; •The review within the study suggests only a limited number of research and design methods are regularly used by industrial design focused assistive technology new product developers; and, •Debate is required within the practitioners working in this field to reflect on how a wider range of potentially more effective methods and heuristics may be incorporated into daily working practice.

  11. The impact of secure messaging on workflow in primary care: Results of a multiple-case, multiple-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Peter L T; Carayon, Pascale; Cartmill, Randi S

    2017-04-01

    Secure messaging is a relatively new addition to health information technology (IT). Several studies have examined the impact of secure messaging on (clinical) outcomes but very few studies have examined the impact on workflow in primary care clinics. In this study we examined the impact of secure messaging on workflow of clinicians, staff and patients. We used a multiple case study design with multiple data collections methods (observation, interviews and survey). Results show that secure messaging has the potential to improve communication and information flow and the organization of work in primary care clinics, partly due to the possibility of asynchronous communication. However, secure messaging can also have a negative effect on communication and increase workload, especially if patients send messages that are not appropriate for the secure messaging medium (for example, messages that are too long, complex, ambiguous, or inappropriate). Results show that clinicians are ambivalent about secure messaging. Secure messaging can add to their workload, especially if there is high message volume, and currently they are not compensated for these activities. Staff is -especially compared to clinicians- relatively positive about secure messaging and patients are overall very satisfied with secure messaging. Finally, clinicians, staff and patients think that secure messaging can have a positive effect on quality of care and patient safety. Secure messaging is a tool that has the potential to improve communication and information flow. However, the potential of secure messaging to improve workflow is dependent on the way it is implemented and used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. OBSESSIONS: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obsessions are one of the most refractory psychiatric disorders. The therapeutic guidelines include a psychopharmacotherapy and the use of behavioural and supportive psychotherapy.Methods. This case report study presents a patient with a homicide obsessions at the forefront and narcissistic personality disorder in background. The use of analytical oriented psychotherapy, which helped to resolve axis-1 symptoms, is described.Conclusions. In the therapy of patients it is important to have the knowledge about the national therapeutic guidelines and critical distance toward them as well. Which therapy to use should be decided by the individual patient’s needs.

  13. Training the next generation of global health advocates through experiential education: A mixed-methods case study evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Silverberg, Sarah L

    2015-10-15

    This case study evaluates a global health education experience aimed at training the next generation of global health advocates. Demand and interest in global health among Canadian students is well documented, despite the difficulty in integrating meaningful experiences into curricula. Global health advocacy was taught to 19 undergraduate students at McMaster University through an experiential education course, during which they developed a national advocacy campaign on global access to medicines. A quantitative survey and an analysis of social network dynamics were conducted, along with a qualitative analysis of written work and course evaluations. Data were interpreted through a thematic synthesis approach. Themes were identified related to students' learning outcomes, experience and class dynamics. The experiential education format helped students gain authentic, real-world experience in global health advocacy and leadership. The tangible implications for their course work was a key motivating factor. While experiential education is an effective tool for some learning outcomes, it is not suitable for all. As well, group dynamics and evaluation methods affect the learning environment. Real-world global health issues, public health practice and advocacy approaches can be effectively taught through experiential education, alongside skills like communication and professionalism. Students developed a nuanced understanding of many strategies, challenges and barriers that exist in advocating for public health ideas. These experiences are potentially empowering and confidence-building despite the heavy time commitment they require. Attention should be given to how such experiences are designed, as course dynamics and grading structure significantly influence students' experience.

  14. Symphony: A case study for exploring and describing design methods and guidelines for learner-centered design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Christopher

    Learner-centered design is an evolving software design perspective addressing the needs of learners---a specific audience trying to work in and understand new work practices in which they have a novice or naive understanding. Learner-centered design involves designing software that incorporates work support features (or scaffolding features) informed by social constructivist learning theories. By adopting a constructivist "learning by doing" perspective, scaffolds should support learners so they can mindfully engage in previously inaccessible work activity, which in turn allows those learners to progressively gain a better understanding of the new work. While there is an intuitive notion of "learner-centered design", there is less specific design information for developing learner-centered software. As a result, learner-centered software results from "educated guesses" and ad-hoc design approaches rather than from systematic design methods. Thus there is a need for specific design guidance to facilitate the development of learner-centered tools that help learners see the tasks, terminology, tools, etc. in the new work context and engage in that work. The research in this dissertation provides a more specific base of learner-centered design descriptions, methods, and guidelines to analyze work practices and design and evaluate scaffolds. The research approach involves using the development of Symphony---a scaffolded integrated tool environment for high-school students learning the work of computational science inquiry---as a case study to develop the learner-centered design approach. Symphony incorporates a variety of science tools with process scaffolding to support students in performing complex air pollution investigations. Six ninth-grade students used Symphony to investigate air quality questions for several weeks in an environmental science class. The student testing helped assess the effectiveness of the software scaffolding and in turn, the learner

  15. Variable Step Integration Coupled with the Method of Characteristics Solution for Water-Hammer Analysis, A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Jason B.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional water-hammer modeling involves the solution of two coupled non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). These equations result from applying the principles of conservation of mass and momentum to flow through a pipe, and usually the assumption that the speed at which pressure waves propagate through the pipe is constant. In order to solve these equations for the interested quantities (i.e. pressures and flow rates), they must first be converted to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by either approximating the spatial derivative terms with numerical techniques or using the Method of Characteristics (MOC). The MOC approach is ideal in that no numerical approximation errors are introduced in converting the original system of PDEs into an equivalent system of ODEs. Unfortunately this resulting system of ODEs is bound by a time step constraint so that when integrating the equations the solution can only be obtained at fixed time intervals. If the fluid system to be modeled also contains dynamic components (i.e. components that are best modeled by a system of ODEs), it may be necessary to take extremely small time steps during certain points of the model simulation in order to achieve stability and/or accuracy in the solution. Coupled together, the fixed time step constraint invoked by the MOC, and the occasional need for extremely small time steps in order to obtain stability and/or accuracy, can greatly increase simulation run times. As one solution to this problem, a method for combining variable step integration (VSI) algorithms with the MOC was developed for modeling water-hammer in systems with highly dynamic components. A case study is presented in which reverse flow through a dual-flapper check valve introduces a water-hammer event. The predicted pressure responses upstream of the check-valve are compared with test data.

  16. Supporting successful inclusive practices for learners with disabilities in high schools: a multisite, mixed method collective case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciver, Donald; Hunter, Cathleen; Adamson, Amanda; Grayson, Zoe; Forsyth, Kirsty; McLeod, Iona

    2018-07-01

    The increase in the number of individuals with disabilities in general education has led to an increased interest in how to best provide support. Despite an emphasis on inclusion and participation in policy and practice, defining and describing the support provided for these learners is still an important task. This multisite, mixed method collective case study reports on 125 education and other staff from seven schools who took part in interviews and focus groups to reflect on a range of topics related to learners with disabilities in high schools. We focused on what the participants did, what they considered to be successful and what their "best" practices were. Descriptions of practices were rich, nuanced and complex. The analysis identified over 200 "strategies" which were synthesized into two meta-themes and eight subthemes. We discuss the results in the context of an ecological perspective, and the importance of focusing on the full range of influences and outcomes for young people in designing supports. We have drawn on evidence from this study as a basis for professional development activities and identified that focusing on the environment and the role of practitioners has a potential to improve the inclusion outcomes for older learners with disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Inclusion is influenced by the physical environment, attitudes, expectations and opportunities, in addition to a learner's skills and abilities. Schools should focus on the environment and teachers' practices, rather than on what an individual learner can or cannot do. The practices discussed in this study reflect those that a range of educators and related services personnel agree are realistic, appropriate and effective. Change may be led by the school management team; however, there are many ways in which all staff can contribute; indeed, approaches will not work effectively unless they are understood and implemented by everyone.

  17. 451 Case studies Cardiac

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    Case Studies. 29 ... A case of a 26-year-old ASA I physical status male undergoing septoplasty had an abrupt ... myocardial infarction, severe hypertensive crisis, cerebral .... or no formal management is required in an ASA I patient.8 One.

  18. Methods and strategy for modeling daily global solar radiation with measured meteorological data - A case study in Nanchang station, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Tiejun

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical and biological processes on the earth's surface, and complete and accurate solar radiation data at a specific region are quite indispensable to the solar energy related researches. This study, with Nanchang station, China, as a case study, aimed to calibrate existing models and develop new models for estimating missing global solar radiation data using commonly measured meteorological data and to propose a strategy for selecting the optimal models under different situations of available meteorological data. Using daily global radiation, sunshine hours, temperature, total precipitation and dew point data covering the years from 1994 to 2005, we calibrated or developed and evaluated seven existing models and two new models. Validation criteria included intercept, slope, coefficient of determination, mean bias error and root mean square error. The best result (R 2 = 0.93) was derived from Chen model 2, which uses sunshine hours and temperature as predictors. The Bahel model, which only uses sunshine hours, was almost as good, explaining 92% of the solar radiation variance. Temperature based models (Bristow and Campbell, Allen, Hargreaves and Chen 1 models) provided less accurate results, of which the best one (R 2 = 0.69) is the Bristow and Campbell model. The temperature based models were improved by adding other variables (daily mean total precipitation and mean dew point). Two such models could explain 77% (Wu model 1) and 80% (Wu model 2) of the solar radiation variance. We, thus, propose a strategy for selecting an optimal method for calculating missing daily values of global solar radiation: (1) when sunshine hour and temperature data are available, use Chen model 2; (2) when only sunshine hour data are available, use Bahel model; (3) when temperature, total precipitation and dew point data are available but not sunshine hours, use Wu model 2; (4) when only temperature and total precipitation are

  19. Socio-psycho-historical observation on the twin. Sampling methods and case study of the atomic bomb exposed twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S; Satow, Y; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, M; Kurihara, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-07-01

    The so-called ''twin control study'', mainly on the monozygotic twins one of which was A-bomb exposed and the other was non-exposed were carried out. Sampling was conducted utilizing the materials as follows: 1) The survey on casualities of A-bomb exposed families in Hiroshima which was undertaken in 1946. 2) The survey of A-bomb survivors in 1965. 3) A-bomb exposed family survey conducted between 1973 to 1975. 4) Investigations of A-bomb victims exposed in the proximal areas from the hypocenter. From the above mentioned materials 470 pairs were selected, of which 220 were exposed. Among them 172 pairs were twins of the same sex. Female and male pair were also employed. In one case they were exposed, while the others were nonexposed. Two pairs were examined under the following methods: 1) Depth interview to ascertain familial casualities with reference to the family life cycle. 2) Socio-historical research. 3) Motoaki's Jinkaku Shindan Kensa (Modified Rorschach test by H. Motoaki), and T.A.T. test. Results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) Both pairs of twins were of similar appearance and personality traits, and had a strong feeling of companionship for each other. 2) In family relationships, the persons studied were very conscious of the role expectations of elder and younger siblings in the twin pairs. 3) Through depth interviews and projective tests, A-bomb exposed pairs still showed deep psychological stresses, resulting from the A-bomb disaster. 4) Both among the exposed twins and within the nonexposed control group twin siblings had a close feeling of companionship for each other. However, nonexposed twins could not understand the psychological experience of twins who had been subjected to the atomic disaster.

  20. Case-Based Web Learning Versus Face-to-Face Learning: A Mixed-Method Study on University Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Aileen Wai-Kiu; Chair, Sek-Ying; Sit, Janet Wing-Hung; Wong, Eliza Mi-Ling; Lee, Diana Tze-Fun; Fung, Olivia Wai-Man

    2016-03-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) is an effective educational method for improving the learning and clinical reasoning skills of students. Advances in e-learning technology have supported the development of the Web-based CBL approach to teaching as an alternative or supplement to the traditional classroom approach. This study aims to examine the CBL experience of Hong Kong students using both traditional classroom and Web-based approaches in undergraduate nursing education. This experience is examined in terms of the perceived self-learning ability, clinical reasoning ability, and satisfaction in learning of these students. A mixture of quantitative and qualitative approaches was adopted. All Year-3 undergraduate nursing students were recruited. CBL was conducted using the traditional classroom approach in Semester 1, and the Web-based approach was conducted in Semester 2. Student evaluations were collected at the end of each semester using a self-report questionnaire. In-depth, focus-group interviews were conducted at the end of Semester 2. One hundred twenty-two students returned their questionnaires. No difference between the face-to-face and Web-based approaches was found in terms of self-learning ability (p = .947), clinical reasoning ability (p = .721), and satisfaction (p = .083). Focus group interview findings complemented survey findings and revealed five themes that reflected the CBL learning experience of Hong Kong students. These themes were (a) the structure of CBL, (b) the learning environment of Web-based CBL, (c) critical thinking and problem solving, (d) cultural influence on CBL learning experience, and (e) student-centered and teacher-centered learning. The Web-based CBL approach was comparable but not superior to the traditional classroom CBL approach. The Web-based CBL experience of these students sheds light on the impact of Chinese culture on student learning behavior and preferences.

  1. Understanding Smart Home Sensor Data for Ageing in Place Through Everyday Household Routines: A Mixed Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kasteren, Yasmin; Bradford, Dana; Zhang, Qing; Karunanithi, Mohan; Ding, Hang

    2017-06-13

    An ongoing challenge for smart homes research for aging-in-place is how to make sense of the large amounts of data from in-home sensors to facilitate real-time monitoring and develop reliable alerts. The objective of our study was to explore the usefulness of a routine-based approach for making sense of smart home data for the elderly. Maximum variation sampling was used to select three cases for an in-depth mixed methods exploration of the daily routines of three elderly participants in a smart home trial using 180 days of power use and motion sensor data and longitudinal interview data. Sensor data accurately matched self-reported routines. By comparing daily movement data with personal routines, it was possible to identify changes in routine that signaled illness, recovery from bereavement, and gradual deterioration of sleep quality and daily movement. Interview and sensor data also identified changes in routine with variations in temperature and daylight hours. The findings demonstrated that a routine-based approach makes interpreting sensor data easy, intuitive, and transparent. They highlighted the importance of understanding and accounting for individual differences in preferences for routinization and the influence of the cyclical nature of daily routines, social or cultural rhythms, and seasonal changes in temperature and daylight hours when interpreting information based on sensor data. This research has demonstrated the usefulness of a routine-based approach for making sense of smart home data, which has furthered the understanding of the challenges that need to be addressed in order to make real-time monitoring and effective alerts a reality. ©Yasmin van Kasteren, Dana Bradford, Qing Zhang, Mohan Karunanithi, Hang Ding. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 13.06.2017.

  2. [Estimation of Topsoil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Cropland Through Different Methods: A Case Study in Zhuanglang County, Gansu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen-di; Xu, Ming-xiang; Qiu, Yu-jie

    2016-03-15

    By analyzing the sampled data and the SOC data of the second national soil survey by the mid 80s and the national cultivated land quality evaluation in 2006 in Zhuanglang County, the article studied the cropland topsoil organic carbon sequestration potential estimation using several different methods. The results showed that: (1) There was no significant difference among different estimation methods about cropland carbon sequestration potential in the same region. Taking cropland carbon sequestration potential in Zhuanglang County for example, the theoretical values estimated by maximum value method and classification grading method were 1. 13 Mt and 1.09 Mt, respectively. (2) The real values estimated by classification grading method, saturation method, weighting method were 0.37 Mt, 0.32 Mt, 0.28 Mt, respectively, which were about 1/3 of the theoretical value. (3) The SOC density increments to reach the real level of carbon sequestration potential estimated by classification grading method, saturation method and weighting method were 6.76 t · hm⁻², 5.21 t · hm⁻², 4.56 t · hm⁻² respectively. According to the topsoil carbon sequestration rate of cropland in Zhuanglang county in the recent 30 a, it would need about 24-34 a to achieve the real level. (4) At the county scale, the weighted method was superior to the saturation value method, and the saturation value method was better than the classification grading method in the actual carbon sequestration potential estimation. The classification grading method was better than the maximum value method in the ideal carbon sequestration potential estimation.

  3. Methods and basic data of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphona among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.J.; Hall, A.J.; Snee, M.P.; Downes, S.; Powell, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The methods and basic data of a case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield are examined for reliability. Fifty-two cases of leukaemia, 22 of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 23 of Hodgkins disease occurring in people born in the area and diagnosed there in 1950-85 under the age of 25, and 1001 controls matched for sex and date of birth taken from the same birth registers were used in the study. (author)

  4. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Assessment of technical specifications for the reactor protection system instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This case study presents a methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of alternative plant technical specifications regarding system surveillance frequencies and out-of-service times. The methodology is applied to the reactor protection systems of a 4 loop BWR-RESAR-3S type nuclear power plant. The effect of the statistical characteristics of the system on the relative comparison of various sets of technical specifications is examined through sensitivity studies and an uncertainty analysis. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. A rapid method to assess grape rust mites on leaves and observations from case studies in western Oregon vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for extracting eriophyoid mites was adapted from previous studies to provide growers and IPM consultants with a practical, efficient, and reliable tool to monitor for rust mites in vineyards. The rinse in bag (RIB) method allows quick extraction of mites from collected plant parts (sh...

  6. Efficiency of two-phase methods with focus on a planned population-based case-control study on air pollution and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ulf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We plan to conduct a case-control study to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 increases the risk of stroke. In case-control studies, selective participation can lead to bias and loss of efficiency. A two-phase design can reduce bias and improve efficiency by combining information on the non-participating subjects with information from the participating subjects. In our planned study, we will have access to individual disease status and data on NO2 exposure on group (area level for a large population sample of Scania, southern Sweden. A smaller sub-sample will be selected to the second phase for individual-level assessment on exposure and covariables. In this paper, we simulate a case-control study based on our planned study. We develop a two-phase method for this study and compare the performance of our method with the performance of other two-phase methods. Methods A two-phase case-control study was simulated with a varying number of first- and second-phase subjects. Estimation methods: Method 1: Effect estimation with second-phase data only. Method 2: Effect estimation by adjusting the first-phase estimate with the difference between the adjusted and unadjusted second-phase estimate. The first-phase estimate is based on individual disease status and residential address for all study subjects that are linked to register data on NO2-exposure for each geographical area. Method 3: Effect estimation by using the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm without taking area-level register data on exposure into account. Method 4: Effect estimation by using the EM algorithm and incorporating group-level register data on NO2-exposure. Results The simulated scenarios were such that, unbiased or marginally biased ( Conclusion In the setting described here, method 4 had the best performance in order to improve efficiency, while adjusting for varying participation rates across areas.

  7. Using of the Boolean Stochastic Generation method to target field investigations: the Mortisa landslide (eastern Italian Alps) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Giulia; Marcato, Gianluca; Gottardi, Guido; Borgatti, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    When designing the geotechnical model of a landslide the information to define the soil profile within the slope is usually inferred from a small amount of data. This is particularly true for large landslides where the study area is vast and the variability of terrains is high. In this framework, a method allowing the best locations for further field investigation campaigns to be identified would be extremely useful. The Boolean Stochastic Generation method (BoSG), which randomly generates different soil distributions of two definite soil types in both 2D and 3D models, is a newly developed algorithm that can guide in this process. In this work the method has been applied to the Mortisa landslide case study, which is located in the Cortina d'Ampezzo valley (Veneto, Italy), part of the Dolomites UNESCO World Heritage list. The mudslide is 3.5 km long, stretching from 1750 to 1300 m a.s.l., and is located in a highly antrophized area where is damaging some buildings and a national road with its almost continuous movements. In fact, from year 2008, GNSS surveys recorded rates of displacements reaching 1.2 m/year in the most active parts of the landslide; the movements occur on a slip surfaces are located between 20 and 50 m below the surface. From the borecores some wooden samples were extracted allowing to reconstruct the sequence of events that led to the development of the present-day Mortisa slope. Interdigitated layers of gravel in a silty clay matrix originated from subsequent earth and debris flows events since the Lateglacial compose the landslide body, a condition that is particularly apt to be investigated with BoSG. A BoSG run for the Mortisa landslide was performed calculating 1200 soil configurations and using laboratory test parameters for the silty-clay matrix. The results were stacked in a tridimensional matrix in order to calculate the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of displacements for each element of the model mesh. In this way maps of the SD

  8. Analyses of Crime Patterns in NIBRS Data Based on a Novel Graph Theory Clustering Method: Virginia as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a novel clustering method for analyzing the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS data, which include the determination of correlation of different crime types, the development of a likelihood index for crimes to occur in a jurisdiction, and the clustering of jurisdictions based on crime type. The method was tested by using the 2005 assault data from 121 jurisdictions in Virginia as a test case. The analyses of these data show that some different crime types are correlated and some different crime parameters are correlated with different crime types. The analyses also show that certain jurisdictions within Virginia share certain crime patterns. This information assists with constructing a pattern for a specific crime type and can be used to determine whether a jurisdiction may be more likely to see this type of crime occur in their area.

  9. [Case and studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András

    2015-11-15

    Case studies and case reports form an important and ever growing part of scientific and scholarly literature. The paper deals with the share and citation rate of these publication types on different fields of research. In general, evidence seems to support the opinion that an excessive number of such publications may negatively influence the impact factor of the journal. In the literature of scientometrics, case studies (at least the presence of the term "case study" in the titles of the papers) have a moderate share, but their citation rate is practically equal to that of other publication types.

  10. Integrated use of surface geophysical methods for site characterization — A case study in North Kingstown, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carole D.; Lane, John W.; Brandon, William C.; Williams, Christine A.P.; White, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    A suite of complementary, non‐invasive surface geophysical methods was used to assess their utility for site characterization in a pilot investigation at a former defense site in North Kingstown, Rhode Island. The methods included frequency‐domain electromagnetics (FDEM), ground‐penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and multi‐channel analysis of surface‐wave (MASW) seismic. The results of each method were compared to each other and to drive‐point data from the site. FDEM was used as a reconnaissance method to assess buried utilities and anthropogenic structures; to identify near‐surface changes in water chemistry related to conductive leachate from road‐salt storage; and to investigate a resistive signature possibly caused by groundwater discharge. Shallow anomalies observed in the GPR and ERT data were caused by near‐surface infrastructure and were consistent with anomalies observed in the FDEM data. Several parabolic reflectors were observed in the upper part of the GPR profiles, and a fairly continuous reflector that was interpreted as bedrock could be traced across the lower part of the profiles. MASW seismic data showed a sharp break in shear wave velocity at depth, which was interpreted as the overburden/bedrock interface. The MASW profile indicates the presence of a trough in the bedrock surface in the same location where the ERT data indicate lateral variations in resistivity. Depths to bedrock interpreted from the ERT, MASW, and GPR profiles were similar and consistent with the depths of refusal identified in the direct‐push wells. The interpretations of data collected using the individual methods yielded non‐unique solutions with considerable uncertainty. Integrated interpretation of the electrical, electromagnetic, and seismic geophysical profiles produced a more consistent and unique estimation of depth to bedrock that is consistent with ground‐truth data at the site. This test case shows that using

  11. Key techniques and risk management for the application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method: a case study of the Zhongjie subway station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yong-ping; Zhao, Wen; Li, Shen-gang; Zhang, Guo-bin

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area.

  12. Traditional and Alternative Approaches to the Method of Situational Analysis in Russia: Evidence from the Case Study “Istanbul in the Life and Works of Martiros Saryan”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Fedotova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the transformation of the methodological toolkit for teaching humanities and sciences in the Russian Federation. The method of case study, being widely spread in modern higher education research, is used as an example to illustrate the attempts to implement the best practices of foreign educational technology into tertiary academic process in Russia. The author provides some historical aspects of introducing case studies in modern teaching practice. The article features peculiarities of the Soviet approach to the structure of cases. Content analysis helps identify similarities and differences in Soviet/post-Soviet approaches to case study construction and brings into focus the problem points which reveal misinterpretation and/or misuse of didactic materials designated as cases. The approach suggested in the article implies presenting the content of a case study as a collection of documents related to a certain topic. The case study "Istanbul in the life and work of the artist Martiros Saryan" demonstrates that a case can have invariable and variable parts to reflect the specificity of the didactic task within the discipline. Such approach is expected to support students’ cognitive activity, develop creativity in searching additional sources and missing materials, improve efficiency of students’ autonomous work on solving complex problem solution.

  13. Environmental conflict analysis using an integrated grey clustering and entropy-weight method: A case study of a mining project in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Villanueva, Kiko Alexi; Romero Gil, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Environmental conflict analysis (henceforth ECA) has become a key factor for the viability of projects and welfare of affected populations. In this study, we propose an approach for ECA using an integrated grey clustering and entropy-weight method (The IGCEW method). The case study considered a mining project in northern Peru. Three stakeholder groups and seven criteria were identified. The data were gathered by conducting field interviews. The results revealed that for the groups urban ...

  14. Simplified method for esophagus protection during radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation - prospective study of 704 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, José Carlos Pachón; Mateos, Enrique I Pachón; Peña, Tomas G Santillana; Lobo, Tasso Julio; Mateos, Juán Carlos Pachón; Vargas, Remy Nelson A; Pachón, Carlos Thiene C; Acosta, Juán Carlos Zerpa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although rare, the atrioesophageal fistula is one of the most feared complications in radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation due to the high risk of mortality. Objective This is a prospective controlled study, performed during regular radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, to test whether esophageal displacement by handling the transesophageal echocardiography transducer could be used for esophageal protection. Methods Seven hundred and four patients (158 F/546M [22.4%/77.6%]; 52.8±14 [17-84] years old), with mean EF of 0.66±0.8 and drug-refractory atrial fibrillation were submitted to hybrid radiofrequency catheter ablation (conventional pulmonary vein isolation plus AF-Nests and background tachycardia ablation) with displacement of the esophagus as far as possible from the radiofrequency target by transesophageal echocardiography transducer handling. The esophageal luminal temperature was monitored without and with displacement in 25 patients. Results The mean esophageal displacement was 4 to 9.1cm (5.9±0.8 cm). In 680 of the 704 patients (96.6%), it was enough to allow complete and safe radiofrequency delivery (30W/40ºC/irrigated catheter or 50W/60ºC/8 mm catheter) without esophagus overlapping. The mean esophageal luminal temperature changes with versus without esophageal displacement were 0.11±0.13ºC versus 1.1±0.4ºC respectively, P<0.01. The radiofrequency had to be halted in 68% of the patients without esophageal displacement because of esophageal luminal temperature increase. There was no incidence of atrioesophageal fistula suspected or confirmed. Only two superficial bleeding caused by transesophageal echocardiography transducer insertion were observed. Conclusion Mechanical esophageal displacement by transesophageal echocardiography transducer during radiofrequency catheter ablation was able to prevent a rise in esophageal luminal temperature, helping to avoid esophageal thermal lesion. In most

  15. Application of the exergy method to the environmental impact estimation: The nitric acid production as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirova-Yordanova, Zornitza

    2011-01-01

    In this work the exergy method is used to compare various methods for removal of NO x from waste (tail) gas released into the atmosphere from nitric acid production plants with respect to their overall environmental impact. Three basic methods for NO x abatement are analysed: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) and extended absorption. The positive and negative effects and the net effect from the NO x abatement are calculated. The following exergy-based indicators are used for comparing the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of different treatment processes as a result from pollutants removal: reduction of the exergy of the emissions from the whole process route (ammonia and nitric acid production units); exergy of the additional emissions, arising as a result of the treatment process; total net reduction of the exergy consumption, Cumulative Energy Consumption (CEnC) and Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CExC) of natural resources as a result of the waste flows treatment. -- Highlights: → A thermodynamic study of the effects of three NO x abatement methods. → A comparison of the positive, negative and overall net effects of the three methods. → The best overall results are obtained for the extended absorption method. → The selective catalytic reduction method is estimated as unsatisfactory. → The non-selective catalytic reduction method could benefit from improved catalysts.

  16. Ergonomics, automation and logistics: practical and effective combination of working methods, a case study of a baking company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Leonardo; Arias, Claudia; Cordoba, Jorge; Moroy, Magda; Pulido, Jean; Ramirez, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to combine three different analytical methods from three different disciplines to diagnose the ergonomic conditions, manufacturing and supply chain operation of a baking company. The study explores a summary of comprehensive working methods that combines the ergonomics, automation and logistics study methods in the diagnosis of working conditions and productivity. The participatory approach of this type of study that involves the feelings and first-hand knowledge of workers of the operation are determining factors in defining points of action and ergonomic interventions, as well as defining opportunities in the automation of manufacturing and logistics, to cope with the needs of the company. The study identified an ergonomic situation (high prevalence of wrist-hand pain), and the combination of interdisciplinary techniques applied allowed to improve this condition in the company. This type of study allows a primary basis of the opportunities presented by the combination of specialized methods of different disciplines, for the definition of comprehensive action plans for the company. Additionally, it outlines opportunities for improvement and recommendations to mitigate the burden associated with occupational diseases and as an end result improve the quality of life and productivity of workers.

  17. Scheduling of House Development Projects with CPM and PERT Method for Time Efficiency (Case Study: House Type 36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholil, Muhammad; Nurul Alfa, Bonitasari; Hariadi, Madjumsyah

    2018-04-01

    Network planning is one of the management techniques used to plan and control the implementation of a project, which shows the relationship between activities. The objective of this research is to arrange network planning on house construction project on CV. XYZ and to know the role of network planning in increasing the efficiency of time so that can be obtained the optimal project completion period. This research uses descriptive method, where the data collected by direct observation to the company, interview, and literature study. The result of this research is optimal time planning in project work. Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that the use of the both methods in scheduling of house construction project gives very significant effect on the completion time of the project. The company’s CPM (Critical Path Method) method can complete the project with 131 days, PERT (Program Evaluation Review and Technique) Method takes 136 days. Based on PERT calculation obtained Z = -0.66 or 0,2546 (from normal distribution table), and also obtained the value of probability or probability is 74,54%. This means that the possibility of house construction project activities can be completed on time is high enough. While without using both methods the project completion time takes 173 days. So using the CPM method, the company can save time up to 42 days and has time efficiency by using network planning.

  18. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Determining safety importance of systems and components at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This case study emphasizes the step of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) regarding identification of systems and components important to nuclear plant safety. An importance analysis involves combining information that is both qualitative and probabilistic in nature to generate a numerical ranking to determine the system and/or component failures that dominate the risk. Such a ranking can suggest where hardware, software, human factors and component design changes can be implemented to improve plant safety. Examples of using ranking methodology are described. A qualitative ranking criteria is discussed for components and systems that are not included in a PSA. 18 refs, 7 figs, 18 tabs

  19. Landslide susceptibility modeling applying machine learning methods: A case study from Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Yin, Kunlong; Cao, Ying; Ahmed, Bayes; Li, Yuanyao; Catani, Filippo; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2018-03-01

    Landslide is a common natural hazard and responsible for extensive damage and losses in mountainous areas. In this study, Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China was taken as a case study for landslide susceptibility assessment in order to develop effective risk prevention and mitigation strategies. To begin, 202 landslides were identified, including 95 colluvial landslides and 107 rockfalls. Twelve landslide causal factor maps were prepared initially, and the relationship between these factors and each landslide type was analyzed using the information value model. Later, the unimportant factors were selected and eliminated using the information gain ratio technique. The landslide locations were randomly divided into two groups: 70% for training and 30% for verifying. Two machine learning models: the support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN), and a multivariate statistical model: the logistic regression (LR), were applied for landslide susceptibility modeling (LSM) for each type. The LSM index maps, obtained from combining the assessment results of the two landslide types, were classified into five levels. The performance of the LSMs was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics curve and Friedman test. Results show that the elimination of noise-generating factors and the separated modeling of each landslide type have significantly increased the prediction accuracy. The machine learning models outperformed the multivariate statistical model and SVM model was found ideal for the case study area.

  20. Monitoring of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography – case study and suggestion of method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Michoński

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topography (ST, systems designed for posture evaluation could potentially fill this void. A pilot study was conducted to test the potential of monitoring the change of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography. A single case was studied to test the methodology and preliminarily assess the usefulness of the procedure before performing a randomized trial. The apparatus used in this study was metrologically tested and utilized earlier in scoliosis screening. Case presentation The subject was measured using a custom-made structured light illumination scanner with accuracy of 0.2 mm. Measurement was taken every 2 weeks, between 17th and 37th week of pregnancy, 11 measurements in total. From the measurement the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and vertical balance angle were extracted automatically. Custom-written software was used for analysis. Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI was done with every measurement. The values were correctly extracted from the measurement. The results were: 50.9 ± 2.4° for kyphosis angle, 58.1 ± 2.1° for lordosis angle and 4.7 ± 1.7° for vertical balance angle. The registered change was 7.4° in kyphosis angle, 8.4° in lordosis angle and 5.5° in vertical balance angle. The calculated ODI values were between moderate disability and severe disability (22 to 58 %. Conclusions This case study presents that surface topography may be suitable for monitoring of spinal curvature

  1. Regionalized LCA-based optimization of building energy supply: method and case study for a Swiss municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Dominik; Vadenbo, Carl; Steubing, Bernhard; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a regionalized LCA-based multiobjective optimization model of building energy demand and supply for the case of a Swiss municipality for the minimization of greenhouse gas emissions and particulate matter formation. The results show that the environmental improvement potential is very large: in the optimal case, greenhouse gas emissions from energy supply could be reduced by more than 75% and particulate emissions by over 50% in the municipality. This scenario supposes a drastic shift of heat supply systems from a fossil fuel dominated portfolio to a portfolio consisting of mainly heat pump and woodchip incineration systems. In addition to a change in heat supply technologies, roofs, windows and walls would need to be refurbished in more than 65% of the municipality's buildings. The full potential of the environmental impact reductions will hardly be achieved in reality, particularly in the short term, for example, because of financial constraints and social acceptance, which were not taken into account in this study. Nevertheless, the results of the optimization model can help policy makers to identify the most effective measures for improvement at the decision making level, for example, at the building level for refurbishment and selection of heating systems or at the municipal level for designing district heating networks. Therefore, this work represents a starting point for designing effective incentives to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. While the results of the optimization model are specific to the municipality studied, the model could readily be adapted to other regions.

  2. Septic Systems Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

  3. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  4. A Novel Comprehensive Detection Method for the Dynamic Characteristics of Coalface Overburden: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and efficient acquisition of information about the dynamic characteristics of coalface overburden can provide an important theoretical basis for green mining in coal producing regions in western China. In this study, a novel method for comprehensively detecting the dynamic behavior of coalface overburden is proposed in order to address deficiencies of the existing detection methods. The new method combines surface radon measurement, overburden borehole imaging, and underground pressure observation into a comprehensive detection technology system, resulting in spatial and temporal integration of surface, overburden, and underground detection. To examine the feasibility of the proposed method, a field experiment was carried out at #1103 coalface in the Suancigou Coal Mine, which is operated by the Inner Mongolia Yitai Coal Co. Ltd. The results of the three approaches are largely consistent and they complement one another. But it must be pointed out that this method needs to be further improved by more field experiments. Based on the experimental results, a technique for forced caving by presplit blasting of the overburden was developed and then implemented to #1103 coalface. The practical use of the technique led to good results: it effectively prevented roof-associated accidents by controlling the first weighting step to about 82 m, contributing to safe and efficient mining; coal production was expected to increase about 126 kilotons.

  5. Do método do caso ao case: a trajetória de uma ferramenta pedagógica Case method and case study: an epistemological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Arlinda de Assis Menezes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procura distinguir os conceitos acerca do método de estudo de casos e o método do caso dentro das Ciências Sociais e suas aplicabilidades, assim como diferenciar o modo empírico/indutivo e o teórico/dedutivo de pensar, sendo apresentado no trabalho como característicos de americanos e alemães respectivamente, fatores que diferenciam o ensino nos dois países. Para tanto, realiza uma descrição sobre o momento do surgimento do método do caso na escola de Direito em Harvard, destacando a conjuntura social, econômica e cultural que possibilitaram a criação desse instrumento pedagógico e, concomitantemente, apresenta o estudo de caso que, como proposto por Yin, cuja obra referenciou o trabalho em questão, se configura em um dos mais utilizados métodos nos estudos científicos, rompendo com o credo de que é um método fácil de ser aplicado, antes, exige do pesquisador dedicação e rigor científico, além de uma elaboração do problema de maneira a não torná-lo óbvio, um simples relato de experiência. Já o método de casos, criado por Christopher Columbus Langdell, não busca a pesquisa empírica como resposta a um determinado problema, antes, é uma ferramenta pedagógica utilizada na formação de advogados, juristas e administradores de empresas em que a teoria é um subsídio à análise de jurisprudências e experiências em administração, não apenas o objetivo puro e simples da academia.The present work seeks to draw a distinction between the concepts of Case Method and Case Study within the Social Sciences and their applicability, as well as to differentiate the empirical/inductive and theoretical/deductive modes of thinking, which are presented here as respectively characteristic of Americans and Germans, and as factors that distinguish the education in those two countries. To such end, the text describes the moment when the Case Method appeared in the Harvard Law School, emphasizing the social

  6. QUALITATIVE METHODS IN CREATIVITY STUDIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we will focus on developing a qualitative research design suitable for conducting case study in creativity. The case is a team of workers (See Hertel, 2015) doing industrial cleaning in the Danish food industry. The hypothesis is that these workers are both participating in......-specific methods, involving a discussion of creativity test, divergent and convergent thinking, for studying creativity in this specific setting. Beside from that we will develop a research design involving a combination of methods necessary for conducting a case study in the setting mentioned....

  7. Diabetes knowledge translation status in developing countries: A mixed method study among diabetes researchers in case of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Valinejadi; Farahnaz Sadoughi; Masoud Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. Methods...

  8. Survey and Zoning of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Using Geostatistical Methods in GIS (Case Study: Miankangi Region in Sistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hashemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to provide a database, it is essential having access to accurate information on soil spatial variation for soil sustainable management such as proper application of fertilizers. Spatial variations in soil properties are common but it is important for understanding these changes, particularly in agricultural lands for careful planning and land management. Materials and Methods: To this end, in winter 1391, 189 undisturbed soil samples (0-30 cm depth in a regular lattice with a spacing of 500 m were gathered from the surface of Miankangi land, Sistan plain, and their physical and chemical properties were studied. The land area of the region is about 4,500 hectares; the average elevation of studied area is 489.2 meters above sea level with different land uses. Soil texture was measured by the hydrometer methods (11, Also EC and pH (39, calcium carbonate equivalent (37 and the saturation percentage of soils were determined. Kriging, Co-Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighting and Local Polynomial Interpolation techniques were evaluated to produce a soil characteristics map of the study area zoning and to select the best geostatistical methods. Cross-validation techniques and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE were used. Results and Discussion: Normalized test results showed that all of the soil properties except calcium carbonate and soil clay content had normal distribution. In addition, the results of correlation test showed that the soil saturation percentage was positively correlated with silt content (r=0.43 and p

  9. Monitoring of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography - case study and suggestion of method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoński, Jakub; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Pakuła, Anna; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Sitnik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topography (ST), systems designed for posture evaluation could potentially fill this void. A pilot study was conducted to test the potential of monitoring the change of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography. A single case was studied to test the methodology and preliminarily assess the usefulness of the procedure before performing a randomized trial. The apparatus used in this study was metrologically tested and utilized earlier in scoliosis screening. The subject was measured using a custom-made structured light illumination scanner with accuracy of 0.2 mm. Measurement was taken every 2 weeks, between 17th and 37th week of pregnancy, 11 measurements in total. From the measurement the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and vertical balance angle were extracted automatically. Custom-written software was used for analysis. Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI) was done with every measurement. The values were correctly extracted from the measurement. The results were: 50.9 ± 2.4° for kyphosis angle, 58.1 ± 2.1° for lordosis angle and 4.7 ± 1.7° for vertical balance angle. The registered change was 7.4° in kyphosis angle, 8.4° in lordosis angle and 5.5° in vertical balance angle. The calculated ODI values were between moderate disability and severe disability (22 to 58 %). This case study presents that surface topography may be suitable for monitoring of spinal curvature and posture change in pregnant women. The ionizing radiation studies

  10. Determining an appropriate method for the purpose of land allocation for ecotourism development (case study: Taleghan County, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliani, H; Kafaky, S Babaie; Saffari, A; Monavari, S M

    2016-11-01

    Appropriate management and planning of suitable areas for the development of ecotourism activities can play an important role in ensuring proper use of the environment. Due to the complexity of nature, applying different tools and models-particularly multi-criteria methods-can be useful in order to achieve these goals. In this study, to indicate suitable areas (land allocation) for ecotourism activities in Taleghan county, weighted linear combination (WLC) using geographical information system (GIS), fuzzy logic, and analytical network process (ANP) were used. To compare the applicability of each of these methods in achieving the goal, the results were compared with the previous model presented by Makhdoum. The results showed that the WLC and ANP methods are more efficient than the Makhdoum model in allocating lands for recreational areas and ecotourism purposes since concomitant use of fuzzy logic and ANP for ranking and weighing the criteria provides us with more flexible and logical conditions. Furthermore, the mentioned method makes it possible to involve ecological, economic, and social criteria simultaneously in the evaluation process in order to allocate land for ecotourism purposes.

  11. Improving ASTER GDEM Accuracy Using Land Use-Based Linear Regression Methods: A Case Study of Lianyungang, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal-Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM is important to a wide range of geographical and environmental studies. Its accuracy, to some extent associated with land-use types reflecting topography, vegetation coverage, and human activities, impacts the results and conclusions of these studies. In order to improve the accuracy of ASTER GDEM prior to its application, we investigated ASTER GDEM errors based on individual land-use types and proposed two linear regression calibration methods, one considering only land use-specific errors and the other considering the impact of both land-use and topography. Our calibration methods were tested on the coastal prefectural city of Lianyungang in eastern China. Results indicate that (1 ASTER GDEM is highly accurate for rice, wheat, grass and mining lands but less accurate for scenic, garden, wood and bare lands; (2 despite improvements in ASTER GDEM2 accuracy, multiple linear regression calibration requires more data (topography and a relatively complex calibration process; (3 simple linear regression calibration proves a practicable and simplified means to systematically investigate and improve the impact of land-use on ASTER GDEM accuracy. Our method is applicable to areas with detailed land-use data based on highly accurate field-based point-elevation measurements.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of the Waterline Method for Topographical Mapping of Tidal Flats: A Case Study in the Dongsha Sandbank, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxue Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the topography of tidal flats is important for understanding their evolution, the spatial and temporal sampling frequency of such data remains limited. The waterline method has the potential to retrieve past tidal flat topography by utilizing large archives of satellite images. This study performs a quantitative analysis of the relationship between the accuracy of tidal flat digital elevation models (DEMs that are based on the waterline method and the factors that influence the DEMs. The three major conclusions of the study are as follows: (1 the coverage rate of the waterline points and the number of satellite images used to create the DEM are highly linearly correlated with the error of the resultant DEMs, and the former is more significant in indicating the accuracy of the resultant DEMs than the latter; (2 both the area and the slope of the tidal flats are linearly correlated with the error of the resultant DEMs; and (3 the availability analysis of the archived satellite images indicates that the waterline method can retrieve tidal flat terrains from the past forty years. The upper limit of the temporal resolution of the tidal flat DEM can be refined to within one year since 1993, to half a year since 2004 and to three months since 2009.

  13. Predicting Charging Time of Battery Electric Vehicles Based on Regression and Time-Series Methods: A Case Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Bi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery electric vehicles (BEVs reduce energy consumption and air pollution as compared with conventional vehicles. However, the limited driving range and potential long charging time of BEVs create new problems. Accurate charging time prediction of BEVs helps drivers determine travel plans and alleviate their range anxiety during trips. This study proposed a combined model for charging time prediction based on regression and time-series methods according to the actual data from BEVs operating in Beijing, China. After data analysis, a regression model was established by considering the charged amount for charging time prediction. Furthermore, a time-series method was adopted to calibrate the regression model, which significantly improved the fitting accuracy of the model. The parameters of the model were determined by using the actual data. Verification results confirmed the accuracy of the model and showed that the model errors were small. The proposed model can accurately depict the charging time characteristics of BEVs in Beijing.

  14. Qualitative Research Methods in Visual Communication. Case Study: Visual Networks in the Promotional Videos of the European Year of Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Cmeciu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available European Years are a means of promoting European issues at a macro and micro-level. The objective of this paper is to provide the visual differences in the framing of the issue of volunteering at a European and national level. The approach focuses on a blending of two qualitative research methods in visual communication: ATLAS.ti (computer assisted/ aided qualitative data analysis software and social semiotics. The results of our analysis highlight two network views on volunteering promoted through videos, a salience of transactional processes in the implementation of volunteering at a European and national level, and a classification of various types of social practices specific to Romania. This study provides an insight into the way in which two different qualitative methods may be combined in order to provide a visual representation and interpretation to a European issue.

  15. Using an integrated method to estimate watershed sediment yield during heavy rain period: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hsu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive approach estimating sediment yield from a watershed is needed to develop better measures for mitigating sediment disasters and assessing downstream impacts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an integrated method, considering sediment supplies associated with soil erosion, shallow landslide and debris flow to estimate sediment yield from a debris-flow-prone watershed on a storm event basis. The integrated method is based on the HSPF and TRIGRS models for predicting soil erosion and shallow landslide sediment yield, and the FLO-2D model for calculating debris flow sediment yield. The proposed method was applied to potential debris-flow watersheds located in the Sioulin Township of Hualien County. The available data such as hourly rainfall data, historical streamflow and sediment records as well as event-based landslide inventory maps have been used for model calibration and validation. Results for simulating sediment yield have been confirmed by comparisons of observed data from several typhoon events. The verified method employed a 24-h design hyetograph with the 100-yr return period to simulate sediment yield within the study area. The results revealed that the influence of shallow landslides on sediment supply as compared with soil erosion was significant. The estimate of landslide transport capacity into a main channel indicated the sediment delivery ratio on a typhoon event basis was approximately 38.4%. In addition, a comparison of sediment yields computed from occurrence and non-occurrence of debris flow scenarios showed that the sediment yield from an occurrence condition was found to be increasing at about 14.2 times more than estimated under a non-occurrence condition. This implied watershed sediment hazard induced by debris flow may cause severe consequences.

  16. Animal welfare and the refinement of neuroscience research methods--a case study of Huntington's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, I Anna S; Hansen, Axel K; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The use of animals in biomedical and other research presents an ethical dilemma: we do not want to lose scientific benefits, nor do we want to cause laboratory animals to suffer. Scientists often refer to the potential human benefits of animal models to justify their use. However, even if this is accepted, it still needs to be argued that the same benefits could not have been achieved with a mitigated impact on animal welfare. Reducing the adverse effects of scientific protocols ('refinement') is therefore crucial in animal-based research. It is especially important that researchers share knowledge on how to avoid causing unnecessary suffering. We have previously demonstrated that even in studies in which animal use leads to spontaneous death, scientists often fail to report measures to minimize animal distress (Olsson et al. 2007). In this paper, we present the full results of a case study examining reports, published in peer-reviewed journals between 2003 and 2004, of experiments employing animal models to study the neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease. In 51 references, experiments in which animals were expected to develop motor deficits so severe that they would have difficulty eating and drinking normally were conducted, yet only three references were made to housing adaptation to facilitate food and water intake. Experiments including end-stages of the disease were reported in 14 papers, yet of these only six referred to the euthanasia of moribund animals. If the reference in scientific publications reflects the actual application of refinement, researchers do not follow the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) principle. While in some cases, it is clear that less-than-optimal techniques were used, we recognize that scientists may apply refinement without referring to it; however, if they do not include such information in publications, it suggests they find it less relevant. Journal publishing policy could play an important role: first, in

  17. A Logic-Based Psychotherapy Approach to Treating Patients Which Focuses on Faultless Logical Functioning: A Case Study Method

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    Fernando Almeida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many clinical patients present to mental health clinics with depressive symptoms, anxiety, psychosomatic complaints, and sleeping problems. These symptoms which originated may originate from marital problems, conflictual interpersonal relationships, problems in securing work, and housing issues, among many others. These issues might interfere which underlie the difficulties that with the ability of the patients face in maintaining faultless logical reasoning (FLR and faultless logical functioning (FLF. FLR implies to assess correctly premises, rules, and conclusions. And FLF implies assessing not only FLR, but also the circumstances, life experience, personality, events that validate a conclusion. Almost always, the symptomatology is accompanied by intense emotional changes. Clinical experience shows that a logic-based psychotherapy (LBP approach is not practiced, and that therapists’ resort to psychopharmacotherapy or other types of psychotherapeutic approaches that are not focused on logical reasoning and, especially, logical functioning. Because of this, patients do not learn to overcome their reasoning and functioning errors. The aim of this work was to investigate how LBP works to improve the patients’ ability to think and function in a faultless logical way. This work describes the case studies of three patients. For this purpose we described the treatment of three patients. With this psychotherapeutic approach, patients gain knowledge that can then be applied not only to the issues that led them to the consultation, but also to other problems they have experienced, thus creating a learning experience and helping to prevent such patients from becoming involved in similar problematic situations. This highlights that LBP is a way of treating symptoms that interfere on some level with daily functioning. This psychotherapeutic approach is relevant for improving patients’ quality of life, and it fills a gap in the literature by describing

  18. Using mixed methods to investigate factors influencing reporting of livestock diseases: a case study among smallholders in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Lewis, Elisa G; Chang, Yu-Mei; Ruiz, Hugo; Balanza, Maria Elba; Guitian, Javier

    2014-02-01

    Livestock disease surveillance is particularly challenging in resource-scarce settings, where disease events are often unreported. Surveillance performance is determined as much by the quantifiable biological attributes of the disease, as it is by motivations and barriers perceived by livestock keepers for disease reporting. Mixed methods designs, which integrate the collection, analysis and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data in a single study, are increasingly used across different disciplines. These designs allow for a deeper exploration of the topic under investigation, than can be achieved by either approach alone. In this study a mixed methods design was used in order to gain a greater understanding of the factors that influence reporting of livestock diseases in Bolivia. There is a need to strengthen passive surveillance in this country, among other reasons as part of an eradication programme for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Findings revealed livestock keepers in the study area were extremely unlikely to report the occurrence of livestock health events to the Official Veterinary Services (OVS). Communication outside the local community occurs more often through alternative routes and this is positively correlated with disease awareness. The main barriers to disease reporting identified were a lack of institutional credibility and the conflicting priorities of the OVS and livestock keepers. As for other animal and human diseases across the developing world, passive surveillance of livestock diseases in Bolivia should be enhanced; this is urgent in view of the current FMD eradication programme. Increasing timeliness and smallholders' participation requires a detailed understanding of their likely actions and perceived barriers towards disease reporting. These insights are most likely to be developed through a holistic mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative analyses. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  19. A BSC- EFQM method for evaluating and detecting performance measurement criteria: A case study of Malavan Footbal team

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    Heydar Shojaee Vazhnani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important criteria for performance measurement based on two methods of balanced score card (BSC as well as European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM methods. In order to determine the mission, vision, strategy and values we first review different documents including International Federation of football documentations, AFC and Football Federation of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Charter Club. Next, we determine the necessary criteria for performance measurement using interview with decision makers, design a questionnaire and distribute it among 57 players and coaching staff as well as experts, veterans and supporters club. Next, we study the results using t-student test and analyze them. The results are categorized in terms of four criteria of BSC method including internal processes, learning and growth, costumer and financial. In addition, key performance results based on the Excellence Model are classified according to nine areas of leadership, strategy, human resources, partnerships and resources, processes, customer results, human resource results and society.

  20. Evolutionary Policy Transfer and Search Methods for Boosting Behavior Quality: RoboCup Keep-Away Case Study

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    Geoff Nitschke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates various evolutionary search methods to direct neural controller evolution in company with policy (behavior transfer across increasingly complex collective robotic (RoboCup keep-away tasks. Robot behaviors are first evolved in a source task and then transferred for further evolution to more complex target tasks. Evolutionary search methods tested include objective-based search (fitness function, behavioral and genotypic diversity maintenance, and hybrids of such diversity maintenance and objective-based search. Evolved behavior quality is evaluated according to effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness is the average task performance of transferred and evolved behaviors, where task performance is the average time the ball is controlled by a keeper team. Efficiency is the average number of generations taken for the fittest evolved behaviors to reach a minimum task performance threshold given policy transfer. Results indicate that policy transfer coupled with hybridized evolution (behavioral diversity maintenance and objective-based search addresses the bootstrapping problem for increasingly complex keep-away tasks. That is, this hybrid method (coupled with policy transfer evolves behaviors that could not otherwise be evolved. Also, this hybrid evolutionary search was demonstrated as consistently evolving topologically simple neural controllers that elicited high-quality behaviors.

  1. Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

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    K. A. Casey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for characterizing glacial surface debris include visible to thermal infrared hyper- and multispectral reflectance and emission signature identification, semi-quantitative mineral abundance indicies and spectral image composites. Satellite derived supraglacial debris mineral maps displayed the predominance of layered silicates, hydroxyl-bearing and calcite minerals on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Supraglacial mineral maps compared with satellite thermal data revealed correlations between glacier surface composition and glacier surface temperature. Glacier velocity displacement fields and shortwave, thermal infrared false color composites indicated the magnitude of mass flux at glacier confluences. The supraglacial debris mapping methods presented in this study can be used on a broader scale to improve, supplement and potentially reduce errors associated with glacier debris radiative property, composition, areal extent and mass flux quantifications.

  2. Switching industrial production processes from complex to defined media: method development and case study using the example of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Andreas E; Spadiut, Oliver; Herwig, Christoph

    2012-06-22

    Filamentous fungi are versatile cell factories and widely used for the production of antibiotics, organic acids, enzymes and other industrially relevant compounds at large scale. As a fact, industrial production processes employing filamentous fungi are commonly based on complex raw materials. However, considerable lot-to-lot variability of complex media ingredients not only demands for exhaustive incoming components inspection and quality control, but unavoidably affects process stability and performance. Thus, switching bioprocesses from complex to defined media is highly desirable. This study presents a strategy for strain characterization of filamentous fungi on partly complex media using redundant mass balancing techniques. Applying the suggested method, interdependencies between specific biomass and side-product formation rates, production of fructooligosaccharides, specific complex media component uptake rates and fungal strains were revealed. A 2-fold increase of the overall penicillin space time yield and a 3-fold increase in the maximum specific penicillin formation rate were reached in defined media compared to complex media. The newly developed methodology enabled fast characterization of two different industrial Penicillium chrysogenum candidate strains on complex media based on specific complex media component uptake kinetics and identification of the most promising strain for switching the process from complex to defined conditions. Characterization at different complex/defined media ratios using only a limited number of analytical methods allowed maximizing the overall industrial objectives of increasing both, method throughput and the generation of scientific process understanding.

  3. Determining Service Life of Respirator Cartridges Using a Simple and Practical Method: Case Study in a Car Manufacturing Industry

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    A.M Rashidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: For ensuring about proper performance of air-purifying respirators in providing protection against workplace contaminants, it is necessary to change the respirator cartridges before the end of their service life. The aim of this study was determination of service life of organic vapor cartridges using a simple and practical method in a spray painting booth of a car manufacturing industry.   Methods: NIOSH MultiVapor software was used for estimating service life of respirator cartridges based on workplace conditions and cartridge specifications. Efficiency of determined service life was investigated using an apparatus for field testing of cartridges in the workplace.   Results: The results showed that existing schedule for changing the respirator cartridges is not effective and no longer provide adequate protection for sprayers against organic contaminants while working in a painting booth. It is necessary to change the cartridges before their estimated service life (every 4 hours.   Conclusion: NIOSH MultiVapor has acceptable efficiency for determining respirator cartridges service life and could be used as a simple and practical method in the workplace. Moreover, Service life estimated by this software was confirmed by cartridge field test apparatus.

  4. A cost-effectiveness analysis of radon protection methods in domestic properties: a comparative case study in Brixworth, Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskeran, Thomas; Denman, Antony; Phillips, Paul; Tornberg, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Building regulations in the UK have since 1992 required that radon-proof membranes be installed in new domestic properties to protect residents against the adverse effects of radon. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of the current regulatory regime with an alternative that would entail new properties being tested for radon after construction, and being remediated if necessary. The alternative regime is found to be more cost-effective for a sample of properties in Brixworth, Northamptonshire, UK. For this regime, the central estimate of cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained, the measure of cost-effectiveness used, is Pounds 2869 compared to Pounds 6182 for installing membranes, results suggesting a case for re-examining the current regulations on radon protection in new properties. Pilot studies will, however, be needed to consider how different means of protecting residents of new properties against radon might operate in practice and to provide improved evidence on their relative cost-effectiveness

  5. Tsunami-Induced Nearshore Hydrodynamic Modeling using a 3D VOF Method: A Gulf of Mexico Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, R.; Horrillo, J. J.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term morphology changes can be interrupted by extreme events such as hurricanes and tsunamis. In particular, the impact of tsunamis on coastal erosion and accretion patterns is presently not well understood. In order to understand the sediment movement during coastal tsunami impact a numerical sediment transport model is added to a 3D VOF model. This model allows for spatially varying bottom sediment characteristics and entails functions for entrainment, bedload, and suspended load transport. As a case study, a Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal study site is selected to investigate the effect of a landslide-tsunami on the coastal morphology. The GOM is recognized as a vast and productive body of water with great ecologic and economic value. The morphodynamic response of the nearshore environment to the tsunami hydrodynamic forcing is influenced by many factors including bathymetry, topography, tsunami wave and current magnitude, and the characteristics of the local bottom substrate. The 3D model addition can account for all these factors. Finally, necessary strategies for reduction of the potential tsunami impact and management of the morphological changes are discussed.

  6. Extension classification method for low-carbon product cases

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    Yanwei Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In product low-carbon design, intelligent decision systems integrated with certain classification algorithms recommend the existing design cases to designers. However, these systems mostly dependent on prior experience, and product designers not only expect to get a satisfactory case from an intelligent system but also hope to achieve assistance in modifying unsatisfactory cases. In this article, we proposed a new categorization method composed of static and dynamic classification based on extension theory. This classification method can be integrated into case-based reasoning system to get accurate classification results and to inform designers of detailed information about unsatisfactory cases. First, we establish the static classification model for cases by dependent function in a hierarchical structure. Then for dynamic classification, we make transformation for cases based on case model, attributes, attribute values, and dependent function, thus cases can take qualitative changes. Finally, the applicability of proposed method is demonstrated through a case study of screw air compressor cases.

  7. Optimization of hydrodynamic cavitations reactor efficiency for biodiesel production by response surface methods (Case study: Sunflower oil

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    H Javadikia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biofuels are considered as one of the largest sources of renewable fuels or replacement of fossil fuels. Combustion of plant-based fuels is the indirect use of solar energy. Biofuels significantly have less pollution than other fossil fuels and can easily generate from residual plant material. Waste and residues of foods and wastewater can also be a good source for biofuel production. Transesterification method (one of biodiesel production methods is the most common forms to produce mono-alkyl esters from vegetable oil and animal fats. The procedure aims are reduction the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. In this study, the method of transesterification with alkaline catalysts is used that it is the most common and most commercial biodiesel production method. In this study, configurations of made hydrodynamic cavitation reactor were studied to measure biodiesel fuel quality and enhanced device performance with optimum condition. The Design Expert software and response surface methodology were used to get this purpose. Materials and Methods Transesterification method was used in this study. The procedure aims were reduction of the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. Materials needed in the production of biodiesel transesterification method include: vegetable oil, alcohol and catalysts. The used oil in the production of biodiesel was sunflower oil, which was used 0.6 liters per each test in the production process base on titration method. Methanol with purity of 99.8 percent and the molar ratio of 6:1 to oil was used based on titration equation and according to the results of other researchers. The used catalyst in continuous production process was high-purity sodium hydroxide (99% that it is one of alkaline catalysts. Weight of hydroxide was 1% of the used oil weight in the

  8. Evaluating methods to establish habitat suitability criteria: A case study in the upper Delaware River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.; Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    Defining habitat suitability criteria (HSC) of aquatic biota can be a key component to environmental flow science. HSC can be developed through numerous methods; however, few studies have evaluated the consistency of HSC developed by different methodologies. We directly compared HSC for depth and velocity developed by the Delphi method (expert opinion) and by two primary literature meta-analyses (literature-derived range and interquartile range) to assess whether these independent methods produce analogous criteria for multiple species (rainbow trout, brown trout, American shad, and shallow fast guild) and life stages. We further evaluated how these two independently developed HSC affect calculations of habitat availability under three alternative reservoir management scenarios in the upper Delaware River at a mesohabitat (main channel, stream margins, and flood plain), reach, and basin scale. In general, literature-derived HSC fell within the range of the Delphi HSC, with highest congruence for velocity habitat. Habitat area predicted using the Delphi HSC fell between the habitat area predicted using two literature-derived HSC, both at the basin and the site scale. Predicted habitat increased in shallow regions (stream margins and flood plain) using literature-derived HSC while Delphi-derived HSC predicted increased channel habitat. HSC generally favoured the same reservoir management scenario; however, no favoured reservoir management scenario was the most common outcome when applying the literature range HSC. The differences found in this study lend insight into how different methodologies can shape HSC and their consequences for predicted habitat and water management decisions. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. The Selection of Dry Port Location by a Hybrid CFA-MACBETH-PROMETHEE Method: A Case Study of Southern Thailand

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    Kraisee Komchornrit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An intermodal transport could be the potential solution for reduction of logistics cost, including an acceleration of product flow, by way of dry port, where is regarded as a key component of combined transport. To promote a dry port in southern Thailand, the aim of this study is to propose an integrated method based on multi-criteria decision making (MCDM for selecting its best location. Thus, a new hybrid CFA-MACBETH-PROMETHEE model is presented. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA is applied to determine loads for sorting out the importance of criteria and also investigate the relationship of logistic policy and geographical determination of dry port establishment. Later, measuring attractiveness by a categorical based evaluation technique (MACBETH is utilized to build weights of those criteria. Eventually, preference ranking organization method for enrichment of evaluations (PROMETHEE is engaged to rank from the most to least attractive alternatives of dry port. In this study, results indicate that Phatthalung railway station is the most attractive location for being a new dry port.

  10. Research on Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment Method in Data Sparse Regions: A Case Study of Xichong River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NPS pollution is difficult to manage and control due to its complicated generation and formation mechanism, especially in the data sparse area. Thus the ECM and BTOPMC were, respectively, adopted to develop an easy and practical assessment method, and a comparison between the outputs of them is then conducted in this paper. The literature survey and field data were acquired to confirm the export coefficients of the ECM, and the loads of TN and TP were statistically analyzed in the study area. Based on hydrological similarity, runoff data from nearby gauged sites were pooled to compensate for the lack of at-site data and the water quality submodel of BTOPMC was then applied to simulate the monthly pollutant fluxes in the two sections from 2010 to 2012. The results showed agricultural fertilizer, rural sewage, and livestock and poultry sewage were the main pollution sources, and under the consideration of self-purification capacity of river, the outputs of the two models were almost identical. The proposed method with a main thought of combining and comparing an empirical model and a mechanistic model can assess the water quality conditions in the study area scientifically, which indicated it has a good potential for popularization in other regions.

  11. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  12. A new PI tuning method for an industrial process: A case study from a micro-cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sağlam, Gaye; Tutum, Cem Celal; Kurtulan, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PI controller is implemented with new tuning rules for a micro-cogeneration system. ► These tuning rules ensure a critically damped response as well as safe control signal. ► These rules are totally based on the model parameters unlike some other methods in the literature. ► An evolutionary search algorithm is also used to support the results of the proposed tuning method. ► Both methods give superior results as compared with a few available methods given in the literature. - Abstract: Micro-cogeneration systems are efficient and clean energy sources. For this reason, reliable control of the overall system itself and its sub-components is of great importance. This paper presents a proportional–integral (PI) controller tuning method for cooling of the hydrogen production unit within the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell based micro-cogeneration system having 5 kW electrical and 30 kW thermal capacity. The flow rate control of the coolant water was implemented by means of the modeled temperature control system. Modeling and control system design were implemented in both MATLAB/Simulink and industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) software. The novel analytical tuning rules proposed in this paper, which were developed with the help of the digital control theory and experiences in industrial control problems, are based totally on the model parameters. The output response attained by the proposed controller is a critically damped response (a non-oscillatory system response with damping ratio: ζ = 1) and the control signal is a slowly varying safe control signal. Slowly varying control signal denotes that there is no sudden or fast change in the control effort which causes a wear and tear effect in the actuators and shortens the life cycle of the relevant hardware. Besides, an evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) procedure, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), was used in order to simultaneously

  13. A BSC method for supplier selection strategy using TOPSIS and VIKOR: A case study of part maker industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Azar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, provision-chain management has been one of the major concepts. The main reason that attracts attention to the concept is the increase in competition and struggle for the survival. There are different ways to increase the competition in organizations such as increasing productivity by acquiring information technology. In this paper, we present an integrated model with the balanced score card framework for supplier selection strategy. The proposed model of this paper gathers 161 important factors suggested in the literature and selects the six most important ones using different multi criteria techniques. We also propose a goal programming techniques with some hard constraints and implement the mathematical model for real-world case study of auto industry. The proposed model is solved in four different forms using TOPSIS, VIKOR and the combination of these 2 factors with factor analysis. The preliminary results indicate that a combination of VIKOR and factor analysis presented better results with 9% reduction in costs, 38% increase of quality, and 3.2% increase in acceptability.

  14. Improved Method for Preparation of Amidoxime Modified Poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid: Characterizations and Adsorption Case Study

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    Nur Amirah Mohd Zahri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Redox polymerization of poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid (poly(AN-co-AA is performed at 40 °C under N2 gas by varying the ratio of acrylonitrile (AN and acrylic acid (AA in the feed. The yield production of poly(acrylonitrile (PAN is 73% and poly(AN-co-AA with a feed ratio of 93:7 is the highest yield (72%. The PAN and poly(AN-co-AA are further chemically modify with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The FTIR spectroscopy is used to confirm the copolymerization of poly(AN-co-AA and chemical modification of poly(AN-co-AA. Elemental microanalysis shows that the overall trend percentage of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen for all feed ratios are slightly decreasing as the feed ratio of AA is increasing except for poly(AN-co-AA 93:7. The SEM images shows that spherical diameter of poly(AN-co-AA is smaller compared to the PAN and amidoxime (AO modified poly(AN-co-AA. The TGA (thermogravimetric analysis analysis reveals that the poly(AN-co-AA degrades at lower temperatures compared to the PAN but higher than AO modified poly(AN-co-AA. The case study adsorption test showed that the AO modified poly(AN-co-AA 93:7 had the highest percentage removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+.

  15. Evaluation of Work Fatigue in Loading Workers Using Muscle Fatigue Assessment Method (MFA: A Case Study in a Brick Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Omid Kalte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Work fatigue is one of the main causes of workrelated musculoskeletal disorders and reduced productivity in industry. Therefore, it is vital to evaluate work fatigue, especially muscle fatigue, to determine the permissible workload. This study aimed to evaluate muscle fatigue of brick field workers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on transportation sector workers in Pey Dezh Brick Production Company, Golestan, Iran in 2015. In this research, the qualitative of Muscle Fatigue Assessment (MFA method was used to assess the level of fatigue. Duration of each task and frequency of efforts were determined using the level of effort to obtain a numerical result for comparison with the standard level. Results: The evaluated task was to remove paired bricks from the conveyor and transfer them to trailer truck by workers. The final results revealed that lower back tolerated the most amount of pressure (score=323, followed by the shoulders and wrist of the right hand (scores=313, which were assigned to the fatigue level. Therefore, the highest total fatigue of workload was imposed on these body parts. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the upper limbs of workers incurred the highest burden in lifting bricks, and there was a in risk of WMSDS due to high workload. Therefore, it is recommended that working systems be improved through rotating work and reducing the number of transferred bricks to avoid risks caused by accumulation of fatigue.

  16. A contrast between DEMATEL-ANP and ANP methods for six sigma project selection: a case study in healthcare industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortíz, Miguel A; Felizzola, Heriberto A; Nieto Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The project selection process is a crucial step for healthcare organizations at the moment of implementing six sigma programs in both administrative and caring processes. However, six-sigma project selection is often defined as a decision making process with interaction and feedback between criteria; so that it is necessary to explore different methods to help healthcare companies to determine the Six-sigma projects that provide the maximum benefits. This paper describes the application of both ANP (Analytic Network process) and DEMATEL (Decision Making trial and evaluation laboratory)-ANP in a public medical centre to establish the most suitable six sigma project and finally, these methods were compared to evaluate their performance in the decision making process. ANP and DEMATEL-ANP were used to evaluate 6 six sigma project alternatives under an evaluation model composed by 3 strategies, 4 criteria and 15 sub-criteria. Judgement matrixes were completed by the six sigma team whose participants worked in different departments of the medical centre. The improving of care opportunity in obstetric outpatients was elected as the most suitable six sigma project with a score of 0,117 as contribution to the organization goals. DEMATEL-ANP performed better at decision making process since it reduced the error probability due to interactions and feedback. ANP and DEMATEL-ANP effectively supported six sigma project selection processes, helping to create a complete framework that guarantees the prioritization of projects that provide maximum benefits to healthcare organizations. As DEMATEL- ANP performed better, it should be used by practitioners involved in decisions related to the implementation of six sigma programs in healthcare sector accompanied by the adequate identification of the evaluation criteria that support the decision making model. Thus, this comparative study contributes to choosing more effective approaches in this field. Suggestions of further work are also

  17. Diabetes Knowledge Translation Status in Developing Countries: A Mixed Method Study Among Diabetes Researchers in Case of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinejadi, Ali; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. This was a survey that executed in 2015 by concurrent mixed methods approach in a descriptive, cross-sectional method. The research population was 65 diabetes researchers from 14 diabetes research centers throughout Iran. The research was carried out via the self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI), a valid and reliable tool. Focus group discussions were used to complete this tool. The data were analyzed using quantitative (descriptive method by Excel software) and qualitative approaches (thematic analysis) based on SATORI-extracted seven themes. The mean of scores "the question of research," "knowledge production," "knowledge transfer," "promoting the use of evidence," and all aspects altogether were 2.48, 2.80, 2.18, 2.06, and 2.39, respectively. The themes "research quality and timeliness" and "promoting and evaluating the use of evidence" received the lowest (1.91) and highest mean scores (2.94), respectively. Except for the theme "interaction with research users" with a relatively mediocre scores (2.63), the other areas had scores below the mean. The overall status of diabetes KT in Iran was lower than the ideal situation. There are many challenges that require great interventions at the organizational or macro level. To reinforce diabetes KT in Iran, it should hold a more leading and centralized function in the strategies of the country's diabetes research system.

  18. A case study comparing the use of laser induced fluorescence with cone penetrometer testing to more conventional screening methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earley, K.; Rapp, K.

    1995-01-01

    Site assessments utilizing in-situ techniques to characterize subsurface stratigraphy and contaminant distribution are becoming more accepted and commonly used. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy with Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) is a new technology that provides real-time data on stratigraphy and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in the subsurface environment. Over the last two years, LIF technological advances have led to field equipment with improved durability, reduced bulk and weight, and the ability to integrate LIF systems with CPT equipment. The Rapid Optical Screening Tool (a Unisys registered trademark hereafter referred to as ROST) presents the development of an in-situ data collection system which couples state-of-the-art LIF technology with CPT. ROST/CPT technology has recently been utilized in a variety of field and soil conditions. These advances, along with the need for rapid in-situ information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) have resulted in equipment that is now available for commercial applications. This paper presents a comparison of ROST/CPT to more conventional characterization methods at a manufacturing site in Nebraska. Various PHCs were stored in underground and above ground storage tanks across the site. One of these PHC spill areas consisting of a mixture of diesel fuel oil and kerosene was selected for a comparative study between various site assessment methods

  19. Regional and longitudinal estimation of product lifespan distribution: a case study for automobiles and a simplified estimation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Fuse, Masaaki

    2015-02-03

    Product lifespan estimates are important information for understanding progress toward sustainable consumption and estimating the stocks and end-of-life flows of products. Publications reported actual lifespan of products; however, quantitative data are still limited for many countries and years. This study presents regional and longitudinal estimation of lifespan distribution of consumer durables, taking passenger cars as an example, and proposes a simplified method for estimating product lifespan distribution. We estimated lifespan distribution parameters for 17 countries based on the age profile of in-use cars. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the shape parameter of the lifespan distribution can be replaced by a constant value for all the countries and years. This enabled a simplified estimation that does not require detailed data on the age profile. Applying the simplified method, we estimated the trend in average lifespans of passenger cars from 2000 to 2009 for 20 countries. Average lifespan differed greatly between countries (9-23 years) and was increasing in many countries. This suggests consumer behavior differs greatly among countries and has changed over time, even in developed countries. The results suggest that inappropriate assumptions of average lifespan may cause significant inaccuracy in estimating the stocks and end-of-life flows of products.

  20. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive......In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  1. Enhancing the management of the noise level using six sigma method: a case study on the machining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimantho, D.; Hanantya, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    The hearing disorder is caused by noises in the workplace, it has been a concern for numerous researchers. This study aims to improve the performance of the management of the noise level by applying the six sigma method. Data collection is done directly by using a sound level meter. In addition, several key informants also used in order to gather information related to the problem. The results showed the values of Cp and Cpk on the entire department are still below the recommended value. Moreover, the results also showed the potential failure (DPMO) approximately 115,260.6 and equivalent to the Sigma value is approximately 2.70. Furthermore, the highest value of the RPN in FMEA analysis is the workers not wear factor of earplug which is about 56. Thus, it is necessary to make enhancements to the process of managing the noise level in the framework of continuous improvement.

  2. Managing Operational Risk Related to Microfinance Lending Process using Fuzzy Inference System based on the FMEA Method: Moroccan Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaoui Youssef Lamrani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing operational risk efficiently is a critical factor of microfinance institutions (MFIs to get a financial and social return. The purpose of this paper is to identify, assess and prioritize the root causes of failure within the microfinance lending process (MLP especially in Moroccan microfinance institutions. Considering the limitation of traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA method in assessing and classifying risks, the methodology adopted in this study focuses on developing a fuzzy logic inference system (FLIS based on (FMEA. This approach can take into account the subjectivity of risk indicators and the insufficiency of statistical data. The results show that the Moroccan MFIs need to focus more on customer relationship management and give more importance to their staff training, to clients screening as well as to their business analysis.

  3. Case study of a non-destructive treatment method for the remediation of military structures containing polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Erin K H; Gittings, Michael J; Novaes-Card, Simone; Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian; O'Hara, Suzanne; Yestrebsky, Cherie L

    2015-08-01

    Restricted by federal regulations and limited remediation options, buildings contaminated with paint laden with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have high costs associated with the disposal of hazardous materials. As opposed to current remediation methods which are often destructive and a risk to the surrounding environment, this study suggests a non-metal treatment system (NMTS) and a bimetallic treatment system (BTS) as versatile remediation options for painted industrial structures including concrete buildings, and metal machine parts. In this field study, four areas of a discontinued Department of Defense site were treated and monitored over 3 weeks. PCB levels in paint and treatment system samples were analyzed through gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations were reduced by 95 percent on painted concrete and by 60-97 percent on painted metal with the majority of the PCB removal occurring within the first week of application. Post treatment laboratory studies including the utilization of an activated metal treatment system (AMTS) further degraded PCBs in BTS and NMTS by up to 82 percent and 99 percent, respectively, indicating that a two-step remediation option is viable. These findings demonstrate that the NMTS and BTS can be an effective, nondestructive, remediation process for large painted structures, allowing for the reuse or sale of remediated materials that otherwise may have been disposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Environmental Flows in Rivers Using Hydrological Methods (Case study: The Barandozchi River- Urmia Lake Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mostafavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Development of water resources projects are accompanied by several environmental impacts, among them, the changes in the natural flow regime and the reduction of downstream water flows. With respect to the water shortages and non-uniform distribution of rainfall, sustainable management of water resources would be inevitable. In order to prevent negative effects on long-term river ecosystems, it is necessary to preserve the ecological requirements of the river systems. The assessment of environmental flow requirements in a river ecosystem is a challenging practice all over the world, and in particular, in developing countries such as Iran. Environmental requirements of rivers are often defined as a suite of flow discharges of certain magnitude, timing, frequency and duration. These flows ensure a flow regime capable of sustaining a complex set of aquatic habitats and ecosystem processes and are referred to as "environmental flows". There are several methods for determining environmental flows. The majority of these methods can be grouped into four reasonably distinct categories, namely as: hydrological, hydraulic rating, habitat simulation (or rating, and holistic methodologies. However, the current knowledge of river ecology and existing data on the needs of aquatic habitats for water quantity and quality is very limited. It is considered that there is no unique and universal method to adapt to different rivers and/or different reaches in a river. The main aim of the present study was to provide with a framework to determine environmental flow requirements of a typical perennial river using eco-hydrological methods. The Barandozchi River was selected as an important water body in the Urmia Lake Basin, Iran. The preservation of the river lives, the restoration of the internationally recognized Urmia Lake, and the elimination of negative impact from the construction of the Barandoz dam on this river were the main concerns in this

  5. Key Techniques and Risk Management for the Application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA Excavation Method: A Case Study of the Zhongjie Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ping Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area.

  6. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.

  7. Nuclear forensics case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedchenko, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share three case studies from the Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) which describe the application of nuclear forensics to events where nuclear and other radioactive material was found to be out of regulatory control

  8. SCA12 case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 1. Utilizing linkage disequilibrium information from Indian Genome Variation Database for mapping mutations: SCA12 case study. Samira Bahl Ikhlak Ahmed The Indian Genome Variation Consortium Mitali Mukerji. Research Article Volume 88 Issue 1 April 2009 pp 55- ...

  9. national Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This national case study reports on the development of a national network, ... system under the new policy), tends to be limited by content on problems and ... 20 credit programme; and within two Post Graduate Certificate of Education contexts, ...... descriptive with an issues focus (empirical) towards awareness production to.

  10. Comparison of equivalent linear and non linear methods on ground response analysis: case study at West Bangka site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Rudi Iswanto; Eric Yee

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of identifying NPP sites, site surveys are performed in West Bangka (WB), Bangka-Belitung Island Province. Ground response analysis of a potential site has been carried out using peak strain profiles and peak ground acceleration. The objective of this research is to compare Equivalent Linear (EQL) and Non Linear (NL) methods of ground response analysis on the selected NPP site (West Bangka) using Deep Soil software. Equivalent linear method is widely used because requires soil data in simple way and short time of computational process. On the other hand, non linear method is capable of representing the actual soil behaviour by considering non linear soil parameter. The results showed that EQL method has similar trends to NL method. At surface layer, the acceleration values for EQL and NL methods are resulted as 0.425 g and 0.375 g respectively. NL method is more reliable in capturing higher frequencies of spectral acceleration compared to EQL method. (author)

  11. A Case Study Improvement of a Testing Process by Combining Lean Management, Industrial Engineering and Automation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Withers

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly competitive market environments have forced not only large manufacturing, but also smalland-medium size enterprises (SME to look for means to improve their operations in order to increase competitive strength. This paper presents an adaptation and adoption by a UK SME engineering service organisation, of lean management, industrial engineering, and automation metods developed within larger organisations. This SME sought to improve the overall performance of one of its core testing processes. An exploratory analysis, based on the lean management concept of “value added” and work measurement technique “time study”, was developed and carried out in order to understand the current performance of a testing process for gas turbine fuel flow dividers. A design for the automation of some operations of the testing process was followed as an approach to reduce non-value added activities, and improve the overall efficiency of the testing process. The overall testing time was reduced from 12.41 to 7.93 hours (36.09 percent while the man hours and non-value added time were also reduced from 23.91 to 12.94 hours (45.87 percent and from 11.08 to 6.69 (39.67 percent hours respectively. This resulted in an increase in process efficiency in terms of man hours from 51.91 to 61.28 percent. The contribution of this paper resides in presenting a case study that can be used as a guiding reference for managers and engineers to undertake improvement projects, in their organisations, similar to the one presented in this paper.

  12. Human-centered approaches in geovisualization design: investigating multiple methods through a long-term case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David; Dykes, Jason

    2011-12-01

    Working with three domain specialists we investigate human-centered approaches to geovisualization following an ISO13407 taxonomy covering context of use, requirements and early stages of design. Our case study, undertaken over three years, draws attention to repeating trends: that generic approaches fail to elicit adequate requirements for geovis application design; that the use of real data is key to understanding needs and possibilities; that trust and knowledge must be built and developed with collaborators. These processes take time but modified human-centred approaches can be effective. A scenario developed through contextual inquiry but supplemented with domain data and graphics is useful to geovis designers. Wireframe, paper and digital prototypes enable successful communication between specialist and geovis domains when incorporating real and interesting data, prompting exploratory behaviour and eliciting previously unconsidered requirements. Paper prototypes are particularly successful at eliciting suggestions, especially for novel visualization. Enabling specialists to explore their data freely with a digital prototype is as effective as using a structured task protocol and is easier to administer. Autoethnography has potential for framing the design process. We conclude that a common understanding of context of use, domain data and visualization possibilities are essential to successful geovis design and develop as this progresses. HC approaches can make a significant contribution here. However, modified approaches, applied with flexibility, are most promising. We advise early, collaborative engagement with data – through simple, transient visual artefacts supported by data sketches and existing designs – before moving to successively more sophisticated data wireframes and data prototypes. © 2011 IEEE

  13. The Development of Case Studies as a Method within a Longitudinal Study of Special Educational Needs Provision in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Richard; Shevlin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    When developing case studies within a longitudinal study of special educational needs provision within the Republic of Ireland, the authors were conscious of the critiques of the use of this approach within educational research. The difficulties associated with generalisation, challenges of ensuring trustworthiness and the possibilities of…

  14. A simple method to estimate radiation interception by nursery stock conifers: a case study of eastern white cedar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Goudriaan, J.; Stilma, E.S.C.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method was developed to estimate the fraction radiation intercepted by small eastern white cedar plants (Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant'). The method, which describes the crop canopy as rows of cuboids, was compared with methods used for estimating radiation interception by crops with

  15. MRI case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggett, S.; Barber, J.

    1989-01-01

    Three case studies are presented to show the value of magnetic resonance imaging used in conjunction with other imaging techniques. In each case MRI proved a vital diagnostic tool and superior to CT in showing firstly the haematoma in a patient with aphasia and right-sided weakness, secondly the size of the disc herniation in a patient with severe leg and ankle pains and thirdly the existence of a metastatic lesion in a patient with a previous history of breast cancer. 11 figs

  16. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows using the analytic hierarchy process method − A case study in Subao river valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhang Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many debris flows have occurred in the areas surrounding the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows in this area is especially important for disaster prevention and mitigation. This paper studies one of the worst hit areas, the Subao river valley, and the susceptibility assessment of debris flows is performed based on field surveys and remote sensing interpretation. By investigating the formation conditions of debris flows in the valley, the following assessment factors are selected: mixture density of landslides and rock avalanches, distance to the seismogenic fault, stratum lithology, ground roughness, and hillside angle. The weights of the assessment factors are determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method. Each of the assessment factors is further divided into five grades. Then, the assessment model is built using the multifactor superposition method to assess the debris flow susceptibility. Based on the assessment results, the Subao river valley is divided into three areas: high susceptibility areas, medium susceptibility areas, and low susceptibility areas. The high susceptibility areas are concentrated in the middle of the valley, accounting for 17.6% of the valley area. The medium susceptibility areas are in the middle and lower reaches, most of which are located on both sides of the high susceptibility areas and account for 45.3% of the valley area. The remainders are classified as low susceptibility areas. The results of the model are in accordance with the actual debris flow events that occurred after the earthquake in the valley, confirming that the proposed model is capable of assessing the debris flow susceptibility. The results can also provide guidance for reconstruction planning and debris flow prevention in the Subao river valley.

  17. Direct comparison of phase-sensitive vibrational sum frequency generation with maximum entropy method: case study of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Alex G F; Samson, Jean-Sebastièn; Hua, Wei; Huang, Zishuai; Chen, Xiangke; Allen, Heather C; Roke, Sylvie

    2011-12-14

    We present a direct comparison of phase sensitive sum-frequency generation experiments with phase reconstruction obtained by the maximum entropy method. We show that both methods lead to the same complex spectrum. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of these methods, analyzing possible sources of experimental and analytical errors. A simulation program for maximum entropy phase reconstruction is available at: http://lbp.epfl.ch/. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  18. Supplier Risk Assessment Based on Best-Worst Method and K-Means Clustering: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Er Kara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Supplier evaluation and selection is one of the most critical strategic decisions for developing a competitive and sustainable organization. Companies have to consider supplier related risks and threats in their purchasing decisions. In today’s competitive and risky business environment, it is very important to work with reliable suppliers. This study proposes a clustering based approach to group suppliers based on their risk profile. Suppliers of a company in the heavy-machinery sector are assessed based on 17 qualitative and quantitative risk types. The weights of the criteria are determined by using the Best-Worst method. Four factors are extracted by applying Factor Analysis to the supplier risk data. Then k-means clustering algorithm is applied to group core suppliers of the company based on the four risk factors. Three clusters are created with different risk exposure levels. The interpretation of the results provides insights for risk management actions and supplier development programs to mitigate supplier risk.

  19. Mapping erosion susceptibility by a multivariate statistical method: A case study from the Ayvalık region, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Aykut; Türk, Necdet

    2011-09-01

    Erosion is one of the most important natural hazard phenomena in the world, and it poses a significant threat to Turkey in terms of land degredation and desertification. To cope with this problem, we must determine which areas are erosion-prone. Many studies have been carried out and different models and methods have been used to this end. In this study, we used a logistic regression to prepare an erosion susceptibility map for the Ayvalık region in Balıkesir (NW Turkey). The following were our assessment parameters: weathering grades of rocks, slope gradient, structural lineament density, drainage density, land cover, stream power index (SPI) and profile curvature. These were processed by Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS software. We used logistic regression analysis to relate predictor variables to the occurrence or non-occurrence of gully erosion sites within geographic cells, and then we used this relationship to produce a probability map for future erosion sites. The results indicate that lineament density, weathering grades of rocks and drainage density are the most important variables governing erosion susceptibility. Other variables, such as land cover and slope gradient, were revealed as secondary important variables. Highly weathered basalt, andesite, basaltic andesite and lacustrine sediments were the units most susceptible to erosion. In order to calculate the prediction accuracy of the erosion susceptibility map generated, we compared it with the map showing the gully erosion areas. On the basis of this comparison, the area under curvature (AUC) value was found to be 0.81. This result suggests that the erosion susceptibility map we generated is accurate.

  20. An Improved dem Construction Method for Mudflats Based on BJ-1 Small Satellite Images: a Case Study on Bohai Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Du, Y.; Su, F.; Huang, W.; Zhang, L.

    2018-04-01

    The topographic measurement of muddy tidal flat is restricted by the difficulty of access to the complex, wide-range and dynamic tidal conditions. Then the waterline detection method (WDM) has the potential to investigate the morph-dynamics quantitatively by utilizing large archives of satellite images. The study explores the potential for using WDM with BJ-1 small satellite images to construct a digital elevation model (DEM) of a wide and grading mudflat. Three major conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) A new intelligent correlating model of waterline detection considering different tidal stages and local geographic conditions was explored. With this correlative algorithm waterline detection model, a series of waterlines were extracted from multi-temporal remotely sensing images collected over the period of a year. The model proved to detect waterlines more efficiently and exactly. (2) The spatial structure of elevation superimposing on the points of waterlines was firstly constructed and a more accurate hydrodynamic ocean tide grid model was used. By the newly constructed abnormal hydrology evaluation model, a more reasonable and reliable set of waterline points was acquired to construct a smoother TIN and GRID DEM. (3) DEM maps of Bohai Bay, with a spatial resolution of about 30 m and height accuracy of about 0.35 m considering LiDAR and 0.19 m considering RTK surveying were constructed over an area of about 266 km2. Results show that remote sensing research in extremely turbid estuaries and tidal areas is possible and is an effective tool for monitoring the tidal flats.

  1. Methods for calculations of potential and producible associated with marine energies: case studies in the Channel - Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, Sebastien; Chotard, David; Mazeiraud, Vincent; Garcia, Nicolas; Saillard, Thibault; Mensencal, Yvon; Mouslim, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the development of Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) in recent years and demand from regional public authorities to evaluate the energy potential of their coastal domains, it was necessary to design an integrated tool for determining, at the scale of a site and then a region, first the gross resource per energy type and then its technical potential followed by its technico-economic potential. In response to this need, Artelia mobilised its experts in maritime and river hydraulics and in energy with the aim of developing a tool dedicated to calculating MRE production capacities. With this operational objective in mind, ARTELIA undertook R and D actions in order to determine the state of the art in calculation methods and in tools already developed and in use in other European countries spearheading this activity, especially the United Kingdom (Atlas of UK Marine Renewable Energy Resources, ABPmer,) and the United States (in particular the work of the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute)). The tool was then developed and applied successively in the framework of calculating the MRE potential of the coastal domain of the Poitou-Charentes region (client: Poitou-Charentes regional council), then through study assessments performed on the marine current power potential of Lower Normandy (client: DREAL Basse-Normandie) and on the MRE potential of the Aquitaine coast (client: Aquitaine regional council - GIP Littoral Aquitain). The tool allows for the assessment of the resources, technical and techno-economic potentials It has been applied to the following topics: marine current power (offshore and in estuaries and rivers), wave power (offshore, near-shore and coastal) and wind power (offshore and floating turbines). This article provides a brief summary of the various aspects of the tool implemented, illustrated through a few examples drawn from the studies referred to above. (authors)

  2. Cost of unreliability method to estimate loss of revenue based on unreliability data: Case study of Printing Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    alhilman, Judi

    2017-12-01

    In the production line process of the printing office, the reliability of the printing machine plays a very important role, if the machine fail it can disrupt production target so that the company will suffer huge financial loss. One method to calculate the financial loss cause by machine failure is use the Cost of Unreliability(COUR) method. COUR method works based on down time machine and costs associated with unreliability data. Based on the calculation of COUR method, so the sum of cost due to unreliability printing machine during active repair time and downtime is 1003,747.00.

  3. An Effectiveness Of Vark Questionnaire In Determining The Most Suitable Teaching Method For Private Course Student : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fietra, Yoana Tasya

    2016-01-01

    The title of this thesis is An Effectiveness of VARK Questionnaire in Determining The Most Suitable Teaching Method for Private Course Student. For many years, the goal of language pedagogy was to find the right method. As a teacher, must understand how to teach their student in a good way by selecting a suitable method. I used VARK questionnaire version (7.8). to know what the most suitable teaching method will use for the student based on the student’s learning style. VARK is the kind of ps...

  4. Comparing effects of fire modeling methods on simulated fire patterns and succession: a case study in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Yang; Hong S. He; Brian R. Sturtevant; Brian R. Miranda; Eric J. Gustafson

    2008-01-01

    We compared four fire spread simulation methods (completely random, dynamic percolation. size-based minimum travel time algorithm. and duration-based minimum travel time algorithm) and two fire occurrence simulation methods (Poisson fire frequency model and hierarchical fire frequency model) using a two-way factorial design. We examined these treatment effects on...

  5. Comparison of two occurrence risk assessment methods for collapse gully erosion ——A case study in Guangdong province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Cheng, D. B.; He, J. J.; Zhao, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    Collapse gully erosion is a specific type of soil erosion in the red soil region of southern China, and early warning and prevention of the occurrence of collapse gully erosion is very important. Based on the idea of risk assessment, this research, taking Guangdong province as an example, adopt the information acquisition analysis and the logistic regression analysis, to discuss the feasibility for collapse gully erosion risk assessment in regional scale, and compare the applicability of the different risk assessment methods. The results show that in the Guangdong province, the risk degree of collapse gully erosion occurrence is high in northeastern and western area, and relatively low in southwestern and central part. The comparing analysis of the different risk assessment methods on collapse gully also indicated that the risk distribution patterns from the different methods were basically consistent. However, the accuracy of risk map from the information acquisition analysis method was slightly better than that from the logistic regression analysis method.

  6. Automatic Annotation Method on Learners' Opinions in Case Method Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, Masaki; Hisakane, Daichi; Komoda, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to annotate an attribute of a problem, a solution or no annotation on learners' opinions automatically for supporting the learners' discussion without a facilitator. The case method aims at discussing problems and solutions in a target case. However, the learners miss discussing some of problems and solutions.…

  7. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. RUNOFF HYDROGRAPHS USING SNYDER AND SCS SYNTHETIC UNIT HYDROGRAPH METHODS: A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED RIVERS IN SOUTH WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahab Adebayo Salami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of runoff hydrographs for selected rivers in Ogun-Osun river catchment, south west, Nigeria using Snyder and Soil Conservation Service (SCS methods of synthetic unit hydrograph to determine the ordinates. The Soil Conservation Service (SCS curve Number method was used to estimate the excess rainfall from storm of different return periods. The peak runoff hydrographs were determined by convoluting the unit hydrographs ordinates with the excess rainfall and the value of peak flows obtained by both Snyder and SCS methods observed to vary from one river watershed to the other. The peak runoff hydrograph flows obtained based on the unit hydrograph ordinate determined with Snyder method for 20-yr, 50-yr, 100-yr, 200-yr and 500-yr, return period varied from 112.63m3/s and 13364.30m3/s, while those based on the SCS method varied from 304.43m3/s and 6466.84m3/s for the eight watersheds. However, the percentage difference shows that for values of peak flows obtained with Snyder and SCS methods varies from 13.14% to 63.30%. However, SCS method is recommended to estimate the ordinate required for the development of peak runoff hydrograph in the river watersheds because it utilized additional morphometric parameters such as watershed slope and the curve number (CN which is a function of the properties of the soil and vegetation cover of the watershed.

  9. Evaluation of MRI acquisition workflow with lean six sigma method: case study of liver and knee examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christopher J; Boll, Daniel T; Wall, Lisa K; Merkle, Elmar M

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess workflow for medical imaging studies, specifically comparing liver and knee MRI examinations by use of the Lean Six Sigma methodologic framework. The hypothesis tested was that the Lean Six Sigma framework can be used to quantify MRI workflow and to identify sources of inefficiency to target for sequence and protocol improvement. Audio-video interleave streams representing individual acquisitions were obtained with graphic user interface screen capture software in the examinations of 10 outpatients undergoing MRI of the liver and 10 outpatients undergoing MRI of the knee. With Lean Six Sigma methods, the audio-video streams were dissected into value-added time (true image data acquisition periods), business value-added time (time spent that provides no direct patient benefit but is requisite in the current system), and non-value-added time (scanner inactivity while awaiting manual input). For overall MRI table time, value-added time was 43.5% (range, 39.7-48.3%) of the time for liver examinations and 89.9% (range, 87.4-93.6%) for knee examinations. Business value-added time was 16.3% of the table time for the liver and 4.3% of the table time for the knee examinations. Non-value-added time was 40.2% of the overall table time for the liver and 5.8% for the knee examinations. Liver MRI examinations consume statistically significantly more non-value-added and business value-added times than do knee examinations, primarily because of respiratory command management and contrast administration. Workflow analyses and accepted inefficiency reduction frameworks can be applied with use of a graphic user interface screen capture program.

  10. Case study - Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the lecture Case Study - Czechoslovakia with the sub-title 'Unified System of Personnel Preparation for Nuclear Programme in Czechoslovakia' the actual status and the current experience of NPP personnel training and preparation in Czechoslovakia are introduced. The above mentioned training system is presented and demonstrated by the story of a proxy person who is going to become shift engineer in a nuclear power plant in Czechoslovakia. (orig./HP)

  11. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  12. Using Convective Stratiform Technique (CST) method to estimate rainfall (case study in Bali, December 14th 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vista Wulandari, Ayu; Rizki Pratama, Khafid; Ismail, Prayoga

    2018-05-01

    Accurate and realtime data in wide spatial space at this time is still a problem because of the unavailability of observation of rainfall in each region. Weather satellites have a very wide range of observations and can be used to determine rainfall variability with better resolution compared with a limited direct observation. Utilization of Himawari-8 satellite data in estimating rainfall using Convective Stratiform Technique (CST) method. The CST method is performed by separating convective and stratiform cloud components using infrared channel satellite data. Cloud components are classified by slope because the physical and dynamic growth processes are very different. This research was conducted in Bali area on December 14, 2016 by verifying the result of CST process with rainfall data from Ngurah Rai Meteorology Station Bali. It is found that CST method result had simililar value with data observation in Ngurah Rai meteorological station, so it assumed that CST method can be used for rainfall estimation in Bali region.

  13. Evaluating the economic benefits of nonmotorized transportation : case studies and methods for the nonmotorized transportation pilot program communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report examines potential methods for evaluating the economic benefits from nonmotorized transportation investments. The variety of potential economic benefits of bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure and programming investments discussed includ...

  14. Using classification and NDVI differencing methods for monitoring sparse vegetation coverage: a case study of saltcedar in Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A change detection experiment for an invasive species, saltcedar, near Lovelock, Nevada, was conducted with multi-date Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral datasets. Classification and NDVI differencing change detection methods were tested, In the classification strategy, a p...

  15. Private providers' knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions related to long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods: a case study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaz, Jorge; Banke, Kathryn; Rahaim, Stephen; Chowdhury, Wahiduzzaman; Williams, Julie

    2016-11-01

    In Bangladesh, use of long-acting and permanent methods of contraception (LAPMs) remains stagnant. Providers' limited knowledge and biases may be a factor. We assessed private providers' knowledge, misconceptions and general attitudes towards LAPM in two urban areas. The ultimate goal is to shape programs and interventions to overcome these obstacles and improve full method choice in Bangladesh. Trained data collectors interviewed a convenience sample of 235 female doctors (obstetricians-gynecologists and general practitioners) and 150 female nurses from 194 commercial (for-profit) health care facilities in Chittagong City Corporation and Dhaka district. Data were collected on the nature of the practice, training received, knowledge about modern contraceptives and attitudes towards LAPM [including intrauterine device (IUDs), implants, female and male sterilization]. All providers, and especially doctors, lacked adequate knowledge regarding side effects for all LAPMs, particularly female and male sterilization. Providers had misconceptions about the effectiveness and convenience of LAPMs compared to short-acting contraceptive methods. Implants and IUDs were generally perceived more negatively than other methods. The majority of providers believed that husbands favor short-acting methods rather than LAPMs and that women should not use a method that their husbands do not approve of. Our findings document knowledge and attitudinal barriers among private for-profit providers in urban areas affecting their provision of accurate information about LAPM choices. Practitioners should be offered the necessary tools to provide women full access to all modern methods, especially LAPMs, in order to contribute to decreasing unmet need and improving full method choice in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A simple method to estimate radiation interception by nursery stock conifers: a case study of eastern white cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronk, A.A.; Goudriaan, J.; Stilma, E.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method was developed to estimate the fraction radiation intercepted by small eastern white cedar plants (Thuja occidentalis ‘Brabant’). The method, which describes the crop canopy as rows of cuboids, was compared with methods used for estimating radiation interception by crops with homogeneous canopies and crops grown in rows. The extinction coefficient k was determined at different plant arrangements and an average k-value of 0.48 ± 0.03 (R 2 = 0.89) was used in the calculations. Effects of changing plant characteristics and inter- and intra-row plant distances were explored. The fraction radiation intercepted that was estimated with the method for rows of cuboids was up to 20% and for row crops up to 8% lower than estimated with the method for homogeneous canopies at low plant densities and a LAI of 1. The fraction radiation intercepted by small plants of Thuja occidentalis ‘Brabant’ was best estimated by the simple method described in this paper

  17. A business case method for business models

    OpenAIRE

    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Starreveld, E.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Shishkov, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Intuitively, business cases and business models are closely connected. However, a thorough literature review revealed no research on the combination of them. Besides that, little is written on the evaluation of business models at all. This makes it difficult to compare different business model alternatives and choose the best one. In this article, we develop a business case method to objectively compare business models. It is an eight-step method, starting with business drivers and ending wit...

  18. Paired methods to measure biofilm killing and removal: a case study with Penicillin G treatment of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausbacher, D; Lorenz, L; Pitts, B; Stewart, P S; Goeres, D M

    2018-03-01

    Biofilms are microbial aggregates that show high tolerance to antibiotic treatments in vitro and in vivo. Killing and removal are both important in biofilm control, therefore methods that measure these two mechanisms were evaluated in a parallel experimental design. Kill was measured using the single tube method (ASTM method E2871) and removal was determined by video microscopy and image analysis using a new treatment flow cell. The advantage of the parallel test design is that both methods used biofilm covered coupons harvested from a CDC biofilm reactor, a well-established and standardized biofilm growth method. The control Staphylococcus aureus biofilms treated with growth medium increased by 0·6 logs during a 3-h contact time. Efficacy testing showed biofilms exposed to 400 μmol l -1 penicillin G decreased by only 0·3 logs. Interestingly, time-lapse confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that penicillin G treatment dispersed the biofilm despite being an ineffective killing agent. In addition, no biofilm removal was detected when assays were performed in 96-well plates. These results illustrate that biofilm behaviour and impact of treatments can vary substantially when assayed by different methods. Measuring both killing and removal with well-characterized methods will be crucial for the discovery of new anti-biofilm strategies. Biofilms are tolerant to antimicrobial treatments and can lead to persistent infections. Finding new anti-biofilm strategies and understanding their mode-of-action is therefore of high importance. Historically, antimicrobial testing has focused on measuring the decrease in viability. While kill data are undeniably important, measuring biofilm disruption provides equally useful information. Starting with biofilm grown in the same reactor, we paired assessment of biofilm removal using a new treatment-flow-cell and real-time microscopy with kill data collected using the single tube method (ASTM E2871). Pairing these two methods

  19. Area 11 case study of radionuclide movement by storm channel erosion: A baseline method and initial evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Gouveia, F.J.; Patton, S.E.; Fry, C.O.

    1993-04-01

    At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where radionuclide contamination is found in surface soils, there is potential for water erosion to move radionuclides beyond the boundaries of controlled areas and into channels cut by infrequent storms. This loss of control and the increased risk of further movement are issues which require the development of a method for the quantitative monitoring of contamination and calculation of the radionuclide-movement rate. In this report the authors develop a method which is used to measure the amount and rate of movement of americium-241 ( 241 Am) in a storm channel, and which offers special features for establishment of baseline concentrations. This method was applied to the standing problem of the erosion of the plutonium contaminated open-quotes ground zeroclose quotes area of site open-quotes 11Dclose quotes in Area 11 of NTS. By establishing 241 Am concentrations in the storm channel, the concentrations of 239+240 Pu can also be calculated using a previously determined 239+240 Pu/ 241 Am ratio from soil samples collected in Area 11. The method utilizes systematic field surveys with a field instrument for detection of low-energy radiation (FIDLER), and provides a computational method which, when validated, could become a standard procedure for monitoring radionuclide movement in the washes and storm channels throughout the NTS

  20. An Application of a Stochastic Semi-Continuous Simulation Method for Flood Frequency Analysis: A Case Study in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Paquet, Emmanuel

    2017-09-01

    A reliable estimate of extreme flood characteristics has always been an active topic in hydrological research. Over the decades a large number of approaches and their modifications have been proposed and used, with various methods utilizing continuous simulation of catchment runoff, being the subject of the most intensive research in the last decade. In this paper a new and promising stochastic semi-continuous method is used to estimate extreme discharges in two mountainous Slovak catchments of the rivers Váh and Hron, in which snow-melt processes need to be taken into account. The SCHADEX method used, couples a precipitation probabilistic model with a rainfall-runoff model used to both continuously simulate catchment hydrological conditions and to transform generated synthetic rainfall events into corresponding discharges. The stochastic nature of the method means that a wide range of synthetic rainfall events were simulated on various historical catchment conditions, taking into account not only the saturation of soil, but also the amount of snow accumulated in the catchment. The results showed that the SCHADEX extreme discharge estimates with return periods of up to 100 years were comparable to those estimated by statistical approaches. In addition, two reconstructed historical floods with corresponding return periods of 100 and 1000 years were compared to the SCHADEX estimates. The results confirmed the usability of the method for estimating design discharges with a recurrence interval of more than 100 years and its applicability in Slovak conditions.

  1. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE USING MECHANISTIC EMPIRICAL METHOD (CASE STUDY: CIREBON–LOSARI ROAD SEGMENT, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cirebon – Losari flexible pavement which is located on the North Coast of Java, Indonesia, is in the severe damage condition caused by overloading vehicles passing the road. The need for developing improved pavement design and analysis methods is very necessary. The increment of loads and quality of material properties can be evaluated through Mechanistic-Empirical (M-E method. M-E software like KENLAYER has been developed to facilitate the transition from empirical to mechanistic design methods. From the KENLAYER analysis, it can be concluded that the effect of overloading to the pavement structure performance is difficult to minimize even though the first two layers have relatively high modulus of elasticity. The occurrence of 150%, 200%, and 250% overloading have a very significant effect in reducing 84%, 95%, and 98% of the pavement design life, respectively. For the purpose of increasing the pavement service life, it is more effective to manage the allowable load.

  2. Estimation of Soil Erosion by Using Magnetic Method: A Case Study of an Agricultural Field in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, E.; Grison, H.; Kapicka, A.; Dlouha, S.; Kodesova, R.; Jaksik, O.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we have applied magnetism of soils for estimation of erosion at an agricultural land. The testing site is situated in loess region in Southern Moravia (in Central Europe). The approach is based on well-established method of differentiation of magnetic parameters of the topsoil and the subsoil horizons as a result of in situ formation of strongly magnetic iron oxides. Our founding is established on a simple tillage homogenization model described by Royall (2001) using magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence to estimate soil loss caused by the tillage and subsequent erosion. The original dominant Soil Unit in the investigated area is Haplic Chernozem, which is due to intensive erosion progressively transformed into different Soil Units. The site is characterized by a flat upper part while the middle part, formed by a substantive side valley, is steeper (up to 15°). The side valley represents a major line of concentrated runoff emptying into a colluvial fan. Field measurements of the topsoil volume magnetic susceptibility were carried out by the Bartington MS2D probe. Data are resulting in regular grid of 101 data points, where the bulk soil material was gathered for further laboratory investigations. Moreover, vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility (deep to 40 cm) was measured on selected transects using the SM400 kappameter. In the laboratory, after drying and sieving of collected soil samples, mass-specific magnetic susceptibility and its frequency-dependent susceptibility was measured. In order to identify magnetic minerals the thermomagnetic analyses were performed using the AGICO KLY-4S Kappabridge with CS-3 furnace. Hysteresis loops were carried out on vibrating magnetometer ADE EV9 to assess the grain-size distribution of ferrimagnetic particles. Hereafter, the isothermal remanent magnetization acqusition followed by D.C. demagnetization were done. All these laboratory magnetic measurements were performed in order to

  3. Missed opportunities for impact in patient and carer involvement: a mixed methods case study of research priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, R; Crocker, J C; Crowe, S

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers want to listen more to patients and their carers in all sorts of areas of healthcare. This can include choosing topics for medical research. We looked at how patients and carers have helped to choose topics for research about type I diabetes. We aimed to find out if, and why, researchers often rejected their choices. We looked at a project which brought together patients, carers and healthcare workers to choose topics for research about type 1 diabetes. The group first asked patients, carers and healthcare workers to suggest ideas for research questions. But the group had to follow rules about what counted as a good research question. Some people's ideas did not count as good research questions, and they were rejected at the start. We looked at who were most likely to have their ideas rejected at the start. We found that patients and carers were most likely to have a suggestion rejected. Then we looked at the rejected questions in detail. They were mostly about curing diabetes, preventing diabetes and understanding how diabetes works. There were also some questions about access to medicines and the quality of care. Researchers should ask patients and carers for help deciding what counts as a good research question from the start of projects like these. We should also think about what might be getting in the way of patients and carers making more of a difference in research. Background Patients and carers are increasingly involved in deciding on topics for medical research. However, so far, it has been difficult to gain an accurate picture of the impact of such involvement because of poor reporting and evaluation in published studies to date. This study aimed to explore how a partnership of patients, carers, healthcare professionals and organisations identified questions for future research and why patients and carers had a limited impact on this process. Methods In the first stage of the partnership process, relevant service users and providers

  4. Sampling methods in archaeomagnetic dating: A comparison using case studies from Wörterberg, Eisenerz and Gams Valley (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapanese, A.; Batt, C. M.; Schnepp, E.

    The aim of this research was to review the relative merits of different methods of taking samples for archaeomagnetic dating. To allow different methods to be investigated, two archaeological structures and one modern fireplace were sampled in Austria. On each structure a variety of sampling methods were used: the tube and disc techniques of Clark et al. (Clark, A.J., Tarling, D.H., Noel, M., 1988. Developments in archaeomagnetic dating in Great Britain. Journal of Archaeological Science 15, 645-667), the drill core technique, the mould plastered hand block method of Thellier, and a modification of it. All samples were oriented with a magnetic compass and sun compass, where weather conditions allowed. Approximately 12 discs, tubes, drill cores or plaster hand blocks were collected from each structure, with one mould plaster hand block being collected and cut into specimens. The natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) of the samples was measured and stepwise alternating field (AF) or thermal demagnetisation was applied. Samples were measured either in the UK or in Austria, which allowed the comparison of results between magnetometers with different sensitivity. The tubes and plastered hand block specimens showed good agreement in directional results, and the samples obtained showed good stability. The discs proved to be unreliable as both NRM and the characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) distribution were very scattered. The failure of some methods may be related to the suitability of the material sampled, for example if it was disturbed before sampling, had been insufficiently heated or did not contain appropriate magnetic minerals to retain a remanent magnetisation. Caution is also recommended for laboratory procedures as the cutting of poorly consolidated specimens may disturb the material and therefore the remanent magnetisation. Criteria and guidelines were established to aid researchers in selecting the most appropriate method for a particular

  5. Applying Clustering Methods in Drawing Maps of Science: Case Study of the Map For Urban Management Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abuei Ardakan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a basic introduction to data clustering and demonstrates the application of clustering methods in drawing maps of science. All approaches towards classification and clustering of information are briefly discussed. Their application to the process of visualization of conceptual information and drawing of science maps are illustrated by reviewing similar researches in this field. By implementing aggregated hierarchical clustering algorithm, which is an algorithm based on complete-link method, the map for urban management science as an emerging, interdisciplinary scientific field is analyzed and reviewed.

  6. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  7. A method for locating potential tree-planting sites in urban areas: a case study of Los Angeles, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxia Wua; Qingfu Xiaoa; Gregory E. McPherson

    2008-01-01

    A GIS-based method for locating potential tree-planting sites based on land cover data is introduced. Criteria were developed to identify locations that are spatially available for potential tree planting based on land cover, sufficient distance from impervious surfaces, a minimum amount of pervious surface, and no crown overlap with other trees. In an ArcGIS...

  8. Rotational Critique System as a Method of Culture Change in an Architecture Design Studio: Urban Design Studio as Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasli, Mukaddes; Hassanpour, Badiossadat

    2017-01-01

    In this century, all educational efforts strive to achieve quality assurance standards. Therefore, it will be naive to deny the existence of problems in architectural education. The current design studio critique method has been developed upon generations of students and educators. Architectural education is changing towards educating critical…

  9. Nonlinearities Distribution Homotopy Perturbation Method Applied to Solve Nonlinear Problems: Thomas-Fermi Equation as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Filobello-Nino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approximate solution of T-F equation, obtained by using the nonlinearities distribution homotopy perturbation method (NDHPM. Besides, we show a table of comparison, between this proposed approximate solution and a numerical of T-F, by establishing the accuracy of the results.

  10. Comparison of three different methods for assessing in situ friction velocity: A case study from Loch Etive, Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inoue, Tetsunori; Glud, Ronnie N.; Stahl, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Three approaches, Eddy Correlation (EC), Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE), and Inertial Dissipation (ID) methods, were compared to evaluate their potential for estimation of friction velocity in a Scottish sea loch. As an independent assessment parameter, we used simultaneous O2 recordings of the d...

  11. Purity Assessment of Organic Reference Materials with a Mass Balance Method: A Case Study of Endosulfan-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghyun; Lee, Joonhee; Ahn, Seonghee; Song, Youngsin; Kim, Dongkyun; Kim, Byungjoo

    2013-01-01

    A mass balance method established in this laboratory was applied to determine the purity of an endosulfan-II pure substance. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used to measure organic impurities. Total of 10 structurally related organic impurities were detected by GC-FID in the material. Water content was determined to be 0.187% by Karl-Fischer (K-F) coulometry with an oven-drying method. Nonvolatile residual impurities was not detected by Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) within the detection limit of 0.04% (0.7 μg in absolute amount). Residual solvents within the substance were determined to be 0.007% in the Endosulfan-II pure substance by running GC-FID after dissolving it with two solvents. The purity of the endosulfan-II was finally assigned to be (99.17 ± 0.14)%. Details of the mass balance method including interpretation and evaluating uncertainties of results from each individual methods and the finally assayed purity were also described

  12. Validation of multivariate classification methods using analytical fingerprints – concept and case study on organic feed for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, Martin; Voet, van der Hilko; Ruth, van Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate classification methods based on analytical fingerprints have found many applications in the food and feed area, but practical applications are still scarce due to a lack of a generally accepted validation procedure. This paper proposes a new approach for validation of this type of

  13. Combining situated Cognitive Engineering with a novel testing method in a case study comparing two infusion pump interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnittker, R.; Schmettow, M.; Verhoeven, F.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    We validated the usability of a new infusion pump interface designed with a situated Cognitive Engineering approach by comparing it to a reference interface using a novel testing method employing repeated measurements and process measures, in addition to traditional outcome measures. The sample

  14. [Prediction method of rural landscape pattern evolution based on life cycle: a case study of Jinjing Town, Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Liu, Li-Ming; Li, Hong-Qing

    2014-11-01

    Taking Jinjing Town in Dongting Lake area as a case, this paper analyzed the evolution of rural landscape patterns by means of life cycle theory, simulated the evolution cycle curve, and calculated its evolution period, then combining CA-Markov model, a complete prediction model was built based on the rule of rural landscape change. The results showed that rural settlement and paddy landscapes of Jinjing Town would change most in 2020, with the rural settlement landscape increased to 1194.01 hm2 and paddy landscape greatly reduced to 3090.24 hm2. The quantitative and spatial prediction accuracies of the model were up to 99.3% and 96.4%, respectively, being more explicit than single CA-Markov model. The prediction model of rural landscape patterns change proposed in this paper would be helpful for rural landscape planning in future.

  15. Methods for analysis of PAH and BTEX in groundwater from gas stations: a case study in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebara, Samya Soler; Re-Poppi, Nilva; Nascimento, Andre Luiz Carneiro Soares; Raposo Junior, Jorge Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Two methods using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry were developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and BTEX. Best results were obtained using DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, with 10 min extraction at 25 °C and 0.15 min desorption at 260 °C (BTEX), and PDMS/DVB fiber, with 60 min extraction at 90 °C, 10% NaCl and 5 min desorption at 270 °C (PAH). LOD intervals were 3x10 -2 – 5x10 -2 μg L -1 (BTEX) and 1.6x10 -3 - 1.4 μg L -1 (PAH). The methods were applied to forty-five groundwater samples from monitoring wells of gas stations and only benzene level exceeded the limit established by Brazilian regulations. (author)

  16. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  17. Improving statistical inference on pathogen densities estimated by quantitative molecular methods: malaria gametocytaemia as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Ouédraogo, André Lin; Hermsen, Cornelus; Bousema, Teun; Churcher, Thomas S

    2015-01-16

    Quantitative molecular methods (QMMs) such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) are increasingly used to estimate pathogen density in a variety of clinical and epidemiological contexts. These methods are often classified as semi-quantitative, yet estimates of reliability or sensitivity are seldom reported. Here, a statistical framework is developed for assessing the reliability (uncertainty) of pathogen densities estimated using QMMs and the associated diagnostic sensitivity. The method is illustrated with quantification of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytaemia by QT-NASBA. The reliability of pathogen (e.g. gametocyte) densities, and the accompanying diagnostic sensitivity, estimated by two contrasting statistical calibration techniques, are compared; a traditional method and a mixed model Bayesian approach. The latter accounts for statistical dependence of QMM assays run under identical laboratory protocols and permits structural modelling of experimental measurements, allowing precision to vary with pathogen density. Traditional calibration cannot account for inter-assay variability arising from imperfect QMMs and generates estimates of pathogen density that have poor reliability, are variable among assays and inaccurately reflect diagnostic sensitivity. The Bayesian mixed model approach assimilates information from replica QMM assays, improving reliability and inter-assay homogeneity, providing an accurate appraisal of quantitative and diagnostic performance. Bayesian mixed model statistical calibration supersedes traditional techniques in the context of QMM-derived estimates of pathogen density, offering the potential to improve substantially the depth and quality of clinical and epidemiological inference for a wide variety of pathogens.

  18. Electrocoagulation method for colour removal in tea effluent: a case study of Chemomi tea factory in rift valley, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lusweti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient electrochemical method that utilizes two steel electrodes and is capable of reducing the colour of tea effluent prior to its discharge into the river system has been developed. The effects of potential difference, inter-electrode distance, surface area of electrodes to effluent volume ratio (S/V, effluent pH, temperature and effluent dilution on power consumption, were investigated. This method was effective at a potential difference of 24 volts, inter-electrode distance of 5 mm, S/V of 18.2 m2/m3 and effluent pH of 6. Effluent dilution led to increase in power consumption while raising temperatures led to a reduction in power consumption. Electrochemical method reduced COD, BOD and electrical conductivity by 96.6 %, 84.0 % and 31.5 %, respectively but increased pH by 10.32 %. The final pH, EC, COD and BOD values were below KBS maximum contaminant levels. The proposed mechanism in colour removal process was phenol coupling. Phenolic tea colour pigments were oxidized by electrons from ionization of iron to form keto radicals, which polymerized to form a long chain polymer. The polymer was electro-floated to the surface by hydrogen gas generated from the reduction of water and oxidation of theaflavins.

  19. Guided Image Filtering-Based Pan-Sharpening Method: A Case Study of GaoFen-2 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalan Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available GaoFen-2 (GF-2 is a civilian optical satellite self-developed by China equipped with both multispectral and panchromatic sensors, and is the first satellite in China with a resolution below 1 m. Because the pan-sharpening methods on GF-2 imagery have not been a focus of previous works, we propose a novel pan-sharpening method based on guided image filtering and compare the performance to state-of-the-art methods on GF-2 images. Guided image filtering was introduced to decompose and transfer the details and structures from the original panchromatic and multispectral bands. Thereafter, an adaptive model that considers the local spectral relationship was designed to properly inject spatial information back into the original spectral bands. Four pairs of GF-2 images acquired from urban, water body, cropland, and forest areas were selected for the experiments. Both quantitative and visual inspections were used for the assessment. The experimental results demonstrated that for GF-2 imagery acquired over different scenes, the proposed approach consistently achieves high spectral fidelity and enhances spatial details, thereby benefitting the potential classification procedures.

  20. APPLICATION OF AHP METHOD IN THE IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF PROJECT SELECTION CRITERIA: AN ENERGY SECTOR CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvério, Adriano Augusto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Choosing from several alternative investment projects in hydropower to build a portfolio of projects is a complex matter. The most commonly used selection model for building the portfolio is the financial method, however it constraints options investments to the economic and financial parameters, which are limiting in nature. Alternatively, this paper proposes the use of multicriterial method Analytic Hierarchy Process – AHP, which incorporates measures to evaluate both quantitative and qualitative data. This method is based on criteria or parameters of operational processes that hinder or facilitate the execution of projects. In order to get the definition of the set of criteria, the Delphi technique was applied to a group of seven experts in managing hydropower projects. Main results show that essential criteria for selection of project investment portfolio, are not limited to financial aspects, but it involves criteria of bureaucratic, organizational, and political environment and technological characters. The conclusion is that the financial potential of hydropower projects are not the only determinants for investments on hydropower projects and, at large, these project are conditioned to other criteria such as, those of bureaucratic and technological nature.

  1. An evaluation of applicability of seismic refraction method in identifying shallow archaeological features A case study at archaeological site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangardi, Morteza; Hafezi Moghaddas, Naser; Keivan Hosseini, Sayyed; Garazhian, Omran

    2015-04-01

    We applied the seismic refraction method at archaeological site, Tepe Damghani located in Sabzevar, NE of Iran, in order to determine the structures of archaeological interests. This pre-historical site has special conditions with respect to geographical location and geomorphological setting, so it is an urban archaeological site, and in recent years it has been used as an agricultural field. In spring and summer of 2012, the third season of archaeological excavation was carried out. Test trenches of excavations in this site revealed that cultural layers were often disturbed adversely due to human activities such as farming and road construction in recent years. Conditions of archaeological cultural layers in southern and eastern parts of Tepe are slightly better, for instance, in test trench 3×3 m²1S03, third test trench excavated in the southern part of Tepe, an adobe in situ architectural structure was discovered that likely belongs to cultural features of a complex with 5 graves. After conclusion of the third season of archaeological excavation, all of the test trenches were filled with the same soil of excavated test trenches. Seismic refraction method was applied with12 channels of P geophones in three lines with a geophone interval of 0.5 meter and a 1.5 meter distance between profiles on test trench 1S03. The goal of this operation was evaluation of applicability of seismic method in identification of archaeological features, especially adobe wall structures. Processing of seismic data was done with the seismic software, SiesImager. Results were presented in the form of seismic section for every profile, so that identification of adobe wall structures was achieved hardly. This could be due to that adobe wall had been built with the same materials of the natural surrounding earth. Thus, there is a low contrast and it has an inappropriate effect on seismic processing and identifying of archaeological features. Hence the result could be that application of

  2. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  3. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed [nl

  4. Influence of the impact assessment method on the conclusions of a LCA study. Application to the case of a part made with virgin and recycled HDPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Carla L; Xará, Susana M; Bernardo, C A

    2011-10-01

    Recent legislation has stressed the need to decide the best end-of-life (EoL) option for post-consumer products considering their full life-cycle and the corresponding overall environmental impacts. The life cycle assessment (LCA) technique has become a common tool to evaluate those impacts. The present study aimed to contribute to the better understanding of the application of this technique, by evaluating the influence of the selection of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method in its results and conclusions. A specific case study was chosen, using previous information related to an anti-glare lamellae (AGL) for highway use, made with virgin and recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Five distinct LCIA methods were used: Eco-indicator 99, CML 2 (2000), EPS 2000, Eco-indicator 95 and EDIP 97. Consistent results between these methods were obtained for the Climate change, Ozone layer depletion, Acidification and Eutrophication environmental indicators. Conversely, the Summer smog indicator showed large discrepancies between impact assessment methods. The work sheds light on the advantages inherent in using various LCIA methods when doing the LCA study of a specific product, thus evidencing complementary analysis perspectives.

  5. The analysis of covariance and alternatives statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Huitema, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    A complete guide to cutting-edge techniques and best practices for applying covariance analysis methods The Second Edition of Analysis of Covariance and Alternatives sheds new light on its topic, offering in-depth discussions of underlying assumptions, comprehensive interpretations of results, and comparisons of distinct approaches. The book has been extensively revised and updated to feature an in-depth review of prerequisites and the latest developments in the field. The author begins with a discussion of essential topics relating to experimental design and analysis

  6. Testing Methods for Challenging the National Wetland Plant List: Using Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (Eastern Hemlock) as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    frame were constructed based on GIS data (Table 1) and habitat descriptions of areas where T. canadensis was likely to occur, such as wooded swamps...6 2.1 Small study areas (100 km2) ......................................................................................... 6 2.1.1 Constructing a...Western Ecology Division are thanked for their procedural reviews and recommendations for improving the study design. Ms. Lindsey Lefebvre, Ms

  7. Estimation of missing values in solar radiation data using piecewise interpolation methods: Case study at Penang city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainudin, Mohd Lutfi; Saaban, Azizan; Bakar, Mohd Nazari Abu

    2015-01-01

    The solar radiation values have been composed by automatic weather station using the device that namely pyranometer. The device is functions to records all the radiation values that have been dispersed, and these data are very useful for it experimental works and solar device’s development. In addition, for modeling and designing on solar radiation system application is needed for complete data observation. Unfortunately, lack for obtained the complete solar radiation data frequently occur due to several technical problems, which mainly contributed by monitoring device. Into encountering this matter, estimation missing values in an effort to substitute absent values with imputed data. This paper aimed to evaluate several piecewise interpolation techniques likes linear, splines, cubic, and nearest neighbor into dealing missing values in hourly solar radiation data. Then, proposed an extendable work into investigating the potential used of cubic Bezier technique and cubic Said-ball method as estimator tools. As result, methods for cubic Bezier and Said-ball perform the best compare to another piecewise imputation technique

  8. Estimation of missing values in solar radiation data using piecewise interpolation methods: Case study at Penang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Lutfi; Saaban, Azizan; Bakar, Mohd Nazari Abu

    2015-12-01

    The solar radiation values have been composed by automatic weather station using the device that namely pyranometer. The device is functions to records all the radiation values that have been dispersed, and these data are very useful for it experimental works and solar device's development. In addition, for modeling and designing on solar radiation system application is needed for complete data observation. Unfortunately, lack for obtained the complete solar radiation data frequently occur due to several technical problems, which mainly contributed by monitoring device. Into encountering this matter, estimation missing values in an effort to substitute absent values with imputed data. This paper aimed to evaluate several piecewise interpolation techniques likes linear, splines, cubic, and nearest neighbor into dealing missing values in hourly solar radiation data. Then, proposed an extendable work into investigating the potential used of cubic Bezier technique and cubic Said-ball method as estimator tools. As result, methods for cubic Bezier and Said-ball perform the best compare to another piecewise imputation technique.

  9. Estimation of missing values in solar radiation data using piecewise interpolation methods: Case study at Penang city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainudin, Mohd Lutfi, E-mail: mdlutfi07@gmail.com [School of Quantitative Sciences, UUMCAS, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia); Institut Matematik Kejuruteraan (IMK), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Saaban, Azizan, E-mail: azizan.s@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, UUMCAS, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia); Bakar, Mohd Nazari Abu, E-mail: mohdnazari@perlis.uitm.edu.my [Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    The solar radiation values have been composed by automatic weather station using the device that namely pyranometer. The device is functions to records all the radiation values that have been dispersed, and these data are very useful for it experimental works and solar device’s development. In addition, for modeling and designing on solar radiation system application is needed for complete data observation. Unfortunately, lack for obtained the complete solar radiation data frequently occur due to several technical problems, which mainly contributed by monitoring device. Into encountering this matter, estimation missing values in an effort to substitute absent values with imputed data. This paper aimed to evaluate several piecewise interpolation techniques likes linear, splines, cubic, and nearest neighbor into dealing missing values in hourly solar radiation data. Then, proposed an extendable work into investigating the potential used of cubic Bezier technique and cubic Said-ball method as estimator tools. As result, methods for cubic Bezier and Said-ball perform the best compare to another piecewise imputation technique.

  10. Assessment of groundwater exploitation in an aquifer using the random walk on grid method: a case study at Ordos, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Tongchao; Li, Kaixuan; Wu, Jichun; Yin, Lihe

    2018-04-01

    Sustainability has been one of the key criteria of effective water exploitation. Groundwater exploitation and water-table decline at Haolebaoji water source site in the Ordos basin in NW China has drawn public attention due to concerns about potential threats to ecosystems and grazing land in the area. To better investigate the impact of production wells at Haolebaoji on the water table, an adapted algorithm called the random walk on grid method (WOG) is applied to simulate the hydraulic head in the unconfined and confined aquifers. This is the first attempt to apply WOG to a real groundwater problem. The method can not only evaluate the head values but also the contributions made by each source/sink term. One is allowed to analyze the impact of source/sink terms just as if one had an analytical solution. The head values evaluated by WOG match the values derived from the software Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). It suggests that WOG is effective and applicable in a heterogeneous aquifer with respect to practical problems, and the resultant information is useful for groundwater management.

  11. Performance measurement of employee using an integrated 360° feedback system and AHP method: A case study of municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younos Vakil Alroaia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement plays an essential role on accelerating the efficiency of any organization. There are literally different methods for measuring the relative performance of a particular unit and many of them are involved considering various criteria. In this paper, we propose 360° feedback system for performance measurement of all employees who work for municipality of the city of Tabas located in east part of Iran. The proposed model of this paper also uses hierarchical method to cluster different attributes based on various characteristics and implements analytical hierarchy process to find the relative importance of all items. The survey uses five personal characteristics including cognitive, technical, personal and human skills and for each major item, the proposed model considers various sub-criteria. The results indicate that technical and cognitive skills are the most important personal characteristics followed by human and personal characteristics. The results of this survey show that responsibility and quality of work are the most important employee characteristics.

  12. Bundle Adjustment-Based Stability Analysis Method with a Case Study of a Dual Fluoroscopy Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Durgham, K.; Lichti, D. D.; Detchev, I.; Kuntze, G.; Ronsky, J. L.

    2018-05-01

    A fundamental task in photogrammetry is the temporal stability analysis of a camera/imaging-system's calibration parameters. This is essential to validate the repeatability of the parameters' estimation, to detect any behavioural changes in the camera/imaging system and to ensure precise photogrammetric products. Many stability analysis methods exist in the photogrammetric literature; each one has different methodological bases, and advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents a simple and rigorous stability analysis method that can be straightforwardly implemented for a single camera or an imaging system with multiple cameras. The basic collinearity model is used to capture differences between two calibration datasets, and to establish the stability analysis methodology. Geometric simulation is used as a tool to derive image and object space scenarios. Experiments were performed on real calibration datasets from a dual fluoroscopy (DF; X-ray-based) imaging system. The calibration data consisted of hundreds of images and thousands of image observations from six temporal points over a two-day period for a precise evaluation of the DF system stability. The stability of the DF system - for a single camera analysis - was found to be within a range of 0.01 to 0.66 mm in terms of 3D coordinates root-mean-square-error (RMSE), and 0.07 to 0.19 mm for dual cameras analysis. It is to the authors' best knowledge that this work is the first to address the topic of DF stability analysis.

  13. A Case Study Analysis of Clt Methods to Develop Grammar Competency for Academic Writing Purposes at Tertiary Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almodad Biduk Asmani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research project is to find out how effective grammar teaching and learning using the Principled CLT method can improve the ability of freshman Binus University students to understand and use grammar knowledge for academic writing purposes. The research project is expected to result in computer-animated format which can be used as one of the main tools in teaching and learning grammar at tertiary level. The research project applies the descriptive quantitative approach, and thus uses numeric data. The research project involves two subject groups, which are experimental and control. The two groups are pre-tested so as to find out their level of grammar competency by their academic writing works. The experimental group receives the treatment of grammar learning by using the Principled CLT approach, while the control group receives the standard CLT approach. Then, the two groups have the post-test, and the results are compared. Through statistics, the numerical data show that there is no significant difference between the two methods’ results, and as a result, either method has its own strength and weaknesses. If one is to be implemented, it must be linked to the specific goals and purposes that each entails.  

  14. Preliminary Field Tests and Long-Term Monitoring as a Method of Design Risk Mitigation: A Case Study of Gdańsk Deepwater Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miśkiewicz Mikołaj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate risk assessment plays a fundamental role in the design. . The authors propose a possible method of design risk mitigation, which follows recommendations included in Eurocode 7. The so-called “Observational Method” (OM can produce savings in costs and programmes on engineering projects without compromising safety. The case study presented is a complex design solution that deals with the heavy foundations of a gantry crane beam as one of the elements of a Deepwater Container Terminal extension. The paper presents a detailed process of the design of the rear crane beam being a part of the brand new berth, together with its static analysis, as well as the long-term results of observations, which have revealed the real performance of the marine structure. The case presented is based on excessive preliminary field tests and technical monitoring of the structure, and is an example of a successful OM implementation and design risk mitigation.

  15. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (a) theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (b) one cannot generalize from a single case, therefore, the single-case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (c) the case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one...

  16. Applying systematic review search methods to the grey literature: a case study examining guidelines for school-based breakfast programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Katelyn; Stapleton, Jackie; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Hanning, Rhona M; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2015-10-22

    Grey literature is an important source of information for large-scale review syntheses. However, there are many characteristics of grey literature that make it difficult to search systematically. Further, there is no 'gold standard' for rigorous systematic grey literature search methods and few resources on how to conduct this type of search. This paper describes systematic review search methods that were developed and applied to complete a case study systematic review of grey literature that examined guidelines for school-based breakfast programs in Canada. A grey literature search plan was developed to incorporate four different searching strategies: (1) grey literature databases, (2) customized Google search engines, (3) targeted websites, and (4) consultation with contact experts. These complementary strategies were used to minimize the risk of omitting relevant sources. Since abstracts are often unavailable in grey literature documents, items' abstracts, executive summaries, or table of contents (whichever was available) were screened. Screening of publications' full-text followed. Data were extracted on the organization, year published, who they were developed by, intended audience, goal/objectives of document, sources of evidence/resources cited, meals mentioned in the guidelines, and recommendations for program delivery. The search strategies for identifying and screening publications for inclusion in the case study review was found to be manageable, comprehensive, and intuitive when applied in practice. The four search strategies of the grey literature search plan yielded 302 potentially relevant items for screening. Following the screening process, 15 publications that met all eligibility criteria remained and were included in the case study systematic review. The high-level findings of the case study systematic review are briefly described. This article demonstrated a feasible and seemingly robust method for applying systematic search strategies to

  17. Using the Delphi Method for Selecting Effective Rehabilitation Practices for Case Study Research: Methods, Challenges, and Solutions and Implications for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Allison R.; Boeltzig-Brown, Heike; Foley, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We describe a modified Delphi method used to select effective state vocational rehabilitation agency practices to prioritize rehabilitation services for individuals with most significant disabilities within the context of Order of Selection, an area where there is little known and published. Specifically, we describe how we applied the…

  18. Evaluation of rainfall structure on hydrograph simulation: Comparison of radar and interpolated methods, a study case in a tropical catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, N.; Ochoa, A.; Castillo, S.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    The skill of river discharge simulation using hydrological models strongly depends on the quality and spatio-temporal representativeness of precipitation during storm events. All precipitation measurement strategies have their own strengths and weaknesses that translate into discharge simulation uncertainties. Distributed hydrological models are based on evolving rainfall fields in the same time scale as the hydrological simulation. In general, rainfall measurements from a dense and well maintained rain gauge network provide a very good estimation of the total volume for each rainfall event, however, the spatial structure relies on interpolation strategies introducing considerable uncertainty in the simulation process. On the other hand, rainfall retrievals from radar reflectivity achieve a better spatial structure representation but with higher uncertainty in the surface precipitation intensity and volume depending on the vertical rainfall characteristics and radar scan strategy. To assess the impact of both rainfall measurement methodologies on hydrological simulations, and in particular the effects of the rainfall spatio-temporal variability, a numerical modeling experiment is proposed including the use of a novel QPE (Quantitative Precipitation Estimation) method based on disdrometer data in order to estimate surface rainfall from radar reflectivity. The experiment is based on the simulation of 84 storms, the hydrological simulations are carried out using radar QPE and two different interpolation methods (IDW and TIN), and the assessment of simulated peak flow. Results show significant rainfall differences between radar QPE and the interpolated fields, evidencing a poor representation of storms in the interpolated fields, which tend to miss the precise location of the intense precipitation cores, and to artificially generate rainfall in some areas of the catchment. Regarding streamflow modelling, the potential improvement achieved by using radar QPE depends on

  19. [Case-control study on two suturing methods for the repairing of complete rupture of the deltoid ligament].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wan, Chun-you; Ma, Bao-tong; Xu, Wei-guo; Mei, Xiao-long; Jia, Peng; Liu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    To compare clinical outcomes between two suturing methods using non absorbable materials through drilling the bone and suturing anchors for the treatment of complete rupture of the deltoid ligament. From January 2009 to January 2013, 58 hospitalized patients with ankle fracture combined with complete rupture of the deltoid ligament were treated with suturing using non absorbable materials through drilling the bone or suturing anchors. There were 29 patients who received suturing treatments using non absorbable materials through drilling the bone (Group A), including 18 males and 11 females, with an average age of (39.76 +/- 11.81) years old. According to the Lauge-Hansen classification, 12 patients had supination external rotation (SER) injuries with IV degree, 5 patients had pronation external rotation (PER) injuries with III degree, 10 patients had PER injuries with IV degrss, and 2 patients had pronation abduction injuries with III degree. There were 29 patients who received treatments with suturing using anchors (Group B), including 14 males and 15 females, with an average age of (41.79 +/- 13.28) years old. According to the Lauge-Hansen classification,9 patients had SER injuries with IV degree, 6 patients had PER injuries with III degree,13 patients had PER injuries with IV degree, and 1 patient had pronation abduction injuries with III degree. All the patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation, as well as reconstruction of deltoid ligaments to restore the stability of the medial ankle structures. The clinical examination, imaging evaluation, American society for ankle surgery (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to evaluate the clinical results after operation, and the results of the two groups were compared and analyzed statistically. The follow-up duration of the 58 patients ranged from 23 to 40 months,with an average of 27.3 months. All the patients had fracture union, and the mean healing time was 12

  20. Selection of Sustainable Processes using Sustainability Footprint Method: A Case Study of Methanol Production from Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical products can be obtained by process pathways involving varying amounts and types of resources, utilities, and byproduct formation. When such competing process options such as six processes for making methanol as are considered in this study, it is necessary to identify t...

  1. Combined distiller waste utilisation and combustion gases desulphurisation method. The case study of soda-ash industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasikowski, Tomasz; Buczkowski, Roman; Cichosz, Marcin; Lemanowska, Eliza [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolas Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2007-09-15

    In this paper, a concept of technology that can be helpful for lowering the negative influence of the synthetic (based on the Solvay process) soda ash plant on the natural environment is presented. We describe the desulphurisation of combustion gases from the factory's power plant, which is based on their absorption in the overflow of distiller waste. The excess of lime milk, which is added in the process of ammonia regeneration from filter liquor, results in a strong alkalinity of distiller waste. The high pH of distiller waste favours absorption of acidic combustion gases. The laboratory-scale tests showed about 80% efficiency of the desulphurisation process. The suspension samples we obtained consist mainly of CaCO{sub 3}. We suggest using the obtained solid phase as an adsorbent-insert in Fluidised Bed Combustion technology (FBC). Based on raw material prices, production costs, and average sell prices of the product, economic analysis of innovation was executed. Profits from employing the method presented come mainly from reduction of environmental fees. The sensitivity analysis of cost showed that the application of the desulphurisation process causes cost reduction in soda-ash production accounting for EUR 150 thousand per year (excluding depreciation) in Poland, and EUR 11,700 thousand per year (excluding depreciation) in Sweden. It has been found that the latter value is similar to the positive environmental impact of this innovation expressed in monetary units (EUR 10,350 thousand per year, excluding depreciation). (author)

  2. Comparison of conventional versus Hybrid knife peroral endoscopic myotomy methods for esophageal achalasia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaowei; Gong, Wei; Deng, Zhiliang; Zhou, Jieqiong; Ren, Yutang; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Zhenyu; Jiang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been developed to treat achalasia as a novel less invasive modality. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of conventional knife versus Hybrid knife (HK) during POEM procedure. Between June 2012 and July 2014, 31 patients underwent POEM using HK in our department (HK group), and 36 patients underwent POEM using conventional method (injection needle and triangular tip [TT] knife, TT group). Procedure-related parameters, symptom relief, adverse events were compared between two groups. There were no significant differences in the age, sex and other baseline characteristics between the two groups. The mean procedural time was significantly shorter in HK group than TT group (53.0 ± 17.2 vs. 67.6 ± 28.4 min, p = 0.015). The mean frequency of devices exchange was 4.7 ± 1.7 in HK group and 10.9 ± 1.8 in TT group (p = 0.000). No serious adverse events occurred postoperatively in both groups. At one-year follow-up, a total of 94% treatment success was achieved in all patients (93.5% in HK group and 94.4% in TT group, p = 0.877). HK in POEM can shorten the procedural time, and achieve similar treatment success compared to conventional TT knife.

  3. Willingness to pay for ovulation induction treatment in case of WHO II anovulation: a study using the contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie; Simard, Catherine; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    To measure the willingness to pay (WTP) of women aged 18-45 years to receive drug treatment for ovulation induction (ie, the social value of normal cycles of ovulation for a woman of childbearing age) in order to feed the debate about the funding of fertility cares. An anonymous questionnaire was used over the general population of Quebec. A total of 136 subjects were recruited in three medical clinics, and 191 subjects through an online questionnaire. THE QUESTIONNAIRE CONSISTED OF THREE PARTS: introduction to the problematic, socioeconomic data collection to determine factors influencing the formation of WTP, and a WTP question using the simple bid price dichotomous choice elicitation technique. The econometric estimation method is based on the "random utility theory." Each subject responding to our questionnaire could express her uncertainty about the answer to our WTP question by choosing the answer "I do not know." The WTP in Canadian dollars of women aged 18-45 years to receive drug treatment for ovulation induction. Results are positive and indicate an average WTP exceeding 4,800 CAD, which is much more than the drug treatment cost. There is no evidence of sample frame bias or avidity bias across the two survey modes that cannot be controlled in econometric estimates. Medical treatment for ovulation induction is highly socially desirable in Quebec.

  4. Using an Optimized Chinese Address Matching Method to Develop a Geocoding Service: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the coming era of big data and the rapid development and widespread applications of Geographical Information Systems (GISs, geocoding technology is playing an increasingly important role in bridging the gap between non-spatial data resources and spatial data in various fields. However, Chinese geocoding faces great challenges because of the complexity of the address string format in Chinese, which contains no delimiters between Chinese words, and the poor address management resulting from the existence of multiple address authorities spread among different governmental agencies. This paper presents a geocoding service based on an optimized Chinese address matching method, including address modeling, address standardization and address matching. The address model focuses on the spatial semantics of each address element, and the address standardization process is based on an address tree model. A geocoding service application is implemented in practice using a large quantity of data from Shenzhen Municipality. More than 1,460,000 data records were used to test the geocoding service, and good matching rates were achieved with good adaptability and intelligence.

  5. Decoupling Water Consumption and Environmental Impact on Textile Industry by Using Water Footprint Method: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s textile industry has led to consumption and pollution of large volumes of water. Therefore, the textile industry has been the focus of water conservation and waste reduction in China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020. The premise of sustainable development is to achieve decoupling of economic growth from water consumption and wastewater discharge. In this work, changes in the blue water footprint, grey water footprint, and the total water footprint of the textile industry from 2001 to 2014 were calculated. The relationship between water footprint and economic growth was then examined using the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, factors influencing water footprint were determined through logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method. Results show that the water footprint of China’s textile industry has strongly decoupled for five years (2003, 2006, 2008, 2011, and 2013 and weakly decoupled for four years (2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010. A decoupling trend occurred during 2001–2014, but a steady stage of decoupling had not been achieved yet. Based on the decomposition analysis, the total water footprint mainly increased along with the production scale. On the contrary, technical level is the most important factor in inhibiting the water footprint. In addition, the effect of industrial structure adjustment is relatively weak.

  6. A Hybrid Genetic Programming Method in Optimization and Forecasting: A Case Study of the Broadband Penetration in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Salpasaranis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a hybrid genetic programming method (hGP in fitting and forecasting of the broadband penetration data is proposed. The hGP uses some well-known diffusion models, such as those of Gompertz, Logistic, and Bass, in the initial population of the solutions in order to accelerate the algorithm. The produced solutions models of the hGP are used in fitting and forecasting the adoption of broadband penetration. We investigate the fitting performance of the hGP, and we use the hGP to forecast the broadband penetration in OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The results of the optimized diffusion models are compared to those of the hGP-generated models. The comparison indicates that the hGP manages to generate solutions with high-performance statistical indicators. The hGP cooperates with the existing diffusion models, thus allowing multiple approaches to forecasting. The modified algorithm is implemented in the Python programming language, which is fast in execution time, compact, and user friendly.

  7. Analysis of Service Quality on Building Loyalty by Using Structural Equation Modelling Method (Case Study in Majapahit Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Arista Anggorowati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Train system is one of the transportation modes with some special characteristics that make it becomes an effective and efficient transportation system to increase the service quality. Although the AC economy class of Majapahit Railway has been officially opened by the government, it has not been able to fulfill the people’s need. It is proved with the decrease of number of passenger, and the increase of critics related to the service quality. This research aims to analyze the principal elements and the effect of service qualities towards the customer’s loyalty. The research was conducted through survey on the Majapahit railway users consisting of 200 respondents. The used sampling technique was non probability sampling with purposive sampling method. It applied Structural Equation Modelling in which the previous test was the classical assumptions. Based on the calculations, it is indicated that the variables of service quality in customer satisfaction and loyalty is significant. The principal elements that influence satisfaction and loyalty are the operational schedule, the rolling stock condition, station’s comfort and security, safety, ticket price, and how the passengers enjoy the travelling. Adjusted R square of 0.8246 shows that 82 percent of consumer’ loyalty can give impact on service quality and customer satisfaction.

  8. [The use of anthropologic methods for studying the causes of lack of vaccination. The case of Nativitas, Xochimilco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda-López, G; Orozco-Núñez, E

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the socio-cultural characteristics of a population and their participation in immunization programs is described in this paper. An anthropological approach was utilized to study the reasons why certain population groups do not participate in the immunization programs or do so inadequately. The study was undertaken in a community south of Mexico City. The paper contains the description of the community's contextual elements, the organization of the medical care services and the participation of the population in the immunization programs. It was found that a wide millieu of socio-cultural factors are related with people's behavior toward vaccination, such as: lack of information about diseases and vaccines, lack of trust on modern health services, and the strong influence of traditional medicine. Clear implications can be derived from the analysis with regards to the need for revision and modification of strategies of the health education programs, in order to promote a wider participation in immunization programs.

  9. Pre-service elementary science teaching self-efficacy and teaching practices: A mixed-methods, dual-phase, embedded case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangueza, Cheryl Ramirez

    This mixed-method, dual-phase, embedded-case study employed the Social Cognitive Theory and the construct of self-efficacy to examine the contributors to science teaching self-efficacy and science teaching practices across different levels of efficacy in six pre-service elementary teachers during their science methods course and student teaching experiences. Data sources included the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) for pre-service teachers, questionnaires, journals, reflections, student teaching lesson observations, and lesson debriefing notes. Results from the STEBI-B show that all participants measured an increase in efficacy throughout the study. The ANOVA analysis of the STEBI-B revealed a statistically significant increase in level of efficacy during methods course, student teaching, and from the beginning of the study to the end. Of interest in this study was the examination of the participants' science teaching practices across different levels of efficacy. Results of this analysis revealed how the pre-service elementary teachers in this study contextualized their experiences in learning to teach science and its influences on their science teaching practices. Key implications involves the value in exploring how pre-service teachers interpret their learning to teach experiences and how their interpretations influence the development of their science teaching practices.

  10. Assessing future suitability of tree species under climate change by multiple methods: a case study in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Walentowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared results derived using three different approaches to assess the suitability of common tree species on the Franconian Plateau in southern Germany under projected warmer and drier climate conditions in the period 2061-2080. The study area is currently a relatively warm and dry region of Germany. We calculated species distribution models (SDMs using information on species’ climate envelopes to predict regional species spectra under 63 different climate change scenarios. We complemented this with fine-scale ecological niche analysis using data from 51 vegetation surveys in seven forest reserves in the study area, and tree-ring analysis (TRA from local populations of five tree species to quantify their sensitivity to climatic extreme years. The SDMs showed that predicted future climate change in the region remains within the climate envelope of certain species (e.g. Quercus petraea, whilst for e.g. Fagus sylvatica, future climate conditions in one third of the scenarios are too warm and dry. This was confirmed by the TRA: sensitivity to drought periods is lower for Q. petraea than for F. sylvatica. The niche analysis shows that the local ecological niches of Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior are mainly characterized by soils providing favorable water supply than by climate, and Pinus sylvestris (planted is strongly influenced by light availability. The best adapted species for a warmer and potentially drier climate in the study region are Acer campestre, Sorbus torminalis, S. aria, Ulmus minor, and Tilia platyphyllos, which should therefore play a more prominent role in future climate-resilient mixed forest ecosystems.

  11. Comparative study of Wenner and Schlumberger electrical resistivity method for groundwater investigation: a case study from Dhule district (M.S.), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantrao, Baride Mukund; Bhaskarrao, Patil Jitendra; Mukund, Baride Aarti; Baburao, Golekar Rushikesh; Narayan, Patil Sanjaykumar

    2017-12-01

    The area chosen for the present study is Dhule district, which belongs to the drought prone area of Maharashtra State, India. Dhule district suffers from water problem, and therefore, there is no extra water available to supply for the agricultural and industrial growth. To understand the lithological characters in terms of its hydro-geological conditions, it is necessary to understand the geology of the area. It is now established fact that the geophysical method gives a better information of subsurface geology. Geophysical electrical surveys with four electrodes configuration, i.e., Wenner and Schlumberger method, were carried out at the same selected sites to observe the similarity and compared both the applications in terms of its use and handling in the field. A total 54 VES soundings were carried out spread over the Dhule district and representing different lithological units. The VES curves are drawn using inverse slope method for Wenner configuration, IPI2 win Software, and curve matching techniques were used for Schlumberger configuration. Regionwise lithologs are prepared based on the obtained resistivity and thickness for Wenner method. Regionwise curves were prepared based on resistivity layers for Schlumberger method. Comparing the two methods, it is observed that Wenner and Schlumberger methods have merits or demerits. Considering merits and demerits from the field point of view, it is suggested that Wenner inverse slope method is more handy for calculation and interpretation, but requires lateral length which is a constrain. Similarly, Schlumberger method is easy in application but unwieldy for their interpretation. The work amply proves the applicability of geophysical techniques in the water resource evaluation procedure. This technique is found to be suitable for the areas with similar geological setup elsewhere.

  12. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia's Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Hsieh, Yen-Fen; Ou, Sheng-Jung

    2015-10-27

    Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis--Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)--were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung's Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia.

  13. A method of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment using environmental radionuclides. A case study of Tsuzura river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizugaki, Shigeru; Onda, Yuichi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Koga, Satoko; Hiramatsu, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex and U decay series radionuclides were analyzed. The study area in the midstream of Shimanto River basin, located 700 km southwest of Tokyo. The 0.33 km 2 area watershed ranges in elevation from 170 m to 560 m above sea level. The soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, soil surface in unmanaged Hinoki (Chamacecyparis obtusa) plantation and unsealed forest road, and detailed sampling in the stream bed and bank was also conducted in several tributaries. Time-integrated suspended sediment sampler was adopted to obtain enough volume of sample to determine the radionuclides. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-214 and Bi-214 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Correction for the effect of particle size distribution and organic matter content on the radionuclides were conducted to compare the radionuclides concentration between the soils of potential suspended sediment sources and fluvial sediments. It was found that there were significant differences of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration between forest floor or runoff sediment and forest road or stream bank. The Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration of suspended sediment varied among them, suggesting the possibility of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex . (author)

  14. Inter-observer agreement according to three methods of evaluating mammographic density and parenchymal pattern in a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Rikke Rass; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Nielsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    , Tabár's PIV and PV and the upper two quartiles (within density range) of PMD. The relative risk of breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, which were compared between the two readers. RESULTS: Substantial inter-observer agreement was seen......, respectively. Inter-reader variability showed different impact on the relative risk of breast cancer estimated by the two readers on a multiple-category scale, however, not on a high/low-risk scale. Tabár's pattern IV demonstrated the highest ORs of all density patterns investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Our study......BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density and parenchymal patterns are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. We aimed to report inter-observer agreement on three different subjective ways of assessing mammographic density and parenchymal pattern, and secondarily to examine what potential...

  15. Field methods for determining point source pollution impacts in rivers: A case study of the Grindsted stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann

    2013-01-01

    Water Framework Directive requires member states to evaluate all types of contamination sources within a watershed in order to assess their direct impact on water quality. Understanding and accurately characterizing groundwater-surface water interactions (GSI) and groundwater discharge is thus becoming...... was carried out in 2012, to develop the theoretical basis for conducting risk assessments for contaminated sites impacting surface waters. Grindsted stream was chosen, as groundwater flow is known to comprise an important part of the total water supply to the stream. It is also a well-studied site, affected...... a 5 km stream stretch, which were not visible at the regional scale, using systematic temperature measurements. We then correlated the two highly contaminated contact zones, using piezometers placed where streambed temperature measurements were waters...

  16. Study of Mechanisms for Development and Strengthening of Water User Cooperatives (Case Study of Aras River Basin): Application of AHP Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rohallah maghabl

    2014-01-01

    Water user cooperatives were formed due to consideration to people's empowerment and participation in water investment and management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of development and strengthening of water user cooperatives in the Aras River Basin. The study population consisted of the management board members of the water user cooperatives in the Aras Basin in the year 2012. Respondents were selected by purposeful stratified sampling method. Having the data col...

  17. Analyzing ground ozone formation regimes using a principal axis factoring method: A case study of Kladno (Czech Republic) industrial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malec, L.; Skacel, F. [Department of Gas, Coke and Air Protection, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: Lukas.Malec@vscht.cz; Fousek, T. [Institute of Public Health, District of Central Czech Republic, Kladno (Czech Republic); Tekac, V. [Department of Gas, Coke and Air Protection, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, (Czech Republic); Kral, P. [Institute of Public Health, District of Central Czech Republic, Kladno (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-15

    Tropospheric ozone is a secondary air pollutant, changes in the ambient content of which are affected by both, the emission rates of primary pollutants and the variability of meteorological conditions. In this paper, we use two multivariate statistical methods to analyze the impact of the meteorological conditions associated with pollutant transformation processes. First, we evaluated the variability of the spatial and temporal distribution of ozone precursor parameters by using discriminant analysis (DA) in locations close to the industrial area of Kladno (a city in the Czech Republic). Second, we interpreted the data set by using factor analysis (FA) to examine the differences between ozone formation processes in summer and in winter. To avoid temperature dependency between the variables, as well as to describe tropospheric washout processes, we used water vapour content rather than the more commonly employed relative humidity parameter. In this way, we were able to successfully determine and subsequently evaluate the various processes of ozone formation, together with the distribution of ozone precursors. High air temperature, radiation and low water content relate to summer pollution episodes, while radiation and wind speed prove to be the most important parameters during winter. [Spanish] El ozono troposferico es un contaminante fotoquimico secundario cuyos contenidos estan influidos tanto por las razones de emision de las sustancias contaminantes primarias como por la variabilidad de las condiciones meteorologicas. En este trabajo utilizamos dos metodos estadisticos multivariados para el analisis de la influencia de las condiciones meteorologicas relacionadas con los procesos de transformacion de las sustancias contaminantes. Primero, estimamos la variabilidad de la descomposicion espacial y temporal de los precursores de ozono mediante el analisis discriminante (DA) en las areas cercanas a la zona industrial de Kladno (una ciudad de la Republica Checa

  18. Condensation Dripping Water Detection and Its Control Method from Exhaust Pipe of Gasohol Vehicle under Low Environmental Temperature Conditions: A Case Study in Harbin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasohol is one of renewable clean alternative energies, which is widely used around the world. Gasohol had been raised to be used in 9 provinces of China since 2001. However, its closed use was merely promoted in Heilongjiang province since November 1, 2004. Moreover, this issue aroused extensive discussions and controversies. One of them is the condensation dripping water issue from exhaust pipe in cold winter. Does the ethanol cause the road freezing in cold winter? To deal with this issue, taking the Harbin city as a case study, this work designs detection experiments of the condensation dripping water from exhaust pipe. Moreover, the amount of the condensation dripping water from exhaust pipe for gasohol and gasoline vehicles with the same working condition is obtained and measured, and their results are compared and analyzed. Simultaneously, the method of reducing the condensation dripping water is proposed. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Studies on Romanian archaeological objects using atomic methods: the cases of the Pietroasa hoard and Cucuteni ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cojocaru, V.; Dumitriu, D.E.; Bugoi, R.; Seclaman, D.; Popovici, D.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.

    2004-01-01

    Five fragments of ancient gold objects coming from the famous Pietroasa 'Closca cu Puii de aur' (The Golden Brood Hen with its Chickens') Romanian hoard were analyzed using micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) technique. The purpose of the study was to clarify the metal provenance. To reach this goal, the presence of trace elements (Cu, Te, Cr, Nb, Ta) and PGE (Platinum Group Elements) was analyzed. The existence of inclusions (micrometer size areas of composition different from the surroundings) was also checked. We found Ta, Nb, and Cr inclusions on three samples and Pd inclusions on one sample. The measurements led to some conclusions for possible three gold ore sources of the Pietroasa treasury: South-Ural Mountains, Nubia (Sudan) deposits and Roman imperial coins. The composition of black, white and red pigments from the Neolithic Cucuteni ceramics shards found in Moldavia and South-Eastern Transylvania was determined using Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray Powder Diffraction (SR-XRD) at MAX II synchrotron in Lund, Sweden. Different manganese oxides, animal carbon and graphite were detected in the black pigments, calcite and aluminium silicates in the white pigments and iron oxides (mainly hematite) in the red pigments. (authors)

  20. Development of a New Sesame Product using QFD and DOE methods: A Case Study of Sesame Product in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Zare Ahmadabadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify customer’s needs for new sesame products, converting requirements into product and process qualitative characteristics, and improving the new product quality. Based on morphological approach and point of views of the manufacturers of sesame products and customers(384 persons, new ideas were extracted and between them a chocolate sesame product was selected. By coducting a survey of consumer expectations(382 sample taste of new product was examined and translated into technical specifications. The paper considers the implementation of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD and DOE in BAH(Booz, Allen and Hamilton framework for the development of new food products. It also aims to meet the challenge of satisfying customer’s inconstant demands and, in turn, to make the business thrive. The results show that main quality features for final product are in good taste, no bitter-taste and be Fresh. Satisfying these requirements are relative to parameters such as sesame variety, chocolate melting point, control of cooking time and oven temperature

  1. Prediction of Acute Mammalian Toxicity Using QSAR Methods: A Case Study of Sulfur Mustard and Its Breakdown Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wheeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR, has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance’s database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (the LD50 for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD50 value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD50 value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s of interest, during emergency responses, LD50 values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD50 models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD50 values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field.

  2. Development of an integrated optimization method for analyzing effect of energy conversion efficiency under uncertainty – A case study of Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, S.W.; Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.; Hao, Q.; Nie, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Superiority–inferiority full-infinite mixed-integer method is developed. • The method can tackle uncertainties of fuzzy sets, crisp and functional intervals. • The method is applied to a real case of planning energy system. • Effects of energy-conversion efficiency on energy systems are analyzed. • Results can support policy enactment of conversion efficiency improvement. - Abstract: In this study, a superiority–inferiority full-infinite mixed-integer programming (SFMP) method is developed for analyzing the effect of energy conversion efficiency under uncertainty. SFMP can effectively tackle uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets, crisp intervals and functional intervals, it also can directly reflect relationships among multiple fuzzy sets through varying superiority and inferiority degrees with a high computational efficiency. Then the developed SFMP is applied to a real case of planning energy system for Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, where multiple scenarios related to different energy-conversion efficiency are concerned. Results for energy processing, energy conversion, capacity expansion, pollutant emission and system cost have been generated. It is proved that SFMP is an effective approach to deal with the uncertainties in energy systems with interactive and uncertain characteristics. A variety of uncertainties existed in energy conversion processes and impact factors could affect the modeling result. Results show that improvement of energy-conversion efficiency can effectively facilitate reducing energy resources consumption, optimizing energy generation pattern, decreasing capacity expansion, as well as mitigating pollutant emissions. Results also reveal that, for the study area, electric power has a highest energy saving potential among heating, oil processing, coal washing and refining. Results can help decision makers to generate desired alternatives that can facilitate policy enactment of conversion efficiency

  3. The influence of direct compression powder blend transfer method from the container to the tablet press on product critical quality attributes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teżyk, Michał; Jakubowska, Emilia; Milczewska, Kasylda; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Voelkel, Adam; Lulek, Janina

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the gravitational powder blend loading method to the tablet press and manual loading in terms of their influence on tablets' critical quality attributes (CQA). The results of the study can be of practical relevance to the pharmaceutical industry in the area of direct compression of low-dose formulations, which could be prone to content uniformity (CU) issues. In the preliminary study, particle size distribution (PSD) and surface energy of raw materials were determined using laser diffraction method and inverse gas chromatography, respectively. For trials purpose, a formulation containing two pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was used. Tablet samples were collected during the compression progress to analyze their CQAs, namely assay and CU. Results obtained during trials indicate that tested direct compression powder blend is sensitive to applied powder handling method. Mild increase in both APIs content was observed during manual scooping. Gravitational approach (based on discharge into the drum) resulted in a decrease in CU, which is connected to a more pronounced assay increase at the end of tableting than in the case of manual loading. The correct design of blend transfer over single unit processes is an important issue and should be investigated during the development phase since it may influence the final product CQAs. The manual scooping method, although simplistic, can be a temporary solution to improve the results of API's content and uniformity when compared to industrial gravitational transfer.

  4. Using existing case-mix methods to fund trauma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakova, Julia; Blais, Irene; Botz, Charles; Chechulin, Yuriy; Picciano, Gino; Basinski, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Policymakers frequently face the need to increase funding in isolated and frequently heterogeneous (clinically and in terms of resource consumption) patient subpopulations. This article presents a methodologic solution for testing the appropriateness of using existing grouping and weighting methodologies for funding subsets of patients in the scenario where a case-mix approach is preferable to a flat-rate based payment system. Using as an example the subpopulation of trauma cases of Ontario lead trauma hospitals, the statistical techniques of linear and nonlinear regression models, regression trees, and spline models were applied to examine the fit of the existing case-mix groups and reference weights for the trauma cases. The analyses demonstrated that for funding Ontario trauma cases, the existing case-mix systems can form the basis for rational and equitable hospital funding, decreasing the need to develop a different grouper for this subset of patients. This study confirmed that Injury Severity Score is a poor predictor of costs for trauma patients. Although our analysis used the Canadian case-mix classification system and cost weights, the demonstrated concept of using existing case-mix systems to develop funding rates for specific subsets of patient populations may be applicable internationally.

  5. Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to identify causes of diarrhoea in children: a reanalysis of the GEMS case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Platts-Mills, James A; Juma, Jane; Kabir, Furqan; Nkeze, Joseph; Okoi, Catherine; Operario, Darwin J; Uddin, Jashim; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Alonso, Pedro L; Antonio, Martin; Becker, Stephen M; Blackwelder, William C; Breiman, Robert F; Faruque, Abu S G; Fields, Barry; Gratz, Jean; Haque, Rashidul; Hossain, Anowar; Hossain, M Jahangir; Jarju, Sheikh; Qamar, Farah; Iqbal, Najeeha Talat; Kwambana, Brenda; Mandomando, Inacio; McMurry, Timothy L; Ochieng, Caroline; Ochieng, John B; Ochieng, Melvin; Onyango, Clayton; Panchalingam, Sandra; Kalam, Adil; Aziz, Fatima; Qureshi, Shahida; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Roberts, James H; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O; Stroup, Suzanne E; Sur, Dipika; Tamboura, Boubou; Taniuchi, Mami; Tennant, Sharon M; Toema, Deanna; Wu, Yukun; Zaidi, Anita; Nataro, James P; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M; Houpt, Eric R

    2016-09-24

    Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, but establishing the cause can be complicated by diverse diagnostic approaches and varying test characteristics. We used quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to reassess causes of diarrhoea in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). GEMS was a study of moderate to severe diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years in Africa and Asia. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to test for 32 enteropathogens in stool samples from cases and matched asymptomatic controls from GEMS, and compared pathogen-specific attributable incidences with those found with the original GEMS microbiological methods, including culture, EIA, and reverse-transcriptase PCR. We calculated revised pathogen-specific burdens of disease and assessed causes in individual children. We analysed 5304 sample pairs. For most pathogens, incidence was greater with qPCR than with the original methods, particularly for adenovirus 40/41 (around five times), Shigella spp or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and Campylobactor jejuni o C coli (around two times), and heat-stable enterotoxin-producing E coli ([ST-ETEC] around 1·5 times). The six most attributable pathogens became, in descending order, Shigella spp, rotavirus, adenovirus 40/41, ST-ETEC, Cryptosporidium spp, and Campylobacter spp. Pathogen-attributable diarrhoeal burden was 89·3% (95% CI 83·2-96·0) at the population level, compared with 51·5% (48·0-55·0) in the original GEMS analysis. The top six pathogens accounted for 77·8% (74·6-80·9) of all attributable diarrhoea. With use of model-derived quantitative cutoffs to assess individual diarrhoeal cases, 2254 (42·5%) of 5304 cases had one diarrhoea-associated pathogen detected and 2063 (38·9%) had two or more, with Shigella spp and rotavirus being the pathogens most strongly associated with diarrhoea in children with mixed infections. A quantitative molecular diagnostic approach improved population

  6. Case Study: Shiraz Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Khajehnoori

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between lifestyle which seems as a scale of globalization process with body image. Required data was collected by systematic random sampling among 508 women in Shiraz. Based on existing theories and studies theoretical framework has constituted based on Giddens theory. Six hypotheses have been established. For collecting information, survey method and self reported questionnaire were used. In data analysis and explanation, multiple regression and unilateral dispersion analyses were used. The result showed that among effective factors on body image, modern musical lifestyle, religious' lifestyle, leisure lifestyle and participative lifestyle explained 23 percent of variations of body image. Among these variables, only religious lifestyle had negative relationship with body image and other variables had positive relationship with dependant variable.

  7. The role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians: design and methods of a qualitative embedded multiple-case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Chantale; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of resource allocation decisions take place daily at the point of the clinical encounter; especially in primary care, where 80 percent of health problems are managed. Ignoring economic evaluation evidence in individual clinical decision-making may have a broad impact on the efficiency of health services. To date, almost all studies on the use of economic evaluation in decision-making used a quantitative approach, and few investigated decision-making at the clinical level. An important question is whether economic evaluations affect clinical practice. The project is an intervention research study designed to understand the role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians (FPs). The contributions of the project will be from the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu's sociological theory. Methods/design A qualitative research strategy is proposed. We will conduct an embedded multiple-case study design. Ten case studies will be performed. The FPs will be the unit of analysis. The sampling strategies will be directed towards theoretical generalization. The 10 selected cases will be intended to reflect a diversity of FPs. There will be two embedded units of analysis: FPs (micro-level of analysis) and field of family medicine (macro-level of analysis). The division of the determinants of practice/behaviour into two groups, corresponding to the macro-structural level and the micro-individual level, is the basis for Bourdieu's mode of analysis. The sources of data collection for the micro-level analysis will be 10 life history interviews with FPs, documents and observational evidence. The sources of data collection for the macro-level analysis will be documents and 9 open-ended, focused interviews with key informants from medical associations and academic institutions. The analytic induction approach to data analysis will be used. A list of codes will be generated based on both the original framework and new themes

  8. The role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians: design and methods of a qualitative embedded multiple-case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaulieu Marie-Dominique

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A considerable amount of resource allocation decisions take place daily at the point of the clinical encounter; especially in primary care, where 80 percent of health problems are managed. Ignoring economic evaluation evidence in individual clinical decision-making may have a broad impact on the efficiency of health services. To date, almost all studies on the use of economic evaluation in decision-making used a quantitative approach, and few investigated decision-making at the clinical level. An important question is whether economic evaluations affect clinical practice. The project is an intervention research study designed to understand the role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians (FPs. The contributions of the project will be from the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu's sociological theory. Methods/design A qualitative research strategy is proposed. We will conduct an embedded multiple-case study design. Ten case studies will be performed. The FPs will be the unit of analysis. The sampling strategies will be directed towards theoretical generalization. The 10 selected cases will be intended to reflect a diversity of FPs. There will be two embedded units of analysis: FPs (micro-level of analysis and field of family medicine (macro-level of analysis. The division of the determinants of practice/behaviour into two groups, corresponding to the macro-structural level and the micro-individual level, is the basis for Bourdieu's mode of analysis. The sources of data collection for the micro-level analysis will be 10 life history interviews with FPs, documents and observational evidence. The sources of data collection for the macro-level analysis will be documents and 9 open-ended, focused interviews with key informants from medical associations and academic institutions. The analytic induction approach to data analysis will be used. A list of codes will be generated based on both the original

  9. The use of ayurvedic medicine in the context of health promotion--a mixed methods case study of an ayurvedic centre in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Maria; Ståhle, Göran

    2016-02-17

    Ayurveda has its historical roots in India, but has also been internationalised, partly via migration and partly through an increased interest in alternative medicine in the West, where studies point toward increased use. However, there is to date scarce knowledge about the use and experiences of ayurveda in Sweden. We have conducted a case study of a center for ayurvedic healthcare in Sweden. We have collected information on client background data from the center's documentation, and compiled data from all clients who visited the centre for ayurvedic consultation during spring 2014. In total, 55 individuals were included in the study, and 18 of them were chosen for individual semi-structured interviews, to gain a deeper understanding of their motives for seeking, and experiences of ayurvedic health care. The material was analysed and compiled through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods. Among the 55 clients, 91% were female the mean age was 47 years, and 64% gave a specific illness as a reason for seeking ayurveda. The most common illnesses were respiratory, musculoskeletal, circulatory, tumor, and cutaneous illnesses. The qualitative results showed that ayurveda was being used in combination with other methods, including various diets, other alternative medicine methods and conventional medicine. Some participants recounted having sought ayurveda as a complement to conventional medicine, or in cases when conventional medicine had been experienced as insufficient in terms of diagnosis or treatment. However, some participants experienced it as difficult to follow the ayurvedic life-style advice in the midst of their everyday life. Many participants reported positive experiences of pulse diagnostics, which was the main diagnostic method used in ayurvedic consultation. Some reported concrete, physical improvement of their symptoms. This study points towards important aspects of participant experience of ayurveda, that may be subject to further research. The

  10. Applying the Kanban method in problem-based project work: a case study in a manufacturing engineering bachelor's programme at Aalborg University Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balve, Patrick; Krüger, Volker; Tolstrup Sørensen, Lene

    2017-11-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has proven to be highly effective for educating students in an active and self-motivated manner in various disciplines. Student projects carried out following PBL principles are very dynamic and carry a high level of uncertainty, both conditions under which agile project management approaches are assumed to be highly supportive. The paper describes an empirical case study carried out at Aalborg University Copenhagen involving students from two different semesters of a Bachelor of Science programme. While executing the study, compelling examples of how PBL and the agile project management method Kanban blend could be identified. A final survey reveals that applying Kanban produces noticeable improvements with respect to creating, assigning and coordinating project tasks. Other improvements were found in group communication, knowledge about the work progress with regards to both the individual and the collective and the students' way of continuously improving their own teamwork.

  11. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  12. FMCT verification: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Full text: How to manage the trade-off between the need for transparency and the concern about the disclosure of sensitive information would be a key issue during the negotiations of FMCT verification provision. This paper will explore the general concerns on FMCT verification; and demonstrate what verification measures might be applied to those reprocessing and enrichment plants. A primary goal of an FMCT will be to have the five declared nuclear weapon states and the three that operate unsafeguarded nuclear facilities become parties. One focus in negotiating the FMCT will be verification. Appropriate verification measures should be applied in each case. Most importantly, FMCT verification would focus, in the first instance, on these states' fissile material production facilities. After the FMCT enters into force, all these facilities should be declared. Some would continue operating to produce civil nuclear power or to produce fissile material for non- explosive military uses. The verification measures necessary for these operating facilities would be essentially IAEA safeguards, as currently being applied to non-nuclear weapon states under the NPT. However, some production facilities would be declared and shut down. Thus, one important task of the FMCT verifications will be to confirm the status of these closed facilities. As case studies, this paper will focus on the verification of those shutdown facilities. The FMCT verification system for former military facilities would have to differ in some ways from traditional IAEA safeguards. For example, there could be concerns about the potential loss of sensitive information at these facilities or at collocated facilities. Eventually, some safeguards measures such as environmental sampling might be seen as too intrusive. Thus, effective but less intrusive verification measures may be needed. Some sensitive nuclear facilities would be subject for the first time to international inspections, which could raise concerns

  13. B2B collaboration method through trust values for e-supply chain integrator: a case study of Malaysian construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab. Aziz, Norshakirah; Ahmad, Rohiza; Dhanapal Durai, Dominic

    2011-12-01

    Limited trust, cooperation and communication have been identified as some of the issues that hinder collaboration among business partners. These one also true in the acceptance of e-supply chain integrator among organizations that involve in the same industry. On top of that, the huge number of components in supply chain industry also makes it impossible to include entire supply chain components in the integrator. Hence, this study intends to propose a method for identifying "trusted" collaborators for inclusion into an e-supply chain integrator. For the purpose of constructing and validating the method, the Malaysian construction industry is chosen as the case study due to its size and importance to the economy. This paper puts forward the background of the research, some relevant literatures which lead to trust values elements formulation, data collection from Malaysian Construction Supply Chain and a glimpse of the proposed method for trusted partner selection. Future work is also presented to highlight the next step of this research.

  14. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  15. 425 Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    Anaesthesia management of acute aortic dissection type B in ... of a severe, constant abdominal and chest pain radiating to the ... Continuous spinal anaesthesia was induced ... these cases surgical intervention is critical.1,2 Type B of AAD is.

  16. User-composable Electronic Health Record Improves Efficiency of Clinician Data Viewing for Patient Case Appraisal: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senathirajah, Yalini; Kaufman, David; Bakken, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Challenges in the design of electronic health records (EHRs) include designing usable systems that must meet the complex, rapidly changing, and high-stakes information needs of clinicians. The ability to move and assemble elements together on the same page has significant human-computer interaction (HCI) and efficiency advantages, and can mitigate the problems of negotiating multiple fixed screens and the associated cognitive burdens. We compare MedWISE-a novel EHR that supports user-composable displays-with a conventional EHR in terms of the number of repeat views of data elements for patient case appraisal. The study used mixed-methods for examination of clinical data viewing in four patient cases. The study compared use of an experimental user-composable EHR with use of a conventional EHR, for case appraisal. Eleven clinicians used a user-composable EHR in a case appraisal task in the laboratory setting. This was compared with log file analysis of the same patient cases in the conventional EHR. We investigated the number of repeat views of the same clinical information during a session and across these two contexts, and compared them using Fisher's exact test. There was a significant difference (puser-composable EHR (14.6 percent) and conventional EHR (72.6 percent). Users of conventional EHRs repeatedly viewed the same information elements in the same session, as revealed by log files. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that conventional systems require that the user view many screens and remember information between screens, causing the user to forget information and to have to access the information a second time. Other mechanisms (such as reduction in navigation over a population of users due to interface sharing, and information selection) may also contribute to increased efficiency in the experimental system. Systems that allow a composable approach that enables the user to gather together on the same screen any desired information elements

  17. A Quantitative Method for Long-Term Water Erosion Impacts on Productivity with a Lack of Field Experiments: A Case Study in Huaihe Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water erosion causes reduced farmland productivity, and with a longer period of cultivation, agricultural productivity becomes increasingly vulnerable. The vulnerability of farmland productivity needs assessment due to long-term water erosion. The key to quantitative assessment is to propose a quantitative method with water loss scenarios to calculate productivity losses due to long-term water erosion. This study uses the agricultural policy environmental extender (APEX model and the global hydrological watershed unit and selects the Huaihe River watershed as a case study to describe the methodology. An erosion-variable control method considering soil and water conservation measure scenarios was used to study the relationship between long-term erosion and productivity losses and to fit with 3D surface (to come up with three elements, which are time, the cumulative amount of water erosion and productivity losses to measure long-term water erosion. Results showed that: (1 the 3D surfaces fit significantly well; fitting by the 3D surface can more accurately reflect the impact of long-term water erosion on productivity than fitting by the 2D curve (to come up with two elements, which are water erosion and productivity losses; (2 the cumulative loss surface can reflect differences in productivity loss caused by long-term water erosion.

  18. A variation of the housing unit method for estimating the age and gender distribution of small, rural areas: A case study of the local expert procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.F.; Roe, L.K.; Williams, C.A.; Swanson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies used in the development of a demographic data base established in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Radiological Monitoring Plan (RadMP). It also examines the suitability of a survey-based procedure for estimating population in small, rural areas. The procedure is a variation of the Housing Unit Method. It employs the use of local experts enlisted to provide information about the demographic characteristics of households randomly selected from residential units sample frames developed from utility records. The procedure is nonintrusive and less costly than traditional survey data collection efforts. Because the procedure is based on random sampling, confidence intervals can be constructed around the population estimated by the technique. The results of a case study are provided in which the total population, and age and gender of the population, is estimated for three unincorporated communities in rural, southern Nevada

  19. Using standardized methods for research on HIV and injecting drug use in developing/transitional countries: case study from the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stimson Gerry V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cross-national research requires methods that are both standardized across sites and adaptable to local conditions. We report on the development and implementation of the methodology underlying the survey component of the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II – a multi-site study of risk behavior and HIV seroprevalence among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs. Methods Standardized operational guidelines were developed by the Survey Coordinating Center in collaboration with the WHO Project Officer and participating site Investigators. Throughout the duration of the study, survey implementation at the local level was monitored by the Coordinating Center. Surveys were conducted in 12 different cities. Prior rapid assessment conducted in 10 cities provided insight into local context and guided survey implementation. Where possible, subjects were recruited both from drug abuse treatment centers and via street outreach. While emphasis was on IDUs, non-injectors were also recruited in cities with substantial non-injecting use of injectable drugs. A structured interview and HIV counseling/testing were administered. Results Over 5,000 subjects were recruited. Subjects were recruited from both drug treatment and street outreach in 10 cities. Non-injectors were recruited in nine cities. Prior rapid assessment identified suitable recruitment areas, reduced drug users' distrust of survey staff, and revealed site-specific risk behaviors. Centralized survey coordination facilitated local questionnaire modification within a core structure, standardized data collection protocols, uniform database structure, and cross-site analyses. Major site-specific problems included: questionnaire translation difficulties; locating affordable HIV-testing facilities; recruitment from drug treatment due to limited/selective treatment infrastructure; access to specific sub-groups of drug users in the community, particularly females or higher income groups

  20. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple personality disorder is characterised by splited individual ego-states and splited professional community arguing whether this disorder actually exists or not.Methods. In this case report study a supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy of a patient with multiple personality disorder is presented, that lasted for 4.5 years and resulted in ego-reintegration.Conclusions. The spliting between different ego-states is powered by unneutralised aggression with the possibility of hetero- and autoaggressive behaviour. Therefore the patient in the analytically oriented psychotherapeutic process is at high risk and a safe therapeutic (e. g. in-patient setting has to be provided.

  1. Estimation of the aerosol radiative forcing at ground level, over land, and in cloudless atmosphere, from METEOSAT-7 observation: method and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to estimate the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiative flux reaching the surface over land (DSSF, as well as the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF, in cloud-free atmosphere. The objective of regional applications of the method is attainable by using the visible broadband of METEOSAT-7 satellite instrument which scans Europe and Africa on a half-hourly basis. The method relies on a selection of best correspondence between METEOSAT-7 radiance and radiative transfer computations.

    The validation of DSSF is performed comparing retrievals with ground-based measurements acquired in two contrasted environments: an urban site near Paris and a continental background site located South East of France. The study is concentrated on aerosol episodes occurring around the 2003 summer heat wave, providing 42 cases of comparison for variable solar zenith angle (from 59° to 69°, variable aerosol type (biomass burning emissions and urban pollution, and variable aerosol optical thickness (a factor 6 in magnitude. The method reproduces measurements of DSSF within an accuracy assessment of 20 W m−2 (5% in relative in 70% of the situations, and within 40 W m−2 in 90% of the situations, for the two case studies considered here.

    Considering aerosol is the main contributor in changing the measured radiance at the top of the atmosphere, DSSF temporal variability is assumed to be caused only by aerosols, and consequently ARF at ground level and over land is also retrieved: ARF is computed as the difference between DSSF and a parameterised aerosol-free reference level. Retrievals are linearly correlated with the ground-based measurements of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT: sensitivity is included between 120 and 160 W m−2 per unity of AOT at 440 nm. AOT being an instantaneous measure indicative of the aerosol columnar amount, we prove the feasibility to infer instantaneous

  2. Case Study: Mini-Case Studies: Small Infusions of Active Learning for Large-Lecture Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloye, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the usage of case studies to be an excellent method for engaging students through stories. The author notes she developed a series of mini-case studies that can be implemented, with a little advance preparation, within a 10- to 15-minute window during lecture. What makes them "mini" case studies?…

  3. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without  exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  4. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  5. The impact of science methods courses on preservice elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy beliefs: Case studies from Turkey and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursal, Murat

    Four case studies in two American and two Turkish science methods classrooms were conducted to investigate the changes in preservice elementary teachers' personal science teaching efficacy (PSTE) beliefs during their course periods. The findings indicated that while Turkish preservice elementary teachers (TR sample) started the science methods course semester with higher PSTE than their American peers (US sample), due to a significant increase in the US sample's and an insignificant decline in the TR sample's PSTE scores, both groups completed the science methods course with similar PSTE levels. Consistent with Bandura's social cognitive theory, describing four major sources of self-efficacy, the inclusion of mastery experiences (inquiry activities and elementary school micro-teaching experiences) and vicarious experiences (observation of course instructor and supervisor elementary teacher) into the science methods course, providing positive social persuasion (positive appraisal from the instructor and classmates), and improving physiological states (reduced science anxiety and positive attitudes toward becoming elementary school teachers), were found to contribute to the significant enhancement of the US sample's PSTE beliefs. For the TR sample, although some of the above sources were present, the lack of student teaching experiences and inservice teacher observations, as well as the TR samples' negative attitudes toward becoming elementary school teachers and a lack of positive classroom support were found to make Turkish preservice teachers rely mostly on their mastery in science concepts, and therefore resulted in not benefiting from their science methods course, in terms of enhancing their PSTE beliefs. Calls for reforms in the Turkish education system that will include more mastery experiences in the science methods courses and provide more flexibility for students to choose their high school majors and college programs, and switch between them are made. In

  6. Case study: Khoramdareh County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Riahi Riahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability of rural settlements based on a systematic viewpoint may be defined as a realization of sustainable development in different social, economic and environmental aspects of rural areas. Achieving this goal requires that we pay more attention to effective elements and factors through a set of sustainability indices. This research was meant to analyze sustainable factors of rural settlement in three dimensions: environmental, social and economic context using multi-criteria decision analysis and explanation of the relationships between its active and effective factors in the rural area of the Khorramdarreh County in the province of Zanjan. The research method used is the descriptive analytic approach. Data from 287 households were sampled randomly from a total of 1143 households in the four villages including: Rahmat Abad, Alvand, Baghdareh and, Sukhariz (out of 15 villages in the Khorramdarreh County. In the process of doing this research and after calculating the weights, the difference in the sustainability of environmental, social, economic and physical aspects in rural areas of this county have been determined. Data was collected using library and field research through questionnaires. Data analysis was performed by the One-Sample t Test and the Vikur and path analysis techniques, using statistical software SPSS. The findings show that environmental sustainability in the study area is half desirable. Among the different aspects of environmental sustainability, the most effective factors are physical, economic, social and environmental aspects, respectively. Little attention of policy-making –system to socio-cultural and environmental aspects, especially in practice, and rapid and unplanned utilization of production resources are the most important factors affecting this situation in two given dimensions. Although, in programmed documents the planning system agents emphasize on the socio-cultural sustainability

  7. Science-Technology-Society literacy in college non-majors biology: Comparing problem/case studies based learning and traditional expository methods of instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John S.

    This study used a multiple response model (MRM) on selected items from the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) survey to examine science-technology-society (STS) literacy among college non-science majors' taught using Problem/Case Studies Based Learning (PBL/CSBL) and traditional expository methods of instruction. An initial pilot investigation of 15 VOSTS items produced a valid and reliable scoring model which can be used to quantitatively assess student literacy on a variety of STS topics deemed important for informed civic engagement in science related social and environmental issues. The new scoring model allows for the use of parametric inferential statistics to test hypotheses about factors influencing STS literacy. The follow-up cross-institutional study comparing teaching methods employed Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to model the efficiency and equitability of instructional methods on STS literacy. A cluster analysis was also used to compare pre and post course patterns of student views on the set of positions expressed within VOSTS items. HLM analysis revealed significantly higher instructional efficiency in the PBL/CSBL study group for 4 of the 35 STS attitude indices (characterization of media vs. school science; tentativeness of scientific models; cultural influences on scientific research), and more equitable effects of traditional instruction on one attitude index (interdependence of science and technology). Cluster analysis revealed generally stable patterns of pre to post course views across study groups, but also revealed possible teaching method effects on the relationship between the views expressed within VOSTS items with respect to (1) interdependency of science and technology; (2) anti-technology; (3) socioscientific decision-making; (4) scientific/technological solutions to environmental problems; (5) usefulness of school vs. media characterizations of science; (6) social constructivist vs. objectivist views of theories; (7

  8. Study of Mechanisms for Development and Strengthening of Water User Cooperatives (Case Study of Aras River Basin: Application of AHP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohallah maghabl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water user cooperatives were formed due to consideration to people's empowerment and participation in water investment and management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of development and strengthening of water user cooperatives in the Aras River Basin. The study population consisted of the management board members of the water user cooperatives in the Aras Basin in the year 2012. Respondents were selected by purposeful stratified sampling method. Having the data collected by interviews and questionnaires, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (through the software Expert Choice 11 was used to prioritize mechanisms for the development and strengthening of water user cooperatives. Based on the final weights, criterias including supportive strategies, education - extension, policy, communications and legal mechanisms, were prioritized, respectively. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that sub-criterias including reallocation of credit to change the traditional irrigation to drip and sprinkler irrigation, holding extension and educational courses purposed at promoting farmers’knowledge about their responsibilities for the formation and management of water user cooperatives collaborated with the department of Jihad Agricultural Organization (JKO, the department of Cooperatives and Regional Water Organization; credit and investment provision to improve the processing and package industries, modeling appropriate cropping systems based on the area capacity were the most influential sub-criterias in developing and strengthening water user cooperatives.

  9. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  10. Assessing environmental risks for high intensity agriculture using the material flow analysis method--a case study of the Dongting Lake basin in South Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanyi; Liu, Liming; Yuan, Chengcheng

    2015-07-01

    This study primarily examined the assessment of environmental risk in high intensity agricultural areas. Dongting Lake basin was taken as a case study, which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. Using data obtained from 1989 to 2012, we applied Material Flow Analysis (MFA) to show the material consumption, pollutant output and production storage in the agricultural-environmental system and assessed the environmental risk index on the basis of the MFA results. The results predicted that the status of the environmental quality of the Dongting Lake area is unsatisfactory for the foreseeable future. The direct material input (DMI) declined by 13.9%, the domestic processed output (DPO) increased by 28.21%, the intensity of material consumption (IMC) decreased by 36.7%, the intensity of material discharge (IMD) increased by 10%, the material productivity (MP) increased by 27 times, the environmental efficiency (EE) increased by 15.31 times, and the material storage (PAS) increased by 0.23%. The DMI and DPO was higher at rural places on the edge of cities, whereas the risk of urban agriculture has arisen due to the higher increasing rate of DMI and DPO in cities compared with the counties. The composite environmental risk index increased from 0.33 to 0.96, indicating that the total environmental risk changed gradually but seriously during the 24 years assessed. The driving factors that affect environmental risk in high intensity agriculture can be divided into five classes: social, economic, human, natural and disruptive incidents. This study discussed a number of effective measures for protecting the environment while ensuring food production yields. Additional research in other areas and certain improvements of this method in future studies may be necessary to develop a more effective method of managing and controlling agricultural-environmental interactions.

  11. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  12. Ultrasound guided reduction of an ileocolic intussusception by a hydrostatic method by using normal saline enema in paediatric patients: a study of 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digant, Shastri Mona; Rucha, Seth; Eke, Dessai

    2012-12-01

    The conventional hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception with barium enema or the pneumatic reduction of an intussusception is associated with considerable ionizing radiations and a risk of perforation; while the hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception under ultrasound guidance is a very safe method because the whole procedure is visualized with real time ultrasound. Also, being a non-invasive method with a high success rate, this procedure has emerged as a useful alternative to a surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound and colour Doppler studies for the guidance of the hydrostatic reduction of a childhood intussusception by using normal saline. Among 41 children who were evaluated with ultrasonography for the confirmation of the presence of intussusceptions, hydrostatic reduction of intussusception were performed under a sonographic guidance in 30 patients, whereas 11 patients were excluded due to clinical contraindications. This disease was observed mostly at the ages of 6 months to 24 months. In 80% of the patients, there was a recent history of gastroenteritis and 40 % had a history of common cold. The most common site of the intussusception was the transverse colon near the hepatic flexor of the colon (90%), with a mean duration of 22.1±17.3 hours. The overall rate of a successful reduction was 87% and the mean reduction time was 14 minutes. None of the cases showed recurrence within 24 hrs. No complications were observed. We conclude that ultrasound with colour Doppler study is very useful for the diagnosis of intussusceptions, as well as for guided hydrostatic reductions by using normal saline enema. This is an optimal, simple, and a safe procedure for the treatment of intussusceptions in paediatric patients.

  13. a case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the aquifer thickness occasioned by the degree of saturation and/or sand to clay ratio to which geoelectrical resistivity method might have responded. ... models to the pumping test data, plays a very important role in predicting aquifer ... corresponding layer models or geoelectric parameters. (Figure 3). The parameters (layer ...

  14. Case Study 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on measurements on Proactive Reviews - a method of organizational learing. While this article highlights the difficulties of measuring the ROI of knowledge initiatives, it also shows how Proactive Reviews can be measured and aligned with the business strategy....

  15. Urbanization and Land Use Changes in Peri-Urban Area using Spatial Analysis Methods (Case Study: Ciawi Urban Areas, Bogor Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahya, D. L.; Martini, E.; Kasikoen, K. M.

    2018-02-01

    Urbanization is shown by the increasing percentage of the population in urban areas. In Indonesia, the percentage of urban population increased dramatically form 17.42% (1971) to 42.15% (2010). This resulted in increased demand for housing. Limited land in the city area push residents looking for an alternative location of his residence to the peri-urban areas. It is accompanied by a process of land conversion from green area into built-up area. Continuous land conversion in peri-urban area is becoming increasingly widespread. Bogor Regency as part of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area is experiencing rapid development. This regency has been experienced land-use change very rapidly from agricultural areas into urban built up areas. Aim of this research is to analyze the effect of urbanization on land use changes in peri-urban areas using spatial analysis methods. This research used case study of Ciawi Urban Area that experiencing rapid development. Method of this research is using descriptive quantitative approach. Data used in this research is primary data (field survey) and secondary data (maps). To analyze land use change is using Geographic Information System (GIS) as spatial analysis methods. The effect of urbanization on land use changes in Ciawi Urban Area from year 2013 to 2015 is significant. The reduction of farm land is around -4.00% and wetland is around - 2.51%. The increasing area for hotel/villa/resort is around 3.10%. Based on this research, local government (Bogor Regency) should be alert to the land use changes that does not comply with the land use plan and also consistently apply the spatial planning.

  16. Preconcentration of low grade uranium ores by gravity and magnetic methods: a case study with copper tailings from Singhbhum, Bihar, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, R.; Sreenivas, T.; Krishna Rao, N.

    1992-01-01

    The physical beneficiation methods applied to uranium ores are gravity and magnetic techniques. Feasibility of application of these two techniques has been industrially demonstrated in the case of Palabora copper-uranium ores and Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores respectively. In India exhaustive studies have been carried out on the application of gravity and magnetic methods for preconcentration of uranium values from tailings of copper plants at Surda, Rakha and Mosabani in Singhbhum. While recovery by shaking tables is poor owing to non-liberation and inefficient recovery in finer particle sizes (-37μm), gravity machines like Bartles Mozely Separator and Bartles Cross Belt Concentrator are able to give improved recovery in sizes down to about 15μm. Application of Wet High Intensity Magnetic Separator (WHIMS) is able to improve the recovery to about 75 to 85% from the three tailings, and the improvement is due to the ability of WHIMS collect the micaceous mineral particles containing composite uranium values, as well as uraninite particles down to about 10μm in size. WHIMS is inefficient in recovering uraninite particles below 5μm. High Gradient Magnetic Separator and Super Conducting High Gradient Magnetic Separator, on the other hand, are able to give enhanced recovery of even < 5μm uraninite particles. With the improved technology of gravity and magnetic methods now available, it should now be techno-economically feasible to employ preconcentration of low tenor uranium ores by physical beneficiation, prior to chemical processing. (author). 25 refs. 8 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior

  18. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different...... research paths....

  19. Coping with shift work-related circadian disruption: A mixed-methods case study on napping and caffeine use in Australian nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofanti, Stephanie; Banks, Siobhan; Colella, Antonietta; Dingle, Caroline; Devine, Lisa; Galindo, Helen; Pantelios, Sophie; Brkic, Gorjana; Dorrian, Jillian

    2018-05-15

    Two of the most ubiquitous fatigue countermeasures used by shift-working nurses are napping and caffeine. This mixed-methods case study investigated the ways nurses and midwives utilised napping and caffeine countermeasures to cope with shift work, and associated sleep, physical health and psychological health outcomes. N = 130 Australian shift-working nurses and midwives (mean age = 44 years, range = 21-67, 115F, 15M) completed the Standard Shiftwork Index. A sub-set of 22 nurses and midwives completed an in-depth interview. Nearly 70% of participants reported napping. Those who napped during night shifts had significantly less total sleep time before (F 2,75  = 5.5, p 400 mg/day) increased from 15% to 33% of the sample and an average of 4 (SD = 2) caffeinated beverages per day was reported. Increased caffeine consumption was associated with greater sleep disturbance (r = 0.26, p napping on night shift was dependent on a number of factors including ability to sleep during the day. This study identified reasons shift workers chose to engage in or abstain from napping and consuming caffeine, and how these strategies related to poor sleep and health outcomes. Further research is required to help develop recommendations for shift workers regarding napping and caffeine consumption as fatigue countermeasures, whilst taking into account the associated hazards of each strategy.

  20. Putting Words in Their Mouth: Writing Dialogue for Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2018-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This issue discusses dialogue writing guidelines most relevant to case writing.

  1. From SOPs to Reports to Evaluations: Learning and Memory as a Case Study of how Missing Data and Methods Impact Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an era of global trade and regulatory cooperation, consistent and scientifically based interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies is essential. Because there is flexibility in the selection of test method(s), consistency can be especially challenging for lea...

  2. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Natalie; Choun, Kimcheng; Malhotra, Shelly; Koeut, Pichenda; Thai, Sopheak; Khun, Kim Eam; Colebunders, Robert; Lynen, Lut

    2015-01-01

    While community-based active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers. Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively. Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs. TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers to care in

  3. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Lorent

    Full Text Available While community-based active case finding (ACF for tuberculosis (TB holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers.Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively.Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs.TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers

  4. A framework and methods for incorporating gender-related issues in wildlife risk assessment: gender-related differences in metal levels and other contaminants as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2007-05-01

    Gender plays a role in the genetics, physiology, morphology, and behavior of organisms, and thus influences the uptake, fate, and effects of contaminants in organisms. There are a number of chemical analysis tools, as well as biological approaches to understanding the influence of gender on contaminant levels and effects in wildlife. Biological approaches occur at all levels, from mutagenesis, gene expression and biochemistry, to physiology, morphology and development, to pathology and behavior. Information on the effects of gender at all these levels is essential for model building, risk assessment, and developing biomonitoring plans. Gender influences both internal and external fate and effects. However, bioaccumulation and effects cannot occur without exposure, which is mediated by behavior, bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and absorption. Gender influences a number of individual features (size, nutrition, genetics, hormones), that in turn affect niche differentiation, leading back to differences in exposure and susceptibility. Both sexes have a variety of methods of ridding the body of contaminants, through the bile, urine, exhaled air, and sloughing of epidermal structures (skin, hair, feathers). Females can also rid their body of contaminants through egg contents and egg shells, or mammals by transfer to the developing fetus and through breast milk. The availability of contaminant data in wildlife depends partly on the ease of identification of the sexes by either external or internal examination. Thus, there are more data on contaminant levels in birds and mammals than in fish. Surprisingly, metal levels are not uniformly low in females, even when they are morphologically smaller than males. For 43 studies of metals in vertebrates, females had higher levels in 30 cases where there were significant differences (and males were higher in only 14 cases). Females usually had higher levels of mercury than males. Review of the literature suggests that authors

  5. A parathyroid scintigraphy case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, Desiree

    2005-01-01

    Background: There has been much debate concerning the most suitable protocol for parathyroid scintigraphy; the merits of various radiopharmaceuticals versus the correct imaging protocol to visualise both ectopic and anatomically placed adenomas against the various equipment choices have been debated. Aim: To demonstrate, through the use of a case study, the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion. Method: Use is made of Tc99mMIBI, full field chest scintigraphy, a clearly defined imaging protocol and SPECT imaging to locate ectopic parathyroid tissue in a female patient with significant symptoms of parathyroid hyperfunction. Results: A single hyperfunctioning adenoma is located in the pre-carinal area of the mediastinum. Using a radioguided surgical technique the hyperfunctioning tissue is excised and confirmed by histopathology. Conclusion: Whilst a dramatic reduction in patient symptoms was not seen immediately in this patient, the symptoms of the illness have been subsiding since January 2003. This case study demonstrates the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion

  6. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    2006-01-01

    on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive......Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...

  7. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  8. Sequential Optimization Methods for Augmentation of Marine Enzymes Production in Solid-State Fermentation: l-Glutaminase Production a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, T; Uppuluri, K B; Veera Bramha Chari, P; Kezia, D

    There is an increased l-glutaminase market worldwide due to its relevant industrial applications. Salt tolerance l-glutaminases play a vital role in the increase of flavor of different types of foods like soya sauce and tofu. This chapter is presenting the economically viable l-glutaminases production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus flavus MTCC 9972 as a case study. The enzyme production was improved following a three step optimization process. Initially mixture design (MD) (augmented simplex lattice design) was employed to optimize the solid substrate mixture. Such solid substrate mixture consisted of 59:41 of wheat bran and Bengal gram husk has given higher amounts of l-glutaminase. Glucose and l-glutamine were screened as a finest additional carbon and nitrogen sources for l-glutaminase production with help of Plackett-Burman Design (PBD). l-Glutamine also acting as a nitrogen source as well as inducer for secretion of l-glutaminase from A. flavus MTCC 9972. In the final step of optimization various environmental and nutritive parameters such as pH, temperature, moisture content, inoculum concentration, glucose, and l-glutamine levels were optimized through the use of hybrid feed forward neural networks (FFNNs) and genetic algorithm (GA). Through sequential optimization methods MD-PBD-FFNN-GA, the l-glutaminase production in SSF could be improved by 2.7-fold (453-1690U/g). © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuzzy-Set Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kim Sass

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary case studies rely on verbal arguments and set theory to build or evaluate theoretical claims. While existing procedures excel in the use of qualitative information (information about kind), they ignore quantitative information (information about degree) at central points of the analysis. Effectively, contemporary case studies rely on…

  10. Methodology for the case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.J.W.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2017-01-01

    This document is about the methodology and selection of the case studies. It is meant as a guideline for the case studies, and together with the other reports in this work package can be a source of inform ation for policy officers, interest groups and researchers evaluating or performing impact

  11. Case studies in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Varde, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is widely used Non Destructive Testing (NDT) method and forms the essential part of In-service inspection programme of nuclear reactors. Main application of ultrasonic testing is for volumetric scanning of weld joints followed by thickness gauging of pipelines and pressure vessels. Research reactor Dhruva has completed the first In Service Inspection programme in which about 325 weld joints have been volumetrically scanned, in addition to thickness gauging of 300 meters of pipe lines of various sizes and about 24 nos of pressure vessels. Ultrasonic testing is also used for level measurements, distance measurements and cleaning and decontamination of tools. Two case studies are brought out in this paper in which ultrasonic testing is used successfully for identification of butterfly valve opening status and extent of choking in pipe lines in Dhruva reactor systems

  12. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.

    1986-01-01

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  13. Family-Based Treatment of a 17-Year-Old Twin Presenting with Emerging Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Study Using the "Maudsley Method"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Katharine L.; Hirsch, Alicia M.; Greif, Rebecca; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the successful application of family-based treatment (FBT) for a 17-year-old identical twin presenting with a 4-month history of clinically significant symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). FBT is a manualized treatment that has been studied in randomized controlled trials for adolescents with AN. This case study illustrates…

  14. Study on the estimation method of uplift during the late quaternary by using river terraces. 1. Strategy of terrace correlation and a case study on stratigraphy of river terraces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hataya, Ryuta

    2005-01-01

    There are a few uplift data during the late Quaternary obtained by using river terraces than those by using marine terraces, because it is difficult to date a river terrace whose age is older than the marine oxygen isotope stage 6. In this paper, at first, we reviewed the terrace correlation method, and we proposed our viewpoint of terrace correlation which is based on relationship between geomorphologic features of terraces and geology that consist of terraces. Next, we did the case study on terrace stratigraphy in the Kawasaki Basin, Miyagi pref., and showed that our method is practical. (author)

  15. Case Studies of Environmental Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Patlakas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance gap between simulation and reality has been identified as a major challenge to achieving sustainability in the Built Environment. While Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE surveys are an integral part of better understanding building performance, and thus addressing this issue, the importance of POE remains relatively unacknowledged within the wider Built Environment community. A possible reason that has been highlighted is that POE survey data is not easily understood and utilizable by non-expert stakeholders, including designers. A potential method by which to address this is the visualization method, which has well established benefits for communication of big datasets. This paper presents two case studies where EnViz (short for “Environmental Visualization”, a prototype software application developed for research purposes, was utilized and its effectiveness tested via a range of analysis tasks. The results are discussed and compared with those of previous work that utilized variations of the methods presented here. The paper concludes by presenting the lessons drawn from the five-year period of EnViz, emphasizing the potential of environmental visualization for decision support in environmental design and engineering for the built environment, and suggests directions for future development.

  16. Comparison between three different LCIA methods for aquatic ecotoxicity and a product Environmental Risk Assessment – Insights from a Detergent Case Study within OMNIITOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Rana; Van Hoof, Geert; Feijtel, Tom

    2004-01-01

    set of physico-chemical and toxicological effect data to enable a better comparison of the methodological differences. For the same reason, the system boundaries were kept the same in all cases, focusing on emissions into water at the disposal stage. Results and Discussion. Significant differences...... ecotoxicity is not satisfactory, unless explicit reasons for the differences are identifiable. This can hamper practical decision support, as LCA practitioners usually will not be in a position to choose the 'right' LCIA method for their specific case. This puts a challenge to the entire OMNIITOX project......) with results from an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA). Material and Methods. The LCIA has been conducted with EDIP97 (chronic aquatic ecotoxicity) [1], USES-LCA (freshwater and marine water aquatic ecotoxicity, sometimes referred to as CML2001) [2, 3] and IMPACT 2002 (covering freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity...

  17. Centrifugal compressor case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, B.

    2010-10-15

    Three centrifugal compressors at a pipeline station were retrofitted with higher head impellers in 2008. The owners of the station experienced vibration problems over the following 2 years that caused transmitter and position failures that were assumed to be flow-induced pulsations. A vibration and pulsation analysis indicated that the shell mode piping vibration excited by the blade pass pulsation was responsible for the failures. This study outlined factors that contributed to the vibration problem. Interferences between the compressor and shell mode piping natural frequencies were predicted, and potential excitation sources were examined. The study demonstrated how centrifugal vibration analyses can be used during the design phase to avoid costly adjustments. Recommendations included the addition of stiffeners to alter the shell modes, and the addition of constrained layer damping material to reduce resonant responses. 2 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  18. Case study: Tourism marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kennell, James

    2014-01-01

    Tourism can be a challenging subject for students because it is both dynamic and susceptible to economic turbulence and shifts in trends. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis is an essential textbook for tourism students looking for a clear and comprehensive introduction to their studies which helps overcome these challenges. The authors apply a strong business approach to the subject reflecting developments in the teaching and content of modern courses and the text covers both key principles and cont...

  19. Wadati method as a simple tool to study seismically active fault zones: a case study from the West-Bohemia/Vogtland region, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, O.; Málek, Jiří; Boušková, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2016), s. 248-267 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2336; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : velocity ratio * earthquake swarm * West-Bohemia/Vogtland * Wadati method * tectonic fault Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2016

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL MODEL FOR MINING METHOD SELECTION IN A FUZZY ENVIRONMENT; CASE STUDY: TAZAREH COAL MINE, SEMNAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asadi Ooriad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining method selection (MMS for mineral resources is one of the most significant steps in mining production management. Due to high costs involved and environmental problems, it is usually not possible to change the coal mining method after planning and starting the operation. In most cases, MMS can be considered as an irreversible process. Selecting a method for mining mainly depends on geological, geometrical properties of the resource, environmental impacts of exploration, impacts of hazardous activities and land use management. This paper seeks to develop a novel model for mining method selection in order to achieve a stable production rate and to reduce environmental problems. This novel model is illustrated by implementing for Tazareh coal mine. Given the disadvantages of the previous models for selecting coal mining method, the purpose of this research is modifying the previous models and offering a comprehensive model. In this respect, TOPSIS method is used as a powerful multi attribute decision-making procedure in Fuzzy environment. After implementation of the presented model in Tazareh coal mine, long wall mining method has been selected as the most appropriate mining method.

  1. A Primary Study on the Recording Method of Interior Decoration in Qing Dynasty - A Case Study of Interior Decoration of Jingfu Palace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, X.; He, B.; Zhuang, L.

    2017-08-01

    The existing interior decoration of Qing Dynasty is the master of that of each dynasty, with its diversified forms and complicated functions. As early as 1920s, the Rehabilitation Committee of Qing court recorded the interior furnishing in the Forbidden City by using Chinese traditional documentary method. Today, along with the constantly updated techniques, the recording method for the current situation of interior decoration has gradually developed from two-dimensional drawings into digital and comprehensive record. However, the current research results are mostly limited to a single field. This paper takes the digital record and reproduction about the current situation of interior decoration in Jingfu Palace in the Forbidden City as an example. Through the use of photogrammetry, 3D laser scanning, virtual display and other technology and equipment at the forefront of architectural field, it makes qualitative and quantitative record about the interior decoration inside Jingfu Palace. By combing with the interpretation of historical documents, it restores the original design ideas hidden behind the current situation of interior decoration, so as to summarize the best recording and reproducing method of interior decoration of Qing Dynasty.

  2. A Primary Study on the Recording Method of Interior Decoration in Qing Dynasty – A Case Study of Interior Decoration of Jingfu Palace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Rong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing interior decoration of Qing Dynasty is the master of that of each dynasty, with its diversified forms and complicated functions. As early as 1920s, the Rehabilitation Committee of Qing court recorded the interior furnishing in the Forbidden City by using Chinese traditional documentary method. Today, along with the constantly updated techniques, the recording method for the current situation of interior decoration has gradually developed from two-dimensional drawings into digital and comprehensive record. However, the current research results are mostly limited to a single field. This paper takes the digital record and reproduction about the current situation of interior decoration in Jingfu Palace in the Forbidden City as an example. Through the use of photogrammetry, 3D laser scanning, virtual display and other technology and equipment at the forefront of architectural field, it makes qualitative and quantitative record about the interior decoration inside Jingfu Palace. By combing with the interpretation of historical documents, it restores the original design ideas hidden behind the current situation of interior decoration, so as to summarize the best recording and reproducing method of interior decoration of Qing Dynasty.

  3. The role of radionuclide studies in emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Hayashida, Kohei; Uehara, Toshiisa

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide studies have been performed popularly because of its noninvasive and simple method recently. In this study, we applied this technique for the evaluation of emergency cases in cardiovascular diseases. There were 93 cases (1.5%) out of 6163 cases, done during 1981. The subjects were 34 cases of cardiac studies (9 cases of sup(99m)Tc-PYP myocardial imaging, 12 cases of thallium myocardial imaging, 13 cases of cardioangiography), 23 cases of peripheral diseases (12 cases of peripheral angiography, 11 cases of venography), 16 cases of pulmonary imaging, 10 cases of renal studies (6 cases of renal angiography, 9 cases of renal imaging) and 5 cases of brain angiography. These studies were proven to be useful clinically for the evaluation of emergency cases and follow-up studies. In the near future, ''emergency radionuclide studies'' would be benefit for the high-risk patients noninvasively. (author)

  4. Method for Analyzing Trade-offs in Biomass Management in Smallholder Farming Systems Based on Mass Balance: A Case Study in Tajikistan's Foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ruppen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In smallholder farming systems, especially in mountainous areas, households face trade-offs between meeting short-term human needs and ensuring long-term soil productivity. Improved biomass management can help break the downward spiral of overexploitation of natural resources, land degradation, and productivity decline, and support more sustainable use of marginal land. Mixed crop/livestock systems are often carefully balanced to minimize risks. Thus, when planning interventions, profound systems knowledge is crucial. However, the data required for system characterization are often scarce, and original field studies are thus necessary. The aim of this research, a case study in Tajikistan, was to improve systems understanding of the biomass cycle in crop/livestock systems in order to quantify the obstacles to the spread of sustainable land management technologies to farming households. It aimed to establish a database and methods of rapid data collection to quantify the stocks and flows of biomass, with a focus on mass balances, and to evaluate smallholders’ biomass management options and trade-offs. Data collection included household interviews, secondary literature, and reference data sets from global sources. Trade-off analysis focused on household-level self-supply of food, fodder, and fuel by farmers with different sizes of smallholdings, and their potential for on-farm recycling of organic matter. Results indicate that food self-supply by small and medium smallholders is insufficient and fodder sources are scarce. Fodder scarcity means that application of crop byproducts to soils is unlikely. Animal dung is largely used as fuel. Firewood needs exceed on-farm wood production, leading to deforestation. The approach presented facilitates an understanding of current and potential agricultural land interventions in the crop/livestock farming systems prevailing in mountainous areas.

  5. Método híbrido CONWIP/KANBAN um estudo de caso Hybrid Method CONWIP/KANBAN: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sereno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de controle da produção geralmente são pontos de discussão nas principais literaturas da Engenharia de Produção. Pode-se dizer que sistema KANBAN é o método mais conhecido entre os profissionais da área para o controle e processamento de materiais no ambiente do chão de fábrica, devido à sua simplicidade e importância competitiva na concepção do sistema Toyota de produção. Analisando possíveis desvantagens apresentadas por este sistema, surge o CONWIP, demonstrando que o KANBAN pode ser questionado em determinadas circunstâncias e mediante algumas variáveis do produto, demanda ou mesmo da produção. Investigar, comparar e apontar as vantagens, e as desvantagens do KANBAN, CONWIP e Método Híbrido CONWIP/KANBAN são o foco deste trabalho. A partir do estudo de caso de uma empresa com produção de componentes eletromecânicos para comando e monitoração de válvulas, caracterizada por pequenos lotes, alta customização e demanda incerta, discutem-se esses métodos, visando concluir, por meio dos resultados obtidos, os diferenciais da combinação do KANBAN e CONWIP no chamado Método Híbrido CONWIP/KANBAN.Production control systems have been widely discussed in the Production Engineering literature. The KANBAN system is the most known among professionals for the control and processing of materials in the shop floor environment due to its simplicity and competitive significance in the design of the Toyota production system. Analyzing possible disadvantages presented by this system, the CONWIP demonstrates that the KANBAN can be questioned in certain circumstances and upon certain variables of the product, demand, or production. The objective of this research is to Investigate, compare, and point out the advantages and disadvantages of KANBAN, CONWIP, and the CONWIP/KANBAN Hybrid Method. Based on the case study in a company that manufactures electromechanical components for valve monitoring and control

  6. Case Study: Derechos Digitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Derechos Digitales is a Latin American advocacy and research network focussed on freedom on the internet, privacy and copyright reform. For the pilot project a specific IDRC funded project was the notional focus of study. However in practice the effort for considering data sharing was aimed at being organisation wide. The organisation already shares reports and other resources (particularly images and infographics by default. While open data was described as being “in the DNA of the organisation” there was little practice across the network of sharing preliminary and in-process materials. Some aspects of data collection on research projects, particularly to do with copyright and legal issues, have significant privacy issues and as the organisation focuses on privacy as one of its advocacy areas this is taken very seriously. Many materials from research projects are not placed online at all. Derechos Digitales run distributed projects and this creates challenges for consistent management. Alongside this the main contact at DD changed during the course of the pilot. This exchange exemplified the challenges of maintaining organisational systems and awareness through a personnel change.

  7. CASE METHOD: THE STORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF THE METHOD IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Грузкова

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the history of origin and issue of case-study method (of a кейс-method in the practice of professional education, which is based on case studies. The distinctive feature of the case-study method is to create a problematic situation on the basis of the facts of real life. As a method, analysis of situations-has become widespread in the world in the 70-80 years, in the same period, he became known in the USSR. This method was used at the beginning, when training managers mainly economic universities to form the students ' ability to make decisions. It is connected with the changes taking place in the economy, because at that time, it has generated substantial reform demand for specialists who know how to act in situations of uncertainty, high risk specialists who can analyze and make decisions. On the one hand, as the authors note, the wide dissemination of this method in education due to its orientation, so that the case method is focused not so much on the development of specific knowledge or skills, as on the development of the common intellectual and communicative capacity of the trainee and the training. In addition, the case method is quite effective in training, he can be connected easily enough with other learning methods. On the other hand, have been certain difficulties in introducing the case-study method in the practice of professional education: general orientation for the development of education and development of the quality requirements for surface treatment, specialist teachers to the methodological basis for the other method.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-24

  8. Contribution of an exposure indicator to better anticipate damages with the AIGA flood warning method: a case study in the South of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Fouchier, Catherine; Douvinet, Johnny; Javelle, Pierre; Vinet, Freddy

    2016-04-01

    On the 3rd October 2015, heavy localized precipitations have occurred in South Eastern France leading to major flash floods on the Mediterranean coast. The severity of those floods has caused 20 fatalities and important damage in almost 50 municipalities in the French administrative area of Alpes-Maritimes. The local recording rain gauges have shown how fast the event has happened: 156 mm of rain were recorded in Mandelieu-la-Napoule and 145 mm in Cannes within 2 hours. As the affected rivers are not monitored, no anticipation was possible from the authorities in charge of risk management. In this case, forecasting floods is indeed complex because of the small size of the watersheds which implies a reduced catchment response time. In order to cope with the need of issuing flood warnings on un-monitored small catchments, Irstea and Météo-France have developed an alternative warning system for ungauged basins called the AIGA method. AIGA is a flood warning system based on a simple distributed hydrological model run at a 1 km² resolution using real time radar rainfall information (Javelle, Demargne, Defrance, Pansu, & Arnaud, 2014). The flood warnings, produced every 15 minutes, result of the comparison of the real time runoff data produced by the model with statistical runoff values. AIGA is running in real time in the South of France, within the RHYTMME project (https://rhytmme.irstea.fr/). Work is on-going in order to offer a similar service for the whole French territory. More than 200 impacts of the 3rd October floods have been located using media, social networks and fieldwork. The first comparisons between these impacts and the AIGA warning levels computed for this event show several discrepancies. However, these latter discrepancies appear to be explained by the land-use. An indicator of the exposure of territories to flooding has thus been created to weight the levels of the AIGA hydrological warnings with the land-use of the area surrounding the streams

  9. A study on effects of the best human resource management methods on employee performance based on Guest model: A case study of Charmahal-Bakhtiari Gas distribution firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Valikhani Dehaghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management plays an essential role on the success of any business units such as utility firms. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the effects of different human resource management on employee performance. The proposed study is applied on one of gas distribution units in province of Charmahal-Bakhtiari, which is located west part of Iran. There were 161 people working for this firm where 75 employees were working in center of province and 86 employees were working in other sides of province. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.83, which is well above the minimum desirable limit. The study uses Pearson correlation test to investigate the effects of Hiring system, Training system, Job design, Organizational relationship and Share ownership programs on employee performance. The results of our survey indicate that job design is the most important technique for employee management followed by training system, organizational relationship and share ownership programs.

  10. Experiences of nurse practitioners and medical practitioners working in collaborative practice models in primary healthcare in Australia - a multiple case study using mixed methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadewaldt, Verena; McInnes, Elizabeth; Hiller, Janet E; Gardner, Anne

    2016-07-29

    In 2010 policy changes were introduced to the Australian healthcare system that granted nurse practitioners access to the public health insurance scheme (Medicare) subject to a collaborative arrangement with a medical practitioner. These changes facilitated nurse practitioner practice in primary healthcare settings. This study investigated the experiences and perceptions of nurse practitioners and medical practitioners who worked together under the new policies and aimed to identify enablers of collaborative practice models. A multiple case study of five primary healthcare sites was undertaken, applying mixed methods research. Six nurse practitioners, 13 medical practitioners and three practice managers participated in the study. Data were collected through direct observations, documents and semi-structured interviews as well as questionnaires including validated scales to measure the level of collaboration, satisfaction with collaboration and beliefs in the benefits of collaboration. Thematic analysis was undertaken for qualitative data from interviews, observations and documents, followed by deductive analysis whereby thematic categories were compared to two theoretical models of collaboration. Questionnaire responses were summarised using descriptive statistics. Using the scale measurements, nurse practitioners and medical practitioners reported high levels of collaboration, were highly satisfied with their collaborative relationship and strongly believed that collaboration benefited the patient. The three themes developed from qualitative data showed a more complex and nuanced picture: 1) Structures such as government policy requirements and local infrastructure disadvantaged nurse practitioners financially and professionally in collaborative practice models; 2) Participants experienced the influence and consequences of individual role enactment through the co-existence of overlapping, complementary, traditional and emerging roles, which blurred perceptions of

  11. Tackling the workforce crisis in district nursing: can the Dutch Buurtzorg model offer a solution and a better patient experience? A mixed methods case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Vari M; Calestani, Melania; Ross, Fiona; Saunders, Mary; West, Peter

    2018-06-06

    Despite policy intentions for more healthcare out of hospital, district nursing services face multiple funding and staffing challenges, which compromise the care delivered and policy objectives. What is the impact of the adapted Buurtzorg model on feasibility, acceptability and effective outcomes in an English district nursing service? Mixed methods case study. Primary care. Neighbourhood nursing team (Buurtzorg model), patients and carers, general practitioners (GPs), other health professionals, managers and conventional district nurses. The adapted Buurtzorg model of community nursing demonstrated feasibility and acceptability to patients, carers, GPs and other health professionals. For many patients, it was preferable to previous experiences of district nursing in terms of continuity in care, improved support of multiple long-term conditions (encompassing physical, mental and social factors) and proactive care. For the neighbourhood nurses, the ability to make operational and clinical decisions at team level meant adopting practices that made the service more responsive, accessible and efficient and offered a more attractive working environment. Challenges were reported by nurses and managers in relation to the recognition and support of the concept of self-managing teams within a large bureaucratic healthcare organisation. While there were some reports of clinical effectiveness and efficiency, this was not possible to quantify, cost or compare with the standard district nursing service. The adapted Buurtzorg model of neighbourhood nursing holds potential for addressing issues of concern to patients, carers and staff in the community. The two interacting innovations, that is, a renewed focus on patient and carer-centred care and the self-managing team, were implemented in ways that patients, carers, other health professionals and nurses could identify difference for both the nursing care and also the nurses' working lives. It now requires longer term

  12. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  13. The Effects of Leaderâ member Exchange and Cognitive Style on Student Achievement: A Mixed Methods Case Study of Teacherâ student Dyads

    OpenAIRE

    Mosley, Chaney Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this embedded sequential explanatory case study with a quantitativeâ qualitative two-strand design of inquiry was to explain how the quality of teacher-student relationships and the gap of cognitive styles between teachers and students impact student achievement. The population for the quantitative strand of research was comprised of 11 career and technical education (CTE) teachers and 210 CTE students, representing six disciplines within CTE. The study occurred in a suburba...

  14. Effect of the Jigsaw-Based Cooperative Learning Method on Student Performance in the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level Psychology: An Exploratory Brunei Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Nur Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    The mixed-methods study investigated the effect of the jigsaw cooperative learning method on student performance in psychology and their views towards it. Experimental data were obtained via pre-and-post tests and an open-ended questionnaire from 16 conveniently selected students at one Sixth Form College in Brunei. Moreover, the participants…

  15. Case studies of uncommon headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randolph W

    2006-05-01

    The following interesting and uncommon headache disorders are presented through case studies: exploding head syndrome, hypnic headache, neck-tongue syndrome, "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome, nummular headache, red ear syndrome, burning mouth syndrome, spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome, and cardiac cephalalgia.

  16. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  17. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  18. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  19. a case study ondo state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the design of a Government Cloud (G-Cloud) network for Ondo State Government which will ... network for a developing economy; a case study of ... France is one of those countries that favour .... Arequipa city. .... Where region 0 = Akure, 1 =.

  20. Characterization of individual ice residual particles by the single droplet freezing method: a case study in the Asian dust outflow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Ayumi; Matsuki, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    pure or fresh calcite, Ca(NO3)2, and (NH4)2SO4 particles were more often found in the non-active fraction. In this study, we demonstrated the capability of the combined single droplet freezing method and thorough individual particle analysis to characterize the ice nucleation activity of atmospheric aerosols. We also found that dramatic changes in the particle mixing states during long-range transport had a complex effect on the ice nucleation activity of the host aerosol particles. A case study in the Asian dust outflow region highlighted the need to consider particle mixing states, which can dramatically influence ice nucleation activity.