WorldWideScience

Sample records for methodologies extending safety

  1. Safety class methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ''safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Safety class items are those in the highest of four categories determined to be of special importance to nuclear safety and, merit appropriately higher-quality design, fabrication, and industrial test standards and codes. The identification of safety class items is approached using a cascading strategy that begins at the 'safety function' level (i.e., a cooling function, ventilation function, etc.) and proceeds down to the system, component, or structure level. Thus, the items that are required to support a safety function are SCls. The basic steps in this procedure apply to the determination of SCls for both new project activities, and for operating facilities. The GDC lists six characteristics of SCls to be considered as a starting point for safety item classification. They are as follows: 1. Those items whose failure would produce exposure consequences that would exceed the guidelines in Section 1300-1.4, ''Guidance on Limiting Exposure of the Public,'' at the site boundary or nearest point of public access 2. Those items required to maintain operating parameters within the safety limits specified in the Operational Safety Requirements during normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences. 3. Those items required for nuclear criticality safety. 4. Those items required to monitor the release of radioactive material to the environment during and after a Design Basis Accident. Those items required to achieve, and maintain the facility in a safe shutdown condition 6. Those items that control Safety Class Item listed above

  2. Blanket safety by GEMSAFE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo; Saito, Masaki

    2001-01-01

    General Methodology of Safety Analysis and Evaluation for Fusion Energy Systems (GEMSAFE) has been applied to a number of fusion system designs, such as R-tokamak, Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) designs in the both stages of Conceptual Design Activities (CDA) and Engineering Design Activities (EDA). Though the major objective of GEMSAFE is to reasonably select design basis events (DBEs) it is also useful to elucidate related safety functions as well as requirements to ensure its safety. In this paper, we apply the methodology to fusion systems with future tritium breeding blankets and make clear which points of the system should be of concern from safety ensuring point of view. In this context, we have obtained five DBEs that are related to the blanket system. We have also clarified the safety functions required to prevent accident propagations initiated by those blanket-specific DBEs. The outline of the methodology is also reviewed. (author)

  3. Safety at Work : Research Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Brinks, G. (Ger); Goering-Zaburnenko, T. (Tatiana); Houten, van Y. (Ynze); Teeuw, W. (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    In this document, we provide the methodological background for the Safety atWork project. This document combines several project deliverables as defined inthe overall project plan: validation techniques and methods (D5.1.1), performanceindicators for safety at work (D5.1.2), personal protection

  4. AGR core safety assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, N.; Reed, J.; Metcalfe, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    To demonstrate the safety of its gas-cooled graphite-moderated AGR reactors, nuclear safety assessments of the cores are based upon a methodology which demonstrates no component failures, geometrical stability of the structure and material properties bounded by a database. All AGRs continue to meet these three criteria. However, predictions of future core behaviour indicate that the safety case methodology will eventually need to be modified to deal with new phenomena. A new approach to the safety assessment of the cores is currently under development, which can take account of these factors while at the same time providing the same level of protection for the cores. This approach will be based on the functionality of the core: unhindered movement of control rods, continued adequate cooling of the fuel and the core, continued ability to charge and discharge fuel. (author). 5 figs

  5. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  6. PWR reload safety evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; Chapin, D.L.; Love, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The current practice for WWER safety analysis is to prepare the plant Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for initial plant operation. However, the existing safety analysis is typically not evaluated for reload cycles to confirm that all safety limits are met. In addition, there is no systematic reanalysis or reevaluation of the safety analyses after there have been changes made to the plant. The Westinghouse process is discussed which is in contrast to this and in which the SAR conclusions are re-validated through evaluation and/or analysis of each reload cycle. (Z.S.)

  7. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively.

  8. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively

  9. Safety analysis methodology for OPR 1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang-Yong, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) has been developing inhouse safety analysis methodology based on the delicate codes available to KEPRI to overcome the problems arising from currently used vendor oriented methodologies. For the Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis, the KREM (KEPRI Realistic Evaluation Methodology) has been developed based on the RELAP-5 code. The methodology was approved for the Westinghouse 3-loop plants by the Korean regulatory organization and the project to extent the methodology to the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) has been ongoing since 2001. Also, for the Non-LOCA analysis, the KNAP (Korea Non-LOCA Analysis Package) has been developed using the UNICORN-TM code system. To demonstrate the feasibility of these codes systems and methodologies, some typical cases of the design basis accidents mentioned in the final safety analysis report (FSAR) were analyzed. (author)

  10. Safety methodology and risk targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    In assessing the potential safety concerns of fusion, the experience from other energy sources lead to a variety of safety assessment approaches. The available approaches are: (1) The maximum possible accident approach; (2) The maximum credible accident approach; (3) The probabilistic total risk assessment. In the first approach, the mechanistic development of the events leading to the safety concern is ignored. Instead, the total radioactivity of the plant is assumed accessible to the public. Such an approach is obviously conservative and unrealistic. In the second approach a selection is made among the most severe of the possible accidents, and the progression of the accident is modeled as mechanistically as possible. In this case, the passive and active accident mitigation capabilities of the plant are taken into consideration. The result is expected to be that none or only a fraction of the total radioactivity can be released to the public. The adverse effect of this approach is to concentrate attention on a particular accident class, and perhaps not allow for other classes, a judgement that may later become undesirable. The probabilistic risk assessment requires the safety analysts to consider all classes of accidents and estimate both the probabilities of their occurrences and their consequences. Thus, the plant design in fact is subjected to a thorough investigation and the impact of alterations in design can be reflected in the total risk estimate. The disadvantage of this approach lies in the absence of well defined acceptable risk criteria as well as the large effect of public perception factors on the accepted risk. This paper will review the impact of application of these approaches in determination of the level of protection needed against activation product release to the atmosphere. (author)

  11. Overview of the ISAM safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeonov, G.

    2003-01-01

    The ISAM safety assessment methodology consists of the following key components: specification of the assessment context description of the disposal system development and justification of scenarios formulation and implementation of models running of computer codes and analysis and presentation of results. Common issues run through two or more of these assessment components, including: use of methodological and computer tools, collation and use of data, need to address various sources of uncertainty, building of confidence in the individual components, as well as the overall assessment. The importance of the iterative nature of the assessment should be recognised

  12. A methodology for extending domain coverage in SemRep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemblat, Graciela; Shin, Dongwook; Kilicoglu, Halil; Sneiderman, Charles; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    We describe a domain-independent methodology to extend SemRep coverage beyond the biomedical domain. SemRep, a natural language processing application originally designed for biomedical texts, uses the knowledge sources provided by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS©). Ontological and terminological extensions to the system are needed in order to support other areas of knowledge. We extended SemRep's application by developing a semantic representation of a previously unsupported domain. This was achieved by adapting well-known ontology engineering phases and integrating them with the UMLS knowledge sources on which SemRep crucially depends. While the process to extend SemRep coverage has been successfully applied in earlier projects, this paper presents in detail the step-wise approach we followed and the mechanisms implemented. A case study in the field of medical informatics illustrates how the ontology engineering phases have been adapted for optimal integration with the UMLS. We provide qualitative and quantitative results, which indicate the validity and usefulness of our methodology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Extending statistical boosting. An overview of recent methodological developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A; Binder, H; Gefeller, O; Schmid, M

    2014-01-01

    Boosting algorithms to simultaneously estimate and select predictor effects in statistical models have gained substantial interest during the last decade. This review highlights recent methodological developments regarding boosting algorithms for statistical modelling especially focusing on topics relevant for biomedical research. We suggest a unified framework for gradient boosting and likelihood-based boosting (statistical boosting) which have been addressed separately in the literature up to now. The methodological developments on statistical boosting during the last ten years can be grouped into three different lines of research: i) efforts to ensure variable selection leading to sparser models, ii) developments regarding different types of predictor effects and how to choose them, iii) approaches to extend the statistical boosting framework to new regression settings. Statistical boosting algorithms have been adapted to carry out unbiased variable selection and automated model choice during the fitting process and can nowadays be applied in almost any regression setting in combination with a large amount of different types of predictor effects.

  14. Knowledge Management Methodologies for Improving Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusconi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Epistemic uncertainties could affect operator’s capability to prevent rare but potentially catastrophic accident sequences. Safety analysis methodologies are powerful but fragile tools if basic assumptions are not sound and exhaustive. In particular, expert judgments and technical data could be invalidated by organizational context change (e.g., maintenance planning, supply systems etc.) or by unexpected events. In 1986 accidents like Chernobyl, the explosion of Shuttle Challenger and, two years before, the toxic release at Bhopal chemical plant represented the point of no return with respect to the previous vision of safety and highlighted the undelayable need to change paradigm and face safety issues in complex systems not only from a technical point of view but to adopt a systemic vision able to include and integrate human and organizational aspects.

  15. Towards extended safety in connected vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Othmane, L.; Al-Fuqaha, A.; Ben Hamida, E.; Brand, van den M.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Current standards for vehicle safety consider only accidental failures; they do not consider failures caused by malicious attackers. The standards implicitly assume that the sensors and Electronic Control Units (ECUs) of each vehicle compose a secure in-vehicle network because no external entity

  16. Development of a new methodology for quantifying nuclear safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2017-01-15

    The present study developed a Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) which consists of a safety culture assessment methodology and a safety culture impact quantification methodology. The SCIAM uses a safety culture impact index (SCII) to monitor the status of safety culture of NPPs periodically and it uses relative core damage frequency (RCDF) to present the impact of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. As a result of applying the SCIAM to the reference plant (Kori 3), the standard for the healthy safety culture of the reference plant is suggested. SCIAM might contribute to improve the safety of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) by monitoring the status of safety culture periodically and presenting the standard of healthy safety culture.

  17. Development of a new methodology for quantifying nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung

    2017-01-01

    The present study developed a Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) which consists of a safety culture assessment methodology and a safety culture impact quantification methodology. The SCIAM uses a safety culture impact index (SCII) to monitor the status of safety culture of NPPs periodically and it uses relative core damage frequency (RCDF) to present the impact of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. As a result of applying the SCIAM to the reference plant (Kori 3), the standard for the healthy safety culture of the reference plant is suggested. SCIAM might contribute to improve the safety of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) by monitoring the status of safety culture periodically and presenting the standard of healthy safety culture.

  18. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated 'toolkit' consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  19. Inclusion of Premeditated Threats in the Safety Methodology for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanon, I.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade the global effort to prevent terrorism or to mitigate its harm, if prevention fails, has increased. The nuclear power community was involved in this effort trying to prevent terrorist attacks on NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants). A natural extension of terror restraining is the prevention of any premeditated damage to the plant, including acts of state. The pre-feasibility study of an Israeli NPP, conducted by the Ministry of National Infrastructures, has identified the risk of hostile damage to the NPP as a major obstacle to the establishment of nuclear power in Israel, second only to the refusal of nuclear exporting nations to sell an NPP to Israelv. The General Director of the Ministry and the Head of the IAEC (Israeli Atomic Energy Commission) have approved continuation of the pre-feasibility study. This synopsis presents a study, regarding premeditated threats to NPPs, commissioned by the Ministry of National Infrastructures as part of the continuation. It focuses on the safety aspect of premeditated threats originating outside the plant, although a significant part of the analysis can be extended to other subjects such as theft or diversion of strategic materials. The study deals only with methodology and does not encompass specific threats or protection measures. Conclusions and recommendations and marked by bold italics Arial font. The theory of nuclear safety regarding non-premeditated safety events (equipment failures, human errors, natural events, etc.) is well developed. The study refers to these events and the theory attached to them as c lassical , distinguishing them from premeditated events. The study defines two postulates, related to premeditated threats: Correspondence – We should adopt the classical methodology whenever possible. Regulation – The safety of an NPP from premeditated threats requires examination, approval and inspection by a regulator. Key issues of the methodology with substantial differences from the

  20. Methodology and applications for organizational safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Takeharu; Makino, Maomi

    2004-01-01

    The mission of our activity is making 'guidance of safety culture for understanding and evaluations' which comes in much more useful and making it substantial by clarifying positioning of safety culture within evaluation of the quality management. This is pointed out by 'Discussion on how to implement safety culture sufficiently and possible recommendation' last year by falsification issue of TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company). We have been developing the safety culture evaluation structured by three elements. One is safety culture evaluation support tool (SCET), another is organizational reliability model (ORM), third is system for safety. This paper describes mainly organizational reliability model (ORM) and its applications as well as ticking the system for safety culture within quality management. (author)

  1. Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators

  2. MAPLE research reactor safety uncertainty assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, H.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Andres, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    The MAPLE (multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experiment) reactor is a low pressure, low temperature, open-tank-in pool type research reactor that operates at a power level of 5 to 35 MW. MAPLE is designed for ease of operation, maintenance, and to meet today's most demanding requirements for safety and licensing. The emphasis is on the use of passive safety systems and environmentally qualified components. Key safety features include two independent and diverse shutdown systems, two parallel and independent cooling loops, fail safe operation, and a building design that incorporates the concepts of primary containment supported by secondary confinement

  3. Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, P.; Vorobyev, Y.; Sanchez-Perea, M.; Queral, C.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Rebollo, M. J.; Mena, L.; Gomez-Magin, J.

    2014-02-01

    IDPSA (Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment) is a family of methods which use tightly coupled probabilistic and deterministic approaches to address respective sources of uncertainties, enabling Risk informed decision making in a consistent manner. The starting point of the IDPSA framework is that safety justification must be based on the coupling of deterministic (consequences) and probabilistic (frequency) considerations to address the mutual interactions between stochastic disturbances (e.g. failures of the equipment, human actions, stochastic physical phenomena) and deterministic response of the plant (i.e. transients). This paper gives a general overview of some IDPSA methods as well as some possible applications to PWR safety analyses. (Author)

  4. Safety analysis and evaluation methodology for fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii-e, Y.; Kozawa, Y.; Namba, C.

    1987-03-01

    Fusion systems which are under development as future energy systems have reached a stage that the break even is expected to be realized in the near future. It is desirable to demonstrate that fusion systems are well acceptable to the societal environment. There are three crucial viewpoints to measure the acceptability, that is, technological feasibility, economy and safety. These three points have close interrelation. The safety problem is more important since three large scale tokamaks, JET, TFTR and JT-60, start experiment, and tritium will be introduced into some of them as the fusion fuel. It is desirable to establish a methodology to resolve the safety-related issues in harmony with the technological evolution. The promising fusion system toward reactors is not yet settled. This study has the objective to develop and adequate methodology which promotes the safety design of general fusion systems and to present a basis for proposing the R and D themes and establishing the data base. A framework of the methodology, the understanding and modeling of fusion systems, the principle of ensuring safety, the safety analysis based on the function and the application of the methodology are discussed. As the result of this study, the methodology for the safety analysis and evaluation of fusion systems was developed. New idea and approach were presented in the course of the methodology development. (Kako, I.)

  5. The methodological seminar “Psychological Safety in Transport”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviridenko I.N.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a short brief overview of the methodological seminar “Psychological Safety in Transport” organized in Yekaterinburg on the 17th November 2017. This seminar consisted of the plenary session and four workshops focused on analyzing most important issues of Human Factor of Road Safety.

  6. Safety on Judo Children: Methodology and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Sacripanti, Attilio; De Blasis, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Many doctors although they have not firsthand experience of judo, describe it as a sport unsuitable for children. Theoretically speaking falls derived by Judo throwing techniques,could be potentially dangerous,especially for kids,if poorly managed.A lot of researches were focalized on trauma or injuries taking place in judo, both during training and competition The goal of this Research is to define and apply a scientific methodology to evaluate the hazard in falls by judo throws for children...

  7. A Methodology for Evaluating Quantitative Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung

    2015-01-01

    Through several accidents of NPPs including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, nuclear safety culture has been emphasized in reactor safety world-widely. In Korea, KHNP evaluates the safety culture of NPP itself. KHNP developed the principles of the safety culture in consideration of the international standards. A questionnaire and interview questions are also developed based on these principles and it is used for evaluating the safety culture. However, existing methodology to evaluate the safety culture has some disadvantages. First, it is difficult to maintain the consistency of the assessment. Second, the period of safety culture assessment is too long (every two years) so it has limitations in preventing accidents occurred by a lack of safety culture. Third, it is not possible to measure the change in the risk of NPPs by weak safety culture since it is not clearly explains the effect of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. In this study, Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) is developed overcoming these disadvantages. In this study, SCIAM which overcoming disadvantages of exiting safety culture assessment method is developed. SCIAM uses SCII to monitor the statues of the safety culture periodically and also uses RCDF to quantify the safety culture impact on NPP's safety. It is significant that SCIAM represents the standard of the healthy nuclear safety culture, while the exiting safety culture assessment presented only vulnerability of the safety culture of organization. SCIAM might contribute to monitoring the level of safety culture periodically and, to improving the safety of NPP

  8. A Methodology for Evaluating Quantitative Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Through several accidents of NPPs including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, nuclear safety culture has been emphasized in reactor safety world-widely. In Korea, KHNP evaluates the safety culture of NPP itself. KHNP developed the principles of the safety culture in consideration of the international standards. A questionnaire and interview questions are also developed based on these principles and it is used for evaluating the safety culture. However, existing methodology to evaluate the safety culture has some disadvantages. First, it is difficult to maintain the consistency of the assessment. Second, the period of safety culture assessment is too long (every two years) so it has limitations in preventing accidents occurred by a lack of safety culture. Third, it is not possible to measure the change in the risk of NPPs by weak safety culture since it is not clearly explains the effect of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. In this study, Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) is developed overcoming these disadvantages. In this study, SCIAM which overcoming disadvantages of exiting safety culture assessment method is developed. SCIAM uses SCII to monitor the statues of the safety culture periodically and also uses RCDF to quantify the safety culture impact on NPP's safety. It is significant that SCIAM represents the standard of the healthy nuclear safety culture, while the exiting safety culture assessment presented only vulnerability of the safety culture of organization. SCIAM might contribute to monitoring the level of safety culture periodically and, to improving the safety of NPP.

  9. Safety of High Speed Ground Transportation Systems : Analytical Methodology for Safety Validation of Computer Controlled Subsystems : Volume 2. Development of a Safety Validation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of a methodology designed to assure that a sufficiently high level of safety is achieved and maintained in computer-based systems which perform safety cortical functions in high-speed rail or magnetic levitation ...

  10. WNP-2 outage safety review methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Albert; Fu, James

    2004-01-01

    A practical and versatile method was developed in the flow chart and checklist forms to show the defense-in-depth for various key safety functions of a nuclear power plant during shutdown. Using four different colors (green, yellow, orange, and red) for indication of levels of defense-in-depth is visually impressive, easy to understand, and was adopted by the outage management personnel as a convenient reference tool for maintenance activity planning before the outage, and schedule changes during the outage. This paper describes the method and its application at Washington Public Power Supply System's Nuclear Project 2 (WNP-2). (author)

  11. Performance Testing Methodology for Safety-Critical Programmable Logic Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Sung Ho; Sohn, Se Do

    2009-01-01

    The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for use in Nuclear Power Plant safety-related applications is being developed and tested first time in Korea. This safety-related PLC is being developed with requirements of regulatory guideline and industry standards for safety system. To test that the quality of the developed PLC is sufficient to be used in safety critical system, document review and various product testings were performed over the development documents for S/W, H/W, and V/V. This paper provides the performance testing methodology and its effectiveness for PLC platform conducted by KOPEC

  12. Application of extended statistical combination of uncertainties methodology for digital nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Ki; Uh, Keun Sun; Chul, Kim Heui [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    A technically more direct statistical combinations of uncertainties methodology, extended SCU (XSCU), was applied to statistically combine the uncertainties associated with the DNBR alarm setpoint and the DNBR trip setpoint of digital nuclear power plants. The modified SCU (MSCU) methodology is currently used as the USNRC approved design methodology to perform the same function. In this report, the MSCU and XSCU methodologies were compared in terms of the total uncertainties and the net margins to the DNBR alarm and trip setpoints. The MSCU methodology resulted in the small total penalties due to a significantly negative bias which are quite large. However the XSCU methodology gave the virtually unbiased total uncertainties. The net margins to the DNBR alarm and trip setpoints by the MSCU methodology agree with those by the XSCU methodology within statistical variations. (Author) 12 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Safety considerations for research reactors in extended shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    According to the IAEA Research Reactor Database, in the last 20 years, 367 research reactors have been shut down. Of these, 109 have undergone decommissioning and the rest are in extended shutdown with no clear definition about their future. Still other research reactors are infrequently operated with no meaningful utilization programme. These two situations present concerns related to safety such as loss of corporate memory, personnel qualification, maintenance of components and systems and preparation and maintenance of documentation. There are many reasons to shut down a reactor; these may include: - the need to carry out modifications in the reactor systems; - the need for refurbishment to extend the lifetime of the reactor; - the need to repair reactor structures, systems, or components; - the need to remedy technical problems; - regulatory or public concerns; - local conflicts or wars; - political convenience; - the lack of resources. While any one of these reasons may lead to shutdown of a reactor, each will present unique problems to the reactor management. The large variations from one research reactor to the next also will contribute to the uniqueness of the problems. Any option that the reactor management adopts will affect the future of the facility. Options may include dealing with the cause of the shutdown and returning to normal operation, extending the shutdown period waiting a future decision, or decommissioning. Such options are carefully and properly analysed to ensure that the solution selected is the best in terms of reactor type and size, period of shutdown and legal, economic and social considerations. This publication provides information in support of the IAEA safety standards for research reactors

  14. A Methodology To Incorporate The Safety Culture Into Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghyun; Kim, Namyeong; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to incorporate organizational factors into PSA, a methodology needs to be developed. Using the AHP to weigh organizational factors as well as the SLIM to rate those factors, a methodology is introduced in this study. The safety issues related to nuclear safety culture have occurred increasingly. The quantification tool has to be developed in order to include the organizational factor into Probabilistic Safety Assessments. In this study, the state-of-the-art for the organizational evaluation methodologies has been surveyed. This study includes the research for organizational factors, maintenance process, maintenance process analysis models, a quantitative methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Success Likelihood Index Methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to incorporate the safety culture into PSA for obtaining more objective risk than before. The organizational factor considered in nuclear safety culture might affect the potential risk of human error and hardware-failure. The safety culture impact index to monitor the plant safety culture can be assessed by applying the developed methodology into a nuclear power plant.

  15. A Methodology To Incorporate The Safety Culture Into Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sunghyun; Kim, Namyeong; Jae, Moosung

    2015-01-01

    In order to incorporate organizational factors into PSA, a methodology needs to be developed. Using the AHP to weigh organizational factors as well as the SLIM to rate those factors, a methodology is introduced in this study. The safety issues related to nuclear safety culture have occurred increasingly. The quantification tool has to be developed in order to include the organizational factor into Probabilistic Safety Assessments. In this study, the state-of-the-art for the organizational evaluation methodologies has been surveyed. This study includes the research for organizational factors, maintenance process, maintenance process analysis models, a quantitative methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Success Likelihood Index Methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to incorporate the safety culture into PSA for obtaining more objective risk than before. The organizational factor considered in nuclear safety culture might affect the potential risk of human error and hardware-failure. The safety culture impact index to monitor the plant safety culture can be assessed by applying the developed methodology into a nuclear power plant

  16. Methodology of safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kimura, Hideo

    1991-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting an extensive R and D program to develop a safety assessment methodology to evaluate environmental consequences associated with geological disposal of a high-level radioactive waste, and also to elucidate a generic feasibility of the geological disposal in Japan. The paper describes the current R and D activities in the JAERI to develop an interim version of the methodology based on a normal evolution scenario, and also to validate models used in the methodology. (author)

  17. Latest developments on safety analysis methodologies at the Juzbado plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurron-Cifuentes, Oscar; Ortiz-Trujillo, Diego; Blanco-Fernandez, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years the Juzbado Plant has developed and implemented several analysis methodologies to cope with specific issues regarding safety management. This paper describes the three most outstanding of them, so as to say, the Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) project, the adaptation of the MARSSIM methodology for characterization surveys of radioactive contamination spots, and the programme for the Systematic Review of the Operational Conditions of the Safety Systems (SROCSS). Several reasons motivated the decision to implement such methodologies, such as Regulator requirements, operational experience and of course, the strong commitment of ENUSA to maintain the highest standards of nuclear industry on all the safety relevant activities. In this context, since 2004 ENUSA is undertaking the ISA project, which consists on a systematic examination of plant's processes, equipment, structures and personnel activities to ensure that all relevant hazards that could result in unacceptable consequences have been adequately evaluated and the appropriate protective measures have been identified. On the other hand and within the framework of a current programme to ensure the absence of radioactive contamination spots on unintended areas, the MARSSIM methodology is being applied as a tool to conduct the radiation surveys and investigation of potentially contaminated areas. Finally, the SROCSS programme was initiated earlier this year 2009 to assess the actual operating conditions of all the systems with safety relevance, aiming to identify either potential non-conformities or areas for improvement in order to ensure their high performance after years of operation. The following paragraphs describe the key points related to these three methodologies as well as an outline of the results obtained so far. (authors)

  18. An Evaluation Methodology Development and Application Process for Severe Accident Safety Issue Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A general evaluation methodology development and application process (EMDAP paradigm is described for the resolution of severe accident safety issues. For the broader objective of complete and comprehensive design validation, severe accident safety issues are resolved by demonstrating comprehensive severe-accident-related engineering through applicable testing programs, process studies demonstrating certain deterministic elements, probabilistic risk assessment, and severe accident management guidelines. The basic framework described in this paper extends the top-down, bottom-up strategy described in the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.203 to severe accident evaluations addressing U.S. NRC expectation for plant design certification applications.

  19. Safety analysis methodologies for radioactive waste repositories in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report is part of the IAEA Safety Series and is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and/or reviewing safety assessments of shallow ground radioactive waste repositories. It discusses approaches that are applicable for safety analysis of a shallow ground repository. The methodologies, analysis techniques and models described are pertinent to the task of predicting the long-term performance of a shallow ground disposal system. They may be used during the processes of selection, confirmation and licensing of new sites and disposal systems or to evaluate the long-term consequences in the post-sealing phase of existing operating or inactive sites. The analysis may point out need for remedial action, or provide information to be used in deciding on the duration of surveillance. Safety analysis both general in nature and specific to a certain repository, site or design concept, are discussed, with emphasis on deterministic and probabilistic studies

  20. Safety assessment methodology for waste repositories in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Lewi, J.; Pradel, J.; Queniart, D.; Raimbault, P.; Assouline, M.

    1986-06-01

    The long term safety of a nuclear waste repository relies on the evaluation of the doses which could be transferred to man in the future. This implies a detailed knowledge of the medium where the waste will be confined, the identification of the basic phenomena which govern the migration of the radionuclides and the investigation of all possible scenarios that may affect the integrity of the barriers between the waste and the biosphere. Inside the Institute of protection and nuclear safety of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/IPSN), the Department of the Safety Analysis (DAS) is currently developing a methodology for assessing the safety of future geological waste repositories, and is in charge of the modelling development, while the Department of Technical Protection (DPT) is in charge of the geological experimental studies. Both aspects of this program are presented. The methodology for risk assessment stresses the needs for coordination between data acquisition and model development which should result in the obtention of an efficient tool for safety evaluation. Progress needs to be made in source and geosphere modelling. Much more sophisticated models could be used than the ones which is described; however sensitivity analysis will determine the level of sophistication which is necessary to implement. Participation to international validation programs are also very important for gaining confidence in the approaches which have been chosen

  1. Taipower's reload safety evaluation methodology for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ping-Hue; Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    For Westinghouse pressurized water reactors (PWRs) such as Taiwan Power Company's (TPC's) Maanshan Units 1 and 2, each of the safety analysis is performed with conservative reload related parameters such that reanalysis is not expected for all subsequent cycles. For each reload cycle design, it is required to perform a reload safety evaluation (RSE) to confirm the validity of the existing safety analysis for fuel cycle changes. The TPC's reload safety evaluation methodology for PWRs is based on 'Core Design and Safety Analysis Package' developed by the TPC and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), and is an important portion of the 'Taipower's Reload Design and Transient Analysis Methodologies for Light Water Reactors'. The Core Management System (CMS) developed by Studsvik of America, the one-dimensional code AXINER developed by TPC, National Tsinghua University and INER, and a modified version of the well-known subchannel core thermal-hydraulic code COBRAIIIC are the major computer codes utilized. Each of the computer models is extensively validated by comparing with measured data and/or vendor's calculational results. Moreover, parallel calculations have been performed for two Maanshan reload cycles to validate the RSE methods. The TPC's in-house RSE tools have been applied to resolve many important plant operational issues and plant improvements, as well as to verify the vendor's fuel and core design data. (author)

  2. Selection methodology for LWR safety programs and proposals. Volume 2. Methodology application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzman, R.L.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    The results of work done to update and apply a methodology for selecting (prioritizing) LWR safety technology R and D programs are described. The methodology is based on multiattribute utility (MAU) theory. Application of the methodology to rank-order a group of specific R and D programs included development of a complete set of attribute utility functions, specification of individual attribute scaling constants, and refinement and use of an interactive computer program (MAUP) to process decision-maker inputs and generate overall (multiattribute) program utility values. The output results from several decision-makers are examined for consistency and conclusions and recommendations regarding general use of the methodology are presented. 3 figures, 18 tables

  3. A progressive methodology for seismic safety evaluation of gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghrib, F.; Leger, P.; Tinawi, R.; Lupien, R.; Veilleux, M.

    1995-01-01

    A progressive methodology for the seismic safety evaluation of existing concrete gravity dams was described. The methodology was based on five structural analysis levels with increasing complexity to represent inertia forces, dam-foundation and dam-interaction mechanisms, as well as concrete cracking. The five levels were (1) preliminary screening, (2) pseudo-static method, (3) pseudo-dynamic method, (4) linear time history analysis, and (5) non-linear history analysis. The first four levels of analysis were applied for the seismic safety evaluation of Paugan gravity dam (Quebec). Results showed that internal forces from pseudo-dynamic, response spectra and transient finite element analyses could be used to interpret the dynamic stability of dams from familiar strength-based criteria. However, as soon as the base was cracked, the seismically induced forces were modified, and level IV analyses proved more suitable to handle rationally these complexities. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Hybrid probabilistic and possibilistic safety assessment. Methodology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuyuki; Amano, Osamu; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Ikeda, Takao; Yoshida, Hideji; Takase, Hiroyasu

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a unified methodology to handle variability and ignorance by using probabilistic and possibilistic techniques respectively. The methodology has been applied to the safety assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Uncertainties associated with scenarios, models and parameters were defined in terms of fuzzy membership functions derived through a series of interviews to the experts, while variability was formulated by means of probability density functions (pdfs) based on available data sets. The exercise demonstrated the applicability of the new methodology and, in particular, its advantage in quantifying uncertainties based on expert opinion and in providing information on the dependence of assessment results on the level of conservatism. In addition, it was shown that sensitivity analysis can identify key parameters contributing to uncertainties associated with results of the overall assessment. The information mentioned above can be utilized to support decision-making and to guide the process of disposal system development and optimization of protection against potential exposure. (author)

  5. Application of Bow-tie methodology to improve patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Esfandiari, Somayeh

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to apply Bow-tie methodology, a proactive risk assessment technique based on systemic approach, for prospective analysis of the risks threatening patient safety in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach - Bow-tie methodology was used to manage clinical risks threatening patient safety by a multidisciplinary team in the ICU. The Bow-tie analysis was conducted on incidents related to high-alert medications, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-related blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, and unwanted extubation. Findings - In total, 48 potential adverse events were analysed. The causal factors were identified and classified into relevant categories. The number and effectiveness of existing preventive and protective barriers were examined for each potential adverse event. The adverse events were evaluated according to the risk criteria and a set of interventions were proposed with the aim of improving the existing barriers or implementing new barriers. A number of recommendations were implemented in the ICU, while considering their feasibility. Originality/value - The application of Bow-tie methodology led to practical recommendations to eliminate or control the hazards identified. It also contributed to better understanding of hazard prevention and protection required for safe operations in clinical settings.

  6. Development of Audit Calculation Methodology for RIA Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joosuk; Kim, Gwanyoung; Woo, Swengwoong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The interim criteria contain more stringent limits than previous ones. For example, pellet-to-cladding mechanical interaction(PCMI) was introduced as a new failure criteria. And both short-term (e.g. fuel-to coolant interaction, rod burst) and long-term(e.g., fuel rod ballooning, flow blockage) phenomena should be addressed for core coolability assurance. For dose calculations, transient-induced fission gas release has to be accounted additionally. Traditionally, the approved RIA analysis methodologies for licensing application are developed based on conservative approach. But newly introduced safety criteria tend to reduce the margins to the criteria. Thereby, licensees are trying to improve the margins by utilizing a less conservative approach. In this situation, to cope with this trend, a new audit calculation methodology needs to be developed. In this paper, the new methodology, which is currently under developing in KINS, was introduced. For the development of audit calculation methodology of RIA safety analysis based on the realistic evaluation approach, preliminary calculation by utilizing the best estimate code has been done on the initial core of APR1400. Followings are main conclusions. - With the assumption of single full-strength control rod ejection in HZP condition, rod failure due to PCMI is not predicted. - And coolability can be assured in view of entalphy and fuel melting. - But, rod failure due to DNBR is expected, and there is possibility of fuel failure at the rated power conditions also.

  7. Using of BEPU methodology in a final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaiane; D'auria, Francesco; Madeira, Alzira A.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS) has been established since the discovery of nuclear fission, and the occurrence of accidents in Nuclear Power Plants worldwide has contributed for its improvement. The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) must contain complete information concerning safety of the plant and plant site, and must be seen as a compendium of NRS. The FSAR integrates both the licensing requirements and the analytical techniques. The analytical techniques can be applied by using a realistic approach, addressing the uncertainties of the results. This work aims to show an overview of the main analytical techniques that can be applied with a Best Estimated Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) methodology, which is 'the best one can do', as well as the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. Moreover, the paper intends to demonstrate the background of the licensing process through the main licensing requirements. (author)

  8. Using of BEPU methodology in a final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: fmenzel@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); D' auria, Francesco, E-mail: f.dauria@ing.unipi.it [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Gruppo di Ricerca Nucleare San Piero a Grado (GRNSPG), Pisa (Italy); Madeira, Alzira A., E-mail: alzira@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS) has been established since the discovery of nuclear fission, and the occurrence of accidents in Nuclear Power Plants worldwide has contributed for its improvement. The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) must contain complete information concerning safety of the plant and plant site, and must be seen as a compendium of NRS. The FSAR integrates both the licensing requirements and the analytical techniques. The analytical techniques can be applied by using a realistic approach, addressing the uncertainties of the results. This work aims to show an overview of the main analytical techniques that can be applied with a Best Estimated Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) methodology, which is 'the best one can do', as well as the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. Moreover, the paper intends to demonstrate the background of the licensing process through the main licensing requirements. (author)

  9. Methodology for Selecting Initiating Events and Hazards for Consideration in an Extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielenberg, A.; Hage, M.; Loeffler, H.; Alzbutas, R.; Apostol, M.; Bareith, A.; Siklossy, T.; Brac, P.; Burgazzi, L.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Cizelj, L.; Prosek, A.; Volkanovski, A.; Hashimoto, K.; Godefroy, F.; Gonzalez, M.; Groudev, P.; Kolar, L.; Kumar, M.; Nitoi, M.; Raimond, E.

    2016-01-01

    An extended PSA applies to a site of one or several Nuclear Power Plant unit(s) and its environment. It intends to calculate the risk induced by the main sources of radioactivity (reactor core and spent fuel storages) on the site, taking into account all operating states for each main source and all possible relevant accident initiating events (both internal and external) affecting one unit or the whole site. The combination between hazards or initiating events and their impact on a unit or the whole site is a crucial issue for an extended PSA. The report tries to discuss relevant methodologies for this purpose. The report proposes a methodology to select initiating events and hazards for the development of an extended PSA. The proposed methodology for initiating events identification, screening and bounding analysis for an extended PSA consists of four major steps: 1. A comprehensive identification of events and hazards and their respective combinations applicable to the plant and site. Qualitative screening criteria will be applied, 2. The calculation of initial (possibly conservative) frequency claims for events and hazards and their respective combinations applicable to the plant and the site. Quantitative screening criteria will be applied, 3. An impact analysis and bounding assessment for all applicable events and scenarios. Events are either screened out from further more detailed analysis, or are assigned to a bounding event (group), or are retained for detailed analysis, 4. The probabilistic analysis of all retained (bounding) events at the appropriate level of detail. (authors)

  10. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using integrated safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Hyoung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. •The concepts of integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. •Phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) was proposed. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional researches. •This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. -- Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO) as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though nuclear regulation and licensing framework is well setup due to the operating and design experience of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) since 1970s, the regulatory authority of South Korea has concerns on the challenge of facing new nuclear facilities including K-DEMO due to the differences in systems, materials, and inherent safety feature from conventional PWRs. Even though the follow-up of the ITER license process facilitates to deal with significant safety issues of fusion facilities, a licensee as well as a licenser should identify the gaps between ITER and DEMO in terms of safety issues. First we reviewed the methods of conducting safety analysis for unprecedented nuclear facilities such as Generation IV reactors, particularly very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is called as integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM). Second, the analysis for the conceptual design of K-DEMO on the basis of ISAM was conducted. The ISAM consists of five analytical tools to develop the safety requirements from licensee

  11. Safety studies on Korean fusion DEMO plant using integrated safety assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung-chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant. •The concepts of integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) that can be applied in addressing regulatory requirements and recognizing safety issues for K-DEMO were emphasized. •Phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) was proposed. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional researches. •This work is expected to contribute on the conceptual design of safety features for K-DEMO to design engineers and the guidance for regulatory requirements to licensers. -- Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to suggest methodology that can investigate safety issues and provides a case study for Korean fusion DEMO plant (K-DEMO) as a part of R and D program through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea. Even though nuclear regulation and licensing framework is well setup due to the operating and design experience of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) since 1970s, the regulatory authority of South Korea has concerns on the challenge of facing new nuclear facilities including K-DEMO due to the differences in systems, materials, and inherent safety feature from conventional PWRs. Even though the follow-up of the ITER license process facilitates to deal with significant safety issues of fusion facilities, a licensee as well as a licenser should identify the gaps between ITER and DEMO in terms of safety issues. First we reviewed the methods of conducting safety analysis for unprecedented nuclear facilities such as Generation IV reactors, particularly very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is called as integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM). Second, the analysis for the conceptual design of K-DEMO on the basis of ISAM was conducted. The ISAM consists of five analytical tools to develop the safety requirements from licensee

  12. Analytical methodology for safety validation of computer controlled subsystems. Volume 1 : state-of-the-art and assessment of safety verification/validation methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the development of a methodology designed to assure that a sufficiently high level of safety is achieved and maintained in computer-based systems which perform safety critical functions in high-speed rail or magnetic levitation ...

  13. A study on safety assessment methodology for a vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, G. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kim, G. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, the technical and regulatory status of radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants is investigated and analyzed, and then significant factors are suggested which must be contained in the final technical guideline or standard for the safety assessment of vitrification plants. Also, the methods to estimate the stability of vitrified waste forms are suggested with property analysis of them. The contents and scope of the study are summarized as follows : survey of the status on radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants, survey of the characterization methodology for radioactive waste form, analysis of stability for vitrified waste forms, survey and analysis of technical standards and regulations concerned with them in foreign and domestic plants, suggestion of significant factors for the safety assessment of vitrification plants, submission of regulated technical standard on radioactive waste vitrification plats.

  14. Sensor-based activity recognition using extended belief rule-based inference methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, A; Liu, J; Nugent, C D; Wang, H; Martinez, L

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed extended belief rule-based inference methodology (RIMER+) recognizes the need of modeling different types of information and uncertainty that usually coexist in real environments. A home setting with sensors located in different rooms and on different appliances can be considered as a particularly relevant example of such an environment, which brings a range of challenges for sensor-based activity recognition. Although RIMER+ has been designed as a generic decision model that could be applied in a wide range of situations, this paper discusses how this methodology can be adapted to recognize human activities using binary sensors within smart environments. The evaluation of RIMER+ against other state-of-the-art classifiers in terms of accuracy, efficiency and applicability was found to be significantly relevant, specially in situations of input data incompleteness, and it demonstrates the potential of this methodology and underpins the basis to develop further research on the topic.

  15. Safety-related operator actions: methodology for developing criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozinsky, E.J.; Gray, L.H.; Beare, A.N.; Barks, D.B.; Gomer, F.E.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. It is the eleventh and final NUREG/CR Report on the Safety-Related Operator Actions Program, conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The operator performance data were developed from training simulator experiments involving operator responses to simulated scenarios of plant disturbances; from field data on events with similar scenarios; and from task analytic data. A conceptual model to integrate the data was developed and a computer simulation of the model was run, using the SAINT modeling language. Proposed is a quantitative predictive model of operator performance, the Operator Personnel Performance Simulation (OPPS) Model, driven by task requirements, information presentation, and system dynamics. The model output, a probability distribution of predicted time to correctly complete safety-related operator actions, provides data for objective evaluation of quantitative design criteria

  16. A reliability assessment methodology for the VHTR passive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyungsuk; Jae, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    The passive safety system of a VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), which has recently attracted worldwide attention, is currently being considered for the design of safety improvements for the next generation of nuclear power plants in Korea. The functionality of the passive system does not rely on an external source of an electrical support system, but on the intelligent use of natural phenomena. Its function involves an ultimate heat sink for a passive secondary auxiliary cooling system, especially during a station blackout such as the case of the Fukushima Daiichi reactor accidents. However, it is not easy to quantitatively evaluate the reliability of passive safety for the purpose of risk analysis, considering the existing active system failure since the classical reliability assessment method cannot be applied. Therefore, we present a new methodology to quantify the reliability based on reliability physics models. This evaluation framework is then applied to of the conceptually designed VHTR in Korea. The Response Surface Method (RSM) is also utilized for evaluating the uncertainty of the maximum temperature of nuclear fuel. The proposed method could contribute to evaluating accident sequence frequency and designing new innovative nuclear systems, such as the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) in VHTR to be designed and constructed in Korea.

  17. Incorporation of advanced accident analysis methodology into safety analysis reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    as structural analysis codes and computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) are applied. The initial code development took place in the sixties and seventies and resulted in a set of quite conservative codes for the reactor dynamics, thermal-hydraulics and containment analysis. The most important limitations of these codes came from insufficient knowledge of the physical phenomena and of the limited computer memory and speed. Very significant advances have been made in the development of the code systems during the last twenty years in all of the above areas. If the data for the physical models of the code are sufficiently well established and allow quite a realistic analysis, these newer versions are called advanced codes. The assumptions used in the deterministic safety analysis vary from very pessimistic to realistic assumptions. In the accident analysis terminology, it is customary to call the pessimistic assumptions 'conservative' and the realistic assumptions 'best estimate'. The assumptions can refer to the selection of physical models, the introduction of these models into the code, and the initial and boundary conditions including the performance and failures of the equipment and human action. The advanced methodology in the present report means application of advanced codes (or best estimate codes), which sometimes represent a combination of various advanced codes for separate stages of the analysis, and in some cases in combination with experiments. The Safety Analysis Reports are required to be available before and during the operation of the plant in most countries. The contents, scope and stages of the SAR vary among the countries. The guide applied in the USA, i.e. the Regulatory Guide 1.70 is representative for the way in which the SARs are made in many countries. During the design phase, a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) is requested in many countries and the final safety analysis report (FSAR) is required for the operating licence. There is

  18. Refurbishment and safety management of JMTR in extended showdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Hori, Naohiko; Gorai, Shigeru; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2011-06-01

    Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) is a testing reactor dedicated to the irradiation tests of materials and fuels. The reactor type of the JMTR is light water moderated and cooled tank type. It achieved first criticality in 1968. Operation was started in 1970. The JMTR had been being operated for 38 years from first criticality to the JMTR No.165 cycle finished. Periodic Safety Review (PSR) was carried out with confirming the integrity inspection of the JMTR reactor facilities. And the 10 years maintenance plan was made in 2004. After that, the restart of the JMTR has been strongly requested from various users as the only irradiation testing reactor in Japan. Finally, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) decided the refurbishment and restart of the JMTR in December 2006, and the refurbishment works was started from FY 2007. The equipment to remain in use and that which needs replacing before the restart of the JMTR was selected after having been evaluated on its damage and wear due to aging significance in safety functions, past safety-related maintenance date, and the enhancement of facility operation. The renewal work of power supply system, boiler, radioactive waste facility, etc. was already carried out as scheduled. The renewal work of reactor control system, nuclear instrumentation system and so on is being carried out. As for the safety management during reactor operation, the facility periodical own inspection and daily inspection is carried out for the purpose of maintaining soundness and reliability of facilities and equipments. And it is confirmed that the performance of facilities and equipments is maintained. As for the radiation control, irradiation dose limit determined by the law is obeyed. Based on the Concept of radiation protection of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), reduction of dose is endeavored. The safety management during reactor shutdown is also carried out as well as it of reactor operation term. However, the

  19. Methodology for calculating guideline concentrations for safety shot sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Residual plutonium (Pu), with trace quantities of depleted uranium (DU) or weapons grade uranium (WU), exists in surficial soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR), and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as the result of the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons and special experiments involving the detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The special experiments (referred to as safety shots) involving plutonium-bearing devices were conducted to study the behavior of Pu as it was being explosively compressed; ensure that the accidental detonation of the chemical explosive in a production weapon would not result in criticality; evaluate the ability of personnel to manage large-scale Pu dispersal accidents; and develop criteria for transportation and storage of nuclear weapons. These sites do not pose a health threat to either workers or the general public because they are under active institutional control. The DOE is committed to remediating the safety shot sites so that radiation exposure to the public, both now and in the future, will be maintained within the established limits and be as low as reasonably achievable. Remediation requires calculation of a guideline concentration for the Pu, U, and their decay products that are present in the surface soil. This document presents the methodology for calculating guideline concentrations of weapons grade plutonium, weapons grade uranium, and depleted uranium in surface soils at the safety shot sites. Emphasis is placed on obtaining site-specific data for use in calculating dose to potential residents from the residual soil contamination

  20. Methodology for calculating guideline concentrations for safety shot sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Residual plutonium (Pu), with trace quantities of depleted uranium (DU) or weapons grade uranium (WU), exists in surficial soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR), and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as the result of the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons and special experiments involving the detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The special experiments (referred to as safety shots) involving plutonium-bearing devices were conducted to study the behavior of Pu as it was being explosively compressed; ensure that the accidental detonation of the chemical explosive in a production weapon would not result in criticality; evaluate the ability of personnel to manage large-scale Pu dispersal accidents; and develop criteria for transportation and storage of nuclear weapons. These sites do not pose a health threat to either workers or the general public because they are under active institutional control. The DOE is committed to remediating the safety shot sites so that radiation exposure to the public, both now and in the future, will be maintained within the established limits and be as low as reasonably achievable. Remediation requires calculation of a guideline concentration for the Pu, U, and their decay products that are present in the surface soil. This document presents the methodology for calculating guideline concentrations of weapons grade plutonium, weapons grade uranium, and depleted uranium in surface soils at the safety shot sites. Emphasis is placed on obtaining site-specific data for use in calculating dose to potential residents from the residual soil contamination.

  1. Methodology for Evaluating Safety System Operability using Virtual Parameter Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sukyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Jung Taek; Kim, Tae Wan

    2014-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) and UTK (University of Tennessee Knoxville) are working on the I-NERI project to suggest complement of this problem. This research propose the methodology which provide the alternative signal in case of unable guaranteed reliability of some instrumentation with KAERI. Proposed methodology is assumed that several instrumentations are working normally under the power supply condition because we do not consider the instrumentation survivability itself. Thus, concept of the Virtual Parameter Network (VPN) is used to identify the associations between plant parameters. This paper is extended version of the paper which was submitted last KNS meeting by changing the methodology and adding the result of the case study. In previous research, we used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) inferential technique for estimation model but every time this model showed different estimate value due to random bias each time. Therefore Auto-Associative Kernel Regression (AAKR) model which have same number of inputs and outputs is used to estimate. Also the importance measures in the previous method depend on estimation model but importance measure of improved method independent on estimation model. Also importance index of previous method depended on estimation model but importance index of improved method is independent on estimation model. In this study, we proposed the methodology to identify the internal state of power plant when severe accident happens also it has been validated through case study. SBLOCA which has large contribution to severe accident is considered as initiating event and relationship amongst parameter has been identified. VPN has ability to identify that which parameter has to be observed and which parameter can be alternative to the missing parameter when some instruments are failed in severe accident. In this study we have identified through results that commonly number 2, 3, 4 parameter has high connectivity while

  2. Methodology for Evaluating Safety System Operability using Virtual Parameter Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sukyoung; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Wan [Kepco International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) and UTK (University of Tennessee Knoxville) are working on the I-NERI project to suggest complement of this problem. This research propose the methodology which provide the alternative signal in case of unable guaranteed reliability of some instrumentation with KAERI. Proposed methodology is assumed that several instrumentations are working normally under the power supply condition because we do not consider the instrumentation survivability itself. Thus, concept of the Virtual Parameter Network (VPN) is used to identify the associations between plant parameters. This paper is extended version of the paper which was submitted last KNS meeting by changing the methodology and adding the result of the case study. In previous research, we used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) inferential technique for estimation model but every time this model showed different estimate value due to random bias each time. Therefore Auto-Associative Kernel Regression (AAKR) model which have same number of inputs and outputs is used to estimate. Also the importance measures in the previous method depend on estimation model but importance measure of improved method independent on estimation model. Also importance index of previous method depended on estimation model but importance index of improved method is independent on estimation model. In this study, we proposed the methodology to identify the internal state of power plant when severe accident happens also it has been validated through case study. SBLOCA which has large contribution to severe accident is considered as initiating event and relationship amongst parameter has been identified. VPN has ability to identify that which parameter has to be observed and which parameter can be alternative to the missing parameter when some instruments are failed in severe accident. In this study we have identified through results that commonly number 2, 3, 4 parameter has high connectivity while

  3. National Waste Repository Novi Han operational safety analysis report. Safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The scope of the safety assessment (SA), presented includes: waste management functions (acceptance, conditioning, storage, disposal), inventory (current and expected in the future), hazards (radiological and non-radiological) and normal and accidental modes. The stages in the development of the SA are: criteria selection, information collection, safety analysis and safety assessment documentation. After the review the facilities functions and the national and international requirements, the criteria for safety level assessment are set. As a result from the 2nd stage actual parameters of the facility, necessary for safety analysis are obtained.The methodology is selected on the base of the comparability of the results with the results of previous safety assessments and existing standards and requirements. The procedure and requirements for scenarios selection are described. A radiological hazard categorisation of the facilities is presented. Qualitative hazards and operability analysis is applied. The resulting list of events are subjected to procedure for prioritization by method of 'criticality analysis', so the estimation of the risk is given for each event. The events that fall into category of risk on the boundary of acceptability or are unacceptable are subjected to the next steps of the analysis. As a result the lists with scenarios for PSA and possible design scenarios are established. PSA logical modeling and quantitative calculations of accident sequences are presented

  4. Safety after extended repeated use of ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Bart C J M; Donnez, Jacques; Bouchard, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess long term safety of extended repeated 3-month courses of ulipristal acetate (UPA) 10 mg/day, for up to 8 courses, with focus on endometrial and laboratory safety parameters. METHODS: This long-term, multi-center, open-label cohort, follow up study consisted of up to 8 consecu...

  5. An extended car-following model considering random safety distance with different probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufeng; Sun, Fengxin; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia; Wei, Qi

    2018-02-01

    Because of the difference in vehicle type or driving skill, the driving strategy is not exactly the same. The driving speeds of the different vehicles may be different for the same headway. Since the optimal velocity function is just determined by the safety distance besides the maximum velocity and headway, an extended car-following model accounting for random safety distance with different probabilities is proposed in this paper. The linear stable condition for this extended traffic model is obtained by using linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are carried out to explore the complex phenomenon resulting from multiple safety distance in the optimal velocity function. The cases of multiple types of safety distances selected with different probabilities are presented. Numerical results show that the traffic flow with multiple safety distances with different probabilities will be more unstable than that with single type of safety distance, and will result in more stop-and-go phenomena.

  6. Improving health, safety, and profits in extended hours operations (shiftwork).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerin, Alex; Aguirre, Acacia

    2005-01-01

    Circadian Technologies, Inc. (CIRCADIAN) is an international consulting firm that for over 20 yr has helped employees better cope with shiftwork, while ensuring their employers reduce costs and maximize profits. This paper describes two of the methods employed to reduce accidents, absenteeism, and turnover, while improving morale and productivity in extended hour operations (shiftwork). Shiftworkers rarely receive on-the-job training to help them cope better with the rigors of working nights, evenings, and early mornings. A pre- and post-training study by CIRCADIAN demonstrated improvements in health and fatigue indices, and an increase in daytime sleep length. Companies who provide shiftwork lifestyle training also have lower rates of absenteeism and turnover compared to companies that do not provide training. The second intervention described in this paper is a novel method of shift scheduling. There are thousands of potential schedules, so how does a company choose the best schedule for their facility? The answer lies in allowing employees to be involved in the process of selection. This results in a workforce that experiences less fatigue, turnover and absenteeism, and higher morale.

  7. A statistical view of protein chemical synthesis using NCL and extended methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agouridas, Vangelis; El Mahdi, Ouafâa; Cargoët, Marine; Melnyk, Oleg

    2017-09-15

    Native chemical ligation and extended methodologies are the most popular chemoselective reactions for protein chemical synthesis. Their combination with desulfurization techniques can give access to small or challenging proteins that are exploited in a large variety of research areas. In this report, we have conducted a statistical review of their use for protein chemical synthesis in order to provide a flavor of the recent trends and identify the most popular chemical tools used by protein chemists. To this end, a protein chemical synthesis (PCS) database (http://pcs-db.fr) was created by collecting a set of relevant data from more than 450 publications covering the period 1994-2017. A preliminary account of what this database tells us is presented in this report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methodology development for statistical evaluation of reactor safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, M.; Marshall, J.A.; Chay, S.C.; Gay, R.

    1976-07-01

    In February 1975, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, under contract to Electric Power Research Institute, started a one-year program to develop methodology for statistical evaluation of nuclear-safety-related engineering analyses. The objectives of the program were to develop an understanding of the relative efficiencies of various computational methods which can be used to compute probability distributions of output variables due to input parameter uncertainties in analyses of design basis events for nuclear reactors and to develop methods for obtaining reasonably accurate estimates of these probability distributions at an economically feasible level. A series of tasks was set up to accomplish these objectives. Two of the tasks were to investigate the relative efficiencies and accuracies of various Monte Carlo and analytical techniques for obtaining such estimates for a simple thermal-hydraulic problem whose output variable of interest is given in a closed-form relationship of the input variables and to repeat the above study on a thermal-hydraulic problem in which the relationship between the predicted variable and the inputs is described by a short-running computer program. The purpose of the report presented is to document the results of the investigations completed under these tasks, giving the rationale for choices of techniques and problems, and to present interim conclusions

  9. RAID-6Plus: A Comprised Methodology for Extending RAID-6 Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhu Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing RAID-6 code extensions assume that failures are independent and instantaneous, overlooking the underlying mechanism of multifailure occurrences. Also, the effect of reconstruction window is ignored. Additionally, these coding extensions have not been adapted to occurrence patterns of failure in real-world applications. As a result, the third parity drive is set to handle the triple-failure scenario; however, the lower level failure situations have been left unattended. Therefore, a new methodology of extending RAID-6 codes named RAID-6Plus with better compromise has been studied in this paper. RAID-6Plus (Deng et al., 2015 employs short combinations which can greatly reuse overlapped elements during reconstruction to remake the third parity drive. A sample extension code called RDP+ is given based on RDP. Moreover, we extended the study to present another extension example called X-code+ which has better update penalty and load balance. The analysis shows that RAID-6Plus is a balanced tradeoff of reliability, performance, and practicality. For instance, RDP+ could achieve speedups as high as 33.4% in comparison to the RTP with conventional rebuild, 11.9% in comparison to RTP with the optimal rebuild, 47.7% in comparison to STAR with conventional rebuild, and 26.2% for a single failure rebuild.

  10. Current status and new trends in the methodology of safety assessment for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Danchiv, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present the status of the safety assessment methodology at the end of IAEA CRP 'Application of Safety Assessment Methodology for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ASAM)', and the new trends outlined at the launch of the follow-up project 'Practical Implementation of Safety Assessment Methodologies in a Context of Safety Case of Near-Surface Facilities (PRISM)'. Over the duration of the ASAM project, the ISAM methodology was confirmed as providing a good framework for conducting safety assessment calculations. In contrast, ASAM project identified the limitations of the ISAM methodology as currently formulated. The major limitations are situated in the area of the use of safety assessment for informing practical decisions about alternative waste and risk management strategies for real disposal sites. As a result of the limitation of the ISAM methodology, the PRISM project is established as an extension of the ISAM and ASAM projects. Based on the outcomes of the ASAM project, the main objective of the PRISM project are: 1 - to develop an overview of what constitutes an adequate safety case and safety assessment with a view to supporting decision making processes; 2 - to provide practical illustrations of how the safety assessment methodology could be used for addressing some specific issues arising from the ASAM project and national cases; 3 - to support harmonization with the IAEA's international safety standards. (authors)

  11. Extending the input–output energy balance methodology in agriculture through cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojacá, Carlos Ricardo; Casilimas, Héctor Albeiro; Gil, Rodrigo; Schrevens, Eddie

    2012-01-01

    The input–output balance methodology has been applied to characterize the energy balance of agricultural systems. This study proposes to extend this methodology with the inclusion of multivariate analysis to reveal particular patterns in the energy use of a system. The objective was to demonstrate the usefulness of multivariate exploratory techniques to analyze the variability found in a farming system and, establish efficiency categories that can be used to improve the energy balance of the system. To this purpose an input–output analysis was applied to the major greenhouse tomato production area in Colombia. Individual energy profiles were built and the k-means clustering method was applied to the production factors. On average, the production system in the study zone consumes 141.8 GJ ha −1 to produce 96.4 GJ ha −1 , resulting in an energy efficiency of 0.68. With the k-means clustering analysis, three clusters of farmers were identified with energy efficiencies of 0.54, 0.67 and 0.78. The most energy efficient cluster grouped 56.3% of the farmers. It is possible to optimize the production system by improving the management practices of those with the lowest energy use efficiencies. Multivariate analysis techniques demonstrated to be a complementary pathway to improve the energy efficiency of a system. -- Highlights: ► An input–output energy balance was estimated for greenhouse tomatoes in Colombia. ► We used the k-means clustering method to classify growers based on their energy use. ► Three clusters of growers were found with energy efficiencies of 0.54, 0.67 and 0.78. ► Overall system optimization is possible by improving the energy use of the less efficient.

  12. Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG ampersand G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort

  13. Progress in the development of methodology for fusion safety systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.K.; Cambi, G.; Ciattaglia, S.; Fujii-e, Y.; Seki, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The development of fusion safety systems-study methodology, including the aspects of schematic classification of overall fusion safety system, qualitative assessment of fusion system for identification of critical accident scenarios, quantitative analysis of accident consequences and risk for safety design evaluation, and system-level analysis of accident consequences and risk for design optimization, by a consortium of international efforts is presented. The potential application of this methodology into reactor design studies will facilitate the systematic assessment of safety performance of reactor designs and enhance the impacts of safety considerations on the selection of design configurations

  14. A methodology for a quantitative assessment of safety culture in NPPs based on Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Gab; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A safety culture framework and a quantitative methodology to assess safety culture were proposed. • The relation among Norm system, Safety Management System and worker's awareness was established. • Safety culture probability at NPPs was updated by collecting actual organizational data. • Vulnerable areas and the relationship between safety culture and human error were confirmed. - Abstract: For a long time, safety has been recognized as a top priority in high-reliability industries such as aviation and nuclear power plants (NPPs). Establishing a safety culture requires a number of actions to enhance safety, one of which is changing the safety culture awareness of workers. The concept of safety culture in the nuclear power domain was established in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety series, wherein the importance of employee attitudes for maintaining organizational safety was emphasized. Safety culture assessment is a critical step in the process of enhancing safety culture. In this respect, assessment is focused on measuring the level of safety culture in an organization, and improving any weakness in the organization. However, many continue to think that the concept of safety culture is abstract and unclear. In addition, the results of safety culture assessments are mostly subjective and qualitative. Given the current situation, this paper suggests a quantitative methodology for safety culture assessments based on a Bayesian network. A proposed safety culture framework for NPPs would include the following: (1) a norm system, (2) a safety management system, (3) safety culture awareness of worker, and (4) Worker behavior. The level of safety culture awareness of workers at NPPs was reasoned through the proposed methodology. Then, areas of the organization that were vulnerable in terms of safety culture were derived by analyzing observational evidence. We also confirmed that the frequency of events involving human error

  15. Bowtie Risk Management methodology and Modern Nuclear Safety Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilizastigui Pérez, F.

    2016-01-01

    The Safety Report (SR) plays a crucial role within the nuclear licensing regime as the principal means for demonstrating the adequacy of safety analysis for a nuclear facility to ensure that it can be constructed, operated, maintained, shut down, and decommissioned safely and in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. It serves as the basis for granting authorizations for the commencement of the main stages of the facility’s life cycle as well as decision-making processes related to safety. Historically, the majority of nuclear safety reports have operated under rather prescriptive regimes, with emphasis placed on demonstrations of the robustness of the facility’s design (design safety) against prescriptive technical requirements set by the regulatory body, and less attention paid to demonstrating the adequacy and effectiveness of Operator’s management system for managing risks to daily operation.

  16. Safety assessment of a borehole type disposal facility using the ISAM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blerk, J.J. van; Yucel, V.; Kozak, M.W.; Moore, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improving Long-term of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM), three example cases were developed. The aim was to test the ISAM safety assessment methodology using as realistic as possible data. One of the Test Cases, the Borehole Test Case (BTC), related to a proposed future disposal option for disused sealed radioactive sources. This paper uses the various steps of the ISAM safety assessment methodology to describe the work undertaken by ISAM participants in developing the BTC and provides some general conclusions that can be drawn from the findings of their work. (author)

  17. Safety assessment driving radioactive waste management solutions (SADRWMS Methodology) implemented in a software tool (SAFRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinker, M., E-mail: M.Kinker@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Avila, R.; Hofman, D., E-mail: rodolfo@facilia.se [FACILIA AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Jova Sed, L., E-mail: jovaluis@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba); Ledroit, F., E-mail: frederic.ledroit@irsn.fr [IRSN PSN-EXP/SSRD/BTE, (France)

    2013-07-01

    In 2004, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) to examine international approaches to safety assessment for predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts which could be used to improve the mechanisms for applying safety assessment methodologies to predisposal management of radioactive waste. These flowcharts have since been incorporated into DS284 (General Safety Guide on the Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste), and were also considered during the early development stages of the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) Tool. In 2009 the IAEA presented DS284 to the IAEA Waste Safety Standards Committee, during which it was proposed that the graded approach to safety case and safety assessment be illustrated through the development of Safety Reports for representative predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities. To oversee the development of these reports, it was agreed to establish the International Project on Complementary Safety Reports: Development and Application to Waste Management Facilities (CRAFT). The goal of the CRAFT project is to develop complementary reports by 2014, which the IAEA could then publish as IAEA Safety Reports. The present work describes how the DS284 methodology and SAFRAN Tool can be applied in the development and review of the safety case and safety assessment to a range of predisposal waste management facilities or activities within the Region. (author)

  18. Safety assessment driving radioactive waste management solutions (SADRWMS Methodology) implemented in a software tool (SAFRAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinker, M.; Avila, R.; Hofman, D.; Jova Sed, L.; Ledroit, F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) to examine international approaches to safety assessment for predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts which could be used to improve the mechanisms for applying safety assessment methodologies to predisposal management of radioactive waste. These flowcharts have since been incorporated into DS284 (General Safety Guide on the Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste), and were also considered during the early development stages of the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) Tool. In 2009 the IAEA presented DS284 to the IAEA Waste Safety Standards Committee, during which it was proposed that the graded approach to safety case and safety assessment be illustrated through the development of Safety Reports for representative predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities. To oversee the development of these reports, it was agreed to establish the International Project on Complementary Safety Reports: Development and Application to Waste Management Facilities (CRAFT). The goal of the CRAFT project is to develop complementary reports by 2014, which the IAEA could then publish as IAEA Safety Reports. The present work describes how the DS284 methodology and SAFRAN Tool can be applied in the development and review of the safety case and safety assessment to a range of predisposal waste management facilities or activities within the Region. (author)

  19. Methodology for safety classification of PWR type nuclear power plants items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Patricia Pagetti de

    1995-01-01

    This paper contains the criteria and methodology which define a classification system of structures, systems and components in safety classes according to their importance to nuclear safety. The use of this classification system will provide a set of basic safety requirements associated with each safety class specified. These requirements, when available and applicable, shall be utilized in the design, fabrication and installation of structures, systems and components of Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plants. (author). 13 refs, 1 tab

  20. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test, methodology and results report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    "This document presents the methodology and results from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michi...

  1. A Practical Risk Assessment Methodology for Safety-Critical Train Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project proposes a Practical Risk Assessment Methodology (PRAM) for analyzing railroad accident data and assessing the risk and benefit of safety-critical train control systems. This report documents in simple steps the algorithms and data input...

  2. A cost-effective methodology to internalize nuclear safety in nuclear reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, M.; Grinblat, P.; Schlamp, M.

    2003-01-01

    A new methodology to perform nuclear reactor design, balancing safety and economics at the conceptual engineering stage, is presented in this work. The goal of this integral methodology is to take into account safety aspects in an optimization design process where the design variables are balanced in order to obtain a better figure of merit related with reactor economic performance. Design parameter effects on characteristic or critical safety variables, chosen from reactor behavior during accidents (safety performance indicators), are synthesized on Design Maps. These maps allow one to compare the safety indicator with limits, which are determined by design criteria or regulations, and to transfer these restrictions to the design parameters. In this way, reactor dynamic response and other safety aspects are integrated in a global optimization process, by means of additional rules to the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and mechanical calculations. An application of the methodology, implemented in Integrated Reactor Evaluation Program 3 (IREP3) code, to optimize safety systems of CAREM prototype is presented. It consists in balancing the designs of the Emergency Injection System (EIS), the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS), the primary circuit water inventory and the containment height, to cope with loss of coolant and loss of heat sink (LOHS) accidental sequences, taking into account cost and reactor performance. This methodology turns out to be promising to internalize cost-efficiently safety issues. It also allows one to evaluate the incremental costs of implementing higher safety levels

  3. Methodology for identifying boundaries of systems important to safety in CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therrien, S.; Komljenovic, D.; Therrien, P.; Ruest, C.; Prevost, P.; Vaillancourt, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology developed to identify the boundaries of the systems important to safety (SIS) at the Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), Hydro-Quebec. The SIS boundaries identification considers nuclear safety only. Components that are not identified as important to safety are systematically identified as related to safety. A global assessment process such as WANO/INPO AP-913 'Equipment Reliability Process' will be needed to implement adequate changes in the management rules of those components. The paper depicts results in applying the methodology to the Shutdown Systems 1 and 2 (SDS 1, 2), and to the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). This validation process enabled fine tuning the methodology, performing a better estimate of the effort required to evaluate a system, and identifying components important to safety of these systems. (author)

  4. Chemical plant innovative safety investments decision-support methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, G L L; Audenaert, A

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which investing in safety during the creation of a new chemical installation proves profitable. The authors propose a management supporting cost-benefit model that identifies and evaluates investments in safety within a chemical company. This innovative model differentiates between serious accidents and less serious accidents, thus providing an authentic image of prevention-related costs and benefits. In classic cost-benefit analyses, which do not make such differentiations, only a rudimentary image of potential profitability resulting from investments in safety is obtained. The resulting management conclusions that can be drawn from such classical analyses are of a very limited nature. The proposed model, however, is applied to a real case study and the proposed investments in safety at an appointed chemical installation are weighed against the estimated hypothetical benefits resulting from the preventive measures to be installed at the installation. In the case-study carried out in question, it would appear that the proposed prevention investments are justified. Such an economic exercise may be very important to chemical corporations trying to (further) improve their safety investments.

  5. Optimization of coupled multiphysics methodology for safety analysis of pebble bed modular reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhabela, Peter Tshepo

    methodology for the PBMR to provide reference solutions. Investigation of different aspects of the coupled methodology and development of efficient kinetics treatment for the PBMR were carried out, which accounts for all feedback phenomena in an efficient manner. The OECD/NEA PBMR-400 coupled code benchmark was used as a test matrix for the proposed investigations. The integrated thermal-hydraulics and neutronics (multi-physics) methods were extended to enable modeling of a wider range of transients pertinent to the PBMR. First, the effect of the spatial mapping schemes (spatial coupling) was studied and quantified for different types of transients, which resulted in implementation of improved mapping methodology based on user defined criteria. The second aspect that was studied and optimized is the temporal coupling and meshing schemes between the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics time step selection algorithms. The coupled code convergence was achieved supplemented by application of methods to accelerate it. Finally, the modeling of all feedback phenomena in PBMRs was investigated and a novel treatment of cross-section dependencies was introduced for improving the representation of cross-section variations. The added benefit was that in the process of studying and improving the coupled multi-physics methodology more insight was gained into the physics and dynamics of PBMR, which will help also to optimize the PBMR design and improve its safety. One unique contribution of the PhD research is the investigation of the importance of the correct representation of the three-dimensional (3-D) effects in the PBMR analysis. The performed studies demonstrated that explicit 3-D modeling of control rod movement is superior and removes the errors associated with the grey curtain (2-D homogenized) approximation.

  6. Compliance strategy for statistically based neutron overpower protection safety analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, E.; Phan, B.; Nainer, O.

    2009-01-01

    The methodology employed in the safety analysis of the slow Loss of Regulation (LOR) event in the OPG and Bruce Power CANDU reactors, referred to as Neutron Overpower Protection (NOP) analysis, is a statistically based methodology. Further enhancement to this methodology includes the use of Extreme Value Statistics (EVS) for the explicit treatment of aleatory and epistemic uncertainties, and probabilistic weighting of the initial core states. A key aspect of this enhanced NOP methodology is to demonstrate adherence, or compliance, with the analysis basis. This paper outlines a compliance strategy capable of accounting for the statistical nature of the enhanced NOP methodology. (author)

  7. Aging evaluation methodology of periodic safety review in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung-Bae; Jung, Sung-Gyu; Jin, Tae-Eun; Jeong, Ill-Seok

    2002-01-01

    In Korea plant lifetime management (PLIM) study for Kori Unit 1 has been performed since 1993. Meanwhile, periodic safety review (PSR) for all operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been started with Kori Unit 1 since 2000 per IAEA recommendation. The evaluation period is 10 years, and safety (evaluation) factors are 11 per IAEA guidelines as represented in table 1. The relationship between PSR factors and PLIM is also represented. Among these factors evaluation of 'management of aging' is one of the most important and difficult factor. This factor is related to 'actual condition of the NPP', 'use of experience from other nuclear NPPs and of research findings', and 'management of aging'. The object of 'management of aging' is to obtain plant safety through identifying actual condition of system, structure and components (SSCs) and evaluating aging phenomena and residual life of SSCs using operating experience and research findings. The paper describes the scope and procedure of valuation of 'management of aging', such as, screening criteria of SSCs, Code and Standards, evaluation of SSCs and safety issues as represented. Evaluating SSCs are determined using final safety analysis report (FSAR) and power unit maintenance system for Nuclear Ver. III (PUMAS/N-III). The screening criteria of SSCs are safety-related items (quality class Q), safety-impact items (quality class T), backfitting rule items (fire protection (10CFR50.48), environmental qualification (10CFR50.49), pressurized thermal shock (10CFR50.61), anticipated transient without scram (10CFR50.62), and station blackout (10CFR50.63)) and regulating authority requiring items[1∼3]. The purpose of review of Code and Standards is identifying actual condition of the NPP and evaluating aging management using effective Code and Standards corresponding to reactor facilities. Code and Standards is composed of regulating laws, FSAR items, administrative actions, regulating actions, agreement items, and other

  8. The development of a safety analysis methodology for the optimized power reactor 1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang-Yong, Jun; Yo-Han, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) has been developing inhouse safety analysis methodology based on the delicate codes available to KEPRI to overcome the problems arising from currently used vendor oriented methodologies. For the Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis, the KREM (KEPRI Realistic Evaluation Methodology) has been developed based on the RELAP-5 code. The methodology was approved for the Westinghouse 3-loop plants by the Korean regulatory organization and the project to extent the methodology to the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) has been ongoing since 2001. Also, for the Non-LOCA analysis, the KNAP (Korea Non-LOCA Analysis Package) has been developed using the UNICORN-TM code system. To demonstrate the feasibility of these codes systems and methodologies, some typical cases of the design basis accidents mentioned in the final safety analysis report (FSAR) were analyzed. (author)

  9. A study on safety analysis methodology in spent fuel dry storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, M. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Kang, K. M.; Cho, N. C.; Kim, M. S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Collection and review of the domestic and foreign technology related to spent fuel dry storage facility. Analysis of a reference system. Establishment of a framework for criticality safety analysis. Review of accident analysis methodology. Establishment of accident scenarios. Establishment of scenario analysis methodology.

  10. Nuclear reactor conceptual design: methodology for cost-effective internalisation of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, M.; Grinblat, P.; Schlamp, M.

    2002-01-01

    A novel and promising methodology to perform nuclear reactor design is presented in this work. It achieves to balance efficiently safety and economics at the conceptual engineering stage. The key to this integral approach is to take into account safety aspects in a design optimisation process where the design variables are balanced in order to obtain a better figure of merit related with reactor economic performance. Design parameter effects on characteristic or critical safety variables, chosen from reactor behaviour during accidents and from its probabilistic safety assessment -safety performance indicators-, are synthesised on Safety Design Maps. These maps allow one to compare these indicators with limit values, which are determined by design criteria or regulations, and to transfer these restrictions to the design parameters. In this way, reactor dynamic response and other safety aspects are integrated in a global optimisation process, by means of additional rules to the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical calculations. This methodology turns out to be promising to balance and optimise reactor and safety system design in an early engineering stage, in order to internalise cost-efficiently safety issues. It also allows one to evaluate the incremental costs of implementing higher safety levels. Furthermore, through this methodology, a simplified design can be obtained, compared to the resultant complexity when these concepts are introduced in a later engineering stage. (author)

  11. Draft report: a selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husseiny, A. A.; Ritzman, R. L.

    1980-03-01

    The results of work done to develop a methodology for selecting LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. A critical survey of relevant decision analysis methods is provided including the specifics of multiattribute utility theory. This latter method forms the basis of the developed selection methodology. Details of the methodology and its use are provided along with a sample illustration of its application.

  12. Draft report: a selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husseiny, A.A.; Ritzman, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    The results of work done to develop a methodology for selecting LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. A critical survey of relevant decision analysis methods is provided including the specifics of multiattribute utility theory. This latter method forms the basis of the developed selection methodology. Details of the methodology and its use are provided along with a sample illustration of its application

  13. SAFETY ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY FOR AGED CANDU® 6 NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WOLFGANG HARTMANN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Safety Analysis for CANDU® 6 nuclear reactors as affected by main Heat Transport System (HTS aging. Operational and aging related changes of the HTS throughout its lifetime may lead to restrictions in certain safety system settings and hence some restriction in performance under certain conditions. A step in confirming safe reactor operation is the tracking of relevant data and their corresponding interpretation by the use of appropriate thermalhydraulic analytic models. Safety analyses ranging from the assessment of safety limits associated with the prevention of intermittent fuel sheath dryout for a slow Loss of Regulation (LOR analysis and fission gas release after a fuel failure are summarized. Specifically for fission gas release, the thermalhydraulic analysis for a fresh core and an 11 Effective Full Power Years (EFPY aged core was summarized, leading to the most severe stagnation break sizes for the inlet feeder break and the channel failure time. Associated coolant conditions provide the input data for fuel analyses. Based on the thermalhydraulic data, the fission product inventory under normal operating conditions may be calculated for both fresh and aged cores, and the fission gas release may be evaluated during the transient. This analysis plays a major role in determining possible radiation doses to the public after postulated accidents have occurred.

  14. Methodological issues and pitfalls of short safety culture questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagtman, H.M.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Stewart, S.

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture surveys have been fielded in many different sectors of industrial activities. Many of these surveys consist of a long list of questions which is time consuming for the respondents. As part of the FP6 HILAS project a shorter survey has been developed, which aimed at getting a high

  15. The dynamic flowgraph methodology as a safety analysis tool : programmable electronic system design and verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtermans, M.J.M.; Apostolakis, G.E.; Brombacher, A.C.; Karydas, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) during the design and verification of programmable electronic safety-related systems. The safety system consists of hardware as well as software. This paper explains and demonstrates the use of DFM, and

  16. Methodology for assessment of safety risk due to potential accidents in US gaseous diffusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.; O'Kain, D.U.

    1991-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion plants that operate in the United States represent a unique combination of nuclear and chemical hazards. Assessing and controlling the health, safety, and environmental risks that can result from natural phenomena events, process upset conditions, and operator errors require a unique methodology. Such a methodology has been developed for the diffusion plants and is being utilized to assess and control the risk of operating the plants. A summary of the methodology developed to assess the unique safety risks at the US gaseous diffusion plants is presented in this paper

  17. Contribution to the methodology of safety evaluation - and licensing of reloading cycle for PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A simplified methodology for evaluating a reload safety cycle is presented. This methodology consists in selecting for each foreseen accident, the nuclear key reload safety parameters which determine the accident evolution. So, each key reload parameter is calculated and compared with its value for the first cycle. Those accidents, which have their key reload parameter bounded by the values of the first cycle do not need reanalise. Extension of the validity of this methodology when there exists change of fuel supplier is commented. (Author) [pt

  18. A study on methodologies for assessing safety critical network's risk impact on Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T. J.; Lee, H. J.; Park, S. K.; Seo, S. J.

    2006-08-01

    The objectives of this project is to investigate and study existing reliability analysis techniques for communication networks in order to develop reliability analysis models for Nuclear Power Plant's safety-critical networks. It is necessary to make a comprehensive survey of current methodologies for communication network reliability. Major outputs of the first year study are design characteristics of safety-critical communication networks, efficient algorithms for quantifying reliability of communication networks, and preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks

  19. Long-Term Effectiveness and Safety of Dexmethylphenidate Extended-Release Capsules in Adult ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas; McGough, James J.; Jiang, Hai; Muniz, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates dexmethylphenidate extended release (d-MPH-ER) in adults with ADHD. Method: Following a 5-week, randomized, controlled, fixed-dose study of d-MPH-ER 20 to 40 mg/d, 170 adults entered a 6-month open-label extension (OLE) to assess long-term safety, with flexible dosing of 20 to 40 mg/d. Exploratory effectiveness…

  20. Methodology used in the integrated assessment of PIUS-600 safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.; Higgins, J.; Kroegar, P.

    1993-01-01

    The revolutionary reactor design, PIUS-600 as described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSID) was subjected to analysis consisting of Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) analysis, and conventional engineering review of the stress, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and corrosion. These results were integrated in the PIUS Intermediate Table (PIT) from which accident initiators and mitigators were identified and categorized into seven estimated frequency intervals. Accident consequences were classified as: CC-1, minor radiological release, CC-2, clad release, CC-3, major release. The systems were analyzed using event sequence diagrams (ESDs) and event trees (ETs). The resulting accident sequences of the ET, were categorized into Event conditions (ECs) based on initiator frequency and combinations of failures. System interactions were considered in the FMECAs, ESDs, ETs and in an interaction table that also identified system safety classifications

  1. Methodology used in the integrated assessment of PIUS-600 safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.; Higgins, J.; Kroeger, P.

    1993-01-01

    The revolutionary reactor design, PIUS-600 as described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSID) was subject to analyses consisting of Failure Modes. Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) analysis, and conventional engineering review of the stress, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and corrosion. These results were integrated in the PIUS Intermediate Table (PIT) from which accident initiators and mitigators were identified and categorized into seven estimated frequency intervals. Accident consequences were classified as: CC-1, minor radiological release, CC-2, clad release, CC-3, major release. The systems were analyzed using event sequence diagrams (ESDs) and event trees (ETs). The resulting accident sequences of the ET, were categorized into Event conditions (ECs) based on initiator frequency and combinations of failures. System interactions were considered in the FMECAs, ESDs, ETs and in an interaction table that also identified system safety classifications

  2. A systematic methodology to extend the applicability of a bioconversion model for the simulation of various co-digestion scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovalovszki, Adam; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Fotidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Detailed simulation of anaerobic digestion (AD) requires complex mathematical models and the optimization of numerous model parameters. By performing a systematic methodology and identifying parameters with the highest impact on process variables in a well-established AD model, its applicability...... was extended to various co-digestion scenarios. More specifically, the application of the step-by-step methodology led to the estimation of a general and reduced set of parameters, for the simulation of scenarios where either manure or wastewater were co-digested with different organic substrates. Validation...... experimental data quite well, indicating that it offers a reliable reference point for future simulations of anaerobic co-digestion scenarios....

  3. Development of the methodology and approaches to validate safety and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    The article compares the development of the methodology and approaches to validate the nuclear power plant safety and accident management in Russia and advanced industrial countries. It demonstrates that the development of methods of safety validation is dialectically related to the accumulation of the knowledge base on processes and events during NPP normal operation, transients and emergencies, including severe accidents. The article describes the Russian severe accident research program (1987-1996), the implementation of which allowed Russia to reach the world level of the safety validation efforts, presents future high-priority study areas. Problems related to possible approaches to the methodological accident management development are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Additional methodology development for statistical evaluation of reactor safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.A.; Shore, R.W.; Chay, S.C.; Mazumdar, M.

    1977-03-01

    The project described is motivated by the desire for methods to quantify uncertainties and to identify conservatisms in nuclear power plant safety analysis. The report examines statistical methods useful for assessing the probability distribution of output response from complex nuclear computer codes, considers sensitivity analysis and several other topics, and also sets the path for using the developed methods for realistic assessment of the design basis accident

  5. A Methodological Framework for Software Safety in Safety Critical Computer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. V. Srinivas Acharyulu; P. Seetharamaiah

    2012-01-01

    Software safety must deal with the principles of safety management, safety engineering and software engineering for developing safety-critical computer systems, with the target of making the system safe, risk-free and fail-safe in addition to provide a clarified differentaition for assessing and evaluating the risk, with the principles of software risk management. Problem statement: Prevailing software quality models, standards were not subsisting in adequately addressing the software safety ...

  6. Defining safety culture and the nexus between safety goals and safety culture. 3. A Methodology for Identifying Deficiencies in Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, George; Weil, Rick

    2001-01-01

    At present, the drivers of performance problems at nuclear power plants (NPPs) are organizational in nature. Organizational deficiencies and other 'latent' conditions cause human errors, resulting in incidents that impact the performance of NPPs. Therefore, the human reliability community, regulators, and others concerned with NPP safety express the view that safety culture and organizational factors play an important role in plant safety. However, we have yet to identify one complete set of organizational factors, establish links between deficient safety culture and performance, or develop adequate tools to measure safety culture. This paper will contribute to the resolution of these issues. Safety culture is not a single factor but rather is a collection of several distinct factors. This paper asserts that in order to pro-actively manage safety culture at NPPs, leading indicators and appropriate measurements must be identified and developed. Central to this effort are the identification of the distinct factors comprising safety culture and the relationships between those factors and performance. We have identified several factors important to safety culture. We have developed a methodology that is a combination of traditional root-cause analysis and theories of human error, most notably Reason's theory of accident causation. In addition to this methodology's usefulness in identifying deficiencies in safety culture, it could also be used as a starting point to identify leading indicators of deteriorating safety performance. We have identified six organizational factors as being important: communication, formalization, goal prioritization, problem identification, roles and responsibilities, and technical knowledge. In addition, we have found that certain organizational factors, although pervasive throughout the organization, have a much greater influence on the successful outcome of particular tasks of work processes, rather than being equally important to all

  7. Qualitative Knowledge Construction for Engineering Systems: Extending the Design Structure Matrix Methodology in Scope and Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartolomei, Jason E

    2007-01-01

    ...), by providing a dynamic, end-to-end representation of an engineering system. In support of this contribution, a new research methodology is presented called Qualitative Knowledge Construction (QKC...

  8. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE METHODOLOGY TO IMPROVE ROAD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for improving the road safety and quality of road traffic controlled junctions(crossings on individual parameters of traffic light control, improvement of traffic light control by optimizing the length of the transition interval in the traffic light cycle, increase awareness and early warning drivers about the upcoming change traffic lights division of transport and pedestrian traffic, road conditions , transportation planning and technical aids of road  traffic, as well as recommendations for the use of the hump in the settlements, etc.

  9. Proposal of Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Embedded System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Kageyama, Makoto; Kanemoto, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    To do risk analysis and risk evaluation for complicated safety critical embedded systems, there are three things should be paid a good attention: 1) an efficient and integrated model expression of embedded systems: 2) systematic risk analysis based on integrated system model: 3) quantitative risk evaluation for software and hardware integrated system. In this paper, taken electric water boiler as a target system, a proposal of risk analysis and risk evaluation for the embedded system is presented to meet these three purposes. In risk analysis, MFM is used and FT is generated automatically from MFM following some rules: And in risk evaluation, GO-FLOW is used to evaluate the reliability of sensors. And furthermore, FIT is applied to evaluate the safety software logic based on the diversity design concept. Although the electric water boiler is a simple example, it includes the key components of the embedded system like sensors, actuators, and software component. So, the process of modeling, analysis, and evaluation could be applied to other kinds of complicated embedded systems

  10. Model-based safety analysis of a control system using Simulink and Simscape extended models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Nian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft or system safety assessment process is an integral part of the overall aircraft development cycle. It is usually characterized by a very high timely and financial effort and can become a critical design driver in certain cases. Therefore, an increasing demand of effective methods to assist the safety assessment process arises within the aerospace community. One approach is the utilization of model-based technology, which is already well-established in the system development, for safety assessment purposes. This paper mainly describes a new tool for Model-Based Safety Analysis. A formal model for an example system is generated and enriched with extended models. Then, system safety analyses are performed on the model with the assistance of automation tools and compared to the results of a manual analysis. The objective of this paper is to improve the increasingly complex aircraft systems development process. This paper develops a new model-based analysis tool in Simulink/Simscape environment.

  11. From extended integrity monitoring to the safety evaluation of satellite-based localisation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Cyril; Beugin, Julie; Marais, Juliette; Conrard, Blaise; El-Koursi, El-Miloudi; Berbineau, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS, already used in aeronautics for safety-related applications, can play a major role in railway safety by allowing a train to locate itself safely. However, in order to implement this positioning solution in any embedded system, its performances must be evaluated according to railway standards. The evaluation of GNSS performances is not based on the same attributes class than RAMS evaluation. Face to these diffculties, we propose to express the integrity attribute, performance of satellite-based localisation. This attribute comes from aeronautical standards and for a hybridised GNSS with inertial system. To achieve this objective, the integrity attribute must be extended to this kind of system and algorithms initially devoted to GNSS integrity monitoring only must be adapted. Thereafter, the formalisation of this integrity attribute permits us to analyse the safety quantitatively through the probabilities of integrity risk and wrong-side failure. In this paper, after an introductory discussion about the use of localisation systems in railway safety context together with integrity issues, a particular integrity monitoring is proposed and described. The detection events of this algorithm permit us to conclude about safety level of satellite-based localisation system.

  12. Probabilistic safety analysis for FRJ-2 motivation, methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, J.

    1993-01-01

    A PSA of the Research Reactor FRJ-2 was performed to check the twenty-year-old safety system for weak points and to develop accident management as a 'fourth line of defence' against severe accidents according to a German initiative. The total core damage frequency proved to be 1.5·10 -4 /a, which is consistent with figures found for other research reactors. Minor plant modifications will reduce the value by roughly a factor of 4, resulting in a frequency of 3·10 -7 /a for a major release of fission products into the environment caused by an independent failure of the containment. The integrity of the gas-tight steel containment proved not to be endangered by any core damage accident. From the results and insights gained by the PSA, many accident management measures could be identified and defined for the emergency handbook. The most important measure is primary feed and bleed, for which the feed line already exists. (author)

  13. Probabilistic safety analysis for FRJ-2 motivation, methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, J [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1993-07-01

    A PSA of the Research Reactor FRJ-2 was performed to check the twenty-year-old safety system for weak points and to develop accident management as a 'fourth line of defence' against severe accidents according to a German initiative. The total core damage frequency proved to be 1.5{center_dot}10{sup -4}/a, which is consistent with figures found for other research reactors. Minor plant modifications will reduce the value by roughly a factor of 4, resulting in a frequency of 3{center_dot}10{sup -7}/a for a major release of fission products into the environment caused by an independent failure of the containment. The integrity of the gas-tight steel containment proved not to be endangered by any core damage accident. From the results and insights gained by the PSA, many accident management measures could be identified and defined for the emergency handbook. The most important measure is primary feed and bleed, for which the feed line already exists. (author)

  14. Application of risk-based methodologies to prioritize safety resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Hosler, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) started a program entitled risk-based prioritization in 1992. The purpose of this program is to provide generic technical support to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost control using state-of-the-art risk methods. The approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. Specifically, those items or events that have high risk significance would receive the most attention, while those with little risk content would command fewer resources. As quantified in a companion paper,close-quote the potential O ampersand M cost reduction inherent in this approach is very large. Furthermore, risk-based methods should also lead to safety improvements. This paper outlines the way that the EPRI technical work complements the technical, policy, and regulatory initiatives taken by others in the industry and provides an example of the approach as used to prioritize motor-operated valve (MOV) testing in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letter 89-10

  15. Probabilistic safety analysis for FRJ-2 motivation, methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, J.

    1994-01-01

    A PSA of the Research Reactor FRJ-2 was performed to check the twenty-year-old safety system for weak points and to develop accident management as a 'fourth line of defence' against severe accidents according to a German initiative. The total core damage frequency proved to be 1.5·10 -4 /a, which is consistent with figures found for other research reactors. Minor plant modifications will reduce the value by roughly a factor of 4, resulting in a frequency of 3·10 -7 /a for a major release of fission products into the environment caused by an independent failure of the containment. The integrity of the gas-tight steel containment proved not to be endangered by any core damage accident. From the results and insights gained by the PSA, many accident management measures could be identified and defined for the emergency handbook. The most important measure is primary feed and bleed, for which the feed line already exists. (author)

  16. Safety assessment of a vault-based disposal facility using the ISAM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.; Kim, C.-L.; Lietava, P.; Little, R.; Simon, I.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improving Long-term of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM), three example cases were developed. The aim was to testing the ISAM safety assessment methodology using as realistic as possible data. One of the Test Cases, the Vault Test Case (VTC), related to the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW) to a hypothetical facility comprising a set of above surface vaults. This paper uses the various steps of the ISAM safety assessment methodology to describe the work undertaken by ISAM participants in developing the VTC and provides some general conclusions that can be drawn from the findings of their work. (author)

  17. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis methodology in a level-I PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents a methodology for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, applicable to a probabilistic safety assessment level I. The work contents are: correct association of distributions to parameters, importance and qualification of expert opinions, generations of samples according to sample sizes, and study of the relationships among system variables and system response. A series of statistical-mathematical techniques are recommended along the development of the analysis methodology, as well different graphical visualization for the control of the study. (author) [es

  18. Methodology and analysis of production safety during Pu recycling at SSC RF RIAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillovich, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The methodology and criteria for estimating safety in technological processes of the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) are proposed, substantiated and verified during the large-scale Pu recycling (500 kg). The comprehensive investigation results of the radiation-ecological situation are presented during pilot production of the mixed uranium-plutonium fuel and fuel assembly at SSC RF RIAR. The methodology and experimental data bank can be used while estimating safety in the industrial recycling of Pu and minor-actinides (Np, Am, Cm) in NFC. (author)

  19. Methodology briefing students in the safety on physical education in the gym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Mukhamediarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to determine the effective components of the methodology of coaching students on safety on physical education in the gym. Material : in the experiment involved 90 students aged 17-18 years. Results : the method of forming responsible attitude to the basics of safety during physical training in the gym. Developed special funds: lectures, seminars, analysis of articles, diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, analysis of log data of attendance, log injuries. The criteria of formation responsible attitude to physical training. The results of the implementation methodology. Conclusions : proposed method recommend to instruct students on safety. Use the means of forming a responsible attitude to safety during physical training in the gym that will help reduce injuries and improve quality of the physical training at the university.

  20. Extended storage for radioactive wastes: relevant aspects related to the safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Reinaldo G.; Peralta V, José L.P.; Estevez, Gema G. F.

    2013-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is an issue of great relevance globally linked to the issue of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Among the steps in the management of this waste, the safe storage is one of the most important. Given the high costs and uncertainties existing among other aspects of the variants of disposal of radioactive waste, the prolonged storage of these wastes for periods exceeding 50 years is an option that different countries more and more value. One of the fundamental problems to take into account is the safety of the stores, so in this work are evaluated different safety components associated with these facilities through a safety analysis methodology. Elements such as human intrusion, the construction site, the design of the facility, among others are identified as some of the key aspects to take into account when evaluating the safety of these types of facilities. Periods of activities planned for a long-term storage of radioactive waste exceed, in general, the useful life of existing storage facilities. This work identified new challenges to overcome in order to meet the requirements for the achievement of a safe management of radioactive waste without negative impacts on the environment and man

  1. eXtended variational quasicontinuum methodology for lattice networks with damage and crack propagation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokoš, O.; Peerlings, R. H. J.; Zeman, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 320, č. 1 (2017), s. 769-792 ISSN 0045-7825 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF16-34894L Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Lattice networks * Quasicontinuum method * Damage * Extended finite element method * Multiscale modelling * Variational formulation Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 3.949, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/AS/zeman-0475349.pdf

  2. Application of the Integrated Safety Assessment methodology to safety margins. Dynamic Event Trees, Damage Domains and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibánez, L.; Hortal, J.; Queral, C.; Gómez-Magán, J.; Sánchez-Perea, M.; Fernández, I.; Meléndez, E.; Expósito, A.; Izquierdo, J.M.; Gil, J.; Marrao, H.; Villalba-Jabonero, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA) methodology, developed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, has been applied to an analysis of Zion NPP for sequences with Loss of the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS). The ISA methodology proposal starts from the unfolding of the Dynamic Event Tree (DET). Results from this first step allow assessing the sequence delineation of standard Probabilistic Safety Analysis results. For some sequences of interest of the outlined DET, ISA then identifies the Damage Domain (DD). This is the region of uncertain times and/or parameters where a safety limit is exceeded, which indicates the occurrence of certain damage situation. This paper illustrates application of this concept obtained simulating sequences with MAAP and with TRACE. From information of simulation results of sequence transients belonging to the DD and the time-density probability distributions of the manual actions and of occurrence of stochastic phenomena, ISA integrates the dynamic reliability equations proposed to obtain the sequence contribution to the global Damage Exceedance Frequency (DEF). Reported results show a slight increase in the DEF for sequences investigated following a power uprate from 100% to 110%. This demonstrates the potential use of the method to help in the assessment of design modifications. - Highlights: • This paper illustrates an application of the ISA methodology to safety margins. • Dynamic Event Trees are useful tool for verifying the standard PSA Event Trees. • The ISA methodology takes into account the uncertainties in human action times. • The ISA methodology shows the Damage Exceedance Frequency increase in power uprates.

  3. Characterising influences on safety culture in military aviation:a methodologically grounded approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Anthea; Hellier, Elizabeth; Weyman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Historically, much effort has been expended in safety culture / climate research toward identifying a generic core set of components, predominately using the self-administered questionnaire approach. However, no stable unified model has emerged, and much of this research has taken a methodologically top-down approach to depicting organisational safety culture. In light of this, the benefits of qualitative exploration as a precursor to and foundation for the development of quantitative climate...

  4. Safety cases for the co-ordinated research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Torres-Vidal, C.; Kelly, E.; Guskov, A.; Blerk, J. van

    2002-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) has recently been completed on the Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM). A major aspect of the project was the use of safety cases for the practical application of safety assessment. An overview of the ISAM safety cases is given in this paper. (author)

  5. Training and Action for Patient Safety: Embedding Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety within an Improvement Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Beverley L.; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Gerry; Bibby, John; Wright, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Despite an explosion of interest in improving safety and reducing error in health care, one important aspect of patient safety that has received little attention is a systematic approach to education and training for the whole health care workforce. This article describes an evaluation of an innovative multiprofessional, team-based…

  6. Extending injury prevention methodology to chemical terrorism preparedness: the Haddon Matrix and sarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Shawn; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Dischinger, Patricia; Mackenzie, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The Haddon Matrix offers a classic epidemiological model for studying injury prevention. This methodology places the public health concepts of agent, host, and environment within the three sequential phases of an injury-producing incident-pre-event, event, and postevent. This study uses this methodology to illustrate how it could be applied in systematically preparing for a mass casualty disaster such as an unconventional sarin attack in a major urban setting. Nineteen city, state, federal, and military agencies responded to the Haddon Matrix chemical terrorism preparedness exercise and offered feedback in the data review session. Four injury prevention strategies (education, engineering, enforcement, and economics) were applied to the individual factors and event phases of the Haddon Matrix. The majority of factors identified in all phases were modifiable, primarily through educational interventions focused on individual healthcare providers and first responders. The Haddon Matrix provides a viable means of studying an unconventional problem, allowing for the identification of modifiable factors to decrease the type and severity of injuries following a mass casualty disaster such as a sarin release. This strategy could be successfully incorporated into disaster planning for other weapons attacks that could potentially cause mass casualties.

  7. Combining soft system methodology and pareto analysis in safety management performance assessment : an aviation case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios

    2016-01-01

    Although reengineering is strategically advantageous for organisations in order to keep functional and sustainable, safety must remain a priority and respective efforts need to be maintained. This paper suggests the combination of soft system methodology (SSM) and Pareto analysis on the scope of

  8. Safety, mobility and comfort assessment methodologies of intelligent transport systems for vulnerable road users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, K.; Silla, A.; Johanssen, C.; Bell, D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper describes the modification and development of methodologies to assess the impacts of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications for Vulnerable Road users (VRUs) in the domains of safety, mobility and comfort. This effort was carried out in the context of the VRUITS

  9. Radiological safety methodology in radioactive tracer applications for hydrodynamics and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, R.; Badano, A.; Dellepere, A.; Artucio, G.; Bertolotti, A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracer techniques as control sewage disposal contamination in Montevideo Estuarine and Carrasco beach has been studied for the Nuclear Technology National Direction. Hydrodynamic models simulation has been introduced as work methodology. As well as radiological safety and radioactive material applications in the environmental studies has been evaluated mainly in the conclusions and recommendations in this report. maps

  10. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  11. Analysis of cold leg LOCA with failed HPSI by means of integrated safety assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Cadelo, J.; Queral, C.; Montero-Mayorga, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results of ISA for considered sequences endorse EOPs guidance in an original way. • ISA allows to obtain accurate available times for accident management actions. • RCP-trip adequacy and available time for beginning depressurization are evaluated. • ISA minimizes the necessity of expert judgment to perform safety assessment. - Abstract: The integrated safety assessment (ISA) methodology, developed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), has been applied to a thermal–hydraulic analysis of cold leg LOCA sequences with unavailable High Pressure Injection System in a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR. This analysis has been performed with TRACE 5.0 patch 1 code. ISA methodology allows obtaining the Damage Domain (the region of space of parameters where a safety limit is exceeded) as a function of uncertain parameters (break area) and operator actuation times, and provides to the analyst useful information about the impact of these uncertain parameters in safety concerns. In this work two main issues have been analyzed: the effect of reactor coolant pump trip and the available time for beginning of secondary-side depressurization. The main conclusions are that present Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) are adequate for managing this kind of sequences and the ISA methodology is able to take into account time delays and parameter uncertainties

  12. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio; Batista Camargo Junior, Joao

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  13. Methodology for safety assessment of near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the work is to present the conceptual model of the methodology of safety assessment of near-surface radioactive disposal facilities. The widely used mathematical models and approaches are presented. The emphasis is given on the mathematical models and approaches, which are applicable for the conditions in our country. The different transport models for analysis and safety assessment of migration processes are presented. The parallel between the Mixing-Cell Cascade model and model of Finite-Differences is made. In the methodology the basic physical and chemical processes and events, concerning mathematical modelling of the flow and the transport of radionuclides from the Near Field to Far Field and Biosphere are analyzed. Suitable computer codes corresponding to the ideology and appropriate for implementing of the methodology are shown

  14. A survey of dynamic methodologies for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldemir, Tunc

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamic methodologies for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) are surveyed. ► These methodologies overcome the limitations of the traditional approach to PSA. ► They are suitable for PSA using a best estimate plus uncertainty approach. ► They are highly computation intensive and produce very large number of scenarios. ► Use of scenario clustering can assist the analysis of the results. -- Abstract: Dynamic methodologies for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) are defined as those which use a time-dependent phenomenological model of system evolution along with its stochastic behavior to account for possible dependencies between failure events. Over the past 30 years, numerous concerns have been raised in the literature regarding the capability of the traditional static modeling approaches such as the event-tree/fault-tree methodology to adequately account for the impact of process/hardware/software/firmware/human interactions on the stochastic system behavior. A survey of the types of dynamic PSA methodologies proposed to date is presented, as well as a brief summary of an example application for the PSA modeling of a digital feedwater control system of an operating pressurized water reactor. The use of dynamic methodologies for PSA modeling of passive components and phenomenological uncertainties are also discussed.

  15. Extended value-impact decision making methodology for nuclear power plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Value-impact is the term used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to define what is traditionally known as cost-benefit analysis; values measure the beneficial consequences of a proposed action, impacts measure the adverse consequences, i.e. costs of the proposed action. In the regulatory framework, value-impact or cost-benefit is but one input to decision making. The present study was performed in order to illustrate how decision makers can utilize a more structured method for determining nuclear regulatory policy. In order to be useful, the method must treat all dominant factors that influence a decision; including economic, as well as societal factors such as environmental, health and safety. The method must also allow decisions to be consistent with the preferences of the decision maker as well as other interested groups. Major problems in decision making are how to incorporate non-quantifiable attributes in the method and how to reach consensus between opposing viewpoints. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) can attack these issues by making it possible to structure the decision in a way that subjective input can be included. In this paper, the AHP is developed and used to rank the value/impact ratios of alternative decay heat removal systems. It is believed that use of the AHP can decrease limitations present in a current value-impact analysis

  16. National Inventories and Management Strategies for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste. Extended Methodology for the Common Presentation of Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volckaert, Geert; Dionisi, Mario; Heath, Maurice; Kugel, Karin; Garamszeghy, Miklos; Leclaire, Arnaud; Deryabin, Sergey; Hedberg, Bengt; Dapei, Dominic; Lebedev, Vladimir; )

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive waste inventory data are an important element in the development of a national radioactive waste management program since these data affect the design and selection of the ultimate disposal methods. Inventory data are generally presented as an amount of radioactive waste under various waste classes, according to the waste classification scheme developed and adopted by the country or national program in question. Various waste classification schemes have evolved in most countries, and these schemes classify radioactive waste according to its origin, to criteria related to the protection of workers or to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the waste and the planned disposal method(s). The diversity in classification schemes across countries has restricted the possibility of comparing waste inventories and led to difficulties in interpreting waste management practices, both nationally and internationally. To help improve this situation, the Nuclear Energy Agency developed a methodology that ensures consistency of national radioactive waste and spent fuel inventory data when presenting them in a common scheme in direct connection with accepted management strategy and disposal routes. This report is a follow up to the 2016 report that introduced the methodology and presenting scheme for spent fuel, and it now extends this methodology and presenting scheme to all types of radioactive waste and corresponding management strategies

  17. The 'PROCESO' index: a new methodology for the evaluation of operational safety in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marono, M.; Pena, J.A.; Santamaria, J.

    2006-01-01

    The acknowledgement of industrial installations as complex systems in the early 1980s outstands as a milestone in the path to operational safety. Process plants are social-technical complex systems of a dynamic nature, whose properties depend not only on their components, but also on the inter-relations among them. A comprehensive assessment of operational safety requires a systemic approach, i.e. an integrated framework that includes all the relevant factors influencing safety. Risk analysis methodologies and safety management systems head the list of methods that point in this direction, but they normally require important plant resources. As a consequence, their use is frequently restricted to especially dangerous processes often driven by compliance with legal requirements. In this work a new safety index for the chemical industry, termed the 'Proceso' Index (standing for the Spanish terms for PROCedure for the Evaluation of Operational Safety), has been developed. PROCESO is based on the principles of systems theory, has a tree-like structure and considers 25 areas to guide the review of plant safety. The method uses indicators whose respective weight values have been obtained via an expert judgement technique. This paper describes the steps followed to develop this new Operational Safety Index, explains its structure and illustrates its application to process plants

  18. The IAEA research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Vidal, C.; Graham, D.; Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Research Coordinated Project on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities (ISAM) was launched in November 1997 and it has been underway for three years. The ISAM project was developed to provide a critical evaluation of the approaches and tools used in long-term safety assessment of near surface repositories. It resulted in the development of a harmonised approach and illustrated its application by way of three test cases - vault, borehole and Radon (a particular range of repository designs developed within the former Soviet Union) type repositories. As a consequence, the ISAM project had over 70 active participants and attracted considerable interest involving around 700 experts from 72 Member States. The methodology developed, the test cases, the main lessons learnt and the conclusions have been documented and will be published in the form of an IAEA TECDOC. This paper presents the work of the IAEA on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface waste disposal facilities and the application of these methodologies for different purposes in the individual stages of the repository development. The paper introduces the main objectives, activities and outcome of the ISAM project and summarizes the work performed by the six working groups within the ISAM programme, i.e. Scenario Generation and Justification, Modelling, Confidence Building, Vault, Radon Type Facility and Borehole test cases. (author)

  19. Obtention to the methodology for evaluation to the confirmation of the hazardous wastes safety isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, J.L.; Gil, R.; Castillo, R.; Leyva, D.

    2003-01-01

    Taking into account, the practical experience of the safety assessment in the radioactive wastes management, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations in this topics, the norms and national and international legislation about noxious substances to the environment and their restriction limits, the best international practices and approaches of isolation hazardous wastes sites, a Methodology is developed (Cuba particular conditions) to obtaining and/or confirmation of the hazardous wastes safety isolation, as a tool able to carry out the assessment of facilities to build and all installation and/or place where hazardous wastes isolated from the environment. The Methodology, embraces the evaluation of technical, economic and social topics, allowing to develop an integral safety assessment which allows to estimate the environment possible impact for hazardous waste isolation (radioactive and non radioactive); Just are shown in this paper the selection approaches for the obtaining and/or evaluation of the best site, the steps description to continue for the definition of the main scenarios and the models to take into account in the valuation of the possible liberation and pathway to the environment of the non radioactive pollutants. The main contribution of this Methodology resides in the creation of a scientific-technique necessary guide for the evident demand of carrying out the most organized, effective and hazardous wastes safety management

  20. Prototype application of best estimate and uncertainty safety analysis methodology to large LOCA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxat, J.C.; Huget, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Development of a methodology to perform best estimate and uncertainty nuclear safety analysis has been underway at Ontario Power Generation for the past two and one half years. A key driver for the methodology development, and one of the major challenges faced, is the need to re-establish demonstrated safety margins that have progressively been undermined through excessive and compounding conservatism in deterministic analyses. The major focus of the prototyping applications was to quantify the safety margins that exist at the probable range of high power operating conditions, rather than the highly improbable operating states associated with Limit of the Envelope (LOE) assumptions. In LOE, all parameters of significance to the consequences of a postulated accident are assumed to simultaneously deviate to their limiting values. Another equally important objective of the prototyping was to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting safety analysis as an incremental analysis activity, as opposed to a major re-analysis activity. The prototype analysis solely employed prior analyses of Bruce B large break LOCA events - no new computer simulations were undertaken. This is a significant and novel feature of the prototyping work. This methodology framework has been applied to a postulated large break LOCA in a Bruce generating unit on a prototype basis. This paper presents results of the application. (author)

  1. Soft systems methodology as a systemic approach to nuclear safety management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Neto, Antonio S.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Rubin, Gerson A.; Caldeira Filho, Jose S.; Camargo, Iara M.C., E-mail: asvneto@ipen.br, E-mail: snguilhen@ipen.br, E-mail: garubin@ipen.br, E-mail: jscaldeira@ipen.br, E-mail: icamargo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Safety approach currently adopted by nuclear installations is built almost exclusively upon analytical methodologies based, mainly, on the belief that the properties of a system, such as its safety, are given by its constituent parts. This approach, however, does not properly address the complex dynamic interactions between technical, human and organizational factors occurring within and outside the organization. After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, experts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended a systemic approach as a complementary perspective to nuclear safety. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the systems thinking approach and its potential use for structuring socio technical problems involved in the safety of nuclear installations, highlighting the methodologies related to the soft systems thinking, in particular the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The implementation of a systemic approach may thus result in a more holistic picture of the system by the complex dynamic interactions between technical, human and organizational factors. (author)

  2. Soft systems methodology as a systemic approach to nuclear safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Neto, Antonio S.; Guilhen, Sabine N.; Rubin, Gerson A.; Caldeira Filho, Jose S.; Camargo, Iara M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Safety approach currently adopted by nuclear installations is built almost exclusively upon analytical methodologies based, mainly, on the belief that the properties of a system, such as its safety, are given by its constituent parts. This approach, however, does not properly address the complex dynamic interactions between technical, human and organizational factors occurring within and outside the organization. After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, experts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended a systemic approach as a complementary perspective to nuclear safety. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the systems thinking approach and its potential use for structuring socio technical problems involved in the safety of nuclear installations, highlighting the methodologies related to the soft systems thinking, in particular the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The implementation of a systemic approach may thus result in a more holistic picture of the system by the complex dynamic interactions between technical, human and organizational factors. (author)

  3. Steps towards the international regulatory acceptance of non-animal methodology in safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Fiona; Doe, John; Gellatly, Nichola; Ragan, Ian; Burden, Natalie

    2017-10-01

    The current animal-based paradigm for safety assessment must change. In September 2016, the UK National Centre for Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) brought together scientists from regulatory authorities, academia and industry to review progress in bringing new methodology into regulatory use, and to identify ways to expedite progress. Progress has been slow. Science is advancing to make this possible but changes are necessary. The new paradigm should allow new methodology to be adopted once it is developed rather than being based on a fixed set of studies. Regulatory authorities can help by developing Performance-Based Standards. The most pressing need is in repeat dose toxicology, although setting standards will be more complex than in areas such as sensitization. Performance standards should be aimed directly at human safety, not at reproducing the results of animal studies. Regulatory authorities can also aid progress towards the acceptance of non-animal based methodology by promoting "safe-haven" trials where traditional and new methodology data can be submitted in parallel to build up experience in the new methods. Industry can play its part in the acceptance of new methodology, by contributing to the setting of performance standards and by actively contributing to "safe-haven" trials. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Non-LOCA Safety Analysis Methodology with RETRAN-3D and VIPRE-01/K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Cheong, Ae-Ju; Yang, Chang-Keun

    2004-01-01

    Korea Electric Power Research Institute has launched a project to develop an in-house non-loss-of-coolant-accident analysis methodology to overcome the hardships caused by the narrow analytical scopes of existing methodologies. Prior to the development, some safety analysis codes were reviewed, and RETRAN-3D and VIPRE-01 were chosen as the base codes. The codes have been modified to improve the analytical capabilities required to analyze the nuclear power plants in Korea. The methodologies of the vendors and the Electric Power Research Institute have been reviewed, and some documents of foreign utilities have been used to compensate for the insufficiencies. For the next step, a draft methodology for pressurized water reactors has been developed and modified to apply to Westinghouse-type plants in Korea. To verify the feasibility of the methodology, some events of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2 have been analyzed from the standpoints of reactor coolant system pressure and the departure from nucleate boiling ratio. The results of the analyses show trends similar to those of the Final Safety Analysis Report

  5. Topiramate Extended-Release Options: A Focus on Efficacy and Safety in Epilepsy and Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is effective for multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes in children and adults. Topiramate has adverse effects (including cognitive, depression, renal stones, but many of these are low incidence when started at a low dose and slowly titrated to 100 to 200 mg/day. Also, TPM has proven benefit for migraine, obesity, eating disorders, and alcohol use disorders, which can be comorbid in patients with epilepsy and may also be effective in subpopulations within specific psychiatric diagnoses. Recently approved extended-release formulations of TPM (Trokendi and Qudexy in the United States have reliable data supporting their safety and efficacy for patients with epilepsy. They have potential for more rapid titration within 1 month to 200 mg/day and have better patient retention than TPM immediate-release, but there are no robust double-blind randomized controlled trials comparing the different formulations. We expect the once per day extended-release formulations to improve medication adherence compared with the twice per day formulations. This has significant potential to improve outcomes in epilepsy and the other TPM-responsive disorders.

  6. Application of the integrated safety assessment methodology to the protection of electric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hortal, Javier; Izquierdo, Jose M.

    1996-01-01

    The generalization of classical techniques for risk assessment incorporating dynamic effects is the main objective of the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology, as practical implementation of Protection Theory. Transient stability, contingency analysis and protection setpoint verification in electric power systems are particularly appropriate domains of application, since the coupling of reliability and dynamic analysis in the protection assessment process is being increasingly demanded. Suitable techniques for dynamic simulation of sequences of switching events in power systems are derived from the use of quasi-linear equation solution algorithms. The application of the methodology, step by step, is illustrated in a simple but representative example

  7. Dalfampridine extended release tablets: 1 year of postmarketing safety experience in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Michele Jara,1 Graham Barker,2 Herbert R Henney 3rd1 1Acorda Therapeutics, Inc, Ardsley, NY, USA; 2Biogen Idec, Inc, Maidenhead, Berkshire, UK Background: Dalfampridine extended release tablets (dalfampridine-ER; prolonged-, modified, or sustained-release fampridine in some countries were approved in the US to improve walking in patients with multiple sclerosis, as demonstrated by improvement in walking speed. Postmarketing safety experience is available from exposure of approximately 46,000 patients in the US from product approval through March 2011. Objective: To provide a descriptive analysis of all spontaneously reported postmarketing adverse events (AEs for dalfampridine-ER since product launch. Methods: AE data were extracted from the safety database from product launch through March 31, 2011; AEs were classified using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities. Seizure cases were reviewed for patient demographics, time to event from treatment onset, and presence of additional risk factors. Results: The most frequently reported postmarketing AEs were similar to those reported during clinical development: dizziness, insomnia, balance disorder, headache, nausea, urinary tract infection, asthenia, and back pain (all included in US product labeling. New clinically significant findings are related to lack of efficacy and inappropriate dosing. Of the approximately 46,000 patients exposed, 85 seizures were reported (~5.4/1000 patient-years, of which 82 were reported or confirmed by a health care practitioner (~5.2/1000 patient-years. Beyond the intrinsic multiple sclerosis-related seizure risk, more than half of the 85 cases (62% had an additional potential risk factor for seizure including a previous history of convulsions, renal impairment, incorrect dosing, or use of concurrent medications with a labeled seizure risk. Duration of treatment prior to the seizure ranged from one dose to 365 days; 26/85 (31% patients suffered a seizure

  8. Methodology for the Integration of Safety in the Optimization of the Advanced Reactors Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinblat, P.; Schlamp, M.; Brasnarof, D.; Gimenez, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work a new methodology has been developed and implemented for taking into account the safety levels of the reactor in a design optimization process, by using Design Maps.They represent a new technique for comparing critical variables in case an accidental sequenced happened, with limit values set by the design criteria.So a good balance is achieved, without allowing the economic performance search to cause a too risky reactor, and guaranteeing the competitiveness of it in spite of the safety costs.Up to the moment, there is no design tool able to accomplish this task in an integrated way.A computational tool based on this methodology has been implemented.These tool specially programmed routines allow carrying out the mentioned tasks

  9. Development of a methodology for assessing the safety of embedded software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C. J.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) based on an integrated approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for assessing and verifying reliability and safety is discussed. DFM is based on an extension of the Logic Flowgraph Methodology to incorporate state transition models. System models which express the logic of the system in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of software modules are analyzed to determine how a certain state can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating the system parameters at different point in time. The resulting information concerning the hardware and software states can be used to eliminate unsafe execution paths and identify testing criteria for safety critical software functions.

  10. Application of project management methodology in design management of nuclear safety related structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mao

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of project management methodology in the design management of Nuclear Safety Related Structure (NSRS), considering the design management features of its civil construction. Based on the experiences from the management of several projects, the project management triangle is proposed to be used in the management, to well treat the position of design interface in the project management. Some other management methods are also proposed

  11. ASAM - The international programme on application of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has launched a new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ASAM). The CRP will focus on the practical application of the safety assessment methodology, developed under the ISAM programme, for different purposes, such as developing design concepts, licensing, upgrading existing repositories, reassessment of operating disposal facilities. The overall aim of the programme is to assist safety assessors, regulators and other specialists involved in the development and review of safety assessment for near surface disposal facilities in order to achieve transparent, traceable and defendable evaluation of safety of these facilities. (author)

  12. Methodology for safety and security of radioactive sources and materials. The Israeli approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keren, M.

    1998-01-01

    About 10 Radioactive incidents occurred in Israel during 1996-1997. Some of them were theft or lost of Radioactive equipment or sources, some happened because misuse of Radioactive equipment and some of other reasons. Part of them could be eliminated if a better methodological attitude to the subject existed. A new methodology for notification, registration and licensing is described. Hopefully this methodology will increase defense in depth and the Safety and Security of Radioactive sources and materials. Information on the inventory of Radioactive sources and materials is essential. Where they are situated, what is the supply rate or all history from berth to grave. Persons involved are important: Who are the Radiation Safety Officers (RSO), what is their training and updating programs. As much as possible information on the site and places where those Radioactive sources and materials are used. Procedures for security of sources and materials is part of site information, beside safety precautions. Users are obliged to inform on any changes and to ask for confirmation to those changes. The same is when high activity sources are moved across the country. (author)

  13. Safety analysis methodology with assessment of the impact of the prediction errors of relevant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The best estimate plus uncertainty approach (BEAU) requires the use of extensive resources and therefore it is usually applied for cases in which the available safety margin obtained with a conservative methodology can be questioned. Outside the BEAU methodology, there is not a clear approach on how to deal with the issue of considering the uncertainties resulting from prediction errors in the safety analyses performed for licensing submissions. However, the regulatory document RD-310 mentions that the analysis method shall account for uncertainties in the analysis data and models. A possible approach is presented, that is simple and reasonable, representing just the author's views, to take into account the impact of prediction errors and other uncertainties when performing safety analysis in line with regulatory requirements. The approach proposes taking into account the prediction error of relevant parameters. Relevant parameters would be those plant parameters that are surveyed and are used to initiate the action of a mitigating system or those that are representative of the most challenging phenomena for the integrity of a fission barrier. Examples of the application of the methodology are presented involving a comparison between the results with the new approach and a best estimate calculation during the blowdown phase for two small breaks in a generic CANDU 6 station. The calculations are performed with the CATHENA computer code. (author)

  14. Fusion integral experiments and analysis and the determination of design safety factors - I: Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, M.Z.; Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the neutronics experimentation and analysis in fusion neutronics research and development programs is discussed. A new methodology was developed to arrive at estimates to design safety factors based on the experimental and analytical results from design-oriented integral experiments. In this methodology, and for a particular nuclear response, R, a normalized density function (NDF) is constructed from the prediction uncertainties, and their associated standard deviations, as found in the various integral experiments where that response, R, is measured. Important statistical parameters are derived from the NDF, such as the global mean prediction uncertainty, and the possible spread around it. The method of deriving safety factors from many possible NDFs based on various calculational and measuring methods (among other variants) is also described. Associated with each safety factor is a confidence level, designers may choose to have, that the calculated response, R, will not exceed (or will not fall below) the actual measured value. An illustrative example is given on how to construct the NDFs. The methodology is applied in two areas, namely the line-integrated tritium production rate and bulk shielding integral experiments. Conditions under which these factors could be derived and the validity of the method are discussed. 72 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs

  15. New Methodology for a Comprehensive Modular Safety Control System in a Cyclotron Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, Y.; Kravitz, M.; Arad, M.; Osovizky, A.; Paran, J.; Sarussi, B.; Ellenbogen, M.; Tal, N.

    2004-01-01

    This Paper describes a new methodology for a comprehensive modular Safety Control System (SCS), for a cyclotron site. The developed SCS is a modular approach for controlling the production procedures, safety conditions and documentation aspects in the Cyclotron site. Usually, the safety conditions in cyclotron sites are maintained by a variety of sensors. The cyclotron is supplied from the manufacturer with a self-integrated control system for its operation, yet the comprehensive SCS has to be defined and setup by the customer. Therefore, customers face a lot of integration problems in trying to combine all the signals from the different safety systems such as radiation monitoring, environmental and access control, in order to maintain proper safety working conditions. The presented SCS design provides main user interface and the complete safety solution required by including preset control logic definitions and open logic for specific user applications. The knowledge for the preset control logic definitions was gathered in previous projects. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) method has been implemented on the SCS to analyze the potential failure modes and their impact on the product reliability

  16. Application of REPAS Methodology to Assess the Reliability of Passive Safety Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pierro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the presentation of the Reliability Evaluation of Passive Safety System (REPAS methodology developed by University of Pisa. The general objective of the REPAS is to characterize in an analytical way the performance of a passive system in order to increase the confidence toward its operation and to compare the performances of active and passive systems and the performances of different passive systems. The REPAS can be used in the design of the passive safety systems to assess their goodness and to optimize their costs. It may also provide numerical values that can be used in more complex safety assessment studies and it can be seen as a support to Probabilistic Safety Analysis studies. With regard to this, some examples in the application of the methodology are reported in the paper. A best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP5, has been used to support the analyses and to model the selected systems. Probability distributions have been assigned to the uncertain input parameters through engineering judgment. Monte Carlo method has been used to propagate uncertainties and Wilks' formula has been taken into account to select sample size. Failure criterions are defined in terms of nonfulfillment of the defined design targets.

  17. Bow tie methodology: a tool to enhance the visibility and understanding of nuclear safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannerem, Marc

    2013-01-01

    There is much common ground between the nuclear industry and other major hazard industries such as those subject to the Seveso II regulations, e.g. oil, gas and chemicals. They are all subject to legal requirements to identify and control hazards, and to demonstrate that all necessary measures have been taken to minimise risks posed by the site with regard to people and the environment. This places a requirement on the Operators of major hazard installations, whether nuclear or conventional, to understand and identify the hazards of their operations, the initiating events, the consequences, the prevention and mitigation measures. However, in the UK, nuclear and 'Seveso' type facilities seem to adopt a different approach to the presentation of their safety cases. Given the magnitude of the hazards, safety cases developed for nuclear fuel cycle facilities are rigorous, detailed and complex, which can have the effect of reducing the visibility of the key hazards and corresponding protective measures. In contrast, on installations in the oil and gas and chemical industries, a real attempt has been made over recent years to improve the visibility and accessibility of the safety case to all operating personnel, through the use of visual aids / diagrams. In particular, many Operators are choosing to use 'bow tie methodology', in which very simple overview diagrams are produced to illustrate, in a form understandable by all: - what the key hazards are; - the initiating events; - the consequences of an incident; - the barriers or 'Layers of Protection' which prevent an initiating event from developing into an incident; - the barriers or 'Layers of Defence' which mitigate the consequences of an incident, i.e. which prevent the incident from escalating into major consequences. The bow tie method is one of a number of methodologies that can be used to make safety cases more accessible. It is used in this paper to illustrate ways to

  18. Development methodology for the software life cycle process of the safety software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, S. S.; Cha, K. H.; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Han, H. B.

    2002-01-01

    A methodology for developing software life cycle processes (SLCP) is proposed to develop the digital safety-critical Engineered Safety Features - Component Control System (ESF-CCS) successfully. A software life cycle model is selected as the hybrid model mixed with waterfall, prototyping, and spiral models and is composed of two stages , development stages of prototype of ESF-CCS and ESF-CCS. To produce the software life cycle (SLC) for the Development of the Digital Reactor Safety System, the Activities referenced in IEEE Std. 1074-1997 are mapped onto the hybrid model. The SLCP is established after the available OPAs (Organizational Process Asset) are applied to the SLC Activities, and the known constraints are reconciled. The established SLCP describes well the software life cycle activities with which the Regulatory Authority provides

  19. Application of a methodology to determine priorities for nuclear power plant safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is sponsoring a research program to determine priorities of nuclear power plant safety issues. A methodology has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in the development of risk and cost estimates for implementing resolutions to the safety issues. The information development methods are intended to provide the NRC with a consistent level of information for use in ranking the issues. The NRC uses this information, along with judgmental factors, to rank the issues for further consideration by the NRC staff. The primary purpose of the priority rankings are to assist in the allocation of resources to issues that have high potential for reducing public risk as well as to remove issues from further consideration that have little safety significance

  20. Development methodology for the software life cycle process of the safety software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, S. S. [BNF Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, K. H.; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Han, H. B. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    A methodology for developing software life cycle processes (SLCP) is proposed to develop the digital safety-critical Engineered Safety Features - Component Control System (ESF-CCS) successfully. A software life cycle model is selected as the hybrid model mixed with waterfall, prototyping, and spiral models and is composed of two stages , development stages of prototype of ESF-CCS and ESF-CCS. To produce the software life cycle (SLC) for the Development of the Digital Reactor Safety System, the Activities referenced in IEEE Std. 1074-1997 are mapped onto the hybrid model. The SLCP is established after the available OPAs (Organizational Process Asset) are applied to the SLC Activities, and the known constraints are reconciled. The established SLCP describes well the software life cycle activities with which the Regulatory Authority provides.

  1. A study on the methodology of probabilistic safety assessment for KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, Hae Yong; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Kyu Suk; Hahn, Do Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Existing Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) is a method for Light Water Reactor or Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. Because KALIMER is different from these reactor, the new methodology of PSA need to be developed. In this paper, the PSA of Power Reactor Inherently Safety Module(PRISM) is analyzed, and Initiating Event such as Experiential Assessment, Logical Assessment and Failure Mode Effect Analysis(FMEA) is reviewed. Also, Pipe Damage Frequency Method is suggested for KALIMER. And the Reliability Physical method of Passive System, which is a chief safety system of KALIMER, is reviewed and its applicability is investigated. Finally, for the Preliminary PSA of KALIMER, Intermediate Heat Transfer System is analyzed. 23 refs., 10 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  2. Safety Assessment Methodologies and Their Application in Development of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities--ASAM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    Safety of near surface disposal facilities is a primary focus and objective of stakeholders involved in radioactive waste management of low and intermediate level waste and safety assessment is an important tool contributing to the evaluation and demonstration of the overall safety of these facilities. It plays significant role in different stages of development of these facilities (site characterization, design, operation, closure) and especially for those facilities for which safety assessment has not been performed or safety has not been demonstrated yet and the future has not been decided. Safety assessments also create the basis for the safety arguments presented to nuclear regulators, public and other interested parties in respect of the safety of existing facilities, the measures to upgrade existing facilities and development of new facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a number of research coordinated projects in the field of development and improvement of approaches to safety assessment and methodologies for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities, such as NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) and ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) projects. These projects were very successful and showed that there is a need to promote the consistent application of the safety assessment methodologies and to explore approaches to regulatory review of safety assessments and safety cases in order to make safety related decisions. These objectives have been the basis of the IAEA follow up coordinated research project--ASAM (Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities), which will commence in November 2002 and continue for a period of three years

  3. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  4. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  5. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet; Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development (R and D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Paliperidone Extended-Release in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Spina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paliperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, is a second-generation antipsychotic that has been developed as an extended-release (ER tablet formulation that minimizes peak-trough fluctuations in plasma concentrations, allowing once-daily administration and constant drug delivery. Paliperidone ER has demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of acute schizophrenia symptoms in 6-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials and clinical benefits were maintained in the longer-term according to extension studies of up to 52 weeks in duration. Compared with quetiapine, paliperidone ER was associated with a more rapid symptom improvement. In addition, it was more effective than placebo in the prevention of symptom recurrence. Paliperidone ER is generally well tolerated with a predictable adverse event profile. Like risperidone, it is associated with a dose-dependent risk of extrapyramidal symptoms and prolactin elevation. Short-and longer-term studies have indicated a low liability for paliperidone ER to cause metabolic (ie, weight gain, hyperglycaemia and lipid dysregulation or cardiovascular adverse effects. Available safety data from elderly patients appear to be promising. Due to negligible hepatic biotransformation, paliperidone ER is unlikely to be involved in clinically significant metabolic drug-drug interactions. Additional active comparator trials evaluating efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness are required to better define the role of paliperidone ER in the treatment of schizophrenia in relation to other currently available second-generation antipsychotics, particularly risperidone.

  7. Ensuring microbiological safety and extending the shelf life of shelled sweet corn kernels using hurdle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra

    2015-01-01

    Shelled sweet corn kernels are prone to microbial contaminations due to high moisture and nutrient contents. Post harvest handling further aggravates the condition and makes the product highly perishable and unsafe. In freshly shelled kernels total aerobic plate count, yeast mold count and presumptive coliforms were found to be ∼ 8, 7, and 4 log cfu/g, respectively. IMViC analysis confirmed presence of opportunistic pathogens like Escherichia coli and Enterobacteraerogenes in these samples. Besides, occurrence of mycotoxin such as ochratoxin A (OTA), classified as a possible carcinogenic compound, was found to be high in sweet corn samples spiked with toxigenic strain. To address this issue, a combination process including NaOCl washing (200 ppm for 5 min), hot water blanching (60℃ for 5 min), air drying, LDPE packaging, and finally gamma radiation (5 kGy) treatment was developed. The developed combination process was found to reduce microbial load to below detectable level and quite effectively inactivated Aspergillusochraceus spores as well as pre-formed toxin. These treatments were not found to affect the contents of biochemical constituents such as total and reducing sugars, proteins, phenolics, and flavonoids during storage. Prophylactic properties in terms of antioxidant capacity and potential to suppress chemical induced mutagenesis were not affected in these samples. Physical properties and sensory qualities were also found to be similar to fresh (control). Thus, the developed combination process ensured microbiological safety and extended shelf life of sweet corn kernels up to 30 days at 4℃ . (author)

  8. Use Of Irradiation To Extend The Shelf Life Of Meat Luncheon And Ensure Its Microbiological Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A. A. I.; Zahran, D.; Attalla, S.

    2004-01-01

    The microbiological quality of meat luncheon sold in retail market at Cairo was evaluated E. coli was found in all tested samples (25 samples), Staphylococcus aureus was found in 23 (92%) samples, Salmonella was detected in only 2 (8%) samples, Aeromonas hydrophila was detected in only 1 (4%) samples. Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in any sample. According to the Egyptian standards, meat luncheon should be free from the above pathogens. Thus, only 2 (8%) samples of examined meat luncheon were accepted from the view point of microbiological quality. Irradiation at different dose levels used (1.5, 3.0, 5.0 kGy) greatly reduced all microbial counts, hence extended the shelf-life of meat luncheon at 4 deg. C ± 1 to 2, 3 and 4 weeks, respectively, against only 1 week of the unirradiated samples. Only meat luncheon samples irradiated at 5.0 kGy were free from all tested pathogens indicating that this irradiation dose was very effective in insuring microbial safety of meat luncheon. (Authors)

  9. Development of a Seismic Setpoint Calculation Methodology Using a Safety System Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Baik, Kwang Il; Lee, Sang Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The Automatic Seismic Trip System (ASTS) automatically actuates reactor trip when it detects seismic activities whose magnitudes are comparable to a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE), which is the maximum hypothetical earthquake at the nuclear power plant site. To ensure that the reactor is tripped before the magnitude of earthquake exceeds the SSE, it is crucial to reasonably determine the seismic setpoint. The trip setpoint and allowable value for the ASTS for Advanced Power Reactor (APR) 1400 Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) were determined by the methodology presented in this paper. The ASTS that trips the reactor when a large earthquake occurs is categorized as a non safety system because the system is not required by design basis event criteria. This means ASTS has neither specific analytical limit nor dedicated setpoint calculation methodology. Therefore, we developed the ASTS setpoint calculation methodology by conservatively considering that of PPS. By incorporating the developed methodology into the ASTS for APR1400, the more conservative trip setpoint and allowable value were determined. In addition, the ZPA from the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) FRS of the floor where the sensor module is located is 0.1g. Thus, the allowance of 0.17g between OBE of 0.1 g and ASTS trip setpoint of 0.27 g is sufficient to prevent the reactor trip before the magnitude of the earthquake exceeds the OBE. In result, the developed ASTS setpoint calculation methodology is evaluated as reasonable in both aspects of the safety and performance of the NPPs. This will be used to determine the ASTS trip setpoint and allowable for newly constructed plants

  10. Development of a methodology for the safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.; Cancio, D.; Alonso, L.F.; Agueero, A.; Lopez de la Higuera, J.; Gil, E.; Garcia, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Project on the Environmental Radiological Impact in CIEMAT is developing, for the Spanish regulatory body Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), a methodology for the Safety Assessment of near surface disposal facilities. This method has been developed incorporating some elements developed through the participation in the IAEA's ISAM Programme (Improving Long Term Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities). The first step of the approach is the consideration of the assessment context, including the purpose of the assessment, the end-Points, philosophy, disposal system, source term and temporal scales as well as the hypothesis about the critical group. Once the context has been established, and considering the peculiarities of the system, an specific list of features, events and processes (FEPs) is produced. These will be incorporated into the assessment scenarios. The set of scenarios will be represented in the conceptual and mathematical models. By the use of mathematical codes, calculations are performed to obtain results (i.e. in terms of doses) to be analysed and compared against the criteria. The methodology is being tested by the application to an hypothetical engineered disposal system based on an exercise within the ISAM Programme, and will finally be applied to the Spanish case. (author)

  11. Accidental safety analysis methodology development in decommission of the nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G. H.; Hwang, J. H.; Jae, M. S.; Seong, J. H.; Shin, S. H.; Cheong, S. J.; Pae, J. H.; Ang, G. R.; Lee, J. U. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of a nuclear reactor cost about 20% of construction expense and production of nuclear wastes during decommissioning makes environmental issues. Decommissioning of a nuclear reactor in Korea is in a just beginning stage, lacking clear standards and regulations for decommissioning. This work accident safety analysis in decommissioning of the nuclear facility can be a solid ground for the standards and regulations. For source term analysis for Kori-1 reactor vessel, MCNP/ORIGEN calculation methodology was applied. The activity of each important nuclide in the vessel was estimated at a time after 2008, the year Kori-1 plant is supposed to be decommissioned. And a methodology for risk analysis assessment in decommissioning was developed.

  12. Eliciting and communicating expert judgments: Methodology and application to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D. von

    1989-01-01

    The most ambitious and certainly the most extensive formal expert judgment process was the elicitation of numerous events and uncertain quantities for safety issues in five nuclear power plants in the U.S. The general methodology for formal expert elicitations are described. An overview of the expert elicitation process of NUREG 1150 is provided and the elicitation of probabilities for the interfacing systems loss of coolant accident LOCA (ISL) in PWRs is given as an example of this elicitation process. Some lessons learned from this study are presented. (DG)

  13. Methodological proposal for occupational health and safety actions in research laboratories with nanotechnologies activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luís Renato Balbão; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies is a multidisciplinary set of techniques to manipulate matter on nanoscale level, more precisely particles below 100 nm whose characteristic due to small size is essentially different from those found in macro form materials. Regarding to these new properties of the materials there are knowledge gaps about the effects of these particles on human organism and the environment. Although it still being considered emerging technology it is growing increasingly fast as well as the number of products using nanotechnologies in some production level and so the number of researchers involved with the subject. Given this scenario and based on literature related, a comprehensive methodology for health and safety at work for researching laboratories with activities in nanotechnologies was developed, based on ILO structure guidelines for safety and health at work system on which a number of nanospecific recommendations were added to. The work intends to offer food for thought on controlling risks associated to nanotechnologies.

  14. MODELS AND METHODS OF SAFETY-ORIENTED PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS: METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Богданович ЗАЧКО

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods and models of safety-oriented project management of the development of complex systems are proposed resulting from the convergence of existing approaches in project management in contrast to the mechanism of value-oriented management. A cognitive model of safety oriented project management of the development of complex systems is developed, which provides a synergistic effect that is to move the system from the original (pre condition in an optimal one from the viewpoint of life safety - post-project state. The approach of assessment the project complexity is proposed, which consists in taking into account the seasonal component of a time characteristic of life cycles of complex organizational and technical systems with occupancy. This enabled to take into account the seasonal component in simulation models of life cycle of the product operation in complex organizational and technical system, modeling the critical points of operation of systems with occupancy, which forms a new methodology for safety-oriented management of projects, programs and portfolios of projects with the formalization of the elements of complexity.

  15. RADON-type disposal facility safety case for the co-ordinated research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guskov, A.; Batanjieva, B.; Kozak, M.W.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-01-01

    The ISAM safety assessment methodology was applied to RADON-type facilities. The assessments conducted through the ISAM project were among the first conducted for these kinds of facilities. These assessments are anticipated to lead to significantly improved levels of safety in countries with such facilities. Experience gained though this RADON-type Safety Case was already used in Russia while developing national regulatory documents. (author)

  16. A feasibility study on the extended cycle from the point of view of Non-LOCA safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Sin; Kim, Hee Chul; Kim, Jeong Jin; Baek, Seung Su; Lee, Byung Il; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Lee, Jeong Chan

    1996-06-01

    Extended cycle operation has many advantages as compared with standard cycle operation (12 months) from the viewpoint of operators' exposure to radiation dose, man-power for maintenance and the production of nuclear waste. And it is more economic than the standard cycle operation. If the extended cycle operation is adopted in the CE type nuclear plant, the effective management and enhancement of operation capability could be expected. A feasibility study on the extended cycle operation should be performed. The purpose of this technical report is to perform safety analysis using the design data for Yonggwang Nuclear Plant (YGN) 3 and 4 extended cycle operation and to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the safety related design basis events to verify the satisfaction of the safety criteria. Boron dilution and steam line break accidents were found to be most influenced by the change of physics data due to the adaptation of the extended cycle operation. For boron dilution accident, source range monitor ratio of 3.07 for YGN 3 cycle 2 was decreased to 2.92. The 3D reactivity feedback effect due to the local heatup in the vicinity of stuck CEA was credited in the analysis of steam line break. No return-to-power occurred for the steam line break with offsite power available and return-to-power occurred for the steam line break with loss of offsite power. For the steam line break with loss of offsite power, the safety margin was preserved with respect to fuel performance (DNB and LHGR) despite the return-to-power. 6 tabs., 10 figs., 5 refs. (Author) .new

  17. Assessment of ALWR passive safety system reliability. Phase 1: Methodology development and component failure quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hake, T.M.; Heger, A.S.

    1995-04-01

    Many advanced light water reactor (ALWR) concepts proposed for the next generation of nuclear power plants rely on passive systems to perform safety functions, rather than active systems as in current reactor designs. These passive systems depend to a great extent on physical processes such as natural circulation for their driving force, and not on active components, such as pumps. An NRC-sponsored study was begun at Sandia National Laboratories to develop and implement a methodology for evaluating ALWR passive system reliability in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This report documents the first of three phases of this study, including methodology development, system-level qualitative analysis, and sequence-level component failure quantification. The methodology developed addresses both the component (e.g. valve) failure aspect of passive system failure, and uncertainties in system success criteria arising from uncertainties in the system's underlying physical processes. Traditional PRA methods, such as fault and event tree modeling, are applied to the component failure aspect. Thermal-hydraulic calculations are incorporated into a formal expert judgment process to address uncertainties in selected natural processes and success criteria. The first phase of the program has emphasized the component failure element of passive system reliability, rather than the natural process uncertainties. Although cursory evaluation of the natural processes has been performed as part of Phase 1, detailed assessment of these processes will take place during Phases 2 and 3 of the program

  18. Extending Occupational Health and Safety to Urban Street Vendors: Reflections From a Project in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfers, Laura; Xulu, Phumzile; Dobson, Richard; Hariparsad, Sujatha

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on an action-research project which is attempting to extend occupational health and safety to a group of street traders in Durban, South Africa, using a variety of different (and sometimes unconventional) institutional actors. The article is written from the perspective of key people who have played a role in conceptualizing and administering the project and is intended to deepen the conversation about what it means to extend occupational health to the informal economy. It explores this question through a reflection on three key project activities: the setting up of a trader-led health and safety committee, an occupational health and safety training course, and a clinical health assessment. It concludes with a discussion of the issues that emerge from the reflections of project participants, which include the need to bring occupational health and urban health into closer conversation with one another, the need to be cognizant of local "informal" politics and the impact that has on occupational health and safety interventions, and the need to create greater opportunities for occupational health and safety professionals to interact with workers in the informal economy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Legal basis for risk analysis methodology while ensuring food safety in the Eurasian Economic union and the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Fedorenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health risk analysis methodology is an internationally recognized tool for ensuring food safety. Three main elements of risk analysis are risk assessment, risk management and risk communication to inform the interested parties on the risk, are legislated and implemented in the Eurasian Economic Union and the Republic of Belarus. There is a corresponding organizational and functional framework for the application of risk analysis methodology as in the justification of production safety indicators and the implementation of public health surveillance. Common methodological approaches and criteria for evaluating public health risk are determined, which are used in the development and application of food safety requirements. Risk assessment can be used in justifying the indicators of safety (contaminants, food additives, and evaluating the effectiveness of programs on enrichment of food with micronutrients.

  20. Methodology of safety evaluation about land disposal of low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    1986-01-01

    Accompanying the progress of the construction project of low level radioactive waste storage facilities in Aomori Prefecture, the full scale land disposal of low level radioactive wastes shows its symptom also in Japan. In this report, the scientific methodology to explain the safety about the land disposal of low level radioactive wastes is discussed. The land disposal of general wastes by shallow burying has already had sufficient results. In the case of low level radioactive wastes, also the land disposal by shallow burying is considered. Low level radioactive wastes can be regarded as one form of industrial wastes, as there are many common parts in the scientific and theoretical base of the safety. Attention is paid most to the contamination of ground water. Low level radioactive wastes are solid wastes, accordingly the degree of contamination should be less. The space in which ground water existes, the phenomena of ground water movement, the phenomena of ground water dispersion and Fick's law, the adsorption effect of strata, and the evaluation of source term are explained. These are the method to analyze the degree of contamination from safety evaluation viewpoint. (Kako, I.)

  1. A study on a reliability assessment methodology for the VHTR safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Sok

    2012-02-01

    The passive safety system of a 300MWt VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor)which has attracted worldwide attention recently is actively considered for designing the improvement in the safety of the next generation nuclear power plant. The passive system functionality does not rely on an external source of the electrical support system,but on an intelligent use of the natural phenomena, such as convection, conduction, radiation, and gravity. It is not easy to evaluate quantitatively the reliability of the passive safety for the risk analysis considering the existing active system failure since the classical reliability assessment method could not be applicable. Therefore a new reliability methodology needs to be developed and applied for evaluating the reliability of the conceptual designed VHTR in this study. The preliminary evaluation and conceptualization are performed using the concept of the load and capacity theory related to the reliability physics model. The method of response surface method (RSM) is also utilized for evaluating the maximum temperature of nuclear fuel in this study. The significant variables and their correlation are considered for utilizing the GAMMA+ code. The proposed method might contribute to designing the new passive system of the VHTR

  2. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia

  3. Evaluation of replacement tritium facility (RTF) compliance with DOE safety goals using probabilistic consequence assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.; Moore, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), is a major center for the processing of nuclear materials for national defense, deep-space exploration, and medical treatment applications in the United States. As an integral part of the DOE's effort to modernize facilities, implement improved handling and processing technology, and reduce operational risk to the general public and onsite workers, transition of tritium processing at SRS from the Consolidated Tritium Facility to the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) began in 1993. To ensure that operation of new DOE facilities such as RTF present minimum involuntary and voluntary risks to the neighboring public and workers, indices of risk have been established to serve as target levels or safety goals of performance for assessing nuclear safety. These goals are discussed from a historical perspective in the initial part of this paper. Secondly, methodologies to quantify risk indices are briefly described. Lastly, accident, abnormal event, and normal operation source terms from RTF are evaluated for consequence assessment purposes relative to the safety targets

  4. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazleha Maskin; Phongsakorn, P.T.; Tonny, A.L.; Fedrick, C.M.B.; Faizal Mohamed; Mohamad Fauzi Saad; Ahmad Razali Ismail; Mohamad Puad Haji Abu

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  5. Development of a methodology for safety classification on a non-reactor nuclear facility illustrated using an specific example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuermann, F.; Lehradt, O.; Traichel, A.

    2015-01-01

    To realize the safety of personnel and environment systems and components of nuclear facilities are classified according to their potential danger into safety classes. Based on this classification different demands on the manufacturing quality result. The objective of this work is to present the standardized method developed by NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services for the categorization into the safety classes restricted to Non-reactor nuclear facilities (NRNF). Exemplary the methodology is used on the complex Russian normative system (four safety classes). For NRNF only the lower two safety classes are relevant. The classification into the lowest safety class 4 is accordingly if the maximum resulting dose following from clean-up actions in case of incidents/accidents remains below 20 mSv and the volume activity restrictions of set in NRB-99/2009 are met. The methodology is illustrated using an example. In short the methodology consists of: - Determination of the working time to remove consequences of incidents, - Calculation of the dose resulting from direct radiation and due to inhalation during these works. The application of this methodology avoids over-conservative approaches. As a result some previously higher classified equipment can be classified into the lower safety class.

  6. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J. Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005–2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. - Highlights:

  7. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lores, Marta, E-mail: marta.lores@usc.es; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J. Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-07

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005–2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. - Highlights:

  8. Methodology for safety optimization of highway cross-sections for horizontal curves with restricted sight distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar E; Sayed, Tarek; Ismail, Karim

    2012-11-01

    Several earlier studies have noted the shortcomings with existing geometric design guides which provide deterministic standards. In these standards the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from the standards. To mitigate these shortcomings, probabilistic geometric design has been advocated where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a mechanism for risk measurement to evaluate the safety impact of deviations from design standards. This paper applies reliability analysis for optimizing the safety of highway cross-sections. The paper presents an original methodology to select a suitable combination of cross-section elements with restricted sight distance to result in reduced collisions and consistent risk levels. The purpose of this optimization method is to provide designers with a proactive approach to the design of cross-section elements in order to (i) minimize the risk associated with restricted sight distance, (ii) balance the risk across the two carriageways of the highway, and (iii) reduce the expected collision frequency. A case study involving nine cross-sections that are parts of two major highway developments in British Columbia, Canada, was presented. The results showed that an additional reduction in collisions can be realized by incorporating the reliability component, P(nc) (denoting the probability of non-compliance), in the optimization process. The proposed approach results in reduced and consistent risk levels for both travel directions in addition to further collision reductions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Budhi; Egan, Michael; Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Chapman, Neil; Wilmot, Roger

    2008-03-01

    recognising that a long-term safety case needs to provide a broad, integrated view of the various issues that will support the further refinement and development of confidence in post-closure safety performance for the repository (IAEA, 2006; NEA, 2004). Although the focus of the evaluation presented here was on the methodology for safety assessment, it is evident from the review team's terms of reference (not least the reference to SKB's 'strategy for safety demonstration') that SKI's and SSI's interests extend beyond the structure and composition of the assessment itself. By itself, safety assessment is but one thread of the wider strategy for building confidence in implementation of KBS-3 for deep disposal, which also includes ongoing R and D, engineering demonstration, monitoring and inspection, management systems, etc. It is the linkage between such issues and the safety assessment in relation to building an integrated safety case that is perhaps one of the weaker aspects of SR-Can. This underlines the importance of framing the assessment itself, its inputs and outputs, within the wider context of what will be required to support the licence application. In view of the above, and the fact that SKB has acknowledged that some further development work remains to be done, the SAM review team believes that it remains a challenge for SKB to conduct and present a safety case of suitable quality within the currently proposed timescale for delivery of the SR-Can assessment and the 2009 licence application

  10. Methodology of safety assessment and sensitivity analysis for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic safety assessment methodology has been developed to evaluate long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and to demonstrate a generic feasibility of geologic disposal. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. A computer code system GSRW thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub-modules for calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, the transport of radionuclides in and through the geosphere, the behavior of radionuclides in the biosphere, and radiation exposures of the public. In order to identify the important parameters of the assessment models, an automated procedure for sensitivity analysis based on the Differential Algebra method has been developed to apply to the GSRW. (author)

  11. Extended occupant safety through virtual testing: objectives of the European project VITES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Happee, R.; Baldauf, H.; Puppini, R.; Oakley, C.

    2001-01-01

    Increasingly stringent international passenger safety norms and the need to reduce vehicle body weight for environmental and protection requirements demand efficient and innovative design methods. Computer simulation, or virtual testing, allows an integrated evaluation of these aspects in the early

  12. Probabilistic Analysis of Passive Safety System Reliability in Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Methodologies and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, David; Bucknor, Matthew; Brunett, Acacia; Grelle, Austin

    2015-06-28

    Many advanced small modular reactor designs rely on passive systems to fulfill safety functions during accident sequences. These systems depend heavily on boundary conditions to induce a motive force, meaning the system can fail to operate as intended due to deviations in boundary conditions, rather than as the result of physical failures. Furthermore, passive systems may operate in intermediate or degraded modes. These factors make passive system operation difficult to characterize with a traditional probabilistic framework that only recognizes discrete operating modes and does not allow for the explicit consideration of time-dependent boundary conditions. Argonne National Laboratory has been examining various methodologies for assessing passive system reliability within a probabilistic risk assessment for a station blackout event at an advanced small modular reactor. This paper describes the most promising options: mechanistic techniques, which share qualities with conventional probabilistic methods, and simulation-based techniques, which explicitly account for time-dependent processes. The primary intention of this paper is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of each methodology and highlight the lessons learned while applying the two techniques while providing high-level results. This includes the global benefits and deficiencies of the methods and practical problems encountered during the implementation of each technique.

  13. A Statistical Methodology for Determination of Safety Systems Actuation Setpoints Based on Extreme Value Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Novog

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a novel and robust methodology for determination of nuclear reactor trip setpoints which accounts for uncertainties in input parameters and models, as well as accounting for the variations in operating states that periodically occur. Further it demonstrates that in performing best estimate and uncertainty calculations, it is critical to consider the impact of all fuel channels and instrumentation in the integration of these uncertainties in setpoint determination. This methodology is based on the concept of a true trip setpoint, which is the reactor setpoint that would be required in an ideal situation where all key inputs and plant responses were known, such that during the accident sequence a reactor shutdown will occur which just prevents the acceptance criteria from being exceeded. Since this true value cannot be established, the uncertainties in plant simulations and plant measurements as well as operational variations which lead to time changes in the true value of initial conditions must be considered. This paper presents the general concept used to determine the actuation setpoints considering the uncertainties and changes in initial conditions, and allowing for safety systems instrumentation redundancy. The results demonstrate unique statistical behavior with respect to both fuel and instrumentation uncertainties which has not previously been investigated.

  14. UPC Scaling-up methodology for Deterministic Safety Assessment and Support to Plant Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Quiroga, V.; Reventós, F.; Batet, Il.

    2015-07-01

    Best Estimate codes along with necessary nodalizations are widely used tools in nuclear engineering for both Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) and Support to Plant Operation and Control. In this framework, the application of quality assurance procedures in both codes and nodalizations becomes an essential step prior any significant study. Along these lines the present paper introduces the UPC SCUP, a systematic methodology based on the extrapolation of the Integral Test Facilities (ITF) post-test simulations by means of scaling analyses. In that sense, SCUP fulfills a gap in current nodalization qualification procedures, the related with the validation of NPP nodalizations for Design Basis Accidents conditions. Three are the pillars that support SCUP: judicial selection of the experimental transients, full confidence in the quality of the ITF simulations, and simplicity in justifying discrepancies that appear between ITF and NPP counterpart transients. The techniques that are presented include the socalled Kv scaled calculations as well as the use of two new approaches, ”Hybrid nodalizations” and ”Scaled-up nodalizations”. These last two methods have revealed themselves to be very helpful in producing the required qualification and in promoting further improvements in nodalization. The study of both LSTF and PKL counterpart tests have allowed to qualify the methodology by the comparison with experimental data. Post-test simulations at different sizes allowed to define which phenomena could be well reproduced by system codes and which not, in this way also establishing the basis for the extrapolation to an NPP scaled calculation. Furthermore, the application of the UPC SCUP methodology demonstrated that selected phenomena can be scaled-up and explained between counterpart simulations by carefully considering the differences in scale and design. (Author)

  15. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-07

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005-2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. Copyright © 2016

  16. Application of a safety assessment methodology to a hypothetical surface disposal at Serpong site, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, E.; Mallants, D.; Volckaert, G.; Marivoet, J.; Neerdael, B.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary and generic safety assessment of a candidate shallow land burial (SLB) repository at Serpong site, Indonesia, has been performed. The step-by-step safety assessment methodology included an analysis of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and mathematical modelling of radionuclide migration in the near field, geosphere and biosphere. On the basis of an extensive FEP catalogue the most relevant scenarios to be considered in the consequence analysis were selected. Both the normal evolution scenario (NES) and the alternative scenarios were identified. On the basis of these scenarios a conceptual model that included all the important physical-chemical processes was built for the near field and geosphere. A two-dimensional numerical model was then used to solve the governing flow and transport equations for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The calculations were performed using a repository-specific value for the total disposed activity in combination with hypothetical values for radionuclide composition based on a typical radionuclide content of low level waste in Belgium. Site-specific data on hydrogeological properties were used for the geosphere calculations. Typical results of the consequence analysis in terms of radionuclide fluxes to the geosphere and radionuclide concentrations in the groundwater are discussed. (author)

  17. Safety evaluation methodology of engineering barriers at repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnic, R.; Bokan Bosiljkov, V.; Giacomelli, M.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of the roles of cement-based barriers in radioactive waste isolation show that models used to estimate their characteristics during the lifetime of the repository must consider the alteration of material properties with time due to degradation processes. Reinforced concrete barriers at repositories shall be designed in such manner that they fulfil besides isolative capabilities also the required functions of mechanical resistance and stability. Key elements of safety evaluation are mainly the correct selection of materials for mineral composites with cement binder (cements, aggregates, mineral additives and chemical admixtures) and their design, execution of construction works and production of precast concrete containers (continuous casting of concrete - no cold joints, limited number of construction joints, proper placing and consolidation, finishing and curing), strict control of used materials and inspection of works, as well as investigation after the construction (visual inspection, non-destructive testing, monitoring, ageing assessment on test containers). According to the methodology presented in this paper the lifetime of the repository can be estimated and, if shorter than 300 years or shorter than the period resulting from safety analysis, appropriate corrective measures shall be taken. (author)

  18. Safety methodology implementation in the conceptual design phase of a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.; Elbez-Uzan, J.

    2007-01-01

    The licensing of ITER in France represents the first process for licensing a fusion facility in the framework of an experimental device with a total Tritium inventory of 3 kg. The main ITER parameters are far from those expected in the future demonstration reactors where the fusion power will be at least 5 times higher and the additional heating power could also reach up to 5 times the one foreseen in ITER. Main safety requirements for these reactors are based, among other conditions, on their inherent features as low amount of fuel, very low impurity content of structural materials, minimum waste repository, no active systems for safe shut-down, and no need for evacuation of population after the most severe accident. The design of such reactors is at the stage of conceptual studies and is mainly dealing with plasma performances, tritium breeding, blanket/divertor designs and solution of engineering issues, as well as bounding accidents or classification of waste. The methodological approach for integrating safety analysis as a tool for optimizing the design of the overall fusion installation for future reactors in the conceptual design phase is sketched, including the machine itself and the different auxiliary nuclear buildings. (author)

  19. Eliciting and communicating expert judgments: methodology and application to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D. von; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra

    1989-01-01

    Expert judgment has always been used informally in the analysis of complex engineering problems. Increasingly, however, the use of expert judgment has been formalized by eliciting judgments in an explicit, documented and often quantitative way. In nuclear safety studies the need for formal elicitation of expert judgments arises because of the lack of data and experiences, the need to adapt model results to the specific circumstances of a plant, and the large uncertainties surrounding the events and quantities that characterize an accident sequence. The recognition of the need for a formal elicitation of expert judgments has led to one of the most extensive expert elicitation processes to date in the context of the NUREG 1150 study. About 30 safety issues were quantified using expert judgments about probabilities of various uncertain events and quantities, ranging from the failure of a check valve in the cooling system to the pressure built up due to hydrogen production to release fractions of various radionuclides. In total, some 1000 probability distributions were elicited from some 50 experts. This paper first motivates the use of formal expert elicitation in complex engineering studies and describes the methodology of formal expert elicitation. Subsequently, it describes the overall approach of NUREG 1150 and provides an example of the elicitation of the probability of a bypass failure in a pressurized water reactor. The paper ends by discussing some lessons learned, problems encountered and by providing some recommendations

  20. The use of probabilistic safety assessment in the relicensing of nuclear power plants for extended lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This document gives guidance in the major ways PSAs can be used for NPP life extension applications utilizing given PSA criteria. It also covers the specific steps for using presently available PSA models, data and criteria to assist life extension decision making and the research that could be carried out to extend the applicability of PSAs in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. interrogating the relevance of the extended family as a social safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    in supporting the extended family to augment formal social welfare services as these are not always readily available or ... in the number of orphans and subsequently vulnerable children in need of care and this has been closely linked ... The education and health sectors, amongst the worst affected, have seen a decline in.

  2. Live kidney donation: are concerns about long-term safety justified?—A methodological review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janki, Shiromani; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Hofman, Albert; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Live kidney donors are exhaustively screened pre-donation, creating a cohort inherently healthier at baseline than the general population. In recent years, three renowned research groups reported unfavourable outcomes for live kidney donors post-donation that contradicted their previous studies. Here, we compared the study design and analysis of the most recent and previous studies to determine whether the different outcomes were due to methodological design or reflect a real potential disadvantage for living kidney donors. All six studies on long-term risk after live kidney donation were thoroughly screened for the selection of study population, controls, data quality, and statistical analysis. Our detailed review of the methodology revealed key differences with respect to selection of donors and compared non-donors, data quality, follow-up duration, and statistical analysis. In all studies, the comparison group of non-donors was healthier than the donors due to more extensive exclusion criteria for non-donors. Five of the studies used both restriction and matching to address potential confounding. Different matching strategies and statistical analyses were used in the more recent studies compared to previous studies and follow-up was longer. Recently published papers still face bias. Strong points compared to initial analyses are the extended follow-up time, large sample sizes and better analysis, hence increasing the reliability to estimate potential risks for living kidney donors on the long-term. Future studies should focus on equal selection criteria for donors and non-donors, and in the analysis, follow-up duration, matched sets, and low absolute risks among donors should be accounted for when choosing the statistical technique.

  3. A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

    2006-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR and PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic

  4. How to ensure the safety of extended operations: Practice and experience of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Paks Nuclear Power Plant strategy is to extend the operational lifetime of the plant and renew the operational license for 20 years over the designed and licensed lifetime. In the paper the preconditions of long-term operation are discussed and the basic findings and experience of the license renewal works are also presented. The further plans fo NPP Paks for ensuring safe operation in long-term are discussed. (author)

  5. International symposium on research reactor utilization, safety and management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Symposium, considered as an important meeting of the owners and operators of research reactors as well as scientists concerned with problems of research reactors operation, management and safety covered the following topics: global and regional overview of research reactors, research reactors utilisation, research reactors safety, research reactors management, research reactors engineering. IAEA Research Reactors Database (RRDB) contains data concerning 291 operational research reactors, 247 shutdown reactors, 106 decommissioned reactors, 15 under construction and 15 new reactors planned. There is quite an even distribution of operational research reactors among 58 countries. Although about 66% of operational research reactors described in the RRDB are over 30 years old, the number of research reactors under construction or planned appears to have increased in recent years. According to the RRDB, the major applications of research reactors are in the field of neutron activation analysis, isotope production and neutron scattering work. Great concern was shown for several aspects of research reactors safety, especially since the average age of the operating research reactors is almost 30 years. Ageing problems involve more than the degradation of properties of the materials. Issues such as outdated equipment, lack of spare parts, outdating of the control and documentation systems related to the reactor, as well as budgetary limitations, affect the safety of some reactors. There are serious problems related to the spent fuel condition and the ageing of fuel storage facilities, in particular corrosion and leakage. The outstanding issues of concern are life extension of the spent fuel storage facilities and the future of take-back programmes of foreign research reactor fuels that will not be continued. A number of discussions related to safety requirements were focused on licensing and regulatory issues, especially in the case of older research reactors and those

  6. International symposium on research reactor utilization, safety and management. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The Symposium, considered as an important meeting of the owners and operators of research reactors as well as scientists concerned with problems of research reactors operation, management and safety covered the following topics: global and regional overview of research reactors, research reactors utilisation, research reactors safety, research reactors management, research reactors engineering. IAEA Research Reactors Database (RRDB) contains data concerning 291 operational research reactors, 247 shutdown reactors, 106 decommissioned reactors, 15 under construction and 15 new reactors planned. There is quite an even distribution of operational research reactors among 58 countries. Although about 66% of operational research reactors described in the RRDB are over 30 years old, the number of research reactors under construction or planned appears to have increased in recent years. According to the RRDB, the major applications of research reactors are in the field of neutron activation analysis, isotope production and neutron scattering work. Great concern was shown for several aspects of research reactors safety, especially since the average age of the operating research reactors is almost 30 years. Ageing problems involve more than the degradation of properties of the materials. Issues such as outdated equipment, lack of spare parts, outdating of the control and documentation systems related to the reactor, as well as budgetary limitations, affect the safety of some reactors. There are serious problems related to the spent fuel condition and the ageing of fuel storage facilities, in particular corrosion and leakage. The outstanding issues of concern are life extension of the spent fuel storage facilities and the future of take-back programmes of foreign research reactor fuels that will not be continued. A number of discussions related to safety requirements were focused on licensing and regulatory issues, especially in the case of older research reactors and those

  7. ISAM news. International programme on implementation of safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste (ISAM 1997-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    The scope of the programme will be the scientific and technical aspects related to the long term safety assessment of near disposal facilities. The primary focus of ISAM will be on the methodological aspects of safety assessment with emphasis on the practical application of these methodologies. Furthermore, practical application is necessary for for a thorough understanding of safety assessment methodologies. The programme will address important methodological issues associated with long term safety assessment of near surface disposal systems. At least three important areas will be covered: (1) scenario generation and justification; (2) modelling, data and tools; and (3) analysis of results and confidence building

  8. Effects of extended work shifts on employee fatigue, health, satisfaction, work/family balance, and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    12-hour shifts are quickly spreading in Europe. From our multivariate analysis concerning 25,924 European nurses, including twenty explanatory variables simultaneously, we found that work schedule itself is not a major determinant factor. Nurses aim to choose or accept night shifts or 12-hour shift in order to reduce their work/home conflicts, however, at the expense of the patient's safety, as well as their own health and safety. Therefore, it is important to develop measures, such as extended child care, association of nurses to the elaboration of their rota, 9- or 10-hour shifts in the afternoon, allowing naps during night shifts, and reduction of changing shifts with short notice. Work schedules must be organized in order to allow time for shift handover, social support and team building.

  9. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Video-assisted thoracic surgery for left upper lobectomy for complex lesions: how to extend the indication with optimal safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Nathanaël Frank; Barnett, Stephen Arthur; Rinieri, Philippe; Melki, Jean; Peillon, Christophe; Baste, Jean Marc

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of extending the VATS approach to locally advanced NSCLC has been described with good clinical outcome. These complex resections are still technically challenging and patient safety must remain the highest priority. In this article, we describe our routine VATS approach for left upper lobectomy in proximal, locally advanced lesions. Both surgical and anaesthesiology teams are trained during simulation sessions to respond rapidly in case of urgent thoracotomy. Encircling arterial and venous vessels allow control of inadvertent bleeding during difficult dissection. Also, whenever needed the double vessel control technique is a time saver waiting for conversion to thoracotomy.

  11. Safety and Clinical Efficiency of Using Combined Preparation of Metformin Extended-Release and Glimepiride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions. Administration of a combined anti-diabetic therapy with Duglimax for 24 weeks results in a significant reduction in HbA1c and the achievement of the targets of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with DM type 2. On the background of normalization of carbohydrate metabolism using combination therapy helps moderate decrease in body weight and WC value, to reduce serum LDL. Good tolerability and high degree of safety of Duglimax throughout the observation period were noted.

  12. Safety and efficacy of subretinal visual implants in humans: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Katarina; Bach, Michael; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Braun, Angelika; Bruckmann, Anna; Gekeler, Florian; Greppmaier, Udo; Hörtdörfer, Gernot; Kusnyerik, Akos; Peters, Tobias; Wilhelm, Barbara; Wilke, Robert; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-01-01

    Replacing the function of visual pathway neurons by electronic implants is a novel approach presently explored by various groups in basic research and clinical trials. The novelty raises unexplored methodological aspects of clinical trial design that may require adaptation and validation. We present procedures of efficacy and safety testing for subretinal visual implants in humans, as developed during our pilot trial 2005 to 2009 and multi-centre clinical trial since 2010. Planning such a trial requires appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria. For subretinal electronic visual implants, patients with photoreceptor degeneration are the target patient group, whereas presence of additional diseases affecting clear optic media or the visual pathway must be excluded. Because sham surgery is not possible, a masked study design with implant power ON versus OFF is necessary. Prior to the efficacy testing by psychophysical tests, the implant's technical characteristics have to be controlled via electroretinography (ERG). Moreover the testing methods require adaptation to the particular technology. We recommend standardised tasks first to determine the light perception thresholds, light localisation and movement detection, followed by grating acuity and vision acuity test via Landolt C rings. A laboratory setup for assessing essential activities of daily living is presented. Subjective visual experiences with the implant in a natural environment, as well as questionnaires and psychological counselling are further important aspects. A clinical trial protocol for artificial vision in humans, which leads a patient from blindness to the state of very low vision is a challenge and cannot be defined completely prior to the study. Available tests of visual function may not be sufficiently suited for efficacy testing of artificial vision devices. A protocol based on experience with subretinal visual implants in 22 patients is presented that has been found adequate to monitor

  13. Code coverage measurement methodology for MMI software of safety-class I and C system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hyung; Jung, Beom Young; Choi, Seok Joo [Suresofttech, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    MMI (Man-Machine Interface) software of the safety instrumentation and control system used in nuclear power plants carry out an important functions, such as displaying and transmitting the commend to another system, and change setpoints the safety-related information. Yet, this has been recognized reliability of the MMI software plays an important role in enhancing nuclear power plants are operating, regulatory standards have been strengthened with it. Strengthening of regulatory standards has affected even perform software testing soon, and accordingly, the current regulatory require the measurement of code coverage with legal standard. In this paper, it poses a problem of the conventional method used for measuring the above-mentioned code coverage, presents a new coverage measuring method for solving the exposed problems. In this paper, we checked the problems such as limit and the low efficiency of the existing test coverage measuring method on the MMI software using in nuclear power instrumentation and control systems, and it proposed a new test coverage measuring method as a solution for this. If you apply a new method of Top-Down approach, can mitigate all of the problems of existing test coverage measurement methods and possible coverage achievement of the desired objectives. Of course, it is still necessary to secure more cases, and the methodology should be systematization based on the cases. Thus, if later the efficient and reliable are ensured through the application in many cases, as well as nuclear power instrumentation and control, may be used to ensure code coverage of software of the many areas where the GUI is utilized.

  14. Hydrogen safety risk assessment methodology applied to a fluidized bed membrane reactor for autothermal reforming of natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psara, N.; Van Sint Annaland, M.; Gallucci, F.

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the development and implementation of a safety risk assessment methodology to highlight hazards potentially prevailing during autothermal reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production in a membrane reactor, as well as to reveal potential accidents related to hydrogen

  15. Safety case methodology for decommissioning of research reactors. Assessment of the long term impact of a flooding scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladescu, G.; Banciu, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper contains the assessment methodology of a Safety Case fuel decommissioning of research reactors, taking into account the international approach principles. The paper also includes the assessment of a flooding scenario for a decommissioned research reactor (stage 1 of decommissioning). The scenario presents the flooding of reactor basement, radionuclide migration through environment and long term radiological impact for public. (authors)

  16. Application of the methodology of safety probabilistic analysis to the modelling the emergency feedwater system of Juragua nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, M.; Oliva, G.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the methodology developed in the framework of the national plan of safety probabilistic analysis (APS) to the emergency feed water system for the failures of small LOCAS and external electrical supply loss in the nuclear power plant is illustrated in this work. The facilities created by the ARCON code to model the systems and its documentation are also expounded

  17. Safety of ultrasound-guided transrectal extended prostate biopsy in patients receiving low-dose aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kariotis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether the peri-procedural administration of low-dose aspirin increases the risk of bleeding complications for patients undergoing extended prostate biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2007 to September 2008, 530 men undergoing extended needle biopsies were divided in two groups; those receiving aspirin and those not receiving aspirin. The morbidity of the procedure, with emphasis on hemorrhagic complications, was assessed prospectively using two standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the mean number of biopsy cores (12.9 ± 1.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.2 cores, p = 0.09. No major biopsy-related complications were noted. Statistical analysis did not demonstrate significant differences in the rate of hematuria (64.5% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.46, rectal bleeding (33.6% vs. 25.9%, p = 0.09 or hemospermia (90.1% vs. 86.9%, p = 0.45. The mean duration of hematuria and rectal bleeding was significantly greater in the aspirin group compared to the control group (4.45 ± 2.7 vs. 2.4 ± 2.6, p = < 0.001 and 3.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.7, p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only younger patients (mean age 60.1 ± 5.8 years with a lower body mass index (< 25 kg/m2 receiving aspirin were at a higher risk (odds ratio = 3.46, p = 0.047 for developing hematuria and rectal bleeding after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The continuing use of low-dose aspirin in patients undergoing extended prostatic biopsy is a relatively safe option since it does not increase the morbidity of the procedure.

  18. Methodology and results of the seismic probabilistic safety assessment of Krsko nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermaut, M.K.; Monette, P.; Campbell, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    A seismic IPEEE (Individual Plant Examination for External Events) was performed for the Krsko plant. The methodology adopted is the seismic PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). The Krsko NPP is located on a medium to high seismicity site. The PSA study described here includes all the steps in the PSA sequence, i.e. reassessment of the site hazard, calculation of plant structures response including soil-structure interaction, seismic plant walkdowns, probabilistic seismic fragility analysis of plant structures and components, and quantification of seismic core damage frequency (CDF). Also relay chatter analysis and soil stability studies were performed. The seismic PSA described here is limited to the analysis of CDF (level I PSA). The subsequent determination and quantification of plant damage states, containment behaviour and radioactive releases to the outside (level 2 PSA) have been performed for the Krsko NPP but are not further described in this paper. The results of the seismic PSA study indicate that, with some upgrades suggested by the PSA team, the seismic induced CDF is comparable to that of most US and Western Europe NPPs. (author)

  19. Outcomes from the regional Co-operation in the Area of the Safety Analysis Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.; Mavko, B.; Prosek, A.; Debrecin, N.; Bajs, T.

    2000-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carried out the Co-ordinated Research Program (CRP) ON V alidation of Accident and Safety Analysis Methodology'' in the period between 1995 and 1998. Three areas of interest identified by the participants referred to the pressurised water reactors of Western and Eastern type (PWR and WWER type). The specific areas of attention were: system behaviour of the primary and secondary loops (PS area), the containment response (CO area) and the severe accidents (SA area). During the CRP it became clear that the technology advancements, the available tools (i.e. codes) and the experimental databases in the above areas are quite different. At the conclusion of the CRP, all objectives of the program have been reached. This paper presents the summary of the regional co-operation in this framework. The CRP activities focused on the codes and expertise available at the participating organisations. This overview therefore summarises their experience related to the state-of-the-art in the field of computational accident analysis. In addition, the paper proposes the recommendations for future activities related to the code usage, the user effects and code development. In pursuing of these goals special attention is given to the importance of the international co-operation. (author)

  20. Methodology of fuel cycles long-term safety assessment of SNF/HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritrsky, J.

    2008-02-01

    Methodology for the long-term safety assessment of nuclear fuel cycles is given in the presented doctoral thesis. The aim of work was to develop a geological repository model for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) using an appropriate software code able to calculate the influence of partitioning and transmutation in advanced fuel cycles. The first step in this process was specifying of indicators which can be used to quantify the radiological impact of each fuel cycle. Indicators such as annual effective dose and radiotoxicity of inventory have been quantitatively analysed to determine the potential risk and radiological consequences associated with production of SNF/HLW. Advanced fuel types bring a number of advantages in comparison to uranium oxide fuel UO 2 used worldwide nowadays in terms of safety improvement due to minor actinides transmutation and non-proliferation aspects as well. Within the scope of work, three different fuel cycles are compared from the point of view of long-term safety of deep geological repository. The first considered fuel cycle is the currently used open fuel cycle (UOX) which uses only U-FA (Uranium Fuel Assembly). The second assessed cycle is a closed fuel cycle (MOX) with MOX-FA (Mixed OXides Fuel Assembly) and the third considered one is a partially closed fuel cycle (IMF) with IMC-FA (Inert Matrix Combined Fuel Assembly). Description and input data of advanced fuel cycles have been gained by participation in the EC project RED-IMPACT. Results were calculated using code AMBER, which is a flexible software tool that allows building dynamic compartmental models to represent the migration and fate of contaminants in a system, for example in the surface and sub-surface environment. Contaminants in solid, liquid and gaseous phases can be considered. AMBER gives the user the flexibility to define any number of compartments; any number of contaminants and associated decays; deterministic, probabilistic and

  1. Methodology of fuel cycles long-term safety assessment of SNF/HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritrsky, J.

    2008-01-01

    Methodology for the long-term safety assessment of nuclear fuel cycles is given in the presented doctoral thesis. The aim of work was to develop a geological repository model for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) using an appropriate software code able to calculate the influence of partitioning and transmutation in advanced fuel cycles. The first step in this process was specifying of indicators which can be used to quantify the radiological impact of each fuel cycle. Indicators such as annual effective dose and radiotoxicity of inventory have been quantitatively analysed to determine the potential risk and radiological consequences associated with production of SNF/HLW. Advanced fuel types bring a number of advantages in comparison to uranium oxide fuel UO 2 used worldwide nowadays in terms of safety improvement due to minor actinides transmutation and non-proliferation aspects as well. Within the scope of work, three different fuel cycles are compared from the point of view of long-term safety of deep geological repository. The first considered fuel cycle is the currently used open fuel cycle (UOX) which uses only U-FA (Uranium Fuel Assembly). The second assessed cycle is a closed fuel cycle (MOX) with MOX-FA (Mixed OXides Fuel Assembly) and the third considered one is a partially closed fuel cycle (IMF) with IMC-FA (Inert Matrix Combined Fuel Assembly). Description and input data of advanced fuel cycles have been gained by participation in the EC project RED-IMPACT. Results were calculated using code AMBER, which is a flexible software tool that allows building dynamic compartmental models to represent the migration and fate of contaminants in a system, for example in the surface and sub-surface environment. Contaminants in solid, liquid and gaseous phases can be considered. AMBER gives the user the flexibility to define any number of compartments; any number of contaminants and associated decays; deterministic, probabilistic and

  2. Development of safety analysis methodology for moderator system failure of CANDU-6 reactor by thermal-hydraulics/physics coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Jin, Dong Sik; Chang, Soon Heung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed new safety analysis methodology of moderator system failures for CANDU-6. • The new methodology used the TH-physics coupling concept. • Thermalhydraulic code is CATHENA, physics code is RFSP-IST. • Moderator system failure ends to the subcriticality through self-shutdown. -- Abstract: The new safety analysis methodology for the CANDU-6 nuclear power plant (NPP) moderator system failure has been developed by using the coupling technology with the thermalhydraulic code, CATHENA and reactor core physics code, RFSP-IST. This sophisticated methodology can replace the legacy methodology using the MODSTBOIL and SMOKIN-G2 in the field of the thermalhydraulics and reactor physics, respectively. The CATHENA thermalhydraulic model of the moderator system can simulate the thermalhydraulic behaviors of all the moderator systems such as the calandria tank, head tank, moderator circulating circuit and cover gas circulating circuit and can also predict the thermalhydraulic property of the moderator such as moderator density, temperature and water level in the calandria tank as the moderator system failures go on. And these calculated moderator thermalhydraulic properties are provided to the 3-dimensional neutron kinetics solution module – CERBRRS of RFSP-IST as inputs, which can predict the change of the reactor power and provide the calculated reactor power to the CATHENA. These coupling calculations are performed at every 2 s time steps, which are equivalent to the slow control of CANDU-6 reactor regulating systems (RRS). The safety analysis results using this coupling methodology reveal that the reactor operation enters into the self-shutdown mode without any engineering safety system and/or human interventions for the postulated moderator system failures of the loss of heat sink and moderator inventory, respectively

  3. Feasibility and safety of extended adjuvant temozolomide beyond six cycles for patients with glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S Yp; Chan, D Tm; Kam, M Km; Loong, H Hf; Tsang, W K; Poon, D Mc; Ng, S Cp; Poon, W S

    2017-12-01

    Temozolomide is the first chemotherapeutic agent proven effective for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The drug is well tolerated for its low toxicity. The current standard practice is concomitant chemoradiotherapy for 6 weeks followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. Some Caucasian studies have suggested that patients might benefit from extended adjuvant cycles of temozolomide (>6 cycles) to lengthen both progression-free survival and overall survival. In the present study, we compared differences in survival and toxicity profile between patients who received conventional 6-cycle temozolomide and those who received more than 6 cycles of temozolomide. Patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma without progressive disease and completed concomitant chemoradiotherapy during a 4-year period were studied. Progression-free survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. t Test, U test, and correlation were chosen accordingly to examine the impact of age, extent of resection, MGMT promoter methylation status and adjuvant cycles on progression-free survival. For factors with a P value of cycles of temozolomide (n=7) and 43.4 months for those who received more than 6 cycles (n=7) [P=0.007, log-rank test]. Two patients in the former group and one in the latter group encountered grade 1 toxicity and recovered following dose adjustment. Cycles of adjuvant temozolomide were correlated with progression-free survival (P=0.016, hazard ratio=0.68). Extended cycles of temozolomide are safe and feasible for Chinese patients with disease responsive to temozolomide.

  4. After the Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Extending the Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) Framework to Safety Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanton, O.; Mangeon, M.; Jeffroy, F.

    2016-01-01

    The accident of Fukushima-Daichi is regarded as a product of multiple failures of the nuclear risks regulation system in Japan and more particularly as a failure of the regulatory system (authorities, regulator and operator) to take into account seismic risks and flood risks caused by tsunamis. This statement conducted the French institute for radiological protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) to develop a research program dedicated to the study of the way the French nuclear regulatory system developed and addresses flood risks. A regulatory system rests upon a number of institutional and organizational devices and upon normative tools, such as technical standards or guidelines. The aim of these normative tools is to guide NPP operators during both stages of risks identification and characterisation and of the design of protections against risks. These instruments have profound and multiple effects on the stakeholders involved. They affect the design of nuclear facilities, significantly influence the safety demonstration of a plant, but also the manner in which the actions implemented by the operator are evaluated and their reality controlled by the regulator.

  5. Extended biosphere dataset for safety assessment of radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    JAEA has an on-going programme of research and development relating to the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal systems of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and transuranic waste (TRU). In the safety assessment of HLW and TRU disposal systems, biosphere assessment is necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate radiation dose, consideration needs to be given to the biosphere into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and to the associated future human behaviour. The data of some biosphere parameters needed to be updated by appropriate data sources for generic and site-specific biosphere assessment to improve reliability for the biosphere assessment, because some data published in the 1980's or the early 90's were found to be inappropriate for the recent biosphere assessment. Therefore, data of the significant parameters (especially for element-dependent) were set up on the basis of recent information, to update the generic biosphere dataset. (author)

  6. Safety Assessment for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities - From Methodology to the Use of Results in Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Ferch, R.; Joubert, A.; Kaulard, J.; Manson, P.; Percival, K.; Thierfeldt, St.

    2008-01-01

    The safety assessment of operational facilities in the nuclear industry is well understood and methodologies have been developed and refined over several decades. Similarly safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities have been harmonized internationally during the last few years. There is however relatively less widespread and documented experience of safety assessment for decommissioning among Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and consequently there is less commonalty of approaches internationally. The importance of safety during decommissioning was further emphasized at the first review meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and the Berlin Conference 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities' (14-18 October 2002). As a consequence during its June 2004 meeting the IAEA Board of Governors approved an Action Plan on Decommissioning of nuclear Facilities that requested the Secretariat to 'establish a forum for the sharing and exchange of national information and experience on the application of safety assessment in the context of decommissioning and provide a means to convey this information to other interested parties, also drawing on the work of other international organizations in this area'. In response the IAEA launched the International Project Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (DeSa) in November 2004 with the following objectives: - To develop a harmonized approach to safety assessment and define the elements of safety assessment for decommissioning; - To investigate the practical applicability of the methodology and performance of safety assessments for the decommissioning of various types of facilities through a selected number of test cases; - To investigate approaches for review of safety assessments for decommissioning activities and the development of a regulatory

  7. Safety and Efficacy of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator and DNase during Extended Use in Complicated Pleural Space Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. McClune

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase improves outcomes in patients with complicated pleural space infections. However, little data exists for the use of combination intrapleural therapy after the initial dosing period of six doses. We sought to describe the safety profile and outcomes of intrapleural therapy beyond this standard dosing. A retrospective review of patients receiving intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase was performed at two institutions. We identified 101 patients from January 2013 to August 2015 receiving intrapleural therapy for complicated pleural space infection. The extended use of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and DNase therapy beyond six doses was utilized in 20% (20/101 of patients. The mean number of doses in those undergoing extended dosing was 9.8 (range of 7–16. Within the population studied there appears to be no statistically significant increased risk of complications, need for surgical referral, or outcome differences when comparing those receiving standard or extended dosing intrapleural therapy. Future prospective study of intrapleural therapy as an alternative option for patients who fail initial pleural drainage and are unable to tolerate/accept a surgical intervention appears a potential area of study.

  8. Extended Preclinical Safety, Efficacy and Stability Testing of a Live-attenuated Chikungunya Vaccine Candidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S Plante

    Full Text Available We recently described a new, live-attenuated vaccine candidate for chikungunya (CHIK fever, CHIKV/IRES. This vaccine was shown to be well attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious in protecting against CHIK virus (CHIKV challenge of mice and nonhuman primates. To further evaluate its preclinical safety, we compared CHIKV/IRES distribution and viral loads in interferon-α/β receptor-incompetent A129 mice to another CHIK vaccine candidate, 181/clone25, which proved highly immunogenic but mildly reactive in human Phase I/II clinical trials. Compared to wild-type CHIK virus, (wt-CHIKV, both vaccines generated lower viral loads in a wide variety of tissues and organs, including the brain and leg muscle, but CHIKV/IRES exhibited marked restrictions in dissemination and viral loads compared to 181/clone25, and was never found outside the blood, spleen and muscle. Unlike wt-CHIKV, which caused disrupted splenic architecture and hepatic lesions, histopathological lesions were not observed in animals infected with either vaccine strain. To examine the stability of attenuation, both vaccines were passaged 5 times intracranially in infant A129 mice, then assessed for changes in virulence by comparing parental and passaged viruses for footpad swelling, weight stability and survival after subcutaneous infection. Whereas strain 181/clone25 p5 underwent a significant increase in virulence as measured by weight loss (from 30% and mortality (from 0 to 100%, CHIKV/IRES underwent no detectible change in any measure of virulence (no significant weight loss and no mortality. These data indicate greater nonclinical safety of the CHIKV/IRES vaccine candidate compared to 181/clone25, further supporting its eligibility for human testing.

  9. Biogas production and distribution. Operators' health and safety. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardeur-Algros, E.; Chesnot, T.; Charissou, A.M.; Paris, T.; Bronner, C.

    2013-06-01

    Production and recovery of biogas from different substrates of agricultural, urban and industrial issues are at the heart of sustainable development for the production of renewable energy, reducing greenhouse gases and waste treatment. In 2011, in France, about 200 biogas plants were operational. Moreover, about 300 ISDND (nonhazardous waste storage or landfill sites) also produce biogas, about 90 that of them valorize it. Because of regulatory contexts and favorable measures to bolster the economy, the number of sites is growing and anaerobic pathways are diversifying in terms of substrate / treated waste, anaerobic digestion processes and ways of valorization. So it seems appropriate to focus on the health and safety of workers potentially exposed to various hazards during operations of monitoring, maintenance or malfunction of facilities. First, through a literature search and a query of experts, data such as substrate, digestate and biogas composition, information feedback on reported incidents / accidents or accidents at work and illnesses of operators have been sought. Then, critical points concerning the health and safety of operators in these sectors were identified by implementing some steps of HACCP (Hazard Analysis - Critical Control Points). Five sectors (agricultural methanization in farms and in centralized plants - methanization of urban sewage sludge - methanization of household garbage - industrial methanization in sectors like food industry, stationery and chemistry - biogas production from landfill sites) have been studied and led to dedicated syntheses. They summarize the collected information and present an operating diagram indicating the different stages of biogas production and recovery. On this diagram, critical points are identified, assessed according to their importance and are associated with phases of maintenance operation, or malfunction. The results are intended to educate the actors to potential risks and attention they need to

  10. Safety Culture Assessment at Regulatory Body - PNRA Experience of Implementing IAEA Methodology for Safety Culture Self Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, S.A.N.; Arshad, N.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of a good safety culture is equally important for all kind of organizations involved in nuclear business including operating organizations, designers, regulator, etc., and this should be reflected through all the processes and activities of these organizations. The need for inculcating safety culture into regulatory processes and practices is gradually increasing since the major accident at Fukushima. Accordingly, several international fora in last few years repeatedly highlighted the importance of prevalence of safety culture in regulatory bodies as well. The utilisation of concept of safety culture always remained applicable in regulatory activities of PNRA in the form of core values. After the Fukushima accident, PNRA considered it important to check the extent of utilisation of safety culture concept in organizational activities and decided to conduct its “Safety Culture Self-Assessment (SCSA)” for presenting itself as a role model in-order to endorse the fact that safety culture at regulatory authority plays an important role to influence safety culture at licenced facilities.

  11. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment to high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. Application of reference biosphere methodology to safety assesment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yuji; Naito, Morimasa

    2000-01-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, saline specific reference biospheres' were developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. (author)

  12. Methodology applied in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository under safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbera, L.; Peralta, J.L.; Franklin, R.; Gil, R.; Chales, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The work presents the methodology used in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository safely. This methodology covers both the technical and socio-economic factors, as well as those of design and construction so as to have a safe siting for this kind of repository under Cuba especial condition. Applying this methodology will results in a safe repository

  13. Guidance on the safety assessment methodology for storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyanjui, M.N.

    2014-04-01

    This project on safety assessment on storage was carried out with the main objective of ensuring safety of human life and our environment. This is the fundamental principle of radiation protection. Safety assessment has been evaluated as a tool in the safety case in the pre-construction, operational and the post closure phase of storage. In particular the iterative process of evaluating and predicting safety scenarios at each stage of the process has proved to be prudent. It is important that this concept be adopted for this type of facility to ensure safety of mankind and the environment now and in the future.

  14. Safety of interim storage solutions of used nuclear fuel during extended term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, C.; Bader, S.; Issard, H.; Arslan, M. [AREVA, 7135 Minstrel Way, Suite 300 Columbia, MD 21045 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In 2013, the total amount of stored used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the world will reach 225,000 T HM. The UNF inventory in wet storage will take up over 80% of the available total spent fuel pool (SFP) capacity. Interim storage solutions are needed. They give flexibility to the nuclear operators and ensure that nuclear reactors continue to operate. However, we need to keep in mind that they are also an easy way to differ final decision and implementation of a UNF management approach (recycling or final disposal). In term of public perception, they can have a negative impact overtime as it may appear that nuclear industry may have significant issues to resolve. In countries lacking an integrated UNF management approach, the UNF are being discharged from the SFPs to interim storage (mostly to dry storage) at the same rate as UNF is being discharged from reactors, as the SFPs at the reactor sites are becoming full. This is now the case in USA, Taiwan, Switzerland, Spain, South Africa and Germany. For interim storage, AREVA has developed different solutions in order to allow the continued operation of reactors while meeting the current requirements of Safety Authorities: -) Dry storage canisters on pads, -) Dual-purpose casks (dry storage and transportation), -) Vault dry storage, and -) Centralized pool storage.

  15. Should Psychosocial Safety Climate Theory Be Extended to Include Climate Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharian, Ali; Zadow, Amy; Dollard, Maureen F; Dormann, Christian; Ziaian, Tahereh

    2017-08-31

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC; climate for psychological health) is an organizational antecedent to work conditions articulated in the job demands-resources model. We responded to calls for broader consideration of organizational climate in terms of both climate level and strength. We tested PSC level and strength as main and interactive predictors of work conditions, psychological health, and engagement. Using multilevel analysis and cross-sectional data, the effects of unit-level PSC constructs were investigated in 21 hospital work units (n = 249 employees) in Australia. The correlation between PSC levels (measured at the unit mean) and PSC strength (measured as unit -1 × SD) was moderate and positive, suggesting that ceiling effects of PSC scores were not problematic. PSC level was a better predictor than PSC strength or their interactions for job demands (psychological and emotional demands), job resources (e.g., skill discretion and organizational support), and health (emotional exhaustion). For engagement, the interaction was significant-improving engagement, therefore, benefits from high levels of PSC and PSC strength within the work units. So, in answer to the research question regarding PSC theory extension, "it depends on the outcome." Research limitations are acknowledged, and the potential of the PSC model to guide the reduction of workplace psychosocial risk factors and the negative consequences is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Methodology for the Assessment of Confidence in Safety Margin for Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagrale, D. B.; Prasad, M.; Rao, R. S.; Gaikwad, A.J., E-mail: avinashg@aerb.gov.in [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai (India)

    2014-10-15

    Deterministic Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) analyses are used concurrently to assess the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety. The conventional deterministic analysis is conservative. The best estimate plus uncertainty analysis is increasingly being used for deterministic calculation in NPPs. The PSA methodology aims to be as realistic as possible while integrating information about accident phenomena, plant design, operating practices, component reliability and human behaviour. The peak clad temperature (PCT) distribution provides an insight into the confidence in safety margin for an initiating event. The paper deals with the concept of calculating the peak clad temperature with 95 percent confidence and 95 percent probability (PCT{sub 95/95}) in small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) and methodologies for assessing safety margin. Five input parameters mainly, nominal power level, decay power, fuel clad gap conductivity, fuel thermal conductivity and discharge coefficient, were selected. A Uniform probability density function was assigned to the uncertain parameters and these uncertainties are propagated using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. The sampled data for 5 parameters were randomly mixed by LHS to obtain 25 input sets. A non-core damage accident sequence was selected from the SBLOCA event tree of a typical VVER study to estimate the PCTs and safety margin. A Kolmogorov– Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was carried out for PCTs. The smallest value of safety margin would indicate the robustness of the system with 95% confidence and 95% probability. Regression analysis was also carried out using 1000 sample size for the estimating PCTs. Mean, variance and finally safety margin were analysed. (author)

  17. Development of methodology for evaluation of long-term safety aspects of organic cement paste components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Holgersson, S.; Ervanne, H.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term safety aspects of superplasticizers (SP) and other cement paste components were studied in this joint Nagra - NUMO - SKB - Posiva project with aim to develop a methodology for the evaluation of the long-term safety aspects of superplasticizers (SP) and other organic components of cement pastes. The study also evaluated the effects of SPs and other cement paste components that have already been used or that are most likely to be used in the construction of the high-level nuclear waste repositories in Sweden, Switzerland, Finland and Japan. The main long-term safety issue of concern is whether the superplasticizers and/or other organic components of cement pastes might affect the transport properties of radionuclides. A full evaluation of whether the superplasticizers can be used in a high-level nuclear waste repository cannot be answered based on the studies but a classification of the superplasticizers based on their impact on sorption of radionuclides has been done. The basic methodology for testing, leaching and analyzing of leachants and solid samples of different types was developed at CRIEPI. Two different methodologies for studying the impact of SPs on the sorption of Eu on crushed rock were tested and developed by Helsinki University (HU) and Chalmers University of Technology (CTH). Methods for analyzing organics leaching from grouts were successfully tested by CRIEPI and CTH (Chalmers University of Technology). At CRIEPI the total organic content (TOC) of the leachants was analyzed by Infrared absorption spectrometry (IR) followed by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) for the identification of the organic compounds. At CTH several different analytical methods were tested (e.g. IR, UV spectroscopy, NMR, MALDI-TOF), but these methods still require improvement. In addition to SPs, organics are present in several components of cement pastes, for example in cement grinding aid (CGA) and micro silica slurry. The results suggests that the main high

  18. Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Metzinger, Kurt Evan; Powers, Dana Auburn; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Robinson, David B; Hewson, John C.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Dodson, Brian W.; Potter, Donald L.; Kelly, John E.; MacLean, Heather J.; Bergeron, Kenneth Donald (Sala & Associates); Bessette, Gregory Carl; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2006-09-01

    thousands of possible event sequences and to build up a statistical representation of the releases for each accident case. A code to carry out this process will have to be developed or adapted from previous MMRTG missions. Finally, Level C translates the release (or ''source term'') information from Level B into public risk by applying models for atmospheric transport and the health consequences of exposure to the released plutonium dioxide. A number of candidate codes for this level of analysis are available. This report surveys the range of available codes and tools for each of these levels and makes recommendations for which choices are best for the MSL mission. It also identities areas where improvements to the codes are needed. In some cases a second tier of codes may be identified to provide supporting or clarifying insight about particular issues. The main focus of the methodology assessment is to identify a suite of computational tools that can produce a high quality SAR that can be successfully reviewed by external bodies (such as the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel) on the schedule established by NASA and DOE.

  19. Safety functions and safety function indicators - key elements in SKB'S methodology for assessing long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The application of so called safety function indicators in SKB safety assessment of a KBS-3 repository for spent nuclear fuel is presented. Isolation and retardation are the two main safety functions of the KBS-3 concept. In order to quantitatively evaluate safety on a sub-system level, these functions need to be differentiated, associated with quantitative measures and, where possible, with quantitative criteria relating to the fulfillment of the safety functions. A safety function is defined as a role through which a repository component contributes to safety. A safety function indicator is a measurable or calculable property of a repository component that allows quantitative evaluation of a safety function. A safety function indicator criterion is a quantitative limit such that if the criterion is fulfilled, the corresponding safety function is upheld. The safety functions and their associated indicators and criteria developed for the KBS-3 repository are primarily related to the isolating potential and to physical states of the canister and the clay buffer surrounding the canister. They are thus not directly related to release rates of radionuclides. The paper also describes how the concepts introduced i) aid in focussing the assessment on critical, safety related issues, ii) provide a framework for the accounting of safety throughout the different time frames of the assessment and iii) provide key information in the selection of scenarios for the safety assessment. (author)

  20. Improving timeliness and efficiency in the referral process for safety net providers: application of the Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckard, Gloria J; Borkowski, Nancy; Diaz, Deisell; Sanchez, Carlos; Boisette, Serge A

    2010-01-01

    Designated primary care clinics largely serve low-income and uninsured patients who present a disproportionate number of chronic illnesses and face great difficulty in obtaining the medical care they need, particularly the access to specialty physicians. With limited capacity for providing specialty care, these primary care clinics generally refer patients to safety net hospitals' specialty ambulatory care clinics. A large public safety net health system successfully improved the effectiveness and efficiency of the specialty clinic referral process through application of Lean Six Sigma, an advanced process-improvement methodology and set of tools driven by statistics and engineering concepts.

  1. Level 1 and 2 PSA methodology taking into account new design, operating and safety factors. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.; Patrik, M.

    2000-11-01

    The status of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is discussed (i) in relation to the expected nature of 'revolutionary' innovations and (ii) in the light of the EUR document, summarizing requirements put by European NPP operators on the future NPP design. The aims included: (1) analysis of limitations to the current PSA methodology; (2) specification of physical and operation processes the knowledge of which is necessary to ensure the safety criteria of advanced reactors; (3) summarisation of existing knowledge and description formats of the processes; (4) identification of theoretical and experimental work required to address the problem, preparation of data and computer codes, ensuring traceability to EU developmental programs. (P.A.)

  2. Green light for the methodology file. Periodical safety review 2016 has begun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Every ten years, the organisational framework and the facilities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN are subject to an encompassing safety evaluation. Together with initiatives arising from the stress tests, a large number of safety studies and actions are scheduled until 2018. The article discusses the ongoing safety review.

  3. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengolini, A.; Debarberis, L.

    2008-01-01

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well

  4. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  5. Organizational and methodological aspects for contemporary health and safety management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugak Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial injuries and work-related disorders considerable lowering we are facing in developed countries may be due to switching to a new health and safety management system entitled “Occupational Safety and Health Management System”. The Russian Federation has prepared certain regulatory documents prescribing some suggestions regarding implementing the contemporary system for industrial injuries prevention based upon the methods for professional risks management. However, despite the efforts made by the Russian Government, reformation of the health and safety management system at various companies is being performed rather slowly that may be as well owing to poor competence of managers and specialists regarding contemporary labor safety model content, methodical and organizational novations in the sphere of occupational safety and health management.. The article refers to a number of principal issues distinguishing the new health and safety management system from conventional approach.

  6. Determination of engineering safety factor -routine in Hungary (a methodology for the normal operation local power engineering safety factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szecsenyi, Z.; Korpas, L.; Bona, G.; Kereszturi, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the late nineties Paks Nuclear Power Plant-in collaboration with KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI)- is developing a system for determining the normal operation local power engineering safety factors. The system is based on a Monte Carlo sampling of the uncertain model input parameters. Additionally, the comparison of the calculation to the in-core measurements plays essential role for determining some important input parameters. By using new fuel types and the corresponding more recent detailed technological data, the applied method is being improved from time to time. Presently, the actually used and authorized engineering safety factors at Paks NPP are determined by using this method. In the paper, the system.s main properties are described (not going beyond the possible extent). The main points are as follows:-Mathematical definition of the engineering safety factor;-Sources of the uncertainties;-Input error propagation method constituting the basis of the system;-Flow-chart of the subsequent steps of the determination Finally, in the paper the engineering safety factors values of some selected parameters are presented as examples for demonstration of the capability of the method. (Authors)

  7. The verification methodologies for a software modeling of Engineered Safety Features- Component Control System (ESF-CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Cheon, Se-Woo; Cha, Kyung-Ho; Park, Gee-Yong; Kwon, Kee-Choon

    2007-01-01

    The safety of a software is not guaranteed through a simple testing of the software. The testing reviews only the static functions of a software. The behavior, dynamic state of a software is not reviewed by a software testing. The Ariane5 rocket accident and the failure of the Virtual Case File Project are determined by a software fault. Although this software was tested thoroughly, the potential errors existed internally. There are a lot of methods to solve these problems. One of the methods is a formal methodology. It describes the software requirements as a formal specification during a software life cycle and verifies a specified design. This paper suggests the methods which verify the design to be described as a formal specification. We adapt these methods to the software of a ESF-CCS (Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System) and use the SCADE (Safety Critical Application Development Environment) tool for adopting the suggested verification methods

  8. Are automatic systems the future of motorcycle safety? A novel methodology to prioritize potential safety solutions based on their projected effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Gustavo; Savino, Giovanni; Piantini, Simone; Baldanzini, Niccolò; Happee, Riender; Pierini, Marco

    2017-11-17

    Motorcycle riders are involved in significantly more crashes per kilometer driven than passenger car drivers. Nonetheless, the development and implementation of motorcycle safety systems lags far behind that of passenger cars. This research addresses the identification of the most effective motorcycle safety solutions in the context of different countries. A knowledge-based system of motorcycle safety (KBMS) was developed to assess the potential for various safety solutions to mitigate or avoid motorcycle crashes. First, a set of 26 common crash scenarios was identified from the analysis of multiple crash databases. Second, the relative effectiveness of 10 safety solutions was assessed for the 26 crash scenarios by a panel of experts. Third, relevant information about crashes was used to weigh the importance of each crash scenario in the region studied. The KBMS method was applied with an Italian database, with a total of more than 1 million motorcycle crashes in the period 2000-2012. When applied to the Italian context, the KBMS suggested that automatic systems designed to compensate for riders' or drivers' errors of commission or omission are the potentially most effective safety solution. The KBMS method showed an effective way to compare the potential of various safety solutions, through a scored list with the expected effectiveness of each safety solution for the region to which the crash data belong. A comparison of our results with a previous study that attempted a systematic prioritization of safety systems for motorcycles (PISa project) showed an encouraging agreement. Current results revealed that automatic systems have the greatest potential to improve motorcycle safety. Accumulating and encoding expertise in crash analysis from a range of disciplines into a scalable and reusable analytical tool, as proposed with the use of KBMS, has the potential to guide research and development of effective safety systems. As the expert assessment of the crash

  9. Development of a methodology for an environmental safety case in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, L.E.F.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation introduced the notion of an environmental safety case that focuses on the protection of both humans and the environment. The UK safety case will address operational, transport and post-closure safety for intermediate-level waste (ILW) and high-level waste (HLW). As there is yet no agreed site or design for a deep geological repository in the UK, the first iteration of the safety case will be generic, drawing on examples from international repository concepts. These concepts will be considered in appropriate generic geological environments typical of those found in the UK. The performance of these example concepts will be assessed using a time frames-based approach that focuses on the evolution of the multiple barriers and their associated safety functions. This approach recognizes that the relative importance of the different barriers in providing safety will evolve over time. For example, at early times the engineered barriers provide containment and the geological barriers protect the engineered barriers and provide isolation of the wastes. At later times, as the engineered barriers degrade, the geosphere provides the major barrier to radionuclide migration back to the surface and ensures the long-term stability of the system. A multi-factor safety case will be presented, using multiple lines of reasoning, including comparisons with natural and anthropogenic analogues, to provide assurance of the intrinsic safety functions of the system and their evolution over time. (author)

  10. Progress in Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety System Reliability in Advanced Reactors. Results from the Coordinated Research Project on Development of Advanced Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety Systems Performance in Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    Strong reliance on inherent and passive design features has become a hallmark of many advanced reactor designs, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all advanced small and medium sized reactor (SMR) designs. Advanced nuclear reactor designs incorporate several passive systems in addition to active ones — not only to enhance the operational safety of the reactors but also to eliminate the possibility of serious accidents. Accordingly, the assessment of the reliability of passive safety systems is a crucial issue to be resolved before their extensive use in future nuclear power plants. Several physical parameters affect the performance of a passive safety system, and their values at the time of operation are unknown a priori. The functions of passive systems are based on basic physical laws and thermodynamic principals, and they may not experience the same kind of failures as active systems. Hence, consistent efforts are required to qualify the reliability of passive systems. To support the development of advanced nuclear reactor designs with passive systems, investigations into their reliability using various methodologies are being conducted in several Member States with advanced reactor development programmes. These efforts include reliability methods for passive systems by the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, reliability evaluation of passive safety system by the University of Pisa, Italy, and assessment of passive system reliability by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. These different approaches seem to demonstrate a consensus on some aspects. However, the developers of the approaches have been unable to agree on the definition of reliability in a passive system. Based on these developments and in order to foster collaboration, the IAEA initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Advanced Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety Systems Performance in Advanced Reactors in 2008. The

  11. The safety case for a HLW repository in Opalinus clay: aims, methodology, first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuidema, Piet

    2002-01-01

    Piet Zuidema (Nagra, Switzerland) described the development of the safety case for a high level waste repository in Opalinus clay in which canisters would be placed in large vaults. The current phase of work was concerned with demonstrating the feasibility of the disposal concept. The Safety Case is taken to mean a set of arguments to support a statement that the proposed facility will meet relevant safety criteria and will include arguments giving the basis for confidence that those arguments are correct and properly taking account of uncertainties. The safety strategy was concerned both with the inherent robustness of the disposal concept and the adequacy of the assessment capability. As regards the former, the arguments being advanced were primarily qualitative. Key issues in terms of the documentation of the Safety Case were traceability and transparency of information, including how to ensure that key arguments did not become obscured because of the need to make available very large quantities of information

  12. Methodology for the application of probabilistic safety assessment techniques (PSA) to the cobalt-therapy units in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaragut Llanes, J.J.; Ferro Fernandez, R.; Troncoso Fleitas, M.; Lozano Lima, B.; Fuente Puch, A. de la; Perez Reyes, Y.; Dumenigo Gonzalez, C.

    2001-01-01

    The applications of PSA techniques in the nuclear power plants during the last two decades and the positive results obtained for decision making in relation with safety, as a complement to deterministic methods, have increased their use in the rest of the nuclear applications. At present a large set of documents from international institutions can be found summarizing the investigations carried out in this field and promoting their use in radioactive facilities. Although still without a mandatory character, the new regulations on radiological safety also promote the complete or partial application of the PSA techniques in the safety assessment of the radiological practices. Also the IAEA, through various programs in which Cuba has been inserted, is taking a group of actions so that the nuclear community will encourage the application of the probabilistic risk methods for the evaluations and decision making with respect to safety. However, the fact that in no radioactive installation has a complete PSA study been carried out, makes that certain methodological aspects require to be improved and modified for the application of these techniques. This work presents the main elements for the use of PSA in the evaluation of the safety of cobalt-therapy units in Cuba. Also presented, as part of the results of the first stage of the Study, are the Guidelines that are being applied in a Research Contract with the Agency by the authors themselves, who belong to the CNSN, together with other specialists from the Cuban Ministry of Public Health. (author) [es

  13. Geo-ethical dimension of community's safety: rural and urban population vulnerability analysis methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuchenko, Yuriy; Movchan, Dmytro; Kopachevsky, Ivan; Yuschenko, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    Modern world based on relations more than on causalities, so communicative, socio-economic, and socio-cultural issues are important to understand nature of risks and to make correct, ethical decisions. Today major part of risk analysts declared new nature of modern risks. We faced coherent or systemic risks, realization of which leads to domino effect, unexpected growing of losses and fatalities. This type of risks originated by complicated nature of heterogeneous environment, close interconnection of engineering networks, and changing structure of society. Heterogeneous multi-agent environment generates systemic risks, which requires analyze multi-source data with sophisticated tools. Formal basis for analysis of this type of risks is developed during last 5-7 years. But issues of social fairness, ethics, and education require further development. One aspect of analysis of social issues of risk management is studied in this paper. Formal algorithm for quantitative analysis of multi-source data analysis is proposed. As it was demonstrated, using proposed methodological base and the algorithm, it is possible to obtain regularized spatial-temporal distribution of investigated parameters over whole observation period with rectified reliability and controlled uncertainty. The result of disaster data analysis demonstrates that about half of direct disaster damage might be caused by social factors: education, experience and social behaviour. Using data presented also possible to estimate quantitative parameters of the losses distributions: a relation between education, age, experience, and losses; as well as vulnerability (in terms of probable damage) toward financial status in current social density. It is demonstrated that on wide-scale range an education determines risk perception and so vulnerability of societies. But on the local level there are important heterogeneities. Land-use and urbanization structure influencing to vulnerability essentially. The way to

  14. Towards the Development of a Methodology for the Cyber Security Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Digital I and C Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khand, Parvaiz Ahmed; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants the redundant safety related systems are designed to take automatic action to prevent and mitigate accident conditions if the operators and the non-safety systems fail to maintain the plant within normal operating conditions. In case of an event, the failure of these systems has catastrophic consequences. The tendency in the industry over the past 10 years has been to use of commercial of the shelf (COTS) technologies in these systems. COTS software was written with attention to function and performance rather than security. COTS hardware usually designed to fail safe, but security vulnerabilities could be exploited by an attacker to disable the fail safe mechanisms. Moreover, the use of open protocols and operating systems in these technologies make the plants to become vulnerable to a host of cyber attacks. An effective security analysis process is required during all life cycle phases of these systems in order to ensure the security from cyber attacks. We are developing a methodology for the cyber security analysis of safety related nuclear digital I and C Systems. This methodology will cover all phases of development, operation and maintenance processes of software life cycle. In this paper, we will present a security analysis process for the concept stage of software development life cycle

  15. RiskSOAP: Introducing and applying a methodology of risk self-awareness in road tunnel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela; Dokas, Ioannis M

    2016-05-01

    Complex socio-technical systems, such as road tunnels, can be designed and developed with more or less elements that can either positively or negatively affect the capability of their agents to recognise imminent threats or vulnerabilities that possibly lead to accidents. This capability is called risk Situation Awareness (SA) provision. Having as a motive the introduction of better tools for designing and developing systems that are self-aware of their vulnerabilities and react to prevent accidents and losses, this paper introduces the Risk Situation Awareness Provision (RiskSOAP) methodology to the field of road tunnel safety, as a means to measure this capability in this kind of systems. The main objective is to test the soundness and the applicability of RiskSOAP to infrastructure, which is advanced in terms of technology, human integration, and minimum number of safety requirements imposed by international bodies. RiskSOAP is applied to a specific road tunnel in Greece and the accompanying indicator is calculated twice, once for the tunnel design as defined by updated European safety standards and once for the 'as-is' tunnel composition, which complies with the necessary safety requirements, but calls for enhancing safety according to what EU and PIARC further suggest. The derived values indicate the extent to which each tunnel version is capable of comprehending its threats and vulnerabilities based on its elements. The former tunnel version seems to be more enhanced both in terms of it risk awareness capability and safety as well. Another interesting finding is that despite the advanced tunnel safety specifications, there is still room for enriching the safe design and maintenance of the road tunnel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing a Methodology for Elaborating a Pulsed Optical Safety Area for High Power Laser Diodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yankov, Plamen

    2006-01-01

    The laser diodes are efficient sources of optical radiation. The maximum optical peak power depends on the pulse duration of the driving current pulse - reducing the pulse duration the safety peak power is increased...

  17. Design of a Construction Safety Training System using Contextual Design Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Baldev, Darshan H.

    2006-01-01

    In the U.S., the majority of construction companies are small companies with 10 or fewer employees (BLS, 2004). The fatality rate in the construction industry is high, indicating a need for implementing safety training to a greater extent. This research addresses two main goals: to make recommendations and design a safety training system for small construction companies, and to use Contextual Design to design the training system. Contextual Design was developed by Holtzblatt (Beyer and Holtzb...

  18. Safety assessment and geosphere transport methodology for the geologic isolation of nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Raymond, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in the United States, the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is underway to develop and demonstrate the methods and obtain the data necessary to assess the safety of geologic isolation repositories and to communicate the assessment results to the public. This paper reviews past analysis efforts, discusses the WISAP technical approach to the problem, and points out areas where work is needed

  19. Safety profile of dalfampridine extended release in multiple sclerosis: 5-year postmarketing experience in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Michele Jara, Thomas Aquilina, Peter Aupperle, Adrian L Rabinowicz Acorda Therapeutics, Inc., Ardsley, NY, USA Background: Dalfampridine extended release tablets (dalfampridine-ER; prolonged-, modified, or sustained-release fampridine outside the US, 10 mg twice daily, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA in January 2010 to improve walking in people with multiple sclerosis, as determined by an increase in walking speed. Objective: To provide a descriptive analysis of reported adverse events (AEs for commercially available dalfampridine-ER from March 2010 through March 31, 2015. Methods: Five-year postmarketing data for dalfampridine-ER were available from the exposure of approximately 107,000 patients in the US (103,700 patient-years. Commonly reported AEs (≥2% of all reported AEs and serious AEs were determined. The incidence of reported seizures was determined and the events were further investigated. Results: Among the 107,000 patients exposed to dalfampridine-ER (70% female; mean age 52.1, the most common AEs were dizziness (3.7%, insomnia (3.2%, balance disorder (3%, fall (2.4%, headache (2.4%, nausea (2.1%, and urinary tract infection (2%. Other common AEs were drug ineffectiveness (5.8%, gait disturbance (4.6%, and inappropriate dosing (3.1%. Serious AEs included rare anaphylactic reactions (five cases and drug hypersensitivity reactions (eight cases. A total of 657 seizure cases were reported (6.3/1,000 patient-years; of these, 324 were medically confirmed (3.1/1,000 patient-years. Incidence of reported seizures was stable over time. Duration of treatment prior to a seizure ranged from a single dose to >4 years; 12% of the seizures occurred within a week of starting treatment. Conclusion: The 5-year US postmarketing safety data of dalfampridine-ER is consistent with the safety profile observed in clinical trials. Incidence of reported seizures remained stable over time. Since commercial availability in March 2010, a

  20. Drug research methodology. Volume 4, Epidemiology in drugs and highway safety : the study of drug use among drivers and its role in traffic crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a workshop on epidemiology in drugs and highway safety. A cross-disciplinary panel of experts (1) identified methodological issues and constraints present in research to define the nature and magnitude of the drug...

  1. A methodology to analize the safety of a coastal nuclear power plant against the Typhoon external flooding risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tian; He Mi; Chen Guofei; Joly, Antoine; Pan Rong; Ji Ping

    2015-01-01

    For the protection of coastal Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) against the external flooding hazard, the risks caused by natural events have to be taken into account. In this article, a methodology is proposed to analyze the risk of the typical natural event in China (Typhoon). It includes the simulation of the storm surge and the strong waves due to its passage in Chinese coastal zones and the quantification of the sequential overtopping flow rate. The simulation is carried out by coupling 2 modules of the hydraulic modeling system TELEMAC-MASCARET from EDF, TELEMAC2D (Shallow water module) and TOMAWAC (spectral wave module). As an open-source modeling system, this methodology could still be enriched by other phenomena in the near future to ameliorate its performance in safety analysis of the coastal NPPs in China. (author)

  2. Level II Probabilistic Safety Analysis Methodology for the Application to GEN-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, T. W.; Han, S. H.; Jeong, H. Y.

    2010-03-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing liquid metal reactor (LMR) design technologies under a National Nuclear R and D Program. Nevertheless, there is no experience of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) domestically for a fast reactor with the metal fuel. Therefore, the objective of this study is to establish the methodologies of risk assessment for the reference design of GEN-IV sodium fast reactor (SFR). An applicability of the PSA methodology of U. S. NRC and PRISM plant to the domestic GEN-IV SFR has been studied. The study contains a plant damage state analysis, a containment event tree analysis, and a source-term release category binning process

  3. CSNI Status summary on utilization of best-estimate methodology in safety analysis and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The PWG 2 Task Group on Thermal Hydraulic System Behavior has discussed the subject of the use of best-estimate codes in the licensing process (codes that model thermal hydraulic processes are important to assessing safety system performance). The Task Group set out to determine the prevailing practices in member countries, concerning safety assessment and safety review of transients affecting the reactor coolant system. A summary of information provided by member countries in response to eleven questions is given: Who is Responsible for Safety Analysis? Who is Responsible for Review and Evaluation of Safety Analysis? Do the Regulations Permit the use of Best-Estimate Codes? What are the Requirements for What Constitutes a Best Estimate Code? What are the Requirements Concerning Code Documentation? What are the Requirements for Review of Code Models and Correlations? What are the Requirements Concerning Code Assessment? What are the Requirements Concerning Initial and Boundary Conditions? What are the Requirements Concerning Operability of Active Equipment? What are the Requirements Concerning Operator Actions?

  4. Projective goals - concepts and pragmatic aspects based on the terminology and methodology of safety science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Protective goals set the line of orientation of tasks and activities in the field of accident prevention. They have to be based on safety-science methods in order to develop from the conceptual idea to the practically feasible solution, while using the scientific methods to take into account the facts and the capabilities of a situation and, proceeding from them, finding an efficient and rational, optimal pragmatic approach by way of various strategies or tactics. In this process, the activities of defining, informing, thinking and developing need the proper terminology. Safety is absence of danger, protection is limitation of danger and prevention of damage. So it is protection what is needed with danger being given, and risks have to be minimized. Riskology is a novel method of safety science, combining risk analysis and risk control into a systematic concept which is practice-oriented. Applying this to the field of nuclear engineering, the hitherto achieved should receive new impulses. (orig.) [de

  5. Methodological fundamentals for increase of effectiveness designing both safety of operation of seaplanes and amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.А. Rasstrygin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  On the basis of earlier developed methodology of estimation of local and general hydrodynamics of amphibious and water-landing aircrafts, some outcomes of numerical researches of hydrodynamic parameters and their analysis for a mild multi-purpose amphibian are adduced at different versions of interplay with water surface on take-off and landing modes.

  6. FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains extended synopses of 90 articles presented to the FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing, held in Anatalya, Turkey, 19-22 October, 1999. The major themes covered include food irradiation technologies, public acceptance of irradiated food items, effectiveness and economic aspects of food irradiation

  7. FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document contains extended synopses of 90 articles presented to the FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing, held in Anatalya, Turkey, 19-22 October, 1999. The major themes covered include food irradiation technologies, public acceptance of irradiated food items, effectiveness and economic aspects of food irradiation.

  8. Application of the Biosphere Assessment Methodology to the ENRESA, 1997 Performance and Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Simon, I.; Aguero, A.

    1998-01-01

    For several years CIEMAT has been developing for ENRESA knowledge and tools to support the modelling of the migration and accumulation of radionuclides within the biosphere once those radionuclides are released or reach one or more parts of the biosphere (atmosphere, water bodies or soils). The model development also includes evaluation of radiological impacts arising from the resulting distribution of radionuclides in the biosphere. In 1996, a Methodology to analyse the biosphere in this context proposed to ENRESA. The level of development of the different aspects proposed within the Methodology was quite heterogeneous and, while aspects of radionuclide transport modelling were already well developed in theoretical and practical terms, other aspects like the procedure for conceptual model development and the description of biosphere system representatives of the long term needed further developments. At present, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) in collaboration with several national organizations, ENRESA and CIEMAT among them, is working to complete and augment the Reference Biosphere Methodology and to produce some practical descriptions of Reference Systems. The overall purpose of this document is to apply the Methodology, taking account of on-going developments in biosphere modelling, to the last performance assessment (PA) exercise made by ENRESA (ENRESA, 1997), using from it the general and particular information about the assessment context, radionuclide information, geosphere and geobiosphere interface data. There are three particular objectives to this work: (a) to determine the practicability of the Methodology in an application to a realistic assessment situation, (b) To compare and contrast previous biosphere modelling in HLW PA and, (c) to test software development related with data management and modelling. (Author) 42 refs

  9. The status of nuclear safety of Ukrainian NPPS and evaluations by ASSET methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koltakov, V [State Scientific and Technical Center on Nuclear and Radiational Safety, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-10-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: nuclear power plants and research reactors; electricity production and operating personnel; status of nuclear safety at NPPs of Ukraine; operation of Ukrainian NPPs; violations of NPPs operation; short review of ASSET missions; experience of feedback process. Figs, tabs.

  10. The status of nuclear safety of Ukrainian NPPS and evaluations by ASSET methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltakov, V.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: nuclear power plants and research reactors; electricity production and operating personnel; status of nuclear safety at NPPs of Ukraine; operation of Ukrainian NPPs; violations of NPPs operation; short review of ASSET missions; experience of feedback process. Figs, tabs

  11. Drug research methodology. Volume 2, The identification of drugs of interest in highway safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents findings of a workshop on the identification of drugs that should be the focus of near-term highway safety research. Drugs of interest are those that have a potential to increase the likelihood of traffic crashes and their attend...

  12. Organization and methodology approach for the safety assessment of the present situation and the future works on Chernobyl-4 and the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachner, D.; Benoist, E.; Duco, J.; Jahns, A.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the organization and methodology approach for the safety assessment of the present situation and the future works on Chernobyl 4 and the site. It presents the results of a common preliminary discussion in order to formulate advices on the basic management of the Chernobyl safety assessment process. (O.L.)

  13. RPP-PRT-58489, Revision 1, One Systems Consistent Safety Analysis Methodologies Report. 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-15-014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Mukesh [URS Professional Solutions LLC, Aiken, SC (United States); Niemi, Belinda [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Paik, Ingle [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In 2012, One System Nuclear Safety performed a comparison of the safety bases for the Tank Farms Operations Contractor (TOC) and Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) (RPP-RPT-53222 / 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-12-018, “One System Report of Comparative Evaluation of Safety Bases for Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project and Tank Operations Contract”), and identified 25 recommendations that required further evaluation for consensus disposition. This report documents ten NSSC approved consistent methodologies and guides and the results of the additional evaluation process using a new set of evaluation criteria developed for the evaluation of the new methodologies.

  14. A Bayesian Network methodology for railway risk, safety and decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboob, Qamar

    2014-01-01

    For railways, risk analysis is carried out to identify hazardous situations and their consequences. Until recently, classical methods such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Event Tree Analysis (ETA) were applied in modelling the linear and logically deterministic aspects of railway risks, safety and reliability. However, it has been proven that modern railway systems are rather complex, involving multi-dependencies between system variables and uncertainties about these dependencies. For train ...

  15. Application of best estimate and uncertainty safety analysis methodology to loss of flow events at Ontario's Power Generation's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huget, R.G.; Lau, D.K.; Luxat, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is currently developing a new safety analysis methodology based on best estimate and uncertainty (BEAU) analysis. The framework and elements of the new safety analysis methodology are defined. The evolution of safety analysis technology at OPG has been thoroughly documented. Over the years, the use of conservative limiting assumptions in OPG safety analyses has led to gradual erosion of predicted safety margins. The main purpose of the new methodology is to provide a more realistic quantification of safety margins within a probabilistic framework, using best estimate results, with an integrated accounting of the underlying uncertainties. Another objective of the new methodology is to provide a cost-effective means for on-going safety analysis support of OPG's nuclear generating stations. Discovery issues and plant aging effects require that the safety analyses be periodically revised and, in the past, the cost of reanalysis at OPG has been significant. As OPG enters the new competitive marketplace for electricity, there is a strong need to conduct safety analysis in a less cumbersome manner. This paper presents the results of the first licensing application of the new methodology in support of planned design modifications to the shutdown systems (SDSs) at Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (NGS). The design modifications restore dual trip parameter coverage over the full range of reactor power for certain postulated loss-of-flow (LOF) events. The application of BEAU analysis to the single heat transport pump trip event provides a realistic estimation of the safety margins for the primary and backup trip parameters. These margins are significantly larger than those predicted by conventional limit of the operating envelope (LOE) analysis techniques. (author)

  16. Defining the methodological challenges and opportunities for an effective science of sociotechnical systems and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick; Robertson, Michelle M.; Cooke, Nancy J.; Militello, Laura; Roth, Emilie; Stanton, Neville A.

    2015-01-01

    An important part of the application of sociotechnical systems theory (STS) is the development of methods, tools and techniques to assess human factors and ergonomics workplace requirements. We focus in this paper on describing and evaluating current STS methods for workplace safety, as well as outlining a set of six case studies covering the application of these methods to a range of safety contexts. We also describe an evaluation of the methods in terms of ratings of their ability to address a set of theoretical and practical questions (e.g. the degree to which methods capture static/dynamic aspects of tasks and interactions between system levels). The outcomes from the evaluation highlight a set of gaps relating to the coverage and applicability of current methods for STS and safety (e.g. coverage of external influences on system functioning; method usability). The final sections of the paper describe a set of future challenges, as well as some practical suggestions for tackling these. Practitioner Summary: We provide an up-to-date review of STS methods, a set of case studies illustrating their use and an evaluation of their strengths and weaknesses. The paper concludes with a ‘roadmap’ for future work. PMID:25832121

  17. Methodology and development of instruments for the safety analysis of a nuclear reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics and overlapping aspects in the elaboration of safety analyses for the nuclear and conventional units are presented. The current methods are presented and their limits of applicability characterized. The transferability of individual methods or their elements to the analysis of the reference plant of Wackersdorf is examined and the procedure for the systems analysis is determined. It is of great importance to prove that the essential kinds of incidents and possibilities of release with potential effects in the environment are completely identified. The incidents are divided into basic incidents, which are characterized by superior physical/chemical release mechanisms. An essential objective is to systematize the safety analysis and to summarize the presentation of results. Selection criteria are presented, which allow a limitation of the analysis to essential influencing parameters without removing aspects from the overall safety-relevant statement. Besides the selection criteria, instruments and mathematical models are explained with the help of which the representative and possible incidents covering all potential risks for all areas of the plant, systems and components can be selected. These design-basis accidents (criticality, self-heating, fire, explosion, leakages, earth quakes) are decisive for the determination of potential damaging effects in the environment and thus for the overall statement on the licensability. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Methodology for deriving hydrogeological input parameters for safety-analysis models - application to fractured crystalline rocks of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vomvoris, S.; Andrews, R.W.; Lanyon, G.W.; Voborny, O.; Wilson, W.

    1996-04-01

    Switzerland is one of many nations with nuclear power that is seeking to identify rock types and locations that would be suitable for the underground disposal of nuclear waste. A common challenge among these programs is to provide engineering designers and safety analysts with a reasonably representative hydrogeological input dataset that synthesizes the relevant information from direct field observations as well as inferences and model results derived from those observations. Needed are estimates of the volumetric flux through a volume of rock and the distribution of that flux into discrete pathways between the repository zones and the biosphere. These fluxes are not directly measurable but must be derived based on understandings of the range of plausible hydrogeologic conditions expected at the location investigated. The methodology described in this report utilizes conceptual and numerical models at various scales to derive the input dataset. The methodology incorporates an innovative approach, called the geometric approach, in which field observations and their associated uncertainty, together with a conceptual representation of those features that most significantly affect the groundwater flow regime, were rigorously applied to generate alternative possible realizations of hydrogeologic features in the geosphere. In this approach, the ranges in the output values directly reflect uncertainties in the input values. As a demonstration, the methodology is applied to the derivation of the hydrogeological dataset for the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  19. Quantifying reactor safety margins: Part 1: An overview of the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.

    1988-01-01

    In August 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved the final version of a revised rule on the acceptance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) entitled ''Emergency Core Cooling System; Revisions to Acceptance Criteria.'' The revised rule states an alternate ECCS performance analysis, based on best-estimate methods, may be used to provide more realistic estimates of plant safety margins, provided the licensee quantifies the uncertainty of the estimates and included that uncertainty when comparing the calculated results with prescribed acceptance limits. To support the revised ECCS rule, the NRC and its contractors and consultants have developed and demonstrated a method called the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology. It is an auditable, traceable, and practical method for combining quantitative analyses and expert opinions to arrive at computed values of uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of the CSAU evaluation methodology and its application to a postulated cold-leg, large-break loss-of-coolant accident in a Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactor with 17 /times/ 17 fuel. The code selected for this demonstration of the CSAU methodology was TRAC-PF1/MOD1, Version 14.3. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Methodology for qualification of in-service inspection systems for WWER nuclear power plants. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Program was initiated by IAEA in 1990 with the aim to assist the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union in evaluating the safety of their first generation WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants. The main objectives were: to identify major design and operational safety issues; to establish international consensus on priorities for safety improvements; and to provide assistance in the review of the competence and and adequacy of safety improvement programs. The scope was extended in 1992 to include RBMK, WWER-440/312 and WWER-1000 plants in operation and under construction. Integrity of primary circuit is fundamental for the safe operation of any nuclear power plant. In-service inspection (ISI) in general terms and in particular, non-destructive tests (NDT) play a key role in maintaining primary circuit integrity. This report provides a methodology for qualification of ISI systems which might be used by WWER operating countries as a commonly accepted basis for further development of the necessary qualification related infrastructures. It also provides several qualification principles defining the administrative framework needed for the practical implementation of the methodology, a description of the process of qualification of an inspection system, specifying its minimum technical and documentation related requirements, as well as specific requirements with regard to the NDT procedures, equipment and personnel to be qualified and the test specimen to be used in practical trials. Finally, the report suggests an appropriate distribution of responsibilities among all the parties involved in a qualification process, based on international practice

  1. A Simple and Improved HPLC-PDA Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Fexofenadine and Pseudoephedrine in Extended Release Tablets by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Kayesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple RP-HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of fexofenadine and pseudoephedrine in their extended release tablet. The method was developed based on statistical design of experiments (DoE and Response Surface Methodology. Separation was achieved on double end-capped C18 column (250 mm × 4 mm, 5 μm. In this experiment, two components of mobile phase, namely, acetonitrile (% v/v and methanol (% v/v, were the factors whereas retention and resolution of the chromatographic peaks were the responses. The effects of different composition of factors on the corresponding responses were investigated. The optimum chromatographic condition for the current case was found as an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 and acetonitrile and methanol in a ratio of 50 : 36 : 14 (% v/v at a flow rate of 1 mL/min for 7 minutes. The retention of pseudoephedrine and fexofenadine was found to be 2.6 min and 4.7 min, respectively. The method was validated according to the ICH and FDA guidelines and various validation parameters were determined. Also, forced degradation studies in acid, base, oxidation, and reduction media and in thermal condition were performed to establish specificity and stability-indicating property of this method. Practical applicability of this method was checked in extended release tablets available in Bangladeshi market.

  2. Methodology for the application of the probabilistic safety analysis to the cobalto therapy units in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaragut Llanes, Juan Jose; Ferro Fernandez, Ruben; Troncoso Fleitas, Mayra; Lozano Lima, Berta; De la Fuente Puch, Andres; Perez Reyes, Yolanda; Dumenigo Gonzalez, Cruz

    2001-01-01

    Presently work the main elements are discussed kept in mind for the use of the Analyses Probabilistas of Security in the evaluation of the security of the units of cobalto therapy of Cuba and it is presented, like part of the results of the first stage of the Study, the Methodological Guide that is being used in a Contract of Investigation of the OIEA that at the moment carries out the community of authors of the CNSN, of group with other specialists of the Ministry of Public Health (MINSAP)

  3. OvidSP Medline-to-PubMed search filter translation: a methodology for extending search filter range to include PubMed's unique content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J; Sladek, Ruth M

    2013-07-02

    PubMed translations of OvidSP Medline search filters offer searchers improved ease of access. They may also facilitate access to PubMed's unique content, including citations for the most recently published biomedical evidence. Retrieving this content requires a search strategy comprising natural language terms ('textwords'), rather than Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We describe a reproducible methodology that uses a validated PubMed search filter translation to create a textword-only strategy to extend retrieval to PubMed's unique heart failure literature. We translated an OvidSP Medline heart failure search filter for PubMed and established version equivalence in terms of indexed literature retrieval. The PubMed version was then run within PubMed to identify citations retrieved by the filter's MeSH terms (Heart failure, Left ventricular dysfunction, and Cardiomyopathy). It was then rerun with the same MeSH terms restricted to searching on title and abstract fields (i.e. as 'textwords'). Citations retrieved by the MeSH search but not the textword search were isolated. Frequency analysis of their titles/abstracts identified natural language alternatives for those MeSH terms that performed less effectively as textwords. These terms were tested in combination to determine the best performing search string for reclaiming this 'lost set'. This string, restricted to searching on PubMed's unique content, was then combined with the validated PubMed translation to extend the filter's performance in this database. The PubMed heart failure filter retrieved 6829 citations. Of these, 834 (12%) failed to be retrieved when MeSH terms were converted to textwords. Frequency analysis of the 834 citations identified five high frequency natural language alternatives that could improve retrieval of this set (cardiac failure, cardiac resynchronization, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and LV dysfunction). Together these terms reclaimed

  4. Conception and methodology of a prospective safety report for uranium mills tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, D.; Larue, J.; Fischer- Appelt, K.

    2006-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings ponds (MTP) stand for the highest potential risk of all legacies from uranium milling. The overall objective of this work was to develop a standardised application document and a working tool for responsible authorities to conduct a continuous safety status description and assessment as well as a prognosis of the respective tailings pond site. - Safety Assessment Principles are based on guide and control values specified in or derived from laws, guidances, norms or standards for the main components who are: technical installations and geo-mechanics, radioactivity, chemical-toxic pollutants. - Data Base: Monitoring data (ground- and seepage water), Radon in near bottom air, Data and information from expertises, reports and technical documents, Site specific data and information (data base A.LAS.KA. / FbU). - Exposure Pathways Analysis. Determination of the radiation exposure to members of the public of different age caused by radioactivity discharges from the tailings pond by means of an authorized calculation procedure. 0.1 to 0.3 mSv/yr with a predominant contribution of ingestion of drinking water (about 80 %). Determination of the hazard resulting from chemical-toxic pollutants according to German regulations. Only relevance of Arsenic via seepage water path. - Forecast of Contaminant Propagation via Groundwater. A three dimensional site specific model was generated to forecast the contaminant distribution in the downstream groundwater flow by means of the available monitoring data. - Safety Assessment. The present status of the tailings pond 'Lengenfeld' was evaluated as to be safe for all three risk components and therefore it is no need for short term measures to minimize hazards or to reduce the contaminants spreading via groundwater. The geochemical environment of the tailings can be regarded as steady, but they are hydraulically tensed by overlaying spar cover. The low permeability of the tailings prevents a significant vertical

  5. Conception and methodology of a prospective safety report for uranium mills tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.; Larue, J.; Fischer- Appelt, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koln (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Uranium mill tailings ponds (MTP) stand for the highest potential risk of all legacies from uranium milling. The overall objective of this work was to develop a standardised application document and a working tool for responsible authorities to conduct a continuous safety status description and assessment as well as a prognosis of the respective tailings pond site. - Safety Assessment Principles are based on guide and control values specified in or derived from laws, guidances, norms or standards for the main components who are: technical installations and geo-mechanics, radioactivity, chemical-toxic pollutants. - Data Base: Monitoring data (ground- and seepage water), Radon in near bottom air, Data and information from expertises, reports and technical documents, Site specific data and information (data base A.LAS.KA. / FbU). - Exposure Pathways Analysis. Determination of the radiation exposure to members of the public of different age caused by radioactivity discharges from the tailings pond by means of an authorized calculation procedure. 0.1 to 0.3 mSv/yr with a predominant contribution of ingestion of drinking water (about 80 %). Determination of the hazard resulting from chemical-toxic pollutants according to German regulations. Only relevance of Arsenic via seepage water path. - Forecast of Contaminant Propagation via Groundwater. A three dimensional site specific model was generated to forecast the contaminant distribution in the downstream groundwater flow by means of the available monitoring data. - Safety Assessment. The present status of the tailings pond 'Lengenfeld' was evaluated as to be safe for all three risk components and therefore it is no need for short term measures to minimize hazards or to reduce the contaminants spreading via groundwater. The geochemical environment of the tailings can be regarded as steady, but they are hydraulically tensed by overlaying spar cover. The low permeability of the tailings prevents a significant

  6. Consideration on safety assessment methodologies applied to the near surface repository Baita Bihor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Romanian legislation in respect of RAW management is described. The waste facilities in the country are: for low and intermediate level waste - Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant - Bucharest Magurele; Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant - Pitesti; National Repository for Radioactive Waste - Baita Bihor. for spent fuel - Intermediate dry spent fuel storage facility (DICA) - CNE Cernavoda; Intermediate wet spent fuel storage facility WWR-S - Bucharest Magurele. A detailed description of the facilities and waste characterisation are given in the report. Due o insufficient and incomplete information about site characterisation and inventory a Phare project 'Preliminary Safety Analysis for the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Repository Baita Bihor, Romania' has been approved. The project purposes are: to achieve a database with specific parameters; validation of scenarios and conceptual models for normal and altered evolution of the disposal site; validation and qualification of existing calculation methods and identification of the complementary suitable computer codes to be installed in Romania; validation and analyses of the final results expertise PSAR final results; recommendation for further completion of Integrated Performance Assessment. The results, conclusions and recommendations of the project will be included in the Preliminary Safety Analyses Report to be sent to the Romanian Authority - CNCAN for licensing of the repository operation

  7. Review of decision methodologies for evaluating regulatory actions affecting public health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; McDonald, C.L.; Schilling, A.H.

    1976-12-01

    This report examines several aspects of the problems and choices facing the governmental decision maker who must take regulatory actions with multiple decision objectives and attributes. Particular attention is given to the problems facing the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and to the decision attribute of chief concern to NRC, the protection of human health and safety, with emphasis on nuclear power plants. The study was undertaken to provide background information for NRC to use in refining its process of value/impact assessment of proposed regulatory actions. The principal conclusion is that approaches to rationally consider the value and impact of proposed regulatory actions are available. These approaches can potentially improve the decision-making process and enable the agency to better explain and defend its decisions. They also permit consistent examination of the impacts, effects of uncertainty and sensitivity to various assumptions of the alternatives being considered. Finally, these approaches can help to assure that affected parties are heard and that technical information is used appropriately and to the extent possible. The principal aspects of the regulatory decision problem covered in the report are: the legal setting for regulatory decisions which affect human health and safety, elements of the decision-making process, conceptual approaches to decision making, current approaches to decision making in several Federal agencies, and the determination of acceptable risk levels

  8. CANDU safety analysis system establishment; development of trip coverage and multi-dimensional hydrogen analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Ho; Ohn, M. Y.; Cho, C. H. [KOPEC, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The trip coverage analysis model requires the geometry network for primary and secondary circuit as well as the plant control system to simulate all the possible plant operating conditions throughout the plant life. The model was validated for the power maneuvering and the Wolsong 4 commissioning test. The trip coverage map was produced for the large break loss of coolant accident and the complete loss of class IV power event. The reliable multi-dimensional hydrogen analysis requires the high capability for thermal hydraulic modelling. To acquire such a basic capability and verify the applicability of GOTHIC code, the assessment of heat transfer model, hydrogen mixing and combustion model was performed. Also, the assessment methodology for flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition is established. 22 refs., 120 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  9. Methodological Development of the Probabilistic Model of the Safety Assessment of Hontomin P.D.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of CO 2 Capture and Geological Storage, Risk Analysis plays an important role, because it is an essential requirement of knowledge to make up local, national and supranational definition and planning of carbon injection strategies. This is because each project is at risk of failure. Even from the early stages, it should take into account the possible causes of this risk and propose corrective methods along the process, i.e., managing risk. Proper risk management reduces the negative consequences arising from the project. The main method of reduction or neutralizing of risk is mainly the identification, measurement and evaluation of it, together with the development of decision rules. This report presents the developed methodology for risk analysis and the results of its application. The risk assessment requires determination of the random variables that will influence the functioning of the system. It is very difficult to set up probability distribution of a random variable in the classical sense (objective probability) when a particular event rarely occurred or even it has a incomplete development. In this situation, we have to determine the subjective probability, especially at an early stage of projects, when we have not enough information about the system. This subjective probability is constructed from assessment of experts judgement to estimate the possibility of certain random events could happen depending on geological features of the area of application. The proposed methodology is based on the application of Bayesian Probabilistic Networks for estimating the probability of risk of leakage. These probabilistic networks can define graphically relations of dependence between the variables and joint probability function through a local factorization of probability functions. (Author) 98 refs.

  10. [Implementation of "5S" methodology in laboratory safety and its effect on employee satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yavuz; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Dogan, Ozlem

    2014-04-01

    Health institutions use the accreditation process to achieve improvement across the organization and management of the health care system. An ISO 15189 quality and efficiency standard is the recommended standard for medical laboratories qualification. The "safety and accommodation conditions" of this standard covers the requirement to improve working conditions and maintain the necessary safety precautions. The most inevitable precaution for ensuring a safe environment is the creation of a clean and orderly environment to maintain a potentially safe surroundings. In this context, the 5S application which is a superior improvement tool that has been used by the industry, includes some advantages such as encouraging employees to participate in and to help increase the productivity. The main target of this study was to implement 5S methods in a clinical laboratory of a university hospital for evaluating its effect on employees' satisfaction, and correction of non-compliance in terms of the working environment. To start with, first, 5S education was given to management and employees. Secondly, a 5S team was formed and then the main steps of 5S (Seiri: Sort, Seiton: Set in order, Seiso: Shine, Seiketsu: Standardize, and Shitsuke: Systematize) were implemented for a duration of 3 months. A five-point likert scale questionnaire was used in order to determine and assess the impact of 5S on employees' satisfaction considering the areas such as facilitating the job, the job satisfaction, setting up a safe environment, and the effect of participation in management. Questionnaire form was given to 114 employees who actively worked during the 5S implementation period, and the data obtained from 63 (52.3%) participants (16 male, 47 female) were evaluated. The reliability of the questionnaire's Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.858 (p5S it was observed and determined that facilitating the job and setting up a safe environment created a statistically significant effect on

  11. Safety Gear Decontamination Practices Among Florida Firefighters: Analysis of a Text-Based Survey Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin J; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Alvarez, Armando; Schaefer-Solle, Natasha; Harrison, Tyler R; Kobetz, Erin N; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2018-02-01

    Despite the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1851 Personal Protective Equipment Care and Maintenance guidelines, little is known about the routine cleaning of firefighter bunker gear. In collaboration with a large Florida firefighter union, a mobile phone text survey was administered, which included eight questions in an item logic format. In total, 250 firefighters participated in the survey of which 65% reported cleaning their bunker gear in the past 12 months. Approximately 32% ( n = 52) indicated that they had above average confidence in gear cleaning procedures. Arriving at a fire incident response was a significant predictor of gear cleaning in the 12 months preceding survey administration. Using mobile phone-based texting for periodic queries on adherence to NFPA cleaning guidelines and safety message distribution may assist firefighters to increase decontamination procedure frequency.

  12. Safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities. Results of a co-ordinated research project (ISAM). Volume 1: Review and enhancement of safety assessment approaches and tools. Volume 2: Test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    For several decades, countries have made use of near surface facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. In line with the internationally agreed principles of radioactive waste management, the safety of these facilities needs to be ensured during all stages of their lifetimes, including the post-closure period. By the mid 1990s, formal methodologies for evaluating the long term safety of such facilities had been developed, but intercomparison of these methodologies had revealed a number of discrepancies between them. Consequently, in 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency launched a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities (ISAM). The particular objectives of the CRP were to provide a critical evaluation of the approaches and tools used in post-closure safety assessment for proposed and existing near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities, enhance the approaches and tools used and build confidence in the approaches and tools used. The CRP ran until 2000 and resulted in the development of a harmonized assessment methodology (the ISAM project methodology), which was applied to a number of test cases. Over seventy participants from twenty-two Member States played an active role in the project and it attracted interest from around seven hundred persons involved with safety assessment in seventy-two Member States. The results of the CRP have contributed to the Action Plan on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management which was approved by the Board of Governors and endorsed by the General Conference in September 2001. Specifically, they contribute to Action 5, which requests the IAEA Secretariat to 'develop a structured and systematic programme to ensure adequate application of the Agency's waste safety standards', by elaborating on the Safety Requirements on 'Near Surface Disposal of Radioactive Waste' (Safety Standards Series No. WS-R-1) and

  13. Reference methodologies for radioactive controlled discharges an activity within the IAEA's Program Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety II (EMRAS II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocki, T.J.; Bergman, L.; Tellería, D.M.; Proehl, G.; Amado, V.; Curti, A.; Bonchuk, I.; Boyer, P.; Mourlon, C.; Chyly, P.; Heling, R.; Sági, L.; Kliaus, V.; Krajewski, P.; Latouche, G.; Lauria, D.C.; Newsome, L.; Smith, J.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2009, the IAEA EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety II) program was launched. The goal of the program is to develop, compare and test models for the assessment of radiological impacts to the public and the environment due to radionuclides being released or already existing in the environment; to help countries build and harmonize their capabilities; and to model the movement of radionuclides in the environment. Within EMRAS II, nine working groups are active; this paper will focus on the activities of Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases. Within this working group environmental transfer and dose assessment models are tested under different scenarios by participating countries and the results compared. This process allows each participating country to identify characteristics of their models that need to be refined. The goal of this working group is to identify reference methodologies for the assessment of exposures to the public due to routine discharges of radionuclides to the terrestrial and aquatic environments. Several different models are being applied to estimate the transfer of radionuclides in the environment for various scenarios. The first phase of the project involves a scenario of nuclear power reactor with a coastal location which routinely (continuously) discharges 60Co, 85Kr, 131I, and 137Cs to the atmosphere and 60Co, 137Cs, and 90Sr to the marine environment. In this scenario many of the parameters and characteristics of the representative group were given to the modelers and cannot be altered. Various models have been used by the different participants in this inter-comparison (PC-CREAM, CROM, IMPACT, CLRP POSEIDON, SYMBIOSE and others). This first scenario is to enable a comparison of the radionuclide transport and dose modelling. These scenarios will facilitate the development of reference methodologies for controlled discharges. (authors)

  14. Safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin for extended treatment of venous thromboembolism -a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindet-Pedersen, Caroline; Pallisgaard, Jannik Langtved; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine and compare the safety and efficacy of extended treatment with dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban and warfarin in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched for randomized clinical trials reporting on the use of direct oral...... anticoagulants (DOACs) and warfarin for the extended treatment of VTE. Meta-analysis was performed on studies reporting similar study design and comparator. RESULTS: A total of 729 articles were identified and 5 studies covering 6 randomized clinical trials met the eligibility criteria and were included...... in the study. 5 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results from the meta-analysis showed that the extended use of DOACs and warfarin significantly decreased the risk of recurrent VTE with 83 % when compared placebo. Warfarin (RR: 0.03, CI: 0.00-0.49) and dabigatran (RR: 0.08, CI: 0.03-0.27) showed...

  15. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, Phase I: System design and test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Qualification Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis and acceptance criteria for the qualification of advanced I&C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALWRs. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines.

  16. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, phase I: System design and test methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I ampersand C) Qualification Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis for the qualification of advanced I ampersand C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALNWS) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBNW) and AP600. It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALNWS. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines

  17. A Proposal for a Methodology to Develop a Cyber-Attack Penetration Test Scenario Including NPPs Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Hyo [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu Univ., Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Penetration test is a method to evaluate the cyber security of NPPs; so, this approach was performed in some studies. Because they focused on vulnerability finding or test bed construction, scenario based approach was not performed. However, to test the cyber security of NPPs, a proper test scenario should be needed. Ahn et al. developed cyber-attack scenarios but those scenarios couldn't be applied in penetration test because they developed the scenarios based on past incidents of NPPs induced by cyber-attack. That is, those scenarios only covered scenarios which were happened before; so, they couldn't cover other various scenarios and couldn't reflect them into a penetration test. In this study, a method to develop a cyber-attack penetration test scenario of NPPs especially focused on safety point of view is suggested. To evaluate the cyber security of NPPs, penetration test can be a possible way. In this study, a method to develop a penetration test scenario was explained. Especially, the goal of hacker was focused on nuclear fuel integrity deterioration. So, in the methodology, Level 1 PSA results were utilized to reflect plant safety into the security. From the PSA results, basic event was post processed and possible cyber-attacks were reviewed with vulnerabilities of digital control system.

  18. A Proposal for a Methodology to Develop a Cyber-Attack Penetration Test Scenario Including NPPs Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Hyo; Son, Han Seong; Kim, Si Won; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    Penetration test is a method to evaluate the cyber security of NPPs; so, this approach was performed in some studies. Because they focused on vulnerability finding or test bed construction, scenario based approach was not performed. However, to test the cyber security of NPPs, a proper test scenario should be needed. Ahn et al. developed cyber-attack scenarios but those scenarios couldn't be applied in penetration test because they developed the scenarios based on past incidents of NPPs induced by cyber-attack. That is, those scenarios only covered scenarios which were happened before; so, they couldn't cover other various scenarios and couldn't reflect them into a penetration test. In this study, a method to develop a cyber-attack penetration test scenario of NPPs especially focused on safety point of view is suggested. To evaluate the cyber security of NPPs, penetration test can be a possible way. In this study, a method to develop a penetration test scenario was explained. Especially, the goal of hacker was focused on nuclear fuel integrity deterioration. So, in the methodology, Level 1 PSA results were utilized to reflect plant safety into the security. From the PSA results, basic event was post processed and possible cyber-attacks were reviewed with vulnerabilities of digital control system

  19. 76 FR 34270 - Federal-State Extended Benefits Program-Methodology for Calculating “on” or “off” Total...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... requirement. The Department plans to promulgate regulations about this methodology in the near future. In the...--Methodology for Calculating ``on'' or ``off'' Total Unemployment Rate Indicators for Purposes of Determining..., Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: UIPL 16-11 informs states of the methodology used to calculate the ``on...

  20. International Expert Review of Sr-Can: Safety Assessment Methodology - External review contribution in support of SSI's and SKI's review of SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, Budhi (Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (US)); Egan, Michael (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (GB)); Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (DE)); Chapman, Neil (Independent Consultant (XX)); Wilmot, Roger (Galson Sciences Limited, Oakham (GB))

    2008-03-15

    convincing overall safety case. In this context it is worth recognising that a long-term safety case needs to provide a broad, integrated view of the various issues that will support the further refinement and development of confidence in post-closure safety performance for the repository (IAEA, 2006; NEA, 2004). Although the focus of the evaluation presented here was on the methodology for safety assessment, it is evident from the review team's terms of reference (not least the reference to SKB's 'strategy for safety demonstration') that SKI's and SSI's interests extend beyond the structure and composition of the assessment itself. By itself, safety assessment is but one thread of the wider strategy for building confidence in implementation of KBS-3 for deep disposal, which also includes ongoing R and D, engineering demonstration, monitoring and inspection, management systems, etc.

  1. Book of extended synopses. International symposium on advanced nuclear power systems. Design, technology, safety and strategies for their deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    During the symposium the design, technology, safety and strategy for the development of advanced nuclear power systems were discussed. 20 papers were presented at the symposium. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs

  2. A preliminary study on the application of system dynamics methodology to organizational safety in nuclear power plants: Learning from past models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Giang [Sol Bridge International School of Business, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sakil; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Yong Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Besides technical design, organizational and human factor are of increasing interest in literature on nuclear safety. Among the methodologies employed to study these factors, System Dynamics (SD) is considered to be suitable for addressing the complexity and dynamicity of the organizational system in nuclear power plants (NPPs). In the following sections, the method will be described and its several prior applications to studying organizational safety will be introduced. An SD model with emphasis on the role of organizational learning in organizational safety will be presented.

  3. Effectiveness and Safety of an Extended ICU Visitation Model for Delirium Prevention: A Before and After Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Regis Goulart; Tonietto, Tulio Frederico; da Silva, Daiana Barbosa; Gutierres, Franciele Aparecida; Ascoli, Aline Maria; Madeira, Laura Cordeiro; Rutzen, William; Falavigna, Maicon; Robinson, Caroline Cabral; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar; Cremonese, Rafael Viegas; Haack, Tarissa Ribeiro; Eugênio, Cláudia Severgnini; Dornelles, Aline; Bessel, Marina; Teles, José Mario Meira; Skrobik, Yoanna; Teixeira, Cassiano

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of an extended visitation model compared with a restricted visitation model on the occurrence of delirium among ICU patients. Prospective single-center before and after study. Thirty-one-bed medical-surgical ICU. All patients greater than or equal to 18 years old with expected length of stay greater than or equal to 24 hours consecutively admitted to the ICU from May 2015 to November 2015. Change of visitation policy from a restricted visitation model (4.5 hr/d) to an extended visitation model (12 hr/d). Two hundred eighty-six patients were enrolled (141 restricted visitation model, 145 extended visitation model). The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of delirium, assessed bid using the confusion assessment method for the ICU. Predefined secondary outcomes included duration of delirium/coma; any ICU-acquired infection; ICU-acquired bloodstream infection, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection; all-cause ICU mortality; and length of ICU stay. The median duration of visits increased from 133 minutes (interquartile range, 97.7-162.0) in restricted visitation model to 245 minutes (interquartile range, 175.0-272.0) in extended visitation model (p < 0.001). Fourteen patients (9.6%) developed delirium in extended visitation model compared with 29 (20.5%) in restricted visitation model (adjusted relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26-0.95). In comparison with restricted visitation model patients, extended visitation model patients had shorter length of delirium/coma (1.5 d [interquartile range, 1.0-3.0] vs 3.0 d [interquartile range, 2.5-5.0]; p = 0.03) and ICU stay (3.0 d [interquartile range, 2.0-4.0] vs 4.0 d [interquartile range, 2.0-6.0]; p = 0.04). The rate of ICU-acquired infections and all-cause ICU mortality did not differ significantly between the two study groups. In this medical-surgical ICU, an extended visitation model was associated with reduced occurrence of delirium and shorter length of delirium/coma and ICU stay.

  4. Track 6: safety and risk management. Plant operational risk management. Plant Configuration Risk Assessment Methodology Development for Periodic Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Huichang; Chung, Chang Hyun; Sung, Key Yong

    2001-01-01

    As the operation experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea accumulate and NPP safety functions become enhanced, the role of stable and optimal NPP operation within acceptable safety criteria becomes important at present. To accomplish the goal of safe and optimal operation, maintenance and its related activities should be regarded as the issues of most concern. Studies of methodologies for maintenance improvement and optimization have focused on system performance rather than on the hardware itself. From this point of view, the probabilistic methods are most useful. In terms of risk including core damage frequency and unavailability, the cause that might impact plant safety during normal maintenance activities can be identified and evaluated effectively. The results from these probabilistic analyses can provide insightful information for the reallocation of risk-contributing maintenance activity. This information can be utilized in a way that separates the significant risk-contributing maintenance activities from each other unless they are timely related. In Korea, the risk-monitoring program for operating NPPs is under development and will be implemented in 2003. To accomplish the risk-monitoring program objectives, suitable risk evaluation methods should be developed before the implementation of the risk-monitoring program. The plant configuration assessment methodology was developed for these reasons, and this method is to incorporate the field experiences into the risk calculation exactly within the limit of probabilistic methods. During normal plant operation, the plant operational risk changes frequently depending on the status of the plant system and the arrangement of the components. Specific plant systems or components are typically removed from service because of random equipment failure, planned preventive/predictive maintenance, corrective maintenance, surveillance testing, and operational bypass activities, and such events usually impact the

  5. Methodology for assessing the safety of Hydrogen Systems: HyRAM 1.1 technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, Katrina; Hecht, Ethan; Reynolds, John Thomas; Blaylock, Myra L.; Erin E. Carrier

    2017-03-01

    The HyRAM software toolkit provides a basis for conducting quantitative risk assessment and consequence modeling for hydrogen infrastructure and transportation systems. HyRAM is designed to facilitate the use of state-of-the-art science and engineering models to conduct robust, repeatable assessments of hydrogen safety, hazards, and risk. HyRAM is envisioned as a unifying platform combining validated, analytical models of hydrogen behavior, a stan- dardized, transparent QRA approach, and engineering models and generic data for hydrogen installations. HyRAM is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U. S. De- partment of Energy to increase access to technical data about hydrogen safety and to enable the use of that data to support development and revision of national and international codes and standards. This document provides a description of the methodology and models contained in the HyRAM version 1.1. HyRAM 1.1 includes generic probabilities for hydrogen equipment fail- ures, probabilistic models for the impact of heat flux on humans and structures, and computa- tionally and experimentally validated analytical and first order models of hydrogen release and flame physics. HyRAM 1.1 integrates deterministic and probabilistic models for quantifying accident scenarios, predicting physical effects, and characterizing hydrogen hazards (thermal effects from jet fires, overpressure effects from deflagrations), and assessing impact on people and structures. HyRAM is a prototype software in active development and thus the models and data may change. This report will be updated at appropriate developmental intervals.

  6. Examining a Social-Participatory Youth Co-Researcher Methodology: A Cross-Case Analysis Extending Possibilities of Literacy and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Vaughn W. M.; Marciano, Joanne E.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when youth are increasingly negotiating new media literacy practices across multiple contexts, literacy researchers are compelled to take notice and reconsider methodologies that centre the researcher, to purposefully engage youth's knowledge, identities and new media literacies as research methodologies. To that end, the authors…

  7. A Methodology for Validating Safety Heuristics Using Clinical Simulations: Identifying and Preventing Possible Technology-Induced Errors Related to Using Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations. PMID:23606902

  8. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) research program to improve safety assessment methodologies for near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities (ISAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Vidal, C.; Kozak, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Program in November 1997 on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM). The purpose of this paper is to describe the program and its goals, and to describe achievements of the program to date. The main objectives of the ISAM program are outlined. The primary focus of ISAM is on the practical application of safety assessment methodologies. Three kinds of practical situations are being addressed in the program: safety assessments for large vaults typical of those in Western Europe and North America, smaller vaults for medium and industrial wastes typical in eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, and a proposed borehole technology for disposal of spent sources in low-technology conditions. (author)

  9. Extended storage for radioactive wastes: relevant aspects related to the safety; Almacenamiento prolongado de residuos radiactivos: algunos aspectos de interes a considerar para su seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Reinaldo G.; Peralta V, José L.P.; Estevez, Gema G. F., E-mail: gesr@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: peralta@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: gema@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Protección e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Agencia de Energía Nuclear y Tecnologías de Avanzada (AENTA), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is an issue of great relevance globally linked to the issue of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Among the steps in the management of this waste, the safe storage is one of the most important. Given the high costs and uncertainties existing among other aspects of the variants of disposal of radioactive waste, the prolonged storage of these wastes for periods exceeding 50 years is an option that different countries more and more value. One of the fundamental problems to take into account is the safety of the stores, so in this work are evaluated different safety components associated with these facilities through a safety analysis methodology. Elements such as human intrusion, the construction site, the design of the facility, among others are identified as some of the key aspects to take into account when evaluating the safety of these types of facilities. Periods of activities planned for a long-term storage of radioactive waste exceed, in general, the useful life of existing storage facilities. This work identified new challenges to overcome in order to meet the requirements for the achievement of a safe management of radioactive waste without negative impacts on the environment and man.

  10. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  11. Fire safety analysis: methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, M.

    1998-01-01

    From a review of the fires that have occurred in nuclear power plants and the results of fire risk studies that have been completed over the last 17 years, we can conclude that internal fires in nuclear power plants can be an important contributor to plant risk. Methods and data are available to quantify the fire risk. These methods and data have been subjected to a series of reviews and detailed scrutiny and have been applied to a large number of plants. There is no doubt that we do not know everything about fire and its impact on a nuclear power plants. However, this lack of knowledge or uncertainty can be quantified and can be used in the decision making process. In other words, the methods entail uncertainties and limitations that are not insurmountable and there is little or no basis for the results of a fire risk analysis fail to support a decision process

  12. Methodology for Safety Assessment Applied to Predisposal Waste Management. Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) 2004–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) (2004–2010) The IAEA’s progamme on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) focused on approaches and mechanisms for application of safety assessment methodologies for the predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts, which have since been incorporated into IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-3, Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. In 2005, an initial specification was developed for the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software tool to apply the SADRWMS flowcharts. In 2008, an in-depth application of the SAFRAN tool and the SADRWMS methodology was carried out on the predisposal management facilities of the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology Radioactive Waste Management Centre (TINT Facility). This publication summarizes the content and outcomes of the SADRWMS programme. The Chairman’s Report of the SADRWMS Project and the Report of the TINT test case are provided on the CD-ROM which accompanies this report

  13. Spent Fuel Dissolution and Source Term Modelling in Safety Assessment. Report from a Workshop. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This report describes a workshop that was organised by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for assessment of the handling of near-field radionuclide retention processes by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The general objective with this type of meeting is to improve the knowledge and awareness of recent developments and to provide preliminary review comments. A number of SKB reports provided the general background for the workshop discussions. One report addresses the release of radionuclides from spent fuel, another the concentration limits related to radionuclide solubility and a third buffer radionuclide sorption and migration parameters. These reports comprise a basis for the handling of the spent fuel, solubility and sorption processes in new complete safety assessment SR-Can. The discussion and analysis of these background reports at the workshop therefore provide an essential element of preparation for the planned review of SR-Can. The review comments provided in this report are nonetheless of a preliminary character since the SR-Can report was not available at the time of the workshop and details about the incorporation of various potential safety features into the entirety of safety assessment were not known. The present report sets out the detailed objectives and format of the workshop in Section 2. Section 3 provides a high-level overview of processes that need to be taken into account. In Section 4, there is a brief discussion about the chemical and physical environment near the engineered barriers. Section 5 gives a more detailed description of spent fuel processes that affect the radionuclide releases. In Section 6, the key issues for radionuclide chemistry and the estimation of concentration limits for various radionuclides are discussed. Section 7 discusses radionuclide sorption and migration in the buffer and Section 8 presents overall conclusions from the workshop.

  14. An integrated quality function deployment and capital budgeting methodology for occupational safety and health as a systems thinking approach: the case of the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Esra

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated methodology for Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and a 0-1 knapsack model is proposed for occupational safety and health as a systems thinking approach. The House of Quality (HoQ) in QFD methodology is a systematic tool to consider the inter-relationships between two factors. In this paper, three HoQs are used to consider the interrelationships between tasks and hazards, hazards and events, and events and preventive/protective measures. The final priority weights of events are defined by considering their project-specific preliminary weights, probability of occurrence, and effects on the victim and the company. The priority weights of the preventive/protective measures obtained in the last HoQ are fed into a 0-1 knapsack model for the investment decision. Then, the selected preventive/protective measures can be adapted to the task design. The proposed step-by-step methodology can be applied to any stage of a project to design the workplace for occupational safety and health, and continuous improvement for safety is endorsed by the closed loop characteristic of the integrated methodology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sargent-IV Project. Development of new methodologies for safety analysis of Generation IV reactors; Proyecto SARGEB-IV. Desarrollo de nuevas metodologias de analisis de seguridad para reactores de Generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, C.; Gallego, E.; Jimenez, G.

    2013-07-01

    The main result of this paper is the proposal for the addition of new ingredients in the safety analysis methodologies for Generation-IV reactors that integrates the features of probabilistic safety analysis within deterministic. This ensures a higher degree of integration between the classical deterministic and probabilistic methodologies.

  16. Safety and tolerability of extended-release niacin-laropiprant: Pooled analyses for 11,310 patients in 12 controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, James; Bays, Harold; Gleim, Gilbert; Mitchel, Yale; Kuznetsova, Olga; Sapre, Aditi; Sirah, Waheeda; Maccubbin, Darbie

    2015-01-01

    The Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events (HPS2-THRIVE) showed that adding extended-release niacin-laropiprant (ERN-LRPT) to statin provided no incremental cardiovascular benefit vs placebo (PBO). ERN-LRPT was also associated with an excess of serious adverse experiences (AEs), some of which were unexpected (infections and bleeding). These findings led to the withdrawal of ERN-LRPT from all markets. We examined the safety profile of ERN-LRPT vs the comparators ERN alone and statins in the ERN-LRPT development program to assess whether similar safety signals were observed to those seen in HPS-THRIVE and whether these might be attributed to ERN or LRPT. Postrandomization safety data from 12 clinical studies, 12 to 52 weeks in duration and involving 11,310 patients, were analyzed across 3 treatments: (1) ERN-LRPT; (2) ERN-NSP (ERN, Merck & Co, Inc or Niaspan [NSP], Abbott Laboratories); and (3) statin-PBO (statin or PBO). The safety profiles of ERN-LRPT and ERN-NSP were similar, except for less flushing with ERN-LRPT. Nonflushing AEs reported more frequently with ERN-LRPT or ERN-NSP than with statin-PBO were mostly nonserious and typical of niacin (nausea, diarrhea, and increased blood glucose). There was no evidence for an increased risk of serious AEs related to diabetes, muscle, infection, or bleeding. Pooled data from 11,310 patients revealed that, except for reduced flushing, the safety profile of ERN-LRPT was similar to that of ERN-NSP; LRPT did not appear to adversely affect the side-effect profile of ERN. The inability to replicate the unexpected AE findings in HPS2-THRIVE could be because of the smaller sample size and substantially shorter duration of these studies. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres: long-term follow-up in a 134-patient cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Robert J.; Minocha, Jeet; Memon, Khairuddin; Riaz, Ahsun; Gates, Vanessa L.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed; Salem, Riad [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    To validate our initial pilot study and confirm sustained safety and tumor response of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres. We hypothesized that for the same planned tissue dose, the increase in number of glass microspheres (decayed to the second week of their allowable shelf-life) administered for the same absorbed dose would result in better tumor distribution of the microspheres without causing additional adverse events. Between June 2007 and January 2010, 134 patients underwent radioembolization with extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres; data from 84 new patients were combined with data from our 50-patient pilot study cohort. Baseline and follow-up imaging and laboratory data were obtained 1 and 3 months after therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Clinical and biochemical toxicities were prospectively captured and categorized according to the Common Terminology Criteria. Response in the index lesion was assessed using WHO and EASL guidelines. The mean delivered radiation dose was 123 Gy to the target liver tissue. The mean increase in number of microspheres with this approach compared to standard {sup 90}Y glass microsphere dosimetry was 103 %, corresponding to an increase from 3.84 to 7.78 million microspheres. Clinical toxicities included fatigue (89 patients, 66 %), abdominal pain (49 patients, 36.6 %), and nausea/vomiting (25 patients, 18.7 %). Grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was seen in three patients (2 %). Two (1 %) of the initial 50-patient cohort showed gastroduodenal ulcers; gastroduodenal ulcers were not seen in any of the subsequent 84 patients. According to WHO and EASL guidelines, response rates were 48 % and 57 %, respectively, and 21 % demonstrated a complete EASL response. This study showed sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres in a larger, 134-patient cohort. The increase in number of microspheres administered theoretically resulted in better tumor distribution of the

  18. Drug research methodology. Volume 1, The alcohol-highway safety experience and its applicability to other drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a workshop concerning the alcohol and highway safety experience, which includes research efforts to define the drinking-driving problem and societal responses to reduce the increased highway safety risk attributab...

  19. Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasiulevicius, Audrius

    2003-01-01

    This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and

  20. Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasiulevicius, Audrius

    2003-07-01

    This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and

  1. Review of SKB's interim report of SR-Can: SKI's and SSI's evaluation of SKB's up-dated methodology for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Moberg, Leif; Wiebert, Anders; Xu Shulan; Stroemberg, Bo; Kautsky, Fritz; Lilja, Christina; Simic, Eva; Sundstroem, Benny; Toverud, Oeivind

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.'s (SKB) interim report of the safety assessment SR-Can (SKB TR 04-11), conducted by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). SKB's interim report describes and exemplifies the safety assessment methodology that SKB plans to use in the oncoming licence applications for an encapsulation plant and a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The authorities' review takes into account the findings of an international peer review of SKB's interim report. The authorities conclude that SKB has improved its safety assessment methodology in several aspects compared to earlier safety reports. Among other things the authorities commend SKB for giving a comprehensive account of relevant regulations and guidance, and for the systematic approach to identification and documentation of features, events and processes that need to be considered in the safety assessment. However, the authorities also conclude that important parts of SKB's method need to be further developed before they are mature enough to be used as a basis for a license application. The authorities' overall assessment is summarised in chapter 8 of this report

  2. Status of IAEA CRPI31018 “Development of Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety System Performance in Advanced Reactors”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subki, Hadid M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of research coordination meeting: • To review progress and milestones on all research activities; • To discuss the preliminary experimental data obtained from the Natural Circulation Loop Facility L2 in Italy constructed for the assessment of different methodologies for the evaluation of the reliability of passive safety system; • To discuss lessons-to be-learned from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident in Japan and its implications to near future R&D needs on thermal-hydraulics and reactor safety; • To develop an outline of integrated annual technical report and future collaboration plan

  3. Third (3rd) Research Coordination Meeting of the CRP on Development of Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety System Performance in Advanced Reactors. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the meeting: • To review progress and milestones on all research activities; • To discuss the preliminary experimental data obtained from the Natural Circulation Loop Facility L2 in Italy constructed for the assessment of different methodologies for the evaluation of the reliability of passive safety system; • To discuss lessons-to be-learned from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident in Japan and its implications to near future R&D needs on thermal-hydraulics and reactor safety; • To develop an outline of integrated annual technical report and future collaboration plan

  4. Dynamic event Tress applied to sequences Full Spectrum LOCA. Calculating the frequency of excedeence of damage by integrated Safety Analysis Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Magan, J. J.; Fernandez, I.; Gil, J.; Marrao, H.; Queral, C.; Gonzalez-Cadelo, J.; Montero-Mayorga, J.; Rivas, J.; Ibane-Llano, C.; Izquierdo, J. M.; Sanchez-Perea, M.; Melendez, E.; Hortal, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) methodology, developed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety council (CSN), has been applied to obtain the dynamic Event Trees (DETs) for full spectrum Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) of a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR plant. The purpose of this ISA application is to obtain the Damage Excedence Frequency (DEF) for the LOCA Event Tree by taking into account the uncertainties in the break area and the operator actuation time needed to cool down and de pressurize reactor coolant system by means of steam generator. Simulations are performed with SCAIS, a software tool which includes a dynamic coupling with MAAP thermal hydraulic code. The results show the capability of the ISA methodology to obtain the DEF taking into account the time uncertainty in human actions. (Author)

  5. Methodology and applicability of a safety and demonstration concept for a HAW final repository on clays. Safety concept and verification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Andre; Meleshyn, Artur

    2014-08-01

    The report describes the site independent frame for a safety concept and verification strategy for a final repository for heat generating wastes in clay rock. In the safety concept planning specifications and technical measures are summarized that are supposed to allow a safe inclusion of radionuclides in the host rock. The verification strategy defines the systematic procedures for the development of fundamentals and scenarios as basis for the demonstration of the safety case and to allow the prognosis of appropriateness. The report includes the boundary conditions, the safety concept for the post-closure phase and the verification strategy for the post-closure phase.

  6. Selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals. Volume III. User's manual for the multi-attribute utility package (MAUP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, M.; Turnage, J.J.; Husseiny, A.A.; Ritzman, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The computer program which was developed to apply the multi-attribute utility (MAU) methodology to the selection of LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. An overview of the MAU method is presented, followed by a description of the steps incorporated in developing individual modules for use in the multi-attribute utility package (MAUP). Each module is described complete with usage information and an example of computer output

  7. A randomized, double-blind study of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets versus oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for cancer pain: efficacy and safety in Japanese cancer patients (EXHEAL: a Phase III study of EXtended-release HydromorphonE for cAncer pain reLief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Inoue,1 Yoji Saito,2 Satoru Tsuneto,3 Etsuko Aruga,4 Azusa Ide,1 Yasuyuki Kakurai5 1Clinical Development Department, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo, Tokyo,2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Shimane, 3Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 4Department of Palliative Medicine, School of Medicine, Teikyo University, Tokyo, 5Biostatistics and Data Management Department, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo, Tokyo, Japan Background: In Japan, there are limited options for switching opioid analgesics. Hydromorphone is an opioid analgesic that is routinely used instead of morphine for cancer pain; however, it is not yet available in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone (DS-7113b extended-release tablets in opioid-naïve patients with cancer pain not relieved by non-opioid analgesics.Subjects and methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. A double-dummy method was used for blinding. Each randomized subject received either hydromorphone extended-release tablets plus placebo oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets 4 mg/day (n=88 or placebo hydromorphone extended-release tablets plus oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets 10 mg/day (n=93 orally for 7 days (once-daily dosing for hydromorphone and twice-daily dosing for oxycodone. The doses were adjusted as necessary. Efficacy was evaluated by change in visual analog scale (VAS score from baseline to completion of treatment.Results: The between-group difference in least squares mean changes in VAS score from baseline to completion or discontinuation of treatment was −0.4 mm (95% CI −5.9 to 5 mm by analysis of covariance where the baseline VAS score was used as a covariate. The upper limit of the 95% CI was below 10 mm, which was predefined as the noninferiority limit. This verified the noninferiority of hydromorphone tablets

  8. Quantifying reactor safety margins: Application of code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty evaluation methodology to a large-break, loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.; Duffey, R.; Wilson, G.; Griffith, P.; Lellouche, G.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.; Wulff, W.; Zuber, N.

    1989-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a revised rule for loss-of-coolant accident/emergency core cooling system (ECCS) analysis of light water reactors to allow the use of best-estimate computer codes in safety analysis as an option. A key feature of this option requires the licensee to quantify the uncertainty of the calculations and include that uncertainty when comparing the calculated results with acceptance limits provided in 10 CFR Part 50. To support the revised ECCS rule and illustrate its application, the NRC and its contractors and consultants have developed and demonstrated an uncertainty evaluation methodology called code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty (CSAU). The CSAU methodology and an example application described in this report demonstrate that uncertainties in complex phenomena can be quantified. The methodology is structured, traceable, and practical, as is needed in the regulatory arena. The methodology is systematic and comprehensive as it addresses and integrates the scenario, experiments, code, and plant to resolve questions concerned with: (a) code capability to scale-up processes from test facility to full-scale nuclear power plants; (b) code applicability to safety studies of a postulated accident scenario in a specified nuclear power plant; and (c) quantifying uncertainties of calculated results. 127 refs., 55 figs., 40 tabs

  9. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  10. Quantitative dynamic reliability evaluation of AP1000 passive safety systems by using FMEA and GO-FLOW methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim Muhammad; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Yang Ming

    2014-01-01

    The passive safety systems utilized in advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) design such as AP1000 should be more reliable than that of active safety systems of conventional PWR by less possible opportunities of hardware failures and human errors (less human intervention). The objectives of present study are to evaluate the dynamic reliability of AP1000 plant in order to check the effectiveness of passive safety systems by comparing the reliability-related issues with that of active safety systems in the event of the big accidents. How should the dynamic reliability of passive safety systems properly evaluated? And then what will be the comparison of reliability results of AP1000 passive safety systems with the active safety systems of conventional PWR. For this purpose, a single loop model of AP1000 passive core cooling system (PXS) and passive containment cooling system (PCCS) are assumed separately for quantitative reliability evaluation. The transient behaviors of these passive safety systems are taken under the large break loss-of-coolant accident in the cold leg. The analysis is made by utilizing the qualitative method failure mode and effect analysis in order to identify the potential failure mode and success-oriented reliability analysis tool called GO-FLOW for quantitative reliability evaluation. The GO-FLOW analysis has been conducted separately for PXS and PCCS systems under the same accident. The analysis results show that reliability of AP1000 passive safety systems (PXS and PCCS) is increased due to redundancies and diversity of passive safety subsystems and components, and four stages automatic depressurization system is the key subsystem for successful actuation of PXS and PCCS system. The reliability results of PCCS system of AP1000 are more reliable than that of the containment spray system of conventional PWR. And also GO-FLOW method can be utilized for reliability evaluation of passive safety systems. (author)

  11. Effect of Concomitant Medications on the Safety and Efficacy of Extended-Release Carbidopa-Levodopa (IPX066) in Patients With Advanced Parkinson Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeWitt, Peter A; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Rubens, Robert; Khanna, Sarita; Kell, Sherron; Gupta, Suneel

    Extended-release (ER) carbidopa-levodopa (CD-LD) (IPX066/RYTARY/NUMIENT) produces improvements in "off" time, "on" time without troublesome dyskinesia, and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores compared with immediate-release (IR) CD-LD or IR CD-LD plus entacapone (CLE). Post hoc analyses of 2 ER CD-LD phase 3 trials evaluated whether the efficacy and safety of ER CD-LD relative to the respective active comparators were altered by concomitant medications (dopaminergic agonists, monoamine oxidase B [MAO-B] inhibitors, or amantadine). ADVANCE-PD (n = 393) assessed safety and efficacy of ER CD-LD versus IR CD-LD. ASCEND-PD (n = 91) evaluated ER CD-LD versus CLE. In both studies, IR- and CLE-experienced patients underwent a 6-week, open-label dose-conversion period to ER CD-LD prior to randomization. For analysis, the randomized population was divided into 3 subgroups: dopaminergic agonists, rasagiline or selegiline, and amantadine. For each subgroup, changes from baseline in PD diary measures ("off" time and "on" time with and without troublesome dyskinesia), Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale Parts II + III scores, and adverse events were analyzed, comparing ER CD-LD with the active comparator. Concomitant dopaminergic agonist or MAO-B inhibitor use did not diminish the efficacy (improvement in "off" time and "on" time without troublesome dyskinesia) of ER CD-LD compared with IR CD-LD or CLE, whereas the improvement with concomitant amantadine failed to reach significance. Safety and tolerability were similar among the subgroups, and ER CD-LD did not increase troublesome dyskinesia. For patients on oral LD regimens and taking a dopaminergic agonist, and/or a MAO-B inhibitor, changing from an IR to an ER CD-LD formulation provides approximately an additional hour of "good" on time.

  12. Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment

  13. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  14. A long-term, open-label safety study of single-entity hydrocodone bitartrate extended release for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamachu S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Srinivas Nalamachu,1,2 Richard L Rauck,3 Martin E Hale,4 Orlando G Florete Jr,5 Cynthia Y Robinson,6 Stephen J Farr,6 1International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, USA; 2Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 3Carolinas Pain Institute, Center for Clinical Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Gold Coast Research, LLC, Weston, FL, USA; 5Institute of Pain Management, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 6Zogenix, Inc., Emeryville, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the long-term safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of single-entity extended-release hydrocodone in opioid-experienced subjects with moderate to severe chronic pain not receiving adequate pain relief or experiencing intolerable side effects from their current opioid. Methods: This multicenter, open-label study started with a conversion/titration phase (≤6 weeks where subjects (n=638 were converted to individualized doses (range 20–300 mg of extended-release hydrocodone dosed every 12 hours, followed by a 48-week maintenance phase (n=424. The primary objective (safety and tolerability and the secondary objective (long-term efficacy as measured by change in average pain score; 0= no pain, 10= worst imaginable pain were monitored throughout the study. Results: Subjects were treated for a range of chronic pain etiologies, including osteoarthritis, low back pain, and neuropathic and musculoskeletal conditions. The mean hydrocodone equivalent dose at screening was 68.9±62.2 mg/day and increased to 139.5±81.7 mg/day at the start of the maintenance phase. Unlimited dose adjustments were permitted at the investigator's discretion during the maintenance phase, reflecting typical clinical practice. No unexpected safety issues were reported. Common adverse events during the conversion/titration and maintenance phases, respectively, were constipation (11.3% and 12.5%, nausea (10.7% and 9.9%, vomiting (4.1% and 9.7%, and somnolence (7

  15. Safety Assessment for Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants: Methodology and Application to the Analysis of the HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO Conceptual Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Sanz, J.; Gomez del Rio, J.

    2001-06-01

    Although the safety and environmental (S & E) characteristics of fusion energy have long been emphasized, these benefits are not automatically achieved. To maximize the potential S & E attractiveness of the inertial fusion energy (IFE), analyses must be performed early in the designs so that lessons can be learned and intelligent decisions made. In this work we have introduced for the first time heat transfer and thermal-hydraulics calculations as part of a state-of-the-art set of codes and libraries in order to establish an updated methodology for IFE safety analysis. We have focused our efforts primarily on two IFE power plant conceptual designs: HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO. To some degree, these designs represent the extremes in IFE power plant designs. Also, a preliminary safety assessment has been performed for a generic target fabrication facility producing various types of targets and using various production techniques. Although this study cannot address all issues and hazards posed by an IFE power plant, it advances our understanding of radiological safety of such facilities. This will enable better comparisons between IFE designs and competing technologies from the safety point of view.

  16. Safety assessment methodologies and their application in development of near surface waste disposal facilities - the ASAM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of ASAM project covers near surface disposal facilities for all types of low and intermediate level wastes with emphasis of the post-closure safety assessment.The objectives are to explore practical application to a range of disposal facilities for a number of purposes e.g. development of design concepts, safety re-assessment, upgrading safety and to develop practical approaches to assist regulators, operators and other experts in review of safety assessment. The task of the Co-ordination Group are: reassessment of existing facilities - use of safety assessment in decision making on selection of options (volunteer site Hungary); disused sealed sources - evaluation of disposability of disused sealed sources in near surface facilities (volunteer site Saratov, Russia); mining and minerals processing waste - evaluation of long-term safety (volunteer site pmc S. Africa). An agreement on the scope and objectives of the project are reached and the further consideration, such as human intrusion/institutional control/security; waste from oil/gas industry; very low level waste; categorization of sealed sources coordinated with other IAEA activities are outlined

  17. Analysis of Software Development Methodologies to Build Safety Software Applications for the SATEX-II: A Mexican Experimental Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cisneros, Jorge; Vargas Martinez, Hector; Pedroza Melendez, Alejandro; Alonso Arevalo, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Mexico is a country where the experience to build software for satellite applications is beginning. This is a delicate situation because in the near future we will need to develop software for the SATEX-II (Mexican Experimental Satellite). SATEX- II is a SOMECyTA's project (the Mexican Society of Aerospace Science and Technology). We have experienced applying software development methodologies, like TSP (Team Software Process) and SCRUM in other areas. Then, we analyzed these methodologies and we concluded: these can be applied to develop software for the SATEX-II, also, we supported these methodologies with SSP-05-0 Standard in particular with ESA PSS-05-11. Our analysis was focusing on main characteristics of each methodology and how these methodologies could be used with the ESA PSS 05-0 Standards. Our outcomes, in general, may be used by teams who need to build small satellites, but, in particular, these are going to be used when we will build the on board software applications for the SATEX-II.

  18. A review of the current state-of-the-art methodology for handling bias and uncertainty in performing criticality safety evaluations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.

    1994-10-01

    The methodology for handling bias and uncertainty when calculational methods are used in criticality safety evaluations (CSE's) is a rapidly evolving technology. The changes in the methodology are driven by a number of factors. One factor responsible for changes in the methodology for handling bias and uncertainty in CSE's within the overview of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is a shift in the overview function from a ''site'' perception to a more uniform or ''national'' perception. Other causes for change or improvement in the methodology for handling calculational bias and uncertainty are; (1) an increased demand for benchmark criticals data to expand the area (range) of applicability of existing data, (2) a demand for new data to supplement existing benchmark criticals data, (3) the increased reliance on (or need for) computational benchmarks which supplement (or replace) experimental measurements in critical assemblies, and (4) an increased demand for benchmark data applicable to the expanded range of conditions and configurations encountered in DOE site restoration and remediation

  19. Genusa Bepu methodologies for the safety analysis of BWRs; Metodologias Bepu de Genusa para el analisis de seguridad de reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, M.; Garcia, J.; Goodson, C.; Ibarra, L.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the BEPU methodologies developed by General Electric-Hitachi (GEH) for the evaluation of the BWR reactor safety analysis based on the TRACG best-estimate code. These methodologies are applicable to a wide range of events, operational transients (AOO), anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), loss of coolant accidents (LOCA) and instability events; to different BWR types operating commercially. General Electric (GE( designs and other vendors, including Generation III+ESBWR; to the new operation strategies, and to all types of BWR fuel. Their application achieves, among other benefits, a better understanding of the overall plant response and an improvement in margins to the operating limits; thus, the increase of flexibility in reactor operation and reduction in generation costs. (Author)

  20. Efficacy and safety of extended- versus immediate-release pramipexole in Japanese patients with advanced and L-dopa-undertreated Parkinson disease: a double-blind, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Yamamoto, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Sadako; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Kagimura, Tatsuro; Sarashina, Akiko; Rascol, Olivier; Schapira, Anthony H V; Barone, Paolo; Hauser, Robert A; Poewe, Werner

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and trough plasma levels of pramipexole extended-release (ER) and pramipexole immediate-release (IR), and to assess the effects of overnight switching from an IR to an ER formulation, in L-dopa-treated patients with Parkinson disease (PD). After a 1- to 4-week screening/enrollment, 112 patients who had exhibited L-dopa-related problems or were receiving suboptimal L-dopa dosage were randomized in double-blind, double-dummy, 1:1 fashion to pramipexole ER once daily or pramipexole IR 2 to 3 times daily for 12 weeks, both titrated to a maximum daily dose of 4.5 mg. Successful completers of double-blind treatment were switched to open-label pramipexole ER, beginning with a 4-week dose-adjustment phase. Among the double-blind treatment patients (n = 56 in each group), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Parts II+III total scores decreased significantly from baseline and to a similar degree with pramipexole ER and IR formulations. In each group, 47 double-blind patients (83.9%) reported adverse events (AEs), requiring withdrawal of 3 ER patients (5.4%) and 2 IR patients (3.6%). Trough plasma levels at steady state (at the same doses and dose-normalized concentrations) were also similar with both formulations. Among open-label treatment patients (n = 53 from IR to ER), 83% were successfully switched (no worsening of PD symptoms) to pramipexole ER. In L-dopa-treated patients, pramipexole ER and pramipexole IR demonstrated similar efficacy, safety, tolerability, and trough plasma levels. Patients can be safely switched overnight from pramipexole IR to pramipexole ER with no impact on efficacy.

  1. A Study on SE Methodology for Design of Big Data Pilot Platform to Improve Nuclear Power Plant Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Junguk; Cha, Jae-Min; Kim, Jun-Young; Park, Sung-Ho; Yeom, Choong-Sub [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A big data concept is expected to have a large impact on the safety of the nuclear power plant (NPP) from the beginning of the big data era. Though there are high interests on the NPP safety with the big data, almost no studies on the logical and physical structures and the systematic design methods of the big data platform for the NPP safety have been conducted. For the current study, a new big data pilot platform for the NPP safety is designed with the main focus on the health monitoring and early warning systems, and a tailored design process based on the systems engineering approaches is proposed to manage inherent high complexity of the platform design. The big data concept is expected to have a large impact on the safety of the NPP. So, in this study, the big data pilot platform for the health monitoring and early warning of the NPP is designed. For this, the development process based on the SE approach for the pilot platform is proposed and the design results along with the proposed process are also presented. Implementation of the individual modules and integrations of those are in currently progress.

  2. A Study on SE Methodology for Design of Big Data Pilot Platform to Improve Nuclear Power Plant Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Junguk; Cha, Jae-Min; Kim, Jun-Young; Park, Sung-Ho; Yeom, Choong-Sub

    2016-01-01

    A big data concept is expected to have a large impact on the safety of the nuclear power plant (NPP) from the beginning of the big data era. Though there are high interests on the NPP safety with the big data, almost no studies on the logical and physical structures and the systematic design methods of the big data platform for the NPP safety have been conducted. For the current study, a new big data pilot platform for the NPP safety is designed with the main focus on the health monitoring and early warning systems, and a tailored design process based on the systems engineering approaches is proposed to manage inherent high complexity of the platform design. The big data concept is expected to have a large impact on the safety of the NPP. So, in this study, the big data pilot platform for the health monitoring and early warning of the NPP is designed. For this, the development process based on the SE approach for the pilot platform is proposed and the design results along with the proposed process are also presented. Implementation of the individual modules and integrations of those are in currently progress

  3. Application of disturbance analysis methodology to safety related transients in the electrical systems of a nuclear power plant. Report UCLA-ENG-8056

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.; Okrent, D.

    1981-08-01

    The present study tries to address the question of whether or not the computerized on-line procedures known under the name of DAS (Disturbance Analysis System) can be usefully and successfully applied to provide timely diagnostics and operational suggestions during the occurrence of a major electrical transient in the auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant. The perspective of the study is from the plant-safety point of view. A short definition of DAS methodology features and capabilities is presented. A discussion of some of the problems of a general nature that are encountered in DAS safety-oriented applications are also included. The event insufficient power on both emergency buses, with reference to a particular plant dsign (San Onofre 1), is presented. Some transients that have recently occurred in the power supply systems of operating plants are examined. Whether or not a DAS could have successfully dealt with such occurrences is considered

  4. Application of disturbance analysis methodology to safety related transients in the electrical systems of a nuclear power plant. Report UCLA-ENG-8056

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarro, S.; Okrent, D.

    1981-08-01

    The present study tries to address the question of whether or not the computerized on-line procedures known under the name of DAS (Disturbance Analysis System) can be usefully and successfully applied to provide timely diagnostics and operational suggestions during the occurrence of a major electrical transient in the auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant. The perspective of the study is from the plant-safety point of view. A short definition of DAS methodology features and capabilities is presented. A discussion of some of the problems of a general nature that are encountered in DAS safety-oriented applications are also included. The event insufficient power on both emergency buses, with reference to a particular plant dsign (San Onofre 1), is presented. Some transients that have recently occurred in the power supply systems of operating plants are examined. Whether or not a DAS could have successfully dealt with such occurrences is considered.

  5. Efficacy and safety of a flexible extended regimen of ethinylestradiol/drospirenone for the treatment of dysmenorrhea: a multicenter, randomized, open-label, active-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoeda M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mikio Momoeda,1 Masami Kondo,2 Joerg Elliesen,3 Masanobu Yasuda,2 Shigetomo Yamamoto,4 Tasuku Harada5 1Department of Integrated Women’s Health, St Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, 2Product Development, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 3Global Clinical Development, Bayer AG, Berlin, Germany; 4Medical Affairs, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Tottori, Japan Background: Dysmenorrhea is a common condition in women, which is characterized by menstrual pain. Low-dose estrogen/progestin combined oral contraceptives have been shown to reduce the severity of dysmenorrhea symptoms, and a 28-day cyclic regimen of ethinylestradiol/drospirenone (28d regimen is approved for this indication in Japan. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a flexible extended regimen of ethinylestradiol/drospirenone (flexible regimen in Japanese women with dysmenorrhea. Methods: This multicenter, open-label study was performed in Japanese women with dysmenorrhea who, after a baseline observational phase, were randomized to receive ethinylestradiol 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg in a flexible regimen (one tablet each day for 24–120 days followed by a 4-day tablet-free interval or in the standard 28d regimen (one tablet each day for 24 days, followed by 4 days of placebo tablets for six cycles. The primary endpoint was the number of days with dysmenorrhea of at least mild intensity over a 140-day evaluation period. Dysmenorrhea scores, bleeding patterns, and other pain-related parameters were also assessed. Results: A total of 216 women (mean age 29.7 years were randomized to the flexible regimen (n=108 or 28d regimen (n=108 and 212 were included in the full analysis sets (flexible regimen, n=105; 28d regimen, n=107. Women in the flexible-regimen group reported a mean of 3.4 fewer days with dysmenorrheic pain than women in the 28d-regimen group, with similar decreases in

  6. Proposal of safety design methodologies for an HTGR-hydrogen production system. Mainly on countermeasures against fire and explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Hada, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Syusaku

    1996-03-01

    Among key issues of the safety design for an HTGR-hydrogen production system is to ensure the safety of the nuclear reactor against fire and explosion accidents in the hydrogen production plant. The fire and explosion accidents in the hydrogen production plant are categorized into the following two cases; Accidents inside the reactor building (R/B) and accidents outside the R/B. Against accidents inside the R/B, the proposed safety design concept is to prevent the occurrence of the accidents based on the defence in depth concept. The piping system and/or heat transfer tubes which have the potential possibility of combustible materials ingress into the R/B due to the failure are designed at the highest aseismic level to prevent the failure against severe earthquake. Even if the failure occurs, the piping trench and related compartments are fulfilled with nitrogen so as to prevent the occurrence of accidents. The proposed safety design concept for the accidents outside the R/B is the mitigation of effects of accidents. Proposed countermeasures is to take the safe distance between the hydrogen production plant and the items important to safety in the nuclear plant. We showed that the anticipated accidents to estimate the safe distance are large scale pool burning, fireball, pressure vessel burst and vapor cloud explosion. Especially, new estimating concept to establish the safe distance is proposed for the vapor cloud explosion. To reduce the safe distance, we proposed the underground non-pressurized storage tank and ventilation system for the storage of large amount of combustible liquid. (author). 61 refs

  7. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability

  8. Safety analysis methodology for Chinshan nuclear power plant spent fuel pool under Fukushima-like accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hao-Tzu [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China). Research Atomic Energy Council; Li, Wan-Yun; Wang, Jong-Rong; Tseng, Yung-Shin; Chen, Hsiung-Chih; Shih, Chunkuan; Chen, Shao-Wen [National Tsing Hua Univ., HsinChu, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science

    2017-03-15

    Chinshan nuclear power plant (NPP), a BWR/4 plant, is the first NPP in Taiwan. After Fukushima NPP disaster occurred, there is more concern for the safety of NPPs in Taiwan. Therefore, in order to estimate the safety of Chinshan NPP spent fuel pool (SFP), by using TRACE, MELCOR, CFD, and FRAPTRAN codes, INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, R.O.C.) performed the safety analysis of Chinshan NPP SFP. There were two main steps in this research. The first step was the establishment of Chinshan NPP SFP models. And the transient analysis under the SFP cooling system failure condition (Fukushima-like accident) was performed. In addition, the sensitive study of the time point for water spray was also performed. The next step was the fuel rod performance analysis by using FRAPTRAN and TRACE's results. Finally, the animation model of Chinshan NPP SFP was presented by using the animation function of SNAP with MELCOR analysis results.

  9. Application in nuclear engineering: methodology of innovative nuclear reactors: approaches to the safety of future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alramady, A.M.K

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes RELAP5 and MATLAB/SIMULINK computer codes for thermal hydraulic analysis of a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR). The two codes are used to calculate the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the reactor core and the primary loop under steady-state and hypothetical accidents conditions.New designs of nuclear power plants are directed to increase safety by many methods like reducing the dependence on active parts (such as safety pumps, fans, and diesel generators ) and replacing them with passive features such as gravity draining of cooling water from tanks, and natural circulation of water and air. In this work, high and medium pressure injection pumps are replaced by passive injection components. Different break sizes in cold leg pipe are simulated to analyze to what degree the plant is safe (without any operator action) by using only these passive components. The passive design means operators would not need to take immediate action after an accident, with the reactor ,instead, safely shutting down on its own. Different accident scenarios were simulated in this thesis as loss of coolant accidents and station blackout accidents, and complete passive safety systems used to mitigate theses accidents.

  10. Review of methodologies for analysis of safety incidents at NPPs. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1998-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants around the world and the prevention of incidents in these installations remain key concerns for the nuclear community. In this connection, the feedback of operating experience plays a major role: every nuclear power plant or nuclear utility needs to have a system in place for collecting information on unusual events, whether these are incidents or merely deviations from normal operation. Reporting to the regulatory body of important events and lessons learned is normally carried out through the national reporting schemes based on regulatory reporting requirements. The most important lessons learned are further shared internationally, through, for example, the Joint IAEA/NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) or the event information exchange of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). In order to properly assess the event, an adequate event investigation methodology has to be applied, which leads to the identification of correct root causes. Once these root causes have been ascertained, appropriate corrective actions can be established and corresponding lessons can be drawn. The overall goal of root cause analysis is the prevention of events or their recurrence and thus the overall improvement in plant safety. In 1998, the IAEA established a co-ordinated research project with the objective of exploring root cause methodologies and techniques currently in use in Member States, evaluating their strengths and limitations and developing criteria for appropriate event investigation methodologies. This report is the outcome of four years of co-ordinated research which involved 15 national and international research organizations

  11. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  12. Efficacy and safety of extended-release oxcarbazepine (Oxtellar XR™) as adjunctive therapy in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, JA; Baroldi, P; Brittain, ST; Johnson, JK

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of once-daily 1200 mg and 2400 mg SPN-804 (Oxtellar XR™, Supernus Pharmaceuticals), an extended-release tablet formulation of oxcarbazepine (OXC), added to 1-3 concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. Methods The Prospective, Randomized Study of OXC XR in Subjects with Partial Epilepsy Refractory (PROSPER) study was a multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group Phase 3 study. The primary efficacy endpoint was median percent reduction from baseline in monthly (28-day) seizure frequency for the 16-week double-blind treatment period in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population with analyzable seizure data. Other efficacy analyses included proportion of patients with ≥ 50% seizure reduction, proportion of patients seizure free, and the relationship between clinical response and plasma concentration. Results Median percent reduction was -28.7% for placebo, −38.2% (P = 0.08 vs placebo) for once-daily SPN-804 1200 mg, and −42.9% (P = 0.003) for SPN-804 2400 mg. Responder rates were 28.1%, 36.1% (P = 0.08), and 40.7% (P = 0.02); 16-week seizure-free rates in a pragmatic ITT analysis were 3.3%, 4.9% (P = 0.59), and 11.4% (P = 0.008), respectively. When data were analyzed separately for study site clusters, a post hoc analysis demonstrated that both SPN-804 dosages were significantly superior to placebo in median percent seizure reduction (placebo: −13.3%; 1200 mg: −34.5%, P = 0.02; 2400 mg: −52.7%, P = 0.006) in the North American study site cluster. A concentration–response analysis also supported a clinically meaningful effect for 1200 mg. Adverse event types reflected the drug's established profile. Adverse event frequency was consistent with a pharmacokinetic profile in which SPN-804 produces lower peak plasma concentrations vs immediate-release OXC. Once-daily dosing was not

  13. Development of a methodology for safety classification on a non-reactor nuclear facility illustrated using an specific example; Entwicklung einer Methodik zur Sicherheitsklassifizierung fuer eine kerntechnische Anlage ohne Reaktor an einem spezifischen Beispiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuermann, F.; Lehradt, O.; Traichel, A. [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    To realize the safety of personnel and environment systems and components of nuclear facilities are classified according to their potential danger into safety classes. Based on this classification different demands on the manufacturing quality result. The objective of this work is to present the standardized method developed by NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services for the categorization into the safety classes restricted to Non-reactor nuclear facilities (NRNF). Exemplary the methodology is used on the complex Russian normative system (four safety classes). For NRNF only the lower two safety classes are relevant. The classification into the lowest safety class 4 is accordingly if the maximum resulting dose following from clean-up actions in case of incidents/accidents remains below 20 mSv and the volume activity restrictions of set in NRB-99/2009 are met. The methodology is illustrated using an example. In short the methodology consists of: - Determination of the working time to remove consequences of incidents, - Calculation of the dose resulting from direct radiation and due to inhalation during these works. The application of this methodology avoids over-conservative approaches. As a result some previously higher classified equipment can be classified into the lower safety class.

  14. Switch from Immediate-release Pramipexole to Extended-release Pramipexole: The Safety and Efficacy Characteristics of Sixty-eight Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Kuzu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of switching from immediate-release pramipexole (pex to extended-release pramipexole (pex-ER. Materials and Methods: Pex-ER became available in Turkey about a year ago, since then we documented satisfactory information on patients (26 women; 38% who were switched from pex to pex-ER. We recorded pre- and post-switch pex and levodopa, equivalent doses of other anti-parkinsonian medication, and analyzed the frequency and nature of reported adverse effects. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63.3 years (range, 44-88 years, and the mean disease duration was 7.1 years (range, 1-27 years. The other drugs were levodopa (57 patients, 82.6%, entacapone (24 patients, 34.58%, rasagiline (20 patients, 29%, amantadine (18 patients, 26.1%, and apomorphine (six patients, 8.7%. Switch from pex to pex-ER was uneventful in 62 (91.2% patients. Adverse events were reported in six (8.8% patients: ankle swelling (two patients, nausea (one patient, dyskinesia (one patient, hypersexuality (one patient, and psychosis (one patient. Problems resolved with further medication change in two patients. Four patients preferred to return to pex. Conclusion: The great majority of patients (91.2% switched from three times daily pex to once daily pex-ER uneventfully. A slight increase in pex daily dose, which was tailored according to patients’ symptomatic needs, resulted in an increase in post-switch levodopa equivalent doses. Our experience is compatible with previously reported studies.

  15. Methodological approaches to developing and establishing the body of evidence on post-marketing Chinese medicine safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xing; Robinson, Nicola

    2013-07-01

    Evidence based medicine demands the highest form of scientific evidence to demonstrate the efficacy and clinical effectiveness for any therapeutic intervention in order to provide best care. It is however accepted that in the absence of scientific evidence, personal experience and expert opinion together with professional judgement are critical. Obtaining evidence for drug safety, postmarketing surveillance (PMS) has focussed on follow up of observational cohorts exposed to a particular drug in order to estimate the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Evidence on PMS of Chinese herbal products is still limited, in particular for herbal injections. The aim of this article is to suggest a new model of ascertaining the safety of Chinese medicine using a more comprehensive approach for collecting data. To collect safety data on the Chinese herbal injection, Kudiezi, a mixed methods approach is proposed using 18 hospital information systems to detect ADRs in order to prospectively observe 30,000 patients over 3 years. Evidence will also be collected using a questionnaire survey and through a sample of semi structured interviews. This information based on the expert opinion and the experience of clinicians will produce additional data on the frequency and types of side effects in clinical practice. Furthermore semi structured interviews with a random sample of patients receiving the injection will be carried out to ascertain any potential side effects missed. It is hoped that this comprehensive approach to data collection will accumulate wider evidence based on individual traditional Chinese medicine care and treatment and provide important feedback to the national data collection system to ensure completeness of ADR data recording, monitoring and any potential wider effects through developing improved ADR guidelines.

  16. The LBB methodology application results performed on the safety related piping of NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A broad overview of the leak before break (LBB) application to the Slovakian V-1 nuclear power plant is presented in the paper. LBB was applied to the primary cooling circuit and surge lines of both WWER 440 type units, and also used to assess the integrity of safety related piping in the feed water and main steam systems. Experiments and calculations performed included analyses of stresses, material mechanical properties, corrosion, fatigue damage, stability of heavy component supports, water hammer, and leak rates. A list of analysis results and recommendations are included in the paper.

  17. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  18. Hybrid causal methodology and software platform for probabilistic risk assessment and safety monitoring of socio-technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, Katrina; Wang Chengdong; Mosleh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces an integrated framework and software platform for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and safety monitoring of complex socio-technical systems. An overview of the three-layer hybrid causal logic (HCL) modeling approach and corresponding algorithms, implemented in the Trilith software platform, are provided. The HCL approach enhances typical PRA methods by quantitatively including the influence of soft causal factors introduced by human and organizational aspects of a system. The framework allows different modeling techniques to be used for different aspects of the socio-technical system. The HCL approach combines the power of traditional event sequence diagram (ESD)event tree (ET) and fault tree (FT) techniques for modeling deterministic causal paths, with the flexibility of Bayesian belief networks for modeling non-deterministic cause-effect relationships among system elements (suitable for modeling human and organizational influences). Trilith enables analysts to construct HCL models and perform quantitative risk assessment and management of complex systems. The risk management capabilities included are HCL-based risk importance measures, hazard identification and ranking, precursor analysis, safety indicator monitoring, and root cause analysis. This paper describes the capabilities of the Trilith platform and power of the HCL algorithm by use of example risk models for a type of aviation accident (aircraft taking off from the wrong runway).

  19. Hybrid causal methodology and software platform for probabilistic risk assessment and safety monitoring of socio-technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, Katrina, E-mail: kgroth@umd.ed [Center for Risk and Reliability, 0151 Glenn L. Martin Hall, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wang Chengdong; Mosleh, Ali [Center for Risk and Reliability, 0151 Glenn L. Martin Hall, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    This paper introduces an integrated framework and software platform for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and safety monitoring of complex socio-technical systems. An overview of the three-layer hybrid causal logic (HCL) modeling approach and corresponding algorithms, implemented in the Trilith software platform, are provided. The HCL approach enhances typical PRA methods by quantitatively including the influence of soft causal factors introduced by human and organizational aspects of a system. The framework allows different modeling techniques to be used for different aspects of the socio-technical system. The HCL approach combines the power of traditional event sequence diagram (ESD)event tree (ET) and fault tree (FT) techniques for modeling deterministic causal paths, with the flexibility of Bayesian belief networks for modeling non-deterministic cause-effect relationships among system elements (suitable for modeling human and organizational influences). Trilith enables analysts to construct HCL models and perform quantitative risk assessment and management of complex systems. The risk management capabilities included are HCL-based risk importance measures, hazard identification and ranking, precursor analysis, safety indicator monitoring, and root cause analysis. This paper describes the capabilities of the Trilith platform and power of the HCL algorithm by use of example risk models for a type of aviation accident (aircraft taking off from the wrong runway).

  20. Review of decision methodologies for evaluating regulatory actions affecting public health and safety. [Nuclear industry site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; McDonald, C.L.; Schilling, A.H.

    1976-12-01

    This report examines several aspects of the problems and choices facing the governmental decision maker who must take regulatory actions with multiple decision objectives and attributes. Particular attention is given to the problems facing the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and to the decision attribute of chief concern to NRC, the protection of human health and safety, with emphasis on nuclear power plants. The study was undertaken to provide background information for NRC to use in refining its process of value/impact assessment of proposed regulatory actions. The principal conclusion is that approaches to rationally consider the value and impact of proposed regulatory actions are available. These approaches can potentially improve the decision-making process and enable the agency to better explain and defend its decisions. They also permit consistent examination of the impacts, effects of uncertainty and sensitivity to various assumptions of the alternatives being considered. Finally, these approaches can help to assure that affected parties are heard and that technical information is used appropriately and to the extent possible. The principal aspects of the regulatory decision problem covered in the report are: the legal setting for regulatory decisions which affect human health and safety, elements of the decision-making process, conceptual approaches to decision making, current approaches to decision making in several Federal agencies, and the determination of acceptable risk levels.

  1. A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibzadeh, Maryam

    According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test

  2. Methodology of proving long-term safety of a salt dome repository with existing insecurities forming the background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.

    1992-01-01

    Existing methods to prove safety can consider the insecurities of input data within the framework of probabilistic analyses. The results of application calculations show that inspite of considerable band widths of input data the scattering widths of radiation exposures are comparably limited, and calculated radiation exposures are clearly below acceptable limits. Moreover it can be demonstrated that in the event of an assumed brine influx into the repository radionuclides are released only if parameter combinations are unfavourable. Therefore such incident in general does not have any radiological consequences. Insecurities in model approaches can be taken into consideration only partly so far by using alternative models, or indirectly through data insecurities. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Methodology of containment response analysis for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment -PSA of the CAREM-25 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge

    1996-01-01

    This work is part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment actually under development for the CAREM-25 Nuclear Power Station, and departs from the accident sequences already obtained and quantified by the Event Trees/Fault Trees techniques. At first, the potential containment failure modes for nuclear stations are listed, based on the experience. Then, the CAREM-25 design peculiarities are analyzed, on their possible influence on the containment behavior during, severe accidents. Then Plan Damage States are then defined. Furthermore, Containment Damage States are also defined, and Containment Event Trees are built for each Plant Damage State. Those sequences considered representative from the annual probability (those which exceed or equal a probability of 1E-09 per year, are used to quantify the combinations of Plant Damage States/Containment Damage States, based on the estimation of a Vulnerability Matrix. (author)

  4. Living probabilistic safety assessment of French 1300 MWe PWR nuclear power plant unit: methodology, results and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreuil Chambardel, A.; Villemeur, A.; Berger, J.P.; Moroni, J.M.

    1991-02-01

    Launched in 1986 by Electricite de France, the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of a French 1300 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (called PSA 1300) was completed in 1989. The first objective was to assess the annual core damage frequency by identifying all the accident scenarii likely to contribute significantly to this frequency. The second objective of the study was to provide an automated computerized tool (software) for updating the assessment - in order to take new data and knowledge into account - and for performing numerous sensitivity studies easily. Its scope and characteristics render this study unique. Indeed, it required an effort amounting to 50 engineer-years. The results and the first lessons are presented in this paper. The PSA 1300 teachings will be extensively used for the design and operation of existing or future French nuclear power reactors

  5. Methodology and recruitment for a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the safety of wahakura for infant bedsharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipene-Leach, David; Baddock, Sally; Williams, Sheila; Jones, Raymond; Tangiora, Angeline; Abel, Sally; Taylor, Barry

    2014-09-28

    Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) has persistent high rates in deprived indigenous communities and much of this mortality is attributable to unsafe sleep environments. Whilst health promotion worldwide has concentrated on avoidance of bedsharing, the indigenous Māori community in New Zealand has reproduced a traditional flax bassinet (wahakura) designed to be used in ways that include bedsharing. To date there has been no assessment of the safety of this traditional sleeping device. This two arm randomised controlled trial is being conducted with 200 mother-baby dyads recruited from Māori communities in areas of high deprivation in the Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. They are randomised to wahakura or bassinet use and investigation includes questionnaires at baseline (pregnancy), when baby is 1, 3, and 6 months, and an overnight video sleep study at 1 month with monitoring of baby temperature and oxygen saturation, and measurement of baby urinary cotinine and maternal salivary oxytocin. Outcome measures are amount of time head covered, amount of time in thermal comfort zone, number of hypoxic events, amount of time in the assigned sleep device, amount of time breastfeeding, number of parental (non-feed related) touching infant events, amount of time in the prone sleep position, the number of behavioural arousals and the amount of time infant is awake overnight. Survey data will compare breastfeeding patterns at 1, 3, and 6 months as well as data on maternal mind-mindedness, maternal wellbeing, attachment to baby, and maternal sleep patterns. Indigenous communities require creative SUDI interventions that fit within their prevailing world view. This trial, and its assessment of the safety of a wahakura relative to a standard bassinet, is an important contribution to the range of SUDI prevention research being undertaken worldwide. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000993099 Registered 16th November 2010.

  6. Development of methodologies for optimization of surveillance testing and maintenance of safety related equipment at NPPs. Report of a research coordination meeting. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first meeting of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Development of Methodologies for Optimization of Surveillance Testing and Maintenance of Safety Related Equipment at NPPs, held at the Agency Headquarters in Vienna, from 16 to 20 December 1996. The purpose of this Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) was that all Chief Scientific Investigators of the groups participating in the CRP presented an outline of their proposed research projects. Additionally, the participants discussed the objective, scope, work plan and information channels of the CRP in detail. Based on these presentations and discussions, the entire project plan was updated, completed and included in this report. This report represents a common agreed project work plan for the CRP. Refs, figs, tabs.

  7. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  8. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  9. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  10. A new methodology for non-contact accurate crack width measurement through photogrammetry for automated structural safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahanshahi, Mohammad R; Masri, Sami F

    2013-01-01

    In mechanical, aerospace and civil structures, cracks are important defects that can cause catastrophes if neglected. Visual inspection is currently the predominant method for crack assessment. This approach is tedious, labor-intensive, subjective and highly qualitative. An inexpensive alternative to current monitoring methods is to use a robotic system that could perform autonomous crack detection and quantification. To reach this goal, several image-based crack detection approaches have been developed; however, the crack thickness quantification, which is an essential element for a reliable structural condition assessment, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a new contact-less crack quantification methodology, based on computer vision and image processing concepts, is introduced and evaluated against a crack quantification approach which was previously developed by the authors. The proposed approach in this study utilizes depth perception to quantify crack thickness and, as opposed to most previous studies, needs no scale attachment to the region under inspection, which makes this approach ideal for incorporation with autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile inspection systems. Validation tests are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, and the results show that the new proposed approach outperforms the previously developed one. (paper)

  11. Multicentric cohort study on the long-term efficacy and safety of electronic cigarettes: study design and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Lamberto; La Vecchia, Carlo; Flacco, Maria Elena; Capasso, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Valentina; Boccia, Stefania; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Villari, Paolo; Mezzetti, Andrea; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2013-09-24

    While electronic cigarettes are forbidden in several countries, their sales are exploding in many others. Although e-cigarettes have been proposed as long-term substitutes for traditional smoking or as a tool for smoking cessation, very scarce data are available on their efficacy and safety.We describe the protocol of a 5-year multicentric prospective study aimed to evaluate short- and long-term adherence to e-cigarette smoking and the efficacy of e-cigarettes in reducing and/or quitting traditional cigarette smoking. The study will also compare the health effects of electronic vs traditional vs mixed cigarette smoking. From June to December 2013, we will enroll adult smokers of: (EC) e-cigarettes (self-reported inhaling ≥ 50 puffs per week since ≥ 6 months); (TC) traditional cigarettes (≥ 1 per day since ≥ 6 m); (Mixed) both electronic and traditional cigarettes (≥ 1 per day since ≥ 6 m). Eligible subjects will be requested participation through newspaper advertisements and direct contact at the shops. Each subject will have to compile a structured questionnaire at enrolment and after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months. The level of carbon monoxide in expired after breath will be evaluated in all subjects declaring no traditional cigarette smoking in any follow-up phase, using portable carbon monoxide analyzers. The primary outcomes are traditional smoking cessation rates and number of smoked cigarettes. Secondary outcomes include adherence to e-cigarettes, self-reported adverse events, quality of life, and time to hospital admission for one among cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cancer of the lung, esophagus, larynx, oral cavity, bladder, pancreas, kidney, stomach, cervix, and myeloid leukemia. Admissions will be checked using official discharge data of the Abruzzo Region. A minimum of 500 subjects in each group will be enrolled, for a total of 1500 participants. Cox proportional hazards analysis will be used to calculate

  12. Methodology and tools for independent verification and validation of computerized I and C systems important to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, A.; Miedl, H.

    1998-01-01

    Modular software based I and C systems are state-of-the-art in industrial automation. For I and C systems important to safety in nuclear power plants, software based systems are also more and more applied. According to existing national and international guidelines and standards, the assessment of these systems calls for appropriate test methods and tools. By use of tools quality of the assessment process should be improved and expense should be limited. The paper outlines the structure of the independent verification and validation (V and V) process of the Teleperm XS system and the lessons learnt from this process. Furthermore, tools are discussed used for V and V of the Teleperm XS software. The recently developed tool VALIDATOR, dedicated to V and V of the plant specific I and C functions is described in more detail. We consider V and V of the basic software components and the system software to be required only once, but the C source codes of the plant specific functional diagrams have to be checked for each application separately. The VALIDATOR is designed to perform this task. It gives evidence of compliance of the automatically generated C source codes with the graphical design of the functional diagrams in reasonable time and with acceptable costs. The working method, performance and results of the VALIDATOR are shown by means of an actual example. (author)

  13. Application of an engineering problem-solving methodology to address persistent problems in patient safety: a case study on retained surgical sponges after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Devon E; Watts, Bradley V

    2013-09-01

    Despite innumerable attempts to eliminate the postoperative retention of surgical sponges, the medical error persists in operating rooms worldwide and places significant burden on patient safety, quality of care, financial resources, and hospital/physician reputation. The failure of countless solutions, from new sponge counting methods to radio labeled sponges, to truly eliminate the event in the operating room requires that the emerging field of health-care delivery science find innovative ways to approach the problem. Accordingly, the VA National Center for Patient Safety formed a unique collaboration with a team at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College to evaluate the retention of surgical sponges after surgery and find a solution. The team used an engineering problem solving methodology to develop the best solution. To make the operating room a safe environment for patients, the team identified a need to make the sponge itself safe for use as opposed to resolving the relatively innocuous counting methods. In evaluation of this case study, the need for systematic engineering evaluation to resolve problems in health-care delivery becomes clear.

  14. The Gañuelas-Mazarrón Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain): Features, Analogies, implications for the Safety of a CO2-DGS and Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Clemente-Jul, C.; Pérez del Villar, L.

    2015-01-01

    This work summarizes the main features of the Gañuelas-Mazarrón Tertiary basin, emphasising on the: i) geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics; ii) current carbonate precipitation related to waters from several hydrogeological and geothermal wells in the basin; and iii) dissolved and free CO2 leakages and associated gases, mainly 222Rn. Furthermore, it has been summarised the main analogies established between the natural system studied and a CO2-Deep Geological Storage (CO2-DGS) conceptual model; as well as the implications of these analogies to qualitatively analyse the behaviour and evaluate the safety, in short, medium and long term, of a CO2-DGS. Finally, a useful methodology for any sedimentary basin, similar to the Gañuelas-Mazarrón basin, capable to host a CO2-DGS is also proposed. In conclusion, the full or partial study of a natural system analogous to a CO2-DGS must not be confused with the study to characterise a site for a CO2-DGS, since natural analogues should provide information about the behaviour, evolution and safety, in long-term, of the natural system, and that this information could be applied to a CO2-DGS system.

  15. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  16. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  17. Extended Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences...

  18. Investigating Safety, Safeguards and Security (3S) Synergies to Support Infrastructure Development and Risk-Informed Methodologies for 3S by Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Izumi, Y.; Kimoto, T.; Naoi, Y.; Inoue, T.; Hoffheins, B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, Japan and other G8 countries pledged to support the Safeguards, Safety, and Security (3S) Initiative to raise awareness of 3S worldwide and to assist countries in setting up nuclear energy infrastructures that are essential cornerstones of a successful nuclear energy program. The goals of the 3S initiative are to ensure that countries already using nuclear energy or those planning to use nuclear energy are supported by strong national programs in safety, security, and safeguards not only for reliability and viability of the programs, but also to prove to the international audience that the programs are purely peaceful and that nuclear material is properly handled, accounted for, and protected. In support of this initiative, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting detailed analyses of the R and D programs and cultures of each of the 'S' areas to identify overlaps where synergism and efficiencies might be realized, to determine where there are gaps in the development of a mature 3S culture, and to coordinate efforts with other Japanese and international organizations. As an initial outcome of this study, incoming JAEA employees are being introduced to 3S as part of their induction training and the idea of a President's Award program is being evaluated. Furthermore, some overlaps in 3S missions might be exploited to share facility instrumentation as with Joint-Use-Equipment (JUE), in which cameras and radiation detectors, are shared by the State and IAEA. Lessons learned in these activities can be applied to developing more efficient and effective 3S infrastructures for incorporating into Safeguards by Design methodologies. They will also be useful in supporting human resources and technology development projects associated with Japan's planned nuclear security center for Asia, which was announced during the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit. In this presentation, a risk-informed approach regarding integration of 3S will be introduced. An initial

  19. A study on the methodology of integrated safety assessment on low and intermediate level waste (LILW) managed in temporary storage facility at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Min Ho

    2010-02-01

    Since 1978, the KHNP has been operating 20 NPPs (16 PWRs and 4 CANDUs) and generating about 67,000 drums (200 L) of LILW (as of December 31, 2005), which have been stored in the temporary storage facility (TSF) at each NPP due to the absence of a repository for the disposal of LILW. Therefore, the period of temporary storage of LILW is so long compared to other countries. Furthermore, the details with respect to the safety analyse on the TSF have not been considered in PSAR and FSAR. Especially, the risk assessment on the TSF has scarcely been conducted as opposed to many researches on the disposal of LILW. Since 2003, however, the IAEA has been recognized on the importance of predispoal management of LILW. And then, the regulatory frame of U.S. NRC was being shifted to risk-based regulation from the deterministic approach. Therefore, most of radioactive wastes including the LILW will be managed in terms of the risk-based graded approach to future regulation system called RIR (risk informed regulation). If the radioactive wastes do not quantitatively deal with the risk-based regulation, the radiological risk on some of radioactive wastes might be overestimated or underestimated regardless of the degree of the risk. According to a consequence of these situations, the numbers of the researches on the predisposal management of LILW have been required for the preparation on new regulatory frame. In this study, the main objective of this study is to establish the methodology of integrated safety assessment on LILW managed in the TSF at NPP, and to develop the integrated safety assessment code for routine operating condition and for for accident analysis on LILW managed in the TSF. In order to establish the methodology of integrated safety assessment on LILW managed in the TSF at NPP, three main parameters were considered: risk-based accident scenarios, radionuclide inventory, and atmospheric dispersion factor (χ/Q). Arbitrary accidents related to LILW management in the

  20. Vertiefungskurs 2014. Safety margins in nuclear power plants. Identify, quantify and extend; Vertiefungskurs 2014 zum Thema ''Sicherheitsmargen in Kernkraftwerken. Identifizieren, quantifizieren, erweitern''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Matthias

    2015-02-15

    Fifteen speakers dealt with the topic safety margins in nuclear power plants from different points of view at the ''Vertiefungskurs 2014'' of the Nuklearforum Schweiz in Olten, 4 and 5 November 2014. In the context of the ''Vertiefungskurs 2014'' the safety margins in power plants were considered and quantified and possible extensions have been discussed. The conference started with an in-depth introduction of the basis design of existing nuclear power plants. Thereafter speakers told about the main topics emergency preparedness, knowledge management and safety retrofit of nuclear power plants in operation.

  1. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  2. LOFT uncertainty-analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The methodology used for uncertainty analyses of measurements in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) nuclear-reactor-safety research program is described and compared with other methodologies established for performing uncertainty analyses

  3. LOFT uncertainty-analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The methodology used for uncertainty analyses of measurements in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) nuclear reactor safety research program is described and compared with other methodologies established for performing uncertainty analyses

  4. Seismic safety margins research program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, F.J.; Smith, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    A multiyear seismic research program has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This program, the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The program is designed to develop a probabilistic systems methodology for determining the seismic safety margins of nuclear power plants. Phase I, extending some 22 months, began in July 1978 at a funding level of approximately $4.3 million. Here we present an overview of the SSMRP. Included are discussions on the program objective, the approach to meet the program goal and objectives, end products, the probabilistic systems methodology, and planned activities for Phase I

  5. Radiological safety methodology in radioactive tracer applications for hydrodynamics and environmental studies; Metodologia de la seguridad radiologica en el empleo de trazadores radiactivos en estudios hidrodinamicos e ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, R; Badano, A; Dellepere, A; Artucio, G; Bertolotti, A [Nuclear Technology National Direction, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1995-07-01

    The use of radioactive tracer techniques as control sewage disposal contamination in Montevideo Estuarine and Carrasco beach has been studied for the Nuclear Technology National Direction. Hydrodynamic models simulation has been introduced as work methodology. As well as radiological safety and radioactive material applications in the environmental studies has been evaluated mainly in the conclusions and recommendations in this report. maps.

  6. Application of realistic (best- estimate) methodologies for large break loss of coolant (LOCA) safety analysis: licensing of Westinghouse ASTRUM evaluation model in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, Carlos; Frepoli, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    When the LOCA Final Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactors was issued in Appendix K of 10CFR50 both the USNRC and the industry recognized that the rule was highly conservative. At that time, however, the degree of conservatism in the analysis could not be quantified. As a result, the USNRC began a research program to identify the degree of conservatism in those models permitted in the Appendix K rule and to develop improved thermal-hydraulic computer codes so that realistic accident analysis calculations could be performed. The overall results of this research program quantified the conservatism in the Appendix K rule and confirmed that some relaxation of the rule can be made without a loss in safety to the public. Also, from a risk-informed perspective it is recognized that conservatism is not always a complete defense for lack of sophistication in models. In 1988, as a result of the improved understanding of LOCA phenomena, the USNRC staff amended the requirements of 10 CFR 50.46 and Appendix K, 'ECCS Evaluation Models', so that a realistic evaluation model may be used to analyze the performance of the ECCS during a hypothetical LOCA. Under the amended rules, best-estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) thermal-hydraulic analysis may be used in place of the overly prescriptive set of models mandated by Appendix K rule. Further guidance for the use of best-estimate codes was provided in Regulatory Guide 1.157 To demonstrate use of the revised ECCS rule, the USNRC and its consultants developed a method called the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology as an approach for defining and qualifying a best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code and quantifying the uncertainties in a LOCA analysis. More recently the CSAU principles have been generalized in the Evaluation Model Development and Assessment Process (EMDAP) of Regulatory Guide 1.203. ASTRUM is the Westinghouse Best Estimate Large Break LOCA evaluation model applicable to two-, three

  7. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  8. Decreasing Turnaround Time and Increasing Patient Satisfaction in a Safety Net Hospital-Based Pediatrics Clinic Using Lean Six Sigma Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinha, Yasangi

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, health care quality indicators are focusing on patient-centeredness as an indicator of performance. The National Quality Forum lists assessment of patient experience, often conducted using patient surveys, as a top priority. We developed a patient-reported time stamp data collection tool that was used to collect cycle times in a safety net hospital-based outpatient pediatrics clinic. Data were collected using patient-reported survey to obtain cycle times in Pediatric clinic, as well as qualitative and quantitative patient satisfaction data. Several rapid-cycle improvements were performed using Lean Six Sigma methodologies to reduce cycle time by eliminating waste and revise unnecessary processes to improve operational effectiveness and patient and staff satisfaction. A total of 94 surveys were collected and revealed average cycle time of 113 minutes. Our measured patient satisfaction rating was 87%. Discharge and check-in processes were identified as the least efficient and were targeted for intervention. Following implementation, the overall cycle time was decreased from 113 to 90 minutes. Patient satisfaction ratings increased from 87% to 95%. We demonstrate that using Lean Six Sigma tools can be invaluable to clinical restructuring and redesign and results in measurable, improved outcomes in care delivery.

  9. Evaluation of a Propolis Water Extract Using a Reliable RP-HPLC Methodology and In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy and Safety Characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Bruno Alves; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Rodrigues, Marina Rezende; Costa-Machado, Ana Rita de Mello; Barizon, Edna Aparecida; Campos, Jacqueline Costa Lima; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Acésio, Nathália de Oliveira; Martins, Sabrina de Paula Lima; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of propolis research, several groups have studied its antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. However, most of these studies have only employed propolis ethanolic extract (PEE) leading to little knowledge about the biological activities of propolis water extract (PWE). Based on this, in a previous study, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of PWE. In order to better understand the equilibrium between effectiveness and toxicity, which is essential for a new medicine, the characteristics of PWE were analyzed. We developed and validated an RP-HPLC method to chemically characterize PWE and PEE and evaluated the in vitro antioxidant/antimicrobial activity for both extracts and the safety of PWE via determining genotoxic potential using in vitro and in vivo mammalian micronucleus assays. We have concluded that the proposed analytical methodology was reliable, and both extracts showed similar chemical composition. The extracts presented antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, while PWE demonstrated higher antioxidant activity and more efficacious for the most of the microorganisms tested than PEE. Finally, PWE was shown to be safe using micronucleus assays. PMID:23710228

  10. Evaluation of a Propolis Water Extract Using a Reliable RP-HPLC Methodology and In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy and Safety Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alves Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of propolis research, several groups have studied its antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. However, most of these studies have only employed propolis ethanolic extract (PEE leading to little knowledge about the biological activities of propolis water extract (PWE. Based on this, in a previous study, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of PWE. In order to better understand the equilibrium between effectiveness and toxicity, which is essential for a new medicine, the characteristics of PWE were analyzed. We developed and validated an RP-HPLC method to chemically characterize PWE and PEE and evaluated the in vitro antioxidant/antimicrobial activity for both extracts and the safety of PWE via determining genotoxic potential using in vitro and in vivo mammalian micronucleus assays. We have concluded that the proposed analytical methodology was reliable, and both extracts showed similar chemical composition. The extracts presented antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, while PWE demonstrated higher antioxidant activity and more efficacious for the most of the microorganisms tested than PEE. Finally, PWE was shown to be safe using micronucleus assays.

  11. Verkeersveiligheid in Nederland.Nationaal overzicht ten behoeve van de OECD-group S1 on Concepts and Methodologies for Integrated Safety Programmes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paar, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1974 traffic safety policy in the Netherlands has been coordinated by one department of the national government. For research on traffic safety there is a central integrating institute, the Dutch institute for road safety research SWOV. In 1975 a management policy for traffic safety was

  12. Behavioral based safety approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Michael Raj, I.

    2009-01-01

    Approach towards the establishment of positive safety culture at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin includes the adoption of several important methodologies focused on human behavior and culminates with achievement of Total Safety Culture where Quality and Productivity are integrated with Safety

  13. Extending Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.

  14. An overview to CERSSO's self evaluation of the cost-benefit on the investment in occupational safety and health in the textile factories: "a step by step methodology".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Rodezno, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and CERSSO collaborated to develop a new Tool Kit (TK), which became available in May 2002. PAHO already had a TK in place, and CERSSO requested that one be developed for their needs. CERSSO wanted to enable managers and line workers in garment factories to self-diagnose plant and workstation hazards and to estimate the costs and benefits of investing in occupational safety and health (OSH) as a way to improve productivity and competitiveness. For consistency, the collaborating organizations agreed to construct the TK according to PAHO's methodology. The instrument was developed to be comprehensive enough that any user can collect the data easily. It integrates epidemiologic, risk assessment, clinic, engineering, and accountability issues, organized to include step-by-step training in: (a) performing risk assessments in the workplaces (risk factors); (b) making cause-effect relationships; (c) improving decision making on OSH interventions; (d) doing calculations of direct and indirect costs and savings; and (e) doing calculation of the overall cost-benefit of OSH interventions. Since July 2002, about 2,400 employees and officials from 736 garment factories, Ministries of Labor, Health, Social Security Institutes, and Technical Training Institutions of Central America and the Dominican Republic have used this instrument. Systematically, they have calculated a positive relationship of the investment (3 to 33 times). Employers are now aware of the financial rewards of investing in OSH. The TK is available in Spanish, Korean, and English. In July 2003, a software program in Spanish and English was developed (180 persons have been trained in the region), which requires less time to execute with better reliability.

  15. Extended blackout mitigation strategy for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prošek, Andrej; Volkanovski, Andrija

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Equipment for mitigation of the extended blackout is investigated. • Analysis is done with deterministic safety analysis methods. • Strategy to prevent core heatup and not overfill steam generator is proposed. • Six types of reactor coolant system loss scenarios are investigated. • Pump flowrates and available start time to feed steam generators is determined. - Abstract: The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant demonstrated the vulnerability of the plants on the loss of electrical power and loss of the ultimate heat sink events. A set of measures are proposed and currently implemented in response of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Those measures include diverse and flexible mitigation strategies that increase the defence-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios. Mitigation strategies are based on the utilization of the portable equipment to provide power and water to the nuclear power plants in order to maintain or restore key safety functions. The verification of the proposed measures with the plant specific safety analyses is endorsed in the mitigation strategies. This paper investigates utilization of the turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump (TD-AFW) or portable water injection pump for the mitigation of the event of loss of all alternate current sources and batteries (extended station blackout). Methodology for assessment of the required pump injection flow rate with the application of the standard deterministic safety analysis code is developed and presented. The required injection rate to the steam generators is calculated from the cumulative water mass injected by the turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump in the analysed scenarios, when desired normal level is maintained automatically. The developed methodology allows assessment of the required injections rates of pump, TD-AFW or portable, for different plant configurations and number of flow rate changes. The methodology is applied

  16. Extended blackout mitigation strategy for PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prošek, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.prosek@ijs.si; Volkanovski, Andrija, E-mail: andrija.volkanovski@ijs.si

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Equipment for mitigation of the extended blackout is investigated. • Analysis is done with deterministic safety analysis methods. • Strategy to prevent core heatup and not overfill steam generator is proposed. • Six types of reactor coolant system loss scenarios are investigated. • Pump flowrates and available start time to feed steam generators is determined. - Abstract: The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant demonstrated the vulnerability of the plants on the loss of electrical power and loss of the ultimate heat sink events. A set of measures are proposed and currently implemented in response of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Those measures include diverse and flexible mitigation strategies that increase the defence-in-depth for beyond-design-basis scenarios. Mitigation strategies are based on the utilization of the portable equipment to provide power and water to the nuclear power plants in order to maintain or restore key safety functions. The verification of the proposed measures with the plant specific safety analyses is endorsed in the mitigation strategies. This paper investigates utilization of the turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump (TD-AFW) or portable water injection pump for the mitigation of the event of loss of all alternate current sources and batteries (extended station blackout). Methodology for assessment of the required pump injection flow rate with the application of the standard deterministic safety analysis code is developed and presented. The required injection rate to the steam generators is calculated from the cumulative water mass injected by the turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump in the analysed scenarios, when desired normal level is maintained automatically. The developed methodology allows assessment of the required injections rates of pump, TD-AFW or portable, for different plant configurations and number of flow rate changes. The methodology is applied

  17. Review of SKB's interim report of SR-Can: SKI's and SSI's evaluation of SKB's up-dated methodology for safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dverstorp, Bjoern; Moberg, Leif; Wiebert, Anders; Xu Shulan [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Stroemberg, Bo; Kautsky, Fritz; Lilja, Christina; Simic, Eva; Sundstroem, Benny; Toverud, Oeivind [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.'s (SKB) interim report of the safety assessment SR-Can (SKB TR 04-11), conducted by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). SKB's interim report describes and exemplifies the safety assessment methodology that SKB plans to use in the oncoming licence applications for an encapsulation plant and a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The authorities' review takes into account the findings of an international peer review of SKB's interim report. The authorities conclude that SKB has improved its safety assessment methodology in several aspects compared to earlier safety reports. Among other things the authorities commend SKB for giving a comprehensive account of relevant regulations and guidance, and for the systematic approach to identification and documentation of features, events and processes that need to be considered in the safety assessment. However, the authorities also conclude that important parts of SKB's method need to be further developed before they are mature enough to be used as a basis for a license application. The authorities' overall assessment is summarised in chapter 8 of this report.

  18. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 6, Driver Behaviour Monitoring through Naturalistic Driving: Deliverable 6.4: Naturalistic Driving for monitoring safety performance indicators and exposure: considerations for implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Reed, S.

    2015-01-01

    DaCoTA was a Collaborative Project under the European Seventh Framework Programme that aimed to develop tools and methodologies to support road safety policy and further extend and enhance the European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO). One of the Work Packages in DaCoTA, WP6, focused on the usefulness

  19. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...

  20. Policy and methodology on NPP lifetime management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, L.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives for Spanish electricity sector are to extend the life cycle of NPPs beyond 40 years, maintaining safety and efficiency level, and to monitor and control ageing of important components to guarantee the prolonged lifetime. A plan for plant life management including licensing and regulatory aspects is proposed together with the methodology for achieving the proposed goals. The expected results are: life management integrated system for follow-up and monitoring of degradation and ageing mechanisms of important NPP components; modular system which will enable incorporation of additional components, degradation and/or performances; interrelation and support tool for other needs of NPPs (periodic safety reviews, maintenance, optimization, etc.)

  1. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of APF530 (extended-release granisetron) in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy: results of two Phase II trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrail, Nashat; Yanagihara, Ronald; Spaczyński, Marek; Cooper, William; O’Boyle, Erin; Smith, Carrie; Boccia, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances with new therapies, a significant proportion of patients (>30%) suffer delayed-onset chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) despite use of antiemetics. APF530 is a sustained-release subcutaneous (SC) formulation of granisetron for preventing CINV. APF530 pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy were studied in two open-label, single-dose Phase II trials (C2005-01 and C2007-01, respectively) in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In C2005-01, 45 patients received APF530 250, 500, or 750 mg SC (granisetron 5, 10, or 15 mg, respectively). In C2007-01, 35 patients were randomized to APF530 250 or 500 mg SC. Injections were given 30 to 60 minutes before single-day moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Plasma granisetron was measured from predose to 168 hours after study drug administration. Safety and efficacy were also evaluated. APF530 pharmacokinetics were dose proportional, with slow absorption and elimination of granisetron after a single SC dose. Median time to maximum plasma concentration and half-life were similar for APF530 250 and 500 mg in both trials, with no differences between the groups receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Exposure to granisetron was maintained at a therapeutic level over the delayed-onset phase, at least 168 hours. Adverse events in both trials were as expected for granisetron; injection site reactions (eg, erythema and induration) were predominantly mild and seen in ≤20% of patients. Complete responses (no emesis, with no rescue medication) were obtained in the acute, delayed, and overall phases in ≥80% and ≥75% of patients in both trials with the 250 and 500 mg doses, respectively. After a single injection of APF530, there were dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and sustained concentrations of granisetron over 168 hours. The 250 and 500 mg doses were well tolerated and maintained therapeutic granisetron

  2. Locating and extending livelihoods research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  3. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of APF530 (extended-release granisetron in patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy: results of two Phase II trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrail N

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nashat Gabrail,1 Ronald Yanagihara,2 Marek Spaczyński,3 William Cooper,4 Erin O'Boyle,5 Carrie Smith,1 Ralph Boccia6 1Gabrail Cancer Center, Canton, OH, USA; 2St Louise Regional Hospital, Gilroy, CA, USA; 3Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecologic Oncology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 4TFS International, Flemington, NJ, USA; 5FibroGen, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA; 6Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Bethesda, MD, USA Background: Despite advances with new therapies, a significant proportion of patients (>30% suffer delayed-onset chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV despite use of antiemetics. APF530 is a sustained-release subcutaneous (SC formulation of granisetron for preventing CINV. APF530 pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy were studied in two open-label, single-dose Phase II trials (C2005-01 and C2007-01, respectively in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Methods: In C2005-01, 45 patients received APF530 250, 500, or 750 mg SC (granisetron 5, 10, or 15 mg, respectively. In C2007-01, 35 patients were randomized to APF530 250 or 500 mg SC. Injections were given 30 to 60 minutes before single-day moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Plasma granisetron was measured from predose to 168 hours after study drug administration. Safety and efficacy were also evaluated. Results: APF530 pharmacokinetics were dose proportional, with slow absorption and elimination of granisetron after a single SC dose. Median time to maximum plasma concentration and half-life were similar for APF530 250 and 500 mg in both trials, with no differences between the groups receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Exposure to granisetron was maintained at a therapeutic level over the delayed-onset phase, at least 168 hours. Adverse events in both trials were as expected for granisetron; injection site reactions (eg, erythema

  4. The project ANSICHT. Safety and demonstration methodology for a final repository in clay formations in Germany; Projekt ANSICHT. Sicherheits- und Nachweismethodik fuer ein Endlager im Tongestein in Deutschland. Synthesebericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, Michael; Bebiolka, Anke; Jahn, Steffen; and others

    2017-03-30

    Based on the status of science and technology and under consideration of international repository concepts the fundamental methodology for safety demonstration for a high-level radioactive waste final repository in clay formations Germany was developed. Basic elements of the safety concept are the geological site description and the geo-scientific long-term prognosis on future performance. Another important section is the closure and sealing concept for the mine shafts. In the frame of the project the fundamental elements were developed and documented for model regions in northern and southern Germany. Three independent safety proofs have to be performed: the demonstration of the geological barrier integrity (clay), the demonstration of the geo-technical barrier system integrity - i.e. closure constructions and backfilling of the shafts, and the radiological demonstration that the radionuclide release in the area is lower than the respective limiting value.

  5. Methodology for combining dynamic responses. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattu, R.K.

    1980-05-01

    Procedures in accordance with Appendix A of 10 CFR 50, GDC 2, call for an appropriate combination of the effects of the accident loads and loads caused by natural phenomena (such as earthquakes) to be reflected in the design bases of safety equipment. This requirement of interaction of loads has been implemented in various ways both within the NRC and the Nuclear Industry. An NRR Working Group constituted to examine load combination methodologies developed recommendations which were published in September 1978 as NUREG-0484, (PB-287 432). Revision 1 of NUREG-0484 extends the conclusions of the original NUREG-0484 on the use of SRSS methodology for the combination of SSE and LOCA responses beyond RCPB to any other ASME Section III, Class 1, 2, or 3 affected system, component or support, and provides criteria for the combination of dynamic responses other than SSE and LOCA

  6. Probabilistic safety analysis procedures guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.; Buslik, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    A procedures guide for the performance of probabilistic safety assessment has been prepared for interim use in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission programs. The probabilistic safety assessment studies performed are intended to produce probabilistic predictive models that can be used and extended by the utilities and by NRC to sharpen the focus of inquiries into a range of tissues affecting reactor safety. This guide addresses the determination of the probability (per year) of core damage resulting from accident initiators internal to the plant and from loss of offsite electric power. The scope includes analyses of problem-solving (cognitive) human errors, a determination of importance of the various core damage accident sequences, and an explicit treatment and display of uncertainties for the key accident sequences. Ultimately, the guide will be augmented to include the plant-specific analysis of in-plant processes (i.e., containment performance) and the risk associated with external accident initiators, as consensus is developed regarding suitable methodologies in these areas. This guide provides the structure of a probabilistic safety study to be performed, and indicates what products of the study are essential for regulatory decision making. Methodology is treated in the guide only to the extent necessary to indicate the range of methods which is acceptable; ample reference is given to alternative methodologies which may be utilized in the performance of the study

  7. Methodology of assessment of the impact on the risk of changes in peak times of unavailability of safety equipment integrating treatment and analysis of uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Villamizar, M.; Marton, I.; Villanueva, J. f.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of safety equipment requirements form parts of the technical specifications of Performance included in the bases of operation of nuclear power plants license, so they are center of attention in the study of improvements to the safety of the operation of the plant using different methods, both traditional deterministic as probabilistic.

  8. PSA methodology including new design, operational and safety factors, 'Level of recognition of phenomena with a presumed dominant influence upon operational safety' (failures of conventional as well as non-conventional passive components, dependent failures, influence of operator, fires and external threats, digital control, organizational factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    2001-10-01

    The document represents a specific type of discussion of existing methodologies for the creation and application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in light of the EUR document summarizing requirements placed by Western European NPP operators on the future design of nuclear power plants. A partial goal of this discussion consists in mapping, from the PSA point of view, those selected design, operational and/or safety factors of future NPPs that may be entirely new or, at least, newly addressed. Therefore, the terms of reference for this stage were formulated as follows: Assess current level of knowledge and procedures in the analysis of factors and phenomena with a dominant influence upon operational safety of new generation reactors, especially in the following areas: (1) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of conventional passive safety system components; (2) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of non-conventional passive components of newly designed safety systems; (3) Phenomenology of types and mechanisms of dependent failures; (4) Human factor role in new generation reactors and its effect upon safety; (5) Fire safety and other external threats to new nuclear installations; (6) Reliability of the digital systems of the I and C system and their effect upon safety; and (7) Organizational factors in new nuclear installations. (P.A.)

  9. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  10. Extended cognition in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make sense of science and does not allow the possibility of extended knowledge. In a second step, I argue that science communication studies should adopt a methodological externalism and accept that knowledge about science can be partly realized by external information resources such as Wikipedia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Drug research methodology. Volume 5, Experimentation in drugs and highway safety : the study of drug effects on skills related to driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a workshop on experimental research in the area of drugs and highway safety. Complementing studies of drug use in different driving populations, experimentation here refers to studies performed under controlled co...

  12. Extended safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a blood-stage malaria vaccine in malian children: 24-month follow-up of a randomized, double-blinded phase 2 trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Laurens

    Full Text Available The FMP2.1/AS02A candidate malaria vaccine was tested in a Phase 2 study in Mali. Based on results from the first eight months of follow-up, the vaccine appeared well-tolerated and immunogenic. It had no significant efficacy based on the primary endpoint, clinical malaria, but marginal efficacy against clinical malaria in secondary analyses, and high allele-specific efficacy. Extended follow-up was conducted to evaluate extended safety, immunogenicity and efficacy.A randomized, double-blinded trial of safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the candidate Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A was conducted in Bandiagara, Mali. Children aged 1-6 years were randomized in a 1∶1 ratio to receive FMP2.1/AS02A or control rabies vaccine on days 0, 30 and 60. Using active and passive surveillance, clinical malaria and adverse events as well as antibodies against P. falciparum AMA1 were monitored for 24 months after the first vaccination, spanning two malaria seasons.400 children were enrolled. Serious adverse events occurred in nine participants in the FMP2.1/AS02A group and three in the control group; none was considered related to study vaccination. After two years, anti-AMA1 immune responses remained significantly higher in the FMP2.1/AS02A group than in the control group. For the entire 24-month follow-up period, vaccine efficacy was 7.6% (p = 0.51 against first clinical malaria episodes and 9.9% (p = 0.19 against all malaria episodes. For the final 16-month follow-up period, vaccine efficacy was 0.9% (p = 0.98 against all malaria episodes. Allele-specific efficacy seen in the first malaria season did not extend into the second season of follow-up.Allele-specific vaccine efficacy was not sustained in the second malaria season, despite continued high levels of anti-AMA1 antibodies. This study presents an opportunity to evaluate correlates of partial protection against clinical malaria that waned during

  13. SCI Hazard Report Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

  14. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the extended-release tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen fixed-dose combination tablet for the treatment of chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Chong-Suh

    2013-11-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. The combination of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in an extended-release formulation has been shown to provide rapid and long-lasting analgesic effects resulting from the synergistic activity of these 2 active ingredients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended-release tramadol hydrochloride 75-mg/acetaminophen 650-mg fixed-dose combination tablets (TA-ER) for the treatment of chronic low back pain. This Phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled 245 patients with moderate to severe (≥4 cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale) chronic (≥3 months') low back pain insufficiently controlled by previous NSAIDs or cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors and randomly assigned them to receive 4 weeks of either TA-ER or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% from baseline to final evaluation. Secondary end points included quality of life (Korean Short Form-36), functionality (Korean Oswestry Disability Index), and adverse events. The percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% was significantly higher (P Pain relief success rate from baseline was significantly higher with TA-ER versus placebo at days 8 and 15 but not at the final visit. Patients in the TA-ER group had significant improvements versus placebo in role-physical, general health, and reported health transition domains of the Korean Short Form-36 and significantly higher functional improvements in the personal care section of the Korean Oswestry Disability Index. Patient assessment of overall pain control as "very good" was also significantly higher with TA-ER than with placebo. Adverse events were reported more frequently with TA-ER than with placebo; the most common adverse events reported were nausea, dizziness, constipation, and vomiting. TA-ER was significantly more

  15. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone) for moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauck, Richard L; Hale, Martin E; Bass, Almasa; Bramson, Candace; Pixton, Glenn; Wilson, Jacquelyn G; Setnik, Beatrice; Meisner, Paul; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Malhotra, Bimal K; Wolfram, Gernot

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent formulation containing pellets of extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride (HCl) surrounding sequestered naltrexone HCl, compared with placebo in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. An open-label titration period in which all patients received ALO-02 was followed by a double-blind treatment period where patients meeting treatment response criteria were randomized to either a fixed dose of ALO-02 or placebo. Daily average low back pain was assessed using an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS)-Pain. Of the 663 patients screened, 410 received ALO-02 during the open-label conversion and titration period and 281 patients were randomized to the double-blind treatment period (n = 134, placebo; n = 147, ALO-02). Change in the mean NRS-Pain score from randomization baseline to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period was significantly different favoring ALO-02 compared with placebo (P = 0.0114). Forty-four percent of patients treated with placebo and 57.5% of patients treated with ALO-02 reported ≥30% improvement in weekly average NRS-Pain scores from screening to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period (P = 0.0248). In the double-blind treatment period, 56.8% of patients in the ALO-02 group and 56.0% of patients in the placebo group experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). The most common treatment-related TEAEs for ALO-02 during the treatment period were nausea, vomiting, and constipation, consistent with opioid therapy. ALO-02 has been demonstrated to provide significant reduction of pain in patients with chronic low back pain and has a safety profile similar to other opioids.

  16. Radiological environmental monitoring program for Angra I: basis and methodology proposed for executing the requirements of the regulatory member and to assure the population safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Dezordi, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented, applyed to Angra-1, a methodology for implanting the monitoring program of the vicinity level radiation exposure to the installation. The method considers two kinds of radioactive effluents in the environment: gaseous (in the atmosphere) and liquid (in the marine aquatic environment). It is based on the generation and ordering of the important relation: radiation exposure pathway/radionuclide group. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Safety and reliability of pressure components with special emphasis on the contribution of component and large specimen testing to structural integrity assessment methodology. Vol. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 51 papers of the 13. MPA-seminar contribute to structural integrity assessment methodology with special emphasis on the component and large specimen testing. 8 of the papers deal with fracture mechanics, 6 papers with dynamic loading, 13 papers with nondestructive testing, 2 papers with radiation embrittlement, 5 papers with pipe failure, 4 papers with components, 2 papers with thermal shock loading, 5 papers with the high temperature behaviour, 4 papers with the integrity of vessels and 3 papers with the integrity of welded joints. Especially also the fracture behaviour of steel material is verificated. All papers are separately indexed and analysed for the database. (DG) [de

  18. Efficacy and safety of de-escalation therapy to ertapenem for treatment of infections caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Werarak, Peerawong; Jitmuang, Anupop; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2017-03-01

    Carbapenem antibiotics are considered the treatment of choice for serious extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections. The study objectives were to evaluate efficacy and safety of de-escalation therapy to ertapenem for treatment of infections caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of adult patients with documented ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections who had received any group 2 carbapenem for less than 96 h. In the intervention group, the previously-prescribed group 2 carbapenem was de-escalated to ertapenem. In the control group, the group 2 carbapenem was continued. During June 2011-December 2014, 32 patients were randomized to the de-escalation group and 34 to the control group. Most common sites of infection were urinary tract infection (42%). Characteristics of both groups were comparable. By using a 15% predefined margin, ertapenem was non-inferior to control group regarding the clinical cure rate (%Δ = 14.0 [95% confidence interval: -2.4 to 31.1]), the microbiological eradication rate (%Δ = 4.1 [-5.0 to 13.4]), and the superimposed infection rate (%Δ = -16.5 [-38.4 to 5.3]). Patients in the de-escalation group had a significantly lower 28-day mortality rate (9.4% vs. 29.4%; P = .05), a significantly shorter median length of stay (16.5 days [4.0-73.25] vs. 20.0 days [1.0-112.25]; P = .04), and a significantly lower defined daily dose of carbapenem use (12.9 ± 8.9 vs. 18.4 ± 12.6; P = .05). Ertapenem could be safely used as de-escalation therapy for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections, once the susceptibility profiles are known. Future studies are needed to investigate ertapenem efficacy against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae pneumonia to determine its applicability in life-threatening conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01297842 . Registered on 14 February 2011. First

  19. The safety and effectiveness of open-label extended-release carbamazepine in the treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder suffering from a manic or mixed episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findling RL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Robert L Findling,1,2 Lawrence D Ginsberg31Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 2Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Red Oak Psychiatry Associates, PA, Houston, TX, USAObjective: To assess the safety and effectiveness of open-label treatment with extended-release carbamazepine (ERC in pediatric subjects suffering from bipolar I disorder.Method: Medically healthy youths aged 10–17 years suffering from an acute manic or mixed episode were eligible. After screening for study eligibility, the youths began a 5-week titration period in which doses of ERC were adjusted in order to optimize benefit whilst minimizing adverse events, at doses between 200–1,200 mg/day. Thereafter, subjects could continue to receive treatment during a subsequent 21-week period. Safety measures included spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs and laboratory assessments. The primary efficacy measure was the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS.Results: A total of 60 children (ages 10–12 and 97 adolescents (ages 13–17, with an overall average age of 13.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 2.0 years received ERC. The mean duration of study participation was 109.6 days (SD 70.2 days, with 66 (42% completing the entire study. At end of study participation (end point, the most prevalent dose of ERC was 1,200 mg: 31.7% of children and 24.7% of adolescents reached the 1,200 mg dose. The YMRS decreased from a mean of 28.6 (SD 6.2 at baseline to a mean of 13.8 (SD 9.4 (P<0.0001 at end point. A total of 26 subjects discontinued study participation because of AEs, the most common of which were rash (n=6, white blood cell count decreased (n=5, nausea (n=3, and vomiting (n=3. No deaths were reported. The most commonly reported AEs were headache (n=41, somnolence (n=30, nausea (n=22, dizziness (n=21, and fatigue (n=19.Conclusions: Open-label administration of ERC might be a safe

  20. Long-term safety and effectiveness of once-daily, single-entity, extended-release hydrocodone over 76 weeks of an open-label study in patients with chronic noncancer and nonneuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Louise; Lynch, Shau Yu; He, Ellie; Ripa, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate long-term use of Hysingla(®) ER (HYD), a single-entity, extended-release, once-daily hydrocodone bitartrate tablet with abuse-deterrent properties in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic noncancer and nonneuropathic pain. This open-label study consisted of a dose-titration period (up to 45 days), a 52-week maintenance period and a 24-week extension period. Opioid-naïve or opioid-experienced patients with controlled or uncontrolled chronic pain conditions were treated with HYD 20-120 mg daily. Supplemental nonopioid and short-acting opioid analgesics were permitted. This paper presents the results of 106 patients who continued HYD treatment for up to 76 weeks. Primary safety measures included the incidence of adverse events, as well as audiologic, clinical laboratory and electrocardiogram measurements. Effectiveness was measured by the change between baseline and the overall 76-week treatment period in "average pain over the last 24 h" (0 = no pain, 10 = pain as bad as you can imagine), Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form survey, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale-Revised and concomitant nonstudy opioid analgesic use. Among 410 patients who completed the maintenance period, 106 continued into the extension. Of these, 83 (78%) completed the entire 76-week treatment period. Treatment-emergent adverse events were typical of those observed with μ-opioid agonists. No study drug abuse or diversion was reported. Clinically important analgesia and functional improvement were achieved during the dose-titration period and were maintained in most patients throughout 76 weeks without the need for continued HYD dose increases or changes in concomitant nonstudy opioid analgesics. The mean pain score was 6.1 at baseline, 3.8 at the end of the dose titration period and 3.8 through 76 weeks. HYD was generally well tolerated. No unexpected safety concerns emerged. Pain control was sustained throughout 76 weeks of

  1. A PRA case study of extended long term decay heat removal for shutdown risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roglans, J.; Ragland, W.A.; Hill, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A research reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results of this PRA have shown that the decay heat removal system for EBR-II is extremely robust and reliable. In addition, the methodology used demonstrates how the actions of other systems not normally used for actions of other systems not normally used for decay heat removal can be used to expand the mission time of the decay heat removal system and further increase its reliability. The methodology may also be extended to account for the impact of non-safety systems in enhancing the reliability of other dedicated safety systems

  2. Safety balance: Analysis of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, M.; Giroux, C.

    1990-12-01

    Safety analysis, and particularly analysis of exploitation of NPPs is constantly affected by EDF and by the safety authorities and their methodologies. Periodic safety reports ensure that important issues are not missed on daily basis, that incidents are identified and that relevant actions are undertaken. French safety analysis method consists of three principal steps. First type of safety balance is analyzed at the normal start-up phase for each unit including the final safety report. This enables analysis of behaviour of units ten years after their licensing. Second type is periodic operational safety analysis performed during a few years. Finally, the third step consists of safety analysis of the oldest units with the aim to improve the safety standards. The three steps of safety analysis are described in this presentation in detail with the aim to present the objectives and principles. Examples of most recent exercises are included in order to illustrate the importance of such analyses

  3. Development of Process Control Methodology for Tracking the Quality and Safety of Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Management in Critical Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Timothy S; Kydonaki, Kalliopi; Lee, Robert J; Everingham, Kirsty; Antonelli, Jean; Harkness, Ronald T; Cole, Stephen; Quasim, Tara; Ruddy, James; McDougall, Marcia; Davidson, Alan; Rutherford, John; Richards, Jonathan; Weir, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    To develop sedation, pain, and agitation quality measures using process control methodology and evaluate their properties in clinical practice. A Sedation Quality Assessment Tool was developed and validated to capture data for 12-hour periods of nursing care. Domains included pain/discomfort and sedation-agitation behaviors; sedative, analgesic, and neuromuscular blocking drug administration; ventilation status; and conditions potentially justifying deep sedation. Predefined sedation-related adverse events were recorded daily. Using an iterative process, algorithms were developed to describe the proportion of care periods with poor limb relaxation, poor ventilator synchronization, unnecessary deep sedation, agitation, and an overall optimum sedation metric. Proportion charts described processes over time (2 monthly intervals) for each ICU. The numbers of patients treated between sedation-related adverse events were described with G charts. Automated algorithms generated charts for 12 months of sequential data. Mean values for each process were calculated, and variation within and between ICUs explored qualitatively. Eight Scottish ICUs over a 12-month period. Mechanically ventilated patients. None. The Sedation Quality Assessment Tool agitation-sedation domains correlated with the Richmond Sedation Agitation Scale score (Spearman ρ = 0.75) and were reliable in clinician-clinician (weighted kappa; κ = 0.66) and clinician-researcher (κ = 0.82) comparisons. The limb movement domain had fair correlation with Behavioral Pain Scale (ρ = 0.24) and was reliable in clinician-clinician (κ = 0.58) and clinician-researcher (κ = 0.45) comparisons. Ventilator synchronization correlated with Behavioral Pain Scale (ρ = 0.54), and reliability in clinician-clinician (κ = 0.29) and clinician-researcher (κ = 0.42) comparisons was fair-moderate. Eight hundred twenty-five patients were enrolled (range, 59-235 across ICUs), providing 12,385 care periods for evaluation (range 655

  4. Applicability of PRISM PRA Methodology to the Level II Probabilistic Safety Analysis of KALIMER-600 (I) (Core Damage Event Tree Analysis Part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, T. W.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, B. Y.

    2009-03-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing liquid metal reactor (LMR) design technologies under a National Nuclear R and D Program. Nevertheless, there is no experience of the PSA domestically for a fast reactor with the metal fuel. Therefore, the objective of this study is to establish the methodologies of risk assessment for the reference design of KALIMER-600 reactor. An applicability of the PSA of the PRISM plant to the KALIMER-600 has been studied. The study is confined to a core damage event tree analysis which is a part of a level 2 PSA. Assuming that the accident types, which can be developed from level 1 PSA, are same as the PRISM PRA, core damage categories are defined and core damage event trees are developed for the KALIMER-600 reactor. Fission product release fractions of the core damage categories and branch probabilities of the core damage event trees are referred from the PRISM PRA temporarily. Plant specific data will be used during the detail analysis

  5. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis methodology in a level-I PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment); Analisis de incertidumbres y sensibilidad aen un APS (Analisis Probabilistico de Seguridad) nivel-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez McLeod, J E; Rivera, S S [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina). Instituto de Capacitacion Especial y Desarrollo de Ingenieria Asistida por Computadora (CEDIAC)

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a methodology for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, applicable to a probabilistic safety assessment level I. The work contents are: correct association of distributions to parameters, importance and qualification of expert opinions, generations of samples according to sample sizes, and study of the relationships among system variables and system response. A series of statistical-mathematical techniques are recommended along the development of the analysis methodology, as well different graphical visualization for the control of the study. (author) [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta una metodologia de analisis de sensibilidad e incertidumbres, aplicable a un analisis probabilistico de seguridad (APS) de nivel I. En el cual se plantea: la adecuada asociacion de distribuciones a variables, la importancia y penalizacion de la opinion de expertos, la generacion de muestras y su tamano, y el estudio de las relaciones entre las variables del sistema y la respuesta de este. Ademas durante el desarrollo de la metodologia de analisis se recomiendan una serie de tecnicas estadistico-matematicas y tipos de visualizacion grafica para el control del estudio. (autor)

  6. Quantified reliability and risk assessment methodology in safety evaluation and licensing: survey of practice and trends in E.C. countries; partial contribution in decision making, perpective of safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    Quantified reliability analysis of structures and systems and the quantified risk-concept is increasingly developed and applied in safety evaluation and in the licensing/regulatory process where deterministic approaches are however still predominant. A description of the types of application and a survey of the diversified opinions and the problem areas (e.g. the validity of input data, uncertainties in consequence modelling, human factors, common mode failures, etc.) are given. The significance of quantified risk assessment and comparisons, as one of the contributors in the solution to acceptability of modern technology such as nuclear power production, is discussed. Other contributions, such as benefit assessment and cost-efficiency of risk reduction, are also put into perspective within the decision-making process and in the problem of actual acceptance of new technologies. The growing need of developing and agreeing on overall safety objectives (how safe is safe enough) is finally discussed, in the light of the increasing diversity of approaches in the interconnected areas of accident hypotheses/sequences, siting parameters and technical bases for emergency planning; the latter problem being also closely connected to decisional processes for acceptability and to actual acceptance

  7. Comparing in vivo biodistribution with radiolabeling and Franz cell permeation assay to validate the efficacy of both methodologies in the evaluation of nanoemulsions: a safety approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira-Coutinho, C S; De Campo, V E B; Mansur, C R E; Rossi, A L; Veiga, V F; Holandino, C; Freitas, Z M F; Ricci-Junior, E; Santos, E P; Santos-Oliveira, R

    2016-01-01

    The Franz cells permeation assay has been performed for over 25 years. However, the advent of nanotechnology created a whole new world, especially with regard to topical products. In this new global scenario an increasing number of nanostructure-based delivery systems (NDSs) have emerged and a global warning relating to the safety of these NDSs is arising. This work studied the efficacy of the Franz cells assay, comparing it with the radiolabeling biodistribution test. For this purpose a formulation of sunscreen based on an NDS was developed and characterized. The results demonstrated both that the NDS did not present in vitro cytotoxicity and that the radiolabeling biodistribution test is more precise for the evaluation of NDS cosmetics than the Franz cells assay, since it detected the permeation of the NDS at a picogram order. Due to this fact, and considering all the concerns related to NDSs and nanoparticles in general, more precise methods must be used in order to guarantee the safe use of these new classes of products. (paper)

  8. Towards understanding work-as-done in air traffic management safety assessment and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woltjer, Rogier; Pinska-Chauvin, Ella; Laursen, Tom; Josefsson, Billy

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the approach taken and the results to develop guidance, to include Resilience Engineering principles in methodology for safety assessment of functional changes, in Air Traffic Management (ATM). It summarizes the process of deriving resilience principles for ATM, originating from Resilience Engineering concepts and transposed into ATM operations. These principles are the foundation for guidance material incorporating Resilience Engineering (RE) concepts into safety assessment methodology. The guidance material provides a method using workshops generating qualitative descriptions of RE principles applied to ATM services of everyday work, as done currently and as envisioned after introduction of a new technology or way of working. The guidance material has been proposed as part of the safety assessment methodology of SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research), and as stand-alone guidance for ATM design processes. The methodology was validated via a test case on the i4D/CTA (Controlled Time of Arrival) concept. Operational examples from the application of the developed guidance to the i4D/CTA concept are provided. Initial evaluation of the guidance suggests that the methodology (1) provides a narrative, vocabulary and documentation means of project discussions on resilience; (2) brings the discussions of safety and resilience closer to operational practice; (3) facilitates a broader systemic and integrative perspective on operational, management, business, safety, environmental, and human performance aspects; and (4) can extend the vocabulary of safety assessment to include the description of emergent properties, to better support functional changes in ATM. - Highlights: • Guidance material for safety assessment based on systemic thinking is proposed. • It operationalizes Resilience Engineering principles in Air Traffic Management, including a case study. • It enables description of expected changes in work-as-done when introducing a new

  9. Quantifying reactor safety margins: Application of CSAU [Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty] methodology to LBLOCA: Part 3, Assessment and ranging of parameters for the uncertainty analysis of LBLOCA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparisons of results from TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations with measurements from Separate Effects Tests, and published experimental data for modeling parameters have been used to determine the uncertainty ranges of code input and modeling parameters which dominate the uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for a postulated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) in a four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. The uncertainty ranges are used for a detailed statistical analysis to calculate the probability distribution function for the TRAC code-predicted Peak Clad Temperature, as is described in an attendant paper. Measurements from Separate Effects Tests and Integral Effects Tests have been compared with results from corresponding TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations to determine globally the total uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for LBLOCAs. This determination is in support of the detailed statistical analysis mentioned above. The analyses presented here account for uncertainties in input parameters, in modeling and scaling, in computing and in measurements. The analyses are an important part of the work needed to implement the Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology. CSAU is needed to determine the suitability of a computer code for reactor safety analyses and the uncertainty in computer predictions. The results presented here are used to estimate the safety margin of a particular nuclear reactor power plant for a postulated accident. 25 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs

  10. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  11. How Far Can Extended Knowledge Be Extended?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wray, K. Brad

    2018-01-01

    by an artifact, like a notebook or telescope. The chapter illustrates this by applying Pritchard’s account of extended knowledge to collaborating scientists. The beliefs acquired through collaborative research cannot satisfy both of Pritchard’s conditions of creditability. Further, there is evidence......Duncan Pritchard (2010) has developed a theory of extended knowledge based on the notion of extended cognition initially developed by Clark and Chalmers (1998). Pritchard’s account gives a central role to the notion of creditability, which requires the following two conditions to be met: (i...... that scientists are not prepared to take responsibility for the actions of the scientists with whom they collaborate....

  12. Lessons learned on probabilistic methodology for precursor analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babst, Siegfried; Wielenberg, Andreas; Gaenssmantel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Based on its experience in precursor assessment of operating experience from German NPP and related international activities in the field, GRS has identified areas for enhancing probabilistic methodology. These are related to improving the completeness of PSA models, to insufficiencies in probabilistic assessment approaches, and to enhancements of precursor assessment methods. Three examples from the recent practice in precursor assessments illustrating relevant methodological insights are provided and discussed in more detail. Our experience reinforces the importance of having full scope, current PSA models up to Level 2 PSA and including hazard scenarios for precursor analysis. Our lessons learned include that PSA models should be regularly updated regarding CCF data and inclusion of newly discovered CCF mechanisms or groups. Moreover, precursor classification schemes should be extended to degradations and unavailabilities of the containment function. Finally, PSA and precursor assessments should put more emphasis on the consideration of passive provisions for safety, e. g. by sensitivity cases.

  13. Lessons learned on probabilistic methodology for precursor analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babst, Siegfried [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Wielenberg, Andreas; Gaenssmantel, Gerhard [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Based on its experience in precursor assessment of operating experience from German NPP and related international activities in the field, GRS has identified areas for enhancing probabilistic methodology. These are related to improving the completeness of PSA models, to insufficiencies in probabilistic assessment approaches, and to enhancements of precursor assessment methods. Three examples from the recent practice in precursor assessments illustrating relevant methodological insights are provided and discussed in more detail. Our experience reinforces the importance of having full scope, current PSA models up to Level 2 PSA and including hazard scenarios for precursor analysis. Our lessons learned include that PSA models should be regularly updated regarding CCF data and inclusion of newly discovered CCF mechanisms or groups. Moreover, precursor classification schemes should be extended to degradations and unavailabilities of the containment function. Finally, PSA and precursor assessments should put more emphasis on the consideration of passive provisions for safety, e. g. by sensitivity cases.

  14. A study on the Methodology for Integrated Safety Assessment for Accidental Analysis on LILW managed in Temporary Storage Facility (TSF) at NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Min Ho; Lee, Kun Jai [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahak-ro, yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 34 Gwahak-ro, yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    In Korea, the low and intermediate level wastes (LILW) generated from the operation of NPPs have been gradually increased since 1978 because of the absence of the repository for the disposal of LILW. And then, the LILW has being stored in the temporary storage facility (TSF) at each reactor sites. Fortunately, in 2005, the Gyeongju city was selected by the resident's vote in four competitive provinces for the LILW disposal facility. The repository for the disposal of LILW will be operated in end of 2009. In opposition to many of researches on the disposal of LILW, however, the risk assessment on the TSF has scarcely been conducted. Furthermore, the details in regards of the safety analysis on this facility have not been considered in the preliminary and final safety analysis report because this report focused on the nuclear reactor system rather than this facility. As a consequence of these situations, the number of the researches on the arbitrary accidents occurring in the TSF has not been enough. The objective of this study is to establish arbitrary accident scenarios and to evaluate the exposure dose in terms of the effective dose and the thyroid equivalent dose due to the arbitrary accidents originating in the TSF for LILW management. For the establishment of arbitrary accident scenarios in the TSF for LILW, the initiating event was derived by master logic diagram (MLD) method based on the fault tree analysis (FTA), and then arbitrary accident scenarios were developed by the event tree analysis (ETA) through the derived initiating events. The main initiating events led to the arbitrary operational accident, which is the dropping of a drum and fire, were derived from MLD method. The exposure effects resulted from release of radioactive materials related to arbitrary accidents in the TSF for LILW can be divided with the internal exposure caused by breathing and external exposure by radioactive plume. The 13 radionuclides for internal and external exposure

  15. The reality of life safety consequence classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, D.N.D.; Assaf, H.; Kerr, I.R.

    1999-01-01

    Because empirical methods of consequence estimation were not designed for application in risk analysis for dam safety, BC Hydro developed its own method for determining loss of life due to dam failures as part of the development of the risk analysis process. Because loss of life estimation for consequence classification entails the generation of essentially the same information, the method can also be used to determine the consequence category of the dam for life safety considerations, and the model can be extended to third party property damage. The methodology adopted for dealing with life safety differs considerably from the empirical approach by modelling the response of the downstream population to a dam failure flood. The algorithm simulates the response of various groups of populations to the warnings of dam failure and the physical process of fleeing from the areas of potential innundation. Assessing the life safety consequences of dam failure is a first step in estimating dam safety in terms of CDA Guidelines, and empirical methods in use are not suitable for determining loss of life due to dam failures. The process described herein is the only physically based method available for estimating loss of life due to dam failures required by the Dam Safety Guidelines. The model is transparent, logically sound, and has been peer reviewed. The method provides a rational basis for the first step in performing safety assessments of dams in terms of the Guidelines, particularly high consequence dams. 8 refs., 3 figs

  16. An LWR design decision Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, T.J.; Rees, D.C.; Young, J.

    1982-01-01

    While all parties involved in nuclear plant regulation endeavor to make decisions which optimize the considerations of plant safety and financial impacts, these decisions are generally made without the benefit of a systematic and rigorous approach to the questions confronting the decision makers. A Design Decision Methodology has been developed which provides such a systematic approach. By employing this methodology, which makes use of currently accepted probabilistic risk assessment techniques and cost estimation, informed decisions may be made against a background of comparisons between the relative levels of safety and costs associated with various design alternatives

  17. AEGIS methodology and a perspective from AEGIS methodology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.

    1981-03-01

    Objectives of AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) are to develop the capabilities needed to assess the post-closure safety of waste isolation in geologic formation; demonstrate these capabilities on reference sites; apply the assessment methodology to assist the NWTS program in site selection, waste package and repository design; and perform repository site analyses for the licensing needs of NWTS. This paper summarizes the AEGIS methodology, the experience gained from methodology demonstrations, and provides an overview in the following areas: estimation of the response of a repository to perturbing geologic and hydrologic events; estimation of the transport of radionuclides from a repository to man; and assessment of uncertainties

  18. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  19. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  20. Safety Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    given prior to issuing or renewing an OF 346? 13. Are operators’ DA Forms 348 reviewed annually for— a. Safety awards? b. Expiration of permits...place oily polishing rags or waste in covered metal cans? d. Store paint in tightly closed containers? e. Warn family members to never use gasoline...15 cream or lotion on exposed skin (face, hands, feet)? 3. Avoid extended periods of unprotected exposure to the sun? Heat cramp, heat exhaustion

  1. Extended Enterprise performance Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbink, Maria Lammerdina; Hartmann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The allegiance of partnering organisations and their employees to an Extended Enterprise performance is its proverbial sword of Damocles. Literature on Extended Enterprises focuses on collaboration, inter-organizational integration and learning to avoid diminishing or missing allegiance becoming an

  2. User requirements for innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle technologies in the area of economics, environment, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance and cross cutting issues, and methodology for innovative technologies assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, Juergen; Depisch, Frank; Allan, Colin

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA General Conference in 2000 has invited ''all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the Agency in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology''. In response to this invitation, the IAEA initiated an ''International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles'', INPRO. The overall objectives of INPRO is to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling in a sustainable manner energy needs in the 21st century, and to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles that use sound and economically competitive technology. Phase-I of INPRO was initiated in May 2001. During Phase-I, work was subdivided in two sub phase: Phase 1A (finished in June 2003) and Phase 1B (started in June 2003). Phase 1A dealt with the definition of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria, and the development of a methodology for the evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies. In Phase 1A, task groups for several areas were established: (a) Prospects and Potentials of Nuclear Power, (b) Economics; (c) Sustainability and Environment, (d) Safety of Nuclear Installations, (e) Waste Management, (f) Proliferation Resistance, (g) Crosscutting issues and (h) for the Methodology for Assessment. In Phase-IB evaluations of innovative nuclear energy technologies will be performed by Member States against the INPRO Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria. This paper summarizes the results achieved in the Phase 1A of INPRO and is a cooperative effort of the INPRO team, consisting of all INPRO cost free experts and task managers. (author)

  3. Perspectives on extended Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno; Yost, David S.; Bunn, Elaine; Lee, Seok-soo; Levite, Ariel e.; Russell, James A.; Hokayem, Emile; Kibaroglu, Mustafa; Schulte, Paul; Thraenert, Oliver; Kulesa, Lukasz

    2010-05-01

    In November 2009, the Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la recherche strategique, FRS) convened a workshop on 'The Future of extended Deterrence', which included the participation of some of the best experts of this topic, from the United States, Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, as well as French and NATO officials. This document brings together the papers prepared for this seminar. Several of them were updated after the publication in April 2010 of the US Nuclear Posture Review. The seminar was organized with the support of the French Atomic energy Commission (Commissariat a l'energie atomique - CEA). Content: 1 - The future of extended deterrence: a brainstorming paper (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - US extended deterrence in NATO and North-East Asia (David S. Yost); 3 - The future of US extended deterrence (Elaine Bunn); 4 - The future of extended deterrence: a South Korean perspective (Seok-soo Lee); 5 - Reflections on extended deterrence in the Middle East (Ariel e. Levite); 6 - extended deterrence, security guarantees and nuclear weapons: US strategic and policy conundrums in the Gulf (James A. Russell); 7 - extended deterrence in the Gulf: a bridge too far? (Emile Hokayem); 8 - The future of extended deterrence: the case of Turkey (Mustafa Kibaroglu); 9 - The future of extended deterrence: a UK view (Paul Schulte); 10 - NATO and extended deterrence (Oliver Thraenert); 11 - extended deterrence and assurance in Central Europe (Lukasz Kulesa)

  4. Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, K J

    1993-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic re...

  5. Methodology for reliability based condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B.

    1993-08-01

    Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period

  6. MIRD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Ana M.; Gomez Parada, Ines

    2004-01-01

    The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system was established by the Society of Nuclear Medicine of USA in 1960 to assist the medical community in the estimation of the dose in organs and tissues due to the incorporation of radioactive materials. Since then, 'MIRD Dose Estimate Report' (from the 1 to 12) and 'Pamphlets', of great utility for the dose calculations, were published. The MIRD system was planned essentially for the calculation of doses received by the patients during nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. The MIRD methodology for the absorbed doses calculations in different tissues is explained

  7. PSA methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, L

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300{sup 1} and EPS 900{sup 2} PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs.

  8. PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this text is first to ask a certain number of questions on the methods related to PSAs. Notably we will explore the positioning of the French methodological approach - as applied in the EPS 1300 1 and EPS 900 2 PSAs - compared to other approaches (Part One). This reflection leads to more general reflection: what contents, for what PSA? This is why, in Part Two, we will try to offer a framework for definition of the criteria a PSA should satisfy to meet the clearly identified needs. Finally, Part Three will quickly summarize the questions approached in the first two parts, as an introduction to the debate. 15 refs

  9. The practical implementation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    When, during the review of the Chernobyl accident, the INSAG Committee introduced the term 'Safety Culture', it spread very quickly. Later on, as a result of activities sponsored by the IAEA, the original Safety Culture concept was extended to include a large number of issues that are typical requirements of Quality Assurance Unfortunately, the way in which certain organizations approached this subject has not helped to find the right way for it to be implemented. Safety Culture is not mentioned at all in ICRP-60 and in the new recommendations of 2005 it does not even appear in the principal body and only a minor reference exists. The IAEA's Basic Safety Standards deal with the requirements for Safety Culture and for Quality Assurance as absolutely individual issues; however, Safety Culture should be considered as a part of the Quality System. Very recently the situation was strongly improved by the release of the new standard 'The Management System for Facilities and Activities' Safety Requirements GS-R-3. The EURATOM 97/43 Directive, used in the European Community for the preparation of regulations for medical practice, which, while inspired by ICRP-73, does not even mention Safety Culture. Increasing personnel training is not enough if, at the same time, there are no activities aimed at improving their attitude towards quality and safety. To achieve a change in Culture in the organization or to implant the new concept, there must be a suitable supporting Methodology to allow it to be put into practice. If not, the Safety Culture will only be a simple expression of wishes without any chance of success. Criteria, methodology and effective practical tools must be available. Two basic principles for the management system (GSR-3): a) All the tasks may be considered as 'a system of interactive processes'; b) All persons must take part in order to achieve safety and quality. These two principles are the basis of the strategy for the development of a Safety Culture

  10. The practical implementation of safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzet, Rodolfo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires. (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    When, during the review of the Chernobyl accident, the INSAG Committee introduced the term 'Safety Culture', it spread very quickly. Later on, as a result of activities sponsored by the IAEA, the original Safety Culture concept was extended to include a large number of issues that are typical requirements of Quality Assurance Unfortunately, the way in which certain organizations approached this subject has not helped to find the right way for it to be implemented. Safety Culture is not mentioned at all in ICRP-60 and in the new recommendations of 2005 it does not even appear in the principal body and only a minor reference exists. The IAEA's Basic Safety Standards deal with the requirements for Safety Culture and for Quality Assurance as absolutely individual issues; however, Safety Culture should be considered as a part of the Quality System. Very recently the situation was strongly improved by the release of the new standard 'The Management System for Facilities and Activities' Safety Requirements GS-R-3. The EURATOM 97/43 Directive, used in the European Community for the preparation of regulations for medical practice, which, while inspired by ICRP-73, does not even mention Safety Culture. Increasing personnel training is not enough if, at the same time, there are no activities aimed at improving their attitude towards quality and safety. To achieve a change in Culture in the organization or to implant the new concept, there must be a suitable supporting Methodology to allow it to be put into practice. If not, the Safety Culture will only be a simple expression of wishes without any chance of success. Criteria, methodology and effective practical tools must be available. Two basic principles for the management system (GSR-3): a) All the tasks may be considered as 'a system of interactive processes'; b) All persons must take part in order to achieve safety and quality. These two principles are the basis of the strategy for the development of a Safety Culture

  11. A randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of extended-release and immediate-release tramadol HCl/acetaminophen in patients with acute pain following total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Beom; Ha, Chul-Won; Cho, Sung-Do; Lee, Myung-Chul; Lee, Ju-Hong; Seo, Seung-Suk; Kang, Seung-Baik; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Choi, Choong-Hyeok; Chang, NaYoon; Rhim, Hyou Young Helen; Bin, Seong-Il

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of extended-release tramadol HCl 75 mg/acetaminophen 650 mg (TA-ER) and immediate-release tramadol HCl 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg (TA-IR) for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain following total knee replacement. This phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study randomized 320 patients with moderate to severe pain (≥4 intensity on an 11 point numeric rating scale) following total knee replacement arthroplasty to receive oral TA-ER (every 12 hours) or TA-IR (every 6 hours) over a period of 48 hours. In the primary analysis, TA-ER was evaluated for efficacy non-inferior to that of TA-IR based on the sum of pain intensity difference (SPID) at 48 hours after the first dose of study drug (SPID48). Secondary endpoints included SPID at additional time points, total pain relief at all on-therapy time points (TOTPAR), sum of SPID and TOTPAR at all on-therapy time points (SPID + TOTPAR), use of rescue medication, subjective pain assessment (PGIC, Patient Global Impression of Change), and adverse events (AEs). Analysis of the primary efficacy endpoint (SPID48) could not establish the non-inferiority of TA-ER to TA-IR. However, a post hoc analysis with a re-defined non-inferiority margin did demonstrate the non-inferiority of TA-ER to TA-IR. No statistically significant difference in SPID at 6, 12, or 24 hours was observed between the TA-ER and TA-IR groups. Similarly, analysis of TOTPAR showed that there were no significant differences between groups at any on-therapy time point, and SPID + TOTPAR at 6 and 48 hours were similar among groups. There was no difference in the mean frequency or dosage of rescue medication required by both groups, and the majority of patients in both the TA-ER and TA-IR groups rated their pain improvement as 'much' or 'somewhat better'. The overall incidence of ≥1 AEs was similar among the TA-ER (88.8%) and TA-IR (89.5%) groups. The most commonly

  12. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  13. Extending Database Integration Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buneman, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Formal approaches to the semantics of databases and database languages can have immediate and practical consequences in extending database integration technologies to include a vastly greater range...

  14. Safety in cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siregar, S.

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring of safety in cardiac surgery is a complex process, which involves many clinical, practical, methodological and statistical issues. The objective of this thesis was to measure and to compare safety in cardiac surgery in The Netherlands using the Netherlands Association for

  15. The GPT methodology. New fields of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.; Gomit, J.M.; Abramytchev, V.

    1996-01-01

    The GPT (Generalized Perturbation Theory) methodology is described, and a new application is discussed. The results obtained for a simple model (zero dimension, six parameters of interest) show that the expressions obtained using the GPT methodology, lead to results close to those obtained through direct calculations. The GPT methodology is useful to be used for radioactive waste disposal problems. The potentiality of the method linked to zero dimension model can be extended to radionuclide migration problems with space description. (K.A.)

  16. Testing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

  17. Testing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical ''signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs

  18. PSA methodology development and application in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuo Sato; Toshiaki Tobioka; Kiyoharu Abe

    1987-01-01

    The outlines of Japanese activities on development and application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodologies are described. First the activities on methodology development are described for system reliability analysis, operational data analysis, core melt accident analysis, environmental consequence analysis and seismic risk analysis. Then the methodoligy application examples by the regulatory side and the industry side are described. (author)

  19. Human reliability analysis methods for probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P.

    2000-11-01

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) includes identifying human actions from safety point of view, modelling the most important of them in PSA models, and assessing their probabilities. As manifested by many incidents and studies, human actions may have both positive and negative effect on safety and economy. Human reliability analysis is one of the areas of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that has direct applications outside the nuclear industry. The thesis focuses upon developments in human reliability analysis methods and data. The aim is to support PSA by extending the applicability of HRA. The thesis consists of six publications and a summary. The summary includes general considerations and a discussion about human actions in the nuclear power plant (NPP) environment. A condensed discussion about the results of the attached publications is then given, including new development in methods and data. At the end of the summary part, the contribution of the publications to good practice in HRA is presented. In the publications, studies based on the collection of data on maintenance-related failures, simulator runs and expert judgement are presented in order to extend the human reliability analysis database. Furthermore, methodological frameworks are presented to perform a comprehensive HRA, including shutdown conditions, to study reliability of decision making, and to study the effects of wrong human actions. In the last publication, an interdisciplinary approach to analysing human decision making is presented. The publications also include practical applications of the presented methodological frameworks. (orig.)

  20. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  1. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the main safety aspects of the French nuclear energy programme and of the general safety organization is followed by a discussion on the current thinking in CEA on some important safety issues. As far as methodology is concerned, the use of probabilistic analysis in the licensing procedure is being extensively developed. Reactor safety research is aimed at a better knowledge of the safety margins involved in the present designs of both PWRs and LMFBRs. A greater emphasis should be put during the next years in the safety of the nuclear fuel cycle installations, including waste disposals. Finally, it is suggested that further international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety should be developed in order to insure for all countries the very high safety level which has been achieved up till now. (author)

  2. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  3. Safety issues at the defense production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States produces plutonium and tritium for use in nuclear weapons at the defense production reactors endash the N Reactor in Washington and the Savannah River reactors in South Carolina. This report reaches general conclusions about the management of those reactors and highlights a number of safety and technical issues that should be resolved. The report provides an assessment of the safety management, safety review, and safety methodology employed by the Department of Energy and the private contractors who operate the reactors for the federal government. The report is necessarily based on a limited review of the defense production reactors. It does not address whether any of the reactors are ''safe,'' because such an analysis would involve a determination of acceptable risk endash a matter of obvious importance, but one that was beyond the purview of the committee. It also does not address whether the safety of the production reactors is comparable to that of commercial nuclear power stations, because even this narrower question extended beyond the charge to the committee and would have involved detailed analyses that the committee could not undertake

  4. Playground Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Fall Prevention Playground Safety Poisoning Prevention Road Traffic Safety Sports Safety Get Email Updates To receive ... at the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s Playground Safety website . References U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Injuries and ...

  5. An extended technicolor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Terning, J.

    1994-01-01

    An extended technicolor model is constructed. Quark and lepton masses, spontaneous CP violation, and precision electroweak measurements are discussed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is analyzed using the concept of the big MAC (most attractive channel)

  6. Extending mine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Mine layouts, new machines and techniques, research into problem areas of ground control and so on, are highlighted in this report on extending mine life. The main resources taken into account are coal mining, uranium mining, molybdenum and gold mining

  7. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  8. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A growing conceptual and empirical literature is advancing the idea that language extends our cognitive skills. One of the most influential positions holds that language – qua material symbols – facilitates individual thought processes by virtue of its material properties. Extending upon this model...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  9. Extending Mondrian Memory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    a kernel semaphore is locked or unlocked. In addition, we extended the system call interface to receive notifications about user-land locking...operations (such as calls to the mutex and semaphore code provided by the C library). By patching the dynamically loadable GLibC5, we are able to test... semaphores , and spinlocks. RTO-MP-IST-091 10- 9 Extending Mondrian Memory Protection to loading extension plugins. This prevents any untrusted code

  10. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 06-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED ... Corrosion Testing of Traditional and Extended Life Coolants 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hansen, Gregory A. T...providing vehicle specific coolants. Several laboratory corrosion tests were performed according to ASTM D1384 and D2570, but with a 2.5x extended time

  11. Dynamic event Tress applied to sequences Full Spectrum LOCA. Calculating the frequency of exceedance of damage by integrated Safety Analysis Methodology; Arboles de sucesos dinamicos aplicados a secuencias Full Spectrum LOCA. Calculo de la frequencia de excedencia del dano mediante la metodologia Analisis Integrados de Seguridad (ISA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Magan, J. J.; Fernandez, I.; Gil, J.; Marrao, H.; Queral, C.; Gonzalez-Cadelo, J.; Montero-Mayorga, J.; Rivas, J.; Ibane-Llano, C.; Izquierdo, J. M.; Sanchez-Perea, M.; Melendez, E.; Hortal, J.

    2013-09-01

    The Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) methodology, developed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety council (CSN), has been applied to obtain the dynamic Event Trees (DETs) for full spectrum Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) of a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR plant. The purpose of this ISA application is to obtain the Damage Exceedance Frequency (DEF) for the LOCA Event Tree by taking into account the uncertainties in the break area and the operator actuation time needed to cool down and de pressurize reactor coolant system by means of steam generator. Simulations are performed with SCAIS, a software tool which includes a dynamic coupling with MAAP thermal hydraulic code. The results show the capability of the ISA methodology to obtain the DEF taking into account the time uncertainty in human actions. (Author)

  12. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some c...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  13. An application of augmented MDA for the extended healthcare enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; van Halteren, Aart; Konstantas, D.; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile health systems extend the Enterprise Computing System (ECS) of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a methodology for the development of such extended ECSs which applies a model-driven design and development approach augmented with

  14. An application of augmented MDA for the extended healthcare enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; van Halteren, Aart; Konstantas, D.; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Mobile health systems extend the enterprise computing system of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a methodology for the development of such extended enterprise computing systems which applies a model-driven design and development approach

  15. Guidance for the application of an assessment methodology for innovative nuclear energy systems. INPRO manual - Safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Vol. 9 of the final report of phase 1 of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was initiated in the year 2000, based on a resolution of the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). The main objectives of INPRO are (1) to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner, (2) to bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles; and (3) to create a forum to involve all relevant stakeholders that will have an impact on, draw from, and complement the activities of existing institutions, as well as ongoing initiatives at the national and international level. The INPRO manual is comprised of an overview volume (No. 1), and eight additional volumes covering the areas of economics (Volume 2), infrastructure (Volume 3), waste management (Volume 4), proliferation resistance (Volume 5), physical protection (Volume 6), environment (Volume 7), safety of nuclear reactors (Volume 8), and safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities (laid out in this report) (Volume 9).This report elaborates on the guidance given in the INPRO report 'Methodology for the assessment of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles', IAEA-TECDOC-1434, and the previous INPRO report 'Guidance for the evaluation for innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles', IAEA-TECDOC-1362 (2003), in the area of safety of nuclear reactors. The present version of this manual deals with safety issues related to design and operation of mining, milling, refining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, fuel storage and fuel reprocessing facilities. The INPRO Manual starts with an introduction in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 sets out the necessary input for an INPRO assessment of the safety of an innovative nuclear fuel cycle facility. This includes information on the design for the plant and the safety

  16. Spent Fuel Dissolution and Source Term Modelling in Safety Assessment. Report from a Workshop at Sigtunahoejden Hotel and Conference, Sigtuna, Sweden May 17-19, 2006. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This report describes a workshop that was organised by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for assessment of the handling of near-field radionuclide retention processes by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The general objective with this type of meeting is to improve the knowledge and awareness of recent developments and to provide preliminary review comments. A number of SKB reports provided the general background for the workshop discussions. One report addresses the release of radionuclides from spent fuel, another the concentration limits related to radionuclide solubility and a third buffer radionuclide sorption and migration parameters. These reports comprise a basis for the handling of the spent fuel, solubility and sorption processes in new complete safety assessment SR-Can. The discussion and analysis of these background reports at the workshop therefore provide an essential element of preparation for the planned review of SR-Can. The review comments provided in this report are nonetheless of a preliminary character since the SR-Can report was not available at the time of the workshop and details about the incorporation of various potential safety features into the entirety of safety assessment were not known. The present report sets out the detailed objectives and format of the workshop in Section 2. Section 3 provides a high-level overview of processes that need to be taken into account. In Section 4, there is a brief discussion about the chemical and physical environment near the engineered barriers. Section 5 gives a more detailed description of spent fuel processes that affect the radionuclide releases. In Section 6, the key issues for radionuclide chemistry and the estimation of concentration limits for various radionuclides are discussed. Section 7 discusses radionuclide sorption and migration in the buffer and Section 8 presents overall conclusions from the workshop.

  17. Spent Fuel Dissolution and Source Term Modelling in Safety Assessment. Report from a Workshop at Sigtunahoejden Hotel and Conference, Sigtuna, Sweden May 17-19, 2006. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    This report describes a workshop that was organised by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for assessment of the handling of near-field radionuclide retention processes by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The general objective with this type of meeting is to improve the knowledge and awareness of recent developments and to provide preliminary review comments. A number of SKB reports provided the general background for the workshop discussions. One report addresses the release of radionuclides from spent fuel, another the concentration limits related to radionuclide solubility and a third buffer radionuclide sorption and migration parameters. These reports comprise a basis for the handling of the spent fuel, solubility and sorption processes in new complete safety assessment SR-Can. The discussion and analysis of these background reports at the workshop therefore provide an essential element of preparation for the planned review of SR-Can. The review comments provided in this report are nonetheless of a preliminary character since the SR-Can report was not available at the time of the workshop and details about the incorporation of various potential safety features into the entirety of safety assessment were not known. The present report sets out the detailed objectives and format of the workshop in Section 2. Section 3 provides a high-level overview of processes that need to be taken into account. In Section 4, there is a brief discussion about the chemical and physical environment near the engineered barriers. Section 5 gives a more detailed description of spent fuel processes that affect the radionuclide releases. In Section 6, the key issues for radionuclide chemistry and the estimation of concentration limits for various radionuclides are discussed. Section 7 discusses radionuclide sorption and migration in the buffer and Section 8 presents overall conclusions from the workshop

  18. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  19. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R

    2016-01-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure. (paper)

  20. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  1. Evaluation of methodology for QRA in offshore operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnem, Jan Erik

    1998-01-01

    A brief summary is presented of the development of Quantified Risk Analysis in the offshore oil and gas industry for nearly 20 years. From a modest start in Norway as a research activity, QRA has today become one of the focal points of oil and gas management in all countries around the North Sea, and also in other areas. This was mainly initiated by authority regulations and requirements, but has now for some time been driven by the industry itself, as it sees the QRA as a vehicle to gain extended flexibility with respect to optimization of offshore safety standards. This article discusses how QRAs are used, and examines in this light how methodology developments that are and should be carried out by R and D institutions and the industry. Recommendations with respect to how and where knowledge should be developed are expressed and discussed. Lastly visions for future use and developments within the QRA technology are outlined

  2. The renewable tradition (extended play remix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Amerika

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a network of appropriation artists, process philosophers, performance poets, pla(ygiarists, and other remix provocateurs, this experimental artist essay investigates the act of remixologically inhabiting the body language of others and, in the process, devises an aesthetic theory that situates the contemporary artist as a "postproduction medium" whose methodologies further extend avant-garde practice into the 21st century.

  3. An overview of IPSN research on the evolution of the natural systems in support of the French methodology for the safety evaluation of radwaste disposal in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Granier, T.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1992-01-01

    A regulatory guidance has been recently set up in France for the safety assessment of radwaste deep geological disposal: the present paper concerns the requirements related to bedrock stability issues and their technical background. This regulation relies in particular on a long term effort of the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IPSN) of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), which ensures two main duties: it carries out research programs in the area of protection and nuclear safety and provides expertise to the safety authorities. It should be noted that ANDRA (the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) is responsible for the safety of radioactive waste management and relies, for safety demonstration purposes, on its research programs. IPSN, in support of the safety authorities, is in charge of the verification of the applicant's safety demonstration and develops its own research programs in order to achieve an independent capability in safety analysis expertise. We present here the major axes of the Institute research program devoted to the assessment of seismic events consequences on the groundwater system. 19 refs., 8 figs

  4. An overview of IPSN research on the evolution of the natural systems in support of the French methodology for the safety evaluation of radwaste disposal in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Granier, T.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1992-01-01

    A regulatory guidance has been recently set up in France for the safety assessment of radwaste deep in geological disposal: the present paper concerns the requirements related to bedrock stability issues and their technical background. This regulation relies in particular on a long term effort of the Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IPSN) of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), which ensures two main duties: it carries out research programs in the area of protection and nuclear safety and provides expertise to the safety authorities. It should be noted that ANDRA (the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) is responsible for the safety of radioactive waste management and relies, for safety demonstration purposes, on its research programs. IPSN, in support of the safety authorities, is in charge of the verification of the applicant's safety demonstration and develops its own research programs in order to achieve an independent capability in safety analysis expertise. We present here the major axes of the Institute research program devoted to the assessment of seismic events consequences on the groundwater system. 19 refs., 8 figs

  5. PWR core safety analysis with 3-dimensional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensler, A.; Kühnel, K.; Kuch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of AREVA’s safety analysis codes their coupling is provided. • The validation base and licensing applications of these codes are summarized. • Coupled codes and methods provide improved margins and non-conservative results. • Examples for REA and inadvertent opening of the pressurizer safety valve are given. - Abstract: The main focus of safety analysis is to demonstrate the required safety level of the reactor core. Because of the demanding requirements, the quality of the safety analysis strongly affects the confidence in the operational safety of a reactor. To ensure the highest quality, it is essential that the methodology consists of appropriate analysis tools, an extensive validation base, and last but not least highly educated engineers applying the methodology. The sophisticated 3-dimensional core models applied by AREVA ensure that all physical effects relevant for safety are treated and the results are reliable and conservative. Presently AREVA employs SCIENCE, CASMO/NEMO and CASCADE-3D for pressurized water reactors. These codes are currently being consolidated into the next generation 3D code system ARCADIA®. AREVA continuously extends the validation base, including measurement campaigns in test facilities and comparisons of the predictions of steady state and transient measured data gathered from plants during many years of operation. Thus, the core models provide reliable and comprehensive results for a wide range of applications. For the application of these powerful tools, AREVA is taking benefit of its interdisciplinary know-how and international teamwork. Experienced engineers of different technical backgrounds are working together to ensure an appropriate interpretation of the calculation results, uncertainty analysis, along with continuously maintaining and enhancing the quality of the analysis methodologies. In this paper, an overview of AREVA’s broad application experience as well as the broad validation

  6. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  7. Transversally extended string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Keiichi

    1988-01-01

    Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)

  8. Extended artistic appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    I propose that in at least some cases, objects of artistic appreciation are best thought of not simply as causes of artistic appreciation, but as parts of the cognitive machinery that drives aesthetic appreciation. In effect, this is to say that aesthetic appreciation operates via extended cognitive systems.

  9. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  10. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-03-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology.

  11. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-01-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology

  12. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Methodology and Application to the Shutdown Cooling System for APR-1400 Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faragalla, Mohamed M.; Emmanuel, Efenji; Alhammadi, Ibrahim; Awwal, Arigi M.; Lee, Yong Kwan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Shutdown Cooling System (SCS) is a safety-related system that is used in conjunction with the Main Steam and Main or Auxiliary Feedwater Systems to reduce the temperature of the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) in post shutdown periods from the hot shutdown operating temperature to the refueling temperature. In this paper RCM methodology is applied to (SCS). RCM analysis is performed based on evaluation of Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FME and CA) on the component, system and plant. The Logic Tree Analysis (LTA) is used to determine the optimum maintenance tasks. The main objectives of RCM is the safety, preserve the System function, the cost-effective maintenance of the plant components and increase the reliability and availability value. The RCM methodology is useful for improving the equipment reliability by strengthening the management of equipment condition, and leads to a significant decrease in the number of periodical maintenance, extended maintenance cycle, longer useful life of equipment, and decrease in overall maintenance cost. It also focuses on the safety of the system by assigning criticality index to the various components and further selecting maintenance activities based on the risk of failure involved. Therefore, it can be said that RCM introduces a maintenance plan designed for maximum safety in an economical manner and making the system more reliable. For the SCP, increasing the number of condition monitoring tasks will improve the availability of the SCP. It is recommended to reduce the number of periodic maintenance activities.

  13. Removing unreasonable conservatisms in DOE safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BISHOP, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    While nuclear safety analyses must always be conservative, invoking excessive conservatisms does not provide additional margins of safety. Rather, beyond a fairly narrow point, conservatisms skew a facility's true safety envelope by exaggerating risks and creating unreasonable bounds on what is required for safety. The conservatism has itself become unreasonable. A thorough review of the assumptions and methodologies contained in a facility's safety analysis can provide substantial reward, reducing both construction and operational costs without compromising actual safety

  14. Clinical trial methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2011-01-01

    ... in the pharmaceutical industry, Clinical trial methodology emphasizes the importance of statistical thinking in clinical research and presents the methodology as a key component of clinical research...

  15. Challenging patient safety culture: survey results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, Johan; Schrooten, Ward; Klazinga, Niek; Vleugels, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to measure patient safety culture in five Belgian general hospitals. Safety culture plays an important role in the approach towards greater patient safety in hospitals. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The Patient Safety Culture Hospital questionnaire was

  16. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  17. Extended quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Bona

    2000-01-01

    The work can be considered as an essay on mathematical and conceptual structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics which is related here to some other (more general, but also to more special and 'approximative') theories. Quantum mechanics is here primarily reformulated in an equivalent form of a Poisson system on the phase space consisting of density matrices, where the 'observables', as well as 'symmetry generators' are represented by a specific type of real valued (densely defined) functions, namely the usual quantum expectations of corresponding selfjoint operators. It is shown in this paper that inclusion of additional ('nonlinear') symmetry generators (i. e. 'Hamiltonians') into this reformulation of (linear) quantum mechanics leads to a considerable extension of the theory: two kinds of quantum 'mixed states' should be distinguished, and operator - valued functions of density matrices should be used in the role of 'nonlinear observables'. A general framework for physical theories is obtained in this way: By different choices of the sets of 'nonlinear observables' we obtain, as special cases, e.g. classical mechanics on homogeneous spaces of kinematical symmetry groups, standard (linear) quantum mechanics, or nonlinear extensions of quantum mechanics; also various 'quasiclassical approximations' to quantum mechanics are all sub theories of the presented extension of quantum mechanics - a version of the extended quantum mechanics. A general interpretation scheme of extended quantum mechanics extending the usual statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics is also proposed. Eventually, extended quantum mechanics is shown to be (included into) a C * -algebraic (hence linear) quantum theory. Mathematical formulation of these theories is presented. The presentation includes an analysis of problems connected with differentiation on infinite-dimensional manifolds, as well as a solution of some problems connected with the work with only densely defined unbounded

  18. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  19. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...... of public importance; engaging with non-academic groups using dialectical reasoning; scaling up insights through movement building; and propagating deliberation...

  20. Extended Theories of Gravity