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Sample records for methodology creates hypothetical

  1. Application of a safety assessment methodology to a hypothetical surface disposal at Serpong site, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, E.; Mallants, D.; Volckaert, G.; Marivoet, J.; Neerdael, B.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary and generic safety assessment of a candidate shallow land burial (SLB) repository at Serpong site, Indonesia, has been performed. The step-by-step safety assessment methodology included an analysis of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and mathematical modelling of radionuclide migration in the near field, geosphere and biosphere. On the basis of an extensive FEP catalogue the most relevant scenarios to be considered in the consequence analysis were selected. Both the normal evolution scenario (NES) and the alternative scenarios were identified. On the basis of these scenarios a conceptual model that included all the important physical-chemical processes was built for the near field and geosphere. A two-dimensional numerical model was then used to solve the governing flow and transport equations for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The calculations were performed using a repository-specific value for the total disposed activity in combination with hypothetical values for radionuclide composition based on a typical radionuclide content of low level waste in Belgium. Site-specific data on hydrogeological properties were used for the geosphere calculations. Typical results of the consequence analysis in terms of radionuclide fluxes to the geosphere and radionuclide concentrations in the groundwater are discussed. (author)

  2. Soft Systems Methodology Embedded in Organizational Knowledge-Creating Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Taketoshi

    2005-01-01

    We clarify the role of tacit knowing in the soft systems methodology. For the purpose we investigate the basic structure of its seven-stage model, while embedding the soft systems methodology in organizational knowledge-creating process. This leads to the introduction of concept creation to the methodology. This changes the basic shape of the soft systems methodology from learning cycle to organizational knowledge-creating spiral where concept creation is the key point.

  3. Creating and evaluating a new clicker methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei

    "Clickers", an in-class polling system, has been used by many instructors to add active learning and formative assessment to previously passive traditional lectures. While considerable research has been conducted on clicker increasing student interaction in class, less research has been reported on the effectiveness of using clicker to help students understand concepts. This thesis reported a systemic project by the OSU Physics Education group to develop and test a new clicker methodology. Clickers question sequences based on a constructivist model of learning were used to improve classroom dynamics and student learning. They also helped students and lecturers understand in real time whether a concept had been assimilated or more effort was required. Chapter 1 provided an introduction to the clicker project. Chapter 2 summarized widely-accepted teaching principles that have arisen from a long history of research and practice in psychology, cognitive science and physics education. The OSU clicker methodology described in this thesis originated partly from our years of teaching experience, but mostly was based on these teaching principles. Chapter 3 provided an overview of the history of clicker technology and different types of clickers. Also, OSU's use of clickers was summarized together with a list of common problems and corresponding solutions. These technical details may be useful for those who want to use clickers. Chapter 4 discussed examples of the type and use of question sequences based on the new clicker methodology. In several years of research, we developed a base of clicker materials for calculus-based introductory physics courses at OSU. As discussed in chapter 5, a year-long controlled quantitative study was conducted to determine whether using clickers helps students learn, how using clickers helps students learn and whether students perceive that clicker has a positive effect on their own learning process. The strategy for this test was based on

  4. Application of an infiltration evaluation methodology to a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    This report provides an analysis of infiltration and percolation at a hypothetical low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility was carried out. The analysis was intended to illustrate general issues of concern in assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. Among the processes considered in the analysis were precipitation, runoff, information, evaporation, transpiration, and redistribution. The hypothetical facility was located in a humid environment characterized by frequent and often intense precipitation events. The facility consisted of a series of concrete vaults topped by a multilayer cover. Cover features included a sloping soil surface to promote runoff, plant growth to minimize erosion and promote transportation, a sloping clay layer, and a sloping capillary barrier. The analysis within the root zone was carried out using a one-dimensional, transient simulation of water flow. Below the root zone, the analysis was primarily two-dimensional and steady-state

  5. A methodology for creating ontologies for engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Kim, S.; Wallace, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a six-stage methodology for developing ontologies for engineering design, together with the research methods and evaluation of each stage. The methodology focuses upon understanding a user's domain models through empirical research. A case study of an ontology for searching......, indexing, and retrieving engineering knowledge is described. The root concepts of the ontology were elicited from engineering designers. Relationships between concepts are extracted as the ontology is populated. The contribution of this research is a methodology to allow researchers. and industry to create...... ontologies for their particular purpose and a thesaurus for the terms within the ontology....

  6. Methodology Used to Create System Architecture for its in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Janota

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an object oriented approach proposed by the authors for creation of the ITS system architecture in the Slovak Republic and shows how a reference architecture can be created as s base for future more detailed architectures (models. The authors characterise possible approaches, explain their relations to existing architectures and propose a methodology based on the Unifield Modelling language (UML. The main attention is paid to the logical part (logical view of the system architecture, that should result in the form of easy readable and understandable UML models.

  7. Methodology of evaluation of value created in the productive processes

    OpenAIRE

    M.T. Roszak

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Of this paper was to present the methodology of analysis of the productive processes with applicationof value analysis and multi-criterion-analysis which allow to evaluate the technology and organization of theproductive processes.Design/methodology/approach: Presented in the paper methodology of evaluation of the productive processesis based on analysis of activities in the productive processes and their characteristics with reference to createdvalue in the productive chain.Findings...

  8. A methodology for creating greenways through multidisciplinary sustainable landscape planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Selma Beatriz; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Teles, Rui; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila

    2010-01-01

    This research proposes a methodology for defining greenways via sustainable planning. This approach includes the analysis and discussion of culture and natural processes that occur in the landscape. The proposed methodology is structured in three phases: eco-cultural analysis; synthesis and diagnosis; and proposal. An interdisciplinary approach provides an assessment of the relationships between landscape structure and landscape dynamics, which are essential to any landscape management or land use. The landscape eco-cultural analysis provides a biophysical, dynamic (geomorphologic rate), vegetation (habitats from directive 92/43/EEC) and cultural characterisation. The knowledge obtained by this analysis then supports the definition of priority actions to stabilise the landscape and the management measures for the habitats. After the analysis and diagnosis phases, a proposal for the development of sustainable greenways can be achieved. This methodology was applied to a study area of the Azambuja Municipality in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portugal). The application of the proposed methodology to the study area shows that landscape stability is crucial for greenway users in order to appreciate the landscape and its natural and cultural elements in a sustainable and healthy way, both by cycling or by foot. A balanced landscape will increase the value of greenways and in return, they can develop socio-economic activities with benefits for rural communities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Methodology for creating dedicated machine and algorithm on sunflower counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muracciole, Vincent; Plainchault, Patrick; Mannino, Maria-Rosaria; Bertrand, Dominique; Vigouroux, Bertrand

    2007-09-01

    In order to sell grain lots in European countries, seed industries need a government certification. This certification requests purity testing, seed counting in order to quantify specified seed species and other impurities in lots, and germination testing. These analyses are carried out within the framework of international trade according to the methods of the International Seed Testing Association. Presently these different analyses are still achieved manually by skilled operators. Previous works have already shown that seeds can be characterized by around 110 visual features (morphology, colour, texture), and thus have presented several identification algorithms. Until now, most of the works in this domain are computer based. The approach presented in this article is based on the design of dedicated electronic vision machine aimed to identify and sort seeds. This machine is composed of a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) and a PC bearing the GUI (Human Machine Interface) of the system. Its operation relies on the stroboscopic image acquisition of a seed falling in front of a camera. A first machine was designed according to this approach, in order to simulate all the vision chain (image acquisition, feature extraction, identification) under the Matlab environment. In order to perform this task into dedicated hardware, all these algorithms were developed without the use of the Matlab toolbox. The objective of this article is to present a design methodology for a special purpose identification algorithm based on distance between groups into dedicated hardware machine for seed counting.

  10. METHODOLOGY TO CREATE DIGITAL AND VIRTUAL 3D ARTEFACTS IN ARCHAEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin Neamtu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology to create 3D digital and virtual artefacts in the field of archaeology using CAD software solution. The methodology includes the following steps: the digitalization process, the digital restoration and the dissemination process within a virtual environment. The resulted 3D digital artefacts have to be created in files formats that are compatible with a large variety of operating systems and hardware configurations such as: computers, graphic tablets and smartphones. The compatibility and portability of these 3D file formats has led to a series of quality related compromises to the 3D models in order to integrate them on in a wide variety of application that are running on different hardware configurations. The paper illustrates multiple virtual reality and augmented reality application that make use of the virtual 3D artefacts that have been generated using this methodology.

  11. Campus Retrofitting (CARE) Methodology: A Way to Co-Create Future Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nenonen, Suvi; Eriksson, Robert; Niemi, Olli

    2016-01-01

    (CARE)- methodology for user-centric and co- creative campus retrofitting processes. The campus development research in Nordic countries and co-creation in retrofitting processes are discussed. The campus retrofitting cases in different countries are described by emphasising especially the methods...... of resources in form of both teachers and university facilities is challenged by development of integration of learning, teaching and the spaces where it takes place. The challenges are shared among users and owners of campus, where retrofitting is needed too. This paper aims to describe Campus Retrofitting...... they used. Based on the analysis of the methods the framework for Campus retrofitting (CARE) - methodology is presented and discussed. CARE-methodology is a tool to capture new logic to learning environment design. It has three key activities: co-creating, co-financing and co-evaluating. The integrated...

  12. Comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Vol. IV. A site selection methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemarin, C.S.; Yaffee, S.L.

    1976-09-01

    A methodology has been developed for selecting suitable sites for development as nuclear energy centers. First, the forty-eight contiguous states were screened on the basis of four variables: (1) seismic stability; (2) distance from projected population centers; (3) adequate water supply; and (4) noninterference with scenic and reserved lands. After location of a surrogate area in north central Tennessee, further screening was performed using 22 variables to find a suitable 75-sq-mile surrogate site within this 1500-sq-mile area. A computer method for screening the surrogate area is presented, and the use of the data for the 22 variables is illustrated

  13. Feasibility study and methodology to create a quality-evaluated database of primary care data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Bourke

    2004-11-01

    Conclusions In the group of practices studied, levels of recording were generally assessed to be of sufficient quality to enable a database of quality-evaluated, anonymised primary care records to be created.

  14. Engaging Australian Aboriginal narratives to challenge attitudes and create empathy in health care: a methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, Toni; Sim, Moira; Bessarab, Dawn; Mak, Donna; Hayward, Colleen; Rudd, Cobie

    2016-06-02

    Unconscious bias and negative attitudes towards minority groups have detrimental effects on the way health care is, or is not, provided to these groups. Recognition of racist attitudes and behaviours as well as understanding clients' experiences of health and health care are pivotal to developing better health care strategies to positively impact on the quality and safety of care provided to Indigenous people. Indigenous research demands inclusive research processes and the use of culturally appropriate methodologies. This paper presents a methodological account of collecting narratives which accurately and respectfully reflect Aboriginal Australians' experiences with health care in Western Australia. The purpose of these narratives is to provide health students and professionals with an opportunity to 'walk-in the shoes' of Aboriginal people where face-to-face interaction is not feasible. With the incorporation of Indigenous peoples' voices being an important link in cultural safety, the project was led by an Indigenous Reference group, who encouraged active participation of Aboriginal people in all areas of the project. Using a phenomenological approach and guided by the Indigenous Reference group, yarning data collection was implemented to collect stories focusing on Aboriginal people's experiences with health care services. An open-access, on-line website was established to host education resources developed from these "yarns". Yarning provided a rich source of information on personal experiences and encouraged the story provider to recognise their facilitative role in the research process. While the methodology used in this project was lengthy and labour-intensive it afforded a respectful manner for story collection and highlighted several innate flaws when Western methods are applied to an Indigenous context. Engagement of an Indigenous Reference Group was pivotal to designing an appropriate methodology that incorporated the voices of Aboriginal people in a

  15. Body-Map Storytelling as a Health Research Methodology: Blurred Lines Creating Clear Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gastaldo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the literature on body-mapping (BM as an approach to health research in order to systematize recent advancements and to contribute to its development. We conducted a critical narrative synthesis of the literature published until September 2016 guided by two questions: 1. How has BM been utilized in health research? 2. How does BM advance a decolonization agenda? Twenty-seven studies in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were analyzed. Most of them were published between 2011 and 2016 and were conducted in South Africa, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Chile, and USA. They narrate stories of marginalized groups and commonly focus on the social determinants of health. Data generation, analysis, and knowledge mobilization strategies differ considerably. Recent developments show that body-mapping is a visual, narrative, and participatory methodology that has several names and is used unevenly by health researchers. Despite its diversity, core methodological elements reveal that participants are considered knowledgeable, reflexive individuals who can better articulate their complex life journeys when painting and drawing their bodies and social circumstances. The decolonization of health research occurs when these unlikely protagonists tell their stories producing counter-hegemonic discourses to exclusionary capitalist, patriarchal and colonialist rationalities. We call this methodology body-map storytelling.

  16. Social Innovation Role in Creating a Methodological Framework Adapted to Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Kchaich Ep Chedli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovation remains a complex concept that can’t be analysed and researched by ignoring the definition and influences of all aspects and interactions which were identified in the innovation cycle. Consequently the paper initiate the development of a modern methodological framework to be applied for analysing business social innovations in its continuity to be used by companies to adapt their activities to the current market demands. These innovations are intended for running innovative company, with employees ready for new ideas. The research development has taken into analyse several approaches: the concept of social innovation, the manner of which social innovation can be analysed, focusing on methodological aspects and the third part presents the conclusions. Given the present economic crises effects, its societal and social consequences in a reduced interest for applied social innovation, people tend to choose not making changes in their life and work despite new and innovative ideas; this can be taken as an approach for to avoiding risks and activity disruptions. As results our expectations merge within the idea that a complex society requires complex answers at all problems and personalised applications of any new theory or idea. Therefore the purpose of the paper is to propose concrete ideas of social innovation that can be easily put into practice.

  17. Creating Innovative Research Designs: The 10-Year Methodological Think Tank Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David; Crabtree, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Addressing important but complex research questions often necessitates the creation of innovative mixed methods designs. This report describes an approach to developing research designs for studying important but methodologically challenging research questions. METHODS The Methodological Think Tank has been held annually in conjunction with the Primary Care Research Methods and Statistics Conference in San Antonio since 1994. A group of 3 to 4 methodologists with expertise balanced between quantitative and qualitative backgrounds is invited by the think tank coordinators to serve on a 2-day think tank to discuss a research question selected from those submitted in response to a call for proposals. During the first half-day, these experts explore the content area with the investigator, often challenging beliefs and assumptions. During the second half-day, the think tank participants systematically prune potential approaches until a desirable research method is identified. RESULTS To date, the most recent 7 think tanks have produced fundable research designs, with 1 being funded by a K award and 4 by R01 grants. All participating investigators attributed much of their success to think tank participation. Lessons learned include (1) the importance of careful selection of participating methodologists, (2) all think tank communities of inquiry must go through 4 stages of development from pseudocommunity to community, and (3) the critical importance of listening by the investigator. CONCLUSION Researchers and academic departments could use this process locally to develop innovative research designs. PMID:17003146

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainty in Medical Reporting: Creating a Standardized and Objective Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2018-04-01

    Uncertainty in text-based medical reports has long been recognized as problematic, frequently resulting in misunderstanding and miscommunication. One strategy for addressing the negative clinical ramifications of report uncertainty would be the creation of a standardized methodology for characterizing and quantifying uncertainty language, which could provide both the report author and reader with context related to the perceived level of diagnostic confidence and accuracy. A number of computerized strategies could be employed in the creation of this analysis including string search, natural language processing and understanding, histogram analysis, topic modeling, and machine learning. The derived uncertainty data offers the potential to objectively analyze report uncertainty in real time and correlate with outcomes analysis for the purpose of context and user-specific decision support at the point of care, where intervention would have the greatest clinical impact.

  19. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babulal, Ganesh M; Traub, Cindy M; Webb, Mollie; Stout, Sarah H; Addison, Aaron; Carr, David B; Ott, Brian R; Morris, John C; Roe, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    volumes of data. Driving Profiles for older adults can be created and compared month-to-month or year-to-year, allowing researchers to identify changes in driving patterns that are unavailable in controlled conditions.

  20. Steps in creating a methodology for interpreting a geodiversity element -integrating a geodiversity element in the popular knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Cristina; Andrasanu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Conserving geodiversity and especially geological heritage is not very well integrated in the general knowledge as biodiversity is, for example. Keeping that in mind we are trying, through this research, to find a better way of transmitting a geological process to the general public. The means to integrate a geodiversity element in the popular knowledge is through interpretation. Interpretation "translates" the scientific information into a common language with very well known facts by the general public. The purpose of this paper is creating a framework for a methodology necessary in interpreting a geodiversity element - salt - in Buzau Land Geopark. We will approach the salt subject through a scheme in order to have a general view of the process and to better understand and explain it to the general public. We will look into the subject from three scientific points of view: GEODIVERSITY, ANTHROPOLOGY, and the SOCIO-ECONOMICAL aspect. Each of these points of view or domains will be divided into themes. For GEODIVERSITY we will have the following themes: Formation, Accumulation, Diapirism process, Chemical formula, Landscape (here we will include also the specific biodiversity with the halophile plants), Landforms, Hazard. For ANTHROPOLOGY will contain themes of tangible and intangible heritage like: Salt symbolistic, Stories and ritual usage, Recipes, How the knowledge is transmitted. The SOCIO-ECONOMIC aspect will be reflected through themes like: Extractive methods, Usage, Interdictions, Taxes, Commercial exchanges. Each theme will have a set of keywords that will be described and each one will be at the base of the elements that together will form the interpretation of the geodiversity element - the salt. The next step will be to clearly set the scope of the interpretation, to which field of expertise is our interpretation process addressed: Education (Undergraduate or post-graduate Students), Science, Geotourism, Entrepreneurship. After putting together the

  1. A comparison of methodological guides for creating microregional strategies of Central European rural areas. Case study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Trojan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the complementarity of methodological guides dealing with microregional development in Central Europe. As an example, the Czech Republic framework has been selected. This study compares seven common methodologies written in Czech, which the author has divided into three groups, namely manual-like methodologies, semi-scientific texts and hybrid texts dealing with other complementary aspects. The result is a comparison of methodologies, their usage and implications for the practices of regional development. The paper also includes a brief analysis of sustainable development elements incorporated into the methodological texts. The final part outlines links to the four-capital model of regional development.

  2. Assessing Hypothetical Gravity Control Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Millis, Marc G.

    2006-01-01

    Gauging the benefits of hypothetical gravity control propulsion is difficult, but addressable. The major challenge is that such breakthroughs are still only notional concepts rather than being specific methods from which performance can be rigorously quantified. A recent assessment by Tajmar and Bertolami used the rocket equation to correct naive misconceptions, but a more fundamental analysis requires the use of energy as the basis for comparison. The energy of a rocket is compared to an ide...

  3. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.; Jensen, N.O.; Kristensen, L.; Meide, A.; Nedergaard, K.L.; Nielsen, F.; Lundtang Petersen, E.; Petersen, T.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    1984-06-01

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  4. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information

  5. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information.

  6. Restricted Predicates for Hypothetical Datalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sáenz-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical Datalog is based on an intuitionistic semantics rather than on a classical logic semantics, and embedded implications are allowed in rule bodies. While the usual implication (i.e., the neck of a Horn clause stands for inferring facts, an embedded implication plays the role of assuming its premise for deriving its consequence. A former work introduced both a formal framework and a goal-oriented tabled implementation, allowing negation in rule bodies. While in that work positive assumptions for both facts and rules can occur in the premise, negative assumptions are not allowed. In this work, we cover this subject by introducing a new concept: a restricted predicate, which allows negative assumptions by pruning the usual semantics of a predicate. This new setting has been implemented in the deductive system DES.

  7. Indicator development methodology for volunteer tourism in host communities: creating a low-cost, locally applicable, rapid assessment tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Lupoli; Wayde C. Morse; Conner Bailey; John Schelhas

    2015-01-01

    Two prominent critiques of volunteer tourism are that it is a top-down imposed form of development treating host communities as passive recipients of international aid, and that the impacts of volunteer tourism in host communities are not systematically evaluated. To address this we identified a pre-existing participatory methodology for assessing community...

  8. Hypothetical conflict situations with friends and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with age and sex differences in preferred strategies of conflict resolution in friendship and peer relationships. The study was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. Conflict resolution strategies have been investigated by the method of hypothetical conflict situations. For the purposes of this research, we have created an instrument consisting of 20 hypothetical situations, with the following subjects of conflict: breaking the agreement, non-compliance with opinion differences, provocations, dishonesty and stubbornness. Conflict resolution strategies we examined were giving in, withdrawal, competition and problem solving. The results have shown that problem solving is the dominant strategy of adolescents in conflict with friends, while in peer conflicts they more often opt for competition. Age differences are reflected in the fact that older adolescents are more likely to choose problem solving than younger, whereas younger adolescents are more likely to choose a retreat (withdrawal strategy than older. Girls are more prone to choosing problem solving than boys, who, on the other hand, tend to withdraw more than girls. Also, gender of the other person in the conflict is proved to be important - in conflict with male peers, adolescents choose competition to a greater extent and withdraw to a minor extent, compared to when they are in conflict with female peers. The results have practical implications as well. In programs for teaching constructive conflict resolution that are designed for younger adolescents there should be more emphasis on empowerment and training for assertive behaviour. In addition, when teaching about constructive conflict resolution strategies, it is important to consider the gender of adolescents as well as the gender of the person with whom they are in conflict.

  9. Partnering with the Pinoleville Pomo Nation: Co-Design Methodology Case Study for Creating Sustainable, Culturally Inspired Renewable Energy Systems and Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Agogino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the co-design methodology created by the authors to partner with communities that have historical trauma associated with working with outsiders on projects that involved substantial use of engineering and science—renewable energy technologies, for example—that have not integrated their value system or has been historically denied to them. As a case study, we present the lessons learned from a partnership with the Pinoleville Pomo Nation (PPN of Ukiah, CA and UC Berkeley’s Community Assessment of Renewable Energy and Sustainability (CARES team to develop sustainable housing that utilizes sustainability best practices and renewable energy technology as well as reflect the long-standing culture and traditions of the PPN. We also present the Pomo-inspired housing design created by this partnership and illustrate how Native American nations can partner with universities and other academic organizations to utilize engineering expertise to co-design solutions that address the needs of the tribes.

  10. Reducing hypothetical bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests an addition to Cheap Talk, an Opt-Out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results suggest that adding an Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents....

  11. Reactions to Hypothetical, Jealousy Producing Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gary L.

    1982-01-01

    Asked subjects (N=220) how they would feel about their mates' behavior in eight hypothetical situations designed to measure jealousy. Responses indicated that jealousy is likely to be a major issue. Sex role orientation is most consistently related to jealousy with sex role traditional subjects being the most jealous. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of Nuclide Release Scenarios for a Hypothetical LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-11-01

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository system has been developed. Utilizing GoldSim (GoldSim, 2006), the program evaluates nuclide release and transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various disruptive natural and manmade events and scenarios that can occur after a waste package failure. We envisaged and illustrated these events and scenarios as occurring after the closure of a hypothetical LILW repository, and they included the degradation of various manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and natural disruptions such as the sudden formation of a preferential flow pathway in the far-field area of the repository. Possible enhancement of nuclide transport facilitated by colloids or chelating agents is also dealt with. We used the newly-developed GoldSim template program, which is capable of various nuclide release scenarios and is greatly suited for simulating a potential repository given the geological circumstances in Korea, to create the detailed source term and near-field release scheme, various nuclide transport modes in the far-field geosphere area, and the biosphere transfer. Even though all parameter values applied to the hypothetical repository were assumed, the illustrative results, particularly the probabilistic calculations and sensitivity studies, may be informative under various scenarios

  13. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  14. Testing QCD with Hypothetical Tau Leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1998-10-21

    We construct new tests of perturbative QCD by considering a hypothetical {tau} lepton of arbitrary mass, which decays hadronically through the electromagnetic current. We can explicitly compute its hadronic width ratio directly as an integral over the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation cross section ratio, R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}. Furthermore, we can design a set of commensurate scale relations and perturbative QCD tests by varying the weight function away from the form associated with the V-A decay of the physical {tau}. This method allows the wide range of the R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} data to be used as a probe of perturbative QCD.

  15. ‘Small Area Social Indicators for the Indigenous Population: Synthetic data methodology for creating small area estimates of Indigenous disadvantage’

    OpenAIRE

    Yogi Vidyattama; Robert Tanton; Nicholas Biddle

    2013-01-01

    The lack of data on how the social condition of Indigenous people varies throughout Australia has created difficulties in allocating government and community programs across Indigenous communities. In the past, spatial microsimulation has been used to derive small area estimates to overcome such difficulties. However, for previous applications, a record unit file from a survey dataset has always been available on which to conduct the spatial microsimulation. For the case of indigenous disadva...

  16. Expanding the functionality of speech recognition in radiology: creating a real-time methodology for measurement and analysis of occupational stress and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2013-02-01

    While occupational stress and fatigue have been well described throughout medicine, the radiology community is particularly susceptible due to declining reimbursements, heightened demands for service deliverables, and increasing exam volume and complexity. The resulting occupational stress can be variable in nature and dependent upon a number of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors. Intrinsic stressors largely account for inter-radiologist stress variability and relate to unique attributes of the radiologist such as personality, emotional state, education/training, and experience. Extrinsic stressors may account for intra-radiologist stress variability and include cumulative workload and task complexity. The creation of personalized stress profiles creates a mechanism for accounting for both inter- and intra-radiologist stress variability, which is essential in creating customizable stress intervention strategies. One viable option for real-time occupational stress measurement is voice stress analysis, which can be directly implemented through existing speech recognition technology and has been proven to be effective in stress measurement and analysis outside of medicine. This technology operates by detecting stress in the acoustic properties of speech through a number of different variables including duration, glottis source factors, pitch distribution, spectral structure, and intensity. The correlation of these speech derived stress measures with outcomes data can be used to determine the user-specific inflection point at which stress becomes detrimental to clinical performance.

  17. In Silico screening for functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desler, Claus; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Sanderhoff, May

    2009-01-01

    eukaryotes. With the general belief that the majority of hypothetical proteins are the product of pseudogenes, it is essential to have a tool with the ability of pinpointing the minority of hypothetical proteins with a high probability of being expressed. RESULTS: Here, we present an in silico selection...

  18. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Road tests and driving simulators are most commonly used in research studies and clinical evaluations of older drivers. We adapted an existing, commercial, off-the-shelf, in-vehicle device for naturalistic, longitudinal research to better understand daily driving behavior in older drivers. Design: The Azuga G2 Tracking DeviceTM was installed in each participant’s vehicle, and we collected data over 5 months (speed, latitude/longitude every 30-seconds when the vehicle was driven.  Setting: The Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine. Participants: Five individuals enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study assessing preclinical Alzheimer disease and driving performance.  Participants were aged 65+ years and had normal cognition. Measurements:  Spatial components included Primary Location(s, Driving Areas, Mean Centers and Unique Destinations.  Temporal components included number of trips taken during different times of the day.  Behavioral components included number of hard braking, speeding and sudden acceleration events. Methods:  Individual 30-second observations, each comprising one breadcrumb, and trip-level data were collected and analyzed in R and ArcGIS.  Results: Primary locations were confirmed to be 100% accurate when compared to known addresses.  Based on the locations of the breadcrumbs, we were able to successfully identify frequently visited locations and general travel patterns.  Based on the reported time from the breadcrumbs, we could assess number of trips driven in daylight vs. night.  Data on additional events while driving allowed us to compute the number of adverse driving alerts over the course of the 5-month period. Conclusions: This pilot study indicated that Driving Profiles for older adults can be created and compared month-to-month or year-to-year, allowing researchers to identify changes in driving patterns that are unavailable in

  19. In Silico screening for functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanderhoff May

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The definition of a hypothetical protein is a protein that is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame, but for which there is no experimental evidence of translation. Hypothetical proteins constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes of human as well as of other eukaryotes. With the general belief that the majority of hypothetical proteins are the product of pseudogenes, it is essential to have a tool with the ability of pinpointing the minority of hypothetical proteins with a high probability of being expressed. Results Here, we present an in silico selection strategy where eukaryotic hypothetical proteins are sorted according to two criteria that can be reliably identified in silico: the presence of subcellular targeting signals and presence of characterized protein domains. To validate the selection strategy we applied it on a database of human hypothetical proteins dating to 2006 and compared the proteins predicted to be expressed by our selecting strategy, with their status in 2008. For the comparison we focused on mitochondrial proteins, since considerable amounts of research have focused on this field in between 2006 and 2008. Therefore, many proteins, defined as hypothetical in 2006, have later been characterized as mitochondrial. Conclusion Among the total amount of human proteins hypothetical in 2006, 21% have later been experimentally characterized and 6% of those have been shown to have a role in a mitochondrial context. In contrast, among the selected hypothetical proteins from the 2006 dataset, predicted by our strategy to have a mitochondrial role, 53-62% have later been experimentally characterized, and 85% of these have actually been assigned a role in mitochondria by 2008. Therefore our in silico selection strategy can be used to select the most promising candidates for subsequent in vitro and in vivo analyses.

  20. Creating a driving profile for older adults using GPS devices and naturalistic driving methodology [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal

    2016-12-01

    transmitted high volumes of data. Driving Profiles for older adults can be created and compared month-to-month or year-to-year, allowing researchers to identify changes in driving patterns that are unavailable in controlled conditions.

  1. Theoretical and hypothetical framework for research on political socialization process in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Lilijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to sum up theoretical and hypothetical framework for empirical research of political socialization process in the family in Serbian society nowadays. The investigation focuses on two theoretical concepts, political socialization and generation as a sociological paradigm. Two methodological approaches are applied. First is interactive model of political socialization, based on analysis of relations between individual who is socialized, agents of political socialization, dominant political system and peripheral social sub-systems. The second one tests interactive relation of generation, lifecycle and effects of epoch. It is suitable for definition of certain historical periods with active role of political.

  2. Study of an hypothetical reactor meltdown accident for a 50 MW sub(th) fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, E.M. de.

    1983-01-01

    A melhodology for determining the energy released in hypothetical reactor meltdown accidents is presented. A numerical code was developed based upon the Nicholson method for a uniform and homogeneous reactor with spherical geometry. A comparative study with other know programs in the literature which use better approximations for small energy released, shows that the methodology used were compatible with those under comparison. Besides the influence of some parameters on the energy released, such as the initial power level and the prompt neutron lifetime was studied under this metodology and its result exhibitted. The Doppler effect was also analyzed and its influence on the energy released has been emphasized. (Author) [pt

  3. Comparing hypothetical versus non-hypothetical methods for measuring willingness to pay in a food context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Carrasco, L.; Brugarolas, M.; Martínez-Poveda, A.; Ruiz-Martínez, J.J.

    2015-07-01

    Choosing a valid procedure to measure willingness to pay (WTP) is crucial for designating optimum price policies or for evaluating the demand for new products. This study compares two methods for obtaining WTP in a food context: a random nth price auction and an open-ended contingent valuation (CV) question. Participants were regular salad tomato buyers of Alicante and they were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments. The products about which they would show their WTP were traditional tomato varieties. Both treatments were divided into three stages: in the first stage the only available information was a reference price for the tomatoes. In stages 2 and 3 we revealed the local origin and the organic grown of the tomatoes respectively. Our results show that in the auction the percentage of participants willing to pay the same or more than the reference price was between 20 and 30%. In the CV method this percentage was between 40 and 65%. The mean WTP in the auction, considering the whole of the individuals, was situated between 1.90 and 2.13 €/kg. These same results obtained through the CV were situated between 2.54 and 3.21 €/kg. The results confirmed the findings of previous papers in which the hypothetical bias of CV was clarified because it yields higher values for WTP than the auction, especially when referring to the number of individuals willing to pay more. Additionally, hedonic price models were estimated for the prices obtained by both methods with the result that in all the models, WTP was directly related to the price paid for the latest purchase of tomatoes. (Author)

  4. Comparing hypothetical versus non-hypothetical methods for measuring willingness to pay in a food context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martínez-Carrasco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Choosing a valid procedure to measure willingness to pay (WTP is crucial for designating optimum price policies or for evaluating the demand for new products. This study compares two methods for obtaining WTP in a food context: a random nth price auction and an open-ended contingent valuation (CV question. Participants were regular salad tomato buyers of Alicante and they were randomly assigned to one of the two treatments. The products about which they would show their WTP were traditional tomato varieties. Both treatments were divided into three stages: in the first stage the only available information was a reference price for the tomatoes. In stages 2 and 3 we revealed the local origin and the organic grown of the tomatoes respectively. Our results show that in the auction the percentage of participants willing to pay the same or more than the reference price was between 20 and 30%. In the CV method this percentage was between 40 and 65%. The mean WTP in the auction, considering the whole of the individuals, was situated between 1.90 and 2.13 €/kg. These same results obtained through the CV were situated between 2.54 and 3.21 €/kg. The results confirmed the findings of previous papers in which the hypothetical bias of CV was clarified because it yields higher values for WTP than the auction, especially when referring to the number of individuals willing to pay more. Additionally, hedonic price models were estimated for the prices obtained by both methods with the result that in all the models, WTP was directly related to the price paid for the latest purchase of tomatoes.

  5. LHC Create

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    LHC Create is an upcoming 2-day workshop held at IdeaSquare in November. Participants from CERN and IPAC school of design will compete to design an exhibit that explains why CERN does what it does. The winner will have their exhibit fully realised and made available to experiments, institutes, and tourism agencies around the world.

  6. Creating Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John

    Encouraging exploration and practice, this book offers hundreds of exercises and numerous tips covering every step involved in creating poetry. Each chapter is a self-contained unit offering an overview of material in the chapter, a definition of terms, and poetry examples from well-known authors designed to supplement the numerous exercises.…

  7. Creating organizational cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.; Just, Sine Nørholm; Gabrielsen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural...... insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration...

  8. Evaluation of hypothetical (153)Gd source for use in brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Behmadi, Marziyeh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric parameters of a hypothetical (153)Gd source for use in brachytherapy and comparison of the dosimetric parameters with those of (192)Ir and (125)I sources. Dose rate constant, the radial dose function and the two dimensional (2D) anisotropy function data for the hypothetical (153)Gd source were obtained by simulation of the source using MCNPX code and then were compared with the corresponding data reported by Enger et al. A comprehensive comparison between this hypothetical source and a (192)Ir source with similar geometry and a (125)I source was performed as well. Excellent agreement was shown between the results of the two studies. Dose rate constant values for the hypothetical (153)Gd, (192)Ir, (125)I sources are 1.173 cGyh(-1) U(-1), 1.044 cGyh(-1) U(-1), 0.925 cGyh(-1) U(-1), respectively. Radial dose function for the hypothetical (153)Gd source has an increasing trend, while (192)Ir has more uniform and (125)I has more rapidly falling off radial dose functions. 2D anisotropy functions for these three sources indicate that, except at 0.5 cm distance, (192)Ir and (125)I have more isotropic trends as compared to the (153)Gd source. A more uniform radial dose function, and 2D anisotropy functions with more isotropy, a much higher specific activity are advantages of (192)Ir source over (153)Gd. However, a longer half-life of (153)Gd source compared to the other two sources, and lower energy of the source with respect to (192)Ir are advantages of using (153)Gd in brachytherapy versus (192)Ir source.

  9. Creating a standardized process to offer the standard of care: continuous process improvement methodology is associated with increased rates of sperm cryopreservation among adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Kroon, Leah; Jeffries, Howard; Johnson, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    There is limited literature on strategies to overcome the barriers to sperm banking among adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. By standardizing our process for offering sperm banking to AYA males before cancer treatment, we aimed to improve rates of sperm banking at our institution. Continuous process improvement is a technique that has recently been applied to improve health care delivery. We used continuous process improvement methodologies to create a standard process for fertility preservation for AYA males with cancer at our institution. We compared rates of sperm banking before and after standardization. In the 12-month period after implementation of a standardized process, 90% of patients were offered sperm banking. We demonstrated an 8-fold increase in the proportion of AYA males' sperm banking, and a 5-fold increase in the rate of sperm banking at our institution. Implementation of a standardized process for sperm banking for AYA males with cancer was associated with increased rates of sperm banking at our institution. This study supports the role of standardized health care in decreasing barriers to sperm banking.

  10. Hypothetical Scenario Generator for Fault-Tolerant Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Hypothetical Scenario Generator for Fault-tolerant Diagnostics (HSG) is an algorithm being developed in conjunction with other components of artificial- intelligence systems for automated diagnosis and prognosis of faults in spacecraft, aircraft, and other complex engineering systems. By incorporating prognostic capabilities along with advanced diagnostic capabilities, these developments hold promise to increase the safety and affordability of the affected engineering systems by making it possible to obtain timely and accurate information on the statuses of the systems and predicting impending failures well in advance. The HSG is a specific instance of a hypothetical- scenario generator that implements an innovative approach for performing diagnostic reasoning when data are missing. The special purpose served by the HSG is to (1) look for all possible ways in which the present state of the engineering system can be mapped with respect to a given model and (2) generate a prioritized set of future possible states and the scenarios of which they are parts.

  11. Analyses of hypothetical FCI's in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, A. Jr.; Martin, F.J.; Niccoli, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric analyses using the SIMMER code were performed to evaluate the potential for a severe recriticality from a pressure-driven recompaction caused by an energetic FCI during the transition phase of a hypothetical accident in a fast reactor. For realistic and reasonable estimates for the assumed accident conditions, a severe recriticality was not predicted. The conditions under which a severe recriticality would be obtained or averted were identified. 10 figures, 2 tables

  12. Genome-wide screens for expressed hypothetical proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2012-01-01

    A hypothetical protein (HP) is defined as a protein that is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame, but for which there is no experimental evidence of translation. HPs constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes of human as well as of other organisms. With the general belief that...... that the majority of HPs are the product of pseudogenes, it is essential to have a tool with the ability of pinpointing the minority of HPs with a high probability of being expressed....

  13. Computer codes developed in FRG to analyse hypothetical meltdown accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Hosemann, J.P.; Koerber, H.; Reineke, H.

    1978-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to give the status of all significant computer codes developed in the core melt-down project which is incorporated in the light water reactor safety research program of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. For standard pressurized water reactors, results of some computer codes will be presented, describing the course and the duration of the hypothetical core meltdown accident. (author)

  14. Structural and Functional Annotation of Hypothetical Proteins of O139

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries threat of cholera is a significant health concern whenever water purification and sewage disposal systems are inadequate. Vibrio cholerae is one of the responsible bacteria involved in cholera disease. The complete genome sequence of V. cholerae deciphers the presence of various genes and hypothetical proteins whose function are not yet understood. Hence analyzing and annotating the structure and function of hypothetical proteins is important for understanding the V. cholerae. V. cholerae O139 is the most common and pathogenic bacterial strain among various V. cholerae strains. In this study sequence of six hypothetical proteins of V. cholerae O139 has been annotated from NCBI. Various computational tools and databases have been used to determine domain family, protein-protein interaction, solubility of protein, ligand binding sites etc. The three dimensional structure of two proteins were modeled and their ligand binding sites were identified. We have found domains and families of only one protein. The analysis revealed that these proteins might have antibiotic resistance activity, DNA breaking-rejoining activity, integrase enzyme activity, restriction endonuclease, etc. Structural prediction of these proteins and detection of binding sites from this study would indicate a potential target aiding docking studies for therapeutic designing against cholera.

  15. Processing counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals: an fMRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakova, Eugenia; Aichhorn, Markus; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Perner, Josef

    2013-05-15

    Counterfactual thinking is ubiquitous in everyday life and an important aspect of cognition and emotion. Although counterfactual thought has been argued to differ from processing factual or hypothetical information, imaging data which elucidate these differences on a neural level are still scarce. We investigated the neural correlates of processing counterfactual sentences under visual and aural presentation. We compared conditionals in subjunctive mood which explicitly contradicted previously presented facts (i.e. counterfactuals) to conditionals framed in indicative mood which did not contradict factual world knowledge and thus conveyed a hypothetical supposition. Our results show activation in right occipital cortex (cuneus) and right basal ganglia (caudate nucleus) during counterfactual sentence processing. Importantly the occipital activation is not only present under visual presentation but also with purely auditory stimulus presentation, precluding a visual processing artifact. Thus our results can be interpreted as reflecting the fact that counterfactual conditionals pragmatically imply the relevance of keeping in mind both factual and supposed information whereas the hypothetical conditionals imply that real world information is irrelevant for processing the conditional and can be omitted. The need to sustain representations of factual and suppositional events during counterfactual sentence processing requires increased mental imagery and integration efforts. Our findings are compatible with predictions based on mental model theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in adolescents' conflict responses associated with consecutive presentation of hypothetical conflict situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H D; LaVoie, J C; Eggenburg, E; Mahoney, M A; Pounds, L

    2001-10-01

    The advantages of using hypothetical situations are one reason they have been widely used to examine adolescents' responses to conflict situations. One frequently used research protocol involves presenting several conflict scenarios to participants during a single session. However, in real-life situations multiple conflicts rarely occur within short periods of time, and the nature of this presentation may be associated with changes in adolescents' reports of conflict behaviors. Trend analyses of emotional, conflict goal, and conflict tactic responses from grade 8, 10, 12, and college students to consecutively presented conflict situations showed that responses were associated with presentation of the hypothetical situations. Findings revealed an increase in reports of assertive conflict behaviors and a decrease in reports of constructive conflict behaviors with successive situation presentation. Results from the current study suggest that researchers must consider trends in responses when examining findings from successive situation presentation methodologies because adolescent reports of conflict behavior may change as situation presentation proceeds. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  17. [Science in the crosshairs of enlightenment. Significance of hypothetical thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    To further the enlightenment primarily or even only by means of science was the hope of most representatives of the movement of the enlightenment which gave its name to a whole period of European cultural history. Only a few of its representatives, like Montesquieu and Rousseau, doubted for good reasons, whether and how the goals of the enlightenment can be reached at all by the means of science alone. In his Discours préliminaires to the Encyclopédie D'Alembert still wanted to limit science proper to the narrower field of those kinds of research which were strictly based on observations and calculations alone. In this way he remained committed to Descartes' ideal method of receiving authentic knowledge only by deduction from evident axioms or fundamental theorems. Pascal's casual discovery of the calculation of probabilities allowed to apply mathematics on the hidden laws of the apparent casualties of the human life world. Bacon's project of empirical science as a rational and methodological art of conducting experiments could replace the methodological ideal of science more geometrico. Lichtenberg's refined sensibility for the subjunctive linguistic forms of hypothetical thinking indicates a new understanding of inventing and testing hypotheses as the two most important methods of the experimental sciences when compared to the formal sciences of logic and mathematics. Whoever is studying the history of science of modern times in the cross wire of the enlightenment, will realize soon that science has always been in need of being illuminated about its own chances, risks and side effects. The project of enlightenment through science had to be complemented by the project of an enlightenment about science right from its beginning. Because of the implicit risks and side effects the project of enlightenment has to be enlightenment despite of science and because of science. On the one hand, as a special form of human practice the sciences are directed towards

  18. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes

  19. Reinforcing value and hypothetical behavioral economic demand for food and their relation to BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Paluch, Rocco A; Carr, Katelyn A; Temple, Jennifer L; Bickel, Warren K; MacKillop, James

    2018-04-01

    Food is a primary reinforcer, and food reinforcement is related to obesity. The reinforcing value of food can be measured by establishing how hard someone will work to get food on progressive-ratio schedules. An alternative way to measure food reinforcement is a hypothetical purchase task which creates behavioral economic demand curves. This paper studies whether reinforcing value and hypothetical behavioral demand approaches are assessing the same or unique aspects of food reinforcement for low (LED) and high (HED) energy density foods using a combination of analytic approaches in females of varying BMI. Results showed absolute reinforcing value for LED and HED foods and relative reinforcing value were related to demand intensity (r's = 0.20-0.30, p's demand elasticity (r's = 0.17-0.22, p's demand task, and the differential role of effort in the two tasks. Examples of how a better understanding of food reinforcement may be useful to prevent or treat obesity are discussed, including engaging in alternative non-food reinforcers as substitutes for food, such as crafts or socializing in a non-food environment, and reducing the value of immediate food reinforcers by episodic future thinking. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes.

  1. Environmental issues of repository licensing: an evaluation of a hypothetical high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.L.; McGinnis, J.T.; Harper, C.M.; Battelle Columbus Labs., OH)

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents results of an environmental assessment conducted under the direction of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The study defined a range of potential environmental effects of constructing, operating, decommissioning, and long-term isolation of a nuclear waste repository. The analytical methodology used to determine potential environmental effects required definition of a hypothetical environmental setting and repository. Potentially applicable regulatory requirements were identified and were used as guidelines to evaluate permitting feasibility. The environmental effects of repository development were analyzed for the two major time periods of concern: short term (the period of construction, operation, and decommissioning) and long term (the isolation period after decommissioning). As a result of this analysis, major environmental uncertainties and issues were identified. 11 references, 5 figures

  2. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study

  3. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D. [and others

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  4. Demand curves for hypothetical cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Natalie R; Johnson, Matthew W

    2014-03-01

    Drug purchasing tasks have been successfully used to examine demand for hypothetical consumption of abused drugs including heroin, nicotine, and alcohol. In these tasks, drug users make hypothetical choices whether to buy drugs, and if so, at what quantity, at various potential prices. These tasks allow for behavioral economic assessment of that drug's intensity of demand (preferred level of consumption at extremely low prices) and demand elasticity (sensitivity of consumption to price), among other metrics. However, a purchasing task for cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals has not been investigated. This study examined a novel Cocaine Purchasing Task and the relation between resulting demand metrics and self-reported cocaine use data. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing hypothetical purchases of cocaine units at prices ranging from $0.01 to $1,000. Demand curves were generated from responses on the Cocaine Purchasing Task. Correlations compared metrics from the demand curve to measures of real-world cocaine use. Group and individual data were well modeled by a demand curve function. The validity of the Cocaine Purchasing Task was supported by a significant correlation between the demand curve metrics of demand intensity and O max (determined from Cocaine Purchasing Task data) and self-reported measures of cocaine use. Partial correlations revealed that after controlling for demand intensity, demand elasticity and the related measure, P max, were significantly correlated with real-world cocaine use. Results indicate that the Cocaine Purchasing Task produces orderly demand curve data, and that these data relate to real-world measures of cocaine use.

  5. Consequences of a hypothetical incident for different sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Garion, C; Jimenez, J M; Parma, V; Perin, A; Schmidt, R; Tavian, L; Tock, J P; van Weelderen, R

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009 long shutdown, the LHC machine has been partially consolidated by adding safety relief devices in order to better protect the cryostats against large helium release and consequently to mitigate the risks of collateral damages. After recalling the present relief valve implementation and other mitigations related to the collateral damages, this paper describes the damage process of a hypothetical incident, presents its consequences for the different sectors and for beam energies up to 5 TeV with emphasis on the induced downtime.

  6. Effects of hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation on the electrical infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Evrenosoglu, C. Yaman; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Phadke, Arun; Thorp, James; Vullikanti, Anil

    2013-01-01

    We study the impacts of a hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation (IND) on the electrical infrastructure and its cascading effects on other urban inter-dependent infrastructures of a major metropolitan area in the US. We synthesize open source information, expert knowledge, commercial software and Google Earth data to derive a realistic electrical transmission and distribution network spanning the region. A dynamic analysis of the geo-located grid is carried out to determine the cause of malfunction of components, and their short-term and long-term effect on the stability of the grid. Finally a detailed estimate of the cost of damage to the major components of the infrastructure is provided.

  7. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 16, Maximum hypothetical accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Fault tree analysis of the maximum hypothetical accident covers the basic elements: accident initiation, phase development phases - scheme of possible accident flow. Cause of the accident initiation is the break of primary cooling pipe, heavy water system. Loss of primary coolant causes loss of pressure in the primary circuit at the coolant input in the reactor vessel. This initiates safety protection system which should automatically shutdown the reactor. Separate chapters are devoted to: after-heat removal, coolant and moderator loss; accident effects on the reactor core, effects in the reactor building, and release of radioactive wastes [sr

  8. Effects of hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation on the electrical infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Evrenosoglu, C. Yaman; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Phadke, Arun; Thorp, James; Vullikanti, Anil [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Network Dynamics and Simulation Science Lab.

    2013-07-01

    We study the impacts of a hypothetical improvised nuclear detonation (IND) on the electrical infrastructure and its cascading effects on other urban inter-dependent infrastructures of a major metropolitan area in the US. We synthesize open source information, expert knowledge, commercial software and Google Earth data to derive a realistic electrical transmission and distribution network spanning the region. A dynamic analysis of the geo-located grid is carried out to determine the cause of malfunction of components, and their short-term and long-term effect on the stability of the grid. Finally a detailed estimate of the cost of damage to the major components of the infrastructure is provided.

  9. Doppler reactivity uncertainties and their effect upon a hypothetical LOF accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    The statistical uncertainties and the major methodological errors which contribute to the Doppler feedback uncertainty were reviewed and investigated. Improved estimates for the magnitudes of each type of uncertainty were established. The generally applied reactivity feedback methodology has been extended by explicitly treating the coupling effect which exists between the various feedback components. The improved methodology was specifically applied to the coupling of Doppler and sodium void reactivities. In addition, the description of the temperature dependence of the Doppler feedback has been improved by the use of a two-constant formula on a global and regional basis. Feedback and coupling coefficients are presented as a first comparison of the improved and the currently applied methods. Further, the energy release which results from hypothetical disassembly accidents was simulated with a special response surface in the parametric safety evaluation code PARSEC. The impact of the improved feedback methodology and of Doppler coefficient uncertainties was illustrated by the usual parametric relationship between available work-energy and the Doppler coefficient. The work-energy was calculated with the VENUS-II disassembly code and was represented as a response surface in PARSEC. Additionally, the probability distribution for available work-energy, which results from the statistical uncertainty of the Doppler coefficient, was calculated for the current and the improved feedback methodology. The improved feedback description yielded about a 16 percent higher average value for the work-energy. A substantially larger increase is found on the high-yield end of the spectrum: the probability for work-energy above 500 MJ was increased by about a factor of ten

  10. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 277 - Hypothetical Example of Cost Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hypothetical Example of Cost... APPORTIONMENT OF BRIDGE ALTERATIONS Pt. 277, App. B Appendix B to Part 277—Hypothetical Example of Cost... bridge was completed in 1908 and the superstructure completed in 1909. For this hypothetical example it...

  11. Trial of risk assessment of a hypothetical nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, Norichika; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    An equation for risk assessment in physical protection is shown by a probability of an adversary attack during a period time, P A , a probability of system effectiveness, P E , and consequence value, C. In addition, P E is shown as the multiplication of a probability of interruption of the facility, P I , by a probability of neutralization by response force, P N . In this study, it is assumed that an adversary assaults a hypothetical nuclear facility. The new quantification method about P A and P I in risk evaluation formula is devised, and risk assessment is attempted. In case of P A , the possibility of assaults against a nuclear facility is discussed by using terrorism data written in the open source database of terrorism, Global Terrorism Database (GTD), summarized by University of Maryland. In addition, it is discussed about P I by using the way of thinking of a risk assessment tool, EASI, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). In the hypothetical nuclear facility, the performance of response force, sensors, and communication is expressed quantitatively by probability distribution based on some assumptions. (author)

  12. A Qualitative Assessment Of Diversion Scenarios For A Example Sodium Fast Reactor Using The Gen IV PR And PP Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentner, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    A working group was created in 2002 by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for the purpose of developing an internationally accepted methodology for assessing the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES) and its individual elements. A two year case study is being performed by the experts group using this methodology to assess the proliferation resistance of a hypothetical NES called the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). This work demonstrates how the PR and PP methodology can be used to provide important information at various levels of details to NES designers, safeguard administrators and decision makers. The study analyzes the response of the complete ESFR nuclear energy system to different proliferation and theft strategies. The challenges considered include concealed diversion, concealed misuse and 'break out' strategies. This paper describes the work done in performing a qualitative assessment of concealed diversion scenarios from the ESFR.

  13. A Qualitative Assessment of Diversion Scenarios for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor Using the GEN IV PR and PP Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Therios, Ike

    2012-01-01

    FAST REACTORS;NUCLEAR ENERGY;NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT;PROLIFERATION;SAFEGUARDS;THEFT; A working group was created in 2002 by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for the purpose of developing an internationally accepted methodology for assessing the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES) and its individual elements. A two year case study is being performed by the experts group using this methodology to assess the proliferation resistance of a hypothetical NES called the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). This work demonstrates how the PR and PP methodology can be used to provide important information at various levels of details to NES designers, safeguard administrators and decision makers. The study analyzes the response of the complete ESFR nuclear energy system to different proliferation and theft strategies. The challenges considered include concealed diversion, concealed misuse and 'break out' strategies. This paper describes the work done in performing a qualitative assessment of concealed diversion scenarios from the ESFR.

  14. Assessment of environmental public exposure from a hypothetical nuclear accident for Unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabi, M.; Ghasemi, M.; Amrollahi, R.; Khamooshi, C.; Parsouzi, Z. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Health Physics and Dosimetry Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Unit-1 of the Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1) is a VVER-type reactor with 1,000-MWe power constructed near Bushehr city at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. The reactor has been recently operational to near its full power. The radiological impact of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents is of public concern, and the assessment of radiological consequences of any hypothetical nuclear accident on public exposure is vital. The hypothetical accident scenario considered in this paper is a design-basis accident, that is, a primary coolant leakage to the secondary circuit. This scenario was selected in order to compare and verify the results obtained in the present paper with those reported in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR 2007) of the BNPP-1 and to develop a well-proven methodology that can be used to study other and more severe hypothetical accident scenarios for this reactor. In the present study, the version 2.01 of the PC COSYMA code was applied. In the early phase of the accidental releases, effective doses (from external and internal exposures) as well as individual and collective doses (due to the late phase of accidental releases) were evaluated. The surrounding area of the BNPP-1 within a radius of 80 km was subdivided into seven concentric rings and 16 sectors, and distribution of population and agricultural products was calculated for this grid. The results show that during the first year following the modeled hypothetical accident, the effective doses do not exceed the limit of 5 mSv, for the considered distances from the BNPP-1. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with those in the FSAR-2007 report. The agreement obtained is in light of many inherent uncertainties and variables existing in the two modeling procedures applied and proves that the methodology applied here can also be used to model other severe hypothetical accident scenarios of the BNPP-1 such as a small and large break in the reactor coolant system as well

  15. RELAP 5 Simulations of a hypothetical LOCA in Ringhals 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraher, D.

    1987-01-01

    RELAP5 simulations of a hypothetical LOCA in Ringhals 2 were conducted in order to determine the sensitivity of the calculated peak cladding temperature (PCT) to Appendix K requirements. The PCT was most sensitive to the assumed model decay heat: Changing from the 1979 ANS Standard to 1.2 times the 1973 Standard increased the PCT by 70 to 100K. After decay heat, the two parameters which affected the PCT the most were steam generator heat transfer and heat transfer lockout. The PCT was not sensitive to the assumed pump rotor condition (locked vs coasting); nor was it sensitive to a modest amount (5 to 10%) of steam generator tube plugging. (author)

  16. Hanford groundwater transport estimates for hypothetical radioactive waste incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Brown, D.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1977-06-01

    This report presents an analysis of the impact of subsurface contamination resulting from a series of hypothetical leaks or accidents involving Hanford high-level radioactive defense waste. Estimates of the amounts and concentrations of radionuclides reaching the Columbia River through the Hanford unconfined aquifer flow path were obtained by means of predictive models. The results of the study showed that the spatially averaged concentrations of 99 Tc, 3 H, and 106 Ru in the ground water as it discharges into the Columbia River are at all times far below the respective ERDA Manual Chapter 0524 Concentration Guides for uncontrolled areas. Upon entering the Columbia River, additional large dilutions of the water containing trace quantities of contaminants will occur

  17. Willingness to pay for three hypothetical malaria vaccines in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udezi, Waka Anthony; Usifoh, Cyril Odianose; Ihimekpen, Omoyeme Oluwatosin

    2010-08-01

    Unlike some African countries that have reported a approximately 50% reduction in malaria deaths in recent years, Nigeria has shown no evidence of a systematic decline in malaria burden. An important and sustainable reduction in malaria burden cannot be achieved unless an effective and inexpensive malaria vaccine becomes available. The goals of this study were to determine the willingness to pay (WTP) for 3 hypothetical malaria vaccines with different levels of protection (in years), effectiveness, and adverse effects; and to identify factors that influence the price that people are willing to pay in Nigeria. With the aid of a questionnaire, a contingent valuation method using payment cards was used to elicit WTP values for 3 hypothetical malaria vaccines. Payment cards contained both a description of the features of the vaccine being evaluated and price options. The 3 hypothetical vaccines had the following characteristics: vaccine A was 75% effective, protected for 3 years, and was well tolerated; vaccine B was 85% effective, protected for 6 years, and was less well tolerated than vaccine A; and vaccine C was 95% effective and protected for 12 years, but was the least well tolerated. Participants consisted of a convenience sample of individuals who were at the pharmacy waiting area of the state-owned hospitals located in Benin City and Warri, Nigeria. Every third patient or caregiver who was in the pharmacy to fill a prescription was asked to take part in the study as they waited to see the pharmacist. If consent was not granted, the next person in line was approached to be interviewed. Linear multiple regression analysis and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, or chi(2) test was applied in inferential analysis, where necessary, to investigate the effects of sociodemographic factors on WTP. Prices on payment cards were expressed in Nigerian naira (NGN 150.00 approximately US $1.00), but study results were expressed in US dollars. A total of 359

  18. Calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy of existing and hypothetical MCo5 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opahle, Ingo; Richter, Manuel; Kuz'min, Michael D.; Nitzsche, Ulrike; Koepernik, Klaus; Schramm, Lutz

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic properties, lattice parameters and formation enthalpies of existing and hypothetical MCo 5 compounds (M=Y, La, Th, Mg, Ca and Sr) are calculated within the framework of density functional theory. In these compounds the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy is dominated by itinerant Co 3d contributions. Band energy calculations suggest that-within in a rigid band picture-anisotropy energies of comparable size to those of hard magnetic materials containing rare earths could be obtained by hole doping of YCo 5 , e.g. by the substitution of Ca or Mg for Y. This idea is confirmed by the presented total energy calculations. However, the calculated enthalpies of formation suggest that CaCo 5 and MgCo 5 could only be prepared by non-equilibrium methods

  19. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  20. Probabilistic methodology for turbine missile risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.; Frank, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for estimation of the probabilities of turbine-generated missile damage to nuclear power plant structures and systems. Mathematical models of the missile generation, transport, and impact events have been developed and sequenced to form an integrated turbine missile simulation methodology. Probabilistic Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate the plant impact and damage probabilities. The methodology has been coded in the TURMIS computer code to facilitate numerical analysis and plant-specific turbine missile probability assessments. Sensitivity analyses have been performed on both the individual models and the integrated methodology, and probabilities have been estimated for a hypothetical nuclear power plant case study. (orig.)

  1. Radiological Consequence Analyses Following a Hypothetical Severe Accident in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a simulator which is named NANAS (Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator) for overseas nuclear accident has been developed. It is composed of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. For the source-term estimation module, the representative reactor types were selected as CPR1000, BWR5 and BWR6 for China, Japan and Taiwan, respectively. Considering the design characteristics of each reactor type, the source-term estimation module simulates the transient of design basis accident and severe accident. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials and prints out the air and ground concentration. Using the concentration result, the dose assessment module calculates effective dose and thyroid dose in the Korean Peninsula region. In this study, a hypothetical severe accident in Japan was simulated to demonstrate the function of NANAS. As a result, the radiological consequence to Korea was estimated from the accident. PC-based nuclear accident simulator, NANAS, has been developed. NANAS contains three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. The source-term estimation module simulates a nuclear accident for the representative reactor types in China, Japan and Taiwan. Since the maximum calculation speed is 16 times than real time, it is possible to estimate the source-term release swiftly in case of the emergency. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials in wide range including the Northeast Asia. Final results of the dose assessment module are a map projection and time chart of effective dose and thyroid dose. A hypothetical accident in Japan was simulated by NANAS. The radioactive materials were released during the first 24 hours and the source

  2. Modeling a Hypothetical 170Tm Source for Brachytherapy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enger, Shirin A.; D'Amours, Michel; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To perform absorbed dose calculations based on Monte Carlo simulations for a hypothetical 170 Tm source and to investigate the influence of encapsulating material on the energy spectrum of the emitted electrons and photons. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo code version 9.2 patch 2 was used to simulate the decay process of 170 Tm and to calculate the absorbed dose distribution using the GEANT4 Penelope physics models. A hypothetical 170 Tm source based on the Flexisource brachytherapy design with the active core set as a pure thulium cylinder (length 3.5 mm and diameter 0.6 mm) and different cylindrical source encapsulations (length 5 mm and thickness 0.125 mm) constructed of titanium, stainless-steel, gold, or platinum were simulated. The radial dose function for the line source approximation was calculated following the TG-43U1 formalism for the stainless-steel encapsulation. Results: For the titanium and stainless-steel encapsulation, 94% of the total bremsstrahlung is produced inside the core, 4.8 and 5.5% in titanium and stainless-steel capsules, respectively, and less than 1% in water. For the gold capsule, 85% is produced inside the core, 14.2% inside the gold capsule, and a negligible amount ( 170 Tm source is primarily a bremsstrahlung source, with the majority of bremsstrahlung photons being generated in the source core and experiencing little attenuation in the source encapsulation. Electrons are efficiently absorbed by the gold and platinum encapsulations. However, for the stainless-steel capsule (or other lower Z encapsulations) electrons will escape. The dose from these electrons is dominant over the photon dose in the first few millimeter but is not taken into account by current standard treatment planning systems. The total energy spectrum of photons emerging from the source depends on the encapsulation composition and results in mean photon energies well above 100 keV. This is higher than the main gamma-ray energy peak at 84 keV. Based on our

  3. Computational structural and functional analysis of hypothetical proteins of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Ramadevi; Venugopal, Subhashree

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequencing projects has led to an explosion of large amount of gene products in which many are of hypothetical proteins with unknown function. Analyzing and annotating the functions of hypothetical proteins is important in Staphylococcus aureus which is a pathogenic bacterium that cause multiple types of diseases by infecting various sites in humans and animals. In this study, ten hypothetical proteins of Staphylococcus aureus were retrieved from NCBI and analyzed for their structural ...

  4. A hypothetical severe reactor accident in Sosnovyj Bor, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.; Toivonen, H.; Poellaenen, R.; Nordlund, G.

    1993-12-01

    Individual doses and short-term radiological consequences from a hypothetical severe accident at the Russian nuclear power plant in Sosnovyj Bor were estimated for two sites in Finland. The sites are Kotka, located 140 km from the plant, and Helsinki, 220 km from the plant. The release was assumed to start immediately after the shutdown of the reactor (a 1000 MW RBMK unit) which had been operating at nominal power level for a long time. An effective release height of 500 m was assumed. The prevailing meteorological conditions during the release were taken to present the situation typical of the area (effective wind speed 9 m/s, neutral dispersion conditions). The release fractions applied in the study were of the same order as in the Chernobyl accident, i.e. 100% for noble gases, 60% for iodines, 40% for cesium and 1-10% for other radiologically important nuclides. The release was assumed to last 24 hours. However, half of the nuclides were released during the first hour. No attention was paid to the actual sequence of events that could lead to such release characteristics and time behaviour. The concentration and dose calculations were performed with a modified version of the computer code OIVA developed in Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Inhalation dose and external doses from the release plume and from the deposited activity were calculated for adults only, and no sheltering was considered. (11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.)

  5. Consequence evaluation of hypothetical reactor pressure vessel support failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Holman, G.S.; Lambert, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a consequence evaluation to address safety concerns raised by the radiation embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports for the Trojan nuclear power plant. The study comprises a structural evaluation and an effects evaluation and assumes that all four reactor vessel supports have completely lost the load carrying capability. The structural evaluation concludes that the Trojan reactor coolant loop (RCL) piping is capable of transferring loads to the steam generator (SG) supports and the reactor coolant pump (RCP) supports and that the SG supports and the RCP supports have sufficient design margins to accommodate additional loads transferred to them through the RCL piping. The effects evaluation, employing a systems analysis approach, investigates initiating events and the reliability of the engineered safeguard systems as the RPV is subject to movements caused by the RPV support failure. The evaluation identifies a number of areas for further investigation and concludes that a hypothetical failure of the Trojan RPV supports due to radiation embrittlement will not result in consequences of significant safety concerns. (author)

  6. Intersubassembly incoherencies and grouping techniques in LMFBR hypothetical overpower accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilburn, N.P.

    1977-10-01

    A detailed analysis was made of the FTR core using the 100-channel MELT-IIIA code. Results were studied for the transient overpower accident (where 0.5$/sec and 1$/sec ramps) and in which the Damage Parameter and the Failure Potential criteria were used. Using the information obtained from these series of runs, a new method of grouping the subassemblies into channels has been developed. Also, it was demonstrated that a 7-channel representation of the FTR core using this method does an adequate job of representing the behavior during a hypothetical disruptive transient overpower core accident. It has been shown that this new 7-channel grouping method does a better job than an earlier 20-channel grouping. It has also been demonstrated that the incoherency effects between subassemblies as shown during the 76-channel representation of the reactor can be adequately modeled by 7-channels, provided the 7-channels are selected according to the criteria stated in the report. The overall results of power and net reactivity were shown to be only slightly different in the two cases of the 7-channel and the 76-channel runs. Therefore, it can be concluded that any intersubassembly incoherencies can be modeled adequately by a small number of channels, provided the subassemblies making up these channels are selected according to the criteria stated

  7. Shock loading of reactor vessel following hypothetical core disruptive accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, G.; Doshi, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (HCDA) has been historically considered as the maximum credible accident in Fast Breeder Reactor systems. Environmental consequences of such an accident depends to a great extent on the ability of the reactor vessel to maintain integrity during the shock loading following an HCDA. In the present paper, a computational model of the reactor core and the surrounding coolant with a free surface is numerical technique. The equations for conservation of mass, momentum and energy along with an equation of state are considered in two dimensional cylindrical geometry. The reactor core at the end of HCDA is taken as a bubble of hot, vaporized fuel at high temperature and pressure, formed at the center of the reactor vessel and expanding against the surrounding liquid sodium coolant. The free surface of sodium at the top of the vessel and the movement of the core bubble-liquid coolant interface are tracked by Marker and Cell (MAC) procedure. The results are obtained for the transient pressure at the vessel wall and also for the loading on the roof plug by the impact of the slug of liquid sodium. The computer code developed is validated against a benchmark experiment chosen to be ISPRA experiment reported in literature. The computer code is next applied to predict the loading on the Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) being developed at Kalpakkam

  8. Looking for a hypothetical jovian metabolisms to explain a paucity of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    One startling find from Juno's reconnaissance of Jupiter is a factor-of-two depletion from expected concentrations of NH3 in the 7-bar region of the atmosphere. Here, we investigate hypothetical NH3-consuming metabolisms of putative jovian life. Classically, astrobiologists state life's requirements as: liquid water, sources of CHNOPS, and the availability of free energy. On Jupiter, water clouds condense at a pressure of 7 bars—a region where the temperature is 300 K—providing droplets of liquid water. With its tight gravitational grip on hydrogen, Jupiter has bountiful reductants containing CHNOPS in the form of H2O, CH4, H2S, NH3, and PH3. However, the O-rich oxidants often considered for astrobiological systems on other worlds are largely absent. Instead, hypothetical metabolisms may rely on sulfur species as electron acceptors. Exposed to ultraviolet radiation, H2S will photolyze and react to form polysulfur (Sx, where x ≥ 8). Polysulfur may contribute to the coloration of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, particularly of the Great Red Spot. Polysulfur that rains down to the region of Jupiter's atmosphere where liquid water exists can provide significant redox disequilibrium from which free energy can be liberated. For instance, the reaction 16/3 NH3 + S8 ⟶ 8 H2S + 8/3 N2has a ΔG = -38.8 kJ per mol NH3 at 300 K and 7 bars. This reaction is promising in that: 1) it recycles S8 back to H2S, which can then be lofted to higher altitudes and create more S8; 2) it creates N2, which Juno cannot detect using its microwave radiometer. In order to be a plausible metabolism, we must show: 1) that this reaction is kinetically inhibited, i.e. that abiotic processes cannot easily resolve this disequilibrium; 2) that enough S8 is produced photochemically and is transported to the 7 bar region on short enough timescales to provide the requisite disequilibrium. Finally, copious lightning in the water cloud region—the flash rate has been estimated to be 30 flashes year-1

  9. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  10. Methodology for analyzing risk at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hosik; Lee, Nayoung; Ham, Taekyu; Seo, Janghoon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for evaluating the risk at nuclear facilities was developed. • Five measures reflecting all factors that should be concerned to assess risk were developed. • The attributes on NMAC and nuclear security culture are included as attributes for analyzing. • The newly developed methodology can be used to evaluate risk of both existing facility and future nuclear system. - Abstract: A methodology for evaluating risks at nuclear facilities is developed in this work. A series of measures is drawn from the analysis of factors that determine risks. Five measures are created to evaluate risks at nuclear facilities. These include the legal and institutional framework, material control, physical protection system effectiveness, human resources, and consequences. Evaluation attributes are developed for each measure and specific values are given in order to calculate the risk value quantitatively. Questionnaires are drawn up on whether or not a state has properly established a legal and regulatory framework (based on international standards). These questionnaires can be a useful measure for comparing the status of the physical protection regime between two countries. Analyzing an insider threat is not an easy task and no methodology has been developed for this purpose. In this study, attributes that could quantitatively evaluate an insider threat, in the case of an unauthorized removal of nuclear materials, are developed by adopting the Nuclear Material Accounting & Control (NMAC) system. The effectiveness of a physical protection system, P(E), could be analyzed by calculating the probability of interruption, P(I), and the probability of neutralization, P(N). In this study, the Tool for Evaluating Security System (TESS) code developed by KINAC is used to calculate P(I) and P(N). Consequence is an important measure used to analyze risks at nuclear facilities. This measure comprises radiological, economic, and social damage. Social and

  11. Summary of four release consequence analyses for hypothetical nuclear waste repositories in salt and granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-12-01

    Release consequence methology developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) program has now been applied to four hypothetical repository sites. This paper summarizes the results of these four studies in order to demonstrate that the far-field methodology developed under the AEGIS program offers a practical approach to the post-closure safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories sited in deep continental geologic formations. The four studies are briefly described and compared according to the following general categories: physical description of the repository (size, inventory, emplacement depth); geologic and hydrologic description of the site and the conceptual hydrologic model for the site; description of release scenario; hydrologic model implementation and results; engineered barriers and leach rate modeling; transport model implementation and results; and dose model implementation and results. These studies indicate the following: numerical modeling is a practical approach to post-closure safety assessment analysis for nuclear waste repositories; near-field modeling capability needs improvement to permit assessment of the consequences of human intrusion and pumping well scenarios; engineered barrier systems can be useful in mitigating consequences for postulated release scenarios that short-circuit the geohydrologic system; geohydrologic systems separating a repository from the natural biosphere discharge sites act to mitigate the consequences of postulated breaches in containment; and engineered barriers of types other than the containment or absorptive type may be useful

  12. A hypothetical study of populations under constant mortality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R B

    1976-03-01

    28 countries with different characteristics have been selected in order to observe the amount of time it takes for these different countries to reach stable age distributions. The individual populations by sex and age were projected for 150 years in 5-year intervals with the present constant mortality and fertility schedules by component method. Observations have been made by considering the following characteristics of population when it has acquired stability: age distribution; the rate of growth, birthrate, and mortality rate; the population change; the intrinsic rate of growth, birthrate and mortality rate; and approximate time taken to stabilize the population. The initial age distribution has a significant part in the amount of time it takes for a population to acquire stability, and its intrinsic rate of growth is mostly dependent upon the existing age distribution of that population. The time taken for a country's population to become stable depends upon the age distribution, fertility and mortality schedules at the beginning. It has been observed that countries having a higher intrinsic rate of growth take comparatively less time in acquiring stability than the countries having a lower intrinsic rate of growth. The mortality and fertility schedules of a country is another important phenomenon. The populations of the different countries at the point of stability were growing according to their rates of growth. No specific trend of population growth could be found among the groups of countries. Time taken for stabilizing the population is completely based upon age distributions, fertility and mortality schedules a particular country was having at the beginning. The range of time taken for different countries to acquire stability generally ranged from 100 to 135 years. Among the different countries the relationship for the time it takes to acquire stability has not been established. This is a hypothetical approach in order to obtain some idea as to how a

  13. Studies of hypothetical and fundamental decay properties of positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, W.

    1985-05-01

    For the solution of the CP problem in the standard theory of the strong interaction the existence of a neutral pseudoscalar boson was postulated which couples to quarks and leptons. If the mass of this so-called axion is smaller than two electron masses for orthopositronium 'o-Ps' the decay into one photon and axion is expected in concurrence to the standard decay into three photons. The detection of a monoenergetic photon would be an indication for this decay channel because the axion would only very weakly interact with matter. In the spectrum no lineshape of a monoenergetic photon is observed. From this results in dependence on the mass of a hypothetical particle and with a confidence limit of 90% for the branching ratio of o-Ps an upper limit which is in the range between 320 keV and 950 keV less than 10 -7 . Applied to the axion model an upper limit for the mass of the standard axion of 250 keV results. For the study of the fundamental decay properties of positronium the lifetime of o-Ps and the 3γ energy distribution of the decay quanta were measured. Furthermore the rare 4γ decay of para-positronium 'p-Ps' was searched for. The measured lifetime of o-Ps τ=141.2±1.2ns agrees well with the theoretical value. Calculations on the 3γ energy distribution are confirmed. For the 4γ decay of p-Ps predicted by QED with a branching ratio of ≅ 1.5x10 -6 an upper limit of 2x10 -5 results. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Vulnerability Analysis of Physical Protection System at Hypothetical Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Moog; Lee, Ho Jin; Yu, Dong Han; Min, Gyung Sik

    2006-01-01

    Since the 9/11 event in the U.S.A, International terror possibilities has been increasing for nuclear facilities including nuclear power plants(NPPs). It is necessary to evaluate the performance of an existing physical protection system(PPS) at nuclear facilities based on such malevolent acts. A PPS is a complex configuration of detection, delay, and response elements. Detection, delay, and response elements are all important to the analysis and evaluation of a PPS and its effectiveness. Methods are available to analyze a PPS and evaluate its effectiveness. Sandia National Laboratory(SNL) in the U.S.A was developed a System Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion (SAVI) computer code for evaluating the effectiveness of PPS against outsider threats. This study presents the vulnerability analysis of the PPS at hypothetical facility using SAVI code that the basic input parameters are from PPS of Hanaro Research Reactor at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institution. It is understand that PPS of research reactor and critical assemblies are deficient that that of NPP and nuclear materials of RRCAS are compact to transport For analysis, first, the site-specific Adversary Sequence Diagrams(ASDs) of the PPS is constructed. It helps to understand the functions of the existing PPS composed of physical areas and Protection Elements(PEs). Then, the most vulnerable path of an ASD as a measure of effectiveness is determined. The results in the analysis can used to suggest the possible PPS upgrades to the most vulnerable paths for the system like research reactor

  15. A Qualitative Assessment of Diversion Scenarios for a GEN IV Example Sodium Fast Reactor Using the GEN IV PR and PP Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, M.D.; Coles, G.A. [PNNL, P.O. Box 999, 902 Battelle Boulvard, Richland, WA 99336 (United States); Therios, I.U. [Argonne National Lab. - ANL (United States)

    2009-06-15

    An experts working group was created in 2002 by The Generation IV International Forum for the purpose of developing an internationally accepted methodology for assessing the proliferation resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES) and its individual elements. A two year case study was performed by the working group using this methodology to assess the proliferation resistance of a hypothetical NES called the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). This work demonstrates how the PR and PP methodology can be used to provide important information to designers at various levels of details, including pre-conceptual design stage. The study analyzes the response of the ESFR entire nuclear energy system to different proliferation and theft strategies. The challenges considered comprise concealed diversion, concealed misuse and abrogation strategies. This paper describes the work done in performing a qualitative assessment of potential concealed diversion scenarios from the ESFR, and includes an evaluation of the potential effect of changes in the conversion ratio on diversion strategies. (authors)

  16. 47 CFR 69.608 - Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier Common Line hypothetical net balance. 69.608 Section 69.608 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... net balance. The hypothetical net balance shall be equal to a Carrier Common Line revenue requirement...

  17. Using respondent uncertainty to mitigate hypothetical bias in a stated choice experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Ready; Patricia A. Champ; Jennifer L. Lawton

    2010-01-01

    In a choice experiment study, willingness to pay for a public good estimated from hypothetical choices was three times as large as willingness to pay estimated from choices requiring actual payment. This hypothetical bias was related to the stated level of certainty of respondents. We develop protocols to measure respondent certainty in the context of a choice...

  18. Can a Repeated Opt-Out Reminder remove hypothetical bias in discrete choice experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    hypothetical bias in stated DCE. The data originates from a field experiment concerning consumer preferences for a novel food product made from cricket flour. Utilizing a between-subject design with three treatments, we find significantly higher marginal willingness to pay values in hypothetical than...

  19. Adolescents' explicit and implicit evaluations of hypothetical and actual peers with different bullying participant roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, J Loes; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2017-07-01

    This study examined how adolescents evaluate bullying at three levels of specificity: (a) the general concept of bullying, (b) hypothetical peers in different bullying participant roles, and (c) actual peers in different bullying participant roles. Participants were 163 predominantly ethnic majority adolescents in The Netherlands (58% girls; M age =16.34years, SD=0.79). For the hypothetical peers, we examined adolescents' explicit evaluations as well as their implicit evaluations. Adolescents evaluated the general concept of bullying negatively. Adolescents' explicit evaluations of hypothetical and actual peers in the bullying roles depended on their own role, but adolescents' implicit evaluations of hypothetical peers did not. Adolescents' explicit evaluations of hypothetical peers and actual peers were different. Hypothetical bullies were evaluated negatively by all classmates, whereas hypothetical victims were evaluated relatively positively compared with the other roles. However, when adolescents evaluated their actual classmates, the differences between bullies and the other roles were smaller, whereas victims were evaluated the most negatively of all roles. Further research should take into account that adolescents' evaluations of hypothetical peers differ from their evaluations of actual peers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Franklin Carvajal

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately...

  1. Combining aptamers and in silico interaction studies to decipher the function of hypothetical proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suravajhala, Prashanth; Burri, Harsha Vardhan Reddy; Heiskanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    We present the potential role of aptamers in elucidating the function of hypothetical proteins, as well as the possibilities provided by bioinformatics for establishing a benchmark for aptamer-protein prediction methods. With these future perspectives, the role of hypothetical proteins as target ...... molecules for diagnostics and therapies could prove to be very useful in development of medical technology....

  2. Trend of Average Wages as Indicator of Hypothetical Money Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Daszkowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of wage in Poland not before 1998 includes any value of social security contribution. Changed definition creates higher level of reported wages, but was expected not to influence the take home pay. Nevertheless, the trend of average wages, after a short period, has returned to its previous line. Such effect is explained in the term of money illusion.

  3. NATURAL RESOURCES – A REAL OR HYPOTHETICAL OBJECT OF ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru FRECAUTEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural resources have a controversial accounting treatment which is caused, firstly, by neglecting their inherent properties and, secondly, by a free and one-sided interpretation of the legal framework. The definition of natural resources is bad too, which also creates additional difficulties in accounting of the operations connected with the preparation for natural resources usage and exploitation.

  4. Structure of Lmaj006129AAA, a hypothetical protein from Leishmania major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Tracy; Le Trong, Isolde; Phizicky, Eric; Quartley, Erin; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Lauricella, Angela; Anderson, Lori; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Worthey, Elizabeth; Myler, Peter J.; Kim, David; Baker, David; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein from L. major, Pfam sequence family PF04543, structural genomics target ID Lmaj006129AAA, has been determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å. The gene product of structural genomics target Lmaj006129 from Leishmania major codes for a 164-residue protein of unknown function. When SeMet expression of the full-length gene product failed, several truncation variants were created with the aid of Ginzu, a domain-prediction method. 11 truncations were selected for expression, purification and crystallization based upon secondary-structure elements and disorder. The structure of one of these variants, Lmaj006129AAH, was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) using ELVES, an automatic protein crystal structure-determination system. This model was then successfully used as a molecular-replacement probe for the parent full-length target, Lmaj006129AAA. The final structure of Lmaj006129AAA was refined to an R value of 0.185 (R free = 0.229) at 1.60 Å resolution. Structure and sequence comparisons based on Lmaj006129AAA suggest that proteins belonging to Pfam sequence families PF04543 and PF01878 may share a common ligand-binding motif

  5. Controllable unit concept as applied to a hypothetical tritium process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabaugh, P.W.; Sellers, D.E.; Woltermann, H.A.; Boh, D.R.; Miles, J.C.; Fushimi, F.C.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology (controllable unit accountability) is described that identifies controlling errors for corrective action, locates areas and time frames of suspected diversions, defines time and sensitivity limits of diversion flags, defines the time frame in which pass-through quantities of accountable material and by inference SNM remain controllable and provides a basis for identification of incremental cost associated with purely safeguards considerations. The concept provides a rationale from which measurement variability and specific safeguard criteria can be converted into a numerical value that represents the degree of control or improvement attainable with a specific measurement system or combination of systems. Currently the methodology is being applied to a high-throughput, mixed-oxide fuel fabrication process. The process described is merely used to illustrate a procedure that can be applied to other more pertinent processes

  6. Thermal characterization of organic matter along a (hypothetical) coalification gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ornella; Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical transformations of organic carbon (C) in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are important starting points for genesis of peats, brown coals and other coal precursors. The humification process plays a key role in biogeochemical transformations of organic C and, as a result, in the first stages of coal precursors formation. Thermal analysis was used by Schnitzer and other scientists since 1950-1960s, in order to investigate the stability of several organic materials of industrial value including peat and coal. What soil scientists found was the general occurrence of two exothermic peaks (exotherm 1 and 2) due to decomposition and combustion reactions of organic compounds having different thermal stability and, consequently, different degree of humification. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) was carried out on different samples reproducing a "hypothetical" coalification gradient as follows: peat (IHSS Pahokee peat standard), fulvic acid (FA), a peat humic acid (HA), leonardite (IHSS Gascoyne standard) and charcoal. An aliquot of about 20 mg of each sample was heated in a ceramic crucible from 50 to 850˚ C at 30˚ C min-1, at a gas flow rate of 30 mL min-1 using a PerkinElmer TGA4000 thermobalance. Samples were analysed both under nitrogen and under synthetic air. All analyses were carried out in triplicate and the average coefficient of variation was bio-transformation of organic materials. Finally, the temperature at which half of the exothermic mass loss has occurred (TG-T50) was also calculated. Preliminary results obtained from TG analysis under air showed that WL2/WL1 ratio was lower for the FA sample and higher for leonardite and charcoal, following the order FA

  7. Emergency measures following hypothetical actions against nuclear facilities in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogani, A.; Tabet, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: After the Chernobyl accident a national emergency plan of protective measures for radiological emergencies has been set up in Italy to cope with nuclear risks which require actions at national level. Since most of the Italian nuclear installations are, at present, not operational, the most relevant nuclear risk sources identified in the national emergency plan stem from accidents in nuclear power plants near the Italian borders or aboard nuclearpropelled ships, or events related to the fall of nuclear-powered satellites and transportation of radioactive materials. The plan identifies a reference scenario for nation-wide emergency interventions and the proper structures to be involved in the radiological emergency. However, risks related to nuclear terrorism are not taken into account in the plan, whereas nuclear plants as well as nuclear materials and sources (in use in medical, scientific and industrial applications) are known to represent potential targets for hostile acts, potentially giving rise to harmful radioactive releases into the atmosphere. Along with four nuclear power plants, now undergoing a decommissioning procedure, several other nuclear facilities, such as provisional radioactive waste deposits or research centers, are present in Italy. Unfortunately not all of the radioactive waste inventory is conditioned in such a way to make a spread of radioactive contamination, as a consequence of a hostile action, unlikely; moreover, spent fuel elements are still kept, in some cases, inside the plant spent fuel storage pool. In this paper the hypothetical radiological impact of deliberate actions against some reference nuclear installations will be evaluated, together with its amplications for an appropriate profiling of the emergency countermeasures which could be required. Especially the case of a terrorism act against a spent fuel storage pool is worked out in some detail, as this event appears to be one of those with the most severe

  8. SCI Hazard Report Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

  9. BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyapuram, Krishna P; Tobler, Philippe N; Gregorios-Pippas, Lucy; Schultz, Wolfram

    2012-01-16

    Monetary rewards are uniquely human. Because money is easy to quantify and present visually, it is the reward of choice for most fMRI studies, even though it cannot be handed over to participants inside the scanner. A typical fMRI study requires hundreds of trials and thus small amounts of monetary rewards per trial (e.g. 5p) if all trials are to be treated equally. However, small payoffs can have detrimental effects on performance due to their limited buying power. Hypothetical monetary rewards can overcome the limitations of smaller monetary rewards but it is less well known whether predictors of hypothetical rewards activate reward regions. In two experiments, visual stimuli were associated with hypothetical monetary rewards. In Experiment 1, we used stimuli predicting either visually presented or imagined hypothetical monetary rewards, together with non-rewarding control pictures. Activations to reward predictive stimuli occurred in reward regions, namely the medial orbitofrontal cortex and midbrain. In Experiment 2, we parametrically varied the amount of visually presented hypothetical monetary reward keeping constant the amount of actually received reward. Graded activation in midbrain was observed to stimuli predicting increasing hypothetical rewards. The results demonstrate the efficacy of using hypothetical monetary rewards in fMRI studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reflective Methodology: The Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Ronald K.; Siefert, Thomas E.

    1970-01-01

    Offers a variety of specific techniques which will help the beginning teacher to implement reflective methodology and create an inquiry-centered classroom atmosphere, at the same time meeting the many more pressing demands of first-year teaching. (JES)

  11. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers.......ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...

  12. Studying the effect on system preference by varying coproduct allocation in creating life-cycle inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary Ann

    2007-10-15

    How one models the input and output data for a life-cycle assessment (LCA) can greatly affect the results. Although much attention has been paid to allocation methodology by researchers in the field, specific guidance is still lacking: Earlier research focused on the effects of applying various allocation schemes to industrial processes when creating life-cycle inventories. To determine the impact of different allocation approaches upon product choice, this study evaluated the gas- and water-phase emissions during the production, distribution, and use of three hypothetical fuel systems (data that represent conventional gasoline and gasoline with 8.7 and 85% ethanol were used as the basis for modeling). This paper presents an explanation of the allocation issue and the results from testing various allocation schemes (weight, volume, market value, energy, and demand-based) when viewed across the entire system. Impact indicators for global warming, ozone depletion, and human health noncancer (water impact) were lower for the ethanol-containing fuels, while impact indicators for acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, human health criteria, and photochemical smog were lower for conventional gasoline (impacts for the water-related human health cancer category showed mixed results). The relative ranking of conventional gasoline in relation to the ethanol-containing fuels was consistent in all instances, suggesting that, in this case study, the choice of allocation methodology had no impact on indicating which fuel has lower environmental impacts.

  13. Soil carbon sequestration, carbon markets, and conservation agriculture practices: A hypothetical examination in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoteo E. Simone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Payments for Environmental Services (PES are relatively novel mechanisms whereby the adoption of sustainable management practices by a stakeholder is rewarded by incentives linked to external markets. Adoption of PES for conservation agricultural practices (CAPS by smallholder farmers may provide opportunities to increase household income or cover the technology costs of adoption if the carbon sequestration benefits of CAPS are quantifiable, adoption rates are accelerated and maintained, a mechanism exists whereby carbon sequestration services can be compensated, and carbon offset exchange markets are viable. This research suggests a methodology to examine a PES market for carbon offsets generated by the adoption of CAPS by farmers in Mozambique. Assuming a cumulative adoption of 60% over a 20-year period, revenue from PES market participation to CA adopters was two times higher than revenue earned when disadoption occurred midway through the simulation. Lower adoption targets are associated with higher per household returns when fertilizer rates typical to the region are increased. Establishing and maintaining a sustainable PES system in the study region would require significant investment in time and resources. The lack of on-the-ground institutions or local support for such a program would also challenge successful implementation. Finally, the programs where participant success depends on external markets, such as the hypothetical one suggested here, are subject to the ebb and flow of foreign demand for carbon offsets. Addressing these three broad constraints to a PES/CAPS program in the region would require grass-roots driven policy initiatives with buy-in at multiple social, economic, and political levels.

  14. Analysis of hypothetical LMFBR whole-core accidents in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.R.; Deitrich, L.W.; Brown, N.W.; Waltar, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    Methods used for analysis of material behaviour, accident phenomenology and integrated accident calculations are reviewed. Applications of these methods to hypothetical LOF and TOP accidents are discussed. Recent results obtained from applications to FFTF and CRBRP are presented. (author)

  15. Effects of recent modeling developments in prompt burst hypothetical core disruptive accident calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Abramson, P.B.

    1978-01-01

    The main objective of the development of multifield, multicomponent thermohydrodynamic computer codes is the detailed study of hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDAs) in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. The main contributions such codes are expected to make are the inclusion of detailed modeling of the relative motion of liquid and vapor (slip), the inclusion of modeling of nonequilibrium/nonsaturation thermodynamics, and the use of more detailed neutronics methods. Scoping studies of the importance of including these phenomena performed with the parametric two-field, two-component coupled neutronic/thermodynamic/hydrodynamic code FX2-TWOPOOL indicate for the prompt burst portion of an HCDA that: (1) Vapor-liquid slip plays a relatively insignificant role in establishing energetics, implying that analyses that do not model vapor-liquid slip may be adequate. Furthermore, if conditions of saturation are assumed to be maintained, calculations that do not permit vapor-liquid slip appear to be conservative. (2) The modeling of conduction-limited fuel vaporization and condensation causes the energetics to be highly sensitive to variations in the droplet size (i.e., in the parametric values) for the sizes of interest in HCDA analysis. Care must therefore be exercised in the inclusion of this phenomenon in energetics calculations. (3) Insignificant differences are observed between the use of space-time kinetics (quasi-static diffusion theory) and point kinetics, indicating again that point kinetics is normally adequate for analysis of the prompt burst portion of an HCDA. (4) No significant differences were found to result from assuming that delayed neutron precursors remain stationary where they are created rather than assuming that they move together with fuel. (5) There is no need for implicit coupling between the neutronics and the hydrodynamics/thermodynamics routines, even outside the prompt burst portion

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  19. Conditionals and inferential connections: A hypothetical inferential theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Igor; Elqayam, Shira; Singmann, Henrik; van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke

    2018-03-01

    Intuition suggests that for a conditional to be evaluated as true, there must be some kind of connection between its component clauses. In this paper, we formulate and test a new psychological theory to account for this intuition. We combined previous semantic and psychological theorizing to propose that the key to the intuition is a relevance-driven, satisficing-bounded inferential connection between antecedent and consequent. To test our theory, we created a novel experimental paradigm in which participants were presented with a soritical series of objects, notably colored patches (Experiments 1 and 4) and spheres (Experiment 2), or both (Experiment 3), and were asked to evaluate related conditionals embodying non-causal inferential connections (such as "If patch number 5 is blue, then so is patch number 4"). All four experiments displayed a unique response pattern, in which (largely determinate) responses were sensitive to parameters determining inference strength, as well as to consequent position in the series, in a way analogous to belief bias. Experiment 3 showed that this guaranteed relevance can be suppressed, with participants reverting to the defective conditional. Experiment 4 showed that this pattern can be partly explained by a measure of inference strength. This pattern supports our theory's "principle of relevant inference" and "principle of bounded inference," highlighting the dual processing characteristics of the inferential connection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Probability estimation of potential harm to human health and life caused by a hypothetical nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviov, Vladyslav; Pysmenniy, Yevgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes some general methodological aspects of the assessment of the damage to human life and health caused by a hypothetical nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant (NPP). Probability estimation of death (due to cancer and non-cancer effects of radiation injury), disability and incapacity of individuals were made by taking into account the regulations of Ukraine. According to the assessment, the probability of death due to cancer and non-cancer effects of radiation damage to individuals who received radiation dose of 1 Sv is equal to 0.09. Probability of disability of 1, 2 or 3 group regardless of the radiation dose is 0.009, 0.0054, 0.027, respectively. Probability of temporary disability of the individual who received dose equal to 33 mSv (the level of potential exposure in a hypothetical nuclear accident at the NPP) is equal 0.16. This probability estimation of potential harm to human health and life caused by a hypothetical nuclear accident can be used for NPP in different countries using requirements of regulations in these countries. And also to estimate the amount of insurance payments due to the nuclear damage in the event of a nuclear accident at the NPP or other nuclear industry enterprise. (author)

  1. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This Standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The specific radionuclides considered in the Standard are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents (eg, tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters (Kr-Rb, Xe-Cs), and radioiodines (I)); and certain radioactive particulates (eg, Cs, Ru, Sr, Te) that may become airborne under exceptional circumstances

  2. Expression profiling of hypothetical genes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris leads to improved functional annotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Drury, Elliott C.; Redding, Alyssa M.; Yen, Huei-Che B.; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Keasling, Jay D.; Wall, Judy D.

    2008-10-27

    Hypothetical and conserved hypothetical genes account for>30percent of sequenced bacterial genomes. For the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, 347 of the 3634 genes were annotated as conserved hypothetical (9.5percent) along with 887 hypothetical genes (24.4percent). Given the large fraction of the genome, it is plausible that some of these genes serve critical cellular roles. The study goals were to determine which genes were expressed and provide a more functionally based annotation. To accomplish this, expression profiles of 1234 hypothetical and conserved genes were used from transcriptomic datasets of 11 environmental stresses, complemented with shotgun LC-MS/MS and AMT tag proteomic data. Genes were divided into putatively polycistronic operons and those predicted to be monocistronic, then classified by basal expression levels and grouped according to changes in expression for one or multiple stresses. 1212 of these genes were transcribed with 786 producing detectable proteins. There was no evidence for expression of 17 predicted genes. Except for the latter, monocistronic gene annotation was expanded using the above criteria along with matching Clusters of Orthologous Groups. Polycistronic genes were annotated in the same manner with inferences from their proximity to more confidently annotated genes. Two targeted deletion mutants were used as test cases to determine the relevance of the inferred functional annotations.

  3. Further evidence of close correspondence for alcohol demand decision making for hypothetical and incentivized rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol purchase tasks (APTs) are increasingly being used to assess behavioral economic demand for alcohol. Prior studies utilizing APTs have typically assessed demand for hypothetical outcomes, making the extent to which these hypothetical measures reflect preferences when actual rewards are at stake an important empirical question. This study examined alcohol demand across hypothetical and incentivized APTs. Nineteen male heavy drinkers completed two APTs - one for hypothetical alcohol and another in which one randomly-selected outcome was provided. Participants were given an opportunity to consume the alcohol associated with their choice on the incentivized APT during a self-administration period in a simulated bar environment. Results indicated generally close correspondence between APT versions, though participants were more sensitive to increases in price and tended to consume more at low prices on the incentivized version. Estimated consumption on the incentivized APT was highly correlated with the amount of alcohol consumed in the laboratory (r=.87, pdecision-making when rewards are hypothetical vs. actually available. Implications for behavioral economic approaches to addictive behavior and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  5. What we say and what we do: the relationship between real and hypothetical moral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Mobbs, Dean; Evans, Davy; Hiscox, Lucy; Navrady, Lauren; Dalgleish, Tim

    2012-06-01

    Moral ideals are strongly ingrained within society and individuals alike, but actual moral choices are profoundly influenced by tangible rewards and consequences. Across two studies we show that real moral decisions can dramatically contradict moral choices made in hypothetical scenarios (Study 1). However, by systematically enhancing the contextual information available to subjects when addressing a hypothetical moral problem-thereby reducing the opportunity for mental simulation-we were able to incrementally bring subjects' responses in line with their moral behaviour in real situations (Study 2). These results imply that previous work relying mainly on decontextualized hypothetical scenarios may not accurately reflect moral decisions in everyday life. The findings also shed light on contextual factors that can alter how moral decisions are made, such as the salience of a personal gain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in Behavior and Brain Activity during Hypothetical and Real Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin; Mobbs, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Real behaviors are binding consequential commitments to a course of action, such as harming another person, buying an Apple watch, or fleeing from danger. Cognitive scientists are generally interested in the psychological and neural processes that cause such real behavior. However, for practical reasons, many scientific studies measure behavior using only hypothetical or imagined stimuli. Generalizing from such studies to real behavior implicitly assumes that the processes underlying the two types of behavior are similar. We review evidence of similarity and differences in hypothetical and real mental processes. In many cases, hypothetical choice tasks give an incomplete picture of brain circuitry that is active during real choice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Identification of the conserved hypothetical protein BPSL0317 in Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nur Syamimi; Damiri, Nadzirah; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243 is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease which is endemic in Northern Australia and Southeastern Asia. The genome encodes several essential proteins including those currently annotated as hypothetical proteins. We studied the conservation and the essentiality of expressed hypothetical proteins in normal and different stress conditions. Based on the comparative genomics, we identified a hypothetical protein, BPSL0317, a potential essential gene that is being expressed in all normal and stress conditions. BPSL0317 is also phylogenetically conserved in the Burkholderiales order suggesting that this protein is crucial for survival among the order's members. BPSL0317 therefore has a potential to be a candidate antimicrobial drug target for this group of bacteria.

  8. Proliferation resistance of a hypothetical sodium fast reactor under an assumed breakout scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlock, Jeremy [Non-Proliferation and Safeguards, AECL Chalk River Laboratories, Stn. 91, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Inoue, Naoko; Senzaki, Masao [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA (Japan); Bley, Dennis [Buttonwood Consulting Inc., Oakton, VA (United States); Wonder, Ed [National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) Working Group of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) conducted a high-level pathway analysis of a hypothetical sodium fast reactor and integral fuel processing facility (called collectively the 'Example Sodium Fast Reactor' or ESFR), as a test of the effectiveness of its analysis methodology. From a common set of assumed host-state capabilities and objectives, a number of threat scenarios emerge (Concealed Diversion, Concealed Misuse, Breakout or Overt Misuse, and Theft/Sabotage). This paper presents the results of the analysis based on the Breakout scenario. A distinguishing aspect of Breakout scenario consideration concerns the optimal use of the time from breakout to weapons readiness, which is related to the Proliferation Time measure. The goal of analyzing the breakout scenario was therefore to complement other analyses involving the Concealed Misuse and Diversion scenarios by exploring the minimum post-breakout time to weapons readiness. Four target strategies were chosen for analysis: (1) Diversion of LEU feed material at front-end of the ESFR facility; (2) Misuse of the reactor facility to irradiate fertile material; (3) Misuse of the reactor facility to irradiate material in the in-core fuel storage basket; and (4) Misuse of the fuel processing facility to higher-purity TRU. The investigation identified several general 'sub-strategies' within the Breakout scenario, dependent upon the aggressiveness with which a State pursues its intent to break out (including its aversion to the risk of detection). The sub-strategy chosen by a proliferant state will affect both the time available and potential complexity for proliferation activities. The sub-strategy chosen is itself affected by political factors (foreign relations agenda of state, probability of external intervention after breakout, external dependence of proliferant state's supply chain, etc.) These factors

  9. Pediatrician’s cough and cold medication prescription for hypothetical cases – A cross-sectional multi-centric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Chandelia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerns over inappropriate use of cough and cold medication (CCM in children have been raised. In addition to being ineffective, these are now considered toxic for young children. Despite this fact studies from some regions have shown high use of these medications by physicians. However data on pediatricians and from India are negligible. Aim: To study the burden and patterns of cough and cold medications use by pediatricians for hypothetical cases. Methods: In this cross-sectional study; 172 pediatricians of various hospitals of Delhi and Haryana were enrolled from February 15 to March 15, 2012. They were contacted personally by authors and asked to write their prescriptions for two hypothetical case scenarios [having cough and cold] of two different age groups; (1 less than 2 years and (2 2–5 years. We made two categories as recommendations exist for children less than 2 years while recommendations for the second category are underway. Results were summarized as percentages, counts and; presented in tables and figures. Chi square test was used to establish association between categorical variables of subgroups. Results: Response rate was 93%. The most used CCM was antihistaminics (82% and systemic sympathomimetics (48%. The use of CCM was significantly less in teaching hospitals as compared to non-teaching (77% vs. 95%; p-value – 0.025. However there was no statistical difference in the practice of post graduates and more senior pediatricians (p value-0.895. No difference in CCM use in two age groups {(82% (less than 2 years vs. 85% (2–5 years; p-value – 0.531} was observed. Conclusion: Overall use of CCM is still high irrespective of patient age, pediatrician’s seniority or hospital setting. Efforts should be made to create awareness among the pediatricians regarding cautious use of these medications.

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

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  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  13. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  14. Revised FAO methodology for crop-water requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Allen, R.; Pereira, L.

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1970s, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) developed a practical procedure to estimate crop-water requirements that has become a widely accepted standard, in particular for irrigation studies. Since its publication as FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, new concepts and advances in research have revealed shortcomings in the methodology and made necessary a review and revision. A consultation of experts organized by FAO recommended the adoption of the Penman-Monteith combination method as a new standard for reference evapotranspiration, and advised on procedures for calculation of the various parameters. By defining the reference crop as hypothetical with an assumed height of 0.12 m, a surface resistance of 70 s m -1 and an albedo of 0.23, closely resembling the evaporation of an extensive surface of actively growing and adequately watered green grass of uniform height, the FAO Penman-Monteith method was developed, overcoming previous deficiencies and providing values more consistent with actual crop-water-use data worldwide. Furthermore, recommendations have been developed for the use of the FAO Penman-Monteith method with limited climatic data, largely eliminating the need for any other reference evapotranspiration methods and creating a consistent and transparent basis for a globally valid standard for crop-water-requirement calculations. (author)

  15. Extending the "Knowledge Advantage": Creating Learning Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Tayyab; Walker, Derek; Finegan, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a synergy between the approaches of knowledge management in a learning organisation and supply chain management so that learning chains can be created in order to unleash innovation and creativity by managing knowledge in supply chains. Design/methodology/approach: Through extensive literature…

  16. Creating more effective graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Naomi B

    2012-01-01

    A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

  17. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  18. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  19. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  20. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  1. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  2. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  3. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ...

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  5. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  6. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $50 $100 $250 $500 Other Other Ways ... Meals > Create Your Plate ...

  7. Create Your Plate

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  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  9. Physicians' willingness to grant requests for assistance in dying for children: a study of hypothetical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrakking, A.M.; Heide, van der A.; Looman, C.W.; Delden, van J.J.M.; Philipsen, B.D.; Maas, van der P.J.; Wal, van der G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the willingness of Dutch physicians to use potentially life-shortening or lethal drugs for severely ill children. STUDY DESIGN: We asked 63 pediatricians about their approach to 10 hypothetical cases of children with cancer. The age of the child (15, 11, or 6 years), the child's

  10. Bioinformatics and structural characterization of a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nan, Jie; Brostromer, Erik; Liu, Xiang-Yu

    2009-01-01

    . From the interlinking structural and bioinformatics studies, we have concluded that SMU.440 could be involved in polyketide-like antibiotic resistance, providing a better understanding of this hypothetical protein. Besides, the combination of multiple methods in this study can be used as a general...

  11. An Assessment of the Hypothetical Impact of Drug Abuse on Combat Capability. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    25 I .4 Jill 1.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAt BIURIA OF gMANI£ IWOI) A LEVEL AD SAI-80-113-WA AN ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPOTHETICAL IMPACTo OF...potential loss of unit effectiveness in each of these units. The resulting measure of unit effectiveness provides a powerful analy- tic tool for comparing

  12. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe, in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  13. Can a Repeated Opt-Out Reminder mitigate hypothetical bias in discrete choice experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we test whether a Repeated Opt-Out Reminder (ROOR) can mitigate hypothetical bias in stated discrete choice experiments (DCE). The data originate from a field experiment concerning consumer preferences for a novel food product made from cricket flour. Utilising a between...

  14. Comparison of SAS3A and MELT-III predictions for a transient overpower hypothetical accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilburn, N.P.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison is made of the predictions of the two major codes SAS3A and MELT-III for the hypothetical unprotected transient overpower accident in the FFTF. The predictions of temperatures, fuel restructuring, fuel melting, reactivity feedbacks, and core power are compared

  15. The impact of arbitrarily applicable relational responding on evaluative learning about hypothetical money and shock outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Molet, Mikael; Davies, Lynette

    2017-08-01

    Evaluative learning comprises changes in preferences after co-occurrences between conditioned stimuli (CSs) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) of affective value. Co-occurrences may involve relational responding. Two experiments examined the impact of arbitrary relational responding on evaluative preferences for hypothetical money and shock outcomes. In Experiment 1, participants were trained to make arbitrary relational responses by placing CSs of the same size but different colours into boxes and were then instructed that these CSs represented different intensities of hypothetical USs (money or shock). Liking ratings of the CSs were altered in accordance with the underlying bigger/smaller than relations. A reversal of preference was also observed: the CS associated with the smallest hypothetical shock was rated more positively than the CS associated with the smallest amount of hypothetical money. In Experiment 2, procedures from Relational Frame Theory (RFT) established a relational network of more than/less than relations consisting of five CSs (A-B-C-D-E). Overall, evaluative preferences were altered, but not reversed, depending on (a) how stimuli had been related to one another during the learning phase and (b) whether those stimuli referred to money or shocks. The contribution of RFT to evaluative learning research is discussed.

  16. study and analysis of asa river hypothetical dam break using hec-ras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impounded reservoirs provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, hydropower and water supply but they also carry potential risks. Spontaneous dam break phenomenon can occur and the resultant flooding may cause substantial loss of life and property damage downstream of the dam. A hypothetical dam ...

  17. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-01

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe - in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  18. MIRD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.; Gomez Parada, Ines

    2004-01-01

    The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system was established by the Society of Nuclear Medicine of USA in 1960 to assist the medical community in the estimation of the dose in organs and tissues due to the incorporation of radioactive materials. Since then, 'MIRD Dose Estimate Report' (from the 1 to 12) and 'Pamphlets', of great utility for the dose calculations, were published. The MIRD system was planned essentially for the calculation of doses received by the patients during nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. The MIRD methodology for the absorbed doses calculations in different tissues is explained

  19. PSA methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, L

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300{sup 1} and EPS 900{sup 2} PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs.

  20. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300 1 and EPS 900 2 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  1. Creating Web Pages Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The easiest way to learn how to create a Web page for your family or organization Do you want to share photos and family lore with relatives far away? Have you been put in charge of communication for your neighborhood group or nonprofit organization? A Web page is the way to get the word out, and Creating Web Pages Simplified offers an easy, visual way to learn how to build one. Full-color illustrations and concise instructions take you through all phases of Web publishing, from laying out and formatting text to enlivening pages with graphics and animation. This easy-to-follow visual guide sho

  2. Testing the effectiveness of certainty scales, cheap talk, and dissonance-minimization in reducing hypothetical bias in contingent valuation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Morrison; Thomas C. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Stated preference methods such as contingent valuation and choice modeling are subject to various biases that may lead to differences between actual and hypothetical willingness to pay. Cheap talk, follow-up certainty scales, and dissonance minimization are three techniques for reducing this hypothetical bias. Cheap talk and certainty scales have received considerable...

  3. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  4. Creating Customer Delight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jim

    1995-01-01

    This article proposes that college admissions officers interested in improving service should focus on creating customer delight rather than simply satisfaction, studying the system when things go wrong rather than placing blame, establishing employee well-being as the highest priority of the organization, providing necessary tools and training…

  5. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  6. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  7. Creating a Classroom Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Luz

    2014-01-01

    What is a makerspace? Makerspaces are community-operated physical spaces where people (makers) create do-it-yourself projects together. These membership spaces serve as community labs where people learn together and collaborate on projects. Makerspaces often have tools and equipment like 3-D printers, laser cutters, and soldering irons.…

  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  9. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  10. Creating Innovative Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops lessons about how and why the founders and ventures involved in knowledge intensive entrepreneurship (KIE) manage the process of venture creation. The meta-analysis of the 86 case studies is based upon as conceptual model (from a systemic literature review), linked to illustra...... of knowledge networks to create innovative opportunities....

  11. Create Your State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien…

  12. Creating a Third Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author laments higher education's lack of concern towards the development of teaching in the public schools over the last half of the 20th century. Most of academe's work on the topic of teacher training has been done at the branches of state universities that needed to make money and create a niche. The author observes that…

  13. Fuel assembly loads during a hypothetical blowdown event in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabel, J.; Bosanyi, B.; Kim, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    As a consequence of a hypothetical sudden break of the main coolant pipe of a PWR, RPV-internals and fuel assemblies (FA's) are undergoing horizontal and vertical motions. FA's may impact against each other, against core shroud or against lower core support. The corresponding impact loads must be absorbed by the FA spacer grids and guide thimbles. In this paper FA-loads are calculated with and without consideration of Fluid-Structure-Interaction (FSI) effects for assumed different break sizes of the main coolant pipe. The analysis has been performed for a hypothetical cold leg break of a typical SIEMENS-4 loop plant. For this purpose the codes DAPSY/DAISY (GRS, Germany) were coupled with the structural code KWUSTOSS (SIEMENS). It is shown that the FA loads obtained in calculations with consideration of FSI effects are by a factor of 2-4 lower than those obtained in the corresponding calculations without consideration of FSI. (author)

  14. The Relationship Between Personality and Schadenfreude in Hypothetical Versus Live Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenier, Keegan D

    2018-06-01

    This study sought to investigate how individual differences are related to schadenfreude (pleasure derived from another's misfortune) by replicating past findings and extending them to additional personality traits. Because most past research on schadenfreude has relied heavily on the use of reactions to hypothetical scenarios, an attempt was made to demonstrate external validity by also including a reaction to a live event (confederate misfortune). For the scenarios, schadenfreude was positively correlated with the Dark Triad and just world beliefs; negatively correlated with empathy and agreeableness; and uncorrelated with dispositional envy, self-esteem, or the remaining Big Five traits. For the live event, no personality traits were correlated with schadenfreude, suggesting responses to hypothetical situations may not be representative of real-life schadenfreude events.

  15. Methods and calculations for regional, continental, and global dose assessments from a hypothetical fuel reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Kern, C.D.; Cooper, R.E.; Watts, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is coordinating an interlaboratory effort to provide, test, and use state-of-the-art methods for calculating the environmental impact to an offsite population from the normal releases of radionuclides during the routine operation of a fuel-reprocessing plant. Results of this effort are the estimated doses to regional, continental, and global populations. Estimates are based upon operation of a hypothetical reprocessing plant at a site in the southeastern United States. The hypothetical plant will reprocess fuel used at a burn rate of 30 megawatts/metric ton and a burnup of 33,000 megawatt days/metric ton. All fuel will have been cooled for at least 365 days. The plant will have a 10 metric ton/day capacity and an assumed 3000 metric ton/year (82 percent online plant operation) output. Lifetime of the plant is assumed to be 40 years

  16. Structure of the conserved hypothetical protein MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Margaret A.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Mehlin, Christopher; Boni, Erica; Earnest, Thomas N.; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Lauricella, Angela; Anderson, Lori; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Zucker, Frank; Schoenfeld, Lori W.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, MAL13P1.257 from P. falciparum, has been determined at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure represents a new protein fold and is the first structural representative for Pfam sequence family PF05907. The structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, PlasmoDB sequence MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum, Pfam sequence family PF05907, has been determined as part of the structural genomics effort of the Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa consortium. The structure was determined by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure is almost entirely β-sheet; it consists of 15 β-strands and one short 3 10 -helix and represents a new protein fold. The packing of the two monomers in the asymmetric unit indicates that the biological unit may be a dimer.

  17. Radiological consequences of a hypothetical ''roof breakdown'' accident of the Chernobyl sarcophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.

    1997-01-01

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety GRS performed investigations with the aim to improve the safety of the Chernobyl Unit 4 shelter in close connection with the Ministry for Environment and Nuclear Safety of the Ukraina from 1992 to 1995. One of the tasks of the working programme was concerned with the analysis of hypothetical accidents of the present shelter, which comprises the newly built Sarcophagus and the remaining ruins of Unit 4. In close collaboration with Ukrainian and Russian experts the maximum hypothetical accident was defined to be the breakdown of the roof of the Sarcophagus and subsequent release of the radioactive dust which is mainly located in the destroyed reactor hall and the neighboring rooms

  18. Analysis of hypothetical incidents in nuclear power plants with PWR and HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiser, H.

    1977-01-01

    Several accident analyses are reviewed with a view to fission product release, and the findings are transferred to German reactor plants with LWR and HTR and compared. First of all, hypothetical accidents are compared for both of these lines; after this, the history of accidents is briefly described, and the fission product release during these accidents is investigated. For both reactor lines, there is a different but sufficiently high potential for safety improvements. (orig.) [de

  19. Risk Management in Smallholder Cattle Farming: A Hypothetical Insurance Approach in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Otieno, David Jakinda; Oluoch-Kosura, Willis; Karugia, Joseph Thuo; Drucker, Adam G.; Rege, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Smallholder cattle farming is an important livelihood strategy in most developing countries like Kenya. However, tropical diseases in Africa often wipe out these valuable assets. This paper focuses on mitigation of cattle disease risks through a hypothetical insurance scheme. The study is based on data from a survey conducted on a purposive sample of 300 smallholder cattle farmers in Kakamega and Siaya districts of Western Kenya. Descriptive measures and a regression model were used in the an...

  20. Analysis of initial events following hypothetical criticality of a transport flask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, F.; Bonhomme, C.; Brown, M.L.; Hague, P.; Mather, D.J.; Shaw, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This report deals with the estimation of possible consequences, eg energy release, temperatures reached etc, of such a hypothetical accident in a particular notional transport package design. This particular study examines the situation if criticality occurs during unloading or refilling of a PWR flask. In the first instance, an idealised model has been chosen in order to develop the calculational techniques; it is not initself a realistic accident representation

  1. Interpersonal deviance and consequent social impact in hypothetically schizophrenia-prone men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborowski, M J; Garske, J P

    1993-08-01

    Interpersonal deviance is central to the theory of and research on schizotypal psychopathology. The present study investigated interpersonal deviance and its corresponding impact among hypothetically schizotypic, or schizophrenia-prone, men, defined by high scores on the Perceptual Aberration-Magical Ideation (Per-Mag) Scale. In a videotaped interview, high-scoring Ss relative to control Ss were rated as more odd (p scale and suggest that interpersonal factors may influence the eventual adjustment of high-scoring individuals.

  2. Parent and medical professional willingness to enroll children in a hypothetical pediatric optic neuritis treatment trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy eWaldman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial and subsequent studies have had a tremendous impact on the treatment and prognosis of optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis in adults. The results of these studies have been extrapolated to children; however, pediatric data are sparse. Using the method of prospective preference assessment, the willingness of parents and medical professionals to enroll children in a hypothetical Pediatric Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial was assessed using a mock consent form and questionnaire. A 3-arm trial was proposed: 1 intravenous corticosteroids, 2 high-dose oral corticosteroids, and 3 an oral placebo. The forms were completed by 198 parents and 49 physicians. After reviewing the hypothetical scenario, trial design, risks and benefits, and alternatives to the study, 21% of parents would enroll their children in the trial whereas 98% of medical professionals would enroll their patients. With medical professional recommendation, 43% of parents would enroll their children. The manner in which this hypothetical trial was presented to parents, specifically with respect to the recommendation of their child’s health care team, influenced a parent’s willingness to participate.

  3. EAC european accident code. A modular system of computer programs to simulate LMFBR hypothetical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.; Cametti, J.; Clusaz, A.; Devos, J.; VanGoethem, G.; Nguyen, H.; Sola, A.

    1985-01-01

    One aspect of fast reactor safety analysis consists of calculating the strongly coupled system of physical phenomena which contribute to the reactivity balance in hypothetical whole-core accidents: these phenomena are neutronics, fuel behaviour and heat transfer together with coolant thermohydraulics in single- and two-phase flow. Temperature variations in fuel, coolant and neighbouring structures induce, in fact, thermal reactivity feedbacks which are added up and put in the neutronics calculation to predict the neutron flux and the subsequent heat generation in the reactor. At this point a whole-core analysis code is necessary to examine for any hypothetical transient whether the various feedbacks result effectively in a negative balance, which is the basis condition to ensure stability and safety. The European Accident Code (EAC), developed at the Joint Research Centre of the CEC at Ispra (Italy), fulfills this objective. It is a modular informatics structure (quasi 2-D multichannel approach) aimed at collecting stand-alone computer codes of neutronics, fuel pin mechanics and hydrodynamics, developed both in national laboratories and in the JRC itself. EAC makes these modules interact with each other and produces results for these hypothetical accidents in terms of core damage and total energy release. 10 refs

  4. Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Barbara; Coyle, Jeremy; Cohen, Alison K; Headen, Irene; Hubbard, Alan; Ritchie, Lorrene; Rehkopf, David H

    2017-09-01

    To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults. We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009). A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births. Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.

  5. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia....... They are considered more vulnerable to disasters because of their size. This paper argues, on the contrary, that SMEs also can be less vulnerable to sudden change than large corporations, drawing upon the ideas of Hayek and Taleb, and that networks of SMEs may contribute to the overall resilience of society...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...

  6. Investigating the consequences of urban volcanism using a scenario approach I: Development and application of a hypothetical eruption in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca H.; Blake, Daniel M.; Davies, Alistair J.; Hayes, Josh L.; Stewart, Carol; Wilson, Grant; Wilson, Thomas M.; Castelino, Renella; Kennedy, Ben M.; Muspratt, Scott; Woods, Richard

    2017-04-01

    What happens when a city has a volcanic eruption within its boundaries? To explore the consequences of this rare but potentially catastrophic combination, we develop a detailed multi-hazard scenario of an Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) eruption; the AVF underlies New Zealand's largest city, Auckland. We start with an existing AVF unrest scenario sequence and develop it through a month-long hypothetical eruption based on geologic investigations of the AVF and historic similar eruptions from around the world. We devise a credible eruption sequence and include all volcanic hazards that could occur in an AVF eruption. In consultation with Civil Defence and Emergency Management staff, we create a series of evacuation maps for before, during, and after the hypothetical eruption sequence. Our result is a versatile scenario with many possible applications, developed further in companion papers that explore eruption consequences on transportation and water networks. However, here we illustrate one application: evaluating the consequences of an eruption on electricity service provision. In a collaborative approach between scientists and electricity service providers, we evaluate the impact of the hypothetical eruption to electricity generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure. We then evaluate how the impacted network functions, accounting for network adaptations (e.g., diverting power away from evacuated areas), site access, and restoration factors. We present a series of regional maps showing areas with full service, rolling outages, and no power as a result of the eruption. This illustrative example demonstrates how a detailed scenario can be used to further understand the ramifications of urban volcanism on local and regional populations, and highlights the importance of looking beyond damage to explore the consequences of volcanism.

  7. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  8. Testing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

  9. Testing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical ''signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs

  10. PROBLEMS AND METHODOLOGY OF THE PETROLOGIC ANALYSIS OF COAL FACIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Edward C.T.

    1983-01-01

    This condensed synthesis gives a broad outline of the methodology of coal facies analysis, procedures for constructing sedimentation and geochemical formation curves, and micro- and macrostratigraphic analysis. The hypothetical coal bed profile has a 3-fold cycle of material characteristics. Based on studies of other similar profiles of the same coal bed, and on field studies of the sedimentary rock types and their facies interpretation, one can assume that the 3-fold subdivision is of regional significance.

  11. Update of Part 61 Impacts Analysis Methodology. Methodology report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Envirosphere Company has expanded and updated the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 rule to allow improved consideration of the costs and impacts of treatment and disposal of low-level waste that is close to or exceeds Class C concentrations. The modifications described in this report principally include: (1) an update of the low-level radioactive waste source term, (2) consideration of additional alternative disposal technologies, (3) expansion of the methodology used to calculate disposal costs, (4) consideration of an additional exposure pathway involving direct human contact with disposed waste due to a hypothetical drilling scenario, and (5) use of updated health physics analysis procedures (ICRP-30). Volume 1 of this report describes the calculational algorithms of the updated analysis methodology.

  12. Update of Part 61 Impacts Analysis Methodology. Methodology report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Envirosphere Company has expanded and updated the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 rule to allow improved consideration of the costs and impacts of treatment and disposal of low-level waste that is close to or exceeds Class C concentrations. The modifications described in this report principally include: (1) an update of the low-level radioactive waste source term, (2) consideration of additional alternative disposal technologies, (3) expansion of the methodology used to calculate disposal costs, (4) consideration of an additional exposure pathway involving direct human contact with disposed waste due to a hypothetical drilling scenario, and (5) use of updated health physics analysis procedures (ICRP-30). Volume 1 of this report describes the calculational algorithms of the updated analysis methodology

  13. Creating a practice website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, P K

    2007-05-26

    A website is a window to the outside world. For a dental practice, it may be the first point of contact for a prospective new patient and will therefore provide them with their 'first impression'; this may be days or weeks before actually visiting the practice. This section considers the different ways of creating a dental practice website and lists some of the main dental website design companies. It also describes what factors make a successful website and offers advice on how to ensure that it complies with current regulations and recommendations.

  14. Guidelines for calculating radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under hypothetical accident conditions in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This standard provides guidelines and a methodology for calculating effective doses and thyroid doses to people (either individually or collectively) in the path of airborne radioactive material released from a nuclear facility following a hypothetical accident. The radionuclides considered are those associated with substances having the greatest potential for becoming airborne in reactor accidents: tritium (HTO), noble gases and their daughters, radioiodines, and certain radioactive particulates (Cs, Ru, Sr, Te). The standard focuses on the calculation of radiation doses for external exposures from radioactive material in the cloud; internal exposures for inhalation of radioactive material in the cloud and skin penetration of tritium; and external exposures from radionuclides deposited on the ground. It uses as modified Gaussian plume model to evaluate the time-integrated concentration downwind. (52 refs., 12 tabs., 21 figs.)

  15. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF E-LEARNING DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Sergeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the discussion of the methodological problems of e-learning, didactic issues the use of advanced networking and Internet technologies to create training systems and simulators based on the methodological principles of non-classical and post-non-classical psychology and pedagogy. 

  16. Creating corporate advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum.

  17. Creating sustainable performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Gretchen; Porath, Christine

    2012-01-01

    What makes for sustainable individual and organizational performance? Employees who are thriving-not just satisfied and productive but also engaged in creating the future. The authors found that people who fit this description demonstrated 16% better overall performance, 125% less burnout, 32% more commitment to the organization, and 46% more job satisfaction than their peers. Thriving has two components: vitality, or the sense of being alive and excited, and learning, or the growth that comes from gaining knowledge and skills. Some people naturally build vitality and learning into their jobs, but most employees are influenced by their environment. Four mechanisms, none of which requires heroic effort or major resources, create the conditions for thriving: providing decision-making discretion, sharing information about the organization and its strategy, minimizing incivility, and offering performance feedback. Organizations such as Alaska Airlines, Zingerman's, Quicken Loans, and Caiman Consulting have found that helping people grow and remain energized at work is valiant on its own merits-but it can also boost performance in a sustainable way.

  18. Estimates of immediate effects on world markets of a hypothetical disruption to Russia’s supply of six mineral commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safirova, Elena; Barry, James J.; Hastorun, Sinan; Matos, Grecia R.; Perez, Alberto Alexander; Bedinger, George M.; Bray, E. Lee; Jasinski, Stephen M.; Kuck, Peter H.; Loferski, Patricia J.

    2017-05-18

    The potential immediate effects of a hypothetical shock to Russia’s supply of selected mineral commodities on the world market and on individual countries were determined and monetized (in 2014 U.S. dollars). The mineral commodities considered were aluminum (refined primary), nickel (refined primary), palladium (refined) and platinum (refined), potash, and titanium (mill products), and the regions and countries of primary interest were the United States, the European Union (EU–28), and China. The shock is assumed to have infinite duration, but only the immediate effects, those limited by a 1-year period, are considered.A methodology for computing and monetizing the potential impacts was developed. Then the data pertaining to all six mineral commodities were collected and the most likely effects were computed. Because of the uncertainties associated with some of the data, sensitivity analyses were conducted to confirm the validity of the results.Results indicate that the impact on the United States arising from a shock to Russia’s supply, in terms of the value of net exports, would range from a gain of \\$336 million for titanium mill products to a loss of \\$237 million for potash; thus, the overall effect of a supply shock is likely to be quite modest. The study also demonstrates that, taken alone, Russia’s share in the world production of a particular commodity is not necessarily indicative of the size of potential impacts resulting from a supply shock; other factors, such as prices, domestic production, and the structure of international commodity flows were found to be important as well.

  19. Creating With Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A subsidiary of SI Diamond Technology, Inc., Applied Nanotech, of Austin, Texas, is creating a buzz among various technology firms and venture capital groups interested in the company s progressive research on carbon-related field emission devices, including carbon nanotubes, filaments of pure carbon less than one ten-thousandth the width of human hair. Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes have gained considerable attention due to their unique physical properties. For example, a single perfect carbon nanotube can range from 10 to 100 times stronger than steel, per unit weight. Recent studies also indicate that the nanotubes may be the best heat-conducting material in existence. These properties, combined with the ease of growing thin films or nanotubes by a variety of deposition techniques, make the carbon-based material one of the most desirable for cold field emission cathodes.

  20. Comparison of the hypothetical (57)Co brachytherapy source with the (192)Ir source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Rostami, Atefeh; Khosroabadi, Mohsen; Khademi, Sara; Knaup, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    The (57)Co radioisotope has recently been proposed as a hypothetical brachytherapy source due to its high specific activity, appropriate half-life (272 days) and medium energy photons (114.17 keV on average). In this study, Task Group No. 43 dosimetric parameters were calculated and reported for a hypothetical (57)Co source. A hypothetical (57)Co source was simulated in MCNPX, consisting of an active cylinder with 3.5 mm length and 0.6 mm radius encapsulated in a stainless steel capsule. Three photon energies were utilized (136 keV [10.68%], 122 keV [85.60%], 14 keV [9.16%]) for the (57)Co source. Air kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function, anisotropy function, and isodose curves for the source were calculated and compared to the corresponding data for a (192)Ir source. The results are presented as tables and figures. Air kerma strength per 1 mCi activity for the (57)Co source was 0.46 cGyh(-1) cm 2 mCi(-1). The dose rate constant for the (57)Co source was determined to be 1.215 cGyh(-1)U(-1). The radial dose function for the (57)Co source has an increasing trend due to multiple scattering of low energy photons. The anisotropy function for the (57)Co source at various distances from the source is more isotropic than the (192)Ir source. The (57)Co source has advantages over (192)Ir due to its lower energy photons, longer half-life, higher dose rate constant and more isotropic anisotropic function. However, the (192)Ir source has a higher initial air kerma strength and more uniform radial dose function. These properties make (57)Co a suitable source for use in brachytherapy applications.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of Evacuation Speed in Hypothetical NPP Accident by Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Effective emergency response in emergency situation of nuclear power plant (NPP) can make consequences be different therefore it is regarded important when establishing an emergency response plan and assessing the risk of hypothetical NPP accident. Situation of emergency response can be totally changed when NPP accident caused by earthquake or tsunami is considered due to the failure of roads and buildings by the disaster. In this study evacuation speed has been focused among above various factors and reasonable evacuation speed in earthquake scenario has been investigated. Finally, sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Evacuation scenario can be entirely different in the situation of seismic hazard and the sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Various references were investigated and earthquake evacuation model has been developed considering that evacuees may convert their evacuation method from using a vehicle to walking when they face the difficulty of using a vehicle due to intense traffic jam, failure of buildings and roads, and etc. The population dose within 5 km / 30 km have been found to be increased in earthquake situation due to decreased evacuation speed and become 1.5 - 2 times in the severest earthquake evacuation scenario set up in this study. It is not agreed that using same emergency response model which is used for normal evacuation situations when performing level 3 probabilistic safety assessment for earthquake and tsunami event. Investigation of data and sensitivity analysis for constructing differentiated emergency response model in the event of seismic hazard has been carried out in this study.

  2. Ability to Categorize Food Predicts Hypothetical Food Choices in Head Start Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jody S; Barton, Jennifer M; Simons, Ali L

    2018-03-01

    To investigate whether preschoolers are able to identify and categorize foods, and whether their ability to classify food as healthy predicts their hypothetical food choice. Structured interviews and body measurements with preschoolers, and teacher reports of classroom performance. Six Head Start centers in a large southeastern region. A total of 235 preschoolers (mean age [SD], 4.73 [0.63] years; 45.4% girls). Teachers implemented a nutrition education intervention across the 2014-2015 school year in which children were taught to identify and categorize food as sometimes (ie, unhealthy) and anytime (ie, healthy). Preschooler responses to a hypothetical snack naming, classifying, and selection scenario. Hierarchical regression analyses to examine predictors of child hypothetical food selection. While controlling for child characteristics and cognitive functioning, preschoolers who were better at categorizing food as healthy or unhealthy were more likely to say they would choose the healthy food. Low-contrast food pairs in which food had to be classified based on multiple dimensions were outside the cognitive abilities of the preschoolers. Nutrition interventions may be more effective in helping children make healthy food choices if developmental limitations in preschoolers' abilities to categorize food is addressed in their curriculum. Classification of food into evaluative categories is challenging for this age group. Categorizing on multiple dimensions is difficult, and dichotomous labeling of food as good or bad is not always accurate in directing children toward making food choices. Future research could evaluate further preschoolers' developmental potential for food categorization and nutrition decision making and consider factors that influence healthy food choices at both snack and mealtime. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Evacuation Speed in Hypothetical NPP Accident by Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Effective emergency response in emergency situation of nuclear power plant (NPP) can make consequences be different therefore it is regarded important when establishing an emergency response plan and assessing the risk of hypothetical NPP accident. Situation of emergency response can be totally changed when NPP accident caused by earthquake or tsunami is considered due to the failure of roads and buildings by the disaster. In this study evacuation speed has been focused among above various factors and reasonable evacuation speed in earthquake scenario has been investigated. Finally, sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Evacuation scenario can be entirely different in the situation of seismic hazard and the sensitivity analysis of evacuation speed in hypothetical NPP accident by earthquake has been performed in this study. Various references were investigated and earthquake evacuation model has been developed considering that evacuees may convert their evacuation method from using a vehicle to walking when they face the difficulty of using a vehicle due to intense traffic jam, failure of buildings and roads, and etc. The population dose within 5 km / 30 km have been found to be increased in earthquake situation due to decreased evacuation speed and become 1.5 - 2 times in the severest earthquake evacuation scenario set up in this study. It is not agreed that using same emergency response model which is used for normal evacuation situations when performing level 3 probabilistic safety assessment for earthquake and tsunami event. Investigation of data and sensitivity analysis for constructing differentiated emergency response model in the event of seismic hazard has been carried out in this study

  4. Creating the living brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendapudi, Neeli; Bendapudi, Venkat

    2005-05-01

    It's easy to conclude from the literature and the lore that top-notch customer service is the province of a few luxury companies and that any retailer outside that rarefied atmosphere is condemned to offer mediocre service at best. But even companies that position themselves for the mass market can provide outstanding customer-employee interactions and profit from them, if they train employees to reflect the brand's core values. The authors studied the convenience store industry in depth and focused on two that have developed a devoted following: QuikTrip (QT) and Wawa. Turnover rates at QT and Wawa are 14% and 22% respectively, much lower than the typical rate in retail. The authors found six principles that both firms embrace to create a strong culture of customer service. Know what you're looking for: A focus on candidates' intrinsic traits allows the companies to hire people who will naturally bring the right qualities to the job. Make the most of talent: In mass-market retail, talent is generally viewed as a commodity, but that outlook becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Create pride in the brand: Service quality depends directly on employees' attachment to the brand. Build community: Wawa and QT have made concerted efforts to build customer loyalty through a sense of community. Share the business context: Employees need a clear understanding of how their company operates and how it defines success. Satisfy the soul: To win an employee's passionate engagement, a company must meet his or her needs for security, esteem, and justice.

  5. Guide to General Atomic studies of hypothetical nuclear driven accidents for the Fort St. Vrain reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, T.; Tobias, M.

    1974-03-01

    The work of the General Atomic Company (GAC) in preparing those portions of the Final Safety Analysis Report for the Fort St. Vrain Reactor (FSV) having to do with hypothetical nuclear driven accidents has been reviewed and a guide to this literature has been prepared. The sources for this study are the Final Safety Analysis Report itself, the Quarterly and Monthly Progress Reports, Topical Reports, and Technical Specifications. The problems considered and the methods used are outlined. An appendix gives a systematic analysis which was used as a guide in organizing the references. (U.S.)

  6. BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyapuram Krishna P; Tobler Philippe N; Gregorios-Pippas Lucy; Schultz Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Monetary rewards are uniquely human. Because money is easy to quantify and present visually, it is the reward of choice for most fMRI studies, even though it cannot be handed over to participants inside the scanner. A typical fMRI study requires hundreds of trials and thus small amounts of monetary rewards per trial (e.g. 5p) if all trials are to be treated equally. However, small payoffs can have detrimental effects on performance due to their limited buying power. Hypothetical monetary rewa...

  7. KADIS: a program to analyse the disassembly phase of hypothetical accidents in LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuck, P.; Jacobs, G.; Arnecke, G.

    1977-11-01

    The program KADIS models the disassembly phase during power excursions in LMFBR hypothetical accidents. KADIS is based on point kinetics in the neutronics part and on a 2-dimensional representation of the reactor core in the hydrodynamics part. The core is modeled as an ideal, compressible fluid which is heated up adiabatically during the excursion. KADIS was built up with the help of the VENUS program of Argonne National Laboratory. Several important features were added to the basic VENUS model. Therefore we give first a complete description of the mathematical models used. Secondly we provide the user with the necessary information to handle the input/output of KADIS. (orig.) [de

  8. Consequences in Norway of a hypothetical accident at Sellafield: Potential release - transport and fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ytre-Eide, M. A.; Standring, W.J.F.; Amundsen, I.; Sickel, M.; Liland, A.; Saltbones, J.; Bartnicki, J.; Haakenstad, H.; Salbu, B.

    2009-03-01

    This report focuses on transport and fallout from 'worst-case' scenarios based on a hypothetical accident at the B215 facility for storing Highly Active Liquors (HAL) at Sellafield. The scenarios involve an atmospheric release of between 0.1-10 % of the total HAL inventory; only transport and fallout of 137 Cs is considered in this case study. Simulations resulted in between 0.1-50 times the maximum 137 Cs fallout experienced in the most contaminated areas in Norway after the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

  9. Analysis of hypothetical LMFBR whole-core accidents in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.R.; Deitrich, L.W.; Brown, N.W.; Waltar, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    The issue of hypothetical whole-core accidents continues to play a significant role in assessment of the potential risk to the public associated with LMFBR operation in the USA. The paper briefly characterizes the changing nature of this role, with emphasis on the current risk-oriented perspective. It then describes the models and codes used for accident analysis in the USA which have been developed under DOE sponsorship and summarizes some specific applications of the codes to the current generation of fast reactors. An assessment of future trends in this area concludes the paper

  10. Designing a Physical Security System for Risk Reduction in a Hypothetical Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.A.; Abd Elaziz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical security in a nuclear facility means detection, prevention and response to threat, the ft, sabotage, unauthorized access and illegal transfer involving radioactive and nuclear material. This paper proposes a physical security system designing concepts to reduce the risk associated with variant threats to a nuclear facility. This paper presents a study of the unauthorized removal and sabotage in a hypothetical nuclear facility considering deter, delay and response layers. More over, the study involves performing any required upgrading to the security system by investigating the nuclear facility layout and considering all physical security layers design to enhance the weakness for risk reduction

  11. Hypothetical air ingress scenarios in advanced modular high temperature gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Considering an extremely hypothetical scenario of complete cross duct failure and unlimited air supply into the reactor vessel of a modular high temperature gas cooled ractor, it is found that the potential air inflow remains limited due to the high friction pressure drop through the active core. All incoming air will be oxidized to CO and some local external burning would be temporarily possible in such a scenario. The accident would have to continue with unlimited air supply for hundreds of hours before the core structural integrity would be jeopardized

  12. Models and methods for predicting the release of fission products during hypothetical accidents in HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The paper deals with experiments, computational models and methods used to describe the fission product transport (diffusion and particle failure) in the fuel elements of a pebble-bed high-temperature module reactor (HTGR Module) during hypothetical accidents. The codes which describe the diffusion of fission products in the fuel elements are e.g. GETTER and FRESCO. PANAMA, IA/KWU failure function and the so called GOODIN models describe the particle failure. All these models may be used in the risk analysis. The experimental results obtained at the Nuclear Research Center Julich, Germany are discussed and compared with the model calculations for these experiments

  13. U.S. Adult Interest in Less Harmful and Less Addictive Hypothetical Modified Risk Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erin Keely; Persoskie, Alexander; Parascandola, Mark; Hoffman, Allison C

    2017-09-28

    Tobacco companies have a history of making health claims about their new products. Such claims are now regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We examined consumer interest in hypothetical modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) among current, former and never established smokers, and examined whether interest was associated with beliefs about tobacco and cancer. Data were analyzed from the U.S. nationally representative 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015; N = 3,738). Interest in hypothetical MRTPs was assessed by asking participants their likelihood of using tobacco products claiming to be less addictive and less harmful than other products. About half of current smokers and a tenth of both former and never smokers reported they were "somewhat" or "very" likely to try hypothetical MRTPs claiming to be less harmful or less addictive. Female smokers, former smokers with lower smoking harm perceptions, and never smokers who are young adults or without college education expressed more interest in these products. Interest in using these products was positively associated with believing that smoking status is a changeable individual characteristic and that it is possible for tobacco products to be made without some harmful chemicals. We identified several subgroups of current, former, and never smokers who may be particularly affected by the marketing of MRTPs and therefore important to study to inform models of the potential population health impact of authorizing the marketing of MRTPs. Findings about interest in hypothetical MRTPs can inform models of how the marketing of MRTPs could affect population health. Understanding which subgroups are particularly interested in MRTPs can help determine who might be important to study to inform these models. We identified several groups who may warrant specific attention: smokers who are female, former smokers who hold low harm perceptions of smoking, never smokers who are young adults or

  14. Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, M.; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    2012-01-01

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas...... into receiving waters. Six different scenarios for mitigating SCCP emissions in two different semi-hypothetical case cities representing eastern inland and northern coastal conditions have been evaluated. The analysis, associated with scenario uncertainty, indicates that the EU legislation, Best Available...

  15. Modeling the consequences of hypothetical accidents for the Titan II system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenly, G.D.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-11-01

    Calculations have been made with the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) suite of three-dimensional transport and diffusion codes MATHEW/ADPIC to assess the consequences of severe, hypothetical accident scenarios. One set of calculations develops the integrated dose and surface deposition patterns for a non-nuclear, high explosive detonation and dispersal of material. A second set of calculations depicts the time integrated dose and instantaneous concentration patterns for a substantial, continuous leak of the missile fuel oxidizer converted to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). The areas affected and some of the implications for emergency response management are discussed

  16. Reducing therapeutic misconception: A randomized intervention trial in hypothetical clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Christopher

    Full Text Available Participants in clinical trials frequently fail to appreciate key differences between research and clinical care. This phenomenon, known as therapeutic misconception, undermines informed consent to clinical research, but to date there have been no effective interventions to reduce it and concerns have been expressed that to do so might impede recruitment. We determined whether a scientific reframing intervention reduces therapeutic misconception without significantly reducing willingness to participate in hypothetical clinical trials.This prospective randomized trial was conducted from 2015 to 2016 to test the efficacy of an informed consent intervention based on scientific reframing compared to a traditional informed consent procedure (control in reducing therapeutic misconception among patients considering enrollment in hypothetical clinical trials modeled on real-world studies for one of five disease categories. Patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, head/neck cancer, breast cancer, and major depression were recruited from medical clinics and a clinical research volunteer database. The primary outcomes were therapeutic misconception, as measured by a validated, ten-item Therapeutic Misconception Scale (range = 10-50, and willingness to participate in the clinical trial.154 participants completed the study (age range, 23-87 years; 92.3% white, 56.5% female; 74 (48.1% had been randomized to receive the experimental intervention. Therapeutic misconception was significantly lower (p = 0.004 in the scientific reframing group (26.4, 95% CI [23.7 to 29.1] compared to the control group (30.9, 95% CI [28.4 to 33.5], and remained so after controlling for education (p = 0.017. Willingness to participate in the hypothetical trial was not significantly different (p = 0.603 between intervention (52.1%, 95% CI [40.2% to 62.4%] and control (56.3%, 95% CI [45.3% to 66.6%] groups.An enhanced educational intervention augmenting

  17. Screening and expression of selected taxonomically conserved and unique hypothetical proteins in Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhir, Nor Azurah Mat; Nadzirin, Nurul; Mohamed, Rahmah; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Hypothetical proteins of bacterial pathogens represent a large numbers of novel biological mechanisms which could belong to essential pathways in the bacteria. They lack functional characterizations mainly due to the inability of sequence homology based methods to detect functional relationships in the absence of detectable sequence similarity. The dataset derived from this study showed 550 candidates conserved in genomes that has pathogenicity information and only present in the Burkholderiales order. The dataset has been narrowed down to taxonomic clusters. Ten proteins were selected for ORF amplification, seven of them were successfully amplified, and only four proteins were successfully expressed. These proteins will be great candidates in determining the true function via structural biology.

  18. Hypothetical Dark Matter/Axion rockets: What can be said about Dark Matter in terms of space physics propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckwith, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses dark matter (DM) particle candidates from non-supersymmetry (SUSY) processes and explores how a DM candidate particle in the 100-400 GeV range could be created. Thrust from DM particles is also proposed for Photon rocket and Axion rockets. It would use a magnetic field to convert DM particles to near photonlike particles in a chamber to create thrust from the discharge of the near-photon-like particles. The presence of DM particles would suggest that thrust from the emerging near-photon-like particle would be greater than with conventional photon rockets. This amplifies and improves on an 'axion rocket ramjet' for interstellar travel. It is assumed that the same methodology used in an axion ramjet could be used with DM, with perhaps greater thrust/power conversion efficiencies.

  19. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  20. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  1. Creating an outcomes framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerge, J B

    2000-01-01

    Four constructs used to build a framework for outcomes management for a large midwestern tertiary hospital are described in this article. A system framework outlining a model of clinical integration and population management based in Steven Shortell's work is discussed. This framework includes key definitions of high-risk patients, target groups, populations and community. Roles for each level of population management and how they were implemented in the health care system are described. A point of service framework centered on seven dimensions of care is the next construct applied on each nursing unit. The third construct outlines the framework for role development. Three roles for nursing were created to implement strategies for target groups that are strategic disease categories; two of those roles are described in depth. The philosophy of nursing practice is centered on caring and existential advocacy. The final construct is the modification of the Dartmouth model as a common framework for outcomes. System applications of the scorecard and lessons learned in the 2-year process of implementation are shared

  2. Creating a disability mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S E

    1992-01-01

    People with disabilities have, for the most part, failed to identify with each other as a group. This has been detrimental because it has built a sense of isolation when a camaraderie based upon existing commonalities could have been developed. During the past ten to twenty years, there has been a great deal of discussion about appropriate language to use when discussing disability issues. This discussion has been a part of a larger debate concerning the existence of a disability culture. I believe that there is indeed a disability culture and I am a proponent of identifying and passing on stories which contribute to that culture. I have chosen to use mythology to convey this message and have begun with a focus on heroes - people who do something out of the ordinary. It is contended that almost all people with disabilities have performed heroic activities because of the pervasive discrimination encountered by each individual with a disability. Creating a disability mythology is an attempt to recognize and promote heroes within the disabled community and to advocate the importance of telling other people how positive change has occurred through instances of individual heroism.

  3. Evaluating the impacts of farmers' behaviors on a hypothetical agricultural water market based on double auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Erhu; Cai, Ximing; Brozović, Nicholas; Minsker, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Agricultural water markets are considered effective instruments to mitigate the impacts of water scarcity and to increase crop production. However, previous studies have limited understanding of how farmers' behaviors affect the performance of water markets. This study develops an agent-based model to explicitly incorporate farmers' behaviors, namely irrigation behavior (represented by farmers' sensitivity to soil water deficit λ) and bidding behavior (represented by farmers' rent seeking μ and learning rate β), in a hypothetical water market based on a double auction. The model is applied to the Guadalupe River Basin in Texas to simulate a hypothetical agricultural water market under various hydrological conditions. It is found that the joint impacts of the behavioral parameters on the water market are strong and complex. In particular, among the three behavioral parameters, λ affects the water market potential and its impacts on the performance of the water market are significant under most scenarios. The impacts of μ or β on the performance of the water market depend on the other two parameters. The water market could significantly increase crop production only when the following conditions are satisfied: (1) λ is small and (2) μ is small and/or β is large. The first condition requires efficient irrigation scheduling, and the second requires well-developed water market institutions that provide incentives to bid true valuation of water permits.

  4. The effects of restaurant menu calorie labeling on hypothetical meal choices of females with disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Roberto, Christina A

    2017-03-01

    Concerns have been raised that obesity public policy measures may have harmful effects on individuals with eating disorders. However, little research has investigated this topic. We examined the impact of a popular obesity public policy, menu calorie labeling, on hypothetical food choices of women with disordered eating. Seven hundred sixteen adult females completed an online survey in which they were randomly assigned to receive a restaurant menu with or without calorie information listed. Participants selected foods representative of a meal they would choose to consume and answered questions on restaurant ordering and menu labeling. Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (Fairburn & Beglin, ) to assess global eating pathology. Diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED) were also derived from this measure. Generalized linear modeling examined the impact of menu label condition, disordered eating, and the menu label by disordered eating interaction on hypothetical food selection and related variables. When disordered eating was examined continuously, menu labeling did not differentially affect food selections of those with elevated disordered eating (p = .45). However, when examined by eating disorder diagnosis, participants with AN or BN ordered significantly fewer (p < .001) and participants with BED ordered significantly more (p = .001) calories in the menu label versus no label condition. Menu labeling may decrease the calories ordered among individuals with AN or BN and increase calories ordered among individuals with BED. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The compatibility heuristic in non-categorical hypothetical reasoning: inferences between conditionals and disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Orlando; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2013-11-01

    A new theory explains how people make hypothetical inferences from a premise consistent with several alternatives to a conclusion consistent with several alternatives. The key proposal is that people rely on a heuristic that identifies compatible possibilities. It is tested in 7 experiments that examine inferences between conditionals and disjunctions. Participants accepted inferences between conditionals and inclusive disjunctions when a compatible possibility was immediately available, in their binary judgments that a conclusion followed or not (Experiment 1a) and ternary judgments that included it was not possible to know (Experiment 1b). The compatibility effect was amplified when compatible possibilities were more readily available, e.g., for 'A only if B' conditionals (Experiment 2). It was eliminated when compatible possibilities were not available, e.g., for 'if and only if A B' bi-conditionals and exclusive disjunctions (Experiment 3). The compatibility heuristic occurs even for inferences based on implicit negation e.g., 'A or B, therefore if C D' (Experiment 4), and between universals 'All A's are B's' and disjunctions (Experiment 5a) and universals and conditionals (Experiment 5b). The implications of the results for alternative theories of the cognitive processes underlying hypothetical deductions are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Hypothetical Case and Scenario Description for International Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Adam David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cohn, Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Maikael A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Mancel Jordan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Ethan Rutledge [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To support more rigorous analysis on global security issues at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), there is a need to develop realistic data sets without using "real" data or identifying "real" vulnerabilities, hazards or geopolitically embarrassing shortcomings. In response, an interdisciplinary team led by subject matter experts in SNL's Center for Global Security and Cooperation (CGSC) developed a hypothetical case description. This hypothetical case description assigns various attributes related to international SNF transportation that are representative, illustrative and indicative of "real" characteristics of "real" countries. There is no intent to identify any particular country and any similarity with specific real-world events is purely coincidental. To support the goal of this report to provide a case description (and set of scenarios of concern) for international SNF transportation inclusive of as much "real-world" complexity as possible -- without crossing over into politically sensitive or classified information -- this SAND report provides a subject matter expert-validated (and detailed) description of both technical and political influences on the international transportation of spent nuclear fuel. [PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

  7. Hypothetical model of factors determining performance and sports achievement in team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trninić Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is formation of a comprehensive hypothetical dynamic interactional process model structured by assumed constructs, i.e. processes or mechanisms that obtain real features and influences on athlete's performance and athletic achievement. Thus there are formed and assumed reciprocal relations between high training and competition - based stress as the input variable, cognitive appraisal and interpretation as the mediator, and mood state as the moderator based on the development of the dynamic systems theory. Also, proposed model uses basic assumptions of the Action-Theory approach and it is in accordance with the contemporary socialcognitive view of team functioning in sports. Within the process model, the output variables are measures of efficacy evident through athlete's individual and team performance and athletic achievement. The situation, the team and athlete attributes, the performance and the athletic achievement are joined variables, and the individual and the collective efficacy are the consequence of their reciprocal interaction. Therefore, there are complex and reciprocal interactive processes in real sports and explorative situations amongst the attributes of athlete and team and the behaviour and situation that determine performance and athletic achievement. This is probably the result of an integrated network of reciprocal multi-causal activity of a set of stated assumed constructs from different theories. Thus the hypothetical model is an effort to describe elaborate correlations and/or interdependencies between internal and external determinants which presumably affect athlete's performance and athletic achievement.

  8. Comparative analysis of chemical similarity methods for modular natural products with a hypothetical structure enumeration algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinnider, Michael A; Dejong, Chris A; Franczak, Brian C; McNicholas, Paul D; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2017-08-16

    Natural products represent a prominent source of pharmaceutically and industrially important agents. Calculating the chemical similarity of two molecules is a central task in cheminformatics, with applications at multiple stages of the drug discovery pipeline. Quantifying the similarity of natural products is a particularly important problem, as the biological activities of these molecules have been extensively optimized by natural selection. The large and structurally complex scaffolds of natural products distinguish their physical and chemical properties from those of synthetic compounds. However, no analysis of the performance of existing methods for molecular similarity calculation specific to natural products has been reported to date. Here, we present LEMONS, an algorithm for the enumeration of hypothetical modular natural product structures. We leverage this algorithm to conduct a comparative analysis of molecular similarity methods within the unique chemical space occupied by modular natural products using controlled synthetic data, and comprehensively investigate the impact of diverse biosynthetic parameters on similarity search. We additionally investigate a recently described algorithm for natural product retrobiosynthesis and alignment, and find that when rule-based retrobiosynthesis can be applied, this approach outperforms conventional two-dimensional fingerprints, suggesting it may represent a valuable approach for the targeted exploration of natural product chemical space and microbial genome mining. Our open-source algorithm is an extensible method of enumerating hypothetical natural product structures with diverse potential applications in bioinformatics.

  9. The impact of SOA for achieving healthcare interoperability. An empirical investigation based on a hypothetical adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, S; Mantas, J

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of a service-oriented prototype implementation for healthcare interoperability. A prototype framework was developed, aiming to exploit the use of service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts for achieving healthcare interoperability and to move towards a virtual patient record (VPR) paradigm. The prototype implementation was evaluated for its hypothetical adoption. The evaluation strategy was based on the initial proposition of the DeLone and McLean model of information systems (IS) success [1], as modeled by Iivari [2]. A set of SOA and VPR characteristics were empirically encapsulated within the dimensions of IS success model, combined with measures from previous research works. The data gathered was analyzed using partial least squares (PLS). The results highlighted that system quality is a partial predictor of system use but not of user satisfaction. On the contrary, information quality proved to be a significant predictor of user satisfaction and partially a strong significant predictor of system use. Moreover, system use did not prove to be a significant predictor of individual impact whereas the bi-directional relation between use and user satisfaction did not confirm. Additionally, user satisfaction was found to be a strong significant predictor of individual impact. Finally, individual impact proved to be a strong significant predictor of organizational impact. The empirical study attempted to obtain hypothetical, but still useful beliefs and perceptions regarding the SOA prototype implementation. The deduced observations can form the basis for further investigation regarding the adaptability of SOA implementations with VPR characteristics in the healthcare domain.

  10. OPPORTUNITY COSTS OF REWARD DELAYS AND THE DISCOUNTING OF HYPOTHETICAL MONEY AND CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick S.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are reported to discount delayed rewards at lower rates than nonhumans. However, nonhumans are studied in tasks that restrict reinforcement during delays, whereas humans are typically studied in tasks that do not restrict reinforcement during delays. In nonhuman tasks, the opportunity cost of restricted reinforcement during delays may increase delay discounting rates. The present within-subjects study used online crowdsourcing (Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk) to assess the discounting of hypothetical delayed money (and cigarettes in smokers) under four hypothetical framing conditions differing in the availability of reinforcement during delays. At one extreme, participants were free to leave their computer without returning, and engage in any behavior during reward delays (modeling typical human tasks). At the opposite extreme, participants were required to stay at their computer and engage in little other behavior during reward delays (modeling typical nonhuman tasks). Discounting rates increased as an orderly function of opportunity cost. Results also indicated predominantly hyperbolic discounting, the “magnitude effect,” steeper discounting of cigarettes than money, and positive correlations between discounting rates of these commodities. This is the first study to test the effects of opportunity costs on discounting, and suggests that procedural differences may partially account for observed species differences in discounting. PMID:25388973

  11. Creating a Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Gardner, Charles O.; Gillespie, Nathan; Aggen, Steven A.; Prescott, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Peer-group deviance is strongly associated with externalizing behaviors. We have limited knowledge of the sources of individual differences in peer-group deviance. Objective To clarify genetic and environmental contributions to peer-group deviance in twins from mid-childhood through early adulthood. Design Retrospective assessments using a life-history calendar. Analysis by biometric growth curves. Setting General community. Participants Members of male-male pairs from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry personally interviewed in 1998–2004 (n=1802). Main Outcome Measure Self-reported peer-group deviance at ages 8 to 11, 12 to 14, 15 to 17, 18 to 21, and 22 to 25 years. Results Mean and variance of peer-group deviance increased substantially with age. Genetic effects on peer-group deviance showed a strong and steady increase over time. Family environment generally declined in importance over time. Individual-specific environmental influences on peer-group deviance levels were stable in the first 3 age periods and then increased as most twins left home. When standardized, the heritability of peer-group deviance is approximately 30% at ages 8 to 11 years and rises to approximately 50% across the last 3 time periods. Both genes and shared environment contributed to individual differences in the developmental trajectory of peer-group deviance. However, while the correlation between childhood peer-group deviance levels and the subsequent slope of peer-group deviance over time resulting from genetic factors was positive, the same relationship resulting from shared environmental factors was negative. Conclusions As male twins mature and create their own social worlds, genetic factors play an increasingly important role in their choice of peers, while shared environment becomes less influential. The individual specific environment increases in importance when individuals leave home. Individuals who have deviant peers in childhood, as a result of genetic vs

  12. Creating a family health history

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000947.htm Creating a family health history To use the sharing ... Many health problems tend to run in families. Creating a family history can help you and your ...

  13. Tornado missile simulation and design methodology. Volume 1: simulation methodology, design applications, and TORMIS computer code. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.

    1981-08-01

    A probabilistic methodology has been developed to predict the probabilities of tornado-propelled missiles impacting and damaging nuclear power plant structures. Mathematical models of each event in the tornado missile hazard have been developed and sequenced to form an integrated, time-history simulation methodology. The models are data based where feasible. The data include documented records of tornado occurrence, field observations of missile transport, results of wind tunnel experiments, and missile impact tests. Probabilistic Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate the risk probabilities. The methodology has been encoded in the TORMIS computer code to facilitate numerical analysis and plant-specific tornado missile probability assessments. Sensitivity analyses have been performed on both the individual models and the integrated methodology, and risk has been assessed for a hypothetical nuclear power plant design case study

  14. Physical protection evaluation methodology program development and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    It is essential to develop a reliable physical protection evaluation methodology for applying physical protection concept to the design stage. The methodology can be used to assess weak points and improve performance not only for the design stage but also for nuclear facilities in operation. Analyzing physical protection property of nuclear facilities is not a trivial work since there are many interconnected factors affecting overall performance. Therefore several international projects have been organized to develop a systematic physical protection evaluation methodology. INPRO (The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) and GIF PRPP (Generation IV International Forum Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection) methodology are among the most well-known evaluation methodologies. INPRO adopts a checklist type of questionnaire and has a strong point in analyzing overall characteristic of facilities in a qualitative way. COMPRE program has been developed to help general users apply COMPRE methodology to nuclear facilities. In this work, COMPRE program development and a case study of the hypothetical nuclear facility are presented. The development of COMPRE program and a case study for hypothetic facility is presented in this work. The case study shows that COMPRE PP methodology can be a useful tool to assess the overall physical protection performance of nuclear facilities. To obtain meaningful results from COMPRE PP methodology, detailed information and comprehensive analysis are required. Especially, it is not trivial to calculate reliable values for PPSE (Physical Protection System Effectiveness) and C (Consequence), while it is relatively straightforward to evaluate LI (Legislative and Institutional framework), MC (Material Control) and HR (Human Resources). To obtain a reliable PPSE value, comprehensive information about physical protection system, vital area analysis and realistic threat scenario assessment are required. Like

  15. Physical protection evaluation methodology program development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Janghoon; Yoo, Hosik

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to develop a reliable physical protection evaluation methodology for applying physical protection concept to the design stage. The methodology can be used to assess weak points and improve performance not only for the design stage but also for nuclear facilities in operation. Analyzing physical protection property of nuclear facilities is not a trivial work since there are many interconnected factors affecting overall performance. Therefore several international projects have been organized to develop a systematic physical protection evaluation methodology. INPRO (The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) and GIF PRPP (Generation IV International Forum Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection) methodology are among the most well-known evaluation methodologies. INPRO adopts a checklist type of questionnaire and has a strong point in analyzing overall characteristic of facilities in a qualitative way. COMPRE program has been developed to help general users apply COMPRE methodology to nuclear facilities. In this work, COMPRE program development and a case study of the hypothetical nuclear facility are presented. The development of COMPRE program and a case study for hypothetic facility is presented in this work. The case study shows that COMPRE PP methodology can be a useful tool to assess the overall physical protection performance of nuclear facilities. To obtain meaningful results from COMPRE PP methodology, detailed information and comprehensive analysis are required. Especially, it is not trivial to calculate reliable values for PPSE (Physical Protection System Effectiveness) and C (Consequence), while it is relatively straightforward to evaluate LI (Legislative and Institutional framework), MC (Material Control) and HR (Human Resources). To obtain a reliable PPSE value, comprehensive information about physical protection system, vital area analysis and realistic threat scenario assessment are required. Like

  16. Clinical trial methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2011-01-01

    ... in the pharmaceutical industry, Clinical trial methodology emphasizes the importance of statistical thinking in clinical research and presents the methodology as a key component of clinical research...

  17. Designing value-creating supply chain networks

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the design of robust value-creating supply chain networks (SCN) and key strategic issues related to the number; location, capacity and mission of supply chain facilities (plants, distribution centers) – as well as the network structure required to provide flexibility and resilience in an uncertain world – this book presents an innovative methodology for SCN reengineering that can be used to significantly improve the bottom line of supply chain dependent businesses. Providing readers with the tools needed to analyze and model value creation activities, Designing Value-Creating Supply Chain Networks examines the risks faced by modern supply chains, and shows how to develop plausible future scenarios to evaluate potential SCN designs. The design methods proposed are based on a visual representation formalism that facilitates the analysis and modeling of SCN design problems, book chapters incorporate several example problems and exercises which can be solved with Excel tools (Analysis tools and So...

  18. Preliminary results of consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident using Thai meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K.; Lawawirojwong, S.; Promping, J.

    2017-06-01

    Consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident is one of the important elements of the risk assessment of a nuclear power plant. It is widely known that the meteorological conditions can significantly influence the outcomes of such assessment, since it determines the results of the calculation of the radionuclide environmental transport. This study aims to assess the impacts of the meteorological conditions to the results of the consequence assessment. The consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is used for the assessment. The results of the consequence assessment using Thai meteorological data are compared with those using Japanese meteorological data. The Thai case has following characteristics. Low wind speed made the radionuclides concentrate at the center comparing to the Japanese case. The squalls induced the peaks in the ground concentration distribution. The evacuated land is larger than the Japanese case though the relocated land is smaller, which is attributed to the concentration of the radionuclides near the release point.

  19. Modelling of melting and solidification transport phenomena during hypothetical NPP severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarler, B.

    1992-01-01

    A physical and mathematical framework to deal with the transport phenomena occuring during melting and solidification of the hypothetical NPP severe accidents is presented. It concentrates on the transient temperature, velocity, and species concentration distributions during such events. The framework is based on the Mixture Continuum Formulation of the components and phases, cast in the boundary-domain integral shape structured by the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation. The formulation could cope with various solid-liquid sub-systems through the inclusion of the specific closure relations. The deduced system of boundary-domain integral equations for conservation of mass, energy, momentum, and species could be solved by the boundary element discrete approximative method. (author) [sl

  20. Radiation dose evaluation for hypothetical accident with transport package containing Iridium-192 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Bace, M.; Pevec, D.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate dose rates for a hypothetical accident with transport package containing Iridium-192 source and to design additional shielding necessary for the safe unloading of the container, assuming that during the unloading process the whole contents of a radioactive source is unshielded and that the operation is going to take place at the site where a working area exists in the vicinity of the unloading location. Based on the calculated radiation dose rates, a single arrangement of the additional concrete shields necessary for reduction of the gamma dose rates to the permitted level is proposed. The proposed solution is optimal considering safety on one hand and costs on the other.(author)

  1. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Resnick, Paul; Adar, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs), that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  2. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hullman

    Full Text Available Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs, that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  3. An analysis of reactor structural response to fuel sodium interaction in a hypothetical core disruptive accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Tashiro, M.; Sasanuma, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1976-01-01

    This study shows the effect of constraints around FSI zone on FSI phenomena and deformations of reactor structures. SUGAR-PISCES code system has been developed to evaluate the phenomena of FSI and the response of reactor structure. SUGAR calculates the phenomena of FSI. PISCES, developed by Physics International Company in U.S.A., calculates the dynamic response of reactor structure in two-dimensional, time-dependent finite-difference Lagrangian model. The results show that the peak pressure and energy by FSI and the deformation of reactor structures are about twice in case of FSI zone surrounding by blanket than by coolant. The FSI phenomena highly depend on the reactor structure and the realistic configuration around core must be considered for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accident. This work was supported by a grant from Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. (auth.)

  4. Study on the experimental VHTR safety with analysis for a hypothetical rapid depressurization accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, S.; Suzuki, K.; Ohno, T.; Okada, T.

    1982-01-01

    A hypothetical rapid depressurization accident of the experimental VHTR has been analyzed, including all phenomena in the accident, from its initiating depressurization of the coolant to consequential radiological hazard. Based on reliability analysis of the engineered safety features, all possible sequences, in which the safety systems are in success or in failure, have been investigated with event tree analysis. The result shows the inherent safety characteristics of the reactor and the effectiveness of the engineered safety features. And through the analysis, it has been indicated that further investigations on some phenomena in the accident, e.g., air ingress by natural circulation flow and fission product transport in the plant, will bring forth more reasonable and sufficient safety of the reactor

  5. Groundwater flow modeling for near-field of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. Y.; Park, J. W.; Jang, G. M.; Kim, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    For a hypothetical near-surface radioactive disposal facility, the behavior of groundwater flow around the near-field of disposal vault located at the unsaturated zone were analyzed. Three alternative conceptual models proposed as the hydraulic barrier layer design were simulated to assess the hydrologic performance of engineered barriers for the facility. In order to evaluate the seepage possibility of the infiltrated water passed through the final disposal cover after the facility closure, the flow path around and water flux through each disposal vault were compared. The hydrologic parameters variation that accounts for the long-term aging and degradation of the cover and engineered materials was considered in the simulations. The results showed that it is necessary to construct the hydraulic barrier at the upper and sides of the vault, and that, for this case, achieving design hydraulic properties of bentonite/sand mixture barrier in the as-built condition is crucial to limit the seepage into the waste

  6. Important radionuclides and their sensitivity for groundwater pathway of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Chang, K.; Kim, C. L. [Nuclear Enviroment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    A radiological safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical near-surface radioactive waste repository as a simple screening calculation to identify important nuclides and to provide insights on the data needs for a successful demonstration of compliance. Individual effective doses were calculated for a conservative groundwater pathway scenario considering well drilling near the site boundary. Sensitivity of resulting ingestion dose to input parameter values was also analyzed using Monte Carlo sampling. Considering peak dose rate and assessment timescale, C-14 and I-129 were identified as important nuclides and U-235 and U-238 as potentially important nuclides. For C-14, the does was most sensitive to Darcy velocity in aquifer. The distribution coefficient showed high degree of sensitivity for I-129 release.

  7. Important radionuclides and their sensitivity for groundwater pathway of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Chang, K.; Kim, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    A radiological safety assessment was performed for a hypothetical near-surface radioactive waste repository as a simple screening calculation to identify important nuclides and to provide insights on the data needs for a successful demonstration of compliance. Individual effective doses were calculated for a conservative groundwater pathway scenario considering well drilling near the site boundary. Sensitivity of resulting ingestion dose to input parameter values was also analyzed using Monte Carlo sampling. Considering peak dose rate and assessment timescale, C-14 and I-129 were identified as important nuclides and U-235 and U-238 as potentially important nuclides. For C-14, the does was most sensitive to Darcy velocity in aquifer. The distribution coefficient showed high degree of sensitivity for I-129 release

  8. Assessment of Loads and Performance of a Containment in a Hypothetical Accident (ALPHA). Facility design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Ito, Hideo; Komori, Keiichi; Sonobe, Hisao; Sugimoto, Jun

    1998-06-01

    In the ALPHA (Assessment of Loads and Performance of Containment in Hypothetical Accident) program, several tests have been performed to quantitatively evaluate loads to and performance of a containment vessel during a severe accident of a light water reactor. The ALPHA program focuses on investigating leak behavior through the containment vessel, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core-concrete interaction and FP aerosol behavior, which are generally recognized as significant phenomena considered to occur in the containment. In designing the experimental facility, it was considered to simulate appropriately the phenomena mentioned above, and to cover experimental conditions not covered by previous works involving high pressure and temperature. Experiments from the viewpoint of accident management were also included in the scope. The present report describes design specifications, dimensions, instrumentation of the ALPHA facility based on the specific test objectives and procedures. (author)

  9. Consequence analyses of hypothetical accidents of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Pt. 2/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Badur, A.

    1978-06-01

    With regard to a hypothetical accident which is characterized by the rupture of the primary circuit and by the additional failure of active engineered safeguards, the fission product release resulting from the unlimited core heat-up is analyzed. The applied models are explained and the data base being used is documented. The generally conservative treatment yields pessimistic activity release rates into the containment. The results show in particular that spontaneous massive fission product release does not occur. The time-dependency of the activity release from the fuel elements, the primary circuit and at last from the containment leads to a time delay in the range of at least several hours, before the environmental radiation load is raised. Ultimately the maximum radiation load itself proves relatively favourable. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  10. Hypothetical accidents of light-water moderated nuclear power plants in the framework of emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    Hypothetical accidents in nuclear power plants are events which by definition can have a devastating impact on the surroundings of the plant. Apart from an adequate plant design, the protection of the population in case of an accident is covered by the emergency planning. Of major importance are the measures for the short-term emergency protection. The decision on whether these measures are applied has to be based on appropriate measurements within the plant. The aim and achieved result of this investigation is to specify accident types. They serve as operational decision making criteria to determine the necessary measurements for analysing the accident in the accident situation, and to provide indications for choosing the suitable strategy for the protection measures. (orig.) [de

  11. MCCI study for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor under hypothetical accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vishnu; Mukhopadhyay, Deb; Chatterjee, B.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    In case of severe core damage accident in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), large amount of molten corium is expected to come out into the calandria vault due to failure of calandria vessel. Molten corium at high temperature is sufficient to decompose and ablate concrete. Such attack could fail CV by basement penetration. Since containment is ultimate barrier for activity release. The Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) of the resulting pool of debris with the concrete has been identified as an important part of the accident sequence. MCCI Analysis has been carried out for PHWR for a hypothetical accident condition where total core material is considered to be relocated in calandria vault. Concrete ablation rate in vertical and radial direction is evaluated for rectangular geometry using MEDICIS module of ASTEC Code. Amount of gases released during MCCI is also evaluated. (author)

  12. A comparative radiological assessment of five European biosphere systems in the context of potential contamination of well water from the hypothetical disposal of radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyslaegers, G; Zeevaert, T; Pinedo, P; Simon, I; Pröhl, G; Kowe, R; Chen, Q; Mobbs, S; Bergström, U; Hallberg, B; Katona, T; Eged, K; Kanyar, B

    2005-12-01

    In the framework of the BioMoSA project for the development of biosphere assessment models for radioactive waste disposal the Reference Biosphere Methodology developed in the IAEA programme BIOMASS was applied to five locations, situated in different European countries. Specific biosphere models were applied to assess the hypothetical contamination of a range of agricultural and environmental pathways and the dose to individuals, following contamination of well water. The results of these site-specific models developed by the different BioMoSA partners, and the individual normalised dose to the exposure groups were compared against each other. Ingestion of drinking water, fruit and vegetables were found to be among the most important pathways for almost all radionuclides. Stochastic calculations revealed that consumption habits, transfer factors, irrigation rates and distribution coefficients (Kd(s)) were the most important parameters that influence the end results. Variations in the confidence intervals were found to be higher for sorbing elements (e.g. (36)Cl, (237)Np, (99)Tc, (238)U, (129)I) than for mobile elements (e.g. (226)Ra, (79)Se, (135)Cs, (231)Pa, (239)Pu). The influence of daughter products, for which the distribution into the biosphere was calculated individually, was also shown to be important. This paper gives a brief overview of the deterministic and stochastic modelling results and the parameter sensitivity. A screening methodology was introduced to identify the most important pathways, simplify a generic biosphere tool and refine the existing models.

  13. Testing and intercomparison of model predictions of radionuclide migration from a hypothetical area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.S.; Yu, C.; Zeevaert, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Amado, V.; Setlow, L.W.; Waggitt, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS program. One aim of the work was to develop scenarios for testing computer models designed for simulating radionuclide migration in the environment, and to use these scenarios for testing the models and comparing predictions from different models. This paper presents the results of the development and testing of a hypothetical area source of NORM waste/residue using two complex computer models and one screening model. There are significant differences in the methods used to model groundwater flow between the complex models. The hypothetical source was used because of its relative simplicity and because of difficulties encountered in finding comprehensive, well-validated data sets for real sites. The source consisted of a simple repository of uniform thickness, with 1 Bq g -1 of uranium-238 ( 238 U) (in secular equilibrium with its decay products) distributed uniformly throughout the waste. These approximate real situations, such as engineered repositories, waste rock piles, tailings piles and landfills. Specification of the site also included the physical layout, vertical stratigraphic details, soil type for each layer of material, precipitation and runoff details, groundwater flow parameters, and meteorological data. Calculations were carried out with and without a cover layer of clean soil above the waste, for people working and living at different locations relative to the waste. The predictions of the two complex models showed several differences which need more detailed examination. The scenario is available for testing by other modelers. It can also be used as a planning tool for remediation work or for repository design, by changing the scenario parameters and running the models for a range of different inputs. Further development will include applying models to real scenarios and integrating environmental impact assessment methods with the safety assessment tools currently

  14. The multiple roles of hypothetical gene BPSS1356 in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokchai Yam

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis. It is able to adapt to harsh environments and can live intracellularly in its infected hosts. In this study, identification of transcriptional factors that associate with the β' subunit (RpoC of RNA polymerase was performed. The N-terminal region of this subunit is known to trigger promoter melting when associated with a sigma factor. A pull-down assay using histidine-tagged B. pseudomallei RpoC N-terminal region as bait showed that a hypothetical protein BPSS1356 was one of the proteins bound. This hypothetical protein is conserved in all B. pseudomallei strains and present only in the Burkholderia genus. A BPSS1356 deletion mutant was generated to investigate its biological function. The mutant strain exhibited reduced biofilm formation and a lower cell density during the stationary phase of growth in LB medium. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that the ΔBPSS1356 mutant cells had a shrunken cytoplasm indicative of cell plasmolysis and a rougher surface when compared to the wild type. An RNA microarray result showed that a total of 63 genes were transcriptionally affected by the BPSS1356 deletion with fold change values of higher than 4. The expression of a group of genes encoding membrane located transporters was concurrently down-regulated in ΔBPSS1356 mutant. Amongst the affected genes, the putative ion transportation genes were the most severely suppressed. Deprivation of BPSS1356 also down-regulated the transcriptions of genes for the arginine deiminase system, glycerol metabolism, type III secretion system cluster 2, cytochrome bd oxidase and arsenic resistance. It is therefore obvious that BPSS1356 plays a multiple regulatory roles on many genes.

  15. Neutronics simulations on hypothetical power excursion and possible core melt scenarios in CANDU6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghee

    2015-01-01

    LOCA (Loss of coolant accident) is an outstanding safety issue in the CANDU reactor system since the coolant void reactivity is strongly positive. To deal with the LOCA, the CANDU systems are equipped with specially designed quickly-acting secondary shutdown system. Nevertheless, the so-called design-extended conditions are requested to be taken into account in the safety analysis for nuclear reactor systems after the Fukushima accident. As a DEC scenario, the worst accident situation in a CANDU reactor system is a unprotected LOCA, which is supposed to lead to a power excursion and possibly a core melt-down. In this work, the hypothetical unprotected LOCA scenario is simulated in view of the power excursion and fuel temperature changes by using a simplified point-kinetics (PK) model accounting for the fuel temperature change. In the PK model, the core reactivity is assumed to be affected by a large break LOCA and the fuel temperature is simulated to account for the Doppler effect. In addition, unlike the conventional PK simulation, we have also considered the Xe-I model to evaluate the impact of Xe during the LOCA. Also, we tried to simulate the fuel and core melt-down scenario in terms of the reactivity through a series of neutronics calculations for hypothetical core conditions. In case of a power excursion and possible fuel melt-down situation, the reactor system behavior is very uncertain. In this work, we tried to understand the impacts of fuel melt and relocation within the pressure vessel on the core reactivity and failure of pressure and calandria tubes. (author)

  16. Simulation and dose analysis of a hypothetical accident in Sanmen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yangmo; Guo, Jianghua; Nie, Chu; Zhou, Youhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Atmospheric dispersion following a hypothetical accident in Sanmen NPP is simulated. • Japan, North Korea and Russia are slightly influenced in this accident. • In Taiwan and South Korea, population on 100% and 35% of the land should be given information about reducing dose. • In mainland China, about 284 thousand people are likely to get cancer. - Abstract: In November 2013, an AP1000 nuclear power plant (NPP) will be put into commercial operation. An atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during a severe hypothetical accident in Sanmen NPP, Zhejiang province, China, is simulated with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The accident assumes that a station blackout (SBO) accident occurred on August 25, 2011, 55% core was damaged and 49 radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. Our simulation indicates that, during this dispersion, the radioactive plume will cover the mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Russia. The radiation dose levels in Japan, North Korea and Russia are the lightest, usually less than 1 mSv. The influenced areas in these countries are 9901 km 2 , 31,736 km 2 and 2,97,524 km 2 , respectively; dose levels in Taiwan and South Korea are moderate, no more than 20 mSv. Information about reducing dose should be given to the public. Total influenced areas in these two countries are 3621 km 2 and 42,370 km 2 , which take up 100% of the land in Taiwan and 35% of the land in South Korea; the worst situation happens in mainland China. The total influenced area is 3 × 106 km 2 and 1,40,000 km 2 in this area has a dose level higher than 20 mSv. Measurement must be taken to reduce the dose. More than 284 thousand residents will face the risk of developing cancer. Furthermore, 96% of this population is mainly concentrated in Zhejiang province, where Sanmen NPP locates

  17. Molecular Characterization and Immune Protection of a New Conserved Hypothetical Protein of Eimeria tenella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhai

    Full Text Available The genome sequences of Eimeria tenella have been sequenced, but >70% of these genes are currently categorized as having an unknown function or annotated as conserved hypothetical proteins, and few of them have been studied. In the present study, a conserved hypothetical protein gene of E. tenella, designated EtCHP559, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA 5'-ends (5'RACE based on the expressed sequence tag (EST. The 1746-bp full-length cDNA of EtCHP559 contained a 1224-bp open reading frame (ORF that encoded a 407-amino acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 46.04 kDa. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that EtCHP559 was expressed at higher levels in sporozoites than in the other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts and second generation merozoites. The ORF was inserted into pCold-TF to produce recombinant EtCHP559. Using western blotting, the recombinant protein was successfully recognized by rabbit serum against E. tenella sporozoites. Immunolocalization by using EtCHP559 antibody showed that EtCHP559 was mainly distributed on the parasite surface in free sporozoites and became concentrated in the anterior region after sporozoites were incubated in complete medium. The EtCHP559 became uniformly dispersed in immature and mature schizonts. Inhibition of EtCHP559 function using anti-rEtCHP559 polyclonal antibody reduced the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells by >70%. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant EtCHP559 significantly increased the average body weight gain, reduced the oocyst outputs, alleviated cecal lesions of the infected chickens, and resulted in anticoccidial index >160 against E. tenella. These results suggest that EtCHP559 plays an important role in sporozoite invasion and could be an effective candidate for the development of a new vaccine against E. tenella.

  18. Geologic simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G.M.; Zellmer, J.T.; Lindberg, J.W.; Foley, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes the structure and operation of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Geologic Simulation Model, a computer simulation model of the geology and hydrology of an area of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The model is used to study the long-term suitability of the Columbia Plateau Basalts for the storage of nuclear waste in a mined repository. It is also a starting point for analyses of such repositories in other geologic settings. The Geologic Simulation Model will aid in formulating design disruptive sequences (i.e. those to be used for more detailed hydrologic, transport, and dose analyses) from the spectrum of hypothetical geological and hydrological developments that could result in transport of radionuclides out of a repository. Quantitative and auditable execution of this task, however, is impossible without computer simulation. The computer simulation model aids the geoscientist by generating the wide spectrum of possible future evolutionary paths of the areal geology and hydrology, identifying those that may affect the repository integrity. This allows the geoscientist to focus on potentially disruptive processes, or series of events. Eleven separate submodels are used in the simulation portion of the model: Climate, Continental Glaciation, Deformation, Geomorphic Events, Hydrology, Magmatic Events, Meteorite Impact, Sea-Level Fluctuations, Shaft-Seal Failure, Sub-Basalt Basement Faulting, and Undetected Features. Because of the modular construction of the model, each submodel can easily be replaced with an updated or modified version as new information or developments in the state of the art become available. The model simulates the geologic and hydrologic systems of a hypothetical repository site and region for a million years following repository decommissioning. The Geologic Simulation Model operates in both single-run and Monte Carlo modes

  19. Analyses of hypothetical nuclear criticality excursions in 10- and 20-MW freezer/sublimer vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haught, C.F.; Jordan, W.C.; Basoglu, B.; Dodds, H.L.; Wilkinson, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical model is used to predict the consequences of a postulated hypothetical nuclear criticality excursion in a freezer/sublimer (F/S). Previous work has shown that an intrusion of water into a F/S may result in a critical configuration. A first attempt is made to model the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring during a criticality excursion involving both uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) and uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ) solution, which is present in the F/S during upset conditions. The model employs point neutronics coupled with simple thermal hydraulics. Reactivity feedback from changes in the properties of the system are included in the model. The excursion is studied in a 10-MW F/S with an initial load of 3,500 kg of 5% weight enriched UF 6 and in a 20-MW F/S with an initial load of 6,800 kg of 2% weight enriched UF 6 . The magnitude of the fission release determined in this work is 5.93 x 10 18 fissions in the 10-MW F/S and 4.21 x 10 18 fissions in the 20-MW F/S. In order to demonstrate the reliability of the techniques used in this work, a limited validation study was conducted by comparing the fission release and peak fission rate determined by this work with experimental results for a limited number of experiments. The agreement between calculations and experiments in the validation study is considered to be satisfactory. The calculational results for the hypothetical accidents in the two F/S vessels appear reasonable

  20. Computational mining for hypothetical patterns of amino acid side chains in protein data bank (PDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Nur Syatila Ab; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a protein can provide insights regarding its function. Functional relationship between proteins can be inferred from fold and sequence similarities. In certain cases, sequence or fold comparison fails to conclude homology between proteins with similar mechanism. Since the structure is more conserved than the sequence, a constellation of functional residues can be similarly arranged among proteins of similar mechanism. Local structural similarity searches are able to detect such constellation of amino acids among distinct proteins, which can be useful to annotate proteins of unknown function. Detection of such patterns of amino acids on a large scale can increase the repertoire of important 3D motifs since available known 3D motifs currently, could not compensate the ever-increasing numbers of uncharacterized proteins to be annotated. Here, a computational platform for an automated detection of 3D motifs is described. A fuzzy-pattern searching algorithm derived from IMagine an Amino Acid 3D Arrangement search EnGINE (IMAAAGINE) was implemented to develop an automated method for searching of hypothetical patterns of amino acid side chains in Protein Data Bank (PDB), without the need for prior knowledge on related sequence or structure of pattern of interest. We present an example of the searches, which is the detection of a hypothetical pattern derived from known structural motif of C2H2 structural pattern from zinc fingers. The conservation of particular patterns of amino acid side chains in unrelated proteins is highlighted. This approach can act as a complementary method for available structure- and sequence-based platforms and may contribute in improving functional association between proteins.

  1. Purification and characterization of a thermostable hypothetical xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae HML366.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiyan; Qin, Yongling; Li, Nan; Chen, Guiguang; Liang, Zhiqun

    2015-03-01

    In the current study, fermentation broth of Aspergillus oryzae HML366 in sugar cane bagasse was subjected to ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography, and two xylanases, XynH1 and XynH2, were purified. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that XynH1 is identical to the hypothetical A. oryzae RIB40 protein XP_001826985.1, with a molecular weight of 33.671 kDa. Likewise, XynH2 was identified as xylanase XynF1 with a molecular weight of 35.402 kDa. Sequence analysis indicated that XynH1 belongs to glycosyl hydrolases family 10. The specific activity of XynH1 was measured at 476.9 U/mg. Optimal xylanase activity was observed at pH 6.0, and enzyme remained active within pH 4.0-10.0 and at a temperature below 70 °C. Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Ca(2+), and K(+) enhanced the XynH1 xylanase activity to 146, 122, 114, and 108%, respectively. XynH1 hydrolyzed Birchwood xylan and Larchwood xylan effectively. The K m and V max of XynH1 values determined were 1.16 mM and 336 μmol/min/mg with Birchwood xylan as the substrate. A. oryzae HML366 xylanase XynH1 showed superior heat and pH tolerance, therefore may have significant applications in paper and biofuel industries. These studies constitute the first investigation of the xylanase activities of the hypothetical protein XP_001826985.1 form A. oryzae.

  2. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results show...

  3. CREATE-IP and CREATE-V: Data and Services Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, L.; Potter, G. L.; Hertz, J.; Peters, J.; Maxwell, T. P.; Strong, S.; Shute, J.; Shen, Y.; Duffy, D.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) are working together to build a uniform environment for the comparative study and use of a group of reanalysis datasets of particular importance to the research community. This effort is called the Collaborative REAnalysis Technical Environment (CREATE) and it contains two components: the CREATE-Intercomparison Project (CREATE-IP) and CREATE-V. This year's efforts included generating and publishing an atmospheric reanalysis ensemble mean and spread and improving the analytics available through CREATE-V. Related activities included adding access to subsets of the reanalysis data through ArcGIS and expanding the visualization tool to GMAO forecast data. This poster will present the access mechanisms to this data and use cases including example Jupyter Notebook code. The reanalysis ensemble was generated using two methods, first using standard Python tools for regridding, extracting levels and creating the ensemble mean and spread on a virtual server in the NCCS environment. The second was using a new analytics software suite, the Earth Data Analytics Services (EDAS), coupled with a high-performance Data Analytics and Storage System (DASS) developed at the NCCS. Results were compared to validate the EDAS methodologies, and the results, including time to process, will be presented. The ensemble includes selected 6 hourly and monthly variables, regridded to 1.25 degrees, with 24 common levels used for the 3D variables. Use cases for the new data and services will be presented, including the use of EDAS for the backend analytics on CREATE-V, the use of the GMAO forecast aerosol and cloud data in CREATE-V, and the ability to connect CREATE-V data to NCCS ArcGIS services.

  4. Comparison of registry methodologies for reporting carbon benefits for afforestation projects in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Timothy R.H.; Brown, Sandra; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    No mandatory national program currently exists to mitigate climate change in the US Consequently, voluntary programs and mandatory state-level programs are multiplying to allow users to register emission-offset activities, creating multiple often contradictory measurement and recording standards. For the land use sector we examined a hypothetical project: tree planting on rangelands in California. We apply four sets of protocols from the following registries - the California Climate Action Registry, the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX), the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the USDOE 1605(b) program - and compare the results to the 'actual' net sequestration and also briefly compare them to international protocols such as the relevant Clean Development Mechanism methodology. Carbon in land use can be estimated accurately, precisely and cost-effectively, but to achieve this requires good protocols. As predicted, the consequence of applying different protocols for reportable carbon was significant. The choice of measurement pools, the handling of the baseline and the issue of uncertainty led to a baseline estimate of 0-66,690 t CO 2 -e, and final sequestered carbon totals (after 60 years) that varied between 118,044 and 312,685 t CO 2 -e-a factor of 2.5 difference. The amount reported under 1605(b) is the closest to 'actual' with CCX entity reporting the most divergent

  5. A methodology to estimate earthquake effects on fractures intersecting canister holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, P.; Wallmann, P.; Thomas, A.; Follin, S. [Golder Assocites Inc. (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    A literature review and a preliminary numerical modeling study were carried out to develop and demonstrate a method for estimating displacements on fractures near to or intersecting canister emplacement holes. The method can be applied during preliminary evaluation of candidate sites prior to any detailed drilling or underground excavation, utilizing lineament maps and published regression relations between surface rupture trace length and earthquake magnitude, rupture area and displacements. The calculated displacements can be applied to lineament traces which are assumed to be faults and may be the sites for future earthquakes. Next, a discrete fracture model is created for secondary faulting and jointing in the vicinity of the repository. These secondary fractures may displace due to the earthquake on the primary faults. The three-dimensional numerical model assumes linear elasticity and linear elastic fracture mechanics which provides a conservative displacement estimate, while still preserving realistic fracture patterns. Two series of numerical studies were undertaken to demonstrate how the methodology could be implemented and how results could be applied to questions regarding site selection and performance assessment. The first series illustrates how earthquake damage to a hypothetical repository for a specified location (Aespoe) could be estimated. A second series examined the displacements induced by earthquakes varying in magnitude from 6.0 to 8.2 as a function of how close the earthquake was in relation to the repository. 143 refs, 25 figs, 7 tabs.

  6. A methodology to estimate earthquake effects on fractures intersecting canister holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, P.; Wallmann, P.; Thomas, A.; Follin, S.

    1997-03-01

    A literature review and a preliminary numerical modeling study were carried out to develop and demonstrate a method for estimating displacements on fractures near to or intersecting canister emplacement holes. The method can be applied during preliminary evaluation of candidate sites prior to any detailed drilling or underground excavation, utilizing lineament maps and published regression relations between surface rupture trace length and earthquake magnitude, rupture area and displacements. The calculated displacements can be applied to lineament traces which are assumed to be faults and may be the sites for future earthquakes. Next, a discrete fracture model is created for secondary faulting and jointing in the vicinity of the repository. These secondary fractures may displace due to the earthquake on the primary faults. The three-dimensional numerical model assumes linear elasticity and linear elastic fracture mechanics which provides a conservative displacement estimate, while still preserving realistic fracture patterns. Two series of numerical studies were undertaken to demonstrate how the methodology could be implemented and how results could be applied to questions regarding site selection and performance assessment. The first series illustrates how earthquake damage to a hypothetical repository for a specified location (Aespoe) could be estimated. A second series examined the displacements induced by earthquakes varying in magnitude from 6.0 to 8.2 as a function of how close the earthquake was in relation to the repository. 143 refs, 25 figs, 7 tabs

  7. Environmental Performance of Hypothetical Canadian Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Processes Using Life-Cycle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkana Piewkhaow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of life-cycle assessment was applied in order to evaluate the environmental performance of a hypothetical Saskatchewan lignite-fueled Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC electricity generation, with and without pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2 capture from a full life-cycle perspective. The emphasis here is placed on environmental performance associated with air contaminants of the comparison between IGCC systems (with and without CO2 capture and a competing lignite pulverized coal-fired electricity generating station in order to reveal which technology offers the most positive environmental effects. Moreover, ambient air pollutant modeling was also conducted by using American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD air dispersion modeling to determine the ground-level concentration of pollutants emitted from four different electricity generating stations. This study assumes that all stations are located close to Estevan. The results showed a significant reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and acidification potential by applying both post-combustion and pre-combustion CO2 capture processes. The GHG emissions were found to have reduced by 27%–86%, and IGCC systems were found to compare favorably to pulverized coal systems. However, in other environmental impact categories, there are multiple environmental trade-offs depending on the capture technology used. In the case of post-combustion capture, it was observed that the environmental impact category of eutrophication potential, summer smog, and ozone depletion increased due to the application of the CO2 capture process and the surface mining coal operation. IGCC systems, on the other hand, showed the same tendency as the conventional coal-fired electricity generation systems, but to a lesser degree. This is because the IGCC system is a cleaner technology that produces lower pollutant emission levels than the electricity

  8. Effect of the deletion of qmoABC and the promoter distal gene encoding a hypothetical protein on sulfate-reduction in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zane, Grant M.; Yen, Huei-chi Bill; Wall, Judy D.

    2010-03-18

    The pathway of electrons required for the reduction of sulfate in sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is not yet fully characterized. In order to determine the role of a transmembrane protein complex suggested to be involved in this process, a deletion of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was created by marker exchange mutagenesis that eliminated four genes putatively encoding the QmoABC complex and a hypothetical protein (DVU0851). The Qmo complex (quinone-interacting membrane-bound oxidoreductase) is proposed to be responsible for transporting electrons to the dissimilatory adenosine-5?phosphosulfate (APS) reductase in SRB. In support of the predicted role of this complex, the deletion mutant was unable to grow using sulfate as its sole electron acceptor with a range of electron donors. To explore a possible role for the hypothetical protein in sulfate reduction, a second mutant was constructed that had lost only the gene that codes for DVU0851. The second constructed mutant grew with sulfate as the sole electron acceptor; however, there was a lag that was not present with the wild-type or complemented strain. Neither deletion strain was significantly impaired for growth with sulfite or thiosulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Complementation of the D(qmoABC-DVU0851) mutant with all four genes or only the qmoABC genes restored its ability to grow by sulfate respiration. These results confirmed the prediction that the Qmo complex is in the electron pathway for sulfate-reduction and revealed that no other transmembrane complex could compensate when Qmo was lacking.

  9. Methodology for assessing the impacts of alternative rate designs on industrial energy use. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-11

    A task was undertaken to develop a method for analyzing industrial user responses to alternative rate designs. The method described considers the fuel switching and conservation responses of industrial users and the impact to a hypothetical utility regarding revenue stability, annual gas demand, and seasonal fluctuations. Twenty-seven hypothetical industrial plant types have been specified. For each combustor in the plant, the fuel consumption by season, initial fuel type, fuel switching costs, conservation costs, and amount of fuel conservable is provided. The decision making takes place at the plant level and is aggregated to determine the impact to the utility. Section 2 discusses the factors affecting an industrial user's response to alternative rate designs. Section 3 describes the methodology, includes an overview of the model and an example industrial user's response to a set of fuel prices. The data describing the 27 hypothetical firms is in an appendix.

  10. Big data and virtual communities: methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Torres, María del Rocío; Toral, S. L.; Fornara, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Virtual communities represent today en emergent phenomenon through which users get together to create ideas, to obtain help from one another, or just to casually engage in discussions. Their increasing popularity as well as their utility as a source of business value and marketing strategies justify the necessity of defi ning some specifi c methodologies for analyzing them. The aim of this paper is providing new insights into virtual communities from a methodological viewpoint, hi...

  11. Energy Extraction from a Hypothetical MHK Array in a Section of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, J.; James, S. C.; Roberts, J. D.; Jones, C. A.; Jepsen, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    The world is facing many challenges meeting the energy demands for the future. Growing populations and developing economies as well as increasing energy expenditures highlight the need for a spectrum of energy sources. Concerns about pollution and climate change have led to increased interest in all forms of renewable energy to stabilize or decrease consumption of fossil fuels. One promising renewable is marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, which has the potential to make important contributions to energy portfolios of the future. However, a primary question remains: How much energy can be extracted from MHK devices in rivers and oceans without significant environmental effects? This study focuses on the potential energy extraction from different hypothetical MHK array configurations in a section of the Mississippi River located near to Scotlandville Bend, Louisiana. Bathymetry data, obtained from Free Flow Power Corporation (FFP) via the US Army Corps bathymetry survey library, were interpolated onto a DELFT3D curvilinear, orthogonal grid of the system using ArcGIS 9.3.1. Boundary conditions are constrained by the upstream and downstream river flow rates and gage heights obtained from USGS website. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements obtained from FFP are used for pre-array model validation. Energy extraction is simulated using momentum sinks recently coded into SNL-EFDC, which is an augmented version of US EPA’s Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). SNL-EFDC model includes a new module which considers energy removal by MHK devices and commensurate changes to the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. As expected, average velocities decrease downstream of each MHK device due to energy extraction and blunt-body form drag from the MHK support structures. Changes in the flow field can alter sediment transport dynamics around and downstream of an MHK array; various hypothetical scenarios are examined. This

  12. Creating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Lorenzen, Mark; Laursen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    This unique book reveals the procedural aspects of knowledge-based urban planning, development and assessment. Concentrating on major knowledge city building processes, and providing state-of-the-art experiences and perspectives, this important compendium explores innovative models, approaches an...

  13. Tissue loading created during spinal manipulation in comparison to loading created by passive spinal movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Kawchuk, Gregory N; Vette, Albert H; Goldsmith, Peter; Prasad, Narasimha

    2016-12-01

    Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) creates health benefits for some while for others, no benefit or even adverse events. Understanding these differential responses is important to optimize patient care and safety. Toward this, characterizing how loads created by SMT relate to those created by typical motions is fundamental. Using robotic testing, it is now possible to make these comparisons to determine if SMT generates unique loading scenarios. In 12 porcine cadavers, SMT and passive motions were applied to the L3/L4 segment and the resulting kinematics tracked. The L3/L4 segment was removed, mounted in a parallel robot and kinematics of SMT and passive movements replayed robotically. The resulting forces experienced by L3/L4 were collected. Overall, SMT created both significantly greater and smaller loads compared to passive motions, with SMT generating greater anterioposterior peak force (the direction of force application) compared to all passive motions. In some comparisons, SMT did not create significantly different loads in the intact specimen, but did so in specific spinal tissues. Despite methodological differences between studies, SMT forces and loading rates fell below published injury values. Future studies are warranted to understand if loading scenarios unique to SMT confer its differential therapeutic effects.

  14. IMSF: Infinite Methodology Set Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Martin; Jelínek, Ivan

    Software development is usually an integration task in enterprise environment - few software applications work autonomously now. It is usually a collaboration of heterogeneous and unstable teams. One serious problem is lack of resources, a popular result being outsourcing, ‘body shopping’, and indirectly team and team member fluctuation. Outsourced sub-deliveries easily become black boxes with no clear development method used, which has a negative impact on supportability. Such environments then often face the problems of quality assurance and enterprise know-how management. The used methodology is one of the key factors. Each methodology was created as a generalization of a number of solved projects, and each methodology is thus more or less connected with a set of task types. When the task type is not suitable, it causes problems that usually result in an undocumented ad-hoc solution. This was the motivation behind formalizing a simple process for collaborative software engineering. Infinite Methodology Set Framework (IMSF) defines the ICT business process of adaptive use of methods for classified types of tasks. The article introduces IMSF and briefly comments its meta-model.

  15. Astrophysical implications of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze macroscopic effects of TeV-scale black holes, such as could possibly be produced at the LHC, in what is regarded as an extremely hypothetical scenario in which they are stable and, if trapped inside Earth, begin to accrete matter. We examine a wide variety of TeV-scale gravity scenarios, basing the resulting accretion models on first-principles, basic, and well-tested physical laws. These scenarios fall into two classes, depending on whether accretion could have any macroscopic effect on the Earth at times shorter than the Sun's natural lifetime. We argue that cases with such an effect at shorter times than the solar lifetime are ruled out, since in these scenarios black holes produced by cosmic rays impinging on much denser white dwarfs and neutron stars would then catalyze their decay on time scales incompatible with their known lifetimes. We also comment on relevant lifetimes for astronomical objects that capture primordial black holes. In short, this study finds no basis for concerns that TeV-scale black holes from the LHC could pose a risk to Earth on time scales shorter than the Earth's natural lifetime. Indeed, conservative arguments based on detailed calculations and the best-available scientific knowledge, including solid astronomical data, conclude, from multiple perspectives, that there is no risk of any significance whatsoever from such black holes.

  16. Public acceptance of a hypothetical Ebola virus vaccine in Aceh, Indonesia: A hospital-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harapan Harapan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the acceptance towards a hypothetical Ebola virus vaccine (EVV and associated factors in a non-affected country, Indonesia. Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in four regencies of Aceh, Indonesia. A set of pre-tested questionnaires was used to obtain information on acceptance towards EVV and a range of explanatory variables. Associations between EVV acceptance and explanatory variables were tested using multi-steps logistic regression analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation. Results: Participants who had knowledge on Ebola virus disease (EVD were 45.3% (192/424 and none of the participants achieved 80% correct answers on the knowledge regarding to EVD. About 73% of participants expressed their willingness to receive the EVV. Education attainment, occupation, monthly income, have heard regarding to EVD previously, socioeconomic level, attitude towards vaccination practice and knowledge regarding to EVD were associated significantly with acceptance towards EVV in univariate analysis (P < 0.05. In the final multivariate model, socio-economic level, attitude towards vaccination practice and knowledge regarding to EVD were the independent explanatory variables for EVV acceptance. Conclusions: The knowledge of EVD was low, but this minimally affected the acceptance towards EVV. However, to facilitate optimal uptake of EVV, dissemination of vaccine-related information prior to its introduction is required.

  17. Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

    1998-03-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask's top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer's testing of the foam and to determine the foam's stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask

  18. Determination of the maximum individual dose exposure resulting from a hypothetical LEU plate-melt accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studying the radioactive release results from hypothetical plate-melt accident. ► Hotspot code was used to study the dose distributions around the reactor. ► A 90% decrease in the received dose in proper operation of filtration. ► The received dose is lower than the annual permissible dose after filtration. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the potential impact of accidental radioactive release from the testing cell of the Egyptian second research reactor ETRR-2 on the dose level of public around the reactor. The assessment was performed for two cases: an evaluation of the impact that accidental release has on the dose that would be received by public around the reactor in case of proper operation of testing cell filtration system; and an assessment of the potential dose in case of loss of testing cell filtration system. The results show that the filtration system has a great role in decreasing the dose received by an individual located outside the reactor to a dose level lower than the annual permissible dose

  19. Tsunami Simulations in the Western Makran Using Hypothetical Heterogeneous Source Models from World's Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Amin; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser

    2018-03-01

    The western segment of Makran subduction zone is characterized with almost no major seismicity and no large earthquake for several centuries. A possible episode for this behavior is that this segment is currently locked accumulating energy to generate possible great future earthquakes. Taking into account this assumption, a hypothetical rupture area is considered in the western Makran to set different tsunamigenic scenarios. Slip distribution models of four recent tsunamigenic earthquakes, i.e. 2015 Chile M w 8.3, 2011 Tohoku-Oki M w 9.0 (using two different scenarios) and 2006 Kuril Islands M w 8.3, are scaled into the rupture area in the western Makran zone. The numerical modeling is performed to evaluate near-field and far-field tsunami hazards. Heterogeneity in slip distribution results in higher tsunami amplitudes. However, its effect reduces from local tsunamis to regional and distant tsunamis. Among all considered scenarios for the western Makran, only a similar tsunamigenic earthquake to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki event can re-produce a significant far-field tsunami and is considered as the worst case scenario. The potential of a tsunamigenic source is dominated by the degree of slip heterogeneity and the location of greatest slip on the rupture area. For the scenarios with similar slip patterns, the mean slip controls their relative power. Our conclusions also indicate that along the entire Makran coasts, the southeastern coast of Iran is the most vulnerable area subjected to tsunami hazard.

  20. The Presence of Real Food Usurps Hypothetical Health Value Judgment in Overweight People123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Davies, Kirsty M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To develop more ecologically valid models of the neurobiology of obesity, it is critical to determine how the neural processes involved in food-related decision-making translate into real-world eating behaviors. We examined the relationship between goal-directed valuations of food images in the MRI scanner and food consumption at a subsequent ad libitum buffet meal. We observed that 23 lean and 40 overweight human participants showed similar patterns of value-based neural responses to health and taste attributes of foods. In both groups, these value-based responses in the ventromedial PFC were predictive of subsequent consumption at the buffet. However, overweight participants consumed a greater proportion of unhealthy foods. This was not predicted by in-scanner choices or neural response. Moreover, in overweight participants alone, impulsivity scores predicted greater consumption of unhealthy foods. Overall, our findings suggest that, while the hypothetical valuation of the health of foods is predictive of eating behavior in both lean and overweight people, it is only the real-world food choices that clearly distinguish them. PMID:27280152

  1. An Application of Graphical Approach to Construct Multiple Testing Procedure in a Hypothetical Phase III Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naitee eTing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many multiple testing procedures (MTP have been developed in recent years. Among these new procedures, the graphical approach is flexible and easy to communicate with non-statisticians. A hypothetical Phase III clinical trial design is introduced in this manuscript to demonstrate how graphical approach can be applied in clinical product development. In this design, an active comparator is used. It is thought that this test drug under development could potentially be superior to this comparator. For comparison of efficacy, the primary endpoint is well established and widely accepted by regulatory agencies. However, an important secondary endpoint based on Phase II findings looks very promising. The target dose may have a good opportunity to deliver superiority to the comparator. Furthermore, a lower dose is included in case the target dose may demonstrate potential safety concerns. This Phase III study is designed as a non-inferiority trial with two doses, and two endpoints. This manuscript will illustrate how graphical approach is applied to this design in handling multiple testing issues.

  2. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents involving homogeneous damp low-enriched UO2 powder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basoglu, B.; Brewer, R.W.; Haught, C.F.; Hollenbach, D.F.; Wilkinson, A.D.; Dodds, H.L.; Pasqua, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a computer model for predicting the excursion characteristics of a postulated, hypothetical, critically accident involving a homogeneous mixture of low-enriched UO 2 powder and water contained in a cylindrical blender. The model uses point neutronics coupled with simple lumped-parameter thermal-hydraulic feedback. The temperature of the system is calculated using a simple time-dependent energy balance where two extreme conditions for the thermal behavior of the system are considered, which bound the real life situation. Using these extremes, three different models are developed. To evaluate the models, the authors compared the results with the results of the POWDER code, which was developed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique/United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (CEA/UKAEA) for damp powder systems. The agreement in these comparisons is satisfactory. Results of the excursion studies in this work show that approximately 10 19 fissions occur as a result of accidental water ingress into powder blenders containing 5,000 kg of low-enriched (5%) UO 2 powder

  4. Astrophysical implications of hypothetical stable TeV-scale black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2008-01-01

    We analyze macroscopic effects of TeV-scale black holes, such as could possibly be produced at the LHC, in what is regarded as an extremely hypothetical scenario in which they are stable and, if trapped inside Earth, begin to accrete matter. We examine a wide variety of TeV-scale gravity scenarios, basing the resulting accretion models on first-principles, basic, and well-tested physical laws. These scenarios fall into two classes, depending on whether accretion could have any macroscopic effect on the Earth at times shorter than the Sun's natural lifetime. We argue that cases with such effect at shorter times than the solar lifetime are ruled out, since in these scenarios black holes produced by cosmic rays impinging on much denser white dwarfs and neutron stars would then catalyze their decay on timescales incompatible with their known lifetimes. We also comment on relevant lifetimes for astronomical objects that capture primordial black holes. In short, this study finds no basis for concerns that TeV-scale...

  5. Sequence Analysis of Hypothetical Proteins from 26695 to Identify Potential Virulence Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abu Turab Naqvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria that is responsible for gastritis in human. Its spiral flagellated body helps in locomotion and colonization in the host environment. It is capable of living in the highly acidic environment of the stomach with the help of acid adaptive genes. The genome of H. pylori 26695 strain contains 1,555 coding genes that encode 1,445 proteins. Out of these, 340 proteins are characterized as hypothetical proteins (HP. This study involves extensive analysis of the HPs using an established pipeline which comprises various bioinformatics tools and databases to find out probable functions of the HPs and identification of virulence factors. After extensive analysis of all the 340 HPs, we found that 104 HPs are showing characteristic similarities with the proteins with known functions. Thus, on the basis of such similarities, we assigned probable functions to 104 HPs with high confidence and precision. All the predicted HPs contain representative members of diverse functional classes of proteins such as enzymes, transporters, binding proteins, regulatory proteins, proteins involved in cellular processes and other proteins with miscellaneous functions. Therefore, we classified 104 HPs into aforementioned functional groups. During the virulence factors analysis of the HPs, we found 11 HPs are showing significant virulence. The identification of virulence proteins with the help their predicted functions may pave the way for drug target estimation and development of effective drug to counter the activity of that protein.

  6. Environmental release of carbon-14 gas from a hypothetical nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, M.A.; Merrell, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotopes may form gases in a spent nuclear fuel waste package due to elevated temperatures or degradation of the fuel rods. Radioactive carbon-14, as gaseous carbon dioxide, is one of the gaseous radioisotopes of concern at an underground disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Carbon-14 dioxide may accumulate inside an intact waste container. Upon breach of the container, a potentially large pulse of carbon-14 dioxide gas may be released to the surrounding environment, followed by a lower, long-term continuous release. If the waste were disposed of in an unsaturated geologic environment, the carbon-14 gas would begin to move through the unsaturated zone to the accessible environment. This study investigates the transport of radioactive carbon-14 gas in geologic porous media using a one-dimensional analytical solution. Spent nuclear fuel emplaced in a deep geologic repository located at a generic unsaturated tuff site is analyzed. The source term for the carbon-14 gas and geologic parameters was obtained from previously published materials. The one-dimensional analytical solution includes diffusion, advection, radionuclide retardation, and radioactive decay terms. Two hypothetical sites are analyzed. One is dominated by advective transport, and the other is dominated by diffusive transport. The dominant transport mechanism at an actual site depends on the site characteristics. Results from the simulations include carbon-14 dioxide travel times to the accessible environment and the total release to the environment over a 10,000-year period. The results are compared to regulatory criteria

  7. Safety Assessment of a Hypothetical Near Surface Disposal at PPTN Serpong Site: Near-Field Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Erwansyah

    2000-01-01

    The near field modeling of a hypothetical surface disposal at Serpong site has been performed. Considering a realistic downward water flux of 10 -1 0 m/s through the conditioned waste zone and the concrete barriers, transport of radionuclide by advection and dispersion below the bottom of the repository was calculated using PORFLOW computer code. The result shows that the highest fluxes were observed H-3, Cs-135, Nb-94 and Ni-59, all about 10 4 Bq/a/m 2 . Intermediate fluxes were obtained for Cs-137, I-129 and Co-60. Lowest were due to Ni-63 and C-14. The effect on radionuclide fluxes by having an unsaturated soil of 1.0-m depth below the bottom of the repository also was investigated. The results indicate that the highest fluxes are due to Cs-135, Nb-94 and Ni- 59, approximately 10 4 Bq/a/m 2 . The fluxes owing to H-3 has decreased to 10 -9 Bq/a/m 2 owing to decay. Radionuclides that are not absorbed onto lateritic clay soil, C-14 and I-129 are not decreased in flux. All other radionuclides has significantly smaller fluxes compared to the ones calculated at the bottom of the repository. This indicates that the lateric clay soil at Serpong site plays an important role in retarding and dispersing the radionuclide migration towards the ground water. (author)

  8. Tsunami Simulations in the Western Makran Using Hypothetical Heterogeneous Source Models from World's Great Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Amin; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Keshavarz Farajkhah, Nasser

    2018-04-01

    The western segment of Makran subduction zone is characterized with almost no major seismicity and no large earthquake for several centuries. A possible episode for this behavior is that this segment is currently locked accumulating energy to generate possible great future earthquakes. Taking into account this assumption, a hypothetical rupture area is considered in the western Makran to set different tsunamigenic scenarios. Slip distribution models of four recent tsunamigenic earthquakes, i.e. 2015 Chile M w 8.3, 2011 Tohoku-Oki M w 9.0 (using two different scenarios) and 2006 Kuril Islands M w 8.3, are scaled into the rupture area in the western Makran zone. The numerical modeling is performed to evaluate near-field and far-field tsunami hazards. Heterogeneity in slip distribution results in higher tsunami amplitudes. However, its effect reduces from local tsunamis to regional and distant tsunamis. Among all considered scenarios for the western Makran, only a similar tsunamigenic earthquake to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki event can re-produce a significant far-field tsunami and is considered as the worst case scenario. The potential of a tsunamigenic source is dominated by the degree of slip heterogeneity and the location of greatest slip on the rupture area. For the scenarios with similar slip patterns, the mean slip controls their relative power. Our conclusions also indicate that along the entire Makran coasts, the southeastern coast of Iran is the most vulnerable area subjected to tsunami hazard.

  9. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of two hypothetical ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chen; Fan, Xuexin; Cao, Xiaofang; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanfen; Su, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Two hypothetical ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from S. mutans have been produced in E. coli and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to high resolutions suitable for crystallographic analyses. Study of the enzymes from sugar metabolic pathways may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the human oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Bioinformatics, biochemical and crystallization methods were used to characterize and understand the function of two putative ribose-5-phosphate isomerases: SMU1234 and SMU2142. The proteins were cloned and constructed with N-terminal His tags. Protein purification was performed by Ni 2+ -chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. The crystals of SUM1234 diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 48.97, b = 98.27, c = 101.09 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The optimized SMU2142 crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.7, b = 54.1, c = 86.5 Å, α = 74.2, β = 73.5, γ = 83.7°. Initial phasing of both proteins was attempted by molecular replacement; the structure of SMU1234 could easily be solved, but no useful results were obtained for SMU2142. Therefore, SeMet-labelled SMU2142 will be prepared for phasing

  10. Soymilk plant simulation to predict the formula of a new Hypothetical Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacobi Boanerges Boanerges

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideal Patterns reactors alteration by real reactor patterns, for better accuracy was done using industrial software: Aspen Plus and Hysys Version 7.1 to represent the batch real mixer and soymilk production system. Fluid package for properties prediction was chosen from the software list. A feed steam of 41,67 Kg/h (Soybean was taken; mass fractions were given by element since the Soybean has a wide blend of substances which cannot be described as a unique compound formula. The elements were C, N, H, O, S, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, P, and Cu. Final flow of 8,333 Kg/h was used to achieve the objective of this study: the elemental analysis method for the hypothetical new product prediction (based only in presence of Amino-acids and other macro and multiple substances. The macromolecules described here are the onset for new specific soymilk compounds such as the concluded on this study. Fulminic Acid Family compound and the protein analysis may correspond to new proteins which are not well-known such as the ones found in studies by the Hospital de Rhode Island in 2014. Presence of Fe and Cu in soybean was ascribed to the micronutrients that could be present in the soil of crop cultivation and in soybeans by absorption.

  11. Planning guidance for emergency response to a hypothetical nuclear attack on Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubayr, Nasser Ali M.

    The threat of nuclear attack will remain imminent in an ever-advancing society. Saudi Arabia is not immune to this threat. This dissertation establishes planning guidance for response to a nuclear attack on Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, based on a hypothetical scenario of a nuclear detonation. A case scenario of a one-megaton thermonuclear bomb detonated at ground level over Riyadh is used to support the thesis. Previous nuclear tests and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings have been used to present possible effects on Riyadh. US planning guidance and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plants accidents have been used to develop the emergency response guidance. The planning guidance outlines a rapid response to the nuclear detonation. Four damage zones have been identified; severe damage zone, moderate damage zone, light damage zone and dangerous fallout zone. Actions that are recommended, and those that should be avoided, have been determined for each zone. Shelter/ evacuation evaluation for blast-affected and fallout-affected areas is the basis for the recommendation that shelter in place is the best decision for the first hours to days after the attack. Guidelines for medical care response and population monitoring and decontamination are included to reduce the early and long-term effects of the attack. Recommendations to the Saudi Arabian authorities have been made to facilitate suitable preparedness and response for such an event.

  12. Testing the feasibility of a hypothetical whaling-conservation permit market in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Abbott, Joshua K; Fenichel, Eli P; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Perrings, Charles; Gerber, Leah R

    2017-08-01

    A cap-and-trade system for managing whale harvests represents a potentially useful approach to resolve the current gridlock in international whale management. The establishment of whale permit markets, open to both whalers and conservationists, could reveal the strength of conservation demand, about which little is known. This lack of knowledge makes it difficult to predict the outcome of a hypothetical whale permit market. We developed a bioeconomic model to evaluate the influence of economic uncertainty about demand for whale conservation or harvest. We used simulations over a wide range of parameterizations of whaling and conservation demands to examine the potential ecological consequences of the establishment of a whale permit market in Norwegian waters under bounded (but substantial) economic uncertainty. Uncertainty variables were slope of whaling and conservation demand, participation level of conservationists and their willingness to pay for whale conservation, and functional forms of demand, including linear, quadratic, and log-linear forms. A whale-conservation market had the potential to yield a wide range of conservation and harvest outcomes, the most likely outcomes were those in which conservationists bought all whale permits. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Quantitative valuation placed by children and teenagers on participation in two hypothetical research scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Dan; Fertleman, Caroline; Carrey, Liz; Brierley, Joe

    2012-11-01

    For paediatric medicine to advance, research must be conducted specifically with children. Concern about poor recruitment has led to debate about payments to child research participants. Although concerns about undue influence by such 'compensation' have been expressed, it is useful to determine whether children can relate the time and inconvenience associated with participation to the value of payment offered. This study explores children's ability to determine fair remuneration for research participation, and reviews payments to children participating in research. Forty children were interviewed before outpatient visits at two London Hospitals: Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital and the Whittington Hospital District General Hospital. Children were asked to value their involvement in two hypothetical research scenarios - the first an 'additional blood sample', the second also involving daily oral oil capsules taken for a fortnight before further venesection. Background knowledge about familiarity with money, and experience with hospitalisation was assessed. The mean valuation of involvement in the second scenario (£13.18) was higher than in the first (£2.84) (pfair valuation for participation in medical research. The monetary sums are influenced by the time and inconvenience involved in the research, and by the extent of recent experience with hospital procedures. The authors review current ethical thinking regarding payments to child research participants and suggest that a fair wage model might be an ethically acceptable way to increase participation of children in research.

  14. Development of Inundation Map for Hypothetical Asa Dam Break using HEC-RAS and ARC GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Balogun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Asa Dam in Ilorin, Nigeria was constructed in the1980s. The dam made of earth material has a length of 507 meters and height of 27 meters. The maximum capacity of the impoundment during the raining season is approximately 43 x 106 m3. Years after construction, tremendous physical development is taking place along the river channel starting from the dam axis towards downstream for a distance of approximately 12 km. It is estimated that several thousands of people are currently living and performing various activities within the vicinity of the river channel. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the risk involved in case of a possible dam break disaster. In view of this, a hypothetical dam break scenario was studied and analyzed using Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System computer model. Unsteady flow simulation was performed using geometric data obtained from Digital Terrain Model with 100-year, 24 hr flow event. The HEC-RAS was used in concert with HEC-GeoRAS to assess the flood hazard along the approximately 12 km river channel. The simulated water surface elevations were exported to Arc GIS to produce an inundation map that graphically indicates the extent of the flood hazard. The results show that some important locations such as industrial, residential, motor parks, recreational and places of worship along the river length are prone to significant flood impact. This map serves as an input for emergency preparation programme in the event of the dam break.

  15. Safety assessment of the Indonesian multipurpose reactor RSG-GAS against ATWS and hypothetical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastowo, H.; Nabbi, R.; Prayoto; Ismuntoyo, R.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation on ATWS and hypothetical accidents for the Indonesian Multipurpose Reactor RSG-GAS have been undertaken by computer simulation technique. Two computer codes, namely RELAP5 and PARET-ANL, were used as the main tools. The RELAP5 was utilized to perform system analysis while the PARET-ANL code was used to perform the reactor core analysis in more detail. Two different models have been applied as a basis of the simulation: Typical Working Core model (IWC-model) consisting of four regions with different radial power factors; and the hot-channel model consisting of two regions with different radial power factors. Both RELAP5 ad PARET-ANL results showed that in the occurrence of ATWS, failure on fuel element or fuel plate was limited to the region with the most highest power factor. The results also indicated that no high pressure development occurs in that region, so that mechanical damage on the fuel element or other core components due to pressure shock did not happen.(author)

  16. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  17. Radioactive particulate release associated with the DOT specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Raney, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    A testing program was conducted to determine the leakage of depleted uranium dioxide powder (DUO) from the inner containment components of the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) specification 6M container under hypothetical accident conditions. Depleted uranium dioxide was selected as a surrogate for plutonium oxide because of the similarities in the powder characteristics, density and particle size, and because of the special handling and special facilities required for plutonium oxide. The DUO was packaged inside food pack cans in three different configurations inside the 2R vessel of the 6M container. The amount of DUO powder leakage ranged from none detectable ( -7 g) to a high of 1 x 10 -3 g. The combination of gravity, vibration and pressure produced the highest leakage of DUO. Containers that had hermetic seals (leak rates -4 atm cc/min) did not leak any detectable amount ( -7 g) of DUO under the test conditions. Impact forces had no effect on the leakage of particles with the packaging configurations used. 23 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Study on recriticality of fuel debris during hypothetical severe accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Shin, S.T.

    1995-09-01

    A study has been performed to measure the potential of recriticality during hypothetical severe accident in Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). For the lumped debris configuration in the Reactor Coolant System (RCS), as found in the previous study, recriticality potential may be very low. However, if fuel debris is dispersed and mixed with heavy water in RCS, recriticality potential has been predicted to be substantial depending on thermal-hydraulic conditions surrounding fuel debris mixture. The recriticality potential in RCS is substantially reduced for the three element core design with 50% enrichment. Also, as observed in the previous study, strong dependencies of k eff on key thermal hydraulic parameters are shown. Light water contamination is shown to provide a positive reactivity, and void formation due to boiling of mixed water provides enough negative reactivity and to bring the system down to subcritical. For criticality potential in the subpile room, the lumped debris configuration does not pose a concern. Dispersed configuration in light water pool of the subpile room is also unlikely to result in criticality. However, if the debris is dispersed in the pool that is mixed with heavy water, the results indicate that a substantial potential exists for the debris to reach the criticality. However, if prompt recriticality disperses the debris completely in the subpile room pool, subsequent recriticality may be prevented since neutron leakage effects become large enough

  19. The role of fission gas in the analysis of hypothetical core disruptive accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E A [Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, INR Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1977-07-01

    This paper summarizes recent work at Karlsruhe with the goal of understanding the effects of fission gas in hypothetical core disruptive accidents. The fission gas behavior model is discussed. The computer programs LANGZEIT and KURZZEIT describe the long-term and the transient gas behavior, respectively. Recent improvements in the modeling and a comparison of results with experimental data are reported. A somewhat detailed study of the role of fission gas in transient overpower (TOP) accidents was carried out. If pessimistic assumptions, like pin failure near the axial midplane are made, these accidents end in core disassembly. The codes HOPE and KADIS were used to analyze the initiating and the disassembly phase in these studies. Improvements of the codes are discussed. They include an automatic data transfer from HOPE to KADIS, and a new equation of state in KADIS, with an improved model for fission gas behavior. The analysis of a 15 cents/sec reactivity ramp accident is presented. Different pin failure criteria are used. In the cases selected, the codes predict an energetic disassembly. For the much discussed loss-of-flow driven TOP, detailed models are presently not available at Karlsruhe. Therefore, only a few comments and the results of a few scoping calculations will be presented.

  20. An assessment of the effect of reactor size on hypothetical ore disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, N.E.; Board, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    There is a general tendency towards larger plant sizes, in the interests primarily of economies of scale. In this paper the effect of core size on hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDA) is considered, and it is shown that the energy yield increases rapidly with size, primarily due to a tendency towards coherence of voiding in reactors with a large positive void coefficient. Small cores compare favourably in this respect with alternative large designs with low void coefficient cores, because the reduced mass more than compensates for the reduced doppler constant, and they also have a potential advantage in later stages of HCDA (transition phase and after). If energetic HCDA cannot be shown to be unrealistic and if containment of these events is provided as part of the general safety philosophy, then the costs (which may increase disproportionately with yield) of engineering an adequately reliable system needs to be accounted for. Containment costs are only one of many factors which need to be taken into account in optimising the design and so the energy release from a HCDA must take its proper place in the optimisation according to the safety principles and safety case agreed for LMFBRS. (author)

  1. Hypothetical learning trajectory design on the history of Indonesian independence struggle in Mathematics logic instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra Nurjanah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at developing learning resources for mathematics logic using the hypothetical learning trajectory designed through reflection on the history of Indonesian independence struggle. The study was carried out at the Department of Mathematics Education of the Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences Nusantara Islamic University (Uninus. The study used design research consisted of three stages: preparing the experiments, design the experiments, and retrospective analysis. Preparing the experiments stage has been completed and design the experiments stage is currently under preparation. The main activities accomplished in preparing the experiments stage consisted of: studies of Indonesian independence struggle, curriculum analysis, literature review, and early prototype design. Design the experiments phase has enabled the development of the research instruments. The learning trajectory which has been designed in the first stage involved: reflections on the history of Indonesian independence struggle; implication and bi-implication; implication, bi-implication and their truth in the context of the history of the Indonesian independence struggle; and implication, bi-implication and their truth in the context of mathematics. Based on the results of discussions with colleagues, the students’ ability in mathematical thinking can be developed by using the history of Indonesian independence struggle as the context of learning in a mathematics logics course.

  2. Vulnerability Analysis for Physical Protection System at Hypothetical Facility of a Different Type Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won-Moog; Kim, Jung-Soo; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Kwak, Sung-Ho; Jang, Sung-Soon

    2007-01-01

    Since the 9/11 event in the U.S.A, International terror possibilities has been increased for nuclear facilities including nuclear power plants(NPPs). It is necessary to evaluate the performance of an existing physical protection system(PPS) at nuclear facilities based on such malevolent acts. Detection, delay, and response elements are all important to PPS. They are used for the analysis and evaluation of a PPS and its effectiveness. Methods are available to analyze a PPS and evaluate its effectiveness. Sandia National Laboratory(SNL) in the U.S.A developed a System Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion (SAVI) computer code for evaluating the effectiveness of PPS against outsider threats. This study presents the vulnerability analysis of the PPS at hypothetical facility of a different type using SAVI code that the basic input parameters are from PPS of a different type. For analysis, first, the site-specific Adversary Sequence Diagrams(ASDs) of the PPS is designed. It helps to understand the functions of the existing PPS composed of physical areas and Protection Elements(PEs). Then, the most vulnerable path of an ASD as a measure of effectiveness is determined. The results in the analysis can compare with the most vulnerable paths at a different type

  3. Effect of engineered safety features on the risk of hypothetical LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1978-01-01

    The risks of hypothetical core-disruptive accidents in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors which involve meltthrough of the reactor vessel are compared for two plant designs: one design without specific provisions to accommodate such an accident and the other design with an ex-vessel core catcher and a cvity hot liner. The approach to risk analysis used is that developed in the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). Since the probability of occurrence of such an event has not been evaluated, however, insight into the potential risk is gained only on a relative basis. The principal conclusions of this study are: (1) adding a core catcher--hot liner reduces the probabilty of accidents having major consequences; (2) the degree to which hot liner--core catcher systems can reduce the risk of melt-through accidents is limited by the failure probability of these systems; (3) fractional radioactive releases to the environment in the liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor accidents considered are comparable to those from the light-water reactors evaluated in WASH-1400; (4) since sodium--concrete reactions are a dominant driving force during the accident, the integrity of the cavity liner is as important as the function of the core catcher; (5) there may be other accidents or paths to radioactive releases that are not affected by the addition of a hot liner--core catcher

  4. Point-of-views representation for hypothetical reasoning: application to decision-aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Antoine

    1992-01-01

    Most of the knowledge based Decision Support Systems must deal with two difficulties in problem solving representation: reasoning with incomplete knowledge and managing contradictory reasoning. We propose a method which answers the question of reasoning revision when a contradiction occurs, while preserving the functionalities of the De Kleer's ATMS System for simulating hypothetical reasoning. As a matter of fact, these functionalities are particularly suitable for decision aiding problems. In order to formalize the ATMS, we use a resolution method called Cat-resolution (Cayrol and Tayrac). This method allows the computation of ATMS functions relating to a set of propositional clauses by saturating this set. Owing to this choice, we can use the same principles as ATMS on the saturation trace. Each clause in the saturated set can be linked to the sets of initial clauses justifying its derivation by Cat-resolution. The reasoning inconsistency is now managed. First the user can identify the source of the inconsistency thanks to the empty clause explanation. Then he can try to restore the reasoning consistency by relaxing at least one of the initial clauses justifying the empty clause. The computation of 'partial' ATMS, representing a point of view in the decision-making problem, is more effective owing to the justifications of the derived clauses. (author) [fr

  5. Exploring hypothetical learning progressions for the chemistry of nitrogen and nuclear processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Deborah McKern

    Chemistry is a bridge that connects a number of scientific disciplines. High school students should be able to determine whether scientific information is accurate, how chemistry applies to daily life, and the mechanism by which systems operate (NRC, 2012). This research focuses on describing hypothetical learning progressions for student understanding of the chemical reactions of nitrogen and nuclear processes and examines whether there is consistency in scientific reasoning between these two distinct conceptual areas. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the written products of students including homework, formative and summative tests, laboratory notebooks, reflective journals, written presentations, and discussion board contributions via Edmodo (an online program). The ten participants were 15 and 16 year old students enrolled in a general high school chemistry course. Instruction took place over a ten week period. The learning progression levels ranged from 0 to 4 and were described as missing, novice, intermediate, proficient, and expert. The results were compared to the standards set by the NRC with a lower anchor (expectations for grade 8) and upper anchor (expectations for grade 12). The results indicate that, on average, students were able to reach an intermediate level of understanding for these concepts.

  6. Hypothetical physicochemical mechanisms of some intracellular processes: The hydrate hypothesis of mitosis and DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevich, E.A.; Ostrovskii, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    A DNA replication, mitosis, and binary fission hydrate hypothesis (MRH hypothesis) allowing non-trivial explanations for the physicochemical mechanisms of some intracellular processes is proposed. The hypothesis has a thermodynamic basis and is initiated by original experimental calorimetric and kinetic studies of the behavior of functional organic polymer and monomer substances in highly concentrated aqueous solutions. Experimental data demonstrating the occurrence of a short-range ordering in concentrated aqueous solutions of such substances are included. Hypothetical simple non-enzymatic unified mechanisms for the natural processes of DNA local unwinding preceding the start of duplication, DNA replication, formation and disappearance of the protein bonds between sister chromatids in the centromere region of eukaryotic DNA and in the centromere-like region of prokaryotic DNA, moving of daughter chromosomes apart to the opposite sides of cells in late anaphase, and formation of the nuclear envelopes in telophase and intracellular membranes between the newly formed nuclei in cytokinesis are formulated. The nature of a number of other intracellular phenomena is discussed

  7. Release of gases and their influence on containment integrity during a hypothetical meltdown accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Reimann, M.

    1981-01-01

    The sequence of a hypothetical core melt down accident has been subdivided into four phases. Heating up of the core until failure of the core support structure is the first phase. It starts at a certain water level in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and ends with the failure of the grid plate. The second phase is characterized by the evaporation of the water in the lower plenum of the RPV. The second phase lasts until a molten core debris is formed. The third phase is concerned with the heating up of the pressure vessel after formation of a molten pool in the lower plenum of the RPV. After pressure vessel failure, the molten corium will interact in the fourth phase with the concrete structure beneath the pressure vessel. In this paper the gas release during all four accident phases and the resulting pressure-time history within the containment of a German standard PWR is given, taking into account violent combustion of hydrogen. In particular, the differences caused by dsestruction of concrete with silicious and with calcareous aggregates has been analyzed. The basis for the results in the 4th phase is the WECHSL code. Long term containment calculations have been performed with the COCMEL-code

  8. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions.

  9. Modelling of melting and solidification transport phenomena during hypothetical NPP severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarler, B [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    A physical and mathematical framework to deal with the transport phenomena occuring during melting and solidification of the hypothetical NPP severe accidents is presented. It concentrates on the transient temperature, velocity, and species concentration distributions during such events. The framework is based on the Mixture Continuum Formulation of the components and phases, cast in the boundary-domain integral shape structured by the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation. The formulation could cope with various solid-liquid sub-systems through the inclusion of the specific closure relations. The deduced system of boundary-domain integral equations for conservation of mass, energy, momentum, and species could be solved by the boundary element discrete approximative method. (author) [Slovenian] Predstavljeno je fizikalno in matematicno ogrodje za obravnavo prenosnih pojavov taljenja in strjevanja med hipoteticnimi tezkimi nezgodami v jedrskih elektrarnah. Osredotoceno je na popis neustaljene porazdelitve temperatur, hitrosti in koncentracij sestavin med taksnimi dogodki. Ogrodje temelji na formulaciji kontinuuma mesanice komponent in faz, v obliki robno obmocnih integralskih enacb, ki so sestavljena na podlagi fundamentalne resitve Laplace-ove enacbe. Formulacija lahko popisuje stevilne trdno-tekoce pod-sisteme na podlagi specificnih sklopitvenih relacij. Izpeljan sistem robno-obmocnih integralskih enacb za popis ohranitve mase, energije, gibalne kolicine in sestavin lahko resimo na podlagi diskretne aproksimativne metode robnih elementov. (author)

  10. Bioinformatics and structural characterization of a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans: implication of antibiotic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Nan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As an oral bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus mutans has been known as the aetiologic agent of human dental caries. Among a total of 1960 identified proteins within the genome of this organism, there are about 500 without any known functions. One of these proteins, SMU.440, has very few homologs in the current protein databases and it does not fall into any protein functional families. Phylogenetic studies showed that SMU.440 is related to a particular ecological niche and conserved specifically in some oral pathogens, due to lateral gene transfer. The co-occurrence of a MarR protein within the same operon among these oral pathogens suggests that SMU.440 may be associated with antibiotic resistance. The structure determination of SMU.440 revealed that it shares the same fold and a similar pocket as polyketide cyclases, which indicated that it is very likely to bind some polyketide-like molecules. From the interlinking structural and bioinformatics studies, we have concluded that SMU.440 could be involved in polyketide-like antibiotic resistance, providing a better understanding of this hypothetical protein. Besides, the combination of multiple methods in this study can be used as a general approach for functional studies of a protein with unknown function.

  11. Individual differences in the use of the response scale determine valuations of hypothetical health states: an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Stuifbergen, Marja C.; Meerding, Willem-Jan; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of socio-demographic characteristics of the respondent, including age, on valuation scores of hypothetical health states remain inconclusive. Therefore, we analyzed data from a study designed to discriminate between the effects of respondents' age and time preference on

  12. Development of SPEEDI-MP and its application to a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya; Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Togawa, Orihiko

    2004-01-01

    A software system SPEEDI-MP is being developed to resolve the environmental problems by simulating the behavior of pollutants in the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environment. Verification of oceanic dispersion prediction codes on the system was carried out to assess the migration behavior of the released 241 Am from a hypothetically sunken nuclear submarine in the Japan Sea. (author)

  13. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  14. Issues in clustered nuclear siting: a comparison of a hypothetical nuclear energy center in New Jersey with dispersed nuclear siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.M.; Morell, D.

    1976-09-01

    The report is an analysis of a hypothetical nuclear energy center (NEC) conducted in support of the recently completed study by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, mandated by the Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. The intent of the analysis of the hypothetical, or ''surrogate'', site was to inject a local and regional perspective into the assessment of technical, environmental, institutional, and socioeconomic issues which could be adequately addressed only by reference to a specific site. The hypothetical NEC site in Ocean County, New Jersey, was chosen to illustrate the problems and impacts of potential energy centers in coastal and near-coastal sites in relatively close proximity to large metropolitan areas. Earlier studies of hypothetical energy centers on the Mississippi River at River Bend, La., and on the Columbia River near Hanford, Washington, were also re-examined for their relevance to this new study effort. Neither Ocean County, nor any of the other surrogate sites, have been considered for actual construction of an NEC, nor does their selection for study purposes imply any judgement of desirability. Indeed, the major finding of the report presented is that Ocean County is a relatively poor location for an energy center, and this may well be true of many coastal locations similar to the Jersey shore. The objective in selecting surrogate sites, then, was not to find the best locations, but to select sites that would illustrate the broadest range of potential public policy and siting issues

  15. Characterization of hypothetical proteins Cpn0146, 0147, 0284 & 0285 that are predicted to be in the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Kaiyang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although more than 100 Chlamydia pneumoniae hypothetical proteins have been predicted to be inclusion membrane proteins, only a few have been experimentally demonstrated to be in the inclusion membrane. Using antibodies raised with fusion proteins, we characterized four such hypothetical proteins encoded by two gene clusters (Cpn0146-147 and Cpn0284-285 in the C. pneumoniae genome. Results Cpn0146 and 0147 were detected in the inclusion membrane while Cpn0284 and 0285 inside inclusion and mainly associated with reticulate bodies although all four proteins contain an N-terminal bi-lobed hydrophobic region, a signature motif assigned to inclusion membrane proteins. These four hypothetical proteins were only detected in cells infected with C. pneumoniae but not other chlamydial species, with Cpn0147 at 6 hours and Cpn0146, 0284 & 0285 at 24 hours after infection. Cpn0146 & 147 but not Cpn0284 and 285 co-localized with a host cell endoplasmic reticulum marker, a property known to be possessed by some chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins, when expressed in the host cell cytosol via transgenes. However, the endoplasmic reticulum localization of the C. pneumoniae inclusion membrane proteins did not result in inhibition of the subsequent C. pneumoniae infection. Conclusion The hypothetical proteins Cpn0146 & 0147 were localized in the C. pneumoniae inclusion membrane while Cpn0284 & 0285 within the inclusion although all four were predicted to be Inc proteins, suggesting the need to experimentally characterize the predicted Inc proteins.

  16. Research Ethics in Emerging Forms of Online Learning: Issues Arising from a Hypothetical Study on a MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how research ethics is evolving along with emerging online research methods and settings. In particular, it focuses on ethics issues implied in a hypothetical virtual ethnography study aiming to gain insights on participants' experience in an emergent context of networked learning, namely a MOOC--Massive Online Open…

  17. Children's Use and Knowledge of Display Rules for Anger following Hypothetical Vignettes versus following Live Peer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth H.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Ramsden, Sally R.; Relyea, Nicole; Dearing, Karen F.; Smithmyer, Catherine M.; Schimmel, Kelly D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined correspondence between second-graders' use and knowledge of anger display rules. Found that children's responses were moderately related across two contexts. Following live interactions, compared to hypothetical vignettes, children reported feeling and expressing less anger, intending to hide their anger more, and dissembling their anger…

  18. Creating Complex Repository Collections, Such as Journals, with Manakin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Jack; Mikeal, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a devised method of collection organisation within a DSpace repository using a Manakin theme and descriptive metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Using a Manakin theme, a user interface for a repository collection containing the contents of a serial was created to divide the collection into…

  19. Value-Creating Networks: Organizational Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allee, Verna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of evaluating value-creating networks and to address the organizational issues and challenges of a network orientation. Design/methodology/approach: Value network analysis was first developed in 1993 and was adapted in 1997 for intangible asset management. It has been applied from shopfloor…

  20. Governing Bodies That Consider Joining or Creating Federations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research study exploring what motivates governing bodies to consider joining or creating a federation, their experiences of the process and the barriers faced. The research methodology involved semi-structured telephone interviews, face-to-face interviews and analysis of relevant documentation. The varied…

  1. Methodology and preliminary models for analyzing nuclear safeguards decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This report describes a general analytical tool designed to assist the NRC in making nuclear safeguards decisions. The approach is based on decision analysis--a quantitative procedure for making decisions under uncertain conditions. The report: describes illustrative models that quantify the probability and consequences of diverted special nuclear material and the costs of safeguarding the material, demonstrates a methodology for using this information to set safeguards regulations (safeguards criteria), and summarizes insights gained in a very preliminary assessment of a hypothetical reprocessing plant

  2. Methodology and preliminary models for analyzing nuclear-safeguards decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, B.R.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-11-01

    This report describes a general analytical tool designed with Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in making nuclear safeguards decisions. The approach is based on decision analysis - a quantitative procedure for making decisions under uncertain conditions. The report: describes illustrative models that quantify the probability and consequences of diverted special nuclear material and the costs of safeguarding the material; demonstrates a methodology for using this information to set safeguards regulations (safeguards criteria); and summarizes insights gained in a very preliminary assessment of a hypothetical reprocessing plant

  3. Can Participatory Action Research Create Value for Business Model Innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Mogens; Rasmussen, Ole Horn; Fast, Alf Michael

    Innovation (BMI)?” – has been investigated from five different perspectives based upon The Business Model Cube and The Where to Look Model. Using both established and newly developed tools the paper presents how. Theory and data from two cases are presented and it is demonstrated how industry increase......Abstract: Participatory Action Research (PAR) has a longer academic history compared with the idea of business models (BMs). This paper indicates how industries gain by using the combined methodology. The research question "Can participatory action research create value for Business Model...... their monetary and/or non-monetary value creation doing BMI based upon PAR. The process is essential and using the methodology of PAR creates meaning. Behind the process, the RAR methodology and its link to BM and BMI may contribute to theory construction and creation of a common language in academia around...

  4. The 'overlooked trio' of hypothetical terrorist nuclear weapons - reactor grade plutonium, neptunium-237 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholly, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Considerations revolving around physical protection of nuclear material are quite commonly and naturally focused on protecting weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU) from theft and diversion. These two materials are the center of attention because of their well-known (and demonstrated) potential for use in first-generation nuclear explosive devices of which potential terrorists are widely thought to be capable. They are also the center of attention because of retirements of these materials from military use as the Russian Federation and the United States reduce the number of nuclear weapons in their arsenals. Three other materials - an 'overlooked trio' - must also be borne in mind within this context: (1) reactor-grade plutonium (RGPu); (2) neptunium-237 (Np-237); and (3) tritium (H-3). Although there are still some authorities who either contend that RGPu cannot be used in a nuclear explosive or that there are (for a terrorist) insurmountable difficulties in doing so, the knowledgeable scientific and technical community, recognizes the potential utility of RGPu for hypothetical terrorist nuclear devices. A much smaller community of experts recognizes the usefulness of Np-237 for nuclear devices, but Np-237 is as straight-forwardly and easily usable as HEU and similarly abundant (but not often in separated form). Tritium can be used (with a modest increase in design sophistication) in a conventional first-generation nuclear device with any of the weapons-usable materials (WGPu, HEU, RGPu or Np-237) to increase the yield and/or increase the reliability of a non-fizzle yield. Given the presence of RGPu and Np-237 in abundant quantities in spent commercial reactor fuel, widely available knowledge of how to separate these materials, and a world-wide total of more than 400 nuclear power plants, spent reactor fuel also requires stringent controls. This is especially true of old spent fuel which has far less radiation dose

  5. Creating Interdisciplinarity within Monodisciplinary Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Katrine

    discrepancies in the use of the term interdisciplinarity, which have repercussions for the practices and incentives of creating interdisciplinary education, research and collaboration. Overall, the thesis shows that interdisciplinary teaching and learning practices have to engage in a continuous balancing...

  6. Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis and Computer Simulation in the Age of Hypotheticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Vehlken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the media history of one of the hallmark civil nuclear energy programs in Western Germany – the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR technology. Promoted as a kind of perpetuum mobile of the Atomic Age, the "German Manhattan Project" not only imported big science thinking. In its context, nuclear technology was also put forth as an avantgarde of scientific inquiry, dealing with the most complex and critical technological endeavors. In the face of the risks of nuclear technology, German physicist Wolf Häfele thus announced a novel epistemology of "hypotheticality". In a context where traditional experimental engineering strategies became inappropiate, he called for the application of advanced media technologies: Computer Simulations (CS and Systems Analysis (SA generated computerized spaces for the production of knowledge. In the course of the German Fast Breeder program, such methods had a twofold impact. One the one hand, Häfele emphazised – as the "father of the German Fast Breeder" – the utilization of CS for the actual planning and construction of the novel reactor type. On the other, namely as the director of the department of Energy Systems at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA, Häfele advised SA-based projections of energy consumption. These computerized scenarios provided the rationale for the conception of Fast Breeder programs as viable and necessary alternative energy sources in the first place. By focusing on the role of the involved CS techniques, the paper thus investigates the intertwined systems thinking of nuclear facilities’s planning and construction and the design of large-scale energy consumption and production scenarios in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as their conceptual afterlives in our contemporary era of computer simulation.

  7. Hypothetical influence of non-indexed Spanish journals on the impact factor of radiological journals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel-Dasit, Alberto; Aleixandre, Rafael; Valderrama, Juan C.; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Sanfeliu, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the hypothetical changes in the 2001 impact factor of 52 radiological journals included in the Science Citation Index-Journal Citation Reports by also counting cites proceeding from 73 Spanish journals on different medical specialties. Also, to estimate the possible impact factor of the official Spanish radiology journal, Radiologia, not included in this database. Materials and methods: A modified 2001 impact factor of 52 radiological journals and Radiologia was obtained by adding the number of cites in 1999 and 2000 from the medical Spanish journals. Data were obtained by consulting the 2001 edition of the Journal Citation Reports in the 'Web of Science' database. Results: The 16,985 bibliographical references were analysed (232 of them to radiological journals). The journal with the largest increase in its 2001 impact factor (from 1.83 to 1.90) was Radiologic Clinics of North America. European Journal of Radiology was the European journal with the highest increase (from 1.084 to 1.110) in the difference between the 2001 modified and original impact factor. The modified 2001 impact factor of the 34 American journals was statistically higher (P = 0.016) than that of the 18 European journals (1.64 versus 0.93). Differences between the 2001 modified and original impact factor were slightly higher in the American journals (no statistically significant difference). The 2001 impact factor of Radiologia was 0.056. Discussion: Differences between the 2001 original and modified impact factor were small, but larger in the American journals. The 2001 impact factor of Radiologia was modest, although similar to other publications included in the Journal Citation Reports

  8. Crystal Structure of VC0702 at 2.0 Angstrom: Conserved Hypothetical Protein from Vibrio Cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, S.; Forouhar, F.; Bussiere, D.; Robinson, H.; Kennedy, M.

    2006-01-01

    VC0702, a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function from Vibrio cholerae, resides in a three-gene operon containing the MbaA gene that encodes for a GGDEF and EAL domain-containing protein which is involved in regulating formation of the extracellular matrix of biofilms in Vibrio cholerae. The VC0702 crystal structure has been determined at 2.0 Angstroms and refined to R work = 22.8% and R free = 26.3%. VC0702 crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal lattice in the C2221 space group with dimensions of a = 66.61 Angstroms, b = 88.118 Angstroms, and c = 118.35 Angstroms with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. VC0702, which forms a mixed α + β three-layered αβα sandwich, belongs to the Pfam DUF84 and COG1986 families of proteins. Sequence conservation within the DUF84 and COG1986 families was used to identify a conserved patch of surface residues that define a cleft and potential substrate-binding site in VC0702. The three-dimensional structure of VC0702 is similar to that of Mj0226 from Methanococcus janeschii, which has been identified as a novel NTPase that binds NTP in a deep cleft similarly located to the conserved patch of surface residues that define an analogous cleft in VC0702. Collectively, the data suggest that VC0702 may have a biochemical function that involves NTP binding and phosphatase activity of some kind, and is likely involved in regulation of the signaling pathway that controls biofilm formation and maintenance in Vibrio cholerae

  9. Pollutant Plume Dispersion over Hypothetical Urban Areas based on Wind Tunnel Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ziwei; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2017-04-01

    Gaussian plume model is commonly adopted for pollutant concentration prediction in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). However, it has a number of limitations being applied to pollutant dispersion over complex land-surface morphology. In this study, the friction factor (f), as a measure of aerodynamic resistance induced by rough surfaces in the engineering community, was proposed to parameterize the vertical dispersion coefficient (σz) in the Gaussian model. A series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to verify the mathematical hypothesis and to characterize plume dispersion as a function of surface roughness as well. Hypothetical urban areas, which were assembled in the form of idealized street canyons of different aspect (building-height-to-street-width) ratios (AR = 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/12), were fabricated by aligning identical square aluminum bars at different separation apart in cross flows. Pollutant emitted from a ground-level line source into the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) was simulated using water vapour generated by ultrasonic atomizer. The humidity and the velocity (mean and fluctuating components) were measured, respectively, by humidity sensors and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) with X-wire probes in streamwise and vertical directions. Wind tunnel results showed that the pollutant concentration exhibits the conventional Gaussian distribution, suggesting the feasibility of using water vapour as a passive scalar in wind tunnel experiments. The friction factor increased with decreasing aspect ratios (widening the building separation). It was peaked at AR = 1/8 and decreased thereafter. Besides, a positive correlation between σz/xn (x is the distance from the pollutant source) and f1/4 (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.61) was observed, formulating the basic parameterization of plume dispersion over urban areas.

  10. RELAP5 analyses of two hypothetical flow reversal events for the advanced neutron source reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents RELAP5 results of two hypothetical, low flow transients analyzed as part of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor safety program. The reactor design features four independent coolant loops (three active and one in standby), each containing a main curculation pump (with battery powered pony motor), heat exchanger, an accumulator, and a check valve. The first transient assumes one of these pumps fails, and additionally, that the check valve in that loop remains stuck in the open position. This accident is considered extremely unlikely. Flow reverses in this loop, reducing the core flow because much of the coolant is diverted from the intact loops back through the failed loop. The second transient examines a 102-mm-diam instantaneous pipe break near the core inlet (the worst break location). A break is assumed to occur 90 s after a total loss-of-offsite power. Core flow reversal occurs because accumulator injection overpowers the diminishing pump flow. Safety margins are evaluated against four thermal limits: T{sub wall}=T{sub sat}, incipient boiling, onset of significant void, and critical heat flux. For the first transient, the results show that these limits are not exceeded (at a 95% non-exceedance probability level) if the pony motor battery lasts 30 minutes (the present design value). For the second transient, the results show that the closest approach of the fuel surface temperature to the local saturation temperature during core flow reversal is about 39{degrees}C. Therefore the fuel remains cool during this transient. Although this work is done specifically for the ANSR geometry and operating conditions, the general conclusions may be applicable to other highly subcooled reactor systems.

  11. Ultraviolet-B phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis: intraocular and crystalline lens photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainster, Martin A; Turner, Patricia L

    2010-04-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can cause phototoxic macular injuries in young people who have been sunbathing but not sungazing and in welders. Welders have a reportedly increased risk of uveal melanoma. We analyze phakic and pseudophakic risks for solar and welding arc UV-B exposure. Optical radiation measurement, analysis, and perspective. Spectral transmittances were measured for UV-transmitting, UV-blocking, and blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs). The photoprotective performances of crystalline and intraocular lenses were analyzed using relevant epidemiologic and laboratory data and action spectra for acute retinal phototoxicity and melanoma photocarcinogenesis. Crystalline lens UV-B retinal protection is deficient in children and young adults, increasing their potential susceptibility to acute retinal phototoxicity and hypothetical photomelanomagenesis. UV-B radiation has sufficient energy/photon to induce primary melanomagenic DNA lesions, unlike blue light or UV-A radiation. UV-blocking and blue-blocking IOLs have negligible UV-B transmittance. UV-transmitting IOL transmittance of UV-B radiation is equivalent to that of a 15-year-old crystalline lens. If optical radiation exposure is responsible for welders' increased risk of uveal melanoma, then UV-B radiation is the most probable causative agent and spectacle wear is a potential confounding factor in epidemiologic studies of ocular melanoma. Welders under 30 years of age are at greater risk for welding maculopathy than older welders. Children, adults under 30 years of age, and pseudophakic individuals with UV-transmitting IOLs should wear sunglasses in bright environments because of the UV-B window in their crystalline lenses or IOLs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Industrial CO2 emissions in China based on the hypothetical extraction method: Linkage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Wenqin; Mao, Guozhu; Cai, Hua; Zuo, Jian; Wang, Lili; Zhao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel-related CO 2 emissions are regarded as the primary sources of global climate change. Unlike direct CO 2 emissions for each sector, CO 2 emissions associated with complex linkages among sectors are usually ignored. We integrated the input–output analysis with the hypothetical extraction method to uncover the in-depth characteristics of the inter-sectoral linkages of CO 2 emissions. Based on China's 2007 data, this paper compared the output and demand emissions of CO 2 among eight blocks. The difference between the demand and output emissions of a block indicates that CO 2 is transferred from one block to another. Among the sectors analyzed in this study, the Energy industry block has the greatest CO 2 emissions with the Technology industry, Construction and Service blocks as its emission's primary destinations. Low-carbon industries that have lower direct CO 2 emissions are deeply anchored to high-carbon ones. If no effective measures are taken to limit final demand emissions or adjust energy structure, shifting to an economy that is low-carbon industries oriented would entail a decrease in CO 2 emission intensity per unit GDP but an increase in overall CO 2 emissions in absolute terms. The results are discussed in the context of climate-change policy. - Highlights: • Quantitatively analyze the characteristics of inter-industrial CO 2 emission linkages. • Propose the linkage measuring method of CO 2 emissions based on the modified HEM. • Detect the energy industry is a key sector on the output of embodied carbon. • Conclude that low-carbon industries are deeply anchored to high-carbon industries

  13. Identifying optimal agricultural countermeasure strategies for a hypothetical contamination scenario using the strategy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Oughton, D.; Kis, Z.; Eged, K.; Thorring, H.; Hunt, J.; Wright, S.; Barnett, C.L.; Gil, J.M.; Howard, B.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A spatially implemented model designed to assist the identification of optimal countermeasure strategies for radioactively contaminated regions is described. Collective and individual ingestion doses for people within the affected area are estimated together with collective exported ingestion dose. A range of countermeasures are incorporated within the model, and environmental restrictions have been included as appropriate. The model evaluates the effectiveness of a given combination of countermeasures through a cost function which balances the benefit obtained through the reduction in dose with the cost of implementation. The optimal countermeasure strategy is the combination of individual countermeasures (and when and where they are implemented) which gives the lowest value of the cost function. The model outputs should not be considered as definitive solutions, rather as interactive inputs to the decision making process. As a demonstration the model has been applied to a hypothetical scenario in Cumbria (UK). This scenario considered a published nuclear power plant accident scenario with a total deposition of 1.7 x 10 14 , 1.2 x 10 13 , 2.8 x 10 10 and 5.3 x 10 9 Bq for Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239/240 and Am-241, respectively. The model predicts that if no remediation measures were implemented the resulting collective dose would be approximately 36 000 person-Sv (predominantly from 137 Cs) over a 10-year period post-deposition. The optimal countermeasure strategy is predicted to avert approximately 33 000 person-Sv at a cost of approximately pound 160 million. The optimal strategy comprises a mixture of ploughing, AFCF (ammonium-ferric hexacyano-ferrate) administration, potassium fertiliser application, clean feeding of livestock and food restrictions. The model recommends specific areas within the contaminated area and time periods where these measures should be implemented

  14. A hypothetical model for predicting the toxicity of high aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, C. L.; Tantra, R.; Donaldson, K.; Stone, V.; Hankin, S. M.; Ross, B.; Aitken, R. J.; Jones, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to predict nanoparticle (dimensional structures which are less than 100 nm in size) toxicity through the use of a suitable model is an important goal if nanoparticles are to be regulated in terms of exposures and toxicological effects. Recently, a model to predict toxicity of nanoparticles with high aspect ratio has been put forward by a consortium of scientists. The High aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN) model is a platform that relates the physical dimensions of HARN (specifically length and diameter ratio) and biopersistence to their toxicity in biological environments. Potentially, this model is of great public health and economic importance, as it can be used as a tool to not only predict toxicological activity but can be used to classify the toxicity of various fibrous nanoparticles, without the need to carry out time-consuming and expensive toxicology studies. However, this model of toxicity is currently hypothetical in nature and is based solely on drawing similarities in its dimensional geometry with that of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibres. The aim of this review is two-fold: (a) to present findings from past literature, on the physicochemical property and pathogenicity bioassay testing of HARN (b) to identify some of the challenges and future research steps crucial before the HARN model can be accepted as a predictive model. By presenting what has been done, we are able to identify scientific challenges and research directions that are needed for the HARN model to gain public acceptance. Our recommendations for future research includes the need to: (a) accurately link physicochemical data with corresponding pathogenicity assay data, through the use of suitable reference standards and standardised protocols, (b) develop better tools/techniques for physicochemical characterisation, (c) to develop better ways of monitoring HARN in the workplace, (d) to reliably measure dose exposure levels, in order to support future epidemiological

  15. Effects of spent fuel types on offsite consequences of hypothetical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J. C.; Dwight, C. C.; Lehto, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducts experimental work on the development of waste forms suitable for several types of spent fuel at its facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) located 48 km West of Idaho Falls, ID. The objective of this paper is to compare the offsite radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents involving the various types of spent nuclear fuel handled in nonreactor nuclear facilities. The highest offsite total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) are estimated at a receptor located about 5 km SSE of ANL facilities. Criticality safety considerations limit the amount of enriched uranium and plutonium that could be at risk in any given scenario. Heat generated by decay of fission products and actinides does not limit the masses of spent fuel within any given operation because the minimum time elapsed since fissions occurred in any form is at least five years. At cooling times of this magnitude, fewer than ten radionuclides account for 99% of the projected TEDE at offsite receptors for any credible accident. Elimination of all but the most important nuclides allows rapid assessments of offsite doses with little loss of accuracy. Since the ARF (airborne release fraction), RF (respirable fraction), LPF (leak path fraction) and atmospheric dilution factor (χ/Q) can vary by orders of magnitude, it is not productive to consider nuclides that contribute less than a few percent of the total dose. Therefore, only 134 Cs, 137 Cs- 137m Ba, and the actinides significantly influence the offsite radiological consequences of severe accidents. Even using highly conservative assumptions in estimating radiological consequences, they remain well below current Department of Energy guidelines for highly unlikely accidents

  16. A hypothetical model for predicting the toxicity of high aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, C. L.; Tantra, R.; Donaldson, K.; Stone, V.; Hankin, S. M.; Ross, B.; Aitken, R. J.; Jones, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to predict nanoparticle (dimensional structures which are less than 100 nm in size) toxicity through the use of a suitable model is an important goal if nanoparticles are to be regulated in terms of exposures and toxicological effects. Recently, a model to predict toxicity of nanoparticles with high aspect ratio has been put forward by a consortium of scientists. The High aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN) model is a platform that relates the physical dimensions of HARN (specifically length and diameter ratio) and biopersistence to their toxicity in biological environments. Potentially, this model is of great public health and economic importance, as it can be used as a tool to not only predict toxicological activity but can be used to classify the toxicity of various fibrous nanoparticles, without the need to carry out time-consuming and expensive toxicology studies. However, this model of toxicity is currently hypothetical in nature and is based solely on drawing similarities in its dimensional geometry with that of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibres. The aim of this review is two-fold: (a) to present findings from past literature, on the physicochemical property and pathogenicity bioassay testing of HARN (b) to identify some of the challenges and future research steps crucial before the HARN model can be accepted as a predictive model. By presenting what has been done, we are able to identify scientific challenges and research directions that are needed for the HARN model to gain public acceptance. Our recommendations for future research includes the need to: (a) accurately link physicochemical data with corresponding pathogenicity assay data, through the use of suitable reference standards and standardised protocols, (b) develop better tools/techniques for physicochemical characterisation, (c) to develop better ways of monitoring HARN in the workplace, (d) to reliably measure dose exposure levels, in order to support future epidemiological

  17. Radiation doses estimation for hypothetical NPP Krsko accidents without and with PCFV using RASCAL software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, Josip; Konjarek, Damir; Grgic, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Calculation is done using Source Term to Dose module of RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System Consequence Analysis) software to estimate projected radiation doses from a radioactive plume to the environment. Utilizing this module, it is possible to do preliminary assessment of consequences to the environment in case of adverse reactor conditions or releases from other objects containing radioactive materials before the emergency situation has happened or in the early phase. RASCAL is simple, easy to use, fast-running tool able to provide initial estimate of radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. Upon entering rather limited amount of input parameters for the Krsko NPP, mostly key plant parameters, time dependent source term calculation is executed to determine radioactive inventory release rates for different plant conditions, release paths and availability of protective measures. These rates given for each radionuclide as a function of time are used as an input to atmospheric dispersion and transport model. Together with release rates, meteorological conditions dataset serve as input to determine the behavior of the radioactive releases that is plume in the atmosphere. So as an output, RASCAL produces a 'dispersion envelope' of radionuclide concentrations in the atmosphere. These concentrations of radionuclides in the atmosphere are further used for estimating the doses to the environment and the public downwind the release point. Throughout this paper, dose assessment is performed for two distances, close-in distance and distance out to 40 km from the source, for hypothetical NPP Krsko accidents without and with Passive Containment Filtered Vent (PCFV) system used. Obvious difference is related to released radioactivity of Iodine isotopes. Results of radioactive effluents deposition in the environment are displayed via various doze parameters, radionuclide concentrations and materials exposure rates in this particular case. (authors)

  18. Monitoring sustainable biomass flows : General methodology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, André

    Transition to a bio-based economy will create new demand for biomass, e.g. the increasing use of bioenergy, but the impacts on existing markets are unclear. Furthermore, there is a growing public concern on the sustainability of biomass. This study proposes a methodological framework for mapping

  19. Testing Methodology in the Student Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Tatiana N.

    2017-01-01

    The subject of the research is to build methodologies to evaluate the student knowledge by testing. The author points to the importance of feedback about the mastering level in the learning process. Testing is considered as a tool. The object of the study is to create the test system models for defence practice problems. Special attention is paid…

  20. Positive effects of creating mandalas

    OpenAIRE

    Toroš, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present master’s thesis is to examine the psychological effects of creating mandalas and to give recommendations for a better use of the mandalas in the practice of art assistance in order to help in this way others and oneself. Mandalas are sacred symbols, used in Hinduism and Buddhist religion practices as tools for meditation and concentration. They are geometrical representations of the creation of the cosmos and schemas of all that was created. Jung sat the foundations...

  1. Creating visual explanations improves learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Eliza; Tversky, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Many topics in science are notoriously difficult for students to learn. Mechanisms and processes outside student experience present particular challenges. While instruction typically involves visualizations, students usually explain in words. Because visual explanations can show parts and processes of complex systems directly, creating them should have benefits beyond creating verbal explanations. We compared learning from creating visual or verbal explanations for two STEM domains, a mechanical system (bicycle pump) and a chemical system (bonding). Both kinds of explanations were analyzed for content and learning assess by a post-test. For the mechanical system, creating a visual explanation increased understanding particularly for participants of low spatial ability. For the chemical system, creating both visual and verbal explanations improved learning without new teaching. Creating a visual explanation was superior and benefitted participants of both high and low spatial ability. Visual explanations often included crucial yet invisible features. The greater effectiveness of visual explanations appears attributable to the checks they provide for completeness and coherence as well as to their roles as platforms for inference. The benefits should generalize to other domains like the social sciences, history, and archeology where important information can be visualized. Together, the findings provide support for the use of learner-generated visual explanations as a powerful learning tool.

  2. Take Me Out to the Ballgame, but Keep Me away from the Concession Stand Workers: A Hypothetical Case Involving Negligent Volunteers at Ballparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Jennifer Cordon; York, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothetical case presented in this article challenges students in a legal environment of business course to answer that question by examining key legal concepts in agency and contract law, and to conduct an ethical analysis in a case involving volunteers. Although the events in the following case are hypothetical, the contract that the…

  3. Novice Mathematics Teachers Create Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz Oppenheimer, Orna; Dvir, Nurit

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative research based on three narratives written by novice mathematics teachers. We examine their unique professional world during their first year of work. The methodology of narrative framework, on which this article is based, helps to gain better understanding of the need for novice mathematics teachers to have…

  4. BEACON/MOD2A analysis of the Arkansas-1 reactor cavity during a hypothetical hot leg break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsthaler, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    As part of the evaluation of the new MOD2A version of the BEACON code, the Arkansas-1 reactor cavity was modeled during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. Results of the BEACON analysis were compared with results obtained previously with the COMPARE containment code. Studies were also made investigating some of the BEACON interphasic, timestep control, and wall heat transfer options to assure that these models were working properly and to observe their effects on the results. Descriptions of the Arkansas-1 reactor cavity, initial assumptions during the hypothetical LOCA, and methods of modeling with BEACON are presented. Some of the problems encountered in accurately modeling the penetrations surrounding the hot and cold leg pipes are also discussed

  5. The structure of the hypothetical protein smu.1377c from Streptococcus mutans suggests a role in tRNA modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tian-Min; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanfen; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from S. mutans, shows a similar fold to Sua5-YciO-YrdC-family proteins and indicates its functional role in tRNA modification. Members of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC protein family are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes and possess a conserved α/β twisted open-sheet fold. The Escherichia coli protein YrdC has been shown to be involved in modification of tRNA. The crystal structure of smu.1377c, a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans, has been determined to 2.25 Å resolution. From structure analysis and comparison, it is shown that smu.1377c is a member of the Sua5-YciO-YrdC family and that it may play the same role as E. coli YrdC

  6. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  7. Radioactive dispersion analysis for hypothetical nuclear power plant (NPP) candidate site in Perak state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Shazmeen Daniar; Basri, Nor Afifah; Omar, Nurlyana; Koh, Meng-Hock; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saridan Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad

    2017-10-01

    Malaysia is planning to build a nuclear power plant (NPP) by 2030 to diversify the national electricity supply and resources. Selection of an NPP site must consider various factors, especially nuclear safety consideration to fulfil the nuclear safety objectives. Environmental Risk Assessment Analysis is a part of safety requirements by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) prior to the NPP commissioning process. Risk Assessments Analysis (RIA) is compulsory for the NPP site evaluation. One of RIA methods are Radioactive Dispersion Analysis using probabilistic risk analysis software. It is also important to perform studies to estimate the impact to the neighbouring population in the case of a nuclear accident at the power plant. In the present work, aimed to study the impact of a hypothetical nuclear accident by simulating the dispersion pattern of radionuclides originated from a candidate site at Manjung, Perak. The work has been performed using the HotSpot Health Physics codes. Two types of radionuclides have been considered namely 137Cs and 131I. In calculations, the initial concentration of radioactive materials of Fukushima Daiichi accident data are used which are 2.06 x 1016 Bq and 1.68 x 1017 Bq respectively for the two radionuclides. The result shows that the dispersion distance obtained from both software are not the same. It shows that 137Cs and 131I can be dispersed as far as 16 km and 80 km away from the site during radiological accident respectively, reaching major towns in Perak. Using HOTSPOT, the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) for 137Cs and 131I at major towns in Perak such as Lumut and Sitiawan are 1.2 mSv and 9.9 mSv. As for Taiping, Ipoh, Kampar, and Teluk Intan the estimated TEDE is around 0.2 mSv and 1.6 mSv respectively. In conclusion, the dispersion can reach as far as 80 km from the site. However, estimated annual effective dose is not more than 1 mSv limit, which is considered acceptable in the point of view of

  8. Radioactive dispersion analysis for hypothetical nuclear power plant (NPP candidate site in Perak state, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin Shazmeen Daniar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is planning to build a nuclear power plant (NPP by 2030 to diversify the national electricity supply and resources. Selection of an NPP site must consider various factors, especially nuclear safety consideration to fulfil the nuclear safety objectives. Environmental Risk Assessment Analysis is a part of safety requirements by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA prior to the NPP commissioning process. Risk Assessments Analysis (RIA is compulsory for the NPP site evaluation. One of RIA methods are Radioactive Dispersion Analysis using probabilistic risk analysis software. It is also important to perform studies to estimate the impact to the neighbouring population in the case of a nuclear accident at the power plant. In the present work, aimed to study the impact of a hypothetical nuclear accident by simulating the dispersion pattern of radionuclides originated from a candidate site at Manjung, Perak. The work has been performed using the HotSpot Health Physics codes. Two types of radionuclides have been considered namely 137Cs and 131I. In calculations, the initial concentration of radioactive materials of Fukushima Daiichi accident data are used which are 2.06 x 1016 Bq and 1.68 x 1017 Bq respectively for the two radionuclides. The result shows that the dispersion distance obtained from both software are not the same. It shows that 137Cs and 131I can be dispersed as far as 16 km and 80 km away from the site during radiological accident respectively, reaching major towns in Perak. Using HOTSPOT, the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE for 137Cs and 131I at major towns in Perak such as Lumut and Sitiawan are 1.2 mSv and 9.9 mSv. As for Taiping, Ipoh, Kampar, and Teluk Intan the estimated TEDE is around 0.2 mSv and 1.6 mSv respectively. In conclusion, the dispersion can reach as far as 80 km from the site. However, estimated annual effective dose is not more than 1 mSv limit, which is considered acceptable in the point

  9. An Analysis of Reactor Structural Response to Fuel Sodium Interaction in a Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Tashiro, M.; Sasanuma, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1976-01-01

    This study shows the effect of constraints around FSI zone on FSI phenomena and deformations of reactor structures. SUGAR-PISCES code system has been developed to evaluate the phenomena of FSI and the response of reactor structure. SUGAR calculates the phenomena of FSI. PISCES, developed by Physics International Company in U.S.A, calculates the dynamic response of reactor structure in two-dimensional, time-dependent finite-difference Lagrangian model. The results show that the peak pressure and energy by FSI and the deformation of reactor structures are about twice in case of FSI zone surrounding by blanket than by coolant. The FSI phenomena highly depend on the reactor structure and the realistic configuration around core must be considered for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accident. In conclusion: FSI phenomena depend highly on constraints around FSI zone, so that the constraints must be dealt with realistically in analytical models. Although a two-dimensional model is superior to a quasi-two-dimensional model. The former needs long calculation time, so it is very expensive using in parametric study. Therefore, it is desirable that the two-dimensional model is used in the final study of reactor design and the quasi-two-dimensional model is used in parametric study. The blanket affects on the acoustic pressure and the deformations of radial structures, but affects scarcely on the upper vessel deformation. The blanket also affects on the mechanical work largely. The core barrel gives scarcely the effects on pressure in single phase but gives highly the effects on pressure in two-phase and deformation of reactor structures in this study. For studying the more realistic phenomena of FSI in the reactor design, the following works should be needed. (i) Spatial Distribution of FSI Region Spatial and time-dependent distribution of fuel temperature and molten fuel fraction must be taken in realistic simulation of accident condition. To this purpose, the code will

  10. Simulation of a hypothetical core disruptive accident in the mars test-facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.; Lepareux, M.

    2001-01-01

    In France, a large experimental programme MARA/MARS was undertaken in the 80's to estimate the mechanical consequences of an HCDA (Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident) and to validate the SIRIUS computer code used at that time for the numerical simulations. At the end of the 80's, it was preferred to add a HCDA sodium-bubble-argon tri-component constitutive law to the general ALE fast dynamics finite element CASTEM-PLEXUS code rather than going on developing and using the specialized SIRIUS code. The experimental results of the MARA programme were used in the 90's to validate and qualify the CASTEM-PLEXUS code. A first series of computations of the tests MARA 8, MARA 10 and MARS was realised. The simulations showed a rather good agreement between the experimental and computed results for the MARA 8 and MARA 10 tests - even if there were some discrepancies - but the prediction of the MARS structure displacements and strains was overestimated. This conservatism was supposed to come from the fact that several MARS non axisymmetric structures like core elements, pumps and heat exchangers were not represented in the CASTEM-PLEXUS model. These structures, acting as porous barriers, had a protective effect on the mock-up containment by absorbing energy and slowing down the fluid impacting the containment. For these reasons, we developed in CASTEM-PLEXUS a new HCDA constitutive law taking into account the presence of the internal structures (without meshing them) by means of an equivalent porosity method. In other respects, the process used for dealing with the fluid-structure coupling in CASTEM-PLEXUS was improved. Thus a second series of simulations of the tests MARA8 and MARA10 was realised. A simulation of the test MARS was carried out too with the same simplified representation of the peripheral structures as in order to estimate the improvement provided by the new fluid-structure coupling. This paper presents a third numerical simulation of the MARS test with the

  11. Risks and consequences of a hypothetical radiological accident on nuclear powered submarine traversing Suez canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Egypt has unique problem in Suez Canal, although there are, a number of radioactive Cargos traveling through the Canal which includes new and spent reactor fuel and about 100 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride each year, under the regulatory control of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, there is, still a major problem concerning the passage of a number of nuclear powered vessels and submarines passing through the canal several times each year. The passage of these vessels and submarines has a political situation and not under the regulatory control of the Egyptian regulatory body. In spite of all precautions that are taken, in the nuclear powered vessels and submarines from the point of view of the rugged design of the reactor plant, multiple safety systems and operation with exceptional consideration for safety. Although of all of these a potential for a serious accident may does arise, even though, its probability is minimal. The Government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to cope with any radiological accidents, which may arise inside the country. Suez Canal lies in the north east of Egypt, and passes through a zone of considerable business, agriculture and industrial activities. The zone consists of three populated provinces, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. According to Suez Canal authority regulations it is not allowed for these vessels and submarines to be landed in port. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident aboard a nuclear powered submarine occurred during its passage in the Suez Canal. Such an accident will produce a radioactive cloud containing a number of radioactive materials. In such type of accidents contamination and causality zones, could extend to several kilometers. The different phases of the accident are going to be discussed and analyzed. The emergency actions taken during the accident phases are going to be presented. The

  12. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-01

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be ∼ 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the regional

  13. Chronic Pain as a Hypothetical Construct: A Practical and Philosophical Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Doleys

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain has been defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.” Chronic pain is usually described as pain that has persisted for 3–6 months and/or beyond the expected time of healing. The numerical pain rating (NPR is the customary metric and often considered as a proxy for the subjective experience of chronic pain. This definition of pain (chronic has been of significant heuristic value. However, the definition and the models it has spawned tend to encourage the interpretation of pain as a measurable entity and implies that the patient’s experience of pain can be fully comprehended by someone other than the person in pain. Several major models of pain have been scrutinized and found to propagate the notion of pain as a ‘thing’ and fall prey to biomedical reductionism and Cartesian (mind-body dualism. Furthermore, the NPR does not appear to capture the complexity of chronic pain and correlates poorly with other clinically meaningful outcomes. It, and other aspects of the current notion of chronic pain, appear to be an extension of our reliance on the philosophical principles of reductionism and materialism. These and other shortcomings identified in the IASP definition have resulted in an increased interest in a reexamination and possible updating of our view of pain (chronic and its definition. The present paper describes an alternative view of pain, in particular chronic pain. It argues that chronic pain should be understood as a separate phenomenon from, rather than an extension of, acute pain and interpreted as a hypothetical construct (HC. HCs are contrasted to intervening variables (IV and the use of HCs in science is illustrated. The acceptance of the principles of nonlinearity and emergence are seen as important characteristics. The practical implications and barriers

  14. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be approx 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the

  15. Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis: A Hypothetical Application to the Waas Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Kristin; Mens, Marjolein; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Jeuken, Ad

    2016-04-01

    More frequent and intense hydrologic events under climate change are expected to enhance water security and flood risk management challenges worldwide. Traditional planning approaches must be adapted to address climate change and develop solutions with an appropriate level of robustness and flexibility. The Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) method is a novel planning approach embodying a suite of complementary methods, including decision scaling and adaptation pathways. Decision scaling offers a bottom-up approach to assess risk and tailors the complexity of the analysis to the problem at hand and the available capacity. Through adaptation pathway,s an array of future strategies towards climate robustness are developed, ranging in flexibility and immediacy of investments. Flexible pathways include transfer points to other strategies to ensure that the system can be adapted if future conditions vary from those expected. CRIDA combines these two approaches in a stakeholder driven process which guides decision makers through the planning and decision process, taking into account how the confidence in the available science, the consequences in the system, and the capacity of institutions should influence strategy selection. In this presentation, we will explain the CRIDA method and compare it to existing planning processes, such as the US Army Corps of Engineers Principles and Guidelines as well as Integrated Water Resources Management Planning. Then, we will apply the approach to a hypothetical case study for the Waas Region, a large downstream river basin facing rapid development threatened by increased flood risks. Through the case study, we will demonstrate how a stakeholder driven process can be used to evaluate system robustness to climate change; develop adaptation pathways for multiple objectives and criteria; and illustrate how varying levels of confidence, consequences, and capacity would play a role in the decision making process, specifically

  16. Estimating hypothetical present-day insured losses for past intense hurricanes in the French Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James; Desarthe, Jérémy; Naulin, Jean-Philippe; Garnier, Emmanuel; Liu, Ye; Moncoulon, David

    2015-04-01

    On the islands of the French Antilles, the period for which systematic meteorological measurements and historic event loss data are available is short relative to the recurrence intervals of very intense, damaging hurricanes. Additionally, the value of property at risk changes through time. As such, the recent past can only provide limited insight into potential losses from extreme storms in coming years. Here we present some research that seeks to overcome, as far as is possible, the limitations of record length in assessing the possible impacts of near-future hurricanes on insured properties. First, using the archives of the French overseas departments (which included administrative and weather reports, inventories of damage to houses, crops and trees, as well as some meteorological observations after 1950) we reconstructed the spatial patterns of hazard intensity associated with three historical events. They are: i) the 1928 Hurricane (Guadeloupe), ii) Hurricane Betsy (1956, Guadeloupe) and iii) Hurricane David (1979, Martinique). These events were selected because all were damaging, and the information available on each is rich. Then, using a recently developed catastrophe model for hurricanes affecting Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, we simulated the hypothetical losses to insured properties that the reconstructed events might cause if they were to reoccur today. The model simulated damage due to wind, rainfall-induced flooding and storm surge flooding. These 'what if' scenarios provided an initial indication of the potential present-day exposure of the insurance industry to intense hurricanes. However, we acknowledge that historical events are unlikely to repeat exactly. We therefore extended the study by producing a stochastic event catalogue containing a large number of synthetic but plausible hurricane events. Instrumental data were used as a basis for event generation, but importantly the statistical methods we applied permit

  17. A critical review of Jan Beyea's report: A study of some of the consequences of hypothetical reactor accidents at Barsebaeck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoerup, H.L.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Pejtersen, V.; Lundtang Petersen, E.; Petersen, T.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.; Heikel Vinther, F.

    1978-04-01

    This report contains a critical review of Jan Beyea's report: A study of some of the consequences of hypothetical reactor accidents at Barsebaeck (Princeton University, January 1978). Unreasonable assumptions concerning dry deposition, plume rise, meteorological considerations, dose-response relationship and probability distributions were found in the report. It is found that the conclusions of the Beyea report are the result of a mathematical exercise rather than the results of a realistic risk evaluation for Barsebaeck. (author)

  18. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting

  19. Inventory of programs. Calculation of the isotope inventory after a hypothetical accident at the Cofrentes Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albendea, M.

    2014-01-01

    Iberdrola is developing a new application to calculate the inventory of radiological material, then of a hypothetical accident, with the name of inventory. This application allows you to calculate the inventory isotopic, analysers and accurate thermal of all or part of the nucleus of the plant of Cofrentes, even of any single element, based on its history of irradiation and specific periods of decay, since the reactor at any time after the shutdown. (Author)

  20. Iterating between Tools to Create and Edit Visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Alex; Drucker, Steven; Fisher, Danyel; Meyer, Miriah

    2017-01-01

    A common workflow for visualization designers begins with a generative tool, like D3 or Processing, to create the initial visualization; and proceeds to a drawing tool, like Adobe Illustrator or Inkscape, for editing and cleaning. Unfortunately, this is typically a one-way process: once a visualization is exported from the generative tool into a drawing tool, it is difficult to make further, data-driven changes. In this paper, we propose a bridge model to allow designers to bring their work back from the drawing tool to re-edit in the generative tool. Our key insight is to recast this iteration challenge as a merge problem - similar to when two people are editing a document and changes between them need to reconciled. We also present a specific instantiation of this model, a tool called Hanpuku, which bridges between D3 scripts and Illustrator. We show several examples of visualizations that are iteratively created using Hanpuku in order to illustrate the flexibility of the approach. We further describe several hypothetical tools that bridge between other visualization tools to emphasize the generality of the model.

  1. Scenario development methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Hudson, J.; Stephansson, O.

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are a) Event tree analysis, b) Influence diagrams and c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs

  2. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  3. Statistical equivalence and test-retest reliability of delay and probability discounting using real and hypothetical rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiewicz, Alexis K; Carter, Anne E; Landes, Reid D; Yi, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD) refer to the reduction in the subjective value of outcomes as a function of delay and uncertainty, respectively. Elevated measures of discounting are associated with a variety of maladaptive behaviors, and confidence in the validity of these measures is imperative. The present research examined (1) the statistical equivalence of discounting measures when rewards were hypothetical or real, and (2) their 1-week reliability. While previous research has partially explored these issues using the low threshold of nonsignificant difference, the present study fully addressed this issue using the more-compelling threshold of statistical equivalence. DD and PD measures were collected from 28 healthy adults using real and hypothetical $50 rewards during each of two experimental sessions, one week apart. Analyses using area-under-the-curve measures revealed a general pattern of statistical equivalence, indicating equivalence of real/hypothetical conditions as well as 1-week reliability. Exceptions are identified and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Paying the price: a cross-sectional survey of Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' responses to hypothetical cigarette price rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Doran, Christopher; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxation can lead to reductions in tobacco consumption and prevalence of use across social groups. However, use of price-minimisation strategies to manage current and future tobacco use and the role of financial stress is less understood. This study aimed to measure the effect of cigarette price increases on price-minimisation strategy endorsement and financial stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Community service organisation welfare recipients in NSW, Australia completed a touchscreen survey. Smoking history, financial stress, highest price to quit and responses to hypothetical cigarette price increases were assessed. Participants were 354 smokers (response rate = 79%). Most participants received income from a government pension (95%), earned price rises, significantly more participants endorsed trying to quit in response to the larger increase scenario (P price-minimisation strategies (e.g. switching to cheaper brands/products) were endorsed, but remained constant across hypothetical scenarios; level of financial stress appeared to have little influence. Smokers indicating they would not change their smoking in response to price rises had higher levels of nicotine dependence. Socially disadvantaged smokers endorsed numerous price-minimising strategies to maintain smoking at hypothetically increased costs. Larger cigarette price rises motivated more smokers to consider quitting, while price-resistant smokers appeared to have a more entrenched smoker status. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. On Creating and Sustaining Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses an initiative aimed at creating direct and long lasting influence on the use and development of telemedicine and telehealth by healthcare professionals, patients and citizens. The initiative draws on ideas, insights, and lessons learned from Participatory Design...... (PD) as well as from innovation theory and software ecosystems. Last, but not least, the ongoing debate on public finances/economy versus tax evasion by major private companies has been an important element in shaping the vision and creating support for the initiative. This vision is about democratic...

  6. Journaling: creating space for "I".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jennell P

    2010-01-01

    As nurses engaged in a caring profession, it is critical that we learn not only to care for others but also to care for ourselves. To care effectively for ourselves, we must create the space and time in which to do this. Journaling is one tool that scholars offer as a way to create this space. Although there is no clear consensus about the best techniques for journaling, there is evidence that journaling, as a reflective, meditative activity, can promote creativity, self-awareness, and personal development.

  7. Organizing the Methodology Work at Higher School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Plaksina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the methodology components of organizing the higher school training. The research and analysis of the existing methodology systems carried out by the authors reveals that their advantages and disadvantages are related to the type of the system creating element of the methodology system organizational structure. The optimal scheme of such system has been developed in the context of Vocational School Reorganization implying the specification and expansion of the set of basic design principles of any control system. Following the suggested organizational approach provides the grounds for teachers’ self development and professional growth. The methodology of the approach allows using the given structure in any higher educational institution, providing the system transition from its simple functioning to the sustainable development mode. 

  8. Intentionality, consciousness, and creating community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinski, Violet M

    2009-01-01

    Intentionality is briefly explored from the perspective of seminal written works on therapeutic touch and recorded conversations with Martha E. Rogers. This overview hints at possible interrelationships among intentionality, consciousness, and creating community, along with conceptual ambiguities, which are explored in detail by Zahourek and Larkin in this column.

  9. We create our own reality

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " Yes, we create our own reality. This is one of the most fundamental tenets of the ancient oriental religions, such as Buddhism. And during the last century, modern particle physics or quantum mechanics has discovered exactly the same thing" (1 page).

  10. Creating Space for Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As teachers struggle to balance the needs of their students with the requirements of commercial reading materials, educators need to consider how teachers will create space for children's literature in today's classrooms. In this article, 10 practical recommendations for incorporating children's literature in the reading instructional framework…

  11. Creating an Innovative Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to create an innovative learning (iLearning) organization. It begins by discussing the life cycle of knowledge in an organization, followed by a description of the theoretical foundation for iLearning. Next, the article presents an example of iLearning, followed by a description of the distributed nature of work, the…

  12. Creating a New Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan, Ed.; Hannaway, Jane, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Considering that having a quality teacher is the foremost in-school predictor of students' success, ensuring teacher excellence is vital to the nation's educational system. In "Creating a New Teaching Profession," diverse scholars assess the state of human capital development in the teaching profession today and how to progress.

  13. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.E.; Dillon, R.T.; Tierney, M.S.; Davis, H.T.; McGrath, P.E.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Shaw, H.R.; Helton, J.C.; Donath, F.A.

    1978-10-01

    The Fuel Cycle Risk Analysis Division of Sandia Laboratories is funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a methodology for assessment of the long-term risks from radioactive waste disposal in deep, geologic media. The first phase of this work, which is documented in this report, involves the following: (1) development of analytical models to represent the processes by which radioactive waste might leave the waste repository, enter the surface environment and eventually reach humans and (2) definition of a hypothetical ''reference system'' to provide a realistic setting for exercise of the models in a risk or safety assessment. The second phase of this work, which will be documented in a later report, will involve use of the analytical models in a demonstration risk or safety assessment of the reference system. The analytical methods and data developed in this study are expected to form the basis for a portion of the NRC repository licensing methodology

  14. A methodology for selecting optimum organizations for space communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper suggests that a methodology exists for selecting optimum organizations for future space communities of various sizes and purposes. Results of an exploratory study to identify an optimum hypothetical organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary research and applications (R&A) Space Base manned by a mixed crew of technologists are presented. Since such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than the empirical testing of it. The principal finding of this research was that a four-level project type 'total matrix' model will optimize the effectiveness of Space Base technologists. An overall conclusion which can be reached from the research is that application of this methodology, or portions of it, may provide planning insights for the formal organizations which will be needed during the Space Industrialization Age.

  15. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2018-01-01

    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis...

  16. Methodologies, languages and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, Katsuya

    1994-01-01

    This is a summary of the open-quotes Methodologies, Languages and Toolsclose quotes session in the CHEP'94 conference. All the contributions to methodologies and languages are relevant to the object-oriented approach. Other topics presented are related to various software tools in the down-sized computing environment

  17. Archetype modeling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, David; Maldonado, José Alberto; Robles, Montserrat

    2018-03-01

    Clinical Information Models (CIMs) expressed as archetypes play an essential role in the design and development of current Electronic Health Record (EHR) information structures. Although there exist many experiences about using archetypes in the literature, a comprehensive and formal methodology for archetype modeling does not exist. Having a modeling methodology is essential to develop quality archetypes, in order to guide the development of EHR systems and to allow the semantic interoperability of health data. In this work, an archetype modeling methodology is proposed. This paper describes its phases, the inputs and outputs of each phase, and the involved participants and tools. It also includes the description of the possible strategies to organize the modeling process. The proposed methodology is inspired by existing best practices of CIMs, software and ontology development. The methodology has been applied and evaluated in regional and national EHR projects. The application of the methodology provided useful feedback and improvements, and confirmed its advantages. The conclusion of this work is that having a formal methodology for archetype development facilitates the definition and adoption of interoperable archetypes, improves their quality, and facilitates their reuse among different information systems and EHR projects. Moreover, the proposed methodology can be also a reference for CIMs development using any other formalism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  19. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works...

  20. Data Centric Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Fadi E.

    2012-01-01

    Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…

  1. The Methodology of Magpies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  2. Population dose estimation from a hypothetical release of 2.4 x 106 curies of noble gases and 1 x 104 curies of 131I at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.; Cotter, S.J.; Miller, C.W.; Glandon, S.R.

    1981-09-01

    Beginning on March 28, 1979, a sequence of events occurred at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 (TMINS-2) nuclear power reactor which resulted in the accidental release of approximately 2.4 x 10 6 Ci of noble gases and 13 to 15 Ci 131 I. A comprehensive study of this incident has been reported by the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island. As part of this study, the Technical Assessment Task Group for the Commission addressed a series of alternative event scenarios, including the potential for a higher release of 131 I. As a continuation of this task, this report presents the estimated collective dose to the population within 50 miles of TMINS-2 from a hypothetical release of 2.4 x 10 6 Ci of noble gases and 1 x 10 4 Ci 131 I by the methodology of atmospheric dispersion modeling and population dose estimation through the inhalation, ingestion and immersion exposure pathways

  3. Leadership Networking Connect, Collaborate, Create

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Baldwin, David

    2011-01-01

    Networking is essential to effective leadership in today's organizations. Leaders who are skilled networkers have access to people, information, and resources to help solve problems and create opportunities. Leaders who neglect their networks are missing out on a critical component of their role as leaders. This book will help leaders take a new view of networking and provide insight into how to enhance their networks and become effective at leadership networking.

  4. Popes in the Pizza: Analyzing Activity Reports to Create and Sustain a Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Charlie; Blythe, Hal; Keeley, E. J.; Forsyth, Ben

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a practical methodology for creating and sustaining strategic planning, the task analysis. Utilizing our Teaching & Learning Center Strategic Plan as a model, we demonstrate how working with a weekly status report provides a comprehensive listing of detail necessary to analyze and revise the plan. The new methodology is…

  5. Peculiarities of Creating Foreign Students’ Lexical Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigul Eskermesovna Sadenova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching of vocabulary includes several aspects of teaching content: linguistic, methodological and psychological. Teaching of vocabulary is a process which is inextricably entwined with understanding relations between new words and phonetic and grammar aspects of the language. On the one hand, simultaneous learning of two languages complicates the tasks set to the students, but, on the other hand, it simplifies the process. The complexity is in the scope of vocabulary to be remembered, as well as in the differences between grammar structures used in Russian and Kazakh. The simplification is in the fact that students are fully aware that lexical competence is formed gradually, and that every language has its lexical base required at the initial stage, and that such base is to be developed for mastering a specific language. Before identifying the methods of vocabulary semantization in the course of teaching a language to foreign students, students shall be offered active vocabulary, used to express their ideas orally and in written form, and passive vocabulary, used to perceive oral and written information. It is not possible to teach semantics only. It is necessary to create paradigmatic, syntactic and associative relations. The formation of lexical skills is connected with the solidity of vocabulary retention. In order to ensure reinforcement of the vocabulary learnt, the students shall be offered exercises contributing to the development of their skills of using vocabulary in listening, speaking, reading and writing. All above mentioned types of vocabulary semantization constitute a unified whole. Different ways of semantization are set forth for methodological purposes, to facilitate the achievement of the desired result. Translation and non-translation techniques for vocabulary presentation, as well as some tips and exercises, are given. The use of basic vocabulary at elementary and advanced levels is suggested. Certain methods for the

  6. Discrepancies between multicriteria decision analysis-based ranking and intuitive ranking for pharmaceutical benefit-risk profiles in a hypothetical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, K; Ono, S

    2017-02-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been generally considered a promising decision-making methodology for the assessment of drug benefit-risk profiles. There have been many discussions in both public and private sectors on its feasibility and applicability, but it has not been employed in official decision-makings. For the purpose of examining to what extent MCDA would reflect the first-hand, intuitive preference of evaluators in practical pharmaceutical assessments, we conducted a questionnaire survey involving the participation of employees of pharmaceutical companies. Showing profiles of the efficacy and safety of four hypothetical drugs, each respondent was asked to rank them following the standard MCDA process and then to rank them intuitively (i.e. without applying any analytical framework). These two approaches resulted in substantially different ranking patterns from the same individuals, and the concordance rate was surprisingly low (17%). Although many respondents intuitively showed a preference for mild, balanced risk-benefit profiles over profiles with a conspicuous advantage in either risk or benefit, the ranking orders based on MCDA scores did not reflect the intuitive preference. Observed discrepancies between the rankings seemed to be primarily attributed to the structural characteristics of MCDA, which assumes that evaluation on each benefit and risk component should have monotonic impact on final scores. It would be difficult for MCDA to reflect commonly observed non-monotonic preferences for risk and benefit profiles. Possible drawbacks of MCDA should be further investigated prior to the real-world application of its benefit-risk assessment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Methodology for Modeling and Analysis of Business Processes (MMABP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Repa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the methodology for modeling business processes. Creation of the methodology is described in terms of the Design Science Method. Firstly, the gap in contemporary Business Process Modeling approaches is identified and general modeling principles which can fill the gap are discussed. The way which these principles have been implemented in the main features of created methodology is described. Most critical identified points of the business process modeling are process states, process hierarchy and the granularity of process description. The methodology has been evaluated by use in the real project. Using the examples from this project the main methodology features are explained together with the significant problems which have been met during the project. Concluding from these problems together with the results of the methodology evaluation the needed future development of the methodology is outlined.

  8. ATHENA2D, Simulation Hypothetical Recriticality Accident in a Thermal Neutron Spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ATHENA 2 D was written to simulate a hypothetical water reflood of a highly-damaged light water reactor (such as the Three-Mile-Island Unit-2 after meltdown, with a packed debris bed near the center of the core), but with insufficiently-borated reflood water. A recriticality transient may result because of the potentially more reactive debris bed. ATHENA-2D solves the transient multigroup neutron diffusion equations in (r,z) geometry. Executing in parallel with the transient neutronics, is a single-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, driven by multichannel thermal hydraulics based on detailed pin models. Numerous PV-Wave procedure files are included on the distribution media, useful for those who already have PV-Wave from Visual Numerics. These procedures are documented in the 'README' files included on the distribution CD. Some reactor lattice computer code such as WIMS-E, CCC-576/WIMSD4, or CCC-656/WIMSD5B is required for the creation of macroscopic cross section libraries, given pin-cell geometries. WIMS-E is a commercial product available from AEA Technologies, England, WIMS is not included on the ATHENA 2 D distribution CD. Several auxiliary routines are included in the package. TFMAX: Utility that searches through ATHENA 2 D binary output to find the maximum fuel temperature over space and time. POST V EL: Utility that searches through ATHENA 2 D binary output to find maximum scalar and flow field values (over space) and outputs normalization factors as a function of time. These results are used to correctly scale animations. CONVT: If executing ATHENA 2 D on a PC under Windows, this utility converts one form of binary output (directly from ATHENA 2 D) to another, which is readable by PV-Wave for Windows (PV-Wave is data animation and visualization software from Visual Numerics, Inc.) CALC M TX: Post-processing utility for calculating the model coefficients for the calculation matrix. 2 - Methods: Both the

  9. ATHENA-2D: A computer code for simulation of hypothetical recriticality accidents in a thermal neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    In a damaged light water reactor core (as in the aftermath of a Three-Mile-Island-like core meltdown), water reflood is performed to carry off decay heat. The severely degraded geometry of the fuel debris bed may increase core reactivity with water reflood. Sufficient boron poisoning of the reflood water is therefore very important. One hypothetical accident is the reintroduction of cooling water that is insufficiently borated, resulting in the damaged reactor attaining criticality in this uncontrolled configuration. The goal in simulating this accident is the prediction of the energy release from the resulting transient

  10. An approach for estimating the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident over long distance transboundary scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrakos, D., E-mail: dimitris.mitrakos@eeae.gr; Potiriadis, C.; Housiadas, C.

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Actions may be warranted after a major nuclear accident even at long distances. • Distance may not be the decisive parameter for longer term radiological impact. • Remote impact may vary orders of magnitude depending on the meteorological conditions. • The potential impact can be assessed using computationally inexpensive calculations. - Abstract: After the Fukushima accident important initiatives were taken in European level to enhance the nuclear safety level of the existing and planned nuclear reactors, such as the so-called nuclear “stress-tests” and the amendment of the Nuclear Safety Directive. A recent work of HERCA and WENRA focused on the need for a more consistent and harmonized response in a transboundary context in case of a hypothetical major nuclear accident in Europe. Such an accident, although very improbable, cannot be totally excluded and so, should be considered in emergency preparedness arrangements among the various European countries. In case of a hypothetical severe Fukushima-like accident in Europe, the role of the neighboring countries may be important, since the authorities should be able to provide information and advice to the government and the public, but also can contribute to the overall assessment of the situation be their own means. In this work we assess the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident for distances longer than 300 km that are not typically covered by the internationally accepted emergency planning zones. The approach is simple and computationally inexpensive, since it is based on the calculation of only a few release scenarios at dates selected within a whole year on the basis of bounding the deposition levels at long distances in relation to the occurrence of precipitation. From the calculated results it is evident that distance is not the only decisive parameter in estimating the potential radiological significance of a severe nuclear accident. The hypothetical

  11. Calculation of individual and population doses on Danish territory resulting from hypothetical core-melt accidents at the Barsebaeck reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Individual and population doses within Danish territory are calculated from hypothetical, severe core-melt accidents at the Swedish nuclear plant at Barsebaeck. The fission product inventory of the Barsebaeck reactor is calculated. The release fractions for the accidents are taken from WASH-1400. Based on parametric studies, doses are calculated for very unfavourable, but not incredible weather conditions. The probability of such conditions in combination with wind direction towards Danish territory is estimated. Doses to bone marrow, lungs, GI-tract and thyroid are calculated based on dose models developed at Risoe. These doses are found to be consistent with doses calculated with the models used in WASH-1400. (author)

  12. The retardation effect of structural graphite on the release of fission products in case of hypothetical accidents of HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniotakis, N.; Decken, C.B. von der

    1982-01-01

    In case of a hypothetical core heat up accident of an HTR the structural graphite of the reactor causes under certain circumstances a very important retardation of the release of fission products into the containment building of the plant. A model is presented which describes the transport phenomena in the graphite structure extensively taking into account specially the macro-structure of the graphite. It is shown by parameter variations under which conditions one can expect a large retardation effect and quantitative values of this retardation, which can be very important, are given. (author)

  13. Audit Methodology for IT Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GHEORGHE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the new IT technologies was followed up by a rapid integration of them at the organization level. The management of the organizations face a new challenge: structural redefinition of the IT component in order to create plus value and to minimize IT risks through an efficient management of all IT resources of the organization. These changes have had a great impact on the governance of the IT component. The paper proposes an audit methodology of the IT Governance at the organization level. From this point of view the developed audit strategy is a strategy based on risks to enable IT auditor to study from the best angle efficiency and effectiveness of the IT Governance structure. The evaluation of the risks associated with IT Governance is a key process in planning the audit mission which will allow the identification of the segments with increased risks. With now ambition for completeness, the proposed methodology provides the auditor a useful tool in the accomplishment of his mission.

  14. GPS system simulation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The following topics are presented: background; Global Positioning System (GPS) methodology overview; the graphical user interface (GUI); current models; application to space nuclear power/propulsion; and interfacing requirements. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  15. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  16. Nonlinear Image Denoising Methodologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yufang, Bao

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, we propose a theoretical as well as practical framework to combine geometric prior information to a statistical/probabilistic methodology in the investigation of a denoising problem...

  17. Clinical trial methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2011-01-01

    "Now viewed as its own scientific discipline, clinical trial methodology encompasses the methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and the methods necessary to provide...

  18. Creating a digital medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the steps required to complete a medical illustration in a digital format using Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. The project example is the surgical procedure for the release of the glenohumeral joint for the condition known as 'frozen shoulder'. The purpose is to demonstrate one method which an artist can use within digital media to create a colour illustration such as the release of the glenohumeral joint. Included is a general overview as how to deal with the administration of a medical illustration commission through the experience of a professional freelance artist.

  19. Comparison of 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship methods: Analysis of the in vitro antimalarial activity of 154 artemisinin analogues by hypothetical active-site lattice and comparative molecular field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfrey, John R.; Avery, Mitchell A.; Doweyko, Arthur M.

    1998-03-01

    Two three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) methods, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and hypothetical active site lattice (HASL), were compared with respect to the analysis of a training set of 154 artemisinin analogues. Five models were created, including a complete HASL and two trimmed versions, as well as two CoMFA models (leave-one-out standard CoMFA and the guided-region selection protocol). Similar r2 and q2 values were obtained by each method, although some striking differences existed between CoMFA contour maps and the HASL output. Each of the four predictive models exhibited a similar ability to predict the activity of a test set of 23 artemisinin analogues, although some differences were noted as to which compounds were described well by either model.

  20. Potential consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Leningrad nuclear power plant. Potential release, fallout and predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.; Bartnicki, J.; Balonov, M.

    2012-06-01

    The report describes different hypothetical accident scenarios at the Leningrad nuclear power plant for both RBMK and VVER-1200 reactors. The estimated release is combined with different meteorological scenarios to predict possible fallout of radioactive substances in Norway. For a hypothetical catastrophic accident at an RBMK reactor combined with a meteorological worst case scenario, the consequences in Norway could be considerable. Foodstuffs in many regions would be contaminated above the food intervention levels for radioactive cesium in Norway. (Author)

  1. Potential consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Leningrad nuclear power plant. Potential release, fallout and predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.; Bartnicki, J.; Balonov, M.

    2012-06-15

    The report describes different hypothetical accident scenarios at the Leningrad nuclear power plant for both RBMK and VVER-1200 reactors. The estimated release is combined with different meteorological scenarios to predict possible fallout of radioactive substances in Norway. For a hypothetical catastrophic accident at an RBMK reactor combined with a meteorological worst case scenario, the consequences in Norway could be considerable. Foodstuffs in many regions would be contaminated above the food intervention levels for radioactive cesium in Norway. (Author)

  2. Methodology of sustainability accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Sokil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern challenges of the theory and methodology of accounting are realized through the formation and implementation of new concepts, the purpose of which is to meet the needs of users in standard and unique information. The development of a methodology for sustainability accounting is a key aspect of the management of an economic entity. The purpose of the article is to form the methodological bases of accounting for sustainable development and determine its goals, objectives, object, subject, methods, functions and key aspects. The author analyzes the theoretical bases of the definition and considers the components of the traditional accounting methodology. Generalized structural diagram of the methodology for accounting for sustainable development is offered in the article. The complex of methods and principles of sustainable development accounting for systematized and non-standard provisions has been systematized. The new system of theoretical and methodological provisions of accounting for sustainable development is justified in the context of determining its purpose, objective, subject, object, methods, functions and key aspects.

  3. Transient Analysis for Evaluating the Potential Boiling in the High Elevation Emergency Cooling Units of PWR Following a Hypothetical Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Subsequent Water Hammer Due to Pump Restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S. Mahmood; Qashu, Riyad K.

    2004-01-01

    The Generic Letter GL-96-06 issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) required the utilities to evaluate the potential for voiding in their Containment Emergency Cooling Units (ECUs) due to a hypothetical Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) or a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accompanied by the Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP). When the offsite power is restored, the Component Cooling Water (CCW) pumps restart causing water hammer to occur due to cavity closure. Recently EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) performed a research study that recommended a methodology to mitigate the water hammer due to cavity closure. The EPRI methodology allows for the cushioning effects of hot steam and released air, which is not considered in the conventional water column separation analysis. The EPRI study was limited in scope to the evaluation of water hammer only and did not provide any guidance for evaluating the occurrence of boiling and the extent of voiding in the ECU piping. This paper presents a complete methodology based on first principles to evaluate the onset of boiling. Also, presented is a methodology for evaluating the extent of voiding and the water hammer resulting from cavity closure by using an existing generalized computer program that is based on the Method of Characteristics. The EPRI methodology is then used to mitigate the predicted water hammer. Thus it overcomes the inherent complications and difficulties involved in performing hand calculations for water hammer. The heat transfer analysis provides an alternative to the use of very cumbersome modeling in using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) based computer programs. (authors)

  4. Creating Cross-disciplinary Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Elaine R

    2012-01-01

    Because of its focus on the biological underpinnings of action and behavior, neuroscience intersects with many fields of human endeavor. Some of these cross-disciplinary intersections have been long standing, while others, such as neurotheology or neuroeconomics, are more recently formed fields. Many undergraduate institutions have sought to include cross-disciplinary courses in their curriculum because this style of pedagogy is often seen as applicable to real world problems. However, it can be difficult for faculty with specialized training within their discipline to expand beyond their own fields to offer cross-disciplinary courses. I have been creating a series of multi- or cross-disciplinary courses and have found some strategies that have helped me successfully teach these classes. I will discuss general strategies and tools in developing these types of courses including: 1) creating mixed experience classrooms of students and contributing faculty 2) finding the right tools that will allow you to teach to a mixed population without prerequisites 3) examining the topic using multiple disciplinary perspectives 4) feeding off student experience and interest 5) assessing the impact of these courses on student outcomes and your neuroscience program. This last tool in particular is important in establishing the validity of this type of teaching for neuroscience students and the general student population.

  5. Creating your own leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2002-01-01

    Building equity in a brand happens through many encounters. The initial attraction must be followed by the meeting of expectations. This creates a loyalty that is part of an emotional connection to that brand. This is the same process people go through when they first meet a leader and decide if this is a person they want to buy into. People will examine your style, your competence, and your standards. If you fail on any of these fronts, your ability to lead will be severely compromised. People expect more of leaders now, because they know and recognize good leaders. And, predictably, people are now more cynical of leaders because of the well-publicized excess of a few leaders who advanced their own causes at the expense of their people and their financial future. This will turn out to be a good thing, because it will create a higher standard of leadership that all must aspire to achieve. When the bar is raised for us, our standards of performance are also raised.

  6. Creating nanoscale emulsions using condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Ingrid F; Anand, Sushant; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2017-11-08

    Nanoscale emulsions are essential components in numerous products, ranging from processed foods to novel drug delivery systems. Existing emulsification methods rely either on the breakup of larger droplets or solvent exchange/inversion. Here we report a simple, scalable method of creating nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions by condensing water vapor onto a subcooled oil-surfactant solution. Our technique enables a bottom-up approach to forming small-scale emulsions. Nanoscale water droplets nucleate at the oil/air interface and spontaneously disperse within the oil, due to the spreading dynamics of oil on water. Oil-soluble surfactants stabilize the resulting emulsions. We find that the oil-surfactant concentration controls the spreading behavior of oil on water, as well as the peak size, polydispersity, and stability of the resulting emulsions. Using condensation, we form emulsions with peak radii around 100 nm and polydispersities around 10%. This emulsion formation technique may open different routes to creating emulsions, colloidal systems, and emulsion-based materials.

  7. OPPOSITIONS CREATING HOMOUR IN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umral Deveci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, who perceive the reality of death however who do not know when it will happen, begin their life with this deficiency. Therefore, throughout their lives, they struggle to consummate and make up for the things that they perceive as deficiency or shortcomings through different ways. Humor is one of these means. The fact that deficiencies are eliminated results in superiority and relaxation. The sense of humor and relaxation simultaneously provide laughter. When theories of humor such as superiority, incongruous and relief are taken into consideration, it seems that these theories are related and support each other. Each text is whole with its form and content, which should be evaluated as a whole as much as possible. Hence this study dwells on shortcomings in jokes and in the lights of these shortcomings and theories of humor, it is intended tomake humor in stories, in terms of structural and semantic context, more concrete. Five stories/jokes randomly selected through samples are analyzed in this article. There are two basic types of opposition. The firstone is opposition that creates situation, the second one is thatcreates laughter. The first opposition depicts the shortcomings of knowledge, skill, patience arrogance and jealousyand prepares the second opposition. The opposition that creates laughter make up for shortcomings through cause and effect relationship and laughter comes out.

  8. [An exploratory study regarding the hypothetical human embryo donation in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Díaz, J A

    2007-12-01

    To explore opinions of patients who undergone to complex ART towards gamete and embryo donation, as well as the reasons to do it or not. The seat was the Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile. There were interviewed ten participants (seven women, three men), who had undergone at least to one ART, without comprising of donation programs. It was a cross-sectional study of descriptive bioethics, done with ethnographic qualitative methodology with a semistructured interview applying speech analysis to the resulting text. Regarding embryo donation, six participants would accept to donate them, five to fertility therapy and one to research. Regarding the cryopreservation, three participants would always accept it, and three with some restrictions, just one on them would rather to discard instead of donating a cryopreserved embryo. It could be suggested: gamete donation is more commented and generally accepted; embryo donation is a more conflicting and less discussed subject, as much to donate as to accept; cryopreservation is a complex subject, commented but also conflicting, whose acceptance or not, as well as the destiny of the probably cryopreserved embryos, depends on the believes that participants have about the origin of the life, personal ethics, and the religion. It could be possible to say that a hypothesis constructed in this study (to be verified in future quantitative researches) is that embryo donation could take place, for therapy of fertility, and exceptionally to research.

  9. Economic effects of hypothetical reductions in tree growth in the Northeastern and Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    Objectives of this research were to review and critically evaluate economic methods and models for assessing the economic impacts of acid deposition-induced changes in forest productivity; to scope and assess the sensitivity of the potential economic impacts of changes in forest productivity; and to provide information and recommendations that will enhance Federal efforts to assess the economic impacts of acid deposition and to determine the benefits of alternative acid deposition mitigation and control strategies. A conceptual framework was developed for understanding and valuing the economic impacts of acid deposition-induced changes in forest productivity in markets for hardwood and softwood stumpage and the prducts made from this stumpage. Although the framework focuses on valuing the economic impacts of acid deposition, it could be used for any factor that causes changes in forest productivity. The scope of potential economic impacts due to changes in forest productivity was characterized. Based on this analysis, key methodological features were identified which would contribute substantially to providing accurate estimates of the economic damages caused by changes in forest productivity. These features served as the basis for identifying and critically evaluating existing models.

  10. An in silico Approach for Structural and Functional Annotation of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium Hypothetical Protein R_27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is a major cause of illness in most developing countries, including Bangladesh. In quest of new potential drug against Typhoid fever, the current study was designed to elucidate structural and functional details of S. typhi hypothetical protein (HP R_27. HP R_27 has the primary amino acid sequences available only. The structural annotation was determined by ProtParam, SOPMA, and CELLO. The three-dimensional (3D structure of HP R_27 predicted through homology modeling by using Phyre2. The 3D structure then refined and verified by ModRefiner, PROCHECK, ERRAT, QMEAN. The functional annotation was also performed by InterProScan, SMART, Pfam, NCBI-CDD and found Phospholipase D-like and DNA repair activity. Multiple sequence alignment also supported the existence of PLD-like domain and DNA repair protein domain in the selected hypothetical protein sequences. Finally, the cavity of drug binding was also identified to assist further molecular docking study and potent inhibitor identification. This in silico approach can be further utilized in molecular drug design for other clinically significant pathogens.

  11. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a conserved hypothetical protein, SA0961 (YlaN), from Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ling; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.; Baker, Patrick J.; Rice, David W.

    2006-01-01

    SA0961 is an unknown hypothetical protein from Staphylococcus aureus that can be identified in the Firmicutes division of Gram-positive bacteria. SA0961 was cloned and the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and subsequently crystallized. SA0961 is an unknown hypothetical protein from Staphylococcus aureus that can be identified in the Firmicutes division of Gram-positive bacteria. The gene for the homologue of SA0961 in Bacillus subtilis, ylaN, has been shown to be essential for cell survival, thus identifying the protein encoded by this gene as a potential target for the development of novel antibiotics. SA0961 was cloned and the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and subsequently crystallized. Crystals of selenomethionine-labelled SA0961 diffract to beyond 2.4 Å resolution and belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 31.5, b = 42.7, c = 62.7 Å, β = 92.4° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. A full structure determination is under way to provide insights into the function of this protein

  12. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a conserved hypothetical protein, SA0961 (YlaN), from Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ling; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.; Baker, Patrick J.; Rice, David W., E-mail: d.rice@sheffield.ac.uk [Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-01

    SA0961 is an unknown hypothetical protein from Staphylococcus aureus that can be identified in the Firmicutes division of Gram-positive bacteria. SA0961 was cloned and the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and subsequently crystallized. SA0961 is an unknown hypothetical protein from Staphylococcus aureus that can be identified in the Firmicutes division of Gram-positive bacteria. The gene for the homologue of SA0961 in Bacillus subtilis, ylaN, has been shown to be essential for cell survival, thus identifying the protein encoded by this gene as a potential target for the development of novel antibiotics. SA0961 was cloned and the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and subsequently crystallized. Crystals of selenomethionine-labelled SA0961 diffract to beyond 2.4 Å resolution and belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 31.5, b = 42.7, c = 62.7 Å, β = 92.4° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. A full structure determination is under way to provide insights into the function of this protein.

  13. Assessment in marine environment for a hypothetic nuclear accident based on the database of tidal harmonic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung-Il; Periáñez, Raúl; Park, Kihyun; Kim, In-Gyu; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An oceanic dispersion assessment system has been developed. • The developed system is based on a database of tidal harmonic constants. • It used to evaluate pollutant behavior for the hypothetical nuclear accident. • It can predict the pollutant distributions with real-time in the ocean. - Abstract: The eleven nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and a well-planned plant in the east coast of China generally use seawater for reactor cooling. In this study, an oceanic dispersion assessment system based on a database of tidal harmonic constants is developed. This system can calculate the tidal current without a large computational cost, and it is possible to calculate real-time predictions of pollutant dispersions in the ocean. Calculated amplitudes and phases have maximum errors of 10% and 20% with observations, respectively. A number of hypothetical simulations were performed according to varying of the release starting time and duration of pollutant for the six nuclear sites in China. The developed system requires a computational time of one hour for one month of real-time forecasting in Linux OS. Thus, it can use to evaluate rapidly the dispersion characteristics of the pollutants released into the sea from a nuclear accident

  14. Framing of outcome and probability of recurrence: breast cancer patients' choice of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) in hypothetical patient scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, C; Baldo, C; Molino, A

    2000-03-01

    To examine the effects of framing of outcome and probabilities of cancer occurrence on the treatment preference which breast cancer patients indicate for hypothetical patient scenarios. A modified version of the Decision Board Instrument (Levine et al. 1992) was administered to 35 breast cancer patients with past ACT experience. Patients expressed their choice regarding ACT for six scenarios which were characterized by either negative or positive framing of outcome and by one of the three levels of probability of recurrence (high, medium, low). The framing had no influence on ACT choices over all three probability levels. The majority chose ACT for high and medium risk and one third switched from ACT to No ACT in the low-risk condition. This switch was statistically significant. Hypothetical treatment decisions against ACT occur only when the probability of recurrence is low and the benefit of ACT is small. This finding for patients with past experience of ACT is similar to those reported for other oncological patient groups still in treatment.

  15. Comprehensive and consistent interpretation of local fault experiments and application to hypothetical local overpower accident in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies on local fault (LF) accidents in fast breeder reactors have been performed in many countries because LFs have been historically considered as one of the possible causes of severe accidents. Comprehensive and consistent interpretations of in-pile and out-of-pile experiments related to LF were arrived at in this study based on state-of-the-art review and data analysis techniques. Safety margins for a hypothetical local overpower accident, which was evaluated as a LF accident in the licensing document of the construction permit for a prototype fast breeder reactor called Monju, were also studied. Based on comprehensive interpretations of the latest experimental database, including those performed after the permission of Monju construction, it was clarified that the evaluation of the hypothetical local overpower accident in the Monju licensing was sufficiently conservative. Furthermore, it incorporated adequate safety margins in terms of failure thresholds of the fuel pin, molten fuel ejection, fuel sweep-out behavior after molten fuel ejection, and pin-to-pin failure propagation. Moreover, these comprehensive interpretations are valid and applicable to the safety evaluation of LF accidents of other fast breeder reactors with various fuel and core designs. (author)

  16. Using surveillance data to simulate the impact of a hypothetical pre-entry tuberculosis screening programme in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsu, L; Uchimura, K; Izumi, K; Ohkado, A; Kato, S

    2018-05-01

    Despite a growing burden of foreign-born tuberculosis (TB) patients, Japan does not currently practise pre-entry tuberculosis (TB) screening among foreign-born entrants. To evaluate the impact of a hypothetical pre-entry TB screening programme among new foreign-born entrants into Japan. Using publicly available sources, we estimated 1) the number of prevalent TB cases, defined as bacteriologically or clinically confirmed cases among new foreign-born entrants into Japan in 2015, and 2) the yield from a hypothetical pre-entry TB screening programme under three scenarios: Scenario A, in which screening would be required of all applicants intending to stay for 3 months; Scenario B, screening among applicants for visas for settlement purposes; and Scenario C, screening among student and technical intern visa applicants. The numbers of prevalent TB cases under Scenarios A, B and C were respectively 492, 54 and 248 out of a total of 328 791, 21 554 and 182 879 applicants, respectively 276, 29 and 137 of whom would be detected via the pre-entry screening programme, giving an yield of respectively 83.9, 134.5 and 74.9 per 100 000 screened under each scenario. The yield was the highest under Scenario B; however, the impact was greatest under Scenario A, in that it detected the greatest number of patients and thus contributed the most in reducing the burden of foreign-born TB cases in Japan.

  17. Personality and Behavior in Social Dilemmas: Testing the Situational Strength Hypothesis and the Role of Hypothetical Versus Real Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, José H

    2016-02-01

    Previous research aimed at testing the situational strength hypothesis suffers from serious limitations regarding the conceptualization of strength. In order to overcome these limitations, the present study attempts to test the situational strength hypothesis based on the operationalization of strength as reinforcement contingencies. One dispositional factor of proven effect on cooperative behavior, social value orientation (SVO), was used as a predictor of behavior in four social dilemmas with varying degree of situational strength. The moderating role of incentive condition (hypothetical vs. real) on the relationship between SVO and behavior was also tested. One hundred undergraduates were presented with the four social dilemmas and the Social Value Orientation Scale. One-half of the sample played the social dilemmas using real incentives, whereas the other half used hypothetical incentives. Results supported the situational strength hypothesis in that no behavioral variability and no effect of SVO on behavior were found in the strongest situation. However, situational strength did not moderate the effect of SVO on behavior in situations where behavior showed variability. No moderating effect was found for incentive condition either. The implications of these results for personality theory and assessment are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Questioning the differences between general public vs. patient based preferences towards EQ-5D-5L defined hypothetical health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorevc, Marko; Murovec, Nika; Fernandez, Natacha Bolanos; Rupel, Valentina Prevolnik

    2017-03-28

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether any differences exist between the general population and patient based preferences towards EQ-5D-5L defined hypothetical health states. The article discusses the role of adaptation and self-interest in valuing health states and it also contributes rigorous empirical evidence to the scientific debate on the differences between the patient and general population preferences towards hypothetical health states. Patient preferences were elicited in 2015 with the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire using time trade-off and discrete choice experiment design and compared to the Spanish general population preferences, which were elicited using identical methods. Patients were chosen on a voluntary basis according to their willingness to participate in the survey. They were recruited from patient organisations and a hospital in Madrid, Spain. 282 metastatic breast cancer patients and 333 rheumatoid arthritis patients were included in the sample. The analysis revealed differences in preferences between the general population and patient groups. Based on the results of our analysis, it is suggested that the differences in preferences stem from patients being more able to accurately imagine "non-tangible" dimensions of health states (anxiety or depression, and pain or discomfort) than the general population with less experience in various health states. However, this does not mean that general public values should not be reflected in utilities derived for coverage decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Creating photo-realistic works in a 3D scene using layers styles to create an animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramescu, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Creating realist objects in a 3D scene is not an easy work. We have to be very careful to make the creation very detailed. If we don't know how to make these photo-realistic works, by using the techniques and a good reference photo we can create an amazing amount of detail and realism. For example, in this article there are some of these detailed methods from which we can learn the techniques necessary to make beautiful and realistic objects in a scene. More precisely, in this paper, we present how to create a 3D animated scene, mainly using the Pen Tool and Blending Options. Indeed, this work is based on teaching some simple ways of using the Layer Styles to create some great shadows, lights, textures and a realistic sense of 3 Dimension. The present work involves also showing how some interesting ways of using the illuminating and rendering options can create a realistic effect in a scene. Moreover, this article shows how to create photo realistic 3D models from a digital image. The present work proposes to present how to use Illustrator paths, texturing, basic lighting and rendering, how to apply textures and how to parent the building and objects components. We also propose to use this proposition to recreate smaller details or 3D objects from a 2D image. After a critic art stage, we are able now to present in this paper the architecture of a design method that proposes to create an animation. The aim is to create a conceptual and methodological tutorial to address this issue both scientifically and in practice. This objective also includes proposing, on strong scientific basis, a model that gives the possibility of a better understanding of the techniques necessary to create a realistic animation.

  20. Creating an effective poster presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, H M; Arslanian, C

    2000-01-01

    One way to build knowledge in nursing is to share research findings or clinical program outcomes. The dissemination of these findings is often a difficult final step in a project that has taken months or years to complete. One method of sharing findings in a relaxed and informal setting is a poster presentation. This method is an effective form for presenting findings using an interactive approach. The milieu of a poster presentation enables the presenters to interact and dialogue with colleagues. Guidelines for size and format require that the poster is clear and informative. Application of design helps to create visually appealing posters. This article summarizes elements of designing and conducting a poster presentation.

  1. Supporting SMEs in creating jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs are the most dynamic sector of the economy, representing a key factor in employment growth. Although SMEs have been severely affected by the economic crisis from 2008, they continue to be a more and more important source of generating jobs, regardless of size class. Given the differentiated contribution of SMEs to job creation as a result of their heterogeneity, the article analyses the dynamics of staff in enterprises by size classes and activities of the national economy. The statistical analysis is followed by a SWOT analysis of policies and tools to support SMEs in creating jobs both with direct action - management, recruitment, training and indirectly action by addressing general business issues. Measures that support the economic growth of SMEs through internationalization, innovation and improved access to finance foster competitiveness and, implicitly, the creation of new jobs.

  2. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  3. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  4. The policy trail methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana

    of ‘policy trail’, arguing that it can overcome ‘methodological nationalism’ and link structure and agency in research on the ‘European educational space’. The ‘trail’ metaphor, she suggests, captures the intentionality and the erratic character of policy. The trail connects sites and brings about change......, but – although policy may be intended to be linear, with specific outcomes – policy often has to bend, and sometimes meets insurmountable obstacles. This symposium outlines and develops the methodology, but also reports on research undertaken within a major FP7 project (LLLIght’in’Europe, 2012-15) which made use......In recent years, the “policy trail” has been proposed as a methodology appropriate to the shifting and fluid governance of lifelong learning in the late modern world (Holford et al. 2013, Holford et al. 2013, Cort 2014). The contemporary environment is marked by multi-level governance (global...

  5. Changing methodologies in TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Spiro, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Covering core topics from vocabulary and grammar to teaching, writing speaking and listening, this textbook shows you how to link research to practice in TESOL methodology. It emphasises how current understandings have impacted on the language classroom worldwide and investigates the meaning of 'methods' and 'methodology' and the importance of these for the teacher: as well as the underlying assumptions and beliefs teachers bring to bear in their practice. By introducing you to language teaching approaches, you will explore the way these are influenced by developments in our understanding of l

  6. Creativity in phenomenological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Pia; Martinsen, Bente; Norlyk, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    on the methodologies of van Manen, Dahlberg, Lindseth & Norberg, the aim of this paper is to argue that the increased focus on creativity and arts in research methodology is valuable to gain a deeper insight into lived experiences. We illustrate this point through examples from empirical nursing studies, and discuss......Nursing research is often concerned with lived experiences in human life using phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches. These empirical studies may use different creative expressions and art-forms to describe and enhance an embodied and personalised understanding of lived experiences. Drawing...... may support a respectful renewal of phenomenological research traditions in nursing research....

  7. Creating responsible partnerships in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Spitzer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Organisations do not provide sufficient time and effort to seek out companies for partners that would, with the assistance of responsible cooperation, contribute to better quality offers and consequently to increased income and the good reputation of both companies. Responsibilities and ethics is where organizations on bothsides would take on and accept their own norms, tasks, obligations and be aware that in a relationship there is a need to give explanations and justify one’s actions, such partnerships will be long and prosperous. This requires a great deal of knowledge and maturity together with a very important personal characteristic that is care. This study examines whether the creation of long term partnerships through responsible and more personal (friendlyrelations brings the organization to greater success.Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine how important it is for organizations in the tourism industry to build long term relationships, what it should be based on and whether companies are willing to change the current methods of operations.Method: The method of research was an interview with individuals that had a certain position within a tourism company and had contacts with partners and were obligated to see out new ones. A paradigm model was built and the responses analysed.Results: The survey results are encouraging. The interviews showed that respondents were aware that it is necessary to have long term and responsible partnerships. They recognized that in today’s world there is a lack of collaboration that is based on understanding andthat there should be more relations on a personal level. It isrequired that this changes in the future. The participants specifically highlight financial irresponsibility in many companies that destroys collaboration.Organization: With the help of this study, the author attempts to contribute ideas to organizations on how to create solid collaboration with partners, as

  8. A hypothetical role for vitamin K2 in the endocrine and exocrine aspects of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southward, Ken

    2015-03-01

    The growing interest in oral/systemic links demand new paradigms to understand disease processes. New opportunities for dental research, particularly in the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology will emerge. The role of the hypothalamus portion of the brain cannot be underestimated. Under the influence of nutrition, it plays a significant role in the systemic model of dental caries. Currently, the traditional theory of dental caries considers only the oral environment and does not recognize any significant role for the brain. The healthy tooth, however, has a centrifugal fluid flow to nourish and cleanse it. This is moderated by the hypothalamus/parotid axis which signals the endocrine portion of the parotid glands. High sugar intake creates an increase in reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. When this signaling mechanism halts or reverses the dentinal fluid flow, it renders the tooth vulnerable to oral bacteria, which can now attach to the tooth's surface. Acid produced by oral bacteria such as Strep Mutans and lactobacillus can now de-mineralize the enamel and irritate the dentin. The acid attack stimulates an inflammatory response which results in dentin breakdown from the body's own matrix metalloproteinases. Vitamin K2 (K2) has been shown to have an antioxidant potential in the brain and may prove to be a potent way to preserve the endocrine controlled centrifugal dentinal fluid flow. Stress, including oxidative stress, magnifies the body's inflammatory response. Sugar can not only increase oral bacterial acid production but it can concurrently reduce the tooth's defenses through endocrine signaling. Saliva production is the exocrine function of the salivary glands. The buffering capacity of saliva is critical to neutralizing the oral environment. This minimizes the de-mineralization of enamel and enhances its re-mineralization. K2, such as that found in fermented cheese, improves salivary buffering through its influence on

  9. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  10. Creating a winning organizational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert James

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the idea of how to create a winning organizational culture. By definition, a winning organizational culture is one that is able to make current innovations stick, while continuously changing based on the demands of the marketplace. More importantly, the article explores the notion that a winning organizational culture can have a profound impact on the conscious of the workforce, helping each individual to become a better, more productive person, who provides important services and products to the community. To form a basis toward defining the structure of what a winning organization culture looks like, 4 experts were asked 12 questions related to the development of an organizational culture. Three of the experts have worked intimately within the health care industry, while a fourth has been charged with turning around an organization that has had a losing culture for 17 years. The article provides insight into the role that values, norms, goals, leadership style, familiarity, and hiring practices play in developing a winning organizational culture. The article also emphasizes the important role that leaders perform in developing an organizational culture.

  11. Developing TheoreticalMethodological Approaches to Assessment of Export Potential of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushenko Igor Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the existing theoretical-methodological approaches to the analysis and assessment of export potential. The opinions by scientists regarding the disclosure of the categorial content of the concept of «export potential» have been considered, an own definition of the indicated economic category has been suggested. The main types of analytical procedures for assessment have been classified, some authorial methodical approaches to determine the level of export potential have been analyzed. The export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been calculated by the selected methodologies of assessment. The urgency of improving and refining existing methods to implement more detailed and quantitative analysis has been substantiated. It has been suggested to implement a prognosis assessment of export potential of enterprises by combining the results of several methodologies in the aggregate indicator of export potential efficiency. A prognosis model for the dynamics of export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been built, value of the aggregate indicator has been calculated on the basis of three selected valuation methodologies.

  12. Computer Network Operations Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    means of their computer information systems. Disrupt - This type of attack focuses on disrupting as “attackers might surreptitiously reprogram enemy...by reprogramming the computers that control distribution within the power grid. A disruption attack introduces disorder and inhibits the effective...between commanders. The use of methodologies is widespread and done subconsciously to assist individuals in decision making. The processes that

  13. A Functional HAZOP Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Netta; Lind, Morten; Jensen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    A HAZOP methodology is presented where a functional plant model assists in a goal oriented decomposition of the plant purpose into the means of achieving the purpose. This approach leads to nodes with simple functions from which the selection of process and deviation variables follow directly...

  14. Complicating Methodological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    A historical indicator of the quality, validity, and rigor of qualitative research has been the documentation and disclosure of the behind-the-scenes work of the researcher. In this paper, we use what we call "methodological data" as a tool to complicate the possibility and desirability of such transparency. Specifically, we draw on our…

  15. Methodological Advances in Dea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cherchye (Laurens); G.T. Post (Thierry)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe survey the methodological advances in DEA over the last 25 years and discuss the necessary conditions for a sound empirical application. We hope this survey will contribute to the further dissemination of DEA, the knowledge of its relative strengths and weaknesses, and the tools

  16. NUSAM Methodology for Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Snell, Mark K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This document provides a methodology for the performance-based assessment of security systems designed for the protection of nuclear and radiological materials and the processes that produce and/or involve them. It is intended for use with both relatively simple installations and with highly regulated complex sites with demanding security requirements.

  17. MIRD methodology. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.

    2004-01-01

    This lecture develops the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) methodology for the evaluation of the internal dose due to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals. In this first part, the basic concepts and the main equations are presented. The ICRP Dosimetric System is also explained. (author)

  18. Response Surface Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter first summarizes Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which started with Box and Wilson’s article in 1951 on RSM for real, non-simulated systems. RSM is a stepwise heuristic that uses first-order polynomials to approximate the response surface locally. An estimated polynomial

  19. MIRD methodology. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Parada, Ines

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) methodology for the evaluation of the internal dose due to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals. In this second part, different methods for the calculation of the accumulated activity are presented, together with the effective half life definition. Different forms of Retention Activity curves are also shown. (author)

  20. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  1. Structural properties of hypothetical CeBa2Cu3O7 compound from LSDA+DMFT calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuszczek Maciej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hypothetical stoichiometric CeBa2Cu3O7 (Ce123 compound, which has not been synthesized as a single phase yet, was studied by the density functional theory (DFT. We utilized a method which merges the local spin density approximation (LSDA with the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT to account for the electronic correlations. The LSDA+DMFT calculations were performed in the high-temperature range. The particular emphasis was put on the pressure-induced changes in the electronic band structure related to strongly correlated 4f states. The computational results indicate the occurrence of a large negative volumetric thermal expansion coefficient near T = 500 K and a trace of a low-volume isostructural metastable state at high temperatures.

  2. Conserved hypothetical protein Rv1977 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains contains sequence polymorphisms and might be involved in ongoing immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Haican; Wang, Xuezhi; Li, Guilian; Qiu, Yan; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Host immune pressure and associated parasite immune evasion are key features of host-pathogen co-evolution. A previous study showed that human T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are evolutionarily hyperconserved and thus it was deduced that M. tuberculosis lacks antigenic variation and immune evasion. Here, we selected 151 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from China, amplified gene encoding Rv1977 and compared the sequences. The results showed that Rv1977, a conserved hypothetical protein, is not conserved in M. tuberculosis strains and there are polymorphisms existed in the protein. Some mutations, especially one frameshift mutation, occurred in the antigen Rv1977, which is uncommon in M.tb strains and may lead to the protein function altering. Mutations and deletion in the gene all affect one of three T cell epitopes and the changed T cell epitope contained more than one variable position, which may suggest ongoing immune evasion.

  3. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Batandjieva, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes...... the second of two modelling exercises. This exercise was based on a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area from a radiological dispersal device, with reference surface contamination at selected sites used as the primary input information. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included...... radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a "no action" situation (with no remedial measures...

  4. In-vessel natural circulation during a hypothetical loss-of-heat-sink accident in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, K.R.; Bari, R.A.; Pratt, W.T.

    1979-05-01

    The capability to remove decay heat from the FFTF core via in-vessel natural circulation has been analyzed for the preboiling phase using a lumped parameter model. The results indicate that boiling will occur in the average fuel assembly for a wide spectrum of initial conditions which appear to be representative of the hypothetical loss-of-heat-sink accident. Two-phase pressure drop calculations indicate that, once the saturation temperature is reached, coolability can only be assured for decay heat levels which are less than 0.5% of the operating power. A review of the limited sodium boiling data indicates that boiling-induced natural circulation may support up to 4% of the operating power, but geometric atypicalities and a large degree of inlet subcooling for the existing data limit the applicability to the loss-of-heat-sink accident in FFTF

  5. Preliminary scenarios for the release of radioactive waste from a hypothetical repository in basalt of the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Nine release phenomena - normal flow of water, tectonic disturbance of the fracture network, intersection of a new fault with the repository, glaciation, fluvia erosion, thermomechanical disturbances, subsidence, seal failure, and drilling - give rise to 318 preliminary scenarios for the release of waste from a hypothetical high-level-waste repository in basalt. The scenarios have relative probabilities that range over several orders of magnitude. The relative probabilities provide a means of screening the scenarios for the more limited set to be subjected to consequence analysis. Lack of data and of preliminary modeling, however, lead to great uncertainties in the highly conservative probabilities assigned here. As a result, the recommendations in this report are directed at resolution of the major uncertainties in the relative probabilities of the preliminary scenarios. The resolution of some of the uncertainties should help in the selection of the suite of scenarios for final consequence analysis. 38 references, 22 figures, 18 tables

  6. Thermal-hydraulics of wave propagation and pressure distribution under hypothetical steam explosion conditions in the ANS reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; N-Valenit, S.; Kim, S.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes salient aspects of the modeling and analysis framework for evaluation of dynamic loads, wave propagation, and pressure distributions (under hypothetical steam explosion conditions) around key structural boundaries of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor core region. A staged approach was followed, using simple thermodynamic models for bounding loads and the CTH code for evaluating realistic estimates in a staged multidimensional framework. Effects of nodalization, melt dispersal into coolant during explosion, single versus multidirectional dissipation, energy level of melt, and rate of energy deposition into coolant were studied. The importance of capturing multidimensional effects that simultaneously account for fluid-structural interactions was demonstrated. As opposed to using bounding loads from thermodynamic evaluations, it was revealed that the ANS reactor system will not be vulnerable to vertically generated missiles that threaten containment if realistic estimates of energetics are used (from CTH calculations for thermally generated steam explosions without significant aluminum ignition).

  7. Sizing of type B package tie-downs on the basis of criteria related to hypothetical road transport accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalippou, C.

    1986-01-01

    The aim is to guarantee intactness of the type B package containment system under hypothetical road accident conditions. Some experiments performed in France have led to analytical studies taking into account: a) the head-on collision, which is modelised by a uniform deceleration of 35 g, b) the side-on collision, which is modelised by a colliding object 3 times heavier than the package and an impact at 31.9 km/h. In the first case, the adopted criterion is the holding of the package on the vehicle by the strenght of the stowing members (tie-downs and chocks). In the second case, the adopted criterion is the desired breaking of the tie-downs in order to undamage package containment system; therefore it is assumed that no chock is acting against lateral impacts. Analytical and abacus methods have been developed for sizing the strenght of the stowing members in respect with the two above criteria [fr

  8. Dose assessment for public by packages shipping radioactive materials hypothetically sunk on the continental shelf. Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Saegusa, Toshiari; Watabe, Naohito; Asano, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Koki; Kinehara, Yoshiki

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive materials such as spent fuel (SF), PuO 2 powder, high level wastes (HLW) and fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel have been transported by sea between Europe and Japan. Dose assessments for public have been performed in the past when the packages shipping radioactive materials were hypothetically sunk on the continental shelf. These studies employed various conditions and methods in their assessments and the results were not always the same. In this study, the dose assessment for these packages was performed under the same conditions and by the same methods. The effective dose equivalents of radiation exposure to the public for all materials become smaller than the previous evaluations due to more realistic assumption in this study. These evaluated results are far less than the effective dose equivalent limit (1 mSv year -1 ) by the ICRP recommendation. (author)

  9. A comparison between tandem and ovoids and interstitial gynecologic template brachytherapy dosimetry using a hypothetical computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, I-Chow J.; Speight, Joycelyn; Hai, Jenny; Vigneault, Eric; Phillips, Theodore; Pouliot, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose distribution within the clinical target volume between two gynecologic brachytherapy systems - the tandem and ovoids and the Syed-Neblett gynecologic template - using a hypothetical computer model. Methods and Materials: Source positions of an intracavitary system (tandem and ovoids) and an interstitial system (GYN template) were digitized into the Nucletron Brachytherapy Planning System. The GYN template is composed of a 13-catheter implant (12 catheters plus a tandem) based on the Syed-Neblett gynecologic template. For the tandem and ovoids, the dwell times of all sources were evenly weighted to produce a pear-shaped isodose distribution. For the GYN template, the dwell times were determined using volume optimization. The prescribed dose was then normalized to point A in the intracavitary system and to a selected isodose line in the interstitial system. The treated volume in the two systems was kept approximately the same, and a cumulative dose-volume histogram of the treated volume was then generated with the Nucletron Brachytherapy Planning System to use for comparison. To evaluate the dose to a hypothetical target, in this case the cervix, a 2-cm-long, 3-cm-diameter cylinder centered along the tandem was digitized as the clinical target volume. The location of this hypothetical cervix was based on the optimal application of the brachytherapy system. A visual comparison of clinical target coverage by the treated volume on three different orthogonal planes through the treated volume was performed. The percentage dose-volume histograms of the target were generated for comparison. Multiple midline points were also placed at 5-mm intervals away from the tandem in the plane of the cervix to simulate the location of potential bladder and rectal dose points. Doses to these normal structures were calculated for comparison. Results: Although both systems covered the hypothetical cervix adequately, the interstitial system had a better

  10. Long-term consequences for Northern Norway of a hypothetical release from the Kola nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Wright, S.M.; Salbu, B.; Skuterud, K.L.; Hove, K.; Loe, R.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variation in radiocaesium and 90 Sr doses to two population groups of the two Northernmost counties of Norway, Troms and Finnmark, following a hypothetical accident at the Kola nuclear power plant (KNPP) have been estimated using a model implemented within a geographical information system. The hypothetical accident assumes a severe loss of coolant accident at the KNPP coincident with meteorological conditions causing significant radionuclide deposition in the two counties. External doses are estimated from ground deposition and the behaviour of the different population groups, and internal doses from predicted food product activity concentrations and dietary consumption data. Doses are predicted for reindeer keepers and other Norwegian inhabitants, taking account of existing 137 Cs and 90 Sr deposition but not including the remedial effect of any countermeasures that might be used. The predicted doses, arising mainly from radiocaesium, confirm the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme assessment that residents of the Arctic are particularly vulnerable to radiocaesium contamination, which could persist for many years. External doses are predicted to be negligible compared to ingestion doses. Ingestion doses for reindeer keepers are predicted to exceed 1 mSv y -1 for several decades primarily due to their high consumption of reindeer meat. Other Norwegians would also be potentially exposed to doses exceeding 1 mSv y -1 for several years, especially if they consume many local products. Whilst reindeer production is the most important exposure pathway, freshwater fish, lamb meat, dairy products, mushrooms and berries are also significant contributors to predicted ingestion doses. Radionuclide fluxes, defined as the total output of radioactivity in food from an area for a unit time, are dominated by reindeer meat. The results show the need for an effective emergency response, with appropriate countermeasures, should an accident of the

  11. Does message framing predict willingness to participate in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial: an application of Prospect Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Kagee, Ashraf; Swartz, Leslie; Bullemor-Day, Philippa

    2013-01-01

    It is vital that enough participants are willing to participate in clinical trials to test HIV vaccines adequately. It is, therefore, necessary to explore what affects peoples' willingness to participate (WTP) in such trials. Studies have only examined individual factors associated with WTP and not the effect of messages about trial participation on potential participants (e.g., whether losses or gains are emphasized, or whether the outcome is certain or uncertain). This study explores whether the effects of message framing on WTP in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial are consistent with Prospect Theory. This theory suggests that people are fundamentally risk averse and that (1) under conditions of low risk and high certainty, gain-framed messages will be influential (2) under conditions of high risk and low certainty, loss-framed messages will be influential. This cross-sectional study recruited 283 HIV-negative students from a South African university who were given a questionnaire that contained matched certain gain-framed, certain loss-framed, uncertain gain-framed, and uncertain loss-framed statements based on common barriers and facilitators of WTP. Participants were asked to rate how likely each statement was to result in their participation in a hypothetical preventative HIV vaccine trial. Consistent with Prospect Theory predictions, for certain outcomes, gain-framed messages were more likely to result in WTP than loss-framed messages. Inconsistent with predictions, loss-framed message were not more likely to be related to WTP for uncertain outcomes than gain-framed messages. Older students were less likely to express their WTP across the different message frames. Recruitment for HIV vaccine trials should pay attention to how messages about the trial are presented to potential participants.

  12. Redefining Perinatal Experience: A Philosophical Exploration of a Hypothetical Case of Gender-Diversity in Labour and Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brianna; Price, Sheri; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha

    2018-05-18

    Using a queer phenomenological approach, the objective of this philosophical analysis is to explore the transgender experience in highly gendered clinical areas, such as the birth unit, and make recommendations on how to provide perinatal care that is inclusive of gender diversity within these areas. This paper aims to describes a hypothetical clinical experience to provide insight on the institutional barriers that currently exist and to provide nurses and midwives with pragmatic strategies to enhance gender-diverse care in general and gendered clinical areas. Currently, general healthcare providers are not sufficiently educated on how to care for and meet the needs of people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, queer or questioning and other communities (LGBTQ+). This vulnerable population continually faces stigma, discrimination, and marginalization, which act as barriers to accessing healthcare services. Although transgender people often have difficulty accessing healthcare in general settings, they experience an even greater challenge within traditionally gendered clinical care areas. Queer Phenomenology was used to guide a critical philosophical analysis of hypothetical case reflecting a clinical scenario regarding a transgender man's experience in labour and birth. Healthcare professionals often provide insufficient care to transgender persons, inadvertently leading to further marginalization of this vulnerable population. Special consideration to provide gender-diverse care throughout the perinatal period is needed. Structures and supports are essential to enhance the care from providers in attending to the unique needs of transgender individuals and reduce oppressive effects from heteronormative environments. Nurses and midwives are leading exemplars of providing person-centered care and are capable of advocating for equitable care amongst all populations to influence systemic change. Strategies for implementing changes that address LGBTQ

  13. Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiological safety analysis for a hypothetical accident of Ghana Research Reactor -1 (GHARR-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunguya, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    This work presents the environmental impact analysis of some selected radionuclides released from the Ghana Research Reactor- 1 (GHARR-1) after a hypothetical postulated accidents scenario. The source term was identified and generated from an inventory of radioisotopes released during the accident. Atmospheric transport model was then applied to calculate the total effective dose and how it would be distributed to different organs of the human body as a function of distance downwind. All accident scenarios were selected from GHARR-1 Safety Analysis Report. After the source term was identified the MCNPX code was used to perform the core burnup/depletion analysis. The assumption was made that the activities were released to the atmosphere under a horse design basis accident scenario. The gaussian dose calculation method was applied, coded in Hotspot, a Healthy Physics computer code. This served as the computational tool to perform the atmospheric dispersion modeling and was used to calculate radionuclide concentration at downwind location. Based upon predominant meteorological conditions at the site, the adopted strategy was to use site-specific meteorological data and dispersion modeling to analyze the hypothetical release to the environment of radionuclides and evaluate to what extent such a release may have radiological effects on the public. Final data were processed and presented as Total Effective Dose Equivalent as a function of time and distance of deposition. The results indicate that all the values of Effective dose obtained are far below the regulatory limits, making the use of the reactor safe, even in the case of worst accident scenario where all the fission products were released into the atmosphere. (au)

  14. Analyses to demonstrate the structural performance of the CASTOR KN12 in hypothetical accident drop accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diersch, R.; Weiss, M.; Tso, C.F.; Chung, S.H.; Lee, H.Y.

    2004-01-01

    CASTORc ircledR KN-12 is a new cask design by GNB for KHNP-NETEC for dry and wet transportation of up to twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies in Korea. It received its transport license from the Korean Competent Authority KINS in July 2002 and is now in use in South Korea. It has been designed to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the 10 CFR 71 and the IAEA ST-1 for Type B(U)F packages. Its structural performance was demonstrated against the load cases and boundary conditions as defined in 10 CFR 71 and NRC's Regulatory Guide 7.8, and further explained in NUREG 1617. This included normal conditions of transport load cases - including Hot Environment, Cold Environment, Increased External Pressure (140MPa), Minimum External Pressure (24.5kPa), Vibration and shock, and 0.3m free drop - and the hypothetical accident conditions load cases - including the 9m Free Drop, Puncture, Thermal Fire Accident, 200m Water Immersion and 1.5 x MNOP Internal Pressure. Structural performance were demonstrated by analysis, including state-of-the-art finite element (FE) simulation, and confirmed by tests using a 1/3-scale model. Test results were also used to verify the numerical tool and the methods used in the analyses. All the structural analyses including validation against drop tests were carried out by Arup, and testing were carried out by KAERI. This paper concentrates on the analysis carried out to demonstrate performance in the hypothetical accident 9m free drop scenarios, and results from a small selection of them

  15. Analyses to demonstrate the structural performance of the CASTOR KN12 in hypothetical accident drop accident scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diersch, R.; Weiss, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH (Germany); Tso, C.F. [Arup (United Kingdom); Chung, S.H.; Lee, H.Y. [KHNP-NETEC (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    CASTORc{sup ircledR} KN-12 is a new cask design by GNB for KHNP-NETEC for dry and wet transportation of up to twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies in Korea. It received its transport license from the Korean Competent Authority KINS in July 2002 and is now in use in South Korea. It has been designed to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the 10 CFR 71 and the IAEA ST-1 for Type B(U)F packages. Its structural performance was demonstrated against the load cases and boundary conditions as defined in 10 CFR 71 and NRC's Regulatory Guide 7.8, and further explained in NUREG 1617. This included normal conditions of transport load cases - including Hot Environment, Cold Environment, Increased External Pressure (140MPa), Minimum External Pressure (24.5kPa), Vibration and shock, and 0.3m free drop - and the hypothetical accident conditions load cases - including the 9m Free Drop, Puncture, Thermal Fire Accident, 200m Water Immersion and 1.5 x MNOP Internal Pressure. Structural performance were demonstrated by analysis, including state-of-the-art finite element (FE) simulation, and confirmed by tests using a 1/3-scale model. Test results were also used to verify the numerical tool and the methods used in the analyses. All the structural analyses including validation against drop tests were carried out by Arup, and testing were carried out by KAERI. This paper concentrates on the analysis carried out to demonstrate performance in the hypothetical accident 9m free drop scenarios, and results from a small selection of them.

  16. Modeling fates and impacts for bio-economic analysis of hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.; Etkin, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The oil spill risks associated with four submerged rock pinnacles near Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay are being evaluated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Oil spill modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The scenarios are hypothetical vessel grounding on the pinnacles. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). The frequency distribution of oil fates and impacts was determined by first running each scenario in stochastic mode. The oil fates and biological effects of the spills were the focus of this paper. It was shown that diesel and crude oil spills would have greater impacts in the water column than heavy fuel or gasoline because gasoline is more volatile and less toxic and because heavy oil spills would be small in volume. It was determined that the major impacts and damage to birds would be low due to the high dilution potential of the bay. It was also noted that dispersants would be very effective in reducing impacts on wildlife and the shoreline. These results are being used to evaluate the cost-benefit analysis of removing the rocks versus the risk of an oil spill. The work demonstrates a statistically quantifiable method to estimate potential impacts that could be used in ecological risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. 15 refs., 13 tabs., 11 figs

  17. Role of Fault Attributions and Other Factors in Adults' Attitudes Toward Hypothetical Children With an Undesirable Characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadian, Taylor W; Sonnentag, Tammy L; Jones, Tucker L; Barnett, Mark A

    2018-01-01

    A total of 184 adults read descriptions of six hypothetical children with various undesirable characteristics (i.e., being extremely overweight, extremely aggressive, extremely shy, a poor student, a poor athlete, displaying symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Following each description, the participants were asked to rate how much they disagree or agree that the child, the child's parents, and the child's biological condition (i.e., "something wrong inside the child's body or brain") are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the undesirable characteristic. In addition, the participants were asked to rate their attitude toward each child using a 100-point "feeling thermometer." Analyses of the participants' various fault attribution ratings revealed that they tended to agree more strongly that a child's parents and his/her biological condition are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the child's undesirable characteristic than is the child him/herself. Despite the participants' reluctance to blame a hypothetical child for his/her undesirable characteristic, regression analyses revealed that, in general, the more they blamed the child for the onset of his/her undesirable characteristic, the more negative their attitude was toward the child. However, the participants' ratings of the extent to which the child's parents or biological condition are at fault for the onset and the perpetuation of the child's undesirable characteristic were not found to be associated with their attitude toward any of the children. Similarities and differences between the present findings and those reported in prior studies involving younger individuals are addressed.

  18. Response to hypothetical social scenarios in individuals with traumatic brain injury who present inappropriate social behavior: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jean; Henry, Anne; Decoste, François-Pierre; Ouellette, Michel; McDuff, Pierre; Daelman, Sacha

    2013-03-01

    Very little research thus far has examined the decision making that underlies inappropriate social behavior (ISB) post-TBI (traumatic brain injury). To verify the usefulness of a new instrument, the Social Responding Task, for investigating whether, in social decision making, individuals with TBI, who present inappropriate social behavior (ISB), have difficulty anticipating their own feelings of embarrassment and others' angry reactions following an ISB. Seven subjects with TBI presenting with inappropriate social behavior (TBI-ISB), 10 presenting with appropriate social behavior (TBI-ASB), and 15 healthy controls were given 12 hypothetical scenarios three times, each time ending with a different behavioral response. Subjects were asked to gauge the likelihood of their displaying the behavior in that situation (part A) and of it being followed by an angry reaction from the other or by feelings of embarrassment in themselves (part B). TBI-ISB subjects scored higher than TBI-ASB and healthy controls on a scale of likelihood of displaying an ISB. RESULTS regarding expectations of angry reactions from others and feelings of embarrassment after an ISB were similar among groups. Negative correlations between endorsement of an inappropriate behavior and anticipation of negative emotional consequences were significant for both TBI-ASB and control subjects, but not for TBI-ISB subjects. RESULTS suggest that the TBI-ISB participants were likely to endorse an ISB despite being able to anticipate a negative emotional response in themselves or others, suggesting that there were other explanations for their poor behavior. A self-reported likely response to hypothetical social scenarios can be a useful approach for studying the neurocognitive processes behind the poor choices of individuals with TBI-ISB, but the task needs further validation studies. A comprehensive discussion follows on the underlying mechanisms affecting social behaviors after a TBI.

  19. Response to Hypothetical Social Scenarios in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury Who Present Inappropriate Social Behavior: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ouellette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very little research thus far has examined the decision making that underlies inappropriate social behavior (ISB post-TBI (traumatic brain injury. Objectives: To verify the usefulness of a new instrument, the Social Responding Task, for investigating whether, in social decision making, individuals with TBI, who present inappropriate social behavior (ISB, have difficulty anticipating their own feelings of embarrassment and others’ angry reactions following an ISB. Methods: Seven subjects with TBI presenting with inappropriate social behavior (TBI-ISB, 10 presenting with appropriate social behavior (TBI-ASB, and 15 healthy controls were given 12 hypothetical scenarios three times, each time ending with a different behavioral response. Subjects were asked to gauge the likelihood of their displaying the behavior in that situation (part A and of it being followed by an angry reaction from the other or by feelings of embarrassment in themselves (part B. Results: TBI-ISB subjects scored higher than TBI-ASB and healthy controls on a scale of likelihood of displaying an ISB. Results regarding expectations of angry reactions from others and feelings of embarrassment after an ISB were similar among groups. Negative correlations between endorsement of an inappropriate behavior and anticipation of negative emotional consequences were significant for both TBI-ASB and control subjects, but not for TBI-ISB subjects. Conclusions: Results suggest that the TBI-ISB participants were likely to endorse an ISB despite being able to anticipate a negative emotional response in themselves or others, suggesting that there were other explanations for their poor behavior. A self-reported likely response to hypothetical social scenarios can be a useful approach for studying the neurocognitive processes behind the poor choices of individuals with TBI-ISB, but the task needs further validation studies. A comprehensive discussion follows on the underlying

  20. Creating Porcine Biomedical Models Through Recombineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence B. Schook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genomics provide genetic information from humans and other mammals (mouse, rat, dog and primates traditionally used as models as well as new candidates (pigs and cattle. In addition, linked enabling technologies, such as transgenesis and animal cloning, provide innovative ways to design and perform experiments to dissect complex biological systems. Exploitation of genomic information overcomes the traditional need to choose naturally occurring models. Thus, investigators can utilize emerging genomic knowledge and tools to create relevant animal models. This approach is referred to as reverse genetics. In contrast to ‘forward genetics’, in which gene(s responsible for a particular phenotype are identified by positional cloning (phenotype to genotype, the ‘reverse genetics’ approach determines the function of a gene and predicts the phenotype of a cell, tissue, or organism (genotype to phenotype. The convergence of classical and reverse genetics, along with genomics, provides a working definition of a ‘genetic model’ organism (3. The recent construction of phenotypic maps defining quantitative trait loci (QTL in various domesticated species provides insights into how allelic variations contribute to phenotypic diversity. Targeted chromosomal regions are characterized by the construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC contigs to isolate and characterize genes contributing towards phenotypic variation. Recombineering provides a powerful methodology to harvest genetic information responsible for phenotype. Linking recombineering with gene-targeted homologous recombination, coupled with nuclear transfer (NT technology can provide ‘clones’ of genetically modified animals.

  1. Barriers and drivers in creating greener plastic toys: A technology management methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk Jensen, Maibritt; Liltorp, Helle; Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    , and environmental concerns all meet at designer’s desk. Idealistic eco-oriented frameworks such as cradle-to-cradle (C2C) and design-for-disassembly (D4D) suggest inspiration for technical developers and material specialists. This study employs a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to analyze the adequacy...... to potential shortcomings in reverse logistics, a tendency to down-cycle valuable products more than necessary, and a risk of loss of control of reclaimed products in the downstream supply chain. The study suggests an eco-design-inspired framework for improving the marketers understanding and planning...... of greening of the product portfolio based on management of the individual technologies of creative design, mold design, polymers, and supply chain. The study is conducted within plastic toys, but results are applicable to a wide range of durable consumer products....

  2. How to create a methodology of conceptual visualization based on experiential cognitive science and diagrammatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Based on the insights of experiential cognitive science and of diagrammatology as defined by Charles S. Peirce and Frederik Stjernfelt, this article analyses the iconic links connecting visualizations of Stjernfelt diagrams with human perception and action and starts to lay the theoretical...

  3. Methodological aspects of creating a radiological 'passport' of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubasov, Yu.V.; Smagulov, S.G.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.

    2002-01-01

    During its existence, 456 nuclear tests were carried out at the Semipalatinsk Test Site - 30 at the ground surface, 86 in the atmosphere and 340 underground. Radioactive fallout from ground surface tests is responsible for the present radiation conditions within the 'Test Field'. The radiation situation in the Degelen Mountains is caused by 209 underground tests carried out in local tunnels. Within the former Test Site there are three large and several small zones to which general access is prohibited for public health reasons: the 'Test Field', the Degelen Mountains, lake Shagan, the rim of the lake, and the adjacent land to the north. The information and characteristics, which have to be included in radiological passport of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site, are discussed along with general information about the Semipalatinsk site, its administrative status, the population distribution throughout the territory, all the economic activities taking place within the territory, the zones and structures representing a radiation hazard, and radiohydrogeological conditions of the test site and the adjacent regions, biogenic conditions (topography, soil, vegetation), wildlife, fauna monitoring, etc. (author)

  4. A Methodology for Determining Land Value and Associated Benefits Created from Dredged Material Containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    establish- ments (restaurants, hotels , and marinas), office buildings (HUD, EPA, L’Enfant Plaza, etc.), and low-, mid-, and high-rise apartment build...and redeveloped for hotel and restaurant activities with associated parking facilities. The area around and toward the city side of Navy Field is...specialty tourist activity center called Sea Port Village and consisl largely of boutiques and restaurants. Sit«.* zoning and area land use plans it). The

  5. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS FOR CREATING AN ELECTRONIC APPLICATION TO THE TEXTBOOK "PHYSICS 9"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.U. Blagodarenko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of educational software that exist on the Ukrainian market are presented. The structure, functions and advantages of the electronic application to the textbook "Physics 9" are defined.

  6. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS FOR CREATING AN ELECTRONIC APPLICATION TO THE TEXTBOOK "PHYSICS 9"

    OpenAIRE

    L.U. Blagodarenko

    2010-01-01

    The results of the analysis of educational software that exist on the Ukrainian market are presented. The structure, functions and advantages of the electronic application to the textbook "Physics 9" are defined.

  7. A Methodology to Create a Unified Trade-Off Environment for Advanced Aerospace Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    data that was used to train it. The Model Fit Error ( MFE ) and Model Representation Error (MRE) histograms show the distribution of the percentage...The columns of the tables are the MFE , in terms of R 2 , and MRE, in terms of the standard deviation of the percent error. The fits can improve...undertaken during the research year. Table 1 Fit Statistics for Compound Surrogate Models Output MFE (Training R^2) MRE (Std. Dev of % error

  8. Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  9. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    As part of learning at the Nordic Workshop of Evidence-based Medicine, we have read with interest the practice guidelines for central venous access, published in your Journal in 2012.1 We appraised the quality of this guideline using the checklist developed by The Evidence-Based Medicine Working ...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....... Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...

  10. Web survey methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Callegaro, Mario; Vehovar, Asja

    2015-01-01

    Web Survey Methodology guides the reader through the past fifteen years of research in web survey methodology. It both provides practical guidance on the latest techniques for collecting valid and reliable data and offers a comprehensive overview of research issues. Core topics from preparation to questionnaire design, recruitment testing to analysis and survey software are all covered in a systematic and insightful way. The reader will be exposed to key concepts and key findings in the literature, covering measurement, non-response, adjustments, paradata, and cost issues. The book also discusses the hottest research topics in survey research today, such as internet panels, virtual interviewing, mobile surveys and the integration with passive measurements, e-social sciences, mixed modes and business intelligence. The book is intended for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as survey and market research, psychological research, official statistics and customer satisfaction research.

  11. Steganography: LSB Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    of LSB steganography in grayscale and color images . In J. Dittmann, K. Nahrstedt, and P. Wohlmacher, editors, Proceedings of the ACM, Special...Fridrich, M. Gojan and R. Du paper titled “Reliable detection of LSB steganography in grayscale and color images ”. From a general perspective Figure 2...REPORT Steganography : LSB Methodology (Progress Report) 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In computer science, steganography is the science

  12. Soil Radiological Characterisation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attiogbe, Julien; Aubonnet, Emilie; De Maquille, Laurence; De Moura, Patrick; Desnoyers, Yvon; Dubot, Didier; Feret, Bruno; Fichet, Pascal; Granier, Guy; Iooss, Bertrand; Nokhamzon, Jean-Guy; Ollivier Dehaye, Catherine; Pillette-Cousin, Lucien; Savary, Alain

    2014-12-01

    This report presents the general methodology and best practice approaches which combine proven existing techniques for sampling and characterisation to assess the contamination of soils prior to remediation. It is based on feedback of projects conducted by main French nuclear stakeholders involved in the field of remediation and dismantling (EDF, CEA, AREVA and IRSN). The application of this methodology will enable the project managers to obtain the elements necessary for the drawing up of files associated with remediation operations, as required by the regulatory authorities. It is applicable to each of the steps necessary for the piloting of remediation work-sites, depending on the objectives targeted (release into the public domain, re-use, etc.). The main part describes the applied statistical methodology with the exploratory analysis and variogram data, identification of singular points and their location. The results obtained permit assessment of a mapping to identify the contaminated surface and subsurface areas. It stakes the way for radiological site characterisation since the initial investigations from historical and functional analysis to check that the remediation objectives have been met. It follows an example application from the feedback of the remediation of a contaminated site on the Fontenay aux Roses facility. It is supplemented by a glossary of main terms used in the field from different publications or international standards. This technical report is a support of the ISO Standard ISO ISO/TC 85/SC 5 N 18557 'Sampling and characterisation principles for soils, buildings and infrastructures contaminated by radionuclides for remediation purposes'. (authors) [fr

  13. Applying automatic item generation to create cohesive physics testlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindyarto, B. N.; Nugroho, S. E.; Linuwih, S.

    2018-03-01

    Computer-based testing has created the demand for large numbers of items. This paper discusses the production of cohesive physics testlets using an automatic item generation concepts and procedures. The testlets were composed by restructuring physics problems to reveal deeper understanding of the underlying physical concepts by inserting a qualitative question and its scientific reasoning question. A template-based testlet generator was used to generate the testlet variants. Using this methodology, 1248 testlet variants were effectively generated from 25 testlet templates. Some issues related to the effective application of the generated physics testlets in practical assessments were discussed.

  14. Professional penetration testing creating and operating a formal hacking lab

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    PART I - Setting Up. Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: Ethics and Hacking. Chapter 3: Hacking as a Career. Chapter 4: Setting up Your Lab. Chapter 5: Creating and Using PenTest Targets in Your Lab. Chapter 6: Methodologies. Chapter 7: PenTest Metrics. Chapter 8: Management of a PenTest. PART II - Running a PenTest. Chapter 9: Information Gathering. Chapter 10: Vulnerability Identification. Chapter 11: Vulnerability Verification. Chapter 12: Compromising a System and Privilege Escalation. Chapter 13: Maintaining Access. Chapter 14: Covering Your Tracks. PART III - Wrapping Everything Up. Chap

  15. Safety assessment of a vault-based disposal facility using the ISAM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.; Kim, C.-L.; Lietava, P.; Little, R.; Simon, I.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improving Long-term of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM), three example cases were developed. The aim was to testing the ISAM safety assessment methodology using as realistic as possible data. One of the Test Cases, the Vault Test Case (VTC), related to the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW) to a hypothetical facility comprising a set of above surface vaults. This paper uses the various steps of the ISAM safety assessment methodology to describe the work undertaken by ISAM participants in developing the VTC and provides some general conclusions that can be drawn from the findings of their work. (author)

  16. Soft system methodology and decision making in community planning system

    OpenAIRE

    Křupka, Jiří; Kašparová, Miloslava; Jirava, Pavel; Mandys, Jan; Ferynová, Lenka; Duplinský, Josef

    2013-01-01

    A model of community planning was defined in this paper. The model was designed for the city of Pardubice and works with real questionnaire research data sets in its evaluation phase. Questionnaires were submitted to fill users, providers and sponsors of social services. When creating the model was used Checkland’s soft system methodology. Also soft computing methods and decision trees were used to create the model. The model was implemented in the data mining tool IBM SPSS Modeler 14.

  17. Methodology applied to develop the DHIE: applied methodology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, Marlien

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This section will address the methodology that was applied to develop the South African Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem (DHIE). Each chapter under Section B represents a specific phase in the methodology....

  18. Methodological pluralism in the teaching of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of using a teaching strategy called methodological pluralism, consisting of the use of various methodological resources in order to provide a meaningful learning. It is part of a doctoral thesis, which aims to investigate contributions to the use of traditional resources combined with digital technologies, in order to create autonomy for future teachers of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in relation to themes in Astronomy. It was offered an extension course at the "Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology" in the North of Minas Gerais (FINMG), Campus Januaria, for thirty-two students of licentiate courses in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, involving themes of Astronomy, in order to search and contribute to improving the training of future teachers. The following aspects are used: the mixed methodology, with pre-experimental design, combined with content analysis. The results indicate the rates of students' prior knowledge in relation to Astronomy was low; meaningful learning indications of concepts related to Astronomy, and the feasibility of using digital resources Involving technologies, articulated with traditional materials in the teaching of Astronomy. This research sought to contribute to the initial teacher training, especially in relation to Astronomy Teaching, proposing new alternatives to promote the teaching of this area of knowledge, extending the methodological options of future teachers.

  19. A Design Methodology for Medical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Simona; Bonacina, Stefano; Pozzi, Giuseppe; Pinciroli, Francesco; Marceglia, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare processes, especially those belonging to the clinical domain, are acknowledged as complex and characterized by the dynamic nature of the diagnosis, the variability of the decisions made by experts driven by their experiences, the local constraints, the patient's needs, the uncertainty of the patient's response, and the indeterminacy of patient's compliance to treatment. Also, the multiple actors involved in patient's care need clear and transparent communication to ensure care coordination. In this paper, we propose a methodology to model healthcare processes in order to break out complexity and provide transparency. The model is grounded on a set of requirements that make the healthcare domain unique with respect to other knowledge domains. The modeling methodology is based on three main phases: the study of the environmental context, the conceptual modeling, and the logical modeling. The proposed methodology was validated by applying it to the case study of the rehabilitation process of stroke patients in the specific setting of a specialized rehabilitation center. The resulting model was used to define the specifications of a software artifact for the digital administration and collection of assessment tests that was also implemented. Despite being only an example, our case study showed the ability of process modeling to answer the actual needs in healthcare practices. Independently from the medical domain in which the modeling effort is done, the proposed methodology is useful to create high-quality models, and to detect and take into account relevant and tricky situations that can occur during process execution.

  20. A Generic Methodology for Superstructure Optimization of Different Processing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Frauzem, Rebecca; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a generic computer-aided methodology for synthesis of different processing networks using superstructure optimization. The methodology can handle different network optimization problems of various application fields. It integrates databases with a common data architecture......, a generic model to represent the processing steps, and appropriate optimization tools. A special software interface has been created to automate the steps in the methodology workflow, allow the transfer of data between tools and obtain the mathematical representation of the problem as required...

  1. Determinants of physician empathy during medical education: hypothetical conclusions from an exploratory qualitative survey of practicing physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy is an outcome-relevant physician characteristic and thus a crucial component of high-quality communication in health care. However, the factors that promote and inhibit the development of empathy during medical education have not been extensively researched. Also, currently there is no explicit research on the perspective of practicing physicians on the subject. Therefore the aim of our study was to explore physicians’ views of the positive and negative influences on the development of empathy during their medical education, as well as in their everyday work as physicians. Method We administered a written Qualitative Short Survey to 63 physicians in seven specialties. They were able to respond anonymously. Our open-ended question was: “What educational content in the course of your studies and/or your specialist training had a positive or negative effect on your empathy?” We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis following Mayring’s approach. Results Forty-two physicians took part in our survey. All together, they mentioned 68 specific factors (37 positive, 29 negative, 2 neutral) from which six themes emerged: 1. In general, medical education does not promote the development of empathy. 2. Recognizing the psycho-social dimensions of care fosters empathy. 3. Interactions with patients in medical practice promote empathy. 4. Physicians’ active self-development through reflective practice helps the development of empathy. 5. Interactions with colleagues can both promote and inhibit empathy through their role modeling of empathic and non-empathic behavior. 6. Stress, time pressure, and adverse working conditions are detrimental to empathy development. Conclusions Our results provide an overview of what might influence the development of clinical empathy, as well as hypothetical conclusions about how to promote it. Reflective practice seems to be lacking in current medical curricula and could be incorporated. Raising physicians

  2. Networks as integrated in research methodologies in PER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of using networks to create insightful maps of learning discussions. To conclude, I argue that conceptual blending is a powerful framework for constructing "mixed methods" methodologies that may integrate diverse theories and other methodologies with network methodologies.......In recent years a number of researchers within the PER community have started using network analysis as a new methodology to extend our understanding of teaching and learning physics by viewing these as complex systems. In this paper, I give examples of social, cognitive, and action mapping...... networks and how they can be analyzed. In so doing I show how a network can be methodologically described as a set of relations between a set of entities, and how a network can be characterized and analyzed as a mathematical object. Then, as an illustrative example, I discuss a relatively new example...

  3. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  4. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  5. Geotechnical site assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunbridge, L.W.; Richards, L.R.

    1985-09-01

    The reports comprising this volume concern the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in granites in Cornwall, with particular reference to the effect of structures imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses. The topics covered are: in-situ stress measurements using (a) the hydraulic fracturing method, or (b) the US Bureau of Mines deformation probe; scanline discontinuity survey - coding form and instructions, and data; applicability of geostatistical estimation methods to scalar rock properties; comments on in-situ stress at the Carwynnen test mine and the state of stress in the British Isles. (U.K.)

  6. Microphysics evolution and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisio, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A few general features of microscopics evolution and their relationship with microscopics methodology are briefly surveyed. Several pluri-disciplinary and interdisciplinary aspects of microscopics research are also discussed in the present scientific context. The need for an equilibrium between individual tendencies and collective constraints required by team work, already formulated thirty years ago by Frederic Joliot, is particularly stressed in the present conjuncture of Nuclear Research favouring very large team projects and discouraging individual initiatives. The increasing importance of the science of science (due to their multiple social, economical, ecological aspects) and the stronger competition between national and international tendencies of scientific (and technical) cooperation are also discussed. (author)

  7. MIRD methodology; Metodologia MIRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, Ana M [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomez Parada, Ines [Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system was established by the Society of Nuclear Medicine of USA in 1960 to assist the medical community in the estimation of the dose in organs and tissues due to the incorporation of radioactive materials. Since then, 'MIRD Dose Estimate Report' (from the 1 to 12) and 'Pamphlets', of great utility for the dose calculations, were published. The MIRD system was planned essentially for the calculation of doses received by the patients during nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. The MIRD methodology for the absorbed doses calculations in different tissues is explained.

  8. Beam optimization: improving methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinteiro, Guillermo F.

    2004-01-01

    Different optimization techniques commonly used in biology and food technology allow a systematic and complete analysis of response functions. In spite of the great interest in medical and nuclear physics in the problem of optimizing mixed beams, little attention has been given to sophisticate mathematical tools. Indeed, many techniques are perfectly suited to the typical problem of beam optimization. This article is intended as a guide to the use of two methods, namely Response Surface Methodology and Simplex, that are expected to fasten the optimization process and, meanwhile give more insight into the relationships among the dependent variables controlling the response

  9. Literacy research methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Nell K

    2012-01-01

    The definitive reference on literacy research methods, this book serves as a key resource for researchers and as a text in graduate-level courses. Distinguished scholars clearly describe established and emerging methodologies, discuss the types of questions and claims for which each is best suited, identify standards of quality, and present exemplary studies that illustrate the approaches at their best. The book demonstrates how each mode of inquiry can yield unique insights into literacy learning and teaching and how the methods can work together to move the field forward.   New to This Editi

  10. Methodology of site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, J.C.; Hugon, J.; Grauby, A.

    1980-01-01

    This methodology consists in an essentially dynamic, estimated and follow-up analysis of the impact of discharges on all the environment compartments, whether natural or not, that play a part in the protection of man and his environment. It applies at two levels, to wit: the choice of site, or the detailed study of the site selected. Two examples of its application will be developed, namely: at the choice of site level in the case of marine sites, and of the detailed study level of the chosen site in that of a riverside site [fr

  11. Alternative pricing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in competitive market forces and growing recognition of the deficiencies in current practices, FERC and others are exploring alternatives to embedded cost pricing. A number of these alternatives are discussed in this chapter. Marketplace pricing, discussed briefly here, is the subject of the next chapter. Obviously, the pricing formula may combine several of these methodologies. One utility of which the authors are aware is seeking a price equal to the sum of embedded costs, opportunity costs, line losses, value of service, FERC's percentage adder formula and a contract service charge

  12. Creating hourly distributions at national level for various energy demands and renewable energy supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Drysdale, Dave; Hansen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    being recorded over longer time horizons, for example over one day. In this paper, a methodology is presented for creating hourly distributions for energy systems analysis tools. On the demand side, hourly distributions are developed for electricity, heating, cooling, and transport while the supply side...... includes wind, solar (photovoltaic and thermal), and wave power. Distributions are not created for dispatchable plants, such as coal, gas, and nuclear thermal plants, since their output is usually determined by the energy modelling tool rather than by a dependent resource. The methodologies are purposely...

  13. LOFT uncertainty-analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The methodology used for uncertainty analyses of measurements in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) nuclear-reactor-safety research program is described and compared with other methodologies established for performing uncertainty analyses

  14. LOFT uncertainty-analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The methodology used for uncertainty analyses of measurements in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) nuclear reactor safety research program is described and compared with other methodologies established for performing uncertainty analyses

  15. RHIC Data Correlation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michnoff, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Hoff, L.; MacKay, W.; Satogata, T.

    1999-01-01

    A requirement for RHIC data plotting software and physics analysis is the correlation of data from all accelerator data gathering systems. Data correlation provides the capability for a user to request a plot of multiple data channels vs. time, and to make meaningful time-correlated data comparisons. The task of data correlation for RHIC requires careful consideration because data acquisition triggers are generated from various asynchronous sources including events from the RHIC Event Link, events from the two Beam Sync Links, and other unrelated clocks. In order to correlate data from asynchronous acquisition systems a common time reference is required. The RHIC data correlation methodology will allow all RHIC data to be converted to a common wall clock time, while still preserving native acquisition trigger information. A data correlation task force team, composed of the authors of this paper, has been formed to develop data correlation design details and provide guidelines for software developers. The overall data correlation methodology will be presented in this paper

  16. Intelligent systems engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouse, Scott

    1990-01-01

    An added challenge for the designers of large scale systems such as Space Station Freedom is the appropriate incorporation of intelligent system technology (artificial intelligence, expert systems, knowledge-based systems, etc.) into their requirements and design. This presentation will describe a view of systems engineering which successfully addresses several aspects of this complex problem: design of large scale systems, design with requirements that are so complex they only completely unfold during the development of a baseline system and even then continue to evolve throughout the system's life cycle, design that involves the incorporation of new technologies, and design and development that takes place with many players in a distributed manner yet can be easily integrated to meet a single view of the requirements. The first generation of this methodology was developed and evolved jointly by ISX and the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the past five years on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency/Air Force Pilot's Associate Program, one of the largest, most complex, and most successful intelligent systems constructed to date. As the methodology has evolved it has also been applied successfully to a number of other projects. Some of the lessons learned from this experience may be applicable to Freedom.

  17. SMART performance analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Kim, H. C.; Lee, D. J.

    2001-04-01

    To ensure the required and desired operation over the plant lifetime, the performance analysis for the SMART NSSS design is done by means of the specified analysis methodologies for the performance related design basis events(PRDBE). The PRDBE is an occurrence(event) that shall be accommodated in the design of the plant and whose consequence would be no more severe than normal service effects of the plant equipment. The performance analysis methodology which systematizes the methods and procedures to analyze the PRDBEs is as follows. Based on the operation mode suitable to the characteristics of the SMART NSSS, the corresponding PRDBEs and allowable range of process parameters for these events are deduced. With the developed control logic for each operation mode, the system thermalhydraulics are analyzed for the chosen PRDBEs using the system analysis code. Particularly, because of different system characteristics of SMART from the existing commercial nuclear power plants, the operation mode, PRDBEs, control logic, and analysis code should be consistent with the SMART design. This report presents the categories of the PRDBEs chosen based on each operation mode and the transition among these and the acceptance criteria for each PRDBE. It also includes the analysis methods and procedures for each PRDBE and the concept of the control logic for each operation mode. Therefore this report in which the overall details for SMART performance analysis are specified based on the current SMART design, would be utilized as a guide for the detailed performance analysis

  18. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  19. Insights into PRA methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.; Lofgren, E.; Atefi, B.; Liner, R.; Blond, R.; Amico, P.

    1984-08-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for six nuclear power plants were examined to gain insight into how the choice of analytical methods can affect the results of PRAs. The PRA sreflectope considered was limited to internally initiated accidents sequences through core melt. For twenty methodological topic areas, a baseline or minimal methodology was specified. The choice of methods for each topic in the six PRAs was characterized in terms of the incremental level of effort above the baseline. A higher level of effort generally reflects a higher level of detail or a higher degree of sophistication in the analytical approach to a particular topic area. The impact on results was measured in terms of how additional effort beyond the baseline level changed the relative importance and ordering of dominant accident sequences compared to what would have been observed had methods corresponding to the baseline level of effort been employed. This measure of impact is a more useful indicator of how methods affect perceptions of plant vulnerabilities than changes in core melt frequency would be. However, the change in core melt frequency was used as a secondary measure of impact for nine topics where availability of information permitted. Results are presented primarily in the form of effort-impact matrices for each of the twenty topic areas. A suggested effort-impact profile for future PRAs is presented

  20. SITE-94. Scenario development FEP audit list preparation: methodology and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.; Chapman, N.; Sumerling, T.

    1993-04-01

    This report concerns a study which is part of the SKI performance assessment project SITE-94. SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. Other important elements of SITE-94 are the development of a practical and defensible methodology for defining, constructing and analyzing scenarios, the development of approaches for treatment of uncertainties , evaluation of canister integrity, and the development and application of an appropriate quality assurance plan for performance assessments