Abdulbaqi, Ibrahim M; Darwis, Yusrida; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Assi, Reem Abou; Khan, Arshad A
2016-01-01
Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone extensive research since they were invented in 1996; new compounds were added to their initial formula, which led to the production of new types of ethosomal systems. Different preparation techniques are used in the preparation of these novel carriers. For ease of application and stability, ethosomal dispersions are incorporated into gels, patches, and creams. Highly diverse in vivo models are used to evaluate their efficacy in dermal/transdermal delivery, in addition to clinical trials. This article provides a detailed review of the ethosomal systems and categorizes them on the basis of their constituents to classical ethosomes, binary ethosomes, and transethosomes. The differences among these systems are discussed from several perspectives, including the formulation, size, ζ-potential (zeta potential), entrapment efficiency, skin-permeation properties, and stability. This paper gives a detailed review on the effects of ethosomal system constituents, preparation methods, and their significant roles in determining the final properties of these nanocarriers. Furthermore, the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms of ethosomal gels, patches, and creams are highlighted. The article also provides detailed information regarding the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for the evaluation of these vesicular systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulbaqi IM
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Ibrahim M Abdulbaqi, Yusrida Darwis, Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan, Reem Abou Assi, Arshad A Khan School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia Abstract: Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone extensive research since they were invented in 1996; new compounds were added to their initial formula, which led to the production of new types of ethosomal systems. Different preparation techniques are used in the preparation of these novel carriers. For ease of application and stability, ethosomal dispersions are incorporated into gels, patches, and creams. Highly diverse in vivo models are used to evaluate their efficacy in dermal/ transdermal delivery, in addition to clinical trials. This article provides a detailed review of the ethosomal systems and categorizes them on the basis of their constituents to classical ethosomes, binary ethosomes, and transethosomes. The differences among these systems are discussed from several perspectives, including the formulation, size, ζ-potential (zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, skin-permeation properties, and stability. This paper gives a detailed review on the effects of ethosomal system constituents, preparation methods, and their significant roles in determining the final properties of these nanocarriers. Furthermore, the novel pharmaceutical dosage forms of ethosomal gels, patches, and creams are highlighted. The article also provides detailed information regarding the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted for the evaluation of these vesicular systems. Keywords: ethosomes, transdermal, lipid-based vesicles, delivery systems
Shen, Shuo; Liu, Shu-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Shi; Du, Mao-Bo; Liang, Ai-Hua; Song, Li-Hua; Ye, Zu-Guang
2015-01-01
Malaria is still a serious public health problem in some parts of the world. The problems of recurrence and drug resistance are increasingly more serious. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel antimalarial agent. The objectives of this study were to construct a novel compound antimalarial transdermal nanosystem-ethosomal cataplasm, to investigate its characteristics and efficiency, and to systematically explore the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of ethosomal cataplasm. Artesunate-loaded ethosomes and febrifugine-loaded ethosomes were prepared, and their characteristics were evaluated. Drug-loaded ethosomes were incorporated in the matrix of cataplasm to form the compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm. With the help of ethosomal technology, the accumulated permeation quantity of artesunate significantly increased at 8 hours after administration, which was 1.57 times as much as that of conventional cataplasm. Soon after administration, the ethosomal cataplasm could make a large quantity of antimalarial drug quickly penetrate through skin, then the remaining drug in the ethosomal cataplasm could be steadily released. These characteristics of ethosomal cataplasm are favorable for antimalarial drugs to kill Plasmodium spp. quickly and prevent the resurgence of Plasmodium spp. As expected, the ethosomal cataplasm showed good antimalarial efficiency in this experiment. The negative conversion rates were 100% and the recurrence rates were 0% at all dosages. The mechanism of penetration enhancement of the ethosomal cataplasm was systematically explored using an optics microscope, polarization microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure, ultrastructure, and birefringent structure in skin were observed. Data obtained in this study showed that the application of ethosomal technology to antimalarial cataplasm could improve the transdermal delivery of drug, enhance the efficacy, and facilitate practical application in clinic.
Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese
2010-01-01
a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution...... without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shen S
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Shuo Shen, Shu-Zhi Liu, Yu-Shi Zhang, Mao-Bo Du, Ai-Hua Liang, Li-Hua Song, Zu-Guang Ye Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Malaria is still a serious public health problem in some parts of the world. The problems of recurrence and drug resistance are increasingly more serious. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel antimalarial agent. The objectives of this study were to construct a novel compound antimalarial transdermal nanosystem–ethosomal cataplasm, to investigate its characteristics and efficiency, and to systematically explore the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of ethosomal cataplasm. Artesunate-loaded ethosomes and febrifugine-loaded ethosomes were prepared, and their characteristics were evaluated. Drug-loaded ethosomes were incorporated in the matrix of cataplasm to form the compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm. With the help of ethosomal technology, the accumulated permeation quantity of artesunate significantly increased at 8 hours after administration, which was 1.57 times as much as that of conventional cataplasm. Soon after administration, the ethosomal cataplasm could make a large quantity of antimalarial drug quickly penetrate through skin, then the remaining drug in the ethosomal cataplasm could be steadily released. These characteristics of ethosomal cataplasm are favorable for antimalarial drugs to kill Plasmodium spp. quickly and prevent the resurgence of Plasmodium spp. As expected, the ethosomal cataplasm showed good antimalarial efficiency in this experiment. The negative conversion rates were 100% and the recurrence rates were 0% at all dosages. The mechanism of penetration enhancement of the ethosomal cataplasm was systematically explored using an optics microscope, polarization microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure, ultrastructure, and birefringent structure in skin were observed. Data
Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese
2010-01-01
Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingr...... without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded....
Abdulbaqi, Ibrahim M; Darwis, Yusrida; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Assi, Reem Abou; Khan, Arshad A
2016-01-01
Ibrahim M Abdulbaqi, Yusrida Darwis, Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan, Reem Abou Assi, Arshad A Khan School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia Abstract: Ethosomal systems are novel lipid vesicular carriers containing a relatively high percentage of ethanol. These nanocarriers are especially designed for the efficient delivery of therapeutic agents with different physicochemical properties into deep skin layers and across the skin. Ethosomes have undergone exte...
Therapeutic and cosmeceutical potential of ethosomes: An overview
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poonam Verma
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The main disadvantage of transdermal drug delivery is the poor penetration of most compounds into the human skin. The main barrier of the skin is located within its uppermost layer, the stratum corneum (SC. Several approaches have been developed to weaken this skin barrier. One of the approaches for increasing the skin penetration of drugs and many cosmetic chemicals is the use of vesicular systems, such as, liposomes and ethosomes. Ethosomes are phospholipid-based elastic nanovesicles containing a high content of ethanol (20-45%. Ethanol is known as an efficient permeation enhancer and has been added in the vesicular systems to prepare elastic nanovesicles. It can interact with the polar head group region of the lipid molecules, resulting in the reduction of the melting point of the stratum corneum lipid, thereby increasing lipid fluidity and cell membrane permeability. The high flexibility of vesicular membranes from the added ethanol permits the elastic vesicles to squeeze themselves through the pores, which are much smaller than their diameters. Ethosomal systems are much more efficient in delivering substances to the skin in the terms of quantity and depth, than either conventional liposomes or hydroalcoholic solutions. The scope of this small review is to introduce the novel concept of ethosomes and to describe some approaches and mechanisms of stimulating topical and transdermal products with ethosomes.
Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng S
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Shu Meng,1 Zaixing Chen,2 Liqun Yang,1 Wei Zhang,1 Danhua Liu,1 Jing Guo,1 Yanmin Guan,1 Jianxin Li11Liaoning Research Institute of Family Planning, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modification. The effect of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and cremophor EL-35 on the particle size and zeta potential of the prepared vesicles was investigated. The entrapment efficiency and stability, as well as in vitro and in vivo skin permeation, were studied with the various techniques, such as differential scanning calorimetry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and so on. The results indicated that the ethosomes were defined as spherical, unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (0.100 ± 0.015 and nanometric size (156.5 ± 3.5 nm. The entrapment efficiency of TP in ethosomal and liposomal carriers was 92.7% ± 3.7% and 64.7% ± 2.1%, respectively. The stability profile of the prepared TP ethosomal system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and very low growth in vesicular size. TP ethosomes also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 37.85 ± 2.8 µg/cm2/hour and a decreased lag time of 0.18 hours across mouse skin. The skin permeation efficiency of the TP ethosomes as further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of rhodamine red-loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (260 µm than that of the liposomal formation (120 µm.Keywords: testosterone propionate, surfactant-modified ethosomes, liposomes, confocal laser scanning microscopy
Ascenso, Andreia; Raposo, Sara; Batista, Cátia; Cardoso, Pedro; Mendes, Tiago; Praça, Fabíola Garcia; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; Simões, Sandra
2015-01-01
Ultradeformable vesicles (UDV) have recently become a promising tool for the development of improved and innovative dermal and transdermal therapies. The aim of this work was to study three related UDV: transfersomes, ethosomes, and transethosomes for the incorporation of actives of distinct polarities, namely, vitamin E and caffeine, and to evaluate the effect of the carrier on skin permeation and penetration. These actives were incorporated in UDV formulations further characterized for vesicles imaging by transmission electron microscopy; mean vesicle size and polydispersity index by photon correlation spectroscopy; zeta potential by laser-Doppler anemometry; deformability by pressure-driven transport; and incorporation efficiency (IE) after actives quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography. Topical delivery studies were performed in order to compare UDV formulations regarding the release, skin permeation, and penetration profiles. All UDV formulations showed size values within the expected range, except transethosomes prepared by "transfersomal method", for which size was smaller than 100 nm in contrast to that obtained for vesicles prepared by "ethosomal method". Zeta potential was negative and higher for formulations containing sodium cholate. The IE was much higher for vitamin E- than caffeine-loaded UDV as expected. For flux measurements, the following order was obtained: transethosomes (TE) > ethosomes (E) ≥ transfersomes (T). This result was consistent with the release and skin penetration profiles for Vitamin E-loaded UDV. However, the releasing results were totally the opposite for caffeine-loaded UDV, which might be explained by the solubility and thermodynamic activity of this active in each formulation instead of the UDV deformability attending to the higher non-incorporated fraction of caffeine. Anyway, a high skin penetration and permeation for all caffeine-loaded UDV were obtained. Transethosomes were more deformable than ethosomes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu, E-mail: shishugoindi@yahoo.co.in [Panjab University, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)
2013-10-15
The present study is aimed at evaluation of the dermal delivery potential of griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes. Griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes were prepared using 'Cold technique' (Indian Patent Application 208/DEL/2009). The optimized formulation was characterized for vesicular shape and size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug content, pH, stability, and spreadability. Ex vivo skin permeation, dermatopharmacokinetics, and skin sensitivity studies were carried out using male Laca mice. In vivo antifungal activity was assessed against Microsporum canis using guinea pig model for dermatophytosis. The optimized formulation E7 possessing 2 % phospholipid (PL) and 30 % ethanol exhibited the highest drug entrapment (72.94 {+-} 0.80 %) and optimum vesicle size (148.5 {+-} 0.48 nm). E7 illustrated remarkably higher drug permeation and skin retention when compared with liposomes. Pharmacodynamic studies in guinea pigs induced with M. canis revealed that the dermal fungal infection was completely cured in 8 days upon twice daily topical application of griseofulvin-loaded ethosomes whereas liposomes led to complete cure in 14 days. The formulation was observed to be non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, and stable at 5 {+-} 3, 25 {+-} 2, and 40 {+-} 2 Degree-Sign C for a period of 1 year. Results indicated that dermal delivery of griseofulvin employing ethosomes could be a commendable alternative to reduce the bio-burden associated with conventional oral formulations.
Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Properties of Pegylated Ethosomal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
227 nm while the cytotoxicity of the pegylated ethosomal nanoencapsulated Paclitaxel® was determined by 3-(4 ... respectively. The drug release pattern indicates that the half-life (t1/2) of the nanodrug was .... particles, ethanol and skin lipids [14]. Nanoparticles were .... PLGA-based diclofenac loaded nanoparticles. PLoS.
Jain, Shashank; Patel, Niketkumar; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang
2015-06-01
The objective of this study was to fabricate and understand ethosomal formulations of diclofenac (DF) for enhanced anti-inflammatory activity using quality by design approach. DF-loaded ethosomal formulations were prepared using 4 × 5 full-factorial design with phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol (PC:CH) ratios ranging between 50:50 and 90:10, and ethanol concentration ranging between 0% and 30% as formulation variables. These formulations were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties and skin permeation kinetics. The interaction of formulation variables had a significant effect on both physicochemical properties and permeation kinetics. The results of multivariate regression analysis illustrated that vesicle size and elasticity of ethosomes were the dominating physicochemical properties affecting skin permeation, and could be suitably controlled by manipulation of formulation variables to optimize the formulation and enhance the skin permeation of DF-loaded ethosomes. The optimized formulation had ethanol concentration of 22.9% and PC:CH ratio of 88.4:11.6, with vesicle size of 144 ± 5 nm, zeta potential of -23.0 ± 3.76 mV, elasticity of 2.48 ± 0.75 and entrapment efficiency of 71 ± 4%. Permeation flux for the optimized formulation was 12.9 ± 1.0 µg/h cm(2), which was significantly higher than the drug-loaded conventional liposome, ethanolic or aqueous solution. The in vivo study indicated that optimized ethosomal hydrogel exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory activity compared with liposomal and plain drug hydrogel formulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Ghanbarzadeh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the transdermal permeation of Diclofenac sodium, a poorly water-soluble drug, employing conventional liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes. The prepared formulations had been characterized for the loaded drug amount and vesicle size. The prepared vesicular systems were incorporated into 1% Carbopol 914 gel, and a survey of in vitro drug release and drug retention into rat skin has been done on them using a modified Franz diffusion cell. The cumulative amount of drug permeated after 24 h, flux, and permeability coefficient were assessed. Stability studies were performed for three months. The size of vesicles ranged from 145 to 202 nm, and the encapsulation efficiency of the Diclofenac sodium was obtained between 42.61% and 51.72%. The transfersomes and ethosomes provided a significantly higher amount of cumulative permeation, steady state flux, permeability coefficient, and residual drug into skin compared to the conventional liposomes, conventional gel, or hydroethanolic solution. The in vitro release data of all vesicular systems were well fit into Higuchi model (RSD > 0.99. Stability tests indicated that the vesicular formulations were stable over three months. Results revealed that both ethosome and transfersome formulations can act as drug reservoir in skin and extend the pharmacologic effects of Diclofenac sodium.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus
2011-01-01
Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo-glutaronitrile formu...
Ethosome formulation of contact allergens may enhance patch test reactions in patients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese
2010-01-01
Background: Ethosomes and liposomes are ultra-small vesicles capable of encapsulating drugs and cosmetic ingredients for topical use, thereby potentially increasing bioavailability and clinical efficacy. So far, few reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular...
Ahmed, Tarek A; El-Say, Khalid M; Aljaeid, Bader M; Fahmy, Usama A; Abd-Allah, Fathy I
2016-03-16
This work aimed to develop an optimized ethosomal formulation of glimepiride then loading into transdermal films to offer lower drug side effect, extended release behavior and avoid first pass effect. Four formulation factors were optimized for their effects on vesicle size (Y1), entrapment efficiency (Y2) and vesicle flexibility (Y3). Optimum desirability was identified and, an optimized formulation was prepared, characterized and loaded into transdermal films. Ex-vivo permeation study for the prepared films was conducted and, the permeation parameters and drug permeation mechanism were identified. Penetration through rat skin was studied using confocal laser microscope. In-vivo study was performed following transdermal application on human volunteers. The percent of alcohol was significantly affecting all the studied responses while the other factors and their interaction effects were varied on their effects on each response. The optimized ethosomal formulation showed observed values for Y1, Y2 and Y3 of 61 nm, 97.12% and 54.03, respectively. Ex-vivo permeation of films loaded with optimized ethosomal formulation was superior to that of the corresponding pure drug transdermal films and this finding was also confirmed after confocal laser microscope study. Permeation of glimepiride from the prepared films was in favor of Higushi-diffusion model and exhibited non-Fickian or anomalous release mechanism. In-vivo study revealed extended drug release behavior and lower maximum drug plasma level from transdermal films loaded with drug ethosomal formulation. So, the ethosomal formulation could be considered a suitable drug delivery system especially when loaded into transdermal vehicle with possible reduction in side effects and controlling the drug release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Jun; Huang, Jun; Wo, Yan; Zhang, Yixin; Chen, Xiangdong
2018-01-18
This study is designed to explore permeability of ethosomes encapsulated with 5-florouracil (5-FU) mediated by CO 2 fractional laser on hypertrophic scar tissues. Moreover, therapeutic and duration effect of CO 2 fractional laser combined with 5-FU encapsulated ethosomes in rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model will be evaluated. The permeated amount of 5-FU and retention contents of 5-FU were both determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fluorescence intensities of ethosomes encapsulated with 5-FU (5E) labeled with Rodanmin 6GO (Rho) were measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The permeability promotion of 5E labeled with Rho in rabbit ear hypertrophic scar mediated by CO 2 fractional laser was evaluated at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days after the irradiation. The opening rates of the micro-channels were calculated according to CLSM. The therapeutic effect of 5EL was evaluated on rabbit ear hypertrophic scar in vivo. Relative thickness of rabbit ear hypertrophic scar before and after the treatment was measured by caliper method. Scar elevation index (SEI) of rabbit ear hypertrophic scar was measured using H&E staining. The data showed that the penetration amount of 5EL group was higher than 5E group (4.15 ± 2.22 vs. 0.73 ± 0.33; p 5E group (107.61 ± 13.27 vs. 20.73 ± 3.77; p 5E group (24.42 ± 4.37 vs.12.25 ± 1.64; p 5E group at different time points (1, 6, and 24 h). The opening rates of the micro-channels were decreased gradually within 24 h, and micro-channels were closed completely 3 days after the irradiation by CO 2 fractional laser. The relative thickness and SEI of rabbit ear hypertrophic scar after 7 days of treatment in the 5EL group were significantly lower than the 5E group. CO 2 fractional laser combined with topical 5E can be effective in the treatment of hypertrophic scar in vivo and supply a novel therapy method for human hypertrophic scar.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ascenso A
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Andreia Ascenso,1 Sara Raposo,1 Cátia Batista,2 Pedro Cardoso,2 Tiago Mendes,2 Fabíola Garcia Praça,3 Maria Vitória Lopes Badra Bentley,3 Sandra Simões1 1Instituto de Investigação do Medicamento (iMed.ULisboa, 2Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal; 3Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Ultradeformable vesicles (UDV have recently become a promising tool for the development of improved and innovative dermal and transdermal therapies. The aim of this work was to study three related UDV: transfersomes, ethosomes, and transethosomes for the incorporation of actives of distinct polarities, namely, vitamin E and caffeine, and to evaluate the effect of the carrier on skin permeation and penetration. These actives were incorporated in UDV formulations further characterized for vesicles imaging by transmission electron microscopy; mean vesicle size and polydispersity index by photon correlation spectroscopy; zeta potential by laser-Doppler anemometry; deformability by pressure-driven transport; and incorporation efficiency (IE after actives quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography. Topical delivery studies were performed in order to compare UDV formulations regarding the release, skin permeation, and penetration profiles. All UDV formulations showed size values within the expected range, except transethosomes prepared by “transfersomal method”, for which size was smaller than 100 nm in contrast to that obtained for vesicles prepared by “ethosomal method”. Zeta potential was negative and higher for formulations containing sodium cholate. The IE was much higher for vitamin E- than caffeine-loaded UDV as expected. For flux measurements, the following order was obtained: transethosomes (TE > ethosomes (E ≥ transfersomes (T. This result was consistent with the release and skin penetration
Influence of non-binary effects on intranuclear cascade method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomes, E.H.C.
1985-01-01
The importance of non binary process effects in the intranuclear cascade method is analysed. It is shown that, in the higher density steps, the non binary collisions lead to baryon density distribution and rapidity differents from the one obtained using the usual intranuclear cascade method (limited to purely binary collisions). The validity of the applications of binary intranuclear cascade method to the simulation of the thermal equilibrium, nuclear transparency and particle production, is discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt
Fast optimization of binary clusters using a novel dynamic lattice searching method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Xia; Cheng, Wen
2014-01-01
Global optimization of binary clusters has been a difficult task despite of much effort and many efficient methods. Directing toward two types of elements (i.e., homotop problem) in binary clusters, two classes of virtual dynamic lattices are constructed and a modified dynamic lattice searching (DLS) method, i.e., binary DLS (BDLS) method, is developed. However, it was found that the BDLS can only be utilized for the optimization of binary clusters with small sizes because homotop problem is hard to be solved without atomic exchange operation. Therefore, the iterated local search (ILS) method is adopted to solve homotop problem and an efficient method based on the BDLS method and ILS, named as BDLS-ILS, is presented for global optimization of binary clusters. In order to assess the efficiency of the proposed method, binary Lennard-Jones clusters with up to 100 atoms are investigated. Results show that the method is proved to be efficient. Furthermore, the BDLS-ILS method is also adopted to study the geometrical structures of (AuPd) 79 clusters with DFT-fit parameters of Gupta potential
Wide Binaries in TGAS: Search Method and First Results
Andrews, Jeff J.; Chanamé, Julio; Agüeros, Marcel A.
2018-04-01
Half of all stars reside in binary systems, many of which have orbital separations in excess of 1000 AU. Such binaries are typically identified in astrometric catalogs by matching the proper motions vectors of close stellar pairs. We present a fully Bayesian method that properly takes into account positions, proper motions, parallaxes, and their correlated uncertainties to identify widely separated stellar binaries. After applying our method to the >2 × 106 stars in the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution from Gaia DR1, we identify over 6000 candidate wide binaries. For those pairs with separations less than 40,000 AU, we determine the contamination rate to be ~5%. This sample has an orbital separation (a) distribution that is roughly flat in log space for separations less than ~5000 AU and follows a power law of a -1.6 at larger separations.
Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method
Kuang Tsan Lin; Sheng Lih Yeh
2014-01-01
The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matri...
A novel asynchronous access method with binary interfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Torres-Solis Jorge
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally synchronous access strategies require users to comply with one or more time constraints in order to communicate intent with a binary human-machine interface (e.g., mechanical, gestural or neural switches. Asynchronous access methods are preferable, but have not been used with binary interfaces in the control of devices that require more than two commands to be successfully operated. Methods We present the mathematical development and evaluation of a novel asynchronous access method that may be used to translate sporadic activations of binary interfaces into distinct outcomes for the control of devices requiring an arbitrary number of commands to be controlled. With this method, users are required to activate their interfaces only when the device under control behaves erroneously. Then, a recursive algorithm, incorporating contextual assumptions relevant to all possible outcomes, is used to obtain an informed estimate of user intention. We evaluate this method by simulating a control task requiring a series of target commands to be tracked by a model user. Results When compared to a random selection, the proposed asynchronous access method offers a significant reduction in the number of interface activations required from the user. Conclusion This novel access method offers a variety of advantages over traditionally synchronous access strategies and may be adapted to a wide variety of contexts, with primary relevance to applications involving direct object manipulation.
Binary Classification Method of Social Network Users
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. A. Poryadin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The subject of research is a binary classification method of social network users based on the data analysis they have placed. Relevance of the task to gain information about a person by examining the content of his/her pages in social networks is exemplified. The most common approach to its solution is a visual browsing. The order of the regional authority in our country illustrates that its using in school education is needed. The article shows restrictions on the visual browsing of pupil’s pages in social networks as a tool for the teacher and the school psychologist and justifies that a process of social network users’ data analysis should be automated. Explores publications, which describe such data acquisition, processing, and analysis methods and considers their advantages and disadvantages. The article also gives arguments to support a proposal to study the classification method of social network users. One such method is credit scoring, which is used in banks and credit institutions to assess the solvency of clients. Based on the high efficiency of the method there is a proposal for significant expansion of its using in other areas of society. The possibility to use logistic regression as the mathematical apparatus of the proposed method of binary classification has been justified. Such an approach enables taking into account the different types of data extracted from social networks. Among them: the personal user data, information about hobbies, friends, graphic and text information, behaviour characteristics. The article describes a number of existing methods of data transformation that can be applied to solve the problem. An experiment of binary gender-based classification of social network users is described. A logistic model obtained for this example includes multiple logical variables obtained by transforming the user surnames. This experiment confirms the feasibility of the proposed method. Further work is to define a system
A Fast Optimization Method for General Binary Code Learning.
Shen, Fumin; Zhou, Xiang; Yang, Yang; Song, Jingkuan; Shen, Heng; Tao, Dacheng
2016-09-22
Hashing or binary code learning has been recognized to accomplish efficient near neighbor search, and has thus attracted broad interests in recent retrieval, vision and learning studies. One main challenge of learning to hash arises from the involvement of discrete variables in binary code optimization. While the widely-used continuous relaxation may achieve high learning efficiency, the pursued codes are typically less effective due to accumulated quantization error. In this work, we propose a novel binary code optimization method, dubbed Discrete Proximal Linearized Minimization (DPLM), which directly handles the discrete constraints during the learning process. Specifically, the discrete (thus nonsmooth nonconvex) problem is reformulated as minimizing the sum of a smooth loss term with a nonsmooth indicator function. The obtained problem is then efficiently solved by an iterative procedure with each iteration admitting an analytical discrete solution, which is thus shown to converge very fast. In addition, the proposed method supports a large family of empirical loss functions, which is particularly instantiated in this work by both a supervised and an unsupervised hashing losses, together with the bits uncorrelation and balance constraints. In particular, the proposed DPLM with a supervised `2 loss encodes the whole NUS-WIDE database into 64-bit binary codes within 10 seconds on a standard desktop computer. The proposed approach is extensively evaluated on several large-scale datasets and the generated binary codes are shown to achieve very promising results on both retrieval and classification tasks.
Akhtar, Nida; Verma, Anurag; Pathak, Kamla
2017-09-01
Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) employed for the treatment of atopic dermatitis exhibits limited penetration into the epidermis. This investigation aimed to explore the role of binary solvents in topical drug delivery of TA by developing nanoethosomal glycolic lipid vesicles by infusion method. Screening of vesicles (TA1-TA17) formulated by Box Behnken design identified the optimized formulation (TA10) that was developed as carbomer gels. The gels were then evaluated for pharmaceutical properties and compared with control and reference ethosomal gel (RG). Higher in vitro permeation was found in gels containing TA10, prepared with or without using penetration enhancer (EGP 83.76 ± 0.72% and EG 82.42 ± 0.89%, respectively). CLSM studies depicted deeper uniform penetration of fluorescent tracer into the epidermis via EG as compared with RG and control gel. Enhanced penetration was due to combinational solvent effect exerted by ethanol and propylene glycol. Histological analysis confirmed the non-irritant potential of the gel. Thus, it can be concluded that nanoethosomal glycolic vesicles proved to be an effective non irritant carrier for improvised penetration of triamcinolone acetonide for potential topical therapeutics.
The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries
Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris
2018-01-01
Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown
Prediction of surface tension of binary mixtures with the parachor method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Němec Tomáš
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The parachor method for the estimation of the surface tension of binary mixtures is modified by considering temperature-dependent values of the parachor parameters. The temperature dependence is calculated by a least-squares fit of pure-solvent surface tension data to the binary parachor equation utilizing the Peng-Robinson equation of state for the calculation of equilibrium densities. A very good agreement between experimental binary surface tension data and the predictions of the modified parachor method are found for the case of the mixtures of carbon dioxide and butane, benzene, and cyclohexane, respectively. The surface tension is also predicted for three refrigerant mixtures, i.e. propane, isobutane, and chlorodifluoromethane, with carbon dioxide.
Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor
Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun
2016-10-01
Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.
Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method
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Kuang Tsan Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matrix holographic image contain seven groups of codes used for reconstructing the covert image. The seven groups of codes are identification codes, covert-image dimension codes, covert-image graylevel codes, pre-RSA bit number codes, RSA key codes, post-RSA bit number codes, and information codes. The reconstructed covert image derived from the dot-matrix holographic image and the original covert image are exactly the same.
GPU accelerated manifold correction method for spinning compact binaries
Ran, Chong-xi; Liu, Song; Zhong, Shuang-ying
2018-04-01
The graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration of the manifold correction algorithm based on the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology is designed to simulate the dynamic evolution of the Post-Newtonian (PN) Hamiltonian formulation of spinning compact binaries. The feasibility and the efficiency of parallel computation on GPU have been confirmed by various numerical experiments. The numerical comparisons show that the accuracy on GPU execution of manifold corrections method has a good agreement with the execution of codes on merely central processing unit (CPU-based) method. The acceleration ability when the codes are implemented on GPU can increase enormously through the use of shared memory and register optimization techniques without additional hardware costs, implying that the speedup is nearly 13 times as compared with the codes executed on CPU for phase space scan (including 314 × 314 orbits). In addition, GPU-accelerated manifold correction method is used to numerically study how dynamics are affected by the spin-induced quadrupole-monopole interaction for black hole binary system.
Li, Zhirong; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhao, Jianhong; Xu, Kaiyue; Tian, Tiantian; Yang, Jing; Qiang, Cuixin; Shi, Dongyan; Wei, Honglian; Sun, Suju; Cui, Qingqing; Li, Ruxin; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Bixing
2018-04-01
Clostridium difficile is the causative pathogen for antibiotic-related nosocomial diarrhea. For epidemiological study and identification of virulent clones, a new binary typing method was developed for C. difficile in this study. The usefulness of this newly developed optimized 10-loci binary typing method was compared with two widely used methods ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in 189 C. difficile samples. The binary typing, ribotyping and MLST typed the samples into 53 binary types (BTs), 26 ribotypes (RTs), and 33 MLST sequence types (STs), respectively. The typing ability of the binary method was better than that of either ribotyping or MLST expressed in Simpson Index (SI) at 0.937, 0.892 and 0.859, respectively. The ease of testing, portability and cost-effectiveness of the new binary typing would make it a useful typing alternative for outbreak investigations within healthcare facilities and epidemiological research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Enhanced in Vivo Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil by Ethosomal Gels in Rabbit Ear Hypertrophic Scar Model
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Yan Wo
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Applying Ethosomal Gels (EGs in transdermal drug delivery systems has evoked considerable interest because of their good water-solubility and biocompatibility. However, there has not been an explicit description of applying EGs as a vehicle for hypertrophic scars treatment. Here, a novel transdermal EGs loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU EGs was successfully prepared and characterized. The stability assay in vitro revealed that 5-FU EGs stored for a period of 30 days at 4 ± 1 °C had a better size stability than that at 25 ± 1 °C. Furthermore, using confocal laser scanning microscopy, EGs labeled with Rhodamine 6 G penetrated into the deep dermis of the hypertrophic scar within 24 h in the rabbit ear hypertrophic model suggested that the EGs were an optional delivery carrier through scar tissues. In addition, the value of the Scar Elevation Index (SEI of 5-FU EGs group in the rabbit ear scar model was lower than that of 5-FU Phosphate Buffered Saline gel and Control groups. To conclude, these results suggest that EGs delivery system loaded 5-fluorouracil is a perfect candidate drug for hypertrophic scars therapy in future.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The improved form of calculation formula for the activities of the components in binary liquids and solid alloys has been derived based on the free volume theory considering excess entropy and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys. A calculation method of excess thermodynamic functions for binary alloys, the formulas of integral molar excess properties and partial molar excess properties for solid ordered or disordered binary alloys have been developed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.
A new design method for fluidized bed conversion of largely heterogeneous binary fuels
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Szentannai Pal
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Binary fuels of a fluidized bed combustor or gasifier are solids composed of two groups of particles. Their optimal handling in the same bed becomes rather difficult if their hydrodynamic properties differ by two orders of magnitude or more. Both of these fuel classes are directly fed into the reactor in most cases but the rather homogeneous fuel originally fed switches into a binary character inside the reactor in some others. A typical example of the latter case is the thermal utilization of rubber wastes. A novel design is proposed in the present paper by setting up a non-mixing, non-elutriated binary bed. Design criteria and procedure are formulated as well. One of the known calculation methods is proposed to be applied for assuring a segregated bed by means of choosing the bed components, geometry, and gas velocity conveniently. Cold model experiments are proposed to be applied for assuring no elutriation of the fine fuel particles and no sinking of the coarse fuel particles in the same time. A simple experiment is proposed for determining the common minimum fluidization velocity of the binary bed because known calculation methods can not be applied here.
Testing the Binary Black Hole Nature of a Compact Binary Coalescence.
Krishnendu, N V; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant
2017-09-01
We propose a novel method to test the binary black hole nature of compact binaries detectable by gravitational wave (GW) interferometers and, hence, constrain the parameter space of other exotic compact objects. The spirit of the test lies in the "no-hair" conjecture for black holes where all properties of a Kerr black hole are characterized by its mass and spin. The method relies on observationally measuring the quadrupole moments of the compact binary constituents induced due to their spins. If the compact object is a Kerr black hole (BH), its quadrupole moment is expressible solely in terms of its mass and spin. Otherwise, the quadrupole moment can depend on additional parameters (such as the equation of state of the object). The higher order spin effects in phase and amplitude of a gravitational waveform, which explicitly contains the spin-induced quadrupole moments of compact objects, hence, uniquely encode the nature of the compact binary. Thus, we argue that an independent measurement of the spin-induced quadrupole moment of the compact binaries from GW observations can provide a unique way to distinguish binary BH systems from binaries consisting of exotic compact objects.
Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boldt, Jesper
The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...
Binary recursive partitioning: background, methods, and application to psychology.
Merkle, Edgar C; Shaffer, Victoria A
2011-02-01
Binary recursive partitioning (BRP) is a computationally intensive statistical method that can be used in situations where linear models are often used. Instead of imposing many assumptions to arrive at a tractable statistical model, BRP simply seeks to accurately predict a response variable based on values of predictor variables. The method outputs a decision tree depicting the predictor variables that were related to the response variable, along with the nature of the variables' relationships. No significance tests are involved, and the tree's 'goodness' is judged based on its predictive accuracy. In this paper, we describe BRP methods in a detailed manner and illustrate their use in psychological research. We also provide R code for carrying out the methods.
Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D
1978-01-01
Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied
Statistical Analysis of Compression Methods for Storing Binary Image for Low-Memory Systems
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Roman Slaby
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the statistical comparison of the selected compression methods which are used for compression of the binary images. The aim is to asses, which of presented compression method for low-memory system requires less number of bytes of memory. For assessment of the success rates of the input image to binary image the correlation functions are used. Correlation function is one of the methods of OCR algorithm used for the digitization of printed symbols. Using of compression methods is necessary for systems based on low-power micro-controllers. The data stream saving is very important for such systems with limited memory as well as the time required for decoding the compressed data. The success rate of the selected compression algorithms is evaluated using the basic characteristics of the exploratory analysis. The searched samples represent the amount of bytes needed to compress the test images, representing alphanumeric characters.
Lusiana, Evellin Dewi
2017-12-01
The parameters of binary probit regression model are commonly estimated by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. However, MLE method has limitation if the binary data contains separation. Separation is the condition where there are one or several independent variables that exactly grouped the categories in binary response. It will result the estimators of MLE method become non-convergent, so that they cannot be used in modeling. One of the effort to resolve the separation is using Firths approach instead. This research has two aims. First, to identify the chance of separation occurrence in binary probit regression model between MLE method and Firths approach. Second, to compare the performance of binary probit regression model estimator that obtained by MLE method and Firths approach using RMSE criteria. Those are performed using simulation method and under different sample size. The results showed that the chance of separation occurrence in MLE method for small sample size is higher than Firths approach. On the other hand, for larger sample size, the probability decreased and relatively identic between MLE method and Firths approach. Meanwhile, Firths estimators have smaller RMSE than MLEs especially for smaller sample sizes. But for larger sample sizes, the RMSEs are not much different. It means that Firths estimators outperformed MLE estimator.
Prsa, A.; Zwitter, T.
2004-01-01
Eclipsing binaries are extremely attractive objects because absolute physical parameters (masses, luminosities, radii) of both components may be determined from observations. Since most efforts to extract these parameters were based on dedicated observing programs, existing modeling code is based on interactivity. Gaia will make a revolutionary advance in shear number of observed eclipsing binaries and new methods for automatic handling must be introduced and thoroughly tested. This paper foc...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Zhongguo; Xi Guang; Chen Xi
2009-01-01
The binary collision of liquid droplets is of both practical importance and fundamental value in computational fluid mechanics. We present a modified surface tension model within the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, and carry out two-dimensional simulations to investigate the mechanisms of coalescence and separation of the droplets during binary collision. The modified surface tension model improves accuracy and convergence. A mechanism map is established for various possible deformation pathways encountered during binary collision, as the impact speed is varied; a new pathway is reported when the collision speed is critical. In addition, eccentric collisions are simulated and the effect of the rotation of coalesced particle is explored. The results qualitatively agree with experiments and the numerical protocol may find applications in studying free surface flows and interface deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsson-Leander, G.
1979-01-01
Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)
Methods for studying short-range order in solid binary solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beranger, Gerard
1969-12-01
The short range order definition and its characteristic parameters are first recalled. The different methods to study the short range order are then examined: X ray diffusion, electrical resistivity, specific heat and thermoelectric power, neutron diffraction, electron spin resonance, study of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. The theory of the X ray diffraction effects due to short range order and the subsequent experimental method are emphasized. The principal results obtained from binary Systems, by the different experimental techniques, are reported and briefly discussed. The Au-Cu, Li-Mg, Au-Ni and Cu-Zn Systems are moreover described. (author) [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingyun Mo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Direct equipartition ray design was used to construct Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr binary mixtures. Microplate toxicity analysis was used to evaluate the toxicity of individual substance and the Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr mixtures on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum. The interacting toxicity of the mixture was analyzed with concentration addition (CA model. In addition, combination index method (CI was proposed and used to quantitatively characterize the toxicity of the binary mixtures of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr observed in experiment and find the degree of deviation from the predicted outcome of the CA model, that is, the intensity of interacting toxicity. Results indicate that most of the 20 binary mixtures exhibit enhancing and synergistic effect, and only Cd-Cr-R4 and Cd-Cr-R5 mixtures have relatively high antagonistic effects against C. pyrenoidosa. Based on confidence interval, CI can compare the intensities of interaction of the mixtures under varying levels of effect. The characterization methods are applicable for analyzing binary mixture with complex interaction.
Non-negative Matrix Factorization for Binary Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jacob Søgaard; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder
We propose the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization for decomposition of binary data. Binary data are frequently generated in e.g. text analysis, sensory data, market basket data etc. A common method for analysing non-negative data is the Non-negative Matrix Factorization, though...... this is in theory not appropriate for binary data, and thus we propose a novel Non-negative Matrix Factorization based on the logistic link function. Furthermore we generalize the method to handle missing data. The formulation of the method is compared to a previously proposed method (Tome et al., 2015). We compare...... the performance of the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization to Least Squares Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Kullback-Leibler (KL) Non-negative Matrix Factorization on sets of binary data: a synthetic dataset, a set of student comments on their professors collected in a binary term-document matrix...
Determining the Separation and Position Angles of Orbiting Binary Stars: Comparison of Three Methods
Walsh, Ryan; Boule, Cory; Andrews, Katelyn; Penfield, Andrew; Ross, Ian; Lucas, Gaylon; Braught, Trisha; Harfenist, Steven; Goodale, Keith
2015-07-01
To initiate a long term binary star research program, undergraduate students compared the accuracy and ease of measuring the separations and position angles of three long period binary pairs using three different measurement techniques. It was found that digital image capture using BackyardEOS software and subsequent analysis in Adobe Photoshop was the most accurate and easiest to use of our three methods. The systems WDS J17419+7209 (STF 2241AB), WDS 19418+5032 (STFA 46AB), and WDS 16362+5255 (STF 2087AB) were found to have separations and position angles of: 30", 16°; 39.7", 133°; and 3.1", 104°, respectively. This method produced separation values within 1.3" and position angle values within 1.3° of the most recently observed values found in the Washington Double Star Catalog.
Astronomy of binary and multiple stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokovinin, A.A.
1984-01-01
Various types of binary stars and methods for their observation are described in a popular form. Some models of formation and evolution of binary and multiple star systems are presented. It is concluded that formation of binary and multiple stars is a regular stage in the process of star production
Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenhua Guo
Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.
Analysis and synthesis of a logic control circuit by binary analysis methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chicheportiche, Armand
1974-06-01
The analytical study of the logic circuits described in this report clearly shows the fruitful efficiency of the methods proposed by Binary Analysis. This study is a very new approach in logic and these mathematical methods are systematically precise in their applications. The detailed operations of an automatic system are to be studied in a way which cannot be reached by other methods. The definition and utilization of transition equations allow the determination of the different commutations in the auxiliary switch functions of a sequential system. This new way of analysis digital circuits will certainly develop in a very near future [fr
Binary optics: Trends and limitations
Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.
1993-01-01
We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.
An odor interaction model of binary odorant mixtures by a partial differential equation method.
Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Wang, Guihua; Wu, Chuandong
2014-07-09
A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE) method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method) of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture's odor intensity to the individual odorant's relative odor activity value (OAV). Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors) also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.
An Odor Interaction Model of Binary Odorant Mixtures by a Partial Differential Equation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luchun Yan
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture’s odor intensity to the individual odorant’s relative odor activity value (OAV. Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.
A general method for handling missing binary outcome data in randomized controlled trials
Jackson, Dan; White, Ian R; Mason, Dan; Sutton, Stephen
2014-01-01
Aims The analysis of randomized controlled trials with incomplete binary outcome data is challenging. We develop a general method for exploring the impact of missing data in such trials, with a focus on abstinence outcomes. Design We propose a sensitivity analysis where standard analyses, which could include ‘missing = smoking’ and ‘last observation carried forward’, are embedded in a wider class of models. Setting We apply our general method to data from two smoking cessation trials. Partici...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.
1985-01-01
This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up
Collett, David
2002-01-01
INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...
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Michael E. El-Kommos
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A simple and selective micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC method has been developed for the analysis of five pharmaceutical binary mixtures containing three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. The investigated mixtures were Ibuprofen (IPâParacetamol (PC, Ibuprofen (IPâChlorzoxazone (CZ, Ibuprofen (IPâMethocarbamol (MC, Ketoprofen (KPâChlorzoxazone (CZ and Diclofenac sodium (DSâLidocaine hydrochloride (LC. The separation was run for all mixtures using borate buffer (20Â mM, pH 9 containing 15% (v/v methanol and 100Â mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS at 15Â kV and the components were detected at 214Â nm. Different factors affecting the electrophoretic mobility of the seven investigated drugs were studied and optimized. The method was validated according to international conference of harmonization (ICH guidelines and United States pharmacopoeia (USP. The method was applied to the analysis of five pharmaceutical binary mixtures in their dosage forms. The results were compared with other reported high performance liquid chromatographic methods and no significant differences were observed. Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis, Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Pharmaceutical binary mixtures, Pharmaceutical analysis
Binary Linear-Time Erasure Decoding for Non-Binary LDPC codes
Savin, Valentin
2009-01-01
In this paper, we first introduce the extended binary representation of non-binary codes, which corresponds to a covering graph of the bipartite graph associated with the non-binary code. Then we show that non-binary codewords correspond to binary codewords of the extended representation that further satisfy some simplex-constraint: that is, bits lying over the same symbol-node of the non-binary graph must form a codeword of a simplex code. Applied to the binary erasure channel, this descript...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel
2006-01-01
is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...
Discontinuous Galerkin method for computing gravitational waveforms from extreme mass ratio binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, Scott E; Hesthaven, Jan S; Lau, Stephen R
2009-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from extreme mass ratio binaries (EMRBs) should be detectable by the joint NASA-ESA LISA project, spurring interest in analytical and numerical methods for investigating EMRBs. We describe a discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method for solving the distributionally forced 1+1 wave equations which arise when modeling EMRBs via the perturbation theory of Schwarzschild black holes. Despite the presence of jump discontinuities in the relevant polar and axial gravitational 'master functions', our dG method achieves global spectral accuracy, provided that we know the instantaneous position, velocity and acceleration of the small particle. Here these variables are known, since we assume that the particle follows a timelike geodesic of the Schwarzschild geometry. We document the results of several numerical experiments testing our method, and in our concluding section discuss the possible inclusion of gravitational self-force effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Sun-Ju; Park, Byeong-Gon; Humphrey, Andrew; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun
2009-01-01
When a source star is microlensed by one stellar component of widely separated binary stellar components, after finishing the lensing event, the event induced by the other binary star can be additionally detected. In this paper, we investigate whether the close/wide degeneracies in binary lensing events can be resolved by detecting the additional centroid shift of the source images induced by the secondary binary star in wide binary lensing events. From this investigation, we find that if the source star passes close to the Einstein ring of the secondary companion, the degeneracy can be easily resolved by using future astrometric follow-up observations with high astrometric precision. We determine the probability of detecting the additional centroid shift in binary lensing events with high magnification. From this, we find that the degeneracy of binary lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU can be resolved with a significant efficiency. We also estimate the waiting time for the detection of the additional centroid shift in wide binary lensing events. We find that for typical Galactic lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU, the additional centroid shift can be detected within 100 days, and thus the degeneracy of those events can be sufficiently broken within a year.
Gravitational waveforms for neutron star binaries from binary black hole simulations
Barkett, Kevin; Scheel, Mark; Haas, Roland; Ott, Christian; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brown, Duncan; Szilagyi, Bela; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Lippuner, Jonas; Muhlberger, Curran; Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew
2016-03-01
Gravitational waves from binary neutron star (BNS) and black-hole/neutron star (BHNS) inspirals are primary sources for detection by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The tidal forces acting on the neutron stars induce changes in the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, and these changes can be used to constrain the nuclear equation of state. Current methods of generating BNS and BHNS waveforms rely on either computationally challenging full 3D hydrodynamical simulations or approximate analytic solutions. We introduce a new method for computing inspiral waveforms for BNS/BHNS systems by adding the post-Newtonian (PN) tidal effects to full numerical simulations of binary black holes (BBHs), effectively replacing the non-tidal terms in the PN expansion with BBH results. Comparing a waveform generated with this method against a full hydrodynamical simulation of a BNS inspiral yields a phase difference of < 1 radian over ~ 15 orbits. The numerical phase accuracy required of BNS simulations to measure the accuracy of the method we present here is estimated as a function of the tidal deformability parameter λ.
DOUBLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY STARS IN THE RAVE SURVEY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Watson, F. G.
2010-01-01
We devise a new method for the detection of double-lined binary stars in a sample of the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey spectra. The method is both tested against extensive simulations based on synthetic spectra and compared to direct visual inspection of all RAVE spectra. It is based on the properties and shape of the cross-correlation function, and is able to recover ∼80% of all binaries with an orbital period of order 1 day. Systems with periods up to 1 yr are still within the detection reach. We have applied the method to 25,850 spectra of the RAVE second data release and found 123 double-lined binary candidates, only eight of which are already marked as binaries in the SIMBAD database. Among the candidates, there are seven that show spectral features consistent with the RS CVn type (solar type with active chromosphere) and seven that might be of W UMa type (over-contact binaries). One star, HD 101167, seems to be a triple system composed of three nearly identical G-type dwarfs. The tested classification method could also be applicable to the data of the upcoming Gaia mission.
General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes.
Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico
2017-02-01
The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.
General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes
Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico
2017-02-01
The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.
Rotation invariant deep binary hashing for fast image retrieval
Dai, Lai; Liu, Jianming; Jiang, Aiwen
2017-07-01
In this paper, we study how to compactly represent image's characteristics for fast image retrieval. We propose supervised rotation invariant compact discriminative binary descriptors through combining convolutional neural network with hashing. In the proposed network, binary codes are learned by employing a hidden layer for representing latent concepts that dominate on class labels. A loss function is proposed to minimize the difference between binary descriptors that describe reference image and the rotated one. Compared with some other supervised methods, the proposed network doesn't have to require pair-wised inputs for binary code learning. Experimental results show that our method is effective and achieves state-of-the-art results on the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets.
Coupled binary embedding for large-scale image retrieval.
Zheng, Liang; Wang, Shengjin; Tian, Qi
2014-08-01
Visual matching is a crucial step in image retrieval based on the bag-of-words (BoW) model. In the baseline method, two keypoints are considered as a matching pair if their SIFT descriptors are quantized to the same visual word. However, the SIFT visual word has two limitations. First, it loses most of its discriminative power during quantization. Second, SIFT only describes the local texture feature. Both drawbacks impair the discriminative power of the BoW model and lead to false positive matches. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes to embed multiple binary features at indexing level. To model correlation between features, a multi-IDF scheme is introduced, through which different binary features are coupled into the inverted file. We show that matching verification methods based on binary features, such as Hamming embedding, can be effectively incorporated in our framework. As an extension, we explore the fusion of binary color feature into image retrieval. The joint integration of the SIFT visual word and binary features greatly enhances the precision of visual matching, reducing the impact of false positive matches. Our method is evaluated through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets (Ukbench, Holidays, DupImage, and MIR Flickr 1M). We show that our method significantly improves the baseline approach. In addition, large-scale experiments indicate that the proposed method requires acceptable memory usage and query time compared with other approaches. Further, when global color feature is integrated, our method yields competitive performance with the state-of-the-arts.
PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey
2015-01-01
Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.
2014-01-01
We present a catalog of precise eclipse times and analysis of third-body signals among 1279 close binaries in the latest Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog. For these short-period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure time causes significant smearing of light curves. In addition, common astrophysical phenomena such as chromospheric activity, as well as imperfections in the light curve detrending process, can create systematic artifacts that may produce fictitious signals in the eclipse timings. We present a method to measure precise eclipse times in the presence of distorted light curves, such as in contact and near-contact binaries which exhibit continuously changing light levels in and out of eclipse. We identify 236 systems for which we find a timing variation signal compatible with the presence of a third body. These are modeled for the light travel time effect and the basic properties of the third body are derived. This study complements J. A. Orosz et al. (in preparation), which focuses on eclipse timing variations of longer period binaries with flat out-of-eclipse regions. Together, these two papers provide comprehensive eclipse timings for all binaries in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, as an ongoing resource freely accessible online to the community.
Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Peng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.
Detecting unresolved binary stars in Euclid VIS images
Kuntzer, T.; Courbin, F.
2017-10-01
Measuring a weak gravitational lensing signal to the level required by the next generation of space-based surveys demands exquisite reconstruction of the point-spread function (PSF). However, unresolved binary stars can significantly distort the PSF shape. In an effort to mitigate this bias, we aim at detecting unresolved binaries in realistic Euclid stellar populations. We tested methods in numerical experiments where (I) the PSF shape is known to Euclid requirements across the field of view; and (II) the PSF shape is unknown. We drew simulated catalogues of PSF shapes for this proof-of-concept paper. Following the Euclid survey plan, the objects were observed four times. We propose three methods to detect unresolved binary stars. The detection is based on the systematic and correlated biases between exposures of the same object. One method is a simple correlation analysis, while the two others use supervised machine-learning algorithms (random forest and artificial neural network). In both experiments, we demonstrate the ability of our methods to detect unresolved binary stars in simulated catalogues. The performance depends on the level of prior knowledge of the PSF shape and the shape measurement errors. Good detection performances are observed in both experiments. Full complexity, in terms of the images and the survey design, is not included, but key aspects of a more mature pipeline are discussed. Finding unresolved binaries in objects used for PSF reconstruction increases the quality of the PSF determination at arbitrary positions. We show, using different approaches, that we are able to detect at least binary stars that are most damaging for the PSF reconstruction process. The code corresponding to the algorithms used in this work and all scripts to reproduce the results are publicly available from a GitHub repository accessible via http://lastro.epfl.ch/software
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuntz, M., E-mail: cuntz@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0059 (United States)
2014-01-01
A comprehensive approach is provided for the study of both S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems, which in principle can also be expanded to systems of higher order. P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in the case of S-type orbits, the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach encapsulates a variety of different aspects, which include: (1) the consideration of a joint constraint, including orbital stability and a habitable region for a putative system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ({sup r}adiative habitable zone{sup ;} RHZ), needs to be met; (2) the treatment of conservative, general, and extended zones of habitability for the various systems as defined for the solar system and beyond; (3) the provision of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are presented for the kind of system in which S-type and P-type habitability is realized; (4) applications of the attained theoretical approach to standard (theoretical) main-sequence stars. In principle, five different cases of habitability are identified, which are S-type and P-type habitability provided by the full extent of the RHZs; habitability, where the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of planetary orbital stability (referred to as ST- and PT-type, respectively); and cases of no habitability at all. Regarding the treatment of planetary orbital stability, we utilize the formulae of Holman and Wiegert as also used in previous studies. In this work, we focus on binary systems in circular orbits. Future applications will also consider binary systems in elliptical orbits and provide thorough comparisons to other methods and results given in the literature.
Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A. M.; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.
2014-10-01
New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include ‘H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5 nm and 274.9 nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0 nm and 216.0-229.0 nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0 nm, using Δλ = 145.0 nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference.
Asghari, Mehdi Poursheikhali; Hayatshahi, Sayyed Hamed Sadat; Abdolmaleki, Parviz
2012-01-01
From both the structural and functional points of view, β-turns play important biological roles in proteins. In the present study, a novel two-stage hybrid procedure has been developed to identify β-turns in proteins. Binary logistic regression was initially used for the first time to select significant sequence parameters in identification of β-turns due to a re-substitution test procedure. Sequence parameters were consisted of 80 amino acid positional occurrences and 20 amino acid percentages in sequence. Among these parameters, the most significant ones which were selected by binary logistic regression model, were percentages of Gly, Ser and the occurrence of Asn in position i+2, respectively, in sequence. These significant parameters have the highest effect on the constitution of a β-turn sequence. A neural network model was then constructed and fed by the parameters selected by binary logistic regression to build a hybrid predictor. The networks have been trained and tested on a non-homologous dataset of 565 protein chains. With applying a nine fold cross-validation test on the dataset, the network reached an overall accuracy (Qtotal) of 74, which is comparable with results of the other β-turn prediction methods. In conclusion, this study proves that the parameter selection ability of binary logistic regression together with the prediction capability of neural networks lead to the development of more precise models for identifying β-turns in proteins.
Binary classification posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Binary classification is posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic problem and solved using the proposed method. Each class in the binary classification problem is modeled as a multidimensional ellipsoid to forma quadratic constraint in the problem. Particle swarms help in determining the optimal hyperplane or ...
Binary spectral minutiae representation with multi-sample fusion for fingerprint recognition
Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
Biometric fusion is the approach to improve the biometric system performance by combining multiple sources of biometric information. The binary spectral minutiae representation is a method to represent a fingerprint minutiae set as a fixed-length binary string. This binary representation has the
Memory Vulnerability Diagnosis for Binary Program
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tang Feng-Yi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Vulnerability diagnosis is important for program security analysis. It is a further step to understand the vulnerability after it is detected, as well as a preparatory step for vulnerability repair or exploitation. This paper mainly analyses the inner theories of major memory vulnerabilities and the threats of them. And then suggests some methods to diagnose several types of memory vulnerabilities for the binary programs, which is a difficult task due to the lack of source code. The diagnosis methods target at buffer overflow, use after free (UAF and format string vulnerabilities. We carried out some tests on the Linux platform to validate the effectiveness of the diagnosis methods. It is proved that the methods can judge the type of the vulnerability given a binary program.
Absolute Dimensions of Contact Binary Stars in Baade Window
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young Woon Kang
1999-12-01
Full Text Available The light curves of the representative 6 contact binary stars observed by OGLE Project of searching for dark matter in our Galaxy have been analyzed by the method of the Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction to find photometric solutions. The orbital inclinations of these binaries are in the range of 52 deg - 69 deg which is lower than that of the solar neighborhood binaries. The Roche lobe filling factor of these binaries are distributed in large range of 0.12 - 0.90. Since absence of spectroscopic observations for these binaries we have found masses of the 6 binary systems based on the intersection between Kepler locus and locus derived from Vandenberg isochrones in the mass - luminosity plane. Then absolute dimensions and distances have been found by combining the masses and the photometric solutions. The distances of the 6 binary systems are distributed in the range of 1 kpc - 6 kpc. This distance range is the limiting range where the contact binaries which have period shorter than a day are visible. Most contact binaries discovered in the Baade window do not belong to the Galactic bulge.
Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.
Stairs, Ingrid H
2004-04-23
Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.; Tal-Or, L.; Quinn, S. N.; Latham, D. W.
2012-01-01
We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity (RV) modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well-known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic RV follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range 0.07-0.4 M ☉ . The binaries discovered establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-period non-eclipsing binaries, with the potential to detect in the near future non-transiting brown-dwarf secondaries, or even massive planets.
Finger vein recognition using local line binary pattern.
Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin
2011-01-01
In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP).
A simple method for analyzing data from a randomized trial with a missing binary outcome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Freedman Laurence S
2003-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many randomized trials involve missing binary outcomes. Although many previous adjustments for missing binary outcomes have been proposed, none of these makes explicit use of randomization to bound the bias when the data are not missing at random. Methods We propose a novel approach that uses the randomization distribution to compute the anticipated maximum bias when missing at random does not hold due to an unobserved binary covariate (implying that missingness depends on outcome and treatment group. The anticipated maximum bias equals the product of two factors: (a the anticipated maximum bias if there were complete confounding of the unobserved covariate with treatment group among subjects with an observed outcome and (b an upper bound factor that depends only on the fraction missing in each randomization group. If less than 15% of subjects are missing in each group, the upper bound factor is less than .18. Results We illustrated the methodology using data from the Polyp Prevention Trial. We anticipated a maximum bias under complete confounding of .25. With only 7% and 9% missing in each arm, the upper bound factor, after adjusting for age and sex, was .10. The anticipated maximum bias of .25 × .10 =.025 would not have affected the conclusion of no treatment effect. Conclusion This approach is easy to implement and is particularly informative when less than 15% of subjects are missing in each arm.
Binary black holes on a budget: simulations using workstations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marronetti, Pedro; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bruegmann, Bernd; Gonzalez, Jose; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Sperhake, Ulrich
2007-01-01
Binary black hole simulations have traditionally been computationally very expensive: current simulations are performed in supercomputers involving dozens if not hundreds of processors, thus systematic studies of the parameter space of binary black hole encounters still seem prohibitive with current technology. Here we show how the multi-layered refinement level code BAM can be used on dual processor workstations to simulate certain binary black hole systems. BAM, based on the moving punctures method, provides grid structures composed of boxes of increasing resolution near the centre of the grid. In the case of binaries, the highest resolution boxes are placed around each black hole and they track them in their orbits until the final merger when a single set of levels surrounds the black hole remnant. This is particularly useful when simulating spinning black holes since the gravitational fields gradients are larger. We present simulations of binaries with equal mass black holes with spins parallel to the binary axis and intrinsic magnitude of S/m 2 = 0.75. Our results compare favourably to those of previous simulations of this particular system. We show that the moving punctures method produces stable simulations at maximum spatial resolutions up to M/160 and for durations of up to the equivalent of 20 orbital periods
Receptive fields selection for binary feature description.
Fan, Bin; Kong, Qingqun; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Wang, Zhiheng; Pan, Chunhong; Fua, Pascal
2014-06-01
Feature description for local image patch is widely used in computer vision. While the conventional way to design local descriptor is based on expert experience and knowledge, learning-based methods for designing local descriptor become more and more popular because of their good performance and data-driven property. This paper proposes a novel data-driven method for designing binary feature descriptor, which we call receptive fields descriptor (RFD). Technically, RFD is constructed by thresholding responses of a set of receptive fields, which are selected from a large number of candidates according to their distinctiveness and correlations in a greedy way. Using two different kinds of receptive fields (namely rectangular pooling area and Gaussian pooling area) for selection, we obtain two binary descriptors RFDR and RFDG .accordingly. Image matching experiments on the well-known patch data set and Oxford data set demonstrate that RFD significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors, and is comparable with the best float-valued descriptors at a fraction of processing time. Finally, experiments on object recognition tasks confirm that both RFDR and RFDG successfully bridge the performance gap between binary descriptors and their floating-point competitors.
Face Alignment via Regressing Local Binary Features.
Ren, Shaoqing; Cao, Xudong; Wei, Yichen; Sun, Jian
2016-03-01
This paper presents a highly efficient and accurate regression approach for face alignment. Our approach has two novel components: 1) a set of local binary features and 2) a locality principle for learning those features. The locality principle guides us to learn a set of highly discriminative local binary features for each facial landmark independently. The obtained local binary features are used to jointly learn a linear regression for the final output. This approach achieves the state-of-the-art results when tested on the most challenging benchmarks to date. Furthermore, because extracting and regressing local binary features are computationally very cheap, our system is much faster than previous methods. It achieves over 3000 frames per second (FPS) on a desktop or 300 FPS on a mobile phone for locating a few dozens of landmarks. We also study a key issue that is important but has received little attention in the previous research, which is the face detector used to initialize alignment. We investigate several face detectors and perform quantitative evaluation on how they affect alignment accuracy. We find that an alignment friendly detector can further greatly boost the accuracy of our alignment method, reducing the error up to 16% relatively. To facilitate practical usage of face detection/alignment methods, we also propose a convenient metric to measure how good a detector is for alignment initialization.
Noll, K. S.
2017-12-01
The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.
EXTRASOLAR BINARY PLANETS. II. DETECTABILITY BY TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, K. M.; Ida, S.; Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.
2015-01-01
We discuss the detectability of gravitationally bound pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call “binary planets”) in extrasolar planetary systems that are formed through orbital instability followed by planet–planet dynamical tides during their close encounters, based on the results of N-body simulations by Ochiai et al. (Paper I). Paper I showed that the formation probability of a binary is as much as ∼10% for three giant planet systems that undergo orbital instability, and after post-capture long-term tidal evolution, the typical binary separation is three to five times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. The binary planets are stable during the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars, if the stellarcentric semimajor axis of the binary is larger than 0.3 AU. We show that detecting modulations of transit light curves is the most promising observational method to detect binary planets. Since the likely binary separations are comparable to the stellar diameter, the shape of the transit light curve is different from transit to transit, depending on the phase of the binary’s orbit. The transit durations and depth for binary planet transits are generally longer and deeper than those for the single planet case. We point out that binary planets could exist among the known inflated gas-giant planets or objects classified as false positive detections at orbital radii ≳0.3 AU, propose a binary planet explanation for the CoRoT candidate SRc01 E2 1066, and show that binary planets are likely to be present in, and could be detected using, Kepler-quality data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naseri Abdolhossein
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new and very simple kinetic - spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of binary mixtures without prior separational steps. The method is based on the calculation of the variation of ratio kinetic profiles. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is also illustrated. The proposed method can be used for simultaneous determination of two analytes A and B that react with the same reagent to give the same absorbing species. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, a model data as well as an experimental data were tested. The results from experimental data relating to the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Co (II and V (IV based on their oxidation reactions with Fe (III in the presence 1, 10- Phenanthroline (Phen in micellar media were presented as a real model for resolution of the binary systems. The applicability of the method in tap water and synthesized alloy samples was also assessed by spiking experiments with different amount of Co (II and V (IV.
Binary Stochastic Representations for Large Multi-class Classification
Gerald, Thomas
2017-10-23
Classification with a large number of classes is a key problem in machine learning and corresponds to many real-world applications like tagging of images or textual documents in social networks. If one-vs-all methods usually reach top performance in this context, these approaches suffer of a high inference complexity, linear w.r.t. the number of categories. Different models based on the notion of binary codes have been proposed to overcome this limitation, achieving in a sublinear inference complexity. But they a priori need to decide which binary code to associate to which category before learning using more or less complex heuristics. We propose a new end-to-end model which aims at simultaneously learning to associate binary codes with categories, but also learning to map inputs to binary codes. This approach called Deep Stochastic Neural Codes (DSNC) keeps the sublinear inference complexity but do not need any a priori tuning. Experimental results on different datasets show the effectiveness of the approach w.r.t. baseline methods.
Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakhtiar Affendi Rosdi
2011-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP.
Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern
Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin
2011-01-01
In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP). PMID:22247670
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, R.L.
1968-01-01
The study of binary groups under their mathematical aspects constitutes the matter of binary analysis, the purpose of which consists in developing altogether simple, rigorous and practical methods needed by the technicians, the engineers and all those who may be mainly concerned by digital processing. This subject, fast extending if not determining, however tends actually to play a main part in nuclear electronics as well as in several other research areas. (authors) [fr
Application of the finite volume method in the simulation of saturated flows of binary mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murad, M.A.; Gama, R.M.S. da; Sampaio, R.
1989-12-01
This work presents the simulation of saturated flows of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a rigid, homogeneous and isotropic porous medium. The employed mathematical model is derived from the Continuum Theory of Mixtures and generalizes the classical one which is based on Darcy's Law form of the momentum equation. In this approach fluid and porous matrix are regarded as continuous constituents of a binary mixture. The finite volume method is employed in the simulation. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Nicholls, Christine P.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Looper, Dagny L.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Cruz, Kelle; West, Andrew A.; Gizis, John E.; Metchev, Stanimir
2014-01-01
Multiplicity is a key statistic for understanding the formation of very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs. Currently, the separation distribution of VLM binaries remains poorly constrained at small separations (≤1 AU), leading to uncertainty in the overall binary fraction. We approach this problem by searching for late-M/early-L plus T dwarf spectral binaries whose combined light spectra exhibit distinct peculiarities, allowing for separation-independent identification. We define a set of spectral indices designed to identify these systems, and we use a spectral template fitting method to confirm and characterize spectral binary candidates from a library of 815 spectra from the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries. We present 11 new binary candidates, confirm 3 previously reported candidates, and rule out 2 previously identified candidates, all with primary and secondary spectral types in the range M7-L7 and T1-T8, respectively. We find that subdwarfs and blue L dwarfs are the primary contaminants in our sample and propose a method for segregating these sources. If confirmed by follow-up observations, these systems may add to the growing list of tight separation binaries, whose orbital properties may yield further insight into brown dwarf formation scenarios.
The search for massive black hole binaries with LISA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornish, Neil J; Porter, Edward K
2007-01-01
In this work we focus on the search and detection of massive black hole binary (MBHB) systems, including systems at high redshift. As well as expanding on previous works where we used a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), called Metropolis-Hastings Monte Carlo, with simulated annealing, we introduce a new search method based on frequency annealing which leads to a more rapid and robust detection. We compare the two search methods on systems where we do and do not see the merger of the black holes. In the non-merger case, we also examine the posterior distribution exploration using a 7D MCMC algorithm. We demonstrate that this method is effective in dealing with the high correlations between parameters, has a higher acceptance rate than previously proposed methods and produces posterior distribution functions that are close to the prediction from the Fisher information matrix. Finally, after carrying out searches where there is only one binary in the data stream, we examine the case where two black hole binaries are present in the same data stream. We demonstrate that our search algorithm can accurately recover both binaries, and more importantly showing that we can safely extract the MBHB sources without contaminating the rest of the data stream
Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries
Fragkos, Anastasios
X-ray binaries - mass-transferring binary stellar systems with compact object accretors - are unique astrophysical laboratories. They carry information about many complex physical processes such as star formation, compact object formation, and evolution of interacting binaries. My thesis work involves the study of the formation and evolution of Galactic and extra-galacticX-ray binaries using both detailed and realistic simulation tools, and population synthesis techniques. I applied an innovative analysis method that allows the reconstruction of the full evolutionary history of known black hole X-ray binaries back to the time of compact object formation. This analysis takes into account all the available observationally determined properties of a system, and models in detail four of its evolutionary evolutionary phases: mass transfer through the ongoing X-ray phase, tidal evolution before the onset of Roche-lobe overflow, motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of the black hole, and binary orbital dynamics at the time of core collapse. Motivated by deep extra-galactic Chandra survey observations, I worked on population synthesis models of low-mass X-ray binaries in the two elliptical galaxies NGC3379 and NGC4278. These simulations were targeted at understanding the origin of the shape and normalization of the observed X-ray luminosity functions. In a follow up study, I proposed a physically motivated prescription for the modeling of transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary properties, such as duty cycle, outburst duration and recurrence time. This prescription enabled the direct comparison of transient low-mass X-ray binary population synthesis models to the Chandra X-ray survey of the two ellipticals NGC3379 and NGC4278. Finally, I worked on population synthesismodels of black holeX-ray binaries in the MilkyWay. This work was motivated by recent developments in observational techniques for the measurement of black hole spin magnitudes in
Full Ionisation In Binary-Binary Encounters With Small Positive Energies
Sweatman, W. L.
2006-08-01
Interactions between binary stars and single stars and binary stars and other binary stars play a key role in the dynamics of a dense stellar system. Energy can be transferred between the internal dynamics of a binary and the larger scale dynamics of the interacting objects. Binaries can be destroyed and created by the interaction. In a binary-binary encounter, full ionisation occurs when both of the binary stars are destroyed in the interaction to create four single stars. This is only possible when the total energy of the system is positive. For very small energies the probability of this occurring is very low and it tends towards zero as the total energy tends towards zero. Here the case is considered for which all the stars have equal masses. An asymptotic power law is predicted relating the probability of full ionisation with the total energy when this latter quantity is small. The exponent, which is approximately 2.31, is compared with the results from numerical scattering experiments. The theoretical approach taken is similar to one used previously in the three-body problem. It makes use of the fact that the most dramatic changes in scale and energies of a few-body system occur when its components pass near to a central configuration. The position, and number, of these configurations is not known for the general four-body problem, however, with equal masses there are known to be exactly five different cases. Separate consideration and comparison of the properties of orbits close to each of these five central configurations enables the prediction of the form of the cross-section for full ionisation for the case of small positive total energy. This is the relation between total energy and the probability of total ionisation described above.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Udovskij, A.L.; Karpushkin, V.N.; Nikishina, E.A.
1991-01-01
Method of non-interacting thermodynamic calculation of state diagram of binary systems contacting p disordered phases with variable composition and q phases with constant composition for (p, q) ≤ 10 case is developed. Determination of all possible solutions of phase equilibrium equations is realized in the method. Certain application examples of computer-realized method of T-x thermodynamic calculation using PC for Cr-W, Ni-W, Ni-Al, Ni-Re binary systems are given
CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)
2013-11-10
We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886.
CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaltenegger, Lisa; Haghighipour, Nader
2013-01-01
We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886
R package to estimate intracluster correlation coefficient with confidence interval for binary data.
Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Hossain, Akhtar
2018-03-01
The Intracluster Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is a major parameter of interest in cluster randomized trials that measures the degree to which responses within the same cluster are correlated. There are several types of ICC estimators and its confidence intervals (CI) suggested in the literature for binary data. Studies have compared relative weaknesses and advantages of ICC estimators as well as its CI for binary data and suggested situations where one is advantageous in practical research. The commonly used statistical computing systems currently facilitate estimation of only a very few variants of ICC and its CI. To address the limitations of current statistical packages, we developed an R package, ICCbin, to facilitate estimating ICC and its CI for binary responses using different methods. The ICCbin package is designed to provide estimates of ICC in 16 different ways including analysis of variance methods, moments based estimation, direct probabilistic methods, correlation based estimation, and resampling method. CI of ICC is estimated using 5 different methods. It also generates cluster binary data using exchangeable correlation structure. ICCbin package provides two functions for users. The function rcbin() generates cluster binary data and the function iccbin() estimates ICC and it's CI. The users can choose appropriate ICC and its CI estimate from the wide selection of estimates from the outputs. The R package ICCbin presents very flexible and easy to use ways to generate cluster binary data and to estimate ICC and it's CI for binary response using different methods. The package ICCbin is freely available for use with R from the CRAN repository (https://cran.r-project.org/package=ICCbin). We believe that this package can be a very useful tool for researchers to design cluster randomized trials with binary outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Napiwotzki, R.
2010-01-01
Aims. The ESO SN Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY) aims at finding merging double degenerate binaries as candidates for supernova type Ia (SN Ia) explosions. A white dwarf merger has also been suggested to explain the formation of rare types of stars like R CrB, extreme helium or He sdO stars. Here we present the hot subdwarf B binary GD 687, which will merge in less than a Hubble time. Methods. The orbital parameters of the close binary have been determined from time resolved spectroscopy. Since GD...
Creation of an anti-imaging system using binary optics
Wang, Haifeng; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Yang; Gu, Min; Urbach, H. P.; Gan, Fuxi; Zhuang, Songlin
2016-01-01
We present a concealing method in which an anti-point spread function (APSF) is generated using binary optics, which produces a large-scale dark area in the focal region that can hide any object located within it. This result is achieved by generating two identical PSFs of opposite signs, one consisting of positive electromagnetic waves from the zero-phase region of the binary optical element and the other consisting of negative electromagnetic waves from the pi-phase region of the binary optical element. PMID:27620068
Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ
1994-01-01
This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.
Eclipsing binaries in open clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.
2006-01-01
Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...
Rotational properties of the binary and non-binary populations in the Trans-Neptunian belt
Thirouin, Audrey; Noll, Keith S.; Ortiz Moreno, Jose Luis; Morales , Nicolas
2014-11-01
An exhaustive study about short-term variability as well as derived properties from lightcurves allowed us to draw some conclusions for the Trans-Neptunian belt binary population. Based on Maxwellian fit distributions of the spin rate, we suggested that the binary population rotates slower than the non-binary one. This slowing-down can be attributed to tidal effects between the satellite and the primary, as expected. We showed that no system in this work is tidally locked, but the primary despinning process may have already affected the primary rate (as well as the satellite rotational rate). We used the Gladman et al. (1996) formula to compute the time required to tidally lock the systems, but this formula is based on several assumptions and approximations that do not always hold. The computed times are reasonable in most cases and confirm that none of the systems is tidally locked, assuming that the satellite densities are low and have a high rigidity or have a higher dissipation than usually assumed. The rotational properties of small bodies provide information about important physical properties, such as shape, density, and cohesion (Pravec & Harris 2000; Holsapple 2001, 2004; Thirouin et al. 2010, 2012). For binaries it is also possible to derive several physical parameters of the system components, such as diameters of the primary/secondary and albedo under some assumptions. We compare our results as well as our technique for deriving this information from the lightcurve with other methods, such as: i) thermal or thermophysical modeling, ii) from the mutual orbit of the binary component, iii) from direct imaging or iv) from stellar occultation by Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs). Finally, by studying the specific angular momentum of the sample, we proposed possible formation models for several binary TNOs. In several cases, we obtained hints of the formation mechanism from the angular momentum, but for other cases we do not have enough information about the
CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa
2013-01-01
We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results
CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)
2013-11-10
We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongwei Ying
2014-08-01
Full Text Available An extreme point of scale space extraction method for binary multiscale and rotation invariant local feature descriptor is studied in this paper in order to obtain a robust and fast method for local image feature descriptor. Classic local feature description algorithms often select neighborhood information of feature points which are extremes of image scale space, obtained by constructing the image pyramid using certain signal transform method. But build the image pyramid always consumes a large amount of computing and storage resources, is not conducive to the actual applications development. This paper presents a dual multiscale FAST algorithm, it does not need to build the image pyramid, but can extract feature points of scale extreme quickly. Feature points extracted by proposed method have the characteristic of multiscale and rotation Invariant and are fit to construct the local feature descriptor.
Ramadan, Nesrin K.; El-Ragehy, Nariman A.; Ragab, Mona T.; El-Zeany, Badr A.
2015-02-01
Four simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture containing Pantoprazole Sodium Sesquihydrate (PAN) and Itopride Hydrochloride (ITH). Method (A) is the derivative ratio method (1DD), method (B) is the mean centering of ratio spectra method (MCR), method (C) is the ratio difference method (RD) and method (D) is the isoabsorptive point coupled with third derivative method (3D). Linear correlation was obtained in range 8-44 μg/mL for PAN by the four proposed methods, 8-40 μg/mL for ITH by methods A, B and C and 10-40 μg/mL for ITH by method D. The suggested methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the official and a reported method for PAN and ITH, respectively, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.
Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind
2008-01-01
The ideal binary mask is often seen as a goal for time-frequency masking algorithms trying to increase speech intelligibility, but the required availability of the unmixed signals makes it difficult to calculate the ideal binary mask in any real-life applications. In this paper we derive the theory...... and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....
Abdel-Ghany, Maha F.; Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.
New, simple, specific, accurate, precise and reproducible spectrophotometric methods have been developed and subsequently validated for determination of vildagliptin (VLG) and metformin (MET) in binary mixture. Zero order spectrophotometric method was the first method used for determination of MET in the range of 2-12 μg mL-1 by measuring the absorbance at 237.6 nm. The second method was derivative spectrophotometric technique; utilized for determination of MET at 247.4 nm, in the range of 1-12 μg mL-1. Derivative ratio spectrophotometric method was the third technique; used for determination of VLG in the range of 4-24 μg mL-1 at 265.8 nm. Fourth and fifth methods adopted for determination of VLG in the range of 4-24 μg mL-1; were ratio subtraction and mean centering spectrophotometric methods, respectively. All the results were statistically compared with the reported methods, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The developed methods were satisfactorily applied to analysis of the investigated drugs and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of them in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
PROSPECTS FOR DETECTING ASTEROSEISMIC BINARIES IN KEPLER DATA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miglio, A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Handberg, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Farmer, R.; Kolb, U. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Girardi, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, Université Paris XI, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)
2014-03-20
Asteroseismology may in principle be used to detect unresolved stellar binary systems comprised of solar-type stars and/or red giants. This novel method relies on the detection of the presence of two solar-like oscillation spectra in the frequency spectrum of a single light curve. Here, we make predictions of the numbers of systems that may be detectable in data already collected by the NASA Kepler Mission. Our predictions, which are based upon TRILEGAL and BiSEPS simulations of the Kepler field of view, indicate that as many as 200 or more ''asteroseismic binaries'' may be detectable in this manner. Most of these binaries should be comprised of two He-core-burning red giants. Owing largely to the limited numbers of targets with the requisite short-cadence Kepler data, we expect only a small number of detected binaries containing solar-type stars. The predicted yield of detections is sensitive to the assumed initial mass ratio distribution (IMRD) of the binary components and therefore represents a sensitive calibration of the much debated IMRD near mass ratio unity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Min; Kao, Hongtao; Wu, Zhishen; Tan, Jinmiao
2011-01-01
This study prepared a series of binary phase change materials by mixing decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid each other. The phase-transition temperature of binary fatty acid and its corresponding mixing proportion are calculated with phase diagram thermodynamic method. The results are verified by the experimental result of the heat absorption curve and the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis curve. The results show that the calculation method of phase diagram thermodynamic calculation can be taken as a basis for mixing proportion of binary fatty acid phase change materials. In addition, the decanoic-dodecanoic acid/diatomite composite phase change material (PCM) are prepared and its microstructure, thermal property and thermal reliability are characterized. The result shows that the decanoic-dodecanoic acid is uniformly adsorbed into diatomite and the form-stable PCM are formed. The phase-transition temperature and the latent heat of the decanoic-dodecanoic acid/diatomite composite PCMs is 16.74 o C and 66.8114 J/g, respectively.
Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merritt David
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phong, Pham Hong; Tomono, Hyroyuki; Nishi, Naoya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kakiuchi, Takashi
2008-01-01
Two methods have been compared for preparing artificially phase-separated two-component SAMs on Au(1 1 1) composed of 11-amino-1-undecanethiolates (AUTe) and 10-carboxyl-1-decanethiolates (CDTe), which would form, thermodynamically, a homogeneously mixed binary SAMs. The first method starts with the formation of a phase-separated binary SAM of AUTe and 2-hydroxy-1-ethanethiolate (HETe) as a template of the artificially phase-separated SAM, followed by the selective desorption of HETe domains and succeeding filling of the vacancy with CDTe. The second method utilizes fluoren-9-ylmethyl N-(11-mercaptoundecyl) carbamate (FMUCe) instead of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol in preparing the template. After the filling with CDTe, the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group is removed to obtain AUTe domains. Both methods yield artificially phase-separated binary SAMs having AUTe domains of tens nanometer across. The molecularly flat SAM surface with nanometer-scale domains of different acid-base and electrostatic properties are thus created. For preparing binary SAMs with a higher degree of phase separation, the second method is a better choice; a more clear-cut phase separation is achieved
Simulations of nearly extremal binary black holes
Giesler, Matthew; Scheel, Mark; Hemberger, Daniel; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Kuper, Kevin; Boyle, Michael; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence; SXS Collaboration
2015-04-01
Astrophysical black holes could have nearly extremal spins; therefore, nearly extremal black holes could be among the binaries that current and future gravitational-wave observatories will detect. Predicting the gravitational waves emitted by merging black holes requires numerical-relativity simulations, but these simulations are especially challenging when one or both holes have mass m and spin S exceeding the Bowen-York limit of S /m2 = 0 . 93 . Using improved methods we simulate an unequal-mass, precessing binary black hole coalescence, where the larger black hole has S /m2 = 0 . 99 . We also use these methods to simulate a nearly extremal non-precessing binary black hole coalescence, where both black holes have S /m2 = 0 . 994 , nearly reaching the Novikov-Thorne upper bound for holes spun up by thin accretion disks. We demonstrate numerical convergence and estimate the numerical errors of the waveforms; we compare numerical waveforms from our simulations with post-Newtonian and effective-one-body waveforms; and we compare the evolution of the black-hole masses and spins with analytic predictions.
Microvesicle Formulations and Contact Allergy - Experimental Studies in In-Vitro, Mice and Man
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jakob Torp
Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process i.e. to increase cosmetic performance, enhance effects and protect ingredients from degradation. The development of micro and nano-vesicular systems has lead to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these techno......Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process i.e. to increase cosmetic performance, enhance effects and protect ingredients from degradation. The development of micro and nano-vesicular systems has lead to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using......, ethosomes and polycaprolactone affects the sensitizing properties using the OECD and FDA approved skin sensitisation test method in mice: the Local Lymph Node Assay. Ethanolic liposome (Ethosome) formulation of lipophilic allergens increased the sensitising capacity and polycaprolactone protected against...
Chemical composition and binary mixture of human urinary stones using FT-Raman spectroscopy method.
Selvaraju, R; Raja, A; Thiruppathi, G
2013-10-01
In the present study the human urinary stones were observed in their different chemical compositions of calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), uric acid, cystine, oxammite (ammonium oxalate monohydrate), natroxalate (sodium oxalate), glushinkite (magnesium oxalate dihydrate) and moolooite (copper oxalate) were analyzed using Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. For the quantitative analysis, various human urinary stone samples are used for ratios calculation of binary mixtures compositions such as COM/COD, HAP/COD, HAP/COD, Uric acid/COM, uric acid/COD and uric acid/HAP. The calibration curve is used for further analysis of binary mixture of human urinary stones. For the binary mixture calculation the various intensities bands at 1462 cm(-1) (I(COM)), 1473 cm(-1) (I(COD)), 961 cm(-1) (I(HAP)) and 1282 cm(-1) (I(UA)) were used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sputtering yield calculation for binary target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.
1979-01-01
The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)
Population of Nuclei Via 7Li-Induced Binary Reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, Rodney M.; Phair, Larry W.; Descovich, M.; Cromaz, Mario; Deleplanque, M.A.; Fall on, Paul; Lee, I-Yang; Macchiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, Margaret A.; Moretto, Luciano G.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Sinha, Shrabani; Stephens, Frank S.; Ward, David; Wiedeking, Mathis
2005-01-01
The authors have investigated the population of nuclei formed in binary reactions involving 7 Li beams on targets of 160 Gd and 184 W. The 7 Li + 184 W data were taken in the first experiment using the LIBERACE Ge-array in combination with the STARS Si ΔE-E telescope system at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. By using the Wilczynski binary transfer model, in combination with a standard evaporation model, they are able to reproduce the experimental results. This is a useful method for predicting the population of neutron-rich heavy nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei and will be of use in future spectroscopic studies
A simple component-connection method for building binary decision diagrams encoding a fault tree
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Way, Y.-S.; Hsia, D.-Y.
2000-01-01
A simple new method for building binary decision diagrams (BDDs) encoding a fault tree (FT) is provided in this study. We first decompose the FT into FT-components. Each of them is a single descendant (SD) gate-sequence. Following the node-connection rule, the BDD-component encoding an SD FT-component can each be found to be an SD node-sequence. By successively connecting the BDD-components one by one, the BDD for the entire FT is thus obtained. During the node-connection and component-connection, reduction rules might need to be applied. An example FT is used throughout the article to explain the procedure step by step. Our method proposed is a hybrid one for FT analysis. Some algorithms or techniques used in the conventional FT analysis or the newer BDD approach may be applied to our case; our ideas mentioned in the article might be referred by the two methods
Ma, Chuang; Chen, Han-Shuang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Zhang, Hai-Feng
2018-02-01
Complex networks hosting binary-state dynamics arise in a variety of contexts. In spite of previous works, to fully reconstruct the network structure from observed binary data remains challenging. We articulate a statistical inference based approach to this problem. In particular, exploiting the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, we develop a method to ascertain the neighbors of any node in the network based solely on binary data, thereby recovering the full topology of the network. A key ingredient of our method is the maximum-likelihood estimation of the probabilities associated with actual or nonexistent links, and we show that the EM algorithm can distinguish the two kinds of probability values without any ambiguity, insofar as the length of the available binary time series is reasonably long. Our method does not require any a priori knowledge of the detailed dynamical processes, is parameter-free, and is capable of accurate reconstruction even in the presence of noise. We demonstrate the method using combinations of distinct types of binary dynamical processes and network topologies, and provide a physical understanding of the underlying reconstruction mechanism. Our statistical inference based reconstruction method contributes an additional piece to the rapidly expanding "toolbox" of data based reverse engineering of complex networked systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Islam Ullah Khan
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method is presented for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination. Gatifloxacin, flurbiprofen and their degradation products were detected at 254 nm using a BDS Hypersil C8 (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm column and mixture of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and methanol 30:70 v/v as mobile phase. Response was linear over the range of 15-105 mg mL-1 for gatifloxacin (r² > 0.998 and of 1.5-10.5 mg mL-1 for flurbiprofen (r² > 0.999. The developed method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products (peak purity index > 0.9999. The method developed can be applied successfully for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in human serum, urine, pharmaceutical formulations, and their stability studies.
Compact binary hashing for music retrieval
Seo, Jin S.
2014-03-01
With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.
A dual-mask coronagraph for observing faint companions to binary stars
Cady, E.; McElwain, M.; Kasdin, N.J.; Thalmann, C.
2011-01-01
Observations of binary stars for faint companions with conventional coronagraphic methods are challenging, as both targets will be bright enough to obscure any nearby faint companions if their scattered light is not suppressed. We propose coronagraphic examination of binary stars using an
A Simple Educational Method for the Measurement of Liquid Binary Diffusivities
Rice, Nicholas P.; de Beer, Martin P.; Williamson, Mark E.
2014-01-01
A simple low-cost experiment has been developed for the measurement of the binary diffusion coefficients of liquid substances. The experiment is suitable for demonstrating molecular diffusion to small or large undergraduate classes in chemistry or chemical engineering. Students use a cell phone camera in conjunction with open-source image…
The fate of close encounters between binary stars and binary supermassive black holes
Wang, Yi-Han; Leigh, Nathan; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Perna, Rosalba
2018-04-01
The evolution of main-sequence binaries that reside in the Galactic Centre can be heavily influenced by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to these perturbative effects, the stellar binaries in dense environments are likely to experience mergers, collisions, or ejections through secular and/or non-secular interactions. More direct interactions with the central SMBH are thought to produce hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and tidal disruption events (TDEs). In this paper, we use N-body simulations to study the dynamics of stellar binaries orbiting a central SMBH primary with an outer SMBH secondary orbiting this inner triple. The effects of the secondary SMBH on the event rates of HVSs, TDEs, and stellar mergers are investigated, as a function of the SMBH-SMBH binary mass ratio. Our numerical experiments reveal that, relative to the isolated SMBH case, the TDE and HVS rates are enhanced for, respectively, the smallest and largest mass ratio SMBH-SMBH binaries. This suggests that the observed event rates of TDEs and HVSs have the potential to serve as a diagnostic of the mass ratio of a central SMBH-SMBH binary. The presence of a secondary SMBH also allows for the creation of hypervelocity binaries. Observations of these systems could thus constrain the presence of a secondary SMBH in the Galactic Centre.
A study of non-binary discontinuity wavelet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Hai; Liu Lianshou
2006-01-01
This paper gives a study of non-binary discontinuity wavelet, put forward the theory and method of constituting basic wavelet functions, and has constituted concretely a wavelet function using λ=3.4 as an example. It also conducts a theoretical inference on the decomposition algorithm and reconstruction algorithm of non-binary wavelet, and gives a concrete study of the change of matrix in connection with λ=3.4. In the end, it shows the future of application of the result to the study of high energy collision. (authors)
Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.
2017-01-01
A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each
Stock Picking via Nonsymmetrically Pruned Binary Decision Trees
Anton Andriyashin
2008-01-01
Stock picking is the field of financial analysis that is of particular interest for many professional investors and researchers. In this study stock picking is implemented via binary classification trees. Optimal tree size is believed to be the crucial factor in forecasting performance of the trees. While there exists a standard method of tree pruning, which is based on the cost-complexity tradeoff and used in the majority of studies employing binary decision trees, this paper introduces a no...
Muddukrishna, B S; Pai, Vasudev; Lobo, Richard; Pai, Aravinda
2017-11-22
In the present study, five important binary fingerprinting techniques were used to model novel flavones for the selective inhibition of Tankyrase I. From the fingerprints used: the fingerprint atom pairs resulted in a statistically significant 2D QSAR model using a kernel-based partial least square regression method. This model indicates that the presence of electron-donating groups positively contributes to activity, whereas the presence of electron withdrawing groups negatively contributes to activity. This model could be used to develop more potent as well as selective analogues for the inhibition of Tankyrase I. Schematic representation of 2D QSAR work flow.
Braschel, Melissa C; Svec, Ivana; Darlington, Gerarda A; Donner, Allan
2016-04-01
Many investigators rely on previously published point estimates of the intraclass correlation coefficient rather than on their associated confidence intervals to determine the required size of a newly planned cluster randomized trial. Although confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient that can be applied to community-based trials have been developed for a continuous outcome variable, fewer methods exist for a binary outcome variable. The aim of this study is to evaluate confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient applied to binary outcomes in community intervention trials enrolling a small number of large clusters. Existing methods for confidence interval construction are examined and compared to a new ad hoc approach based on dividing clusters into a large number of smaller sub-clusters and subsequently applying existing methods to the resulting data. Monte Carlo simulation is used to assess the width and coverage of confidence intervals for the intraclass correlation coefficient based on Smith's large sample approximation of the standard error of the one-way analysis of variance estimator, an inverted modified Wald test for the Fleiss-Cuzick estimator, and intervals constructed using a bootstrap-t applied to a variance-stabilizing transformation of the intraclass correlation coefficient estimate. In addition, a new approach is applied in which clusters are randomly divided into a large number of smaller sub-clusters with the same methods applied to these data (with the exception of the bootstrap-t interval, which assumes large cluster sizes). These methods are also applied to a cluster randomized trial on adolescent tobacco use for illustration. When applied to a binary outcome variable in a small number of large clusters, existing confidence interval methods for the intraclass correlation coefficient provide poor coverage. However, confidence intervals constructed using the new approach combined with Smith
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Awe, O.E., E-mail: draweoe2004@yahoo.com; Oshakuade, O.M.
2016-04-15
A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ{sup ∞}s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ{sup ∞}s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ{sup ∞}s of 10 binary alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ{sup ∞}s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ{sup ∞}s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ{sup ∞}s and then used the γ{sup ∞}s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ{sup ∞}s of binary liquid alloys.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
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Matthew J. Benacquista
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel
2006-01-01
It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...
Generation of Binary Off-axis Digital Fresnel Hologram with Enhanced Quality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Wai Ming Tsang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The emergence of high resolution printer and digital micromirror device (DMD has enabled real, off-axis holograms to be printed, or projected onto a screen. As most printers and DMD can only reproduce binary dots, the pixels in a hologram have to be truncated to 2 levels. However, direct binarizing a hologram will lead to severe degradation on its reconstructed image. In this paper, a method for generating binary off-axis digital Fresnel hologram is reported. A hologram generated with the proposed method is referred to as the "Enhanced Sampled Binary Hologram" (ESBH. The reconstructed image of the ESBH is superior in visual quality as compare with the one obtained with existing technique, and also resistant to noise contamination.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawada, Akira; Yoda, Kiyoshi; Numano, Masumi; Futami, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Haruo; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Tsugami, Hironobu
2005-01-01
A new technique based on normalized binary image correlation between two edge images has been proposed for positioning proton-beam radiotherapy patients. A Canny edge detector was used to extract two edge images from a reference x-ray image and a test x-ray image of a patient before positioning. While translating and rotating the edged test image, the absolute value of the normalized binary image correlation between the two edge images is iteratively maximized. Each time before rotation, dilation is applied to the edged test image to avoid a steep reduction of the image correlation. To evaluate robustness of the proposed method, a simulation has been carried out using 240 simulated edged head front-view images extracted from a reference image by varying parameters of the Canny algorithm with a given range of rotation angles and translation amounts in x and y directions. It was shown that resulting registration errors have an accuracy of one pixel in x and y directions and zero degrees in rotation, even when the number of edge pixels significantly differs between the edged reference image and the edged simulation image. Subsequently, positioning experiments using several sets of head, lung, and hip data have been performed. We have observed that the differences of translation and rotation between manual positioning and the proposed method were within one pixel in translation and one degree in rotation. From the results of the validation study, it can be concluded that a significant reduction in workload for the physicians and technicians can be achieved with this method
AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos
2012-01-01
With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trias, Miquel; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John
2009-01-01
Bayesian analysis of Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) data sets based on Markov chain Monte Carlo methods has been shown to be a challenging problem, in part due to the complicated structure of the likelihood function consisting of several isolated local maxima that dramatically reduces the efficiency of the sampling techniques. Here we introduce a new fully Markovian algorithm, a delayed rejection Metropolis-Hastings Markov chain Monte Carlo method, to efficiently explore these kind of structures and we demonstrate its performance on selected LISA data sets containing a known number of stellar-mass binary signals embedded in Gaussian stationary noise.
Randomized trials, generalizability, and meta-analysis: Graphical insights for binary outcomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kramer Barnett S
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized trials stochastically answer the question. "What would be the effect of treatment on outcome if one turned back the clock and switched treatments in the given population?" Generalizations to other subjects are reliable only if the particular trial is performed on a random sample of the target population. By considering an unobserved binary variable, we graphically investigate how randomized trials can also stochastically answer the question, "What would be the effect of treatment on outcome in a population with a possibly different distribution of an unobserved binary baseline variable that does not interact with treatment in its effect on outcome?" Method For three different outcome measures, absolute difference (DIF, relative risk (RR, and odds ratio (OR, we constructed a modified BK-Plot under the assumption that treatment has the same effect on outcome if either all or no subjects had a given level of the unobserved binary variable. (A BK-Plot shows the effect of an unobserved binary covariate on a binary outcome in two treatment groups; it was originally developed to explain Simpsons's paradox. Results For DIF and RR, but not OR, the BK-Plot shows that the estimated treatment effect is invariant to the fraction of subjects with an unobserved binary variable at a given level. Conclusion The BK-Plot provides a simple method to understand generalizability in randomized trials. Meta-analyses of randomized trials with a binary outcome that are based on DIF or RR, but not OR, will avoid bias from an unobserved covariate that does not interact with treatment in its effect on outcome.
"One-sample concept" micro-combinatory for high throughput TEM of binary films.
Sáfrán, György
2018-04-01
Phases of thin films may remarkably differ from that of bulk. Unlike to the comprehensive data files of Binary Phase Diagrams [1] available for bulk, complete phase maps for thin binary layers do not exist. This is due to both the diverse metastable, non-equilibrium or instable phases feasible in thin films and the required volume of characterization work with analytical techniques like TEM, SAED and EDS. The aim of the present work was to develop a method that remarkably facilitates the TEM study of the diverse binary phases of thin films, or the creation of phase maps. A micro-combinatorial method was worked out that enables both preparation and study of a gradient two-component film within a single TEM specimen. For a demonstration of the technique thin Mn x Al 1- x binary samples with evolving concentration from x = 0 to x = 1 have been prepared so that the transition from pure Mn to pure Al covers a 1.5 mm long track within the 3 mm diameter TEM grid. The proposed method enables the preparation and study of thin combinatorial samples including all feasible phases as a function of composition or other deposition parameters. Contrary to known "combinatorial chemistry", in which a series of different samples are deposited in one run, and investigated, one at a time, the present micro-combinatorial method produces a single specimen condensing a complete library of a binary system that can be studied, efficiently, within a single TEM session. That provides extremely high throughput for TEM characterization of composition-dependent phases, exploration of new materials, or the construction of phase diagrams of binary films. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wijers, R.A.M.J.
1996-01-01
Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes
Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks
Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.
2018-04-01
The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.
Generalization of Supervised Learning for Binary Mask Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
May, Tobias; Gerkmann, Timo
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of speech segregation by es- timating the ideal binary mask (IBM) from noisy speech. Two methods will be compared, one supervised learning approach that incorporates a priori knowledge about the feature distri- bution observed during training. The second method...
BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M ☉ BINARIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.
2013-01-01
Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M ☉ —are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ☉ . Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ☉ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ☉ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fouillet, C.
2003-01-01
In this work, we simulate a nucleate boiling problem using direct numerical simulation. The numerical method used is the second gradient method based on a diffuse interface model which represents interfaces as volumetric regions of finite thickness across which the physical properties of the fluid vary continuously. First, this method is successfully applied to nucleate boiling of a pure fluid. Then, the model is extended to dilute binary mixtures. After studying its validity and its limits in simple configurations, it is then applied to nucleate boiling of a dilute mixture. These simulations show a strong decrease of the heat transfer coefficient as the concentration increases, in agreement with the numerous experimental studies published in this domain. (author) [fr
Spectral properties of binary asteroids
Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme
2018-04-01
We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jianhua, W.; Ronghuan, H.
1993-01-01
A kinetic method for simultaneous determination of a binary mixture is proposed, and a procedure for simultaneous determination of uranium (IV) and vanadium (IV) is established based on their inductive effect on chromium (VI)-iodide redox reaction in a weak acidic medium. The reaction was monitored by FIA-spectrophotometry using the I 3 - -starch complex as indicator. The calibration graphs are linear for uranium (IV) and vanadium (IV) within the range of 0 ∼ 3.6 μg/ml and 0 ∼ 2.5 μg/ml respectively. Most foreign ions, except for iron (II) and antimony (III), do not interfere with the determination. The uranium and vanadium content in different samples was determined, and the results were satisfactory. (author). 2 tabs., 2 figs., 9 refs
The Post-Newtonian Approximation for Relativistic Compact Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Futamase Toshifumi
2007-03-01
Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries which respect the Lorentz invariance in the post-Newtonian perturbative sense, admit a conserved energy, and are free from any ambiguity.
Sparse logistic principal components analysis for binary data
Lee, Seokho
2010-09-01
We develop a new principal components analysis (PCA) type dimension reduction method for binary data. Different from the standard PCA which is defined on the observed data, the proposed PCA is defined on the logit transform of the success probabilities of the binary observations. Sparsity is introduced to the principal component (PC) loading vectors for enhanced interpretability and more stable extraction of the principal components. Our sparse PCA is formulated as solving an optimization problem with a criterion function motivated from a penalized Bernoulli likelihood. A Majorization-Minimization algorithm is developed to efficiently solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed sparse logistic PCA method is illustrated by application to a single nucleotide polymorphism data set and a simulation study. © Institute ol Mathematical Statistics, 2010.
An Exact Solution of the Binary Singular Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baiqing Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Singularity problem exists in various branches of applied mathematics. Such ordinary differential equations accompany singular coefficients. In this paper, by using the properties of reproducing kernel, the exact solution expressions of dual singular problem are given in the reproducing kernel space and studied, also for a class of singular problem. For the binary equation of singular points, I put it into the singular problem first, and then reuse some excellent properties which are applied to solve the method of solving differential equations for its exact solution expression of binary singular integral equation in reproducing kernel space, and then obtain its approximate solution through the evaluation of exact solutions. Numerical examples will show the effectiveness of this method.
Interfacing modeling suite Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries 2.0 with a Virtual Reality Platform
Harriett, Edward; Conroy, Kyle; Prša, Andrej; Klassner, Frank
2018-01-01
To explore alternate methods for modeling eclipsing binary stars, we extrapolate upon PHOEBE’s (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs) capabilities in a virtual reality (VR) environment to create an immersive and interactive experience for users. The application used is Vizard, a python-scripted VR development platform for environments such as Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and other off-the-shelf VR headsets. Vizard allows the freedom for all modeling to be precompiled without compromising functionality or usage on its part. The system requires five arguments to be precomputed using PHOEBE’s python front-end: the effective temperature, flux, relative intensity, vertex coordinates, and orbits; the user can opt to implement other features from PHOEBE to be accessed within the simulation as well. Here we present the method for making the data observables accessible in real time. An Occulus Rift will be available for a live showcase of various cases of VR rendering of PHOEBE binary systems including detached and contact binary stars.
Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Binary Element Reactive Distillation Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted
2016-01-01
In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is considered through a computer-aided framework. First, a set of simple design methods for reactive distillation column that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods are extended...... to design-control of reactive distillation columns. These methods are based on the element concept where the reacting system of compounds is represented as elements. When only two elements are needed to represent the reacting system of more than two compounds, a binary element system is identified....... It is shown that the same design-control principles that apply to a non-reacting binary system of compounds are also valid for a reactive binary system of elements for distillation columns. Application of this framework shows that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.
2012-01-01
Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)
2012-08-15
Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.
Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Banaras [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saifullah [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)
2015-10-25
The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX{sub 3} (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures.
Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Banaras; Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye; Saifullah; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Khan, Imad; Ahmad, Iftikhar
2015-01-01
The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX 3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures
Generation of binary holograms for deep scenes captured with a camera and a depth sensor
Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul
2017-01-01
This work presents binary hologram generation from images of a real object acquired from a Kinect sensor. Since hologram calculation from a point-cloud or polygon model presents a heavy computational burden, we adopted a depth-layer approach to generate the holograms. This method enables us to obtain holographic data of large scenes quickly. Our investigations focus on the performance of different methods, iterative and noniterative, to convert complex holograms into binary format. Comparisons were performed to examine the reconstruction of the binary holograms at different depths. We also propose to modify the direct binary search algorithm to take into account several reference image planes. Then, deep scenes featuring multiple planes of interest can be reconstructed with better efficiency.
Binary Cepheids: Separations and Mass Ratios in 5 M ⊙ Binaries
Evans, Nancy Evans; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan
2013-10-01
Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ~5 M ⊙—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ⊙. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ⊙ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ⊙ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.
A Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo method for Bayesian inference of supermassive black hole binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porter, Edward K; Carré, Jérôme
2014-01-01
We investigate the use of a Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo to map out the posterior density function for supermassive black hole binaries. While previous Markov Chain Monte–Carlo (MCMC) methods, such as Metropolis–Hastings MCMC, have been successfully employed for a number of different gravitational wave sources, these methods are essentially random walk algorithms. The Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo treats the inverse likelihood surface as a ‘gravitational potential’ and by introducing canonical positions and momenta, dynamically evolves the Markov chain by solving Hamilton's equations of motion. This method is not as widely used as other MCMC algorithms due to the necessity of calculating gradients of the log-likelihood, which for most applications results in a bottleneck that makes the algorithm computationally prohibitive. We circumvent this problem by using accepted initial phase-space trajectory points to analytically fit for each of the individual gradients. Eliminating the waveform generation needed for the numerical derivatives reduces the total number of required templates for a 10 6 iteration chain from ∼10 9 to ∼10 6 . The result is in an implementation of the Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo that is faster, and more efficient by a factor of approximately the dimension of the parameter space, than a Hessian MCMC. (paper)
Short-term variability of binary and non-binary Trans-Neptunian Objects
Thirouin, Audrey; Noll, K. S.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Ortiz Moreno, J. L.; Morales, N.
2013-10-01
Since 1992, more than 1400 Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) have been discovered. Our approach to understand such objects is to study their rotations by monitoring their brightness variations. By studying the rotational properties of the TNOs a wealth of information can be obtained on their physics. So, the study of the spins and shapes of TNOs is a powerful method of gaining information on the formation and evolution of our Solar System. We have observed most of the brightest TNOs and centaurs, and compiled one of the largest lightcurves samples. The main purpose was to increase the number of objects whose short-term variability has been studied and present a homogeneous dataset trying to avoid observational biases. A dataset composed of 54 TNOs/Centaurs is reported and analyzed. Amplitudes and rotational periods have been derived for 45 of them with different degrees of reliability. For 9 objects, only an estimation of the amplitude is reported. Because most of the TNOs/Centaurs have low amplitude lightcurves, it is difficult to distinguish between single- and double-peaked lightcurves. Based on our results and the literature, following Binzel et al. (1989) study about asteroids rotational frequency distribution, we studied the TNOs spin rate distributions. We performed several Maxwellian fits to various histograms obtained considering that the lightcurves are single- or double-peaked. We tested lightcurve amplitude limits to distinguish if the lightcurve is albedo- or shape-dominated. Such a consideration introduces important changes in the distribution. We derived that an amplitude limit of 0.15mag gave a good fit to Maxwellian distribution. So, it seems that 0.15mag is a good measure of the typical variability caused by albedo. We studied the short-term variability of binary TNOs thanks to unresolved lightcurves. Based on our results and those from the literature, we come up with a sample of 32 systems with a rotational period and/or lightcurve amplitude value
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samsing, Johan; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2014-01-01
The inspiral and merger of eccentric binaries leads to gravitational waveforms distinct from those generated by circularly merging binaries. Dynamical environments can assemble binaries with high eccentricity and peak frequencies within the LIGO band. In this paper, we study binary-single stellar scatterings occurring in dense stellar systems as a source of eccentrically inspiraling binaries. Many interactions between compact binaries and single objects are characterized by chaotic resonances in which the binary-single system undergoes many exchanges before reaching a final state. During these chaotic resonances, a pair of objects has a non-negligible probability of experiencing a very close passage. Significant orbital energy and angular momentum are carried away from the system by gravitational wave (GW) radiation in these close passages, and in some cases this implies an inspiral time shorter than the orbital period of the bound third body. We derive the cross section for such dynamical inspiral outcomes through analytical arguments and through numerical scattering experiments including GW losses. We show that the cross section for dynamical inspirals grows with increasing target binary semi-major axis a and that for equal-mass binaries it scales as a 2/7 . Thus, we expect wide target binaries to predominantly contribute to the production of these relativistic outcomes. We estimate that eccentric inspirals account for approximately 1% of dynamically assembled non-eccentric merging binaries. While these events are rare, we show that binary-single scatterings are a more effective formation channel than single-single captures for the production of eccentrically inspiraling binaries, even given modest binary fractions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, Mark
2005-01-01
I discuss the accuracy requirements on numerical relativity calculations of inspiraling compact object binaries whose extracted gravitational waveforms are to be used as templates for matched filtering signal extraction and physical parameter estimation in modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Using a post-Newtonian point particle model for the premerger phase of the binary inspiral, I calculate the maximum allowable errors for the mass and relative velocity and positions of the binary during numerical simulations of the binary inspiral. These maximum allowable errors are compared to the errors of state-of-the-art numerical simulations of multiple-orbit binary neutron star calculations in full general relativity, and are found to be smaller by several orders of magnitude. A post-Newtonian model for the error of these numerical simulations suggests that adaptive mesh refinement coupled with second-order accurate finite difference codes will not be able to robustly obtain the accuracy required for reliable gravitational wave extraction on Terabyte-scale computers. I conclude that higher-order methods (higher-order finite difference methods and/or spectral methods) combined with adaptive mesh refinement and/or multipatch technology will be needed for robustly accurate gravitational wave extraction from numerical relativity calculations of binary coalescence scenarios
Rahman, M Shafiqur; Sultana, Mahbuba
2017-02-23
When developing risk models for binary data with small or sparse data sets, the standard maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) based logistic regression faces several problems including biased or infinite estimate of the regression coefficient and frequent convergence failure of the likelihood due to separation. The problem of separation occurs commonly even if sample size is large but there is sufficient number of strong predictors. In the presence of separation, even if one develops the model, it produces overfitted model with poor predictive performance. Firth-and logF-type penalized regression methods are popular alternative to MLE, particularly for solving separation-problem. Despite the attractive advantages, their use in risk prediction is very limited. This paper evaluated these methods in risk prediction in comparison with MLE and other commonly used penalized methods such as ridge. The predictive performance of the methods was evaluated through assessing calibration, discrimination and overall predictive performance using an extensive simulation study. Further an illustration of the methods were provided using a real data example with low prevalence of outcome. The MLE showed poor performance in risk prediction in small or sparse data sets. All penalized methods offered some improvements in calibration, discrimination and overall predictive performance. Although the Firth-and logF-type methods showed almost equal amount of improvement, Firth-type penalization produces some bias in the average predicted probability, and the amount of bias is even larger than that produced by MLE. Of the logF(1,1) and logF(2,2) penalization, logF(2,2) provides slight bias in the estimate of regression coefficient of binary predictor and logF(1,1) performed better in all aspects. Similarly, ridge performed well in discrimination and overall predictive performance but it often produces underfitted model and has high rate of convergence failure (even the rate is higher than that
Searching for Signatures of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries
Ayers, Megan; Gezari, Suvi; Liu, Tingting
2018-01-01
Theoretical studies suggest that supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are an inevitable consequence of major galaxy mergers. Additionally, as SMBHBs coalesce they are expected to be sources of tremendous gravitational wave emission. Interest in these sources motivates the search for detection of the first definitive SMBHB and observational signatures to methodize the search. We present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of candidate SMBHBs selected from quasars demonstrating optical periodic variability from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. The SEDs were constructed using existing archival data spanning from radio to X-ray emission. For each candidate SMBHB, we also present models of the theoretical spectrum emitted from the circumbinary and minidisks of the SMBHB system using the predictions of Roedig et al. (2014) and inferred parameters of the candidates (combined mass, mass ratio, binary separation, accretion rate). We compare the observational SED for each source to its respective binary model as well as to the expected mean SED of a normal non-binary system quasar to look for supporting evidence of a SMBHB system. This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.
Tcheng, Ping
1989-01-01
Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.
Some properties of spectral binary stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)
1978-01-01
Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed
CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maoz, Dan; Badenes, Carles; Bickerton, Steven J.
2012-01-01
We present a method to characterize statistically the parameters of a detached binary sample—binary fraction, separation distribution, and mass-ratio distribution—using noisy radial velocity data with as few as two, randomly spaced, epochs per object. To do this, we analyze the distribution of ΔRV max , the maximum radial velocity difference between any two epochs for the same object. At low values, the core of this distribution is dominated by measurement errors, but for large enough samples there is a high-velocity tail that can effectively constrain the parameters of the binary population. We discuss our approach for the case of a population of detached white dwarf (WD) binaries with separations that are decaying via gravitational wave emission. We derive analytic expressions for the present-day distribution of separations, integrated over the star formation history of the Galaxy, for parameterized initial WD separation distributions at the end of the common-envelope phase. We use Monte Carlo techniques to produce grids of simulated ΔRV max distributions with specific binary population parameters, and the same sampling cadences and radial velocity errors as the observations, and we compare them to the real ΔRV max distribution to constrain the properties of the binary population. We illustrate the sensitivity of the method to both the model and observational parameters. In the particular case of binary WDs, every model population predicts a merger rate per star which can easily be compared to specific Type Ia supernova rates. In a companion paper, we apply the method to a sample of ∼4000 WDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The binary fractions and separation distribution parameters allowed by the data indicate a rate of WD-WD mergers per unit stellar mass in the Galactic disk, ∼1 × 10 –13 mergers yr –1 M –1 ☉ , remarkably similar to the rate per unit mass of Type Ia supernovae in Milky Way like galaxies.
Method of statistical estimation of temperature minimums in binary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mireev, V.A.; Safonov, V.V.
1985-01-01
On the basis of statistical processing of literature data the technique for evaluation of temperature minima on liquidus curves in binary systems with common ion chloride systems being taken as an example, is developed. The systems are formed by 48 chlorides of 45 chemical elements including alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth and transition metals as well as Cd, In, Th. It is shown that calculation error in determining minimum melting points depends on topology of the phase diagram. The comparison of calculated and experimental data for several previously nonstudied systems is given
Microlensing Binaries Discovered through High-magnification Channel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.
2012-01-01
Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturba......Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010...
Gonçalves, Carina; Decré, Dominique; Barbut, Frédéric; Burghoffer, Béatrice; Petit, Jean-Claude
2004-01-01
In addition to the two large clostridial cytotoxins (TcdA and TcdB), some strains of Clostridium difficile also produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase, called binary toxin CDT. We used a PCR method and Southern blotting for the detection of genes encoding the enzymatic (CDTa) and binding (CDTb) components of the binary toxin in 369 strains isolated from patients with suspected C. difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Twenty-two strains (a prevalence of 6%) harbored both genes. When binary toxin production was assessed by Western blotting, 19 of the 22 strains reacted with antisera against the iota toxin of C. perfringens (anti-Ia and anti-Ib). Additionally, binary toxin activity, detected by the ADP-ribosyltransferase assay, was present in only 17 of the 22 strains. Subsequently, all 22 binary toxin-positive strains were tested for the production of toxins TcdA and TcdB, toxinotyped, and characterized by serogrouping, PCR ribotyping, arbitrarily primed PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All binary toxin-positive strains also produced TcdB and/or TcdA. However, they had significant changes in the tcdA and tcdB genes and belonged to variant toxinotypes III, IV, V, VII, IX, and XIII. We could differentiate 16 profiles by using typing methods, indicating that most of the binary toxin-positive strains were unrelated. PMID:15131151
Performance analysis and binary working fluid selection of combined flash-binary geothermal cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeyghami, Mehdi
2015-01-01
Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal power cycle for geofluid temperatures between 150 and 250 °C is studied. A thermodynamic model is developed, and the suitable binary working fluids for different geofluid temperatures are identified from a list of thirty working fluid candidates, consisting environmental friendly refrigerants and hydrocarbons. The overall system exergy destruction and Vapor Expansion Ratio across the binary cycle turbine are selected as key performance indicators. The results show that for low-temperature heat sources using refrigerants as binary working fluids result in higher overall cycle efficiency and for medium and high-temperature resources, hydrocarbons are more suitable. For combined flash-binary cycle, secondary working fluids; R-152a, Butane and Cis-butane show the best performances at geofluid temperatures 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The overall second law efficiency is calculated as high as 0.48, 0.55 and 0.58 for geofluid temperatures equal 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The flash separator pressure found to has important effects on cycle operation and performance. Separator pressure dictates the work production share of steam and binary parts of the system. And there is an optimal separator pressure at which overall exergy destruction of the cycle achieves its minimum value. - Highlights: • Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal cycle is investigated. • Thirty different fluids are screened to find the most suitable ORC working fluid. • Optimum cycle operation conditions presented for geofluids between 150 °C and 250 °C. • Refrigerants are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature ≤200 °C. • Hydrocarbons are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature >200 °C
BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M {sub ☉} BINARIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3965, Atlanta, GA 30302-3965 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)
2013-10-01
Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M {sub ☉}—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M {sub ☉} binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M {sub ☉} stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple.
The Effect of Novel Binary Accelerator System on Properties of Vulcanized Natural Rubber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moez Kamoun
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The mechanical properties, curing characteristics, and swelling behaviour of vulcanized natural rubber with a novel binary accelerator system are investigated. Results indicate that the mechanical properties were improved. Crosslinking density of vulcanized natural rubber was measured by equilibrium swelling method. As a result, the new binary accelerator was found to be able to improve both cure rate and crosslinking density. Using the numerical analysis of test interaction between binary accelerator and operational modelling of vulcanization-factors experiments, it can be concluded that the interaction (Cystine, N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazyl sulfenamide was significant and the optimum value of binary accelerator was suggested, respectively, at levels 0 and +1.
Mesh Denoising based on Normal Voting Tensor and Binary Optimization
Yadav, S. K.; Reitebuch, U.; Polthier, K.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a tensor multiplication based smoothing algorithm that follows a two step denoising method. Unlike other traditional averaging approaches, our approach uses an element based normal voting tensor to compute smooth surfaces. By introducing a binary optimization on the proposed tensor together with a local binary neighborhood concept, our algorithm better retains sharp features and produces smoother umbilical regions than previous approaches. On top of that, we provide a stoc...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.
1998-01-01
The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon
Contact Binaries on Their Way Towards Merging
Gazeas, K.
2015-07-01
Contact binaries are the most frequently observed type of eclipsing star system. They are small, cool, low-mass binaries belonging to a relatively old stellar population. They follow certain empirical relationships that closely connect a number of physical parameters with each other, largely because of constraints coming from the Roche geometry. As a result, contact binaries provide an excellent test of stellar evolution, specifically for stellar merger scenarios. Observing campaigns by many authors have led to the cataloging of thousands of contact binaries and enabled statistical studies of many of their properties. A large number of contact binaries have been found to exhibit extraordinary behavior, requiring follow-up observations to study their peculiarities in detail. For example, a doubly-eclipsing quadruple system consisting of a contact binary and a detached binary is a highly constrained system offering an excellent laboratory to test evolutionary theories for binaries. A new observing project was initiated at the University of Athens in 2012 in order to investigate the possible lower limit for the orbital period of binary systems before coalescence, prior to merging.
Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingfeng Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Peng; Du, Shichao; Qin, Yujia; Zhao, Kaifei; Li, Kangli; Hou, Baohong; Gong, Junbo
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The solubility data of pyraclostrobin in pure and binary solvents were determined and correlated. • The theory of solubility parameter was used to explain the cosolvency in binary solvents. • A modified mixing rule was proposed to calculate the solubility parameter of binary solvents. • The dissolution thermodynamic properties were calculated and discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of pyraclostrobin in five pure solvents and two binary solvent mixtures was measured from 283.15 K to 308.15 K using a static analytical method. Solubility in five pure solvents was well correlated by the modified Apelblat equation and Wilson model. While the CNIBS/R–K model was applied to correlate the solubility in two binary solvent mixtures, the correlation showed good agreement with experimental results. The solubility of pyraclostrobin reaches its maximum value at a certain cyclohexane mole fraction in the two binary solvent mixtures. The solubility parameter of pyraclostrobin was calculated by the Fedors method and a new modified mixing rule with preferable applicability was proposed to determine the solubility parameter of solvents. Then the co-solvency in the binary solvent mixtures can be explained based on the obtained solubility parameters. In a addition, the dissolution thermodynamic properties were calculated from the experimental values using the Wilson model.
Wulandari, S. P.; Salamah, M.; Rositawati, A. F. D.
2018-04-01
Food security is the condition where the food fulfilment is managed well for the country till the individual. Indonesia is one of the country which has the commitment to create the food security becomes main priority. However, the food necessity becomes common thing means that it doesn’t care about nutrient standard and the health condition of family member, so in the fulfilment of food necessity also has to consider the disease suffered by the family member, one of them is pulmonary tuberculosa. From that reasons, this research is conducted to know the factors which influence on household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya by using binary logistic regression method. The analysis result by using binary logistic regression shows that the variables wife latest education, house density and spacious house ventilation significantly affect on household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya, where the wife education level is University/equivalent, the house density is eligible or 8 m2/person and spacious house ventilation 10% of the floor area has the opportunity to become food secure households amounted to 0.911089. While the chance of becoming food insecure households amounted to 0.088911. The model household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya has been conformable, and the overall percentages of those classifications are at 71.8%.
Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions
Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens
2018-01-01
A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute
Wang, Haijing; Fischer, Thomas; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev
2015-05-01
Due to their mobility and toxicity, crude oil volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are representative components for oil pipeline contaminated sites detection. Therefore, contaminated location risk assessment, with airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) survey, in particular, requires ground-based determinative methods for oil VOCs, the interaction between oil VOCs and soil, and information on how they diffuse from underground into atmosphere. First, we developed a method for determination of crude oil VOC binary mixtures (take n-pentane and n-hexane as examples), taking synergistic effects of VOC mixtures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers into consideration. Using this method, we further aim to extract VOCs from small volumes, for example, from soil pores, using a custom-made sampling device for nondestructive SPME fiber intrusion, and to study VOC transport through heterogeneous porous media. Second, specific surface Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis was conducted and used for estimation of VOC isotherm parameters in soil. Finally, two models were fitted for VOC emission prediction, and the results were compared to the experimental emission results. It was found that free diffusion mode worked well, and an empirical correction factor seems to be needed for the other model to adapt to our condition for single and binary systems.
London, Lionel; Khan, Sebastian; Fauchon-Jones, Edward; García, Cecilio; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Jiménez-Forteza, Xisco; Kalaghatgi, Chinmay; Ohme, Frank; Pannarale, Francesco
2018-04-20
Gravitational-wave observations of binary black holes currently rely on theoretical models that predict the dominant multipoles (ℓ=2,|m|=2) of the radiation during inspiral, merger, and ringdown. We introduce a simple method to include the subdominant multipoles to binary black hole gravitational waveforms, given a frequency-domain model for the dominant multipoles. The amplitude and phase of the original model are appropriately stretched and rescaled using post-Newtonian results (for the inspiral), perturbation theory (for the ringdown), and a smooth transition between the two. No additional tuning to numerical-relativity simulations is required. We apply a variant of this method to the nonprecessing PhenomD model. The result, PhenomHM, constitutes the first higher-multipole model of spinning and coalescing black-hole binaries, and currently includes the (ℓ,|m|)=(2,2),(3,3),(4,4),(2,1),(3,2),(4,3) radiative moments. Comparisons with numerical-relativity waveforms demonstrate that PhenomHM is more accurate than dominant-multipole-only models for all binary configurations, and typically improves the measurement of binary properties.
First Higher-Multipole Model of Gravitational Waves from Spinning and Coalescing Black-Hole Binaries
London, Lionel; Khan, Sebastian; Fauchon-Jones, Edward; García, Cecilio; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Jiménez-Forteza, Xisco; Kalaghatgi, Chinmay; Ohme, Frank; Pannarale, Francesco
2018-04-01
Gravitational-wave observations of binary black holes currently rely on theoretical models that predict the dominant multipoles (ℓ=2 ,|m |=2 ) of the radiation during inspiral, merger, and ringdown. We introduce a simple method to include the subdominant multipoles to binary black hole gravitational waveforms, given a frequency-domain model for the dominant multipoles. The amplitude and phase of the original model are appropriately stretched and rescaled using post-Newtonian results (for the inspiral), perturbation theory (for the ringdown), and a smooth transition between the two. No additional tuning to numerical-relativity simulations is required. We apply a variant of this method to the nonprecessing PhenomD model. The result, PhenomHM, constitutes the first higher-multipole model of spinning and coalescing black-hole binaries, and currently includes the (ℓ,|m |)=(2 ,2 ),(3 ,3 ),(4 ,4 ),(2 ,1 ),(3 ,2 ),(4 ,3 ) radiative moments. Comparisons with numerical-relativity waveforms demonstrate that PhenomHM is more accurate than dominant-multipole-only models for all binary configurations, and typically improves the measurement of binary properties.
Aligning Metabolic Pathways Exploiting Binary Relation of Reactions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yiran Huang
Full Text Available Metabolic pathway alignment has been widely used to find one-to-one and/or one-to-many reaction mappings to identify the alternative pathways that have similar functions through different sets of reactions, which has important applications in reconstructing phylogeny and understanding metabolic functions. The existing alignment methods exhaustively search reaction sets, which may become infeasible for large pathways. To address this problem, we present an effective alignment method for accurately extracting reaction mappings between two metabolic pathways. We show that connected relation between reactions can be formalized as binary relation of reactions in metabolic pathways, and the multiplications of zero-one matrices for binary relations of reactions can be accomplished in finite steps. By utilizing the multiplications of zero-one matrices for binary relation of reactions, we efficiently obtain reaction sets in a small number of steps without exhaustive search, and accurately uncover biologically relevant reaction mappings. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of topological similarity of nodes (reactions by comparing the structural similarity of the k-neighborhood subgraphs of the nodes in aligning metabolic pathways. We employ this similarity metric to improve the accuracy of the alignments. The experimental results on the KEGG database show that when compared with other state-of-the-art methods, in most cases, our method obtains better performance in the node correctness and edge correctness, and the number of the edges of the largest common connected subgraph for one-to-one reaction mappings, and the number of correct one-to-many reaction mappings. Our method is scalable in finding more reaction mappings with better biological relevance in large metabolic pathways.
Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function
Malkov, O. Yu.
2017-07-01
In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.
The fidelity of Kepler eclipsing binary parameters inferred by the neural network
Holanda, N.; da Silva, J. R. P.
2018-04-01
This work aims to test the fidelity and efficiency of obtaining automatic orbital elements of eclipsing binary systems, from light curves using neural network models. We selected a random sample with 78 systems, from over 1400 eclipsing binary detached obtained from the Kepler Eclipsing Binaries Catalog, processed using the neural network approach. The orbital parameters of the sample systems were measured applying the traditional method of light curve adjustment with uncertainties calculated by the bootstrap method, employing the JKTEBOP code. These estimated parameters were compared with those obtained by the neural network approach for the same systems. The results reveal a good agreement between techniques for the sum of the fractional radii and moderate agreement for e cos ω and e sin ω, but orbital inclination is clearly underestimated in neural network tests.
Kalogera, Vassiliki; Webbink, Ronald F.
1998-01-01
We study the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) through helium star supernovae in binary systems that have each emerged from a common envelope phase. LMXB progenitors must satisfy a large number of evolutionary and structural constraints, including survival through common envelope evolution, through the post-common envelope phase, where the precursor of the neutron star becomes a Wolf-Rayet star, and survival through the supernova event. Furthermore, the binaries that survive the explosion must reach interaction within a Hubble time and must satisfy stability criteria for mass transfer. These constraints, imposed under the assumption of a symmetric supernova explosion, prohibit the formation of short-period LMXBs transferring mass at sub-Eddington rates through any channel in which the intermediate progenitor of the neutron star is not completely degenerate. Barring accretion-induced collapse, the existence of such systems therefore requires that natal kicks be imparted to neutron stars. We use an analytical method to synthesize the distribution of nascent LMXBs over donor masses and orbital periods and evaluate their birthrate and systemic velocity dispersion. Within the limitations imposed by observational incompleteness and selection effects, and our neglect of secular evolution in the LMXB state, we compare our results with observations. However, our principal objective is to evaluate how basic model parameters (common envelope ejection efficiency, rms kick velocity, primordial mass ratio distribution) influence these results. We conclude that the characteristics of newborn LMXBs are primarily determined by age and stability constraints and the efficiency of magnetic braking and are largely independent of the primordial binary population and the evolutionary history of LMXB progenitors (except for extreme values of the average kick magnitude or of the common envelope ejection efficiency). Theoretical estimates of total LMXB birthrates are not credible
Adaptive feature selection using v-shaped binary particle swarm optimization.
Teng, Xuyang; Dong, Hongbin; Zhou, Xiurong
2017-01-01
Feature selection is an important preprocessing method in machine learning and data mining. This process can be used not only to reduce the amount of data to be analyzed but also to build models with stronger interpretability based on fewer features. Traditional feature selection methods evaluate the dependency and redundancy of features separately, which leads to a lack of measurement of their combined effect. Moreover, a greedy search considers only the optimization of the current round and thus cannot be a global search. To evaluate the combined effect of different subsets in the entire feature space, an adaptive feature selection method based on V-shaped binary particle swarm optimization is proposed. In this method, the fitness function is constructed using the correlation information entropy. Feature subsets are regarded as individuals in a population, and the feature space is searched using V-shaped binary particle swarm optimization. The above procedure overcomes the hard constraint on the number of features, enables the combined evaluation of each subset as a whole, and improves the search ability of conventional binary particle swarm optimization. The proposed algorithm is an adaptive method with respect to the number of feature subsets. The experimental results show the advantages of optimizing the feature subsets using the V-shaped transfer function and confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of the feature subsets obtained under different classifiers.
Accuracy of binary black hole waveform models for aligned-spin binaries
Kumar, Prayush; Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela
2016-05-01
Coalescing binary black holes are among the primary science targets for second generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Reliable gravitational waveform models are central to detection of such systems and subsequent parameter estimation. This paper performs a comprehensive analysis of the accuracy of recent waveform models for binary black holes with aligned spins, utilizing a new set of 84 high-accuracy numerical relativity simulations. Our analysis covers comparable mass binaries (mass-ratio 1 ≤q ≤3 ), and samples independently both black hole spins up to a dimensionless spin magnitude of 0.9 for equal-mass binaries and 0.85 for unequal mass binaries. Furthermore, we focus on the high-mass regime (total mass ≳50 M⊙ ). The two most recent waveform models considered (PhenomD and SEOBNRv2) both perform very well for signal detection, losing less than 0.5% of the recoverable signal-to-noise ratio ρ , except that SEOBNRv2's efficiency drops slightly for both black hole spins aligned at large magnitude. For parameter estimation, modeling inaccuracies of the SEOBNRv2 model are found to be smaller than systematic uncertainties for moderately strong GW events up to roughly ρ ≲15 . PhenomD's modeling errors are found to be smaller than SEOBNRv2's, and are generally irrelevant for ρ ≲20 . Both models' accuracy deteriorates with increased mass ratio, and when at least one black hole spin is large and aligned. The SEOBNRv2 model shows a pronounced disagreement with the numerical relativity simulation in the merger phase, for unequal masses and simultaneously both black hole spins very large and aligned. Two older waveform models (PhenomC and SEOBNRv1) are found to be distinctly less accurate than the more recent PhenomD and SEOBNRv2 models. Finally, we quantify the bias expected from all four waveform models during parameter estimation for several recovered binary parameters: chirp mass, mass ratio, and effective spin.
Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries
Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.
2017-12-01
Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.
Planets in Binary Star Systems
Haghighipour, Nader
2010-01-01
The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...
Theoretical studies of binaries in astrophysics
Dischler, Johann Sebastian
This thesis introduces and summarizes four papers dealing with computer simulations of astrophysical processes involving binaries. The first part gives the rational and theoretical background to these papers. In paper I and II a statistical approach to studying eclipsing binaries is described. By using population synthesis models for binaries the probabilities for eclipses are calculated for different luminosity classes of binaries. These are compared with Hipparcos data and they agree well if one uses a standard input distribution for the orbit sizes. If one uses a random pairing model, where both companions are independently picked from an IMF, one finds too feclipsing binaries by an order of magnitude. In paper III we investigate a possible scenario for the origin of the stars observed close to the centre of our galaxy, called S stars. We propose that a cluster falls radially cowards the central black hole. The binaries within the cluster can then, if they have small impact parameters, be broken up by the black hole's tidal held and one of the components of the binary will be captured by the black hole. Paper IV investigates how the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries depends on the eccentricity. To do this we have developed a new two-phase SPH scheme where very light particles are at tire outer edge of our simulated star. This enables us to get a much better resolution of the very small mass that is transferred in close binaries. Our simulations show that the minimum required distance between the stars to have mass transfer decreases with the eccentricity.
Mining frequent binary expressions
Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.
2000-01-01
In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity
Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.
Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong
2015-07-28
The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.
Close-binary central stars of planetary nebulae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bond, H.E.; Grauer, A.D.
1987-01-01
Recent observations of PN central stars identified as binary systems are reviewed. The theoretical significance of binary central stars is discussed, and the characteristics of UU Sge, V 477 Lyr, MT Ser, LSS 2018, VW Pyx, and the central star of HFG 1 are briefly summarized. All of these binaries are shown to have periods less than 1 day, and it is estimated that about 10 percent of all binary central stars are close binaries. 27 references
Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries
Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico
2018-01-01
Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.
Exact Algorithms for Duplication-Transfer-Loss Reconciliation with Non-Binary Gene Trees.
Kordi, Misagh; Bansal, Mukul S
2017-06-01
Duplication-Transfer-Loss (DTL) reconciliation is a powerful method for studying gene family evolution in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. DTL reconciliation seeks to reconcile gene trees with species trees by postulating speciation, duplication, transfer, and loss events. Efficient algorithms exist for finding optimal DTL reconciliations when the gene tree is binary. In practice, however, gene trees are often non-binary due to uncertainty in the gene tree topologies, and DTL reconciliation with non-binary gene trees is known to be NP-hard. In this paper, we present the first exact algorithms for DTL reconciliation with non-binary gene trees. Specifically, we (i) show that the DTL reconciliation problem for non-binary gene trees is fixed-parameter tractable in the maximum degree of the gene tree, (ii) present an exponential-time, but in-practice efficient, algorithm to track and enumerate all optimal binary resolutions of a non-binary input gene tree, and (iii) apply our algorithms to a large empirical data set of over 4700 gene trees from 100 species to study the impact of gene tree uncertainty on DTL-reconciliation and to demonstrate the applicability and utility of our algorithms. The new techniques and algorithms introduced in this paper will help biologists avoid incorrect evolutionary inferences caused by gene tree uncertainty.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, N.W.; Zaazaa, H.E.S.; Abdelrahman, M.M.
2014-01-01
Simple, selective and precise four spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for quantitative determination of Salicylamide (SAD) and Ascorbic acid (ASC, Vitamin C) in their binary mixture. Method A is Area under curve spectrophotometry, in which the area under curve in the wavelength ranges 225-245 nm and 265-285 nm were selected for determination of SAD and ASC. Method B is based on dual wavelength spectrophotometry, where ASC can be determined by difference in absorbance at 249.8 and 285.8 nm. On the same way; SAD is measured by difference in absorbance at 240.4 and 286.4 nm. Method C utilizes isoabsorptive point spectrophotometry where total concentration of SAD and ASC was calculated at their isoabsorptive points at 246.4 and 287 nm, while SAD concentration alone can be determined by first derivative spectrophotometry (1D) at 315.4 nm, then ASC concentration can be determined by subtraction. Method D is ratio subtraction spectrophotometry, where ASC can be determined by dividing the spectrum of the mixture by the spectrum of the SAD (as a divisor) followed by subtracting the constant absorbance value of the plateau region, then finally multiplying the obtained spectrum by the spectrum of the divisor. The developed methods have been successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in different laboratory prepared mixtures and in their pharmaceutical formulation. Statistical comparison between the results obtained by applying the proposed methods and the reported HPLC method was done, and it was found that there was no significant difference between them regarding both accuracy and precision. (author)
Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries
Shao, Y.
2017-07-01
X-ray binaries are a class of binary systems, in which the accretor is a compact star (i.e., black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf). They are one of the most important objects in the universe, which can be used to study not only binary evolution but also accretion disks and compact stars. Statistical investigations of these binaries help to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies, and sometimes provide useful constraints on the cosmological models. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the formation and evolution processes of X-ray binaries including Be/X-ray binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), and cataclysmic variables. In Chapter 1 we give a brief review on the basic knowledge of the binary evolution. In Chapter 2 we discuss the formation of Be stars through binary interaction. In this chapter we investigate the formation of Be stars resulting from mass transfer in binaries in the Galaxy. Using binary evolution and population synthesis calculations, we find that in Be/neutron star binaries the Be stars have a lower limit of mass ˜ 8 M⊙ if they are formed by a stable (i.e., without the occurrence of common envelope evolution) and nonconservative mass transfer. We demonstrate that the isolated Be stars may originate from both mergers of two main-sequence stars and disrupted Be binaries during the supernova explosions of the primary stars, but mergers seem to play a much more important role. Finally the fraction of Be stars produced by binary interactions in all B type stars can be as high as ˜ 13%-30% , implying that most of Be stars may result from binary interaction. In Chapter 3 we show the evolution of intermediate- and low-mass X-ray binaries (I/LMXBs) and the formation of millisecond pulsars. Comparing the calculated results with the observations of binary radio pulsars, we report the following results: (1) The allowed parameter space for forming binary pulsars in the initial orbital period
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanan A. Merey
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Two chromatographic methods were suggested for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture containing Saxagliptin HCl (SAG and Metformin HCl (MET. First method was RP-HPLC method. Chromatographic separation was done on Kinetexâ¢ columnâC18 (4.6Â ÃÂ 150Â mm, 2.6Â Âµm using mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:phosphate buffer pHÂ =Â 4.5Â Â±Â 0.1 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid (13:87, v/v. Isocratic elution at a flow rate 1.5Â mL/min and UV detection at 220.0Â nm was performed. Second method was spectro-densitometric method. Chromatographic separation was done on precoated silica gel aluminium plates 60 F254 as a stationary phase and developing system consisting of chloroform:methanol:formic acid (80:20:0.3, by volume. The density of the separated bands was measured by UV detector at 210.0Â nm. The proposed methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines parameters like Linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Statistical comparison was done between the obtained results and those obtained by the reported methods, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision. Keywords: Saxagliptin HCl, Metformin HCl, RP-HPLC, TLC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Praveen Kumar, J., E-mail: praveenjella10@gmail.com; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Singh, Beer; Gopi, T.; Krishna, R.
2016-04-15
Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. They were synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive analysis of X rays, X ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption techniques. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption data indicated the presence of pores with diameter ranging from 10 to 70 nm in the binary metal oxide nanocomposites and these materials exhibited surface area values in the range of 76–134 m{sup 2}/g. These binary metal oxide nanocomposites demonstrated large decontamination efficiencies against sulfur mustard when compared to their single component metal oxide nanoparticles. The binary metal oxide nanocomposites effectively decontaminated sulfur mustard into relatively non toxic products such as chloro ethyl vinyl sulfide, divinyl sulfide, 1,4-oxathiane, etc. The promising decontamination properties of binary metal oxide nanocomposites against sulfur mustard were attributed to the basic sites, Lewis acid sites, and the presence of these sites was confirmed by CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} temperature programmed desorption. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. - Highlights: • Binary metal oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • They were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. • They decontaminated sulfur mustard into non toxic products. • MnO{sub 2}–ZnO and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO nanocomposites showed greater decontamination efficiency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hannam, Mark D.; Evans, Charles R.; Cook, Gregory B.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.
2003-01-01
We consider combining two important methods for constructing quasiequilibrium initial data for binary black holes: the conformal thin-sandwich formalism and the puncture method. The former seeks to enforce stationarity in the conformal three-metric and the latter attempts to avoid internal boundaries, like minimal surfaces or apparent horizons. We show that these two methods make partially conflicting requirements on the boundary conditions that determine the time slices. In particular, it does not seem possible to construct slices that are quasistationary and that avoid physical singularities while simultaneously are connected by an everywhere positive lapse function, a condition which must be obtained if internal boundaries are to be avoided. Some relaxation of these conflicting requirements may yield a soluble system, but some of the advantages that were sought in combining these approaches will be lost
Fast Localization in Large-Scale Environments Using Supervised Indexing of Binary Features.
Youji Feng; Lixin Fan; Yihong Wu
2016-01-01
The essence of image-based localization lies in matching 2D key points in the query image and 3D points in the database. State-of-the-art methods mostly employ sophisticated key point detectors and feature descriptors, e.g., Difference of Gaussian (DoG) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), to ensure robust matching. While a high registration rate is attained, the registration speed is impeded by the expensive key point detection and the descriptor extraction. In this paper, we propose to use efficient key point detectors along with binary feature descriptors, since the extraction of such binary features is extremely fast. The naive usage of binary features, however, does not lend itself to significant speedup of localization, since existing indexing approaches, such as hierarchical clustering trees and locality sensitive hashing, are not efficient enough in indexing binary features and matching binary features turns out to be much slower than matching SIFT features. To overcome this, we propose a much more efficient indexing approach for approximate nearest neighbor search of binary features. This approach resorts to randomized trees that are constructed in a supervised training process by exploiting the label information derived from that multiple features correspond to a common 3D point. In the tree construction process, node tests are selected in a way such that trees have uniform leaf sizes and low error rates, which are two desired properties for efficient approximate nearest neighbor search. To further improve the search efficiency, a probabilistic priority search strategy is adopted. Apart from the label information, this strategy also uses non-binary pixel intensity differences available in descriptor extraction. By using the proposed indexing approach, matching binary features is no longer much slower but slightly faster than matching SIFT features. Consequently, the overall localization speed is significantly improved due to the much faster key
Formation and evolution of compact binaries
Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der
2006-01-01
In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain
Reiter, Megan
2017-08-01
Fewer wide-separation binaries are found in dense stellar clusters than in looser stellar associations. It is therefore unclear whether feedback in clusters prevents the formation of multiple systems or dynamical interactions destroy them. Measuring the prevalence of close, bound binary systems provide a key test to distinguish between these possibilities. Systems with separations of 10-50 AU will survive interactions in the cluster environment, and therefore are more representative of the natal population of multiple systems. By fitting a double-star PSF, we will identify visual binaries in the Orion Nebula with separations as small as 0.03. At the distance of Orion, this corresponds to a physical separation of 12 AU, effectively closing the observational gap in the binary separation distribution left between known visual and spectroscopic binaries (>65 AU or PhD thesis.
Origin of very-short orbital-period binary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyaji, S.
1983-01-01
Recent observations of four close binaries have established that there is a group of very-short orbital-period (VSOP) binaries whose orbital periods are less than 60 minutes. The VSOP binaries consist of both X-ray close binaries and cataclysmic variables. Their orbital periods are too short to have a main-sequence companion. However, four binaries, none of which belongs to any globular cluster, are too abundant to be explained by the capturing mechanism of a white dwarf. Therefore it seemed to be worthwhile to present an evolutionary scenario from an original binary system which can be applied for all VSOP binaries. (Auth.)
Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.
2013-01-01
Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.
Binary model for the coma cluster of galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valtonen, M.J.; Byrd, G.G.
1979-01-01
We study the dynamics of galaxies in the Coma cluster and find that the cluster is probably dominated by a central binary of galaxies NGC 4874--NGC4889. We estimate their total mass to be about 3 x 10 14 M/sub sun/ by two independent methods (assuming in Hubble constant of 100 km s -1 Mpc -1 ). This binary is efficient in dynamically ejecting smaller galaxies, some of of which are seen in projection against the inner 3 0 radius of the cluster and which, if erroneously considered as bound members, cause a serious overestimate of the mass of the entire cluster. Taking account of the ejected galaxies, we estimate the total cluster mass to be 4--9 x 10 14 M/sub sun/, with a corresponding mass-to-light ratio for a typical galaxy in the range of 20--120 solar units. The origin of the secondary maximum observed in the radial surface density profile is studied. We consider it to be a remnant of a shell of galaxies which formed around the central binary. This shell expanded, then collapsed into the binary, and is now reexpanding. This is supported by the coincidence of the minimum in the cluster eccentricity and radical velocity dispersion at the same radial distance as the secondary maximum. Numerical simulations of a cluster model with a massive central binary and a spherical shell of test particles are performed, and they reproduce the observed shape, galaxy density, and radial velocity distributions in the Coma cluster fairly well. Consequences of extending the model to other clusters are discussed
A ROSAT Survey of Contact Binary Stars
Geske, M. T.; Gettel, S. J.; McKay, T. A.
2006-01-01
Contact binary stars are common variable stars that are all believed to emit relatively large fluxes of X-rays. In this work we combine a large new sample of contact binary stars derived from the ROTSE-I telescope with X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) to estimate the X-ray volume emissivity of contact binary stars in the Galaxy. We obtained X-ray fluxes for 140 contact binaries from the RASS, as well as two additional stars observed by the XMM-Newton observatory. From these data we confirm the emission of X-rays from all contact binary systems, with typical luminosities of approximately 1.0×1030 ergs s-1. Combining calculated luminosities with an estimated contact binary space density, we find that contact binaries do not have strong enough X-ray emission to account for a significant portion of the Galactic X-ray background.
Shi, Yu; Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie
2018-04-01
The motion of a massless particle in the gravity of a binary asteroid system, referred as the restricted full three-body problem (RF3BP), is fundamental, not only for the evolution of the binary system, but also for the design of relevant space missions. In this paper, equilibrium points and associated periodic orbit families in the gravity of a binary system are investigated, with the binary (66391) 1999 KW4 as an example. The polyhedron shape model is used to describe irregular shapes and corresponding gravity fields of the primary and secondary of (66391) 1999 KW4, which is more accurate than the ellipsoid shape model in previous studies and provides a high-fidelity representation of the gravitational environment. Both of the synchronous and non-synchronous states of the binary system are considered. For the synchronous binary system, the equilibrium points and their stability are determined, and periodic orbit families emanating from each equilibrium point are generated by using the shooting (multiple shooting) method and the homotopy method, where the homotopy function connects the circular restricted three-body problem and RF3BP. In the non-synchronous binary system, trajectories of equivalent equilibrium points are calculated, and the associated periodic orbits are obtained by using the homotopy method, where the homotopy function connects the synchronous and non-synchronous systems. Although only the binary (66391) 1999 KW4 is considered, our methods will also be well applicable to other binary systems with polyhedron shape data. Our results on equilibrium points and associated periodic orbits provide general insights into the dynamical environment and orbital behaviors in proximity of small binary asteroids and enable the trajectory design and mission operations in future binary system explorations.
GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE
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Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad (Pakistan)
2015-09-10
Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.
GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood
2015-01-01
Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy
Hidden slow pulsars in binaries
Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh
1993-01-01
The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.
Ffuzz: Towards full system high coverage fuzz testing on binary executables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Zhang
Full Text Available Bugs and vulnerabilities in binary executables threaten cyber security. Current discovery methods, like fuzz testing, symbolic execution and manual analysis, both have advantages and disadvantages when exercising the deeper code area in binary executables to find more bugs. In this paper, we designed and implemented a hybrid automatic bug finding tool-Ffuzz-on top of fuzz testing and selective symbolic execution. It targets full system software stack testing including both the user space and kernel space. Combining these two mainstream techniques enables us to achieve higher coverage and avoid getting stuck both in fuzz testing and symbolic execution. We also proposed two key optimizations to improve the efficiency of full system testing. We evaluated the efficiency and effectiveness of our method on real-world binary software and 844 memory corruption vulnerable programs in the Juliet test suite. The results show that Ffuzz can discover software bugs in the full system software stack effectively and efficiently.
Ffuzz: Towards full system high coverage fuzz testing on binary executables.
Zhang, Bin; Ye, Jiaxi; Bi, Xing; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing
2018-01-01
Bugs and vulnerabilities in binary executables threaten cyber security. Current discovery methods, like fuzz testing, symbolic execution and manual analysis, both have advantages and disadvantages when exercising the deeper code area in binary executables to find more bugs. In this paper, we designed and implemented a hybrid automatic bug finding tool-Ffuzz-on top of fuzz testing and selective symbolic execution. It targets full system software stack testing including both the user space and kernel space. Combining these two mainstream techniques enables us to achieve higher coverage and avoid getting stuck both in fuzz testing and symbolic execution. We also proposed two key optimizations to improve the efficiency of full system testing. We evaluated the efficiency and effectiveness of our method on real-world binary software and 844 memory corruption vulnerable programs in the Juliet test suite. The results show that Ffuzz can discover software bugs in the full system software stack effectively and efficiently.
Pablos Martin, X; Deltenre, P; Hoonhorst, I; Markessis, E; Rossion, B; Colin, C
2007-12-01
Rhythm perception appears to be non-linear as human subjects are better at discriminating, categorizing and reproducing rhythms containing binary vs non-binary (e.a. 1:2 vs 1:3) as well as metrical vs non-metrical (e.a. 1:2 vs 1:2.5) interval ratios. This study examined the representation of binary and non-binary interval ratios within the sensory memory, thus yielding a truly sensory, pre-motor, attention-independent neural representation of rhythmical intervals. Five interval ratios, one binary, flanked by four non-binary ones, were compared on the basis of the MMN they evoked when contrasted against a common standard interval. For all five intervals, the larger the contrast was, the larger the MMN amplitude was. The binary interval evoked a significantly much shorter (by at least 23 ms) MMN latency than the other intervals, whereas no latency difference was observed between the four non-binary intervals. These results show that the privileged perceptual status of binary rhythmical intervals is already present in the sensory representations found in echoic memory at an early, automatic, pre-perceptual and pre-motor level. MMN latency can be used to study rhythm perception at a truly sensory level, without any contribution from the motor system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prodan, Snezana; Antonini, Fabio; Perets, Hagai B.
2015-01-01
Here we discuss the evolution of binaries around massive black holes (MBHs) in nuclear stellar clusters. We focus on their secular evolution due to the perturbation by the MBHs, while simplistically accounting for their collisional evolution. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbits around MBHs are strongly affected by secular processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (e.g., Kozai-Lidov cycles). During periapsis approach, dissipative processes such as tidal friction may become highly efficient, and may lead to shrinkage of a binary orbit and even to its merger. Binaries in this environment can therefore significantly change their orbital evolution due to the MBH third-body perturbative effects. Such orbital evolution may impinge on their later stellar evolution. Here we follow the secular dynamics of such binaries and its coupling to tidal evolution, as well as the stellar evolution of such binaries on longer timescales. We find that stellar binaries in the central parts of nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are highly likely to evolve into eccentric and/or short-period binaries, and become strongly interacting binaries either on the main sequence (at which point they may even merge), or through their later binary stellar evolution. The central parts of NSCs therefore catalyze the formation and evolution of strongly interacting binaries, and lead to the enhanced formation of blue stragglers, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and possible supernova progenitors. Induced mergers/collisions may also lead to the formation of G2-like cloud-like objects such as the one recently observed in the Galactic center
An enhanced component connection method for conversion of fault trees to binary decision diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remenyte-Prescott, R.; Andrews, J.D.
2008-01-01
Fault tree analysis (FTA) is widely applied to assess the failure probability of industrial systems. Many computer packages are available, which are based on conventional kinetic tree theory methods. When dealing with large (possibly non-coherent) fault trees, the limitations of the technique in terms of accuracy of the solutions and the efficiency of the processing time become apparent. Over recent years, the binary decision diagram (BDD) method has been developed that solves fault trees and overcomes the disadvantages of the conventional FTA approach. First of all, a fault tree for a particular system failure mode is constructed and then converted to a BDD for analysis. This paper analyses alternative methods for the fault tree to BDD conversion process. For most fault tree to BDD conversion approaches, the basic events of the fault tree are placed in an ordering. This can dramatically affect the size of the final BDD and the success of qualitative and quantitative analyses of the system. A set of rules is then applied to each gate in the fault tree to generate the BDD. An alternative approach can also be used, where BDD constructs for each of the gate types are first built and then merged to represent a parent gate. A powerful and efficient property, sub-node sharing, is also incorporated in the enhanced method proposed in this paper. Finally, a combined approach is developed taking the best features of the alternative methods. The efficiency of the techniques is analysed and discussed
Nelemans, G.
2013-01-01
I review what eLISA will see from Galactic binaries -- double stars with orbital periods less than a few hours and white dwarf (or neutron star/black hole) components. I discuss the currently known binaries that are guaranteed (or verification) sources and explain why the expected total number of eLISA Galactic binaries is several thousand, even though there are large uncertainties in our knowledge of this population, in particular that of the interacting AM CVn systems. I very briefly sketch...
Numerical Simulations of Wind Accretion in Symbiotic Binaries
de Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.
2009-08-01
About half of the binary systems are close enough to each other for mass to be exchanged between them at some point in their evolution, yet the accretion mechanism in wind accreting binaries is not well understood. We study the dynamical effects of gravitational focusing by a binary companion on winds from late-type stars. In particular, we investigate the mass transfer and formation of accretion disks around the secondary in detached systems consisting of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) mass-losing star and an accreting companion. The presence of mass outflows is studied as a function of mass-loss rate, wind temperature, and binary orbital parameters. A two-dimensional hydrodynamical model is used to study the stability of mass transfer in wind accreting symbiotic binary systems. In our simulations we use an adiabatic equation of state and a modified version of the isothermal approximation, where the temperature depends on the distance from the mass losing star and its companion. The code uses a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement method that allows us to have high resolution at the position of the secondary and resolve the formation of bow shocks and accretion disks. We explore the accretion flow between the components and formation of accretion disks for a range of orbital separations and wind parameters. Our results show the formation of stream flow between the stars and accretion disks of various sizes for certain orbital configurations. For a typical slow and massive wind from an AGB star the flow pattern is similar to a Roche lobe overflow with accretion rates of 10% of the mass loss from the primary. Stable disks with exponentially decreasing density profiles and masses of the order 10-4 solar masses are formed when wind acceleration occurs at several stellar radii. The disks are geometrically thin with eccentric streamlines and close to Keplerian velocity profiles. The formation of tidal streams and accretion disks is found to be weakly dependent on
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF WIND ACCRETION IN SYMBIOTIC BINARIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.
2009-01-01
About half of the binary systems are close enough to each other for mass to be exchanged between them at some point in their evolution, yet the accretion mechanism in wind accreting binaries is not well understood. We study the dynamical effects of gravitational focusing by a binary companion on winds from late-type stars. In particular, we investigate the mass transfer and formation of accretion disks around the secondary in detached systems consisting of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) mass-losing star and an accreting companion. The presence of mass outflows is studied as a function of mass-loss rate, wind temperature, and binary orbital parameters. A two-dimensional hydrodynamical model is used to study the stability of mass transfer in wind accreting symbiotic binary systems. In our simulations we use an adiabatic equation of state and a modified version of the isothermal approximation, where the temperature depends on the distance from the mass losing star and its companion. The code uses a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement method that allows us to have high resolution at the position of the secondary and resolve the formation of bow shocks and accretion disks. We explore the accretion flow between the components and formation of accretion disks for a range of orbital separations and wind parameters. Our results show the formation of stream flow between the stars and accretion disks of various sizes for certain orbital configurations. For a typical slow and massive wind from an AGB star the flow pattern is similar to a Roche lobe overflow with accretion rates of 10% of the mass loss from the primary. Stable disks with exponentially decreasing density profiles and masses of the order 10 -4 solar masses are formed when wind acceleration occurs at several stellar radii. The disks are geometrically thin with eccentric streamlines and close to Keplerian velocity profiles. The formation of tidal streams and accretion disks is found to be weakly dependent
The origin of the RS CVn binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biermann, P.
1976-01-01
Six possible origins for the RS CVn binaries are considered based on the following possibilities. RS CVn binaries might now be either pre-main-sequence or post-main-sequence. A pre-main-sequence binary might not always have been a binary but might have resulted from fission of a rapidly rotating single pre-main-sequence star. The main-sequence counterparts might be either single stars or binaries. To decide which of the six origins is possible, the following observed data for the RS CVn binaries are considered: total mass, total angular momentum, lack of observed connection with regions of star formation, large space density, kinematical age, and the visual companion of WW Dra. In addition lifetimes and space densities of single stars and other types of binaries are considered. The only origin possible is that the RS CVn binaries are in a thermal phase following fission of a main-sequence single star. In this explanation the single star had a rapidly rotating core which became unstable due to the core contraction which made it begin to evolve off the main sequence. The present Be stars might be examples of such parent single stars. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.
1982-01-01
The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru
A parallel algorithm for filtering gravitational waves from coalescing binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sathyaprakash, B.S.; Dhurandhar, S.V.
1992-10-01
Coalescing binary stars are perhaps the most promising sources for the observation of gravitational waves with laser interferometric gravity wave detectors. The waveform from these sources can be predicted with sufficient accuracy for matched filtering techniques to be applied. In this paper we present a parallel algorithm for detecting signals from coalescing compact binaries by the method of matched filtering. We also report the details of its implementation on a 256-node connection machine consisting of a network of transputers. The results of our analysis indicate that parallel processing is a promising approach to on-line analysis of data from gravitational wave detectors to filter out coalescing binary signals. The algorithm described is quite general in that the kernel of the algorithm is applicable to any set of matched filters. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs
A PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE ALGOL-TYPE BINARY FG Gem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, J.; Qian, S.-B.
2013-01-01
High-quality three-color light curves of the binary FG Gem were measured and analyzed. A new method based on extensive searching of isochrones was used to investigate possible parameters for the binary. FG Gem is found to be an Algol-type semi-detached binary system with a primary star temperature of 8200 K and a mass ratio of 0.41(1). The correctness and reliability of our result requires the verification of precision spectroscopy or standard star observations. We investigate a new possible cause for the orbital period variations based on times of minimum light data. It is suggested from the quantitative analysis that variations in the orbital period can be explained by intermittent mass transfer and angular momentum loss from stellar winds leaving the system on rotating magnetic fields.
Thermodynamic equilibrium of hydroxyacetic acid in pure and binary solvent systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Qiaoyin; Xie, Chuang; Li, Yang; Su, Nannan; Lou, Yajing; Hu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yongli; Bao, Ying; Hou, Baohong
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Solubility of hydroxyacetic acid in mono-solvents and binary solvent mixtures was measured. • Modified Apelblat, NRTL and Wilson model were used to correlate the solubility data in pure solvents. • CNIBS/R-K and Jouyban-Acree model were used to correlate the solubility in binary solvent mixtures. • The mixing properties were calculated based on the NRTL model. - Abstract: The solubility of hydroxyacetic acid in five pure organic solvents and two binary solvent mixtures were experimentally measured from 273.15 K to 313.15 K at atmospheric pressure (p = 0.1 MPa) by using a dynamic method. The order of solubility in pure organic solvents is ethanol > isopropanol > n-butanol > acetonitrile > ethyl acetate within the investigated temperature range, except for temperature lower than 278 K where the solubility of HA in ethyl acetate is slightly larger than that in acetonitrile. Furthermore, the solubility data in pure solvents were correlated with the modified Apelblat model, NRTL model, and Wilson model and that in the binary solvents mixtures were fitted to the CNIBS/R-K model and Jouyban-Acree model. Finally, the mixing thermodynamic properties of hydroxyacetic acid in pure and binary solvent systems were calculated and discussed.
Massive binaries in the vicinity of Sgr A*
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pfuhl, O.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Fritz, T. K.; Ott, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Alexander, T. [Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Martins, F., E-mail: pfuhl@mpe.mpg.de [LUPM, Université Montpelier 2, CNRS, Place Eugéne Bataillon, F-34095, Montpellier (France)
2014-02-20
A long-term spectroscopic and photometric survey of the most luminous and massive stars in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* revealed two new binaries: a long-period Ofpe/WN9 binary, IRS 16NE, with a modest eccentricity of 0.3 and a period of 224 days, and an eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary with a period of 2.3 days. Together with the already identified binary IRS 16SW, there are now three confirmed OB/WR binaries in the inner 0.2 pc of the Galactic center. Using radial velocity change upper limits, we were able to constrain the spectroscopic binary fraction in the Galactic center to F{sub SB}=0.30{sub −0.21}{sup +0.34} at a confidence level of 95%, a massive binary fraction close to that observed in dense clusters. The fraction of eclipsing binaries with photometric amplitudes Δm > 0.4 is F{sub EB}{sup GC}=3%±2%, which is consistent with local OB star clusters (F {sub EB} = 1%). Overall, the Galactic center binary fraction seems to be similar to the binary fraction in comparable young clusters.
EVOLUTION OF THE BINARY FRACTION IN DENSE STELLAR SYSTEMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fregeau, John M.; Ivanova, Natalia; Rasio, Frederic A.
2009-01-01
Using our recently improved Monte Carlo evolution code, we study the evolution of the binary fraction in globular clusters. In agreement with previous N-body simulations, we find generally that the hard binary fraction in the core tends to increase with time over a range of initial cluster central densities for initial binary fractions ∼<90%. The dominant processes driving the evolution of the core binary fraction are mass segregation of binaries into the cluster core and preferential destruction of binaries there. On a global scale, these effects and the preferential tidal stripping of single stars tend to roughly balance, leading to overall cluster binary fractions that are roughly constant with time. Our findings suggest that the current hard binary fraction near the half-mass radius is a good indicator of the hard primordial binary fraction. However, the relationship between the true binary fraction and the fraction of main-sequence stars in binaries (which is typically what observers measure) is nonlinear and rather complicated. We also consider the importance of soft binaries, which not only modify the evolution of the binary fraction, but can also drastically change the evolution of the cluster as a whole. Finally, we briefly describe the recent addition of single and binary stellar evolution to our cluster evolution code.
Quantifying relative importance: Computing standardized effects in models with binary outcomes
Grace, James B.; Johnson, Darren; Lefcheck, Jonathan S.; Byrnes, Jarrett E.K.
2018-01-01
Scientists commonly ask questions about the relative importances of processes, and then turn to statistical models for answers. Standardized coefficients are typically used in such situations, with the goal being to compare effects on a common scale. Traditional approaches to obtaining standardized coefficients were developed with idealized Gaussian variables in mind. When responses are binary, complications arise that impact standardization methods. In this paper, we review, evaluate, and propose new methods for standardizing coefficients from models that contain binary outcomes. We first consider the interpretability of unstandardized coefficients and then examine two main approaches to standardization. One approach, which we refer to as the Latent-Theoretical or LT method, assumes that underlying binary observations there exists a latent, continuous propensity linearly related to the coefficients. A second approach, which we refer to as the Observed-Empirical or OE method, assumes responses are purely discrete and estimates error variance empirically via reference to a classical R2 estimator. We also evaluate the standard formula for calculating standardized coefficients based on standard deviations. Criticisms of this practice have been persistent, leading us to propose an alternative formula that is based on user-defined “relevant ranges”. Finally, we implement all of the above in an open-source package for the statistical software R.
Pashaei, Elnaz; Pashaei, Elham; Aydin, Nizamettin
2018-04-14
In cancer classification, gene selection is an important data preprocessing technique, but it is a difficult task due to the large search space. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to develop a hybrid meta-heuristic Binary Black Hole Algorithm (BBHA) and Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) (4-2) model that emphasizes gene selection. In this model, the BBHA is embedded in the BPSO (4-2) algorithm to make the BPSO (4-2) more effective and to facilitate the exploration and exploitation of the BPSO (4-2) algorithm to further improve the performance. This model has been associated with Random Forest Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) pre-filtering technique. The classifiers which are evaluated in the proposed framework are Sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (SPLSDA); k-nearest neighbor and Naive Bayes. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on two benchmark and three clinical microarrays. The experimental results and statistical analysis confirm the better performance of the BPSO (4-2)-BBHA compared with the BBHA, the BPSO (4-2) and several state-of-the-art methods in terms of avoiding local minima, convergence rate, accuracy and number of selected genes. The results also show that the BPSO (4-2)-BBHA model can successfully identify known biologically and statistically significant genes from the clinical datasets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gokcen, N.A.
1982-01-01
The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities
Use of isoconcentrational phase diagrams for prediction of amorphization of binary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarev, A.I.; Belashchenko, D.K.
1992-01-01
Based on the application of isoconcentrational diagrams of phase equilibria of liquid with solid solutions of various crystal structures the thermodynamic method was considered for prediction of concentration ranges of amorphization in binary systems.To confirm the applicability of the thermodynamic criterion in practice caclulations of phase diagrams were accomplished for complex binary eutectic systems (Hf-Be, Zr-Be) with the known concentration ranges of amorphization
All-optical conversion scheme: Binary to quaternary and quaternary to binary number
Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath
2009-04-01
To achieve the inherent parallelism in optics a suitable number system and efficient encoding/decoding scheme for handling the data are very much essential. Binary number is accepted as the best representing number system in almost all types of existing electronic computers. But, binary number (0 and 1) is insufficient in respect to the demand of the coming generation. Multi-valued logic (with radix >2) can be viewed as an alternative approach to solve many problems in transmission, storage and processing of large amount of information in digital signal processing. Here, in this paper all-optical scheme for the conversion of binary to quaternary number and vice versa have been proposed and described. Simulation has also been done. In this all-optical scheme the numbers are represented by different discrete polarized state of light.
Segregation of granular binary mixtures by a ratchet mechanism.
Farkas, Zénó; Szalai, Ferenc; Wolf, Dietrich E; Vicsek, Tamás
2002-02-01
We report on a segregation scheme for granular binary mixtures, where the segregation is performed by a ratchet mechanism realized by a vertically shaken asymmetric sawtooth-shaped base in a quasi-two-dimensional box. We have studied this system by computer simulations and found that most binary mixtures can be segregated using an appropriately chosen ratchet, even when the particles in the two components have the same size and differ only in their normal restitution coefficient or friction coefficient. These results suggest that the components of otherwise nonsegregating granular mixtures may be separated using our method.
Many-Body Potentials For Binary Immiscible liquid Metal Alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karaguelle, H.
2004-01-01
The modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type many- body potentials have been constructed for three binary liquid immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Ag- Cu. The MAEAM potential functions are fitted to both solid and liquid state properties for only liquid pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM effective potentials, partial structure factors and pair distribution functions of these binary liquid metal alloys have been calculated using the thermodynamically self-consistent variational modified hypernetted chain (VMHNC) theory of liquids. A good agreement with the available experimental data for structure has
COSMIC probes into compact binary formation and evolution
Breivik, Katelyn
2018-01-01
The population of compact binaries in the galaxy represents the final state of all binaries that have lived up to the present epoch. Compact binaries present a unique opportunity to probe binary evolution since many of the interactions binaries experience can be imprinted on the compact binary population. By combining binary evolution simulations with catalogs of observable compact binary systems, we can distill the dominant physical processes that govern binary star evolution, as well as predict the abundance and variety of their end products.The next decades herald a previously unseen opportunity to study compact binaries. Multi-messenger observations from telescopes across all wavelengths and gravitational-wave observatories spanning several decades of frequency will give an unprecedented view into the structure of these systems and the composition of their components. Observations will not always be coincident and in some cases may be separated by several years, providing an avenue for simulations to better constrain binary evolution models in preparation for future observations.I will present the results of three population synthesis studies of compact binary populations carried out with the Compact Object Synthesis and Monte Carlo Investigation Code (COSMIC). I will first show how binary-black-hole formation channels can be understood with LISA observations. I will then show how the population of double white dwarfs observed with LISA and Gaia could provide a detailed view of mass transfer and accretion. Finally, I will show that Gaia could discover thousands black holes in the Milky Way through astrometric observations, yielding view into black-hole astrophysics that is complementary to and independent from both X-ray and gravitational-wave astronomy.
Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego
2014-09-01
The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego
2014-01-01
The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information. (paper)
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Wide binaries in Tycho-Gaia: search method (Andrews+, 2017)
Andrews, J. J.; Chaname, J.; Agueros, M. A.
2017-11-01
Our catalogue of wide binaries identified in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution catalogue. The Gaia source IDs, Tycho IDs, astrometry, posterior probabilities for both the log-flat prior and power-law prior models, and angular separation are presented. (1 data file).
Improving geothermal power plants with a binary cycle
Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.
2015-12-01
The recent development of binary geothermal technology is analyzed. General trends in the introduction of low-temperature geothermal sources are summarized. The use of single-phase low-temperature geothermal fluids in binary power plants proves possible and expedient. The benefits of power plants with a binary cycle in comparison with traditional systems are shown. The selection of the working fluid is considered, and the influence of the fluid's physicochemical properties on the design of the binary power plant is discussed. The design of binary power plants is based on the chemical composition and energy potential of the geothermal fluids and on the landscape and climatic conditions at the intended location. Experience in developing a prototype 2.5 MW Russian binary power unit at Pauzhetka geothermal power plant (Kamchatka) is outlined. Most binary systems are designed individually for a specific location. Means of improving the technology and equipment at binary geothermal power plants are identified. One option is the development of modular systems based on several binary systems that employ the heat from the working fluid at different temperatures.
Spectrophotometric determination of rare earths in binary mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnova, A.V.; Shvarev, V.S.
1978-01-01
The possibility was investigated of using the reaction with brompyrogallol red (BPR) (dibrompyrogallosulfophthalein) for analyzing binary mixtures of rare earth metals close in ordinal numbers (La-Y, La-Eu, La-Sm, La-Nd, Nd-Y, Nd-Eu). Heavy REM are masked by nitrile-acetic acid (NAA). The experimental design method was used to determine optimum conditions. The optimizing parameters were the optical density measured with respect to water and the amount of the component bound into the complex. It was found that optimum conditions for the analysis of investigated mixtures differ only in the amount of NAA necessary to mask the heavy element [NAA]/[Sm 3+ ]=4; [NAA]/[Eu 3+ ]=5; [NAA]/Nb 3+ ]=10; [NAA]/[Y 3+ ]=2.5. The optimum acidity and the amount of BPR are always the same: pH 6.5; [BPR]/[La 3+ ]=[BPR]/[Nd 3+ ]=4. The given method for analyzing binary mixtures of lanthanoids surpasses considerably in sensitivity the methods based on intrinsic absorption spectra, while retaining the same reproducibility
Topological and categorical properties of binary trees
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H. Pajoohesh
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Binary trees are very useful tools in computer science for estimating the running time of so-called comparison based algorithms, algorithms in which every action is ultimately based on a prior comparison between two elements. For two given algorithms A and B where the decision tree of A is more balanced than that of B, it is known that the average and worst case times of A will be better than those of B, i.e., ₸A(n ≤₸B(n and TWA (n≤TWB (n. Thus the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees play a main role. Here we consider them as semilattices and characterize the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees by topological and categorical properties. Also we define the composition of binary trees as a commutative binary operation, *, such that for binary trees A and B, A * B is the binary tree obtained by attaching a copy of B to any leaf of A. We show that (T,* is a commutative po-monoid and investigate its properties.
Optimally cloned binary coherent states
Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.
2017-10-01
Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.
A biclustering algorithm for binary matrices based on penalized Bernoulli likelihood
Lee, Seokho; Huang, Jianhua Z.
2013-01-01
We propose a new biclustering method for binary data matrices using the maximum penalized Bernoulli likelihood estimation. Our method applies a multi-layer model defined on the logits of the success probabilities, where each layer represents a
Gravitational Radiation from Post-Newtonian Sources and Inspiralling Compact Binaries
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Luc Blanchet
2014-02-01
Full Text Available To be observed and analyzed by the network of gravitational wave detectors on ground (LIGO, VIRGO, etc. and by the future detectors in space (eLISA, etc., inspiralling compact binaries -- binary star systems composed of neutron stars and/or black holes in their late stage of evolution -- require high-accuracy templates predicted by general relativity theory. The gravitational waves emitted by these very relativistic systems can be accurately modelled using a high-order post-Newtonian gravitational wave generation formalism. In this article, we present the current state of the art on post-Newtonian methods as applied to the dynamics and gravitational radiation of general matter sources (including the radiation reaction back onto the source and inspiralling compact binaries. We describe the post-Newtonian equations of motion of compact binaries and the associated Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, paying attention to the self-field regularizations at work in the calculations. Several notions of innermost circular orbits are discussed. We estimate the accuracy of the post-Newtonian approximation and make a comparison with numerical computations of the gravitational self-force for compact binaries in the small mass ratio limit. The gravitational waveform and energy flux are obtained to high post-Newtonian order and the binary's orbital phase evolution is deduced from an energy balance argument. Some landmark results are given in the case of eccentric compact binaries -- moving on quasi-elliptical orbits with non-negligible eccentricity. The spins of the two black holes play an important role in the definition of the gravitational wave templates. We investigate their imprint on the equations of motion and gravitational wave phasing up to high post-Newtonian order (restricting to spin-orbit effects which are linear in spins, and analyze the post-Newtonian spin precession equations as well as the induced precession of the orbital plane.
Binaries and triples among asteroid pairs
Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián
2015-08-01
Despite major achievements obtained during the past two decades, our knowledge of the population and properties of small binary and multiple asteroid systems is still far from advanced. There is a numerous indirect evidence for that most small asteroid systems were formed by rotational fission of cohesionless parent asteroids that were spun up to the critical frequency presumably by YORP, but details of the process are lacking. Furthermore, as we proceed with observations of more and more binary and paired asteroids, we reveal new facts that substantially refine and sometimes change our understanding of the asteroid systems. One significant new finding we have recently obtained is that primaries of many asteroid pairs are actually binary or triple systems. The first such case found is (3749) Balam (Vokrouhlický, ApJL 706, L37, 2009). We have found 9 more binary systems among asteroid pairs within our ongoing NEOSource photometric project since October 2012. They are (6369) 1983 UC, (8306) Shoko, (9783) Tensho-kan, (10123) Fideoja, (21436) Chaoyichi, (43008) 1999 UD31, (44620) 1999 RS43, (46829) 1998 OS14 and (80218) 1999 VO123. We will review their characteristics. These paired binaries as we call them are mostly similar to binaries in the general ("background") population (of unpaired asteroids), but there are a few trends. The paired binaries tend to have larger secondaries with D_2/D_1 = 0.3 to 0.5 and they also tend to be wider systems with 8 of the 10 having orbital periods between 30 and 81 hours, than average among binaries in the general population. There may be also a larger fraction of triples; (3749) Balam is a confirmed triple, having a larger close and a smaller distant satellite, and (8306) Shoko and (10123) Fideoja are suspect triples as they show additional rotational lightcurve components with periods of 61 and 38.8 h that differ from the orbital period of 36.2 and 56.5 h, respectively. The unbound secondaries tend to be of the same size or
Detecting Malicious Code by Binary File Checking
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Marius POPA
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The object, library and executable code is stored in binary files. Functionality of a binary file is altered when its content or program source code is changed, causing undesired effects. A direct content change is possible when the intruder knows the structural information of the binary file. The paper describes the structural properties of the binary object files, how the content can be controlled by a possible intruder and what the ways to identify malicious code in such kind of files. Because the object files are inputs in linking processes, early detection of the malicious content is crucial to avoid infection of the binary executable files.
Visualizing, Approximating, and Understanding Black-Hole Binaries
Nichols, David A.
Numerical-relativity simulations of black-hole binaries and advancements in gravitational-wave detectors now make it possible to learn more about the collisions of compact astrophysical bodies. To be able to infer more about the dynamical behavior of these objects requires a fuller analysis of the connection between the dynamics of pairs of black holes and their emitted gravitational waves. The chapters of this thesis describe three approaches to learn more about the relationship between the dynamics of black-hole binaries and their gravitational waves: modeling momentum flow in binaries with the Landau-Lifshitz formalism, approximating binary dynamics near the time of merger with post-Newtonian and black-hole-perturbation theories, and visualizing spacetime curvature with tidal tendexes and frame-drag vortexes. In Chapters 2--4, my collaborators and I present a method to quantify the flow of momentum in black-hole binaries using the Landau-Lifshitz formalism. Chapter 2 reviews an intuitive version of the formalism in the first-post-Newtonian approximation that bears a strong resemblance to Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism. Chapter 3 applies this approximation to relate the simultaneous bobbing motion of rotating black holes in the superkick configuration---equal-mass black holes with their spins anti-aligned and in the orbital plane---to the flow of momentum in the spacetime, prior to the black holes' merger. Chapter 4 then uses the Landau-Lifshitz formalism to explain the dynamics of a head-on merger of spinning black holes, whose spins are anti-aligned and transverse to the infalling motion. Before they merge, the black holes move with a large, transverse, velocity, which we can explain using the post-Newtonian approximation; as the holes merge and form a single black hole, we can use the Landau-Lifshitz formalism without any approximations to connect the slowing of the final black hole to its absorbing momentum density during the merger. In Chapters 5
Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries
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Mohamed S.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.
RADIAL VELOCITY STUDIES OF CLOSE BINARY STARS. XIV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pribulla, Theodor; Rucinski, Slavek M.; DeBond, Heide; De Ridder, Archie; Karmo, Toomas; Thomson, J. R.; Croll, Bryce; Ogloza, Waldemar; Pilecki, Bogumil; Siwak, Michal
2009-01-01
Radial velocity (RV) measurements and sine curve fits to the orbital RV variations are presented for 10 close binary systems: TZ Boo, VW Boo, EL Boo, VZ CVn, GK Cep, RW Com, V2610 Oph, V1387 Ori, AU Ser, and FT UMa. Our spectroscopy revealed two quadruple systems, TZ Boo and V2610 Oph, while three stars showing small photometric amplitudes, EL Boo, V1387 Ori, and FT UMa, were found to be triple systems. GK Cep is a close binary with a faint third component. While most of the studied eclipsing systems are contact binaries, VZ CVn and GK Cep are detached or semidetached double-lined binaries, and EL Boo, V1387 Ori, and FT UMa are close binaries of uncertain binary type. The large fraction of triple and quadruple systems found in this sample supports the hypothesis of formation of close binaries in multiple stellar systems; it also demonstrates that low photometric amplitude binaries are a fertile ground for further discoveries of multiple systems.
Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson
2012-01-01
We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.
Simulating merging binary black holes with nearly extremal spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela
2011-01-01
Astrophysically realistic black holes may have spins that are nearly extremal (i.e., close to 1 in dimensionless units). Numerical simulations of binary black holes are important tools both for calibrating analytical templates for gravitational-wave detection and for exploring the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime. However, all previous simulations of binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown have been limited by an apparently insurmountable barrier: the merging holes' spins could not exceed 0.93, which is still a long way from the maximum possible value in terms of the physical effects of the spin. In this paper, we surpass this limit for the first time, opening the way to explore numerically the behavior of merging, nearly extremal black holes. Specifically, using an improved initial-data method suitable for binary black holes with nearly extremal spins, we simulate the inspiral (through 12.5 orbits), merger and ringdown of two equal-mass black holes with equal spins of magnitude 0.95 antialigned with the orbital angular momentum.
Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries.
Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto
2016-03-11
Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.
Measurement system analysis for binary inspection: Continuous versus dichotomous measurands
de Mast, J.; Erdmann, T.P.; van Wieringen, W.N.
2011-01-01
We review methods for assessing the reliability of binary measurements, such as accept/reject inspection in industry. Our framework introduces two factors that are highly relevant in deciding which method to use: (1) whether a reference value (gold standard) can be obtained and (2) whether the
Non-binary Entanglement-assisted Stabilizer Quantum Codes
Riguang, Leng; Zhi, Ma
2011-01-01
In this paper, we show how to construct non-binary entanglement-assisted stabilizer quantum codes by using pre-shared entanglement between the sender and receiver. We also give an algorithm to determine the circuit for non-binary entanglement-assisted stabilizer quantum codes and some illustrated examples. The codes we constructed do not require the dual-containing constraint, and many non-binary classical codes, like non-binary LDPC codes, which do not satisfy the condition, can be used to c...
Mesoscopic model for binary fluids
Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.
2017-10-01
We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
Evaluation of self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellison, T.L.
1977-10-01
The feasibility of calculating Wagner self-interaction parameters from binary phase diagrams was examined. The self-interaction parameters of 22 non-ferrous liquid solutions were calculated utilizing an equation based on the equality of the chemical potentials of a component in two equilibrium phases. Utilization of the equation requires the evaluation of the first and second derivatives of various liquidus and solidus data at infinite dilution of the solute component. Several numerical methods for evaluating the derivatives of tabular data were examined. A method involving power series curve fitting and subsequent differentiation of the power series was found to be the most suitable for the interaction parameter calculations. Comparison of the calculated self-interaction parameters with values obtained from thermodynamic measurements indicates that the Wagner self-interaction parameter can be successfully calculated from binary phase diagrams
Binary logistic regression-Instrument for assessing museum indoor air impact on exhibits.
Bucur, Elena; Danet, Andrei Florin; Lehr, Carol Blaziu; Lehr, Elena; Nita-Lazar, Mihai
2017-04-01
This paper presents a new way to assess the environmental impact on historical artifacts using binary logistic regression. The prediction of the impact on the exhibits during certain pollution scenarios (environmental impact) was calculated by a mathematical model based on the binary logistic regression; it allows the identification of those environmental parameters from a multitude of possible parameters with a significant impact on exhibitions and ranks them according to their severity effect. Air quality (NO 2 , SO 2 , O 3 and PM 2.5 ) and microclimate parameters (temperature, humidity) monitoring data from a case study conducted within exhibition and storage spaces of the Romanian National Aviation Museum Bucharest have been used for developing and validating the binary logistic regression method and the mathematical model. The logistic regression analysis was used on 794 data combinations (715 to develop of the model and 79 to validate it) by a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0). The results from the binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that from six parameters taken into consideration, four of them present a significant effect upon exhibits in the following order: O 3 >PM 2.5 >NO 2 >humidity followed at a significant distance by the effects of SO 2 and temperature. The mathematical model, developed in this study, correctly predicted 95.1 % of the cumulated effect of the environmental parameters upon the exhibits. Moreover, this model could also be used in the decisional process regarding the preventive preservation measures that should be implemented within the exhibition space. The paper presents a new way to assess the environmental impact on historical artifacts using binary logistic regression. The mathematical model developed on the environmental parameters analyzed by the binary logistic regression method could be useful in a decision-making process establishing the best measures for pollution reduction and preventive
CIRCUMBINARY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION INTO INSPIRALING BINARY BLACK HOLES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noble, Scott C.; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela; Zlochower, Yosef [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Krolik, Julian H. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yunes, Nicolas, E-mail: scn@astro.rit.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)
2012-08-10
We have simulated the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a circumbinary disk surrounding an equal-mass binary comprising two non-spinning black holes during the period in which the disk inflow time is comparable to the binary evolution time due to gravitational radiation. Both the changing spacetime and the binary orbital evolution are described by an innovative technique utilizing high-order post-Newtonian approximations. Prior to the beginning of the inspiral, the structure of the circumbinary disk is predicted well by extrapolation from Newtonian results: a gap of roughly two binary separation radii is cleared, and matter piles up at the outer edge of this gap as inflow is retarded by torques exerted by the binary; the accretion rate is roughly half its value at large radius. During inspiral, the inner edge of the disk initially moves inward in coordination with the shrinking binary, but-as the orbital evolution accelerates-the inward motion of the disk edge falls behind the rate of binary compression. In this stage, the binary torque falls substantially, but the accretion rate decreases by only 10%-20%. When the binary separation is tens of gravitational radii, the rest-mass efficiency of disk radiation is a few percent, suggesting that supermassive binary black holes could be very luminous at this stage of their evolution. Inner disk heating is modulated at a beat frequency comparable to the binary orbital frequency. However, a disk with sufficient surface density to be luminous may be optically thick, suppressing periodic modulation of the luminosity.
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
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Lorimer Duncan R.
2008-11-01
Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.
Observations of new Wolf-Rayet binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemela, V.S.
1982-01-01
The author reports here preliminary results of spectrographic observations for three southern WR stars, whose binary nature had not been previously verified: HDE 320102, CD -45 0 4482, HD 62910. The observations were carried out at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, mostly with the Cassegrain spectrograph with IT attached to the 1-m reflector. These spectrograms were secured on Kodak IIIaJ emulsion, and have a dispersion of 45 A/mm. The results suggest that HDE 320102 must be a double-lined 05-7 + WN3 spectroscopic binary, that CD -45 0 4482 appears to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary and that HD 62910 may be a binary. (Auth.)
Efficient and robust estimation for longitudinal mixed models for binary data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, René
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a longitudinal mixed model for binary data. The model extends the classical Poisson trick, in which a binomial regression is fitted by switching to a Poisson framework. A recent estimating equations method for generalized linear longitudinal mixed models, called GEEP, is used...... as a vehicle for fitting the conditional Poisson regressions, given a latent process of serial correlated Tweedie variables. The regression parameters are estimated using a quasi-score method, whereas the dispersion and correlation parameters are estimated by use of bias-corrected Pearson-type estimating...... equations, using second moments only. Random effects are predicted by BLUPs. The method provides a computationally efficient and robust approach to the estimation of longitudinal clustered binary data and accommodates linear and non-linear models. A simulation study is used for validation and finally...
Asteroseismic effects in close binary stars
Springer, Ofer M.; Shaviv, Nir J.
2013-09-01
Turbulent processes in the convective envelopes of the Sun and stars have been shown to be a source of internal acoustic excitations. In single stars, acoustic waves having frequencies below a certain cut-off frequency propagate nearly adiabatically and are effectively trapped below the photosphere where they are internally reflected. This reflection essentially occurs where the local wavelength becomes comparable to the pressure scale height. In close binary stars, the sound speed is a constant on equipotentials, while the pressure scale height, which depends on the local effective gravity, varies on equipotentials and may be much greater near the inner Lagrangian point (L1). As a result, waves reaching the vicinity of L1 may propagate unimpeded into low-density regions, where they tend to dissipate quickly due to non-linear and radiative effects. We study the three-dimensional propagation and enhanced damping of such waves inside a set of close binary stellar models using a WKB approximation of the acoustic field. We find that these waves can have much higher damping rates in close binaries, compared to their non-binary counterparts. We also find that the relative distribution of acoustic energy density at the visible surface of close binaries develops a ring-like feature at specific acoustic frequencies and binary separations.
Probabilistic seismic history matching using binary images
Davolio, Alessandra; Schiozer, Denis Jose
2018-02-01
Currently, the goal of history-matching procedures is not only to provide a model matching any observed data but also to generate multiple matched models to properly handle uncertainties. One such approach is a probabilistic history-matching methodology based on the discrete Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm, proposed in previous works, which was particularly efficient for matching well data (production rates and pressure). 4D seismic (4DS) data have been increasingly included into history-matching procedures. A key issue in seismic history matching (SHM) is to transfer data into a common domain: impedance, amplitude or pressure, and saturation. In any case, seismic inversions and/or modeling are required, which can be time consuming. An alternative to avoid these procedures is using binary images in SHM as they allow the shape, rather than the physical values, of observed anomalies to be matched. This work presents the incorporation of binary images in SHM within the aforementioned probabilistic history matching. The application was performed with real data from a segment of the Norne benchmark case that presents strong 4D anomalies, including softening signals due to pressure build up. The binary images are used to match the pressurized zones observed in time-lapse data. Three history matchings were conducted using: only well data, well and 4DS data, and only 4DS. The methodology is very flexible and successfully utilized the addition of binary images for seismic objective functions. Results proved the good convergence of the method in few iterations for all three cases. The matched models of the first two cases provided the best results, with similar well matching quality. The second case provided models presenting pore pressure changes according to the expected dynamic behavior (pressurized zones) observed on 4DS data. The use of binary images in SHM is relatively new with few examples in the literature. This work enriches this discussion by presenting a new
Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data
Serban, Nicoleta
2013-10-16
We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.
Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanso, Ali; Smaoui, Nejib
2009-01-01
Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.
Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.
Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing
2017-01-01
Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.
Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min Chul; Kim, You Seok; Kim, Taegeun
2015-02-09
In this paper, we present a three-dimensional holographic imaging system. The proposed approach records a complex hologram of a real object using optical scanning holography, converts the complex form to binary data, and then reconstructs the recorded hologram using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The conversion from the recorded hologram to a binary hologram is achieved using a direct binary search algorithm. We present experimental results that verify the efficacy of our approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a hologram of a real object has been reconstructed using a binary SLM.
Sesana, Alberto; Haardt, Francesco; Madau, Piero
2007-05-01
We study the long-term evolution of massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) at the centers of galaxies using detailed scattering experiments to solve the full three-body problem. Ambient stars drawn from an isotropic Maxwellian distribution unbound to the binary are ejected by the gravitational slingshot. We construct a minimal, hybrid model for the depletion of the loss cone and the orbital decay of the binary and show that secondary slingshots-stars returning on small-impact parameter orbits to have a second superelastic scattering with the MBHB-may considerably help the shrinking of the pair in the case of large binary mass ratios. In the absence of loss cone refilling by two-body relaxation or other processes, the mass ejected before the stalling of a MBHB is half the binary reduced mass. About 50% of the ejected stars are expelled in a ``burst'' lasting ~104 yr M1/46, where M6 is the binary mass in units of 106 Msolar. The loss cone is completely emptied in a few bulge crossing timescales, ~107 yr M1/46. Even in the absence of two-body relaxation or gas dynamical processes, unequal mass and/or eccentric binaries with M6>~0.1 can shrink to the gravitational wave emission regime in less than a Hubble time and are therefore ``safe'' targets for the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afkhami, Abbas; Nematollahi, Davood; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Abbasi-Tarighat, Maryam; Hajihadi, Mitra
2009-01-01
This work presents a simple, rapid, and novel method for simultaneous determination of binary mixtures of some surfactants using continuous wavelet transformation. The method is based on the difference in the effect of surfactants Cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB), dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) and TritonX-100 (TX-100) on the absorption spectra of complex of Beryllium with Chrome Azurol S (CAS) at pH 5.4. Binary mixtures of CTAB-DTAB, DTAB-CPB and CTAB-TX-100 were analyzed without prior separation steps. Different mother wavelets from the family of continuous wavelet transforms were selected and applied under the optimal conditions for simultaneous determinations. The proposed methods, under the working conditions, were successfully applied to simultaneous determination of surfactants in hair conditioner and mouthwash samples.
Renormalization group decimation technique for disordered binary harmonic chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiecko, C.; Roman, E.
1983-10-01
The density of states of disordered binary harmonic chains is calculated using the Renormalization Group Decimation technique on the displacements of the masses from their equilibrium positions. The results are compared with numerical simulation data and with those obtained with the current method of Goncalves da Silva and Koiller. The advantage of our procedure over other methods is discussed. (author)
Mesh Denoising based on Normal Voting Tensor and Binary Optimization.
Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Reitebuch, Ulrich; Polthier, Konrad
2017-08-17
This paper presents a two-stage mesh denoising algorithm. Unlike other traditional averaging approaches, our approach uses an element-based normal voting tensor to compute smooth surfaces. By introducing a binary optimization on the proposed tensor together with a local binary neighborhood concept, our algorithm better retains sharp features and produces smoother umbilical regions than previous approaches. On top of that, we provide a stochastic analysis on the different kinds of noise based on the average edge length. The quantitative results demonstrate that the performance of our method is better compared to state-of-the-art smoothing approaches.
Merger rate of primordial black-hole binaries
Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc
2017-12-01
Primordial black holes (PBHs) have long been a candidate for the elusive dark matter (DM), and remain poorly constrained in the ˜20 - 100 M⊙ mass range. PBH binaries were recently suggested as the possible source of LIGO's first detections. In this paper, we thoroughly revisit existing estimates of the merger rate of PBH binaries. We compute the probability distribution of orbital parameters for PBH binaries formed in the early Universe, accounting for tidal torquing by all other PBHs, as well as standard large-scale adiabatic perturbations. We then check whether the orbital parameters of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe can be significantly affected between formation and merger. Our analytic estimates indicate that the tidal field of halos and interactions with other PBHs, as well as dynamical friction by unbound standard DM particles, do not do significant work on nor torque PBH binaries. We estimate the torque due to baryon accretion to be much weaker than previous calculations, albeit possibly large enough to significantly affect the eccentricity of typical PBH binaries. We also revisit the PBH-binary merger rate resulting from gravitational capture in present-day halos, accounting for Poisson fluctuations. If binaries formed in the early Universe survive to the present time, as suggested by our analytic estimates, they dominate the total PBH merger rate. Moreover, this merger rate would be orders of magnitude larger than LIGO's current upper limits if PBHs make a significant fraction of the dark matter. As a consequence, LIGO would constrain ˜10 - 300 M⊙ PBHs to constitute no more than ˜1 % of the dark matter. To make this conclusion fully robust, though, numerical study of several complex astrophysical processes—such as the formation of the first PBH halos and how they may affect PBH binaries, as well as the accretion of gas onto an extremely eccentric binary—is needed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.V. Arun Shalin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Clustering is a process of grouping elements together, designed in such a way that the elements assigned to similar data points in a cluster are more comparable to each other than the remaining data points in a cluster. During clustering certain difficulties related when dealing with high dimensional data are ubiquitous and abundant. Works concentrated using anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces failed to address the problem related to dimensionality reduction during the inclusion of non-binary databases. In this work we study methods for dimensionality reduction for non-binary database. By analyzing the behavior of dimensionality reduction for non-binary database, results in performance improvement with the help of tag based feature. An effective multi-clustering anonymization approach called Discrete Component Task Specific Multi-Clustering (DCTSM is presented for dimensionality reduction on non-binary database. To start with we present the analysis of attribute in the non-binary database and cluster projection identifies the sparseness degree of dimensions. Additionally with the quantum distribution on multi-cluster dimension, the solution for relevancy of attribute and redundancy on non-binary data spaces is provided resulting in performance improvement on the basis of tag based feature. Multi-clustering tag based feature reduction extracts individual features and are correspondingly replaced by the equivalent feature clusters (i.e. tag clusters. During training, the DCTSM approach uses multi-clusters instead of individual tag features and then during decoding individual features is replaced by corresponding multi-clusters. To measure the effectiveness of the method, experiments are conducted on existing anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces and compared with the DCTSM approach using Statlog German Credit Data Set. Improved tag feature extraction and minimum error rate compared to conventional anonymization
MICROLENSING BINARIES DISCOVERED THROUGH HIGH-MAGNIFICATION CHANNEL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Dominik, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Allen, W. [Vintage Lane Observatory, Blenheim (New Zealand); Bos, M. [Molehill Astronomical Observatory, North Shore (New Zealand); Christie, G. W. [Auckland Observatory, P.O. Box 24-180, Auckland (New Zealand); Depoy, D. L. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Dong, S. [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Drummond, J. [Possum Observatory, Patutahi (New Zealand); Gal-Yam, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, the Weizmann Institute (Israel); Hung, L.-W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Janczak, J. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; and others
2012-02-20
Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturbations, which are confined near the peak of the light curves, can be easily distinguished from the central perturbations caused by planets. However, the degeneracy between close and wide binary solutions cannot be resolved with a 3{sigma} confidence level for three events, implying that the degeneracy would be an important obstacle in studying binary distributions. The dependence of the degeneracy on the lensing parameters is consistent with a theoretical prediction that the degeneracy becomes severe as the binary separation and the mass ratio deviate from the values of resonant caustics. The measured mass ratio of the event OGLE-2008-BLG-510/MOA-2008-BLG-369 is q {approx} 0.1, making the companion of the lens a strong brown dwarf candidate.
SuperWASP J015100.23-100524.2: A SPOTTED SHALLOW-CONTACT BINARY BELOW THE PERIOD LIMIT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qian, S. B.; Zhang, B.; He, J. J.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L. Y.; Zhao, E. G.; Zhou, X.; Thawicharat, S. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Road, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)
2015-10-15
SuperWASP J015100.23-100524.2 (hereafter J015100) is an eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 0.d2145 that is below the short-period limit of contact binary stars. Complete light curves of J015100 in B, V, R, and I bands are presented and are analyzed with the Wilson–Devinney method. It has been discovered that J015100 is a shallow-contact binary (f = 14.6(±2.7)%) with a mass ratio of 3.128. It is a W-type contact binary where the less massive component is about 130 K hotter than the more massive one. The asymmetries of light curves are explained as one dark spot on the more massive component. The detection of J015100 as a contact binary below the period limit suggests that contact binaries below this limit are not rapidly destroyed. This shallow-contact system may be formed from a detached short-period binary similar to DV Psc (Sp. = K4/K5; P = 0.d30855) via orbital shrinkage due to angular momentum loss through magnetic stellar wind.
Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars PV Pup ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
are in good agreement with those obtained using the method of Lehmann-. Filhés. Key words. ... use their method to obtain the orbital elements of the four double-lined spectroscopic binary systems PV Pup, HD ... Observation shows that the photometric phase, φ, which is measured from the pho- tometric reference point ...
Shear viscosity of binary mixtures: The Gay–Berne potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khordad, R.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Most useful potential model to study the real systems is the Gay–Berne (GB) potential. ► We use GB model to examine thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases. ► The integral equation methods are applied to solve numerically the Percus–Yevick (PY) equation. ► We obtain expansion coefficients of correlation functions needed to calculate the properties of studied mixtures. ► The results are compared with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, etc.] - Abstract: The Gay–Berne (GB) potential model is an interesting and useful model to study the real systems. Using the potential model, we intend to examine the thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases, liquid and gas. For this purpose, we apply the integral equation method and solve numerically the Percus–Yevick (PY) integral equation. Then, we obtain the expansion coefficients of correlation functions to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + ethanol, benzene + ethanol, carbon tetrachloride + ethyl acetate, and methanol + ethanol]. The results show that the GB potential model is capable for predicting the thermodynamical properties of binary mixtures with acceptable accuracy.
Application of the Binary Bell Polynomials Method to the Dissipative (2+1)-Dimensional AKNS Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Na; Liu Xi-Qiang
2012-01-01
Based on the binary Bell polynomials, the bilinear representation, bilinear Bäcklund transformation and the Lax pair for the dissipative (2+1)-dimensional Ablowitz—Kaup—Newell—Segur (AKNS) equation are obtained. Moreover, the infinite conservation laws are also derived
Efficiency of template banks for binary black-hole detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cokelaer, Thomas; Babak, Stas; Sathyaprakash, B S
2004-01-01
In the framework of matched filtering theory, which is the most promising method for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by coalescing binaries, we report on the ability of a template bank to catch a simulated binary black-hole gravitational wave signal. If we suppose that the incoming signal waveform is known a priori, then both the (simulated) signal and the templates can be based on the same physical model and therefore the template bank can be optimal in the sense of Wiener filtering. This turns out to be true for the case of neutron star binaries but not necessarily for the black-hole case. When the templates and the signal are based on different physical models the detection bank may still remain efficient. Nonetheless, it might be a judicious choice to use a phenomenological template family such as the so-called BCV templates to catch all the different physical models. In the first part of that report, we illustrate in a non-exhaustive study, by using Monte Carlo simulations, the efficiency of a template bank based on the stationary phase approximation and show how it catches simulated signals based on the same physical model but fails to catch signals built using other models (Pade, EOB, ...) especially in the case of high mass binaries. In the second part, we construct a BCV-template bank and test its validity by injecting simulated signals based on different physical models such as the PN-approximants, Pade-approximant and the effective one-body method. We show that it is suitable for a search pipeline since it gives a match higher than 95% for all the different physical models. The range of individual mass which has been used is [3-20]M o-dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oelkers, Ryan J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Dhital, Saurav, E-mail: ryan.j.oelkers@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)
2017-06-01
The formation and evolution of binary star systems are some of the remaining key questions in modern astronomy. Wide binary pairs (separations >10{sup 3} au) are particularly intriguing because their low binding energies make it difficult for the stars to stay gravitationally bound over extended timescales, and thus to probe the dynamics of binary formation and dissolution. Our previous SLoWPoKES catalogs, I and II, provided the largest and most complete sample of wide-binary pairs of low masses. Here we present an extension of these catalogs to a broad range of stellar masses: the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SloWPoKES (GAMBLES), comprising 8660 statistically significant wide pairs that we make available in a living online database. Within this catalog we identify a subset of 543 long-lived (dissipation timescale >1.5 Gyr) candidate binary pairs, of assorted mass, with typical separations between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 5.5} au (0.002–1.5 pc), using the published distances and proper motions from the Tycho -Gaia Astrometric Solution and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Each pair has at most a false positive probability of 0.05; the total expectation is 2.44 false binaries in our sample. Among these, we find 22 systems with 3 components, 1 system with 4 components, and 15 pairs consisting of at least 1 possible red giant. We find the largest long-lived binary separation to be nearly 3.2 pc; even so, >76% of GAMBLES long-lived binaries have large binding energies and dissipation lifetimes longer than 1.5 Gyr. Finally, we find that the distribution of binary separations is clearly bimodal, corroborating the findings from SloWPoKES and suggesting multiple pathways for the formation and dissipation of the widest binaries in the Galaxy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oelkers, Ryan J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Dhital, Saurav
2017-01-01
The formation and evolution of binary star systems are some of the remaining key questions in modern astronomy. Wide binary pairs (separations >10 3 au) are particularly intriguing because their low binding energies make it difficult for the stars to stay gravitationally bound over extended timescales, and thus to probe the dynamics of binary formation and dissolution. Our previous SLoWPoKES catalogs, I and II, provided the largest and most complete sample of wide-binary pairs of low masses. Here we present an extension of these catalogs to a broad range of stellar masses: the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SloWPoKES (GAMBLES), comprising 8660 statistically significant wide pairs that we make available in a living online database. Within this catalog we identify a subset of 543 long-lived (dissipation timescale >1.5 Gyr) candidate binary pairs, of assorted mass, with typical separations between 10 3 and 10 5.5 au (0.002–1.5 pc), using the published distances and proper motions from the Tycho -Gaia Astrometric Solution and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Each pair has at most a false positive probability of 0.05; the total expectation is 2.44 false binaries in our sample. Among these, we find 22 systems with 3 components, 1 system with 4 components, and 15 pairs consisting of at least 1 possible red giant. We find the largest long-lived binary separation to be nearly 3.2 pc; even so, >76% of GAMBLES long-lived binaries have large binding energies and dissipation lifetimes longer than 1.5 Gyr. Finally, we find that the distribution of binary separations is clearly bimodal, corroborating the findings from SloWPoKES and suggesting multiple pathways for the formation and dissipation of the widest binaries in the Galaxy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, D.A.
1986-01-01
Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced
Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.
2014-01-01
Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, H.; Xia, X.H.; Zhang, Y.J.; Tong, Y.Y.; Wang, X.L.; Gu, C.D.; Tu, J.P.
2015-01-01
Construction of high-capacity anode is highly important for the development of next-generation high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we fabricate Si/Ag nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (Si/Ag NWs/rGO) integrated composite film by introducing binary conductive networks (Ag NWs and rGO) into Si active materials with the help of a facile vacuum-filtration method. Active Si nanoparticles are homogeneously encapsulated by binary Ag NWs-rGO conductive network, in which Ag NWs are interwoven among the rGO sheets. The electrochemical properties of the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film are thoroughly characterized as anode of LIBs. Compared to the Si/rGO composite film, the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances with higher capacity, better high-rate capability and cycling stability (1269 mAh g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1 up to 50 cycles). The binary conductive network plays a positive role in the enhancement of performance due to its faster ion/electron transfer, and better anti-structure degradation caused by volume expansion during the cycling process.
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.
Lorimer, Duncan R
2008-01-01
We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.
Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shameng Wen
Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.
A Telescopic Binary Learning Machine for Training Neural Networks.
Brunato, Mauro; Battiti, Roberto
2017-03-01
This paper proposes a new algorithm based on multiscale stochastic local search with binary representation for training neural networks [binary learning machine (BLM)]. We study the effects of neighborhood evaluation strategies, the effect of the number of bits per weight and that of the maximum weight range used for mapping binary strings to real values. Following this preliminary investigation, we propose a telescopic multiscale version of local search, where the number of bits is increased in an adaptive manner, leading to a faster search and to local minima of better quality. An analysis related to adapting the number of bits in a dynamic way is presented. The control on the number of bits, which happens in a natural manner in the proposed method, is effective to increase the generalization performance. The learning dynamics are discussed and validated on a highly nonlinear artificial problem and on real-world tasks in many application domains; BLM is finally applied to a problem requiring either feedforward or recurrent architectures for feedback control.
Flip-flopping binary black holes.
Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James
2015-04-10
We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.
Binary Star Fractions from the LAMOST DR4
Tian, Zhi-Jia; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yang; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Ren, Juan-Juan; Huo, Zhi-Ying; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Shao-Lan; Yang, Wu-Ming; Liu, Kang; Zhang, Xian-Fei; Li, Tan-Da; Wu, Ya-Qian; Zhang, Jing-Hua
2018-05-01
Stellar systems composed of single, double, triple or higher-order systems are rightfully regarded as the fundamental building blocks of the Milky Way. Binary stars play an important role in formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Through comparing the radial velocity variations from multi-epoch observations, we analyze the binary fraction of dwarf stars observed with LAMOST. Effects of different model assumptions, such as orbital period distributions on the estimate of binary fractions, are investigated. The results based on log-normal distribution of orbital periods reproduce the previous complete analyses better than the power-law distribution. We find that the binary fraction increases with T eff and decreases with [Fe/H]. We first investigate the relation between α-elements and binary fraction in such a large sample as provided by LAMOST. The old stars with high [α/Fe] dominate with a higher binary fraction than young stars with low [α/Fe]. At the same mass, earlier forming stars possess a higher binary fraction than newly forming ones, which may be related with evolution of the Galaxy.
WHITE-LIGHT FLARES ON CLOSE BINARIES OBSERVED WITH KEPLER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Qing; Xin, Yu; Liu, Ji-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Gao, Shuang
2016-01-01
Based on Kepler data, we present the results of a search for white light flares on 1049 close binaries. We identify 234 flare binaries, of which 6818 flares are detected. We compare the flare-binary fraction in different binary morphologies (“detachedness”). The result shows that the fractions in over-contact and ellipsoidal binaries are approximately 10%–20% lower than those in detached and semi-detached systems. We calculate the binary flare activity level (AL) of all the flare binaries, and discuss its variations along the orbital period ( P orb ) and rotation period ( P rot , calculated for only detached binaries). We find that the AL increases with decreasing P orb or P rot , up to the critical values at P orb ∼ 3 days or P rot ∼ 1.5 days, and thereafter the AL starts decreasing no matter how fast the stars rotate. We examine the flaring rate as a function of orbital phase in two eclipsing binaries on which a large number of flares are detected. It appears that there is no correlation between flaring rate and orbital phase in these two binaries. In contrast, when we examine the function with 203 flares on 20 non-eclipse ellipsoidal binaries, bimodal distribution of amplitude-weighted flare numbers shows up at orbital phases 0.25 and 0.75. Such variation could be larger than what is expected from the cross section modification.
Evolution and merging of binaries with compact objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald E.; Lee, Chang-Hwan
2007-01-01
In the light of recent observations in which short γ-ray bursts are interpreted as arising from black-hole(BH), neutron-star(NS) or NS-NS mergings we would like to review our research on the evolution of compact binaries, especially those containing NS's. These were carried out with predictions for LIGO in mind, but are directly applicable to short γ-ray bursts in the interpretation above. Most important in our review is that we show that the standard scenario for evolving NS-NS binaries always ends up with a low-mass BH (LMBH), NS binary. Bethe and Brown [1998, Astrophys. J. 506, 780] showed that this fate could be avoided if the two giants in the progenitor binary burned He at the same time, and that in this way the binary could avoid the common envelope evolution of the NS with red giant companion which sends the first born NS into a BH in the standard scenario. The burning of He at the same time requires, for the more massive giants such as the progenitors of the Hulse-Taylor binary NS that the two giants be within 4% of each other in zero age main sequence (ZAMS) mass. Applying this criterion to all binaries results in a factor ∼5 of LMBH-NS binaries as compared with NS-NS binaries. Although this factor is substantially less than the originally claimed factor of 20 which Bethe and Brown (1998) estimated, largely because a careful evolution has been carried through here, our factor 5 is augmented by a factor of ∼8 arising from the higher rate of star formation in the earlier Galaxy from which the BH-NS binaries came from. Furthermore, here we calculate the mergers for short-hard gamma-ray bursts, whereas Bethe and Brown's factor 20 included a factor of 2 for the higher chirp masses in a BH-NS binary as compared with NS-NS one. In short, we end up with an estimate of factor ∼40 over that calculated with NS-NS binary mergers in our Galaxy alone. Our total rate is estimated to be about one merging of compact objects per year. Our scenario of NS-NS binaries
Habibi, N.; Rounaghi, G. H.; Mohajeri, M.
2012-12-01
The complexation reaction of macrocyclic ligand (4'-nitrobenzo-15C5) with Y3+ cation was studied in acetonitrile-methanol (AN-MeOH), acetonitrile-ethanol (AN-EtOH), acetonitrile-dimethylformamide (AN-DMF) and ethylacetate-methanol (EtOAc-MeOH) binary mixtures at different temperatures using conductometry method. The conductivity data show that in all solvent systems, the stoichiometry of the complex formed between 4'-nitrobenzo-15C5 and Y3+ cation is 1: 1 (ML). The stability order of (4'-nitrobenzo-15C5). Y3+ complex in pure non-aqueous solvents at 25°C was found to be: EtOAc > EtOH > AN ≈ DMF > MeOH, and in the case of most compositions of the binary mixed solvents at 25°C it was: AN≈MeOH ≈ AN-EtOH > AN-DMF > EtOAc-MeOH. But the results indicate that the sequence of the stability of the complex in the binary mixed solutions changes with temperature. A non-linear behavior was observed for changes of log K f of (4'-nitrobenzo-15C5 · Y3+) complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents, which was explained in terms of solvent-solvent interactions and also the hetero-selective solvation of the species involved in the complexation reaction. The values of thermodynamic parameters (Δ H {c/ℴ} and Δ S {c/ℴ}) for formation of the complex were obtained from temperature dependent of the stability constant using the van't Hoff plots. The results represent that in most cases, the complex is both enthalpy and entropy stabilized and the values and also the sign of thermodynamic parameters are influenced by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.
Orbital motion in pre-main sequence binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, G. H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Prato, L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Simon, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Patience, J., E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)
2014-06-01
We present results from our ongoing program to map the visual orbits of pre-main sequence (PMS) binaries in the Taurus star forming region using adaptive optics imaging at the Keck Observatory. We combine our results with measurements reported in the literature to analyze the orbital motion for each binary. We present preliminary orbits for DF Tau, T Tau S, ZZ Tau, and the Pleiades binary HBC 351. Seven additional binaries show curvature in their relative motion. Currently, we can place lower limits on the orbital periods for these systems; full solutions will be possible with more orbital coverage. Five other binaries show motion that is indistinguishable from linear motion. We suspect that these systems are bound and might show curvature with additional measurements in the future. The observations reported herein lay critical groundwork toward the goal of measuring precise masses for low-mass PMS stars.
Kaur, Chanchal Deep; Saraf, Swarnlata
2011-12-01
Ultraviolet radiations generate reactive oxygen species, leading to adverse effects on skin properties. Botanical extracts are multifunctional in nature having various properties like photoprotection, anti-aging, moisturizing, antioxidant, astringent, anti-irritant, and antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to formulate creams having Curcuma longa extract loaded novel vesicular systems (liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes) and study their photoprotective effect by assessment of skin hydration (Cutometer) and sebum content (Sebumeter). The alcoholic C. longa extract loaded liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes having 0.5-2.0% w/w extract were prepared, evaluated for size, entrapment efficiency, and incorporated into the cream. Their long-term interaction with skin (6 weeks) was compared in terms of their effects on skin hydration and sebum content. Vesicular size obtained was in the range 167.3 ± 3.0 to 262.4 ± 2.4 nm with low polydispersity index (0.2-0.3) and high entrapment efficiency. The efficacy was in the order C. longa extract loaded transfersomal creams > C. longa extract loaded ethosomal creams > C. longa extract loaded liposomal creams > C. longa extract loaded creams > Empty transfersome loaded cream > Empty ethosome loaded cream > Empty liposome loaded cream > Base cream. The photoprotective properties of the constituents of C. longa extract and hydrant, moisturizing lipid components of nano vesicles with better skin penetration resulted in improvement in skin properties like skin hydration and sebum content. The herbal extract loaded nano vesicles incorporated in cream could be used as photoprotective formulations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nonconformally flat initial data for binary compact objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uryu, Koji; Limousin, Francois; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Friedman, John L.; Shibata, Masaru
2009-01-01
A new method is described for constructing initial data for a binary neutron-star system in quasiequilibrium circular orbit. Two formulations for nonconformally flat data, waveless and near-zone helically symmetric, are introduced; in each formulation, the Einstein-Euler system, written in 3+1 form on an asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface, is exactly solved for all metric components, including the spatially nonconformally flat potentials, and for irrotational flow. A numerical method applicable to both formulations is explained with an emphasis on the imposition of a spatial gauge condition. Results are shown for solution sequences of irrotational binary neutron-stars with matter approximated by parametrized equations of state that use a few segments of polytropic equations of state. The binding energy and total angular momentum of solution sequences computed within the conformally flat--Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews--formulation are closer to those of the third post-Newtonian (3PN) two point particles up to the closest orbits, for the more compact stars, whereas sequences resulting from the waveless/near-zone helically symmetric formulations deviate from the 3PN curve even more for the sequences with larger compactness. We think it likely that this correction reflects an overestimation in the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews formulation as well as in the 3PN formula, by ∼1 cycle in the gravitational-wave phase during the last several orbits. The work suggests that imposing spatial conformal flatness results in an underestimate of the quadrupole deformation of the components of binary neutron-star systems in the last few orbits prior to merger.
Modeling binary correlated responses using SAS, SPSS and R
Wilson, Jeffrey R
2015-01-01
Statistical tools to analyze correlated binary data are spread out in the existing literature. This book makes these tools accessible to practitioners in a single volume. Chapters cover recently developed statistical tools and statistical packages that are tailored to analyzing correlated binary data. The authors showcase both traditional and new methods for application to health-related research. Data and computer programs will be publicly available in order for readers to replicate model development, but learning a new statistical language is not necessary with this book. The inclusion of code for R, SAS, and SPSS allows for easy implementation by readers. For readers interested in learning more about the languages, though, there are short tutorials in the appendix. Accompanying data sets are available for download through the book s website. Data analysis presented in each chapter will provide step-by-step instructions so these new methods can be readily applied to projects. Researchers and graduate stu...
Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry.
Wilms, J; Weigand, B
2007-04-10
So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model.
Composition measurements of binary mixture droplets by rainbow refractometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilms, J.; Weigand, B.
2007-01-01
So far, refractive index measurements by rainbow refractometry have been used to determine the temperature of single droplets and ensembles of droplets. Rainbow refractometry is, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, applied to measure composition histories of evaporating, binary mixture droplets. An evaluation method is presented that makes use of Airy theory and the simultaneous size measurement by Mie scattering imaging. The method further includes an empirical correction function for a certain diameter and refractive index range. The measurement uncertainty was investigated by numerical simulations with Lorenz-Mie theory. For the experiments, an optical levitation setup was used allowing for long measurement periods. Temperature measurements of single-component droplets at different temperature levels are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of rainbow refractometry. Measurements of size and composition histories of binary mixture droplets are presented for two different mixtures. Experimental results show good agreement with numerical results using a rapid-mixing model
On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl
2003-07-01
Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.
Binary catalogue of exoplanets
Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara
2016-02-01
Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.
Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang eWu
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.
Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.
Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao
2013-01-01
Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.
BHDD: Primordial black hole binaries code
Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Gaggero, Daniele; Bertone, Gianfranco
2018-06-01
BHDD (BlackHolesDarkDress) simulates primordial black hole (PBH) binaries that are clothed in dark matter (DM) halos. The software uses N-body simulations and analytical estimates to follow the evolution of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe.
Tidal and magnetic interactions in close binary stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, C.G.
1983-03-01
The thesis investigates the nature of non-synchronous motions in members of close binary stars under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields existing in these systems, and the evolution of such motions in different classes of binaries. Largely convective stars are considered and a solution is found for the fluid flow associated with the non-synchronous rotation of such a secondary in a close binary system, taking tidal and rotational forces into account. The tidal velocity field is calculated for a low mass white dwarf secondary star in a twin - degenerate binary. It is found that the synchronisation times can be comparable to the lifetime of the binary so that some asynchronism may remain present. (U.K.)
A photometric analysis of the neglected EW-type binary V336 TrA
Kriwattanawong, W.; Sarotsakulchai, T.; Maungkorn, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Kouprianov, V. V.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.
2018-05-01
This study presents an analysis of photometric light curves and absolute parameters for the EW-type binary V336 TrA. VRI imaging observations were taken in 2013 by using the robotic telescopes PROMPT 4 and PROMPT 5 at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), Chile. The observed light curves were fitted by using the Wilson-Devinney method. The results showed that V336 TrA is a W-type contact binary with a mass ratio of q = 1.396. The binary is a weak contact system with a fill-out factor of f = 15.69%. The system contains components with masses of 0.653 M⊙ and 0.912 M⊙ for the hotter and the cooler, respectively. The location of the secondary (less massive) component on the log M - log L diagram was found to be near the TAMS. The component has evolved to be oversize and overluminous. The orbital angular momentum of the binary was found to be log Jo = 51.61 cgs, less than all detached systems for same mass. The system has undergone angular momentum and/or mass loss, during the binary evolution from the detached to contact system.
Dynamical Formation and Merger of Binary Black Holes
Stone, Nicholas
2017-01-01
The advent of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy began with Advanced LIGO's 2015 discovery of GWs from coalescing black hole (BH) binaries. GW astronomy holds great promise for testing general relativity, but also for investigating open astrophysical questions not amenable to traditional electromagnetic observations. One such question concerns the origin of stellar mass BH binaries in the universe: do these form primarily from evolution of isolated binaries of massive stars, or do they form through more exotic dynamical channels? The best studied dynamical formation channel involves multibody interactions of BHs and stars in dense globular cluster environments, but many other dynamical scenarios have recently been proposed, ranging from the Kozai effect in hierarchical triple systems to BH binary formation in the outskirts of Toomre-unstable accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes. The BH binaries formed through these processes will have different distributions of observable parameters (e.g. mass ratios, spins) than BH binaries formed through the evolution of isolated binary stars. In my talk I will overview these and other dynamical formation scenarios, and summarize the key observational tests that will enable Advanced LIGO or other future detectors to determine what formation pathway creates the majority of binary BHs in the universe. NCS thanks NASA, which has funded his work through Einstein postdoctoral grant PF5-160145.
Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems
Xie, J. W.
2013-01-01
dissipating gas disk, all the planetesimals eventually converge toward the same forced orbits regardless of their size, leading to the much lower impact velocities. This process progressively increases the net mass accretion and can even trigger the runaway growth for large planetesimals. In chapter 3, for the first time, we adopt a 3-dimensional approach to investigate the planetesimals' mutual accretion in binary systems. We find that the inclusion of a small inclination between the binary orbital plane and the circumstellar disk plane leads to the realization of the differential orbital phasing in 3-dimensional space. In such a case, impacts mainly occur between similar-sized bodies with the impact velocities being significantly reduced, and thus the planetesimal accretion is more favored. In chapter 4, we investigate the planet formation in a specific system, the habitable zone of Alpha Centauri B. For the first time, we develop a scaling method to estimate the planetesimal collisional timescale in binary systems. We find that the accretion-favorable conditions satisfied at 1˜2 AU from Alpha Centauri B after the first 10^5 years. However, the planetesimal accretion is significantly less efficient as compared to the single star case. Our results suggest that the formation of Earth-like planets through the accretion of km-sized planetesimals is possible in Alpha Centauri B, while the formation of gaseous giant planets is not favorable. In chapter 5, we outline a new concept, which we call the ``snowball'' growth mode. In this snowball phase, the isolated planetesimals move in the Keplerian orbits, and grow solely via the direct accretion of subcentimeter-sized dust entrained with the gas in the protoplanetary disk. Using a simplified model in which the planetesimals are progressively produced from the dust, we find that the snowball growth phase can be the dominant mode to transfer mass from the dust to planetesimals. The snowball growth mode could provide an alternative
Phase behaviour in binary mixed Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of triglycerides
Zdravkova, A.N.; van der Eerden, J.P.J.M.
2007-01-01
Binary mixed monolayers of the triglycerides (TAGs)-tripalmitin (PPP), tristearin (SSS) and triarachidin (AAA) at the air–water interface are investigated with the Langmuir method. Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) layers obtained by deposition on mica are investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Combining
Black Hole/Pulsar Binaries in the Galaxy
Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong
2018-04-01
We have performed population synthesis calculation on the formation of binaries containing a black hole (BH) and a neutron star (NS) in the Galactic disk. Some of important input parameters, especially for the treatment of common envelope evolution, are updated in the calculation. We have discussed the uncertainties from the star formation rate of the Galaxy and the velocity distribution of NS kicks on the birthrate (˜ 0.6-13 Myr^{-1}) of BH/NS binaries. From incident BH/NS binaries, by modelling the orbital evolution duo to gravitational wave radiation and the NS evolution as radio pulsars, we obtain the distributions of the observable parameters such as the orbital period, eccentricity and pulse period of the BH/pulsar binaries. We estimate that there may be ˜3 - 80 BH/pulsar binaries in the Galactic disk and around 10% of them could be detected by the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope.
Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Kelleher, Adam
2009-01-01
The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accrete dark energy. The accretion induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state w[z] of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. This talk describes how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy.
Black hole/pulsar binaries in the Galaxy
Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong
2018-06-01
We have performed population synthesis calculation on the formation of binaries containing a black hole (BH) and a neutron star (NS) in the Galactic disc. Some of important input parameters, especially for the treatment of common envelope evolution, are updated in the calculation. We have discussed the uncertainties from the star formation rate of the Galaxy and the velocity distribution of NS kicks on the birthrate (˜ 0.6-13 M yr^{-1}) of BH/NS binaries. From incident BH/NS binaries, by modelling the orbital evolution due to gravitational wave radiation and the NS evolution as radio pulsars, we obtain the distributions of the observable parameters such as the orbital period, eccentricity, and pulse period of the BH/pulsar binaries. We estimate that there may be ˜3-80 BH/pulsar binaries in the Galactic disc and around 10 per cent of them could be detected by the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical radio Telescope.
Star formation history: Modeling of visual binaries
Gebrehiwot, Y. M.; Tessema, S. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sytov, A. Yu.; Tutukov, A. V.
2018-05-01
Most stars form in binary or multiple systems. Their evolution is defined by masses of components, orbital separation and eccentricity. In order to understand star formation and evolutionary processes, it is vital to find distributions of physical parameters of binaries. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in which we simulate different pairing scenarios: random pairing, primary-constrained pairing, split-core pairing, and total and primary pairing in order to get distributions of binaries over physical parameters at birth. Next, for comparison with observations, we account for stellar evolution and selection effects. Brightness, radius, temperature, and other parameters of components are assigned or calculated according to approximate relations for stars in different evolutionary stages (main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, relativistic objects). Evolutionary stage is defined as a function of system age and component masses. We compare our results with the observed IMF, binarity rate, and binary mass-ratio distributions for field visual binaries to find initial distributions and pairing scenarios that produce observed distributions.
Gravitational wave spectroscopy of binary neutron star merger remnants with mode stacking
Yang, Huan; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Yagi, Kent; Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás
2018-01-01
A binary neutron star coalescence event has recently been observed for the first time in gravitational waves, and many more detections are expected once current ground-based detectors begin operating at design sensitivity. As in the case of binary black holes, gravitational waves generated by binary neutron stars consist of inspiral, merger, and postmerger components. Detecting the latter is important because it encodes information about the nuclear equation of state in a regime that cannot be probed prior to merger. The postmerger signal, however, can only be expected to be measurable by current detectors for events closer than roughly ten megaparsecs, which given merger rate estimates implies a low probability of observation within the expected lifetime of these detectors. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations showing that the dominant postmerger signal (the ℓ=m =2 mode) from individual binary neutron star mergers may not have a good chance of observation even with the most sensitive future ground-based gravitational wave detectors proposed so far (the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, for certain equations of state, assuming a full year of operation, the latest merger rates, and a detection threshold corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio of 5). For this reason, we propose two methods that stack the postmerger signal from multiple binary neutron star observations to boost the postmerger detection probability. The first method follows a commonly used practice of multiplying the Bayes factors of individual events. The second method relies on an assumption that the mode phase can be determined from the inspiral waveform, so that coherent mode stacking of the data from different events becomes possible. We find that both methods significantly improve the chances of detecting the dominant postmerger signal, making a detection very likely after a year of observation with Cosmic Explorer for certain equations of state. We also show that in terms of detection
THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Allende Prieto, Carlos
2013-01-01
We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P ≤ 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g ≅ 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times 0.9 M ☉ companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.
THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK, 73019 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
2013-05-20
We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P {<=} 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g {approx_equal} 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times <10 Gyr. Four have {approx}>0.9 M{sub Sun} companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.
Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...
Variance in binary stellar population synthesis
Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.
2016-03-01
In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations in less than a week, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.
Shear viscosity of binary mixtures: The Gay-Berne potential
Khordad, R.
2012-05-01
The Gay-Berne (GB) potential model is an interesting and useful model to study the real systems. Using the potential model, we intend to examine the thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases, liquid and gas. For this purpose, we apply the integral equation method and solve numerically the Percus-Yevick (PY) integral equation. Then, we obtain the expansion coefficients of correlation functions to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + ethanol, benzene + ethanol, carbon tetrachloride + ethyl acetate, and methanol + ethanol]. The results show that the GB potential model is capable for predicting the thermodynamical properties of binary mixtures with acceptable accuracy.
Mathematical Simulation of High-Conversion Binary Copolymerization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JiangWei; QinJiguang
2005-01-01
A new model for mathematical simulation of high-conversion binary copolymerization was established by combination of the concept of the three stage polymerization model (TSPM) proposed by Qin et al. for bulk free radical homopolymerization with the North equation to describe high-conversion copolymerization reaction exhibiting a strong gel effect, and the mathematical expressions of this new model were derived. Like TSPM, the new model also assmnes that the whole course of binary copolymerization can be divided into three different stages: low conversion, gel effect and glass effect stages. In addition, the reaction rate constants and the initiator efficiency at each copolymerization stage do not vary with conversion. Based on the expressions derived, a plot method for determining the overall rate constants and critical conversions was proposed. The literature data on conversion history for styrene (St)-methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA)-MMA copolymerizations were treated to examine the model, which shows that the model is satisfactory.
Eclipsing binary stars with extreme light curve asymmetries mined from large astronomical surveys
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Papageorgiou Athanasios
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The O’Connell effect is one of the most perplexing challenges in binary studies as it has not been convincingly explained. Furthermore, a simple method to obtain essential parameters for eclipsing binaries exhibiting this effect and to extract information describing the asymmetry in the light curve maxima is needed. We have developed an automated program that characterizes the morphology of light curves by depth of both minima, height of both maxima and curvature outside the eclipses.
Binary eutectic clusters and glass formation in ideal glass-forming liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Z. P.; Shen, J.; Xing, D. W.; Sun, J. F.; Liu, C. T.
2006-01-01
In this letter, a physical concept of binary eutectic clusters in 'ideal' glass-forming liquids is proposed based on the characteristics of most well-known bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). The authors approach also includes the treatment of binary eutectic clusters as basic units, which leads to the development of a simple but reliable method for designing BMGs more efficiently and effectively in these unique glass-forming liquids. As an example, bulk glass formers with superior glass-forming ability in the Zr-Ni-Cu-Al and Zr-Fe-Cu-Al systems were identified with the use of the strategy
Gaia eclipsing binary and multiple systems. Supervised classification and self-organizing maps
Süveges, M.; Barblan, F.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Prša, A.; Holl, B.; Eyer, L.; Kochoska, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.
2017-07-01
Context. Large surveys producing tera- and petabyte-scale databases require machine-learning and knowledge discovery methods to deal with the overwhelming quantity of data and the difficulties of extracting concise, meaningful information with reliable assessment of its uncertainty. This study investigates the potential of a few machine-learning methods for the automated analysis of eclipsing binaries in the data of such surveys. Aims: We aim to aid the extraction of samples of eclipsing binaries from such databases and to provide basic information about the objects. We intend to estimate class labels according to two different, well-known classification systems, one based on the light curve morphology (EA/EB/EW classes) and the other based on the physical characteristics of the binary system (system morphology classes; detached through overcontact systems). Furthermore, we explore low-dimensional surfaces along which the light curves of eclipsing binaries are concentrated, and consider their use in the characterization of the binary systems and in the exploration of biases of the full unknown Gaia data with respect to the training sets. Methods: We have explored the performance of principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Random Forest classification and self-organizing maps (SOM) for the above aims. We pre-processed the photometric time series by combining a double Gaussian profile fit and a constrained smoothing spline, in order to de-noise and interpolate the observed light curves. We achieved further denoising, and selected the most important variability elements from the light curves using PCA. Supervised classification was performed using Random Forest and LDA based on the PC decomposition, while SOM gives a continuous 2-dimensional manifold of the light curves arranged by a few important features. We estimated the uncertainty of the supervised methods due to the specific finite training set using ensembles of models constructed
"Binary" and "non-binary" detection tasks: are current performance measures optimal?
Gur, David; Rockette, Howard E; Bandos, Andriy I
2007-07-01
We have observed that a very large fraction of responses for several detection tasks during the performance of observer studies are in the extreme ranges of lower than 11% or higher than 89% regardless of the actual presence or absence of the abnormality in question or its subjectively rated "subtleness." This observation raises questions regarding the validity and appropriateness of using multicategory rating scales for such detection tasks. Monte Carlo simulation of binary and multicategory ratings for these tasks demonstrate that the use of the former (binary) often results in a less biased and more precise summary index and hence may lead to a higher statistical power for determining differences between modalities.
STABILITY OF BINARY COMPLEXES OF L-ASPARTIC ACID IN ...
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KEY WORDS: Binary complexes, Stability constants, Aspartic acid, Speciation, Dioxan. INTRODUCTION. 1,4-Dioxan (Dox) is ... It is miscible with water, oils, and most organic solvents, including aromatic .... of mineral acid in metal ion and ligand solutions was determined using the Gran plot method. [28, 29]. To assess the ...
On the accuracy of Hipparcos using binary stars as a calibration tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Docobo, J. A.; Andrade, M., E-mail: joseangel.docobo@usc.es, E-mail: manuel.andrade@usc.es [R. M. Aller Astronomical Observatory, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Santiago de Compostela E-15782, Galiza, P.O. Box 197 (Spain)
2015-02-01
Stellar binary systems, specifically those that present the most accurate available orbital elements, are a reliable tool to test the accuracy of astrometric observations. We selected all 35 binaries with these characteristics. Our objective is to provide standard uncertainties for the positions and parallaxes measured by Hipparcos relative to this trustworthy set, as well as to check supposed correlations between several parameters (measurement residuals, positions, magnitudes, and parallaxes). In addition, using the high-confidence subset of visual–spectroscopic binaries, we implemented a validation test of the Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes of binary systems that allowed the evaluation of their reliability. Standard and non-standard statistical analysis techniques were applied in order to achieve well-founded conclusions. In particular, errors-in-variables models such as the total least-squares method were used to validate Hipparcos parallaxes by comparison with those obtained directly from the orbital elements. Previously, we executed Thompson's τ technique in order to detect suspected outliers in the data. Furthermore, several statistical hypothesis tests were carried out to verify if our results were statistically significant. A statistically significant trend indicating larger Hipparcos angular separations with respect to the reference values in 5.2 ± 1.4 mas was found at the 10{sup −8} significance level. Uncertainties in the polar coordinates θ and ρ of 1.°8 and 6.3 mas, respectively, were estimated for the Hipparcos observations of binary systems. We also verified that the parallaxes of binary systems measured in this mission are absolutely compatible with the set of orbital parallaxes obtained from the most accurate orbits at least at the 95% confidence level. This methodology allows us to better estimate the accuracy of Hipparcos observations of binary systems. Indeed, further application to the data collected by Gaia should yield a
Modified analytic EAM potentials for the binary immiscible alloy systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang, F.; Shu, X.L.; Deng, H.Q.; Hu, W.Y.; Zhu, M.
2003-01-01
Modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type potentials have been constructed for seven binary immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Fe-Cu, Ag-Cu, Cu-Ta, Cu-W and Cu-Co. The potentials are fitted to the lattice constant, cohesive energy, unrelaxed monovacancy formation energy and elastic constants for only pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy systems. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM potentials, formation enthalpies of disordered alloys for those seven binary immiscible alloy systems have been calculated. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental data available and those theoretical results calculated by other authors. As only very limited experimental information is available for alloy properties in immiscible alloy systems, the MAEAM is demonstrated to be a reasonable method to construct the interatomic potentials for immiscible alloy systems because only the properties of pure elements are needed in calculation
Chanbi, Daoud; Ogam, Erick; Amara, Sif Eddine; Fellah, Z E A
2018-05-07
Precise but simple experimental and inverse methods allowing the recovery of mechanical material parameters are necessary for the exploration of materials with novel crystallographic structures and elastic properties, particularly for new materials and those existing only in theory. The alloys studied herein are of new atomic compositions. This paper reports an experimental study involving the synthesis and development of methods for the determination of the elastic properties of binary (Fe-Al, Fe-Ti and Ti-Al) and ternary (Fe-Ti-Al) intermetallic alloys with different concentrations of their individual constituents. The alloys studied were synthesized from high purity metals using an arc furnace with argon flow to ensure their uniformity and homogeneity. Precise but simple methods for the recovery of the elastic constants of the isotropic metals from resonant ultrasound vibration data were developed. These methods allowed the fine analysis of the relationships between the atomic concentration of a given constituent and the Young’s modulus or alloy density.
MARVELS Radial Velocity Solutions to Seven Kepler Eclipsing Binaries
Heslar, Michael Francis; Thomas, Neil B.; Ge, Jian; Ma, Bo; Herczeg, Alec; Reyes, Alan; SDSS-III MARVELS Team
2016-01-01
Eclipsing binaries serve momentous purposes to improve the basis of understanding aspects of stellar astrophysics, such as the accurate calculation of the physical parameters of stars and the enigmatic mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. We report the investigation results of 7 eclipsing binary candidates, initially identified by the Kepler mission, overlapped with the radial velocity observations from the SDSS-III Multi-Object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS). The RV extractions and spectroscopic solutions of these eclipsing binaries were generated by the University of Florida's 1D data pipeline with a median RV precision of ~60-100 m/s, which was utilized for the DR12 data release. We performed the cross-reference fitting of the MARVELS RV data and the Kepler photometric fluxes obtained from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (V2) and modelled the 7 eclipsing binaries in the BinaryMaker3 and PHOEBE programs. This analysis accurately determined the absolute physical and orbital parameters of each binary. Most of the companion stars were determined to have masses of K and M dwarf stars (0.3-0.8 M⊙), and allowed for an investigation into the mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. Among the cases are KIC 9163796, a 122.2 day period "heartbeat star", a recently-discovered class of eccentric binaries known for tidal distortions and pulsations, with a high eccentricity (e~0.75) and KIC 11244501, a 0.29 day period, contact binary with a double-lined spectrum and mass ratio (q~0.45). We also report on the possible reclassification of 2 Kepler eclipsing binary candidates as background eclipsing binaries based on the analysis of the flux measurements, flux ratios of the spectroscopic and photometric solutions, the differences in the FOVs, the image processing of Kepler, and RV and spectral analysis of MARVELS.
Determination of mango fruit from binary image using randomized Hough transform
Rizon, Mohamed; Najihah Yusri, Nurul Ain; Abdul Kadir, Mohd Fadzil; bin Mamat, Abd. Rasid; Abd Aziz, Azim Zaliha; Nanaa, Kutiba
2015-12-01
A method of detecting mango fruit from RGB input image is proposed in this research. From the input image, the image is processed to obtain the binary image using the texture analysis and morphological operations (dilation and erosion). Later, the Randomized Hough Transform (RHT) method is used to find the best ellipse fits to each binary region. By using the texture analysis, the system can detect the mango fruit that is partially overlapped with each other and mango fruit that is partially occluded by the leaves. The combination of texture analysis and morphological operator can isolate the partially overlapped fruit and fruit that are partially occluded by leaves. The parameters derived from RHT method was used to calculate the center of the ellipse. The center of the ellipse acts as the gripping point for the fruit picking robot. As the results, the rate of detection was up to 95% for fruit that is partially overlapped and partially covered by leaves.
Multi-task feature selection in microarray data by binary integer programming.
Lan, Liang; Vucetic, Slobodan
2013-12-20
A major challenge in microarray classification is that the number of features is typically orders of magnitude larger than the number of examples. In this paper, we propose a novel feature filter algorithm to select the feature subset with maximal discriminative power and minimal redundancy by solving a quadratic objective function with binary integer constraints. To improve the computational efficiency, the binary integer constraints are relaxed and a low-rank approximation to the quadratic term is applied. The proposed feature selection algorithm was extended to solve multi-task microarray classification problems. We compared the single-task version of the proposed feature selection algorithm with 9 existing feature selection methods on 4 benchmark microarray data sets. The empirical results show that the proposed method achieved the most accurate predictions overall. We also evaluated the multi-task version of the proposed algorithm on 8 multi-task microarray datasets. The multi-task feature selection algorithm resulted in significantly higher accuracy than when using the single-task feature selection methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Nansen, P. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hoeier, R.; Brueck, I. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Clinical Studies, Section of Reproduction, Frederiksberg (Denmark)
1997-12-31
Ionizing irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment have previously been shown to be effective for in-vitro inactivation of virus in biological material. In the present study the 2 methods were tested for possible effects on measurable concentrations of reproductive hormones in equine plasma (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P{sub 4}), and oestradiol-17 {beta} (E{sub 2})). The inactivation methods were electron beam irradiation with a dose from 11 to 44 kGy or treatment with binary ethylenimine (BEI) in concentrations of 1 and 5 mmol/L. Generally, there was a close correlation (r>0.8, p<0.001) between pre- and post-treatment hormone levels. Thus, the different phases of the oestrous cycle could be distinguished on the basis of measured hormone concentrations of treated samples. However, both treatments significantly changed hormone concentrations of the plasma samples. For LH, FSH, and E{sub 2} the effect of irradiation and BEI treatment was depressive and dose-dependant. For P{sub 4} the effect of irradiation was also depressive and dose-dependant. However, the highest dose of BEI resulted in an increase of measured P{sub 4} concentration, which may be attributed to changes in the plasma matrix due to the treatment. Although the treatments affected measured hormone concentrations, the close correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements means that the diagnostic value will remain unchanged. (au). 17 refs.
A multi-pattern hash-binary hybrid algorithm for URL matching in the HTTP protocol.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Zeng
Full Text Available In this paper, based on our previous multi-pattern uniform resource locator (URL binary-matching algorithm called HEM, we propose an improved multi-pattern matching algorithm called MH that is based on hash tables and binary tables. The MH algorithm can be applied to the fields of network security, data analysis, load balancing, cloud robotic communications, and so on-all of which require string matching from a fixed starting position. Our approach effectively solves the performance problems of the classical multi-pattern matching algorithms. This paper explores ways to improve string matching performance under the HTTP protocol by using a hash method combined with a binary method that transforms the symbol-space matching problem into a digital-space numerical-size comparison and hashing problem. The MH approach has a fast matching speed, requires little memory, performs better than both the classical algorithms and HEM for matching fields in an HTTP stream, and it has great promise for use in real-world applications.
Compact stars and the evolution of binary systems
van den Heuvel, E.P.J.
2011-01-01
The Chandrasekhar limit is of key importance for the evolution of white dwarfs in binary systems and for the formation of neutron stars and black holes in binaries. Mass transfer can drive a white dwarf in a binary over the Chandrasekhar limit, which may lead to a Type Ia supernova (in case of a CO
WHITE-DWARF-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARIES IDENTIFIED FROM THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Juanjuan; Luo Ali; Li Yinbi; Wei Peng; Zhao Jingkun; Zhao Yongheng; Song Yihan; Zhao Gang
2013-01-01
We present a set of white-dwarf-main-sequence (WDMS) binaries identified spectroscopically from the Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also called the Guo Shou Jing Telescope) pilot survey. We develop a color selection criteria based on what is so far the largest and most complete Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 WDMS binary catalog and identify 28 WDMS binaries within the LAMOST pilot survey. The primaries in our binary sample are mostly DA white dwarfs except for one DB white dwarf. We derive the stellar atmospheric parameters, masses, and radii for the two components of 10 of our binaries. We also provide cooling ages for the white dwarf primaries as well as the spectral types for the companion stars of these 10 WDMS binaries. These binaries tend to contain hot white dwarfs and early-type companions. Through cross-identification, we note that nine binaries in our sample have been published in the SDSS DR7 WDMS binary catalog. Nineteen spectroscopic WDMS binaries identified by the LAMOST pilot survey are new. Using the 3σ radial velocity variation as a criterion, we find two post-common-envelope binary candidates from our WDMS binary sample
BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)
2015-04-15
Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to
BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo
2015-01-01
Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to
Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine
Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.
2016-12-01
The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arbutina Bojan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available AM CVn-type stars and ultra-compact X-ray binaries are extremely interesting semi-detached close binary systems in which the Roche lobe filling component is a white dwarf transferring mass to another white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole. Earlier theoretical considerations show that there is a maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems (qmax ≈ 2/3 below which the mass transfer is stable. In this paper we derive slightly different value for qmax and more interestingly, by applying the same procedure, we find the maximum expected white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries.
The Binary System Laboratory Activities Based on Students Mental Model
Albaiti, A.; Liliasari, S.; Sumarna, O.; Martoprawiro, M. A.
2017-09-01
Generic science skills (GSS) are required to develop student conception in learning binary system. The aim of this research was to know the improvement of students GSS through the binary system labotoratory activities based on their mental model using hypothetical-deductive learning cycle. It was a mixed methods embedded experimental model research design. This research involved 15 students of a university in Papua, Indonesia. Essay test of 7 items was used to analyze the improvement of students GSS. Each items was designed to interconnect macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic levels. Students worksheet was used to explore students mental model during investigation in laboratory. The increase of students GSS could be seen in their N-Gain of each GSS indicators. The results were then analyzed descriptively. Students mental model and GSS have been improved from this study. They were interconnect macroscopic and symbolic levels to explain binary systems phenomena. Furthermore, they reconstructed their mental model with interconnecting the three levels of representation in Physical Chemistry. It necessary to integrate the Physical Chemistry Laboratory into a Physical Chemistry course for effectiveness and efficiency.
Non-binary or genderqueer genders.
Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O; T'Sjoen, Guy
2016-01-01
Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are 'genderqueer' or 'non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging presence and advocacy of these groups of people. Population-based studies show a small percentage--but a sizable proportion in terms of raw numbers--of people who identify as non-binary. While such genders have been extant historically and globally, they remain marginalized, and as such--while not being disorders or pathological in themselves--people with such genders remain at risk of victimization and of minority or marginalization stress as a result of discrimination. This paper therefore reviews the limited literature on this field and considers ways in which (mental) health professionals may assist the people with genderqueer and non-binary gender identities and/or expressions they may see in their practice. Treatment options and associated risks are discussed.
Yu, Yun; Warnow, Tandy; Nakhleh, Luay
2011-11-01
One of the criteria for inferring a species tree from a collection of gene trees, when gene tree incongruence is assumed to be due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), is Minimize Deep Coalescence (MDC). Exact algorithms for inferring the species tree from rooted, binary trees under MDC were recently introduced. Nevertheless, in phylogenetic analyses of biological data sets, estimated gene trees may differ from true gene trees, be incompletely resolved, and not necessarily rooted. In this article, we propose new MDC formulations for the cases where the gene trees are unrooted/binary, rooted/non-binary, and unrooted/non-binary. Further, we prove structural theorems that allow us to extend the algorithms for the rooted/binary gene tree case to these cases in a straightforward manner. In addition, we devise MDC-based algorithms for cases when multiple alleles per species may be sampled. We study the performance of these methods in coalescent-based computer simulations.
The Young Visual Binary Survey
Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal
2018-01-01
Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.
A Survey of Binary Similarity and Distance Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seung-Seok Choi
2010-02-01
Full Text Available The binary feature vector is one of the most common representations of patterns and measuring similarity and distance measures play a critical role in many problems such as clustering, classification, etc. Ever since Jaccard proposed a similarity measure to classify ecological species in 1901, numerous binary similarity and distance measures have been proposed in various fields. Applying appropriate measures results in more accurate data analysis. Notwithstanding, few comprehensive surveys on binary measures have been conducted. Hence we collected 76 binary similarity and distance measures used over the last century and reveal their correlations through the hierarchical clustering technique.
The binary white dwarf LHS 3236
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L. [US Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hartkopf, William I. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
2013-12-10
The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ☉}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ☉}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ∼3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ☉}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.
Young and Waltzing Binary Stars
2001-10-01
of the stars, as they move along their orbits and periodically approach and recede from the observer. Such spectroscopic observations therefore allow to measure the orbital velocities of the stars. It is exactly the same technique that is used to study and weigh extra-solar planets orbiting other stars [3]. However, this method has an important limitation. From the spectroscopical observations alone, it is only possible to deduce limits on the masses, as the inclination of orbits to the line-of-sight is usually unknown. The masses derived in this way (for stars as well as for exoplanets) are therefore only lower limits on the actual masses. Eclipsing Binaries However, fortunate observational circumstances sometimes allow to obtain all information about the stellar orbits. If a binary system is viewed (almost exactly) edge-on, the stars may pass in front of each other from time to time. Astronomers refer to this phenomenon as an "eclipse" and speak about an "eclipsing binary". The effect is similar to a "solar" eclipse as seen on the Earth, whenever the Moon passes in front of the Sun. Like the Moon blocks the sunlight, less light is received from the eclipsed star and thus the combined light from the binary system decreases during the eclipse. The way this happens (astronomers speak about the system's "lightcurve") then provides the additional information about the inclination of the orbit that is needed to determine exactly the stellar masses in a "spectroscopic" binary system. Very accurate values for the stellar diameters and the surface temperatures of the two stars can also be deduced. In short, when a full set of observations is available, it is possible to give a comprehensive description of an eclipsing binary system and its components. Eclipsing, spectroscopic binaries thus represent true cornerstones for the determination of stellar masses , and as such they are fundamental for our understanding of stellar evolution . Rather few such systems are known, but
On the pth moment stability of the binary airfoil induced by bounded noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Jiancheng; Li, Xuan; Liu, Xianbin
2017-01-01
Highlights: • We obtain finite pth moment Lyapunov exponent for binary airfoil subject to a bounded noise. • Based on perturbation approach and Green's functions method, second differential eigenvalue equation governing moment Lyapunov exponent is established. • The types of singular points are investigated. • The eigenvalue problem is solved analytically and numerically. • The effects of noise and system parameters on the moment Lyapunov exponent and the stochastic stability of the system are discussed. - Abstract: In the paper, the stochastic stability of the binary airfoil subject to the effect of a bounded noise is studied through the determination of moment Lyapunov exponents. The noise excitation here is often used to model a realistic model of noise in many engineering application. The partial differential eigenvalue problem governing the moment Lyapunov exponent is established. Via the Feller boundary classification, the types of singular points are discussed here, and for the system discussed, the singular points only exist in end points. The fundamental methods used are the perturbation approach and the Green's functions method. With these methods, the second-order expansions of the moment Lyapunov exponents are obtained, which are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained using Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of noise and system parameters on the moment Lyapunov exponent and the stochastic stability of the binary airfoil system are discussed.
Resonant dynamics of gravitationally bound pair of binaries: the case of 1:1 resonance
Breiter, Slawomir; Vokrouhlický, David
2018-04-01
The work presents a study of the 1:1 resonance case in a hierarchical quadruple stellar system of the 2+2 type. The resonance appears if orbital periods of both binaries are approximately equal. It is assumed that both periods are significantly shorter than the period of principal orbit of one binary with respect to the other. In these circumstances, the problem can be treated as three independent Kepler problems perturbed by mutual gravitational interactions. By means of canonical perturbation methods, the planar problem is reduced to a secular system with 1 degree of freedom involving a resonance angle (the difference of mean longitudes of the binaries) and its conjugate momentum (involving the ratio of orbital period in one binary to the period of principal orbit). The resonant model is supplemented with short periodic perturbations expressions, and verified by the comparison with numerical integration of the original equations of motion. Estimates of the binaries periods variations indicate that the effect is rather weak, but possibly detectible if it occurs in a moderately compact system. However, the analysis of resonance capture scenarios implies that the 1:1 resonance should be exceptional amongst the 2+2 quadruples.
Lim, Meng-Hui; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Toh, Kar-Ann
2013-06-01
Biometric discretization is a key component in biometric cryptographic key generation. It converts an extracted biometric feature vector into a binary string via typical steps such as segmentation of each feature element into a number of labeled intervals, mapping of each interval-captured feature element onto a binary space, and concatenation of the resulted binary output of all feature elements into a binary string. Currently, the detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA) scheme is one of the most effective biometric discretization schemes in terms of its capability to assign binary bits dynamically to user-specific features with respect to their discriminability. However, we learn that DROBA suffers from potential discriminative feature misdetection and underdiscretization in its bit allocation process. This paper highlights such drawbacks and improves upon DROBA based on a novel two-stage algorithm: 1) a dynamic search method to efficiently recapture such misdetected features and to optimize the bit allocation of underdiscretized features and 2) a genuine interval concealment technique to alleviate crucial information leakage resulted from the dynamic search. Improvements in classification accuracy on two popular face data sets vindicate the feasibility of our approach compared with DROBA.
Physical Properties of the LMC Eclipsing Binary Stars
Prsa, Andrej; Devinney, E. J.; Guinan, E. F.; Engle, S. G.; DeGeorge, M.
2009-01-01
To date, three independent studies have devised an automatic procedure to analyse and extract the principal parameters of 2581 detached eclipsing binary stars from the OGLE photometric survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC): Devor (2005), Tamuz et al. (2006), and Prsa et al. (2008). For time efficiency, Devor used a simple model of two spherical, limb-darkened stars without tidal or reflection physics. Tamuz et al.'s approach employs a more realistic EBOP model, which is still limited in handling proximity physics. Our study used a back-propagating neural network that was trained on the light curves computed by a modern Wilson-Devinney code. The three approaches are confronted and correlations in the results are sought that indicate the degree of reliability of the obtained results. A database of solutions consistent across all three studies is presented. We assess the suitability of each method for other morphology types (i.e. semi-detached and overcontact binaries) and we overview the practical limitations of these methods for the upcoming survey data. This research is supported by NFS/RUI Grant No. AST-05-07542, which we gratefully acknowledge.
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorimer Duncan R.
2005-11-01
Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.
Eclipsing binary stars with a δ Scuti component
Kahraman Aliçavuş, F.; Soydugan, E.; Smalley, B.; Kubát, J.
2017-09-01
Eclipsing binaries with a δ Sct component are powerful tools to derive the fundamental parameters and probe the internal structure of stars. In this study, spectral analysis of six primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries has been performed. Values of Teff, v sin I, and metallicity for the stars have been derived from medium-resolution spectroscopy. Additionally, a revised list of δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries is presented. In this list, we have only given the δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries to show the effects of the secondary components and tidal-locking on the pulsations of primary δ Sct components. The stellar pulsation, atmospheric and fundamental parameters (e.g. mass, radius) of 92 δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries have been gathered. Comparison of the properties of single and eclipsing binary member δ Sct stars has been made. We find that single δ Sct stars pulsate in longer periods and with higher amplitudes than the primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries. The v sin I of δ Sct components is found to be significantly lower than that of single δ Sct stars. Relationships between the pulsation periods, amplitudes and stellar parameters in our list have been examined. Significant correlations between the pulsation periods and the orbital periods, Teff, log g, radius, mass ratio, v sin I and the filling factor have been found.
Tidal Disruption of Inclined or Eccentric Binaries by Massive Black Holes
Brown, Harriet; Kobayashi, Shiho; Rossi, Elena M.; Sari, Re'em
2018-04-01
Binary stars that are on close orbits around massive black holes (MBH) such as Sgr A* in the centre of the Milky Way are liable to undergo tidal disruption and eject a hypervelocity star. We study the interaction between such a MBH and circular binaries for general binary orientations and penetration depths (i.e. binaries penetrate into the tidal radius around the BH). We show that for very deep penetrators, almost all binaries are disrupted when the binary rotation axis is roughly oriented toward the BH or it is in the opposite direction. The surviving chance becomes significant when the angle between the binary rotation axis and the BH direction is between 0.15π and 0.85π. The surviving chance is as high as ˜20% when the binary rotation axis is perpendicular to the BH direction. However, for shallow penetrators, the highest disruption chance is found in such a perpendicular case, especially in the prograde case. This is because the dynamics of shallow penetrators is more sensitive to the relative orientation of the binary and orbital angular momenta. We provide numerical fits to the disruption probability and energy gain at the the BH encounter as a function of the penetration depth. The latter can be simply rescaled in terms of binary masses, their initial separation and the binary-to-BH mass ratio to evaluate the ejection velocity of a binary members in various systems. We also investigate the disruption of coplanar, eccentric binaries by a MBH. It is shown that for highly eccentric binaries retrograde orbits have a significantly increased disruption probability and ejection velocities compared to the circular binaries.
Evolution of binaries with compact objects in globular clusters
Ivanova, Natalia
2017-01-01
Dynamical interactions that take place between objects in dense stellar systems lead to frequent formation of exotic stellar objects, unusual binaries, and systems of higher multiplicity. They are most important for the formation of binaries with neutron stars and black holes, which are usually observationally revealed in mass-transferring binaries. Here we review the current understanding of compact object's retention, of the metallicity dependence on the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro; Zenginoglu, Anil
2011-01-01
We compute and analyze the gravitational waveform emitted to future null infinity by a system of two black holes in the large-mass-ratio limit. We consider the transition from the quasiadiabatic inspiral to plunge, merger, and ringdown. The relative dynamics is driven by a leading order in the mass ratio, 5PN-resummed, effective-one-body (EOB), analytic-radiation reaction. To compute the waveforms, we solve the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli equations in the time-domain on a spacelike foliation, which coincides with the standard Schwarzschild foliation in the region including the motion of the small black hole, and is globally hyperboloidal, allowing us to include future null infinity in the computational domain by compactification. This method is called the hyperboloidal layer method, and is discussed here for the first time in a study of the gravitational radiation emitted by black hole binaries. We consider binaries characterized by five mass ratios, ν=10 -2,-3,-4,-5,-6 , that are primary targets of space-based or third-generation gravitational wave detectors. We show significative phase differences between finite-radius and null-infinity waveforms. We test, in our context, the reliability of the extrapolation procedure routinely applied to numerical relativity waveforms. We present an updated calculation of the final and maximum gravitational recoil imparted to the merger remnant by the gravitational wave emission, v kick end /(cν 2 )=0.04474±0.00007 and v kick max /(cν 2 )=0.05248±0.00008. As a self-consistency test of the method, we show an excellent fractional agreement (even during the plunge) between the 5PN EOB-resummed mechanical angular momentum loss and the gravitational wave angular momentum flux computed at null infinity. New results concerning the radiation emitted from unstable circular orbits are also presented. The high accuracy waveforms computed here could be considered for the construction of template banks or for calibrating analytic models such
Non-Binary Protograph-Based LDPC Codes: Analysis,Enumerators and Designs
Sun, Yizeng
2013-01-01
Non-binary LDPC codes can outperform binary LDPC codes using sum-product algorithm with higher computation complexity. Non-binary LDPC codes based on protographs have the advantage of simple hardware architecture. In the first part of this thesis, we will use EXIT chart analysis to compute the thresholds of different protographs over GF(q). Based on threshold computation, some non-binary protograph-based LDPC codes are designed and their frame error rates are compared with binary LDPC codes. ...
Phase behaviour, interactions, and structural studies of (amines+ionic liquids) binary mixtures.
Jacquemin, Johan; Bendová, Magdalena; Sedláková, Zuzana; Blesic, Marijana; Holbrey, John D; Mullan, Claire L; Youngs, Tristan G A; Pison, Laure; Wagner, Zdeněk; Aim, Karel; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Hardacre, Christopher
2012-05-14
We present a study on the phase equilibrium behaviour of binary mixtures containing two 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide-based ionic liquids, [C(n)mim] [NTf(2)] (n=2 and 4), mixed with diethylamine or triethylamine as a function of temperature and composition using different experimental techniques. Based on this work, two systems showing an LCST and one system with a possible hourglass shape are measured. Their phase behaviours are then correlated and predicted by using Flory-Huggins equations and the UNIQUAC method implemented in Aspen. The potential of the COSMO-RS methodology to predict the phase equilibria was also tested for the binary systems studied. However, this methodology is unable to predict the trends obtained experimentally, limiting its use for systems involving amines in ionic liquids. The liquid-state structure of the binary mixture ([C(2)mim] [NTf(2)]+diethylamine) is also investigated by molecular dynamics simulation and neutron diffraction. Finally, the absorption of gaseous ethane by the ([C(2)mim][NTf(2)]+diethylamine) binary mixture is determined and compared with that observed in the pure solvents. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Binary Options as a Modern Fenomenon of Financial Business
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Kolková Andrea
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Binary options are a new instrument of the financial market. The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of binary options with trading and to illustrate this on the practical example of trades based on Bollinger bands indicator. Currency pair EUR/USD and 6912 time series values of this instrument will be put to analysis. The contribution will be evaluated 8 strategies based on Bollinger Bands. There will be used a backtesting method. From the results follows the most trades could have been realized with the use of Bollinger bands with a double deviation. This strategy, however, also showed the greatest percentage of failed trades. On the contrary the fewest transactions could have been carried out with Bollinger bands with a triple deviation and the MACD filter.
Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems
Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.
1973-01-01
Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.
Cache-Oblivious Search Trees via Binary Trees of Small Height
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Jacob, R.
2002-01-01
We propose a version of cache oblivious search trees which is simpler than the previous proposal of Bender, Demaine and Farach-Colton and has the same complexity bounds. In particular, our data structure avoids the use of weight balanced B-trees, and can be implemented as just a single array......, and range queries in worst case O(logB n + k/B) memory transfers, where k is the size of the output.The basic idea of our data structure is to maintain a dynamic binary tree of height log n+O(1) using existing methods, embed this tree in a static binary tree, which in turn is embedded in an array in a cache...... oblivious fashion, using the van Emde Boas layout of Prokop.We also investigate the practicality of cache obliviousness in the area of search trees, by providing an empirical comparison of different methods for laying out a search tree in memory....
(Liquid + liquid) equilibrium for binary systems of N-formylmorpholine with alkanes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhengrong; Xia Shuqian; Ma Peisheng; Liu Tao; Han Kewei
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The LLE data of four binary systems containing N-formylmorpholine were measured. ► Both NRTL and UNIQUAC models can fit the experimental data well. ► The new group interaction parameters of UNIFAC (Do) were regressed from the LLE data. ► The estimated result shows that the group interaction parameters and methods are reliable. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data were determined for four binary systems containing N-formylmorpholine (NFM) and alkanes (3-methylpentane, heptane, nonane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) over the temperature range from around 300 K to near 420 K using a set of newly designed equilibrium equipment. The compositions of both light and heavy phases were analyzed by gas chromatography. The mutual solubility increased as the temperature increased for all these systems. The binary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data were correlated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations with temperature-dependent parameters. Both models correlate the experimental results well. Furthermore, the UNIFAC (Do) group contribution model was used to correlate and estimate the LLE data for NFM containing systems. Two methods of group division for NFM were used. NFM is treated as a single group: NFM group (method I) or divided into two groups: CHO and C 4 H 8 NO (method II), respectively. The group interaction parameters for CH 2 –NFM, or CH 2 –CHO and CH 2 –C 4 H 8 NO were fitted from the experimental LLE data. The UNIFAC (Do) model correlates the experimental data well. In addition, in order to develop UNIFAC (Do) group contribution model to estimate the LLE data of (NFM + cycloalkane) systems, some literature LLE data were used. The group interaction parameters for c-CH 2 –NFM, c-CH 2 –CHO and c-CH 2 –C 4 H 8 NO were correlated. Then these group interaction parameters were used to estimate the phase equilibrium data of binary systems in the literature by the UNIFAC (Do) model. The results showed that the estimated values are in
Reconciliation with non-binary species trees.
Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton; Durand, Dannie
2008-10-01
Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|V(G) | x (k(S) + h(S))) time, where |V(G)| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, h(S) is the height of the species tree and k(S) is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in NOTUNG, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets.
LOCAL LINE BINARY PATTERN FOR FEATURE EXTRACTION ON PALM VEIN RECOGNITION
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Jayanti Yusmah Sari
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In recent years, palm vein recognition has been studied to overcome problems in conventional systems in biometrics technology (finger print, face, and iris. Those problems in biometrics includes convenience and performance. However, due to the clarity of the palm vein image, the veins could not be segmented properly. To overcome this problem, we propose a palm vein recognition system using Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP method that can extract robust features from the palm vein images that has unclear veins. LLBP is an advanced method of Local Binary Pattern (LBP, a texture descriptor based on the gray level comparison of a neighborhood of pixels. There are four major steps in this paper, Region of Interest (ROI detection, image preprocessing, features extraction using LLBP method, and matching using Fuzzy k-NN classifier. The proposed method was applied on the CASIA Multi-Spectral Image Database. Experimental results showed that the proposed method using LLBP has a good performance with recognition accuracy of 97.3%. In the future, experiments will be conducted to observe which parameter that could affect processing time and recognition accuracy of LLBP is needed
Extracting the orbital axis from gravitational waves of precessing binary systems
Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Masaru
2018-01-01
We present a new method for extracting the instantaneous orbital axis only from gravitational wave strains of precessing binary systems observed from a particular observer direction. This method enables us to reconstruct the coprecessing frame waveforms only from observed strains for the ideal case with the high signal-to-noise ratio. Specifically, we do not presuppose any theoretical model of the precession dynamics and coprecessing waveforms in our method. We test and measure the accuracy of our method using the numerical relativity simulation data of precessing binary black holes taken from the SXS Catalog. We show that the direction of the orbital axis is extracted within ≈0.07 rad error from gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral phase. The coprecessing waveforms are also reconstructed with high accuracy; the mismatch (assuming white noise) between them and the original coprecessing waveforms is typically a few times 10-3 including the merger-ringdown phase, and can be improved by an order of magnitude focusing only on the inspiral waveform. In this method, the coprecessing frame waveforms are not only the purely technical tools for understanding the complex nature of precessing waveforms but also direct observables.
Joint LIGO and TAMA300 search for gravitational waves from inspiralling neutron star binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bork, R.; Brown, D.A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.
2006-01-01
We search for coincident gravitational wave signals from inspiralling neutron star binaries using LIGO and TAMA300 data taken during early 2003. Using a simple trigger exchange method, we perform an intercollaboration coincidence search during times when TAMA300 and only one of the LIGO sites were operational. We find no evidence of any gravitational wave signals. We place an observational upper limit on the rate of binary neutron star coalescence with component masses between 1 and 3M · of 49 per year per Milky Way equivalent galaxy at a 90% confidence level. The methods developed during this search will find application in future network inspiral analyses
THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, Benjamin M.; Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R.
2012-01-01
We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for ∼17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.
THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clark, Benjamin M. [Penn Manor High School, 100 East Cottage Avenue, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States); Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R. [Princeton University, Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2012-01-10
We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for {approx}17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.
Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization for Combinatorial Optimization Problem
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Ibidun Christiana Obagbuwa
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The Cockroach Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm is inspired by cockroach social behavior. It is a simple and efficient meta-heuristic algorithm and has been applied to solve global optimization problems successfully. The original CSO algorithm and its variants operate mainly in continuous search space and cannot solve binary-coded optimization problems directly. Many optimization problems have their decision variables in binary. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO is proposed in this paper to tackle such problems and was evaluated on the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP, which is considered to be an NP-hard Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP. A transfer function was employed to map a continuous search space CSO to binary search space. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested firstly on benchmark functions through simulation studies and compared with the performance of existing binary particle swarm optimization and continuous space versions of CSO. The proposed BCSO was adapted to TSP and applied to a set of benchmark instances of symmetric TSP from the TSP library. The results of the proposed Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO algorithm on TSP were compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms.
A binary mixture operated heat pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hihara, E.; Saito, T.
1991-01-01
This paper evaluates the performance of possible binary mixtures as working fluids in high- temperature heat pump applications. The binary mixtures, which are potential alternatives of fully halogenated hydrocarbons, include HCFC142b/HCFC22, HFC152a/HCFC22, HFC134a/HCFC22. The performance of the mixtures is estimated by a thermodynamic model and a practical model in which the heat transfer is considered in heat exchangers. One of the advantages of binary mixtures is a higher coefficient of performance, which is caused by the small temperature difference between the heat-sink/-source fluid and the refrigerant. The mixture HCFC142b/HCFC22 is promising from the stand point of thermodynamic performance
Wide- and contact-binary formation in substructured young stellar clusters
Dorval, J.; Boily, C. M.; Moraux, E.; Roos, O.
2017-02-01
We explore with collisional gravitational N-body models the evolution of binary stars in initially fragmented and globally subvirial clusters of stars. Binaries are inserted in the (initially) clumpy configurations so as to match the observed distributions of the field-binary-stars' semimajor axes a and binary fraction versus primary mass. The dissolution rate of wide binaries is very high at the start of the simulations, and is much reduced once the clumps are eroded by the global infall. The transition between the two regimes is sharper as the number of stars N is increased, from N = 1.5 k up to 80 k. The fraction of dissolved binary stars increases only mildly with N, from ≈15 per cent to ≈25 per cent for the same range in N. We repeated the calculation for two initial system mean number densities of 6 per pc3 (low) and 400 per pc3 (high). We found that the longer free-fall time of the low-density runs allows for prolonged binary-binary interactions inside clumps and the formation of very tight (a ≈ 0.01 au) binaries by exchange collisions. This is an indication that the statistics of such compact binaries bear a direct link to their environment at birth. We also explore the formation of wide (a ≳ 5 × 104 au) binaries and find a low (≈0.01 per cent) fraction mildly bound to the central star cluster. The high-precision astrometric mission Gaia could identify them as outflowing shells or streams.
An Efficient Binary Differential Evolution with Parameter Adaptation
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Dongli Jia
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Differential Evolution (DE has been applied to many scientific and engineering problems for its simplicity and efficiency. However, the standard DE cannot be used in a binary search space directly. This paper proposes an adaptive binary Differential Evolution algorithm, or ABDE, that has a similar framework as the standard DE but with an improved binary mutation strategy in which the best individual participates. To further enhance the search ability, the parameters of the ABDE are slightly disturbed in an adaptive manner. Experiments have been carried out by comparing ABDE with two binary DE variants, normDE and BDE, and the most used binary search technique, GA, on a set of 13 selected benchmark functions and the classical 0-1 knapsack problem. Results show that the ABDE performs better than, or at least comparable to, the other algorithms in terms of search ability, convergence speed, and solution accuracy.
Beyond binaries : a way forward for comparativeeducation
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Marianne Larsen
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Binary discourses shape and produce the stories we construct about the field of comparative education. In the first part of this article, I review a set of binary discourses that have characterized social science research since the Enlightenment, including: quantitative-qualitative, nomotheticidiographic, inductive-deductive, and practice-theory. We can think of each of these binaries at opposite ends of a set of spectrums. In the second section of the paper, I show some of the ways in which these binaries have influenced the ways that we write and talk about research within the field of comparative education. I refer to the notion of binary discourses and the productive capacity of these discourses to shape our field. I then outline some critiques of these binaries to demonstrate the inherent limitations of binary discourses, and why we need to move beyond binaries in our research, and in the histories about our field. Finally, I present some tentative conclusions on ways to get ourselves out of the trap of binary thinking.Los discursos binarios moldean y producen los argumentos que construimos sobre la disciplina de la Educación Comparada. En la primera parte de este artículo, analizo un conjunto de discursos binarios que han caracterizado la investigación en Ciencias Sociales desde la Ilustración, incluyendo la cuantitativa-cualitativa, nomotética-idiográfica, inductivadeductiva, y la práctica-teoría. Podemos pensar sobre cada uno de estos discursos binarios como argumentos en los polos de un conjunto de posibilidades. En la segunda sección del artículo, revelo algunos modos en los que estos discursos binarios han influenciado las formas a través de las cuales escribimos y analizamos la investigación en el ámbito de la Educación Comparada. Analizo la noción de discursos binarios y la capacidad productiva de estos discursos de impactar nuestra ciencia. Seguidamente expongo algunas críticas de estos discursos binarios con el
Binary operators and their Green's functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheff, J.R.
1982-01-01
Three topics are considered. First, the Langevin approach to neutron noise is used as a basis and guide to develop solutions and solution techniques for the ChapmanKolmogorov forward equation approach to neutron noise. The approach followed throughout this first part is that of solution by means of Green's functions. A particular form for the binary operator Green's function was picked on the basis of the Langevin method. Second, the basic solution technique using the particular Green's function form mentioned above is proven to be a correct and a general result. It is proven that the binary operator is always separable and that the Green's function could be written as the product of two single operator Green's functions. This is a new result. Third and finally, the forward equation approach of Chapman-Kolmogorov is generalized to include time allowing differential equations for second and higher order correlation functions to be developed directly. The principal result of the last section, the differential equation for correlation function of the neutron density, is new. Its derivation is really outside of or broader than the scope indicated by the title of the paper
Grammar-Based Specification and Parsing of Binary File Formats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William Underwood
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The capability to validate and view or play binary file formats, as well as to convert binary file formats to standard or current file formats, is critically important to the preservation of digital data and records. This paper describes the extension of context-free grammars from strings to binary files. Binary files are arrays of data types, such as long and short integers, floating-point numbers and pointers, as well as characters. The concept of an attribute grammar is extended to these context-free array grammars. This attribute grammar has been used to define a number of chunk-based and directory-based binary file formats. A parser generator has been used with some of these grammars to generate syntax checkers (recognizers for validating binary file formats. Among the potential benefits of an attribute grammar-based approach to specification and parsing of binary file formats is that attribute grammars not only support format validation, but support generation of error messages during validation of format, validation of semantic constraints, attribute value extraction (characterization, generation of viewers or players for file formats, and conversion to current or standard file formats. The significance of these results is that with these extensions to core computer science concepts, traditional parser/compiler technologies can potentially be used as a part of a general, cost effective curation strategy for binary file formats.
Generation of binary holograms with a Kinect sensor for a high speed color holographic display
Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio; Son, Jung-Young
2017-05-01
The Kinect sensor is a device that enables to capture a real scene with a camera and a depth sensor. A virtual model of the scene can then be obtained with a point cloud representation. A complex hologram can then be computed. However, complex data cannot be used directly because display devices cannot handle amplitude and phase modulation at the same time. Binary holograms are commonly used since they present several advantages. Among the methods that were proposed to convert holograms into a binary format, the direct-binary search (DBS) not only gives the best performance, it also offers the possibility to choose the display parameters of the binary hologram differently than the original complex hologram. Since wavelength and reconstruction distance can be modified, compensation of chromatic aberrations can be handled. In this study, we examine the potential of DBS for RGB holographic display.
A BVRCIC SURVEY OF W URSAE MAJORIS BINARIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terrell, Dirk; Gross, John; Cooney, Walter R.
2012-01-01
We report on a BVR C I C survey of field W Ursae Majoris binary stars and present accurate colors for 606 systems that have been observed on at least three photometric nights from a robotic observatory in southern Arizona. Comparison with earlier photometry for a subset of the systems shows good agreement. We investigate two independent methods of determining the interstellar reddening, although both have limitations that can render them less effective than desired. A subset of 101 systems shows good agreement between the two reddening methods.
Comments on the evolution and origin of cataclysmic binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.
1980-01-01
Aspects of the observational data on cataclysmic binaries are discussed and possible correlations between type of behaviour and binary period are noted. A gap between 2 and 3 hr in binary periods is judged to be real. A simple numerical procedure for evolving Roche-lobe-filling stars is described, and applied to white dwarf-red dwarf binaries for various mass loss and angular momentum loss mechanisms, and initial conditions. The results, in which the short-time-scale behaviour of the systems is ignored, are classified into four modes of evolution: normal, nuclear evolution dominated, angular momentum loss dominated and hydrodynamical. The clustering below 2 hr is interpreted in terms of evolution following the hydrodynamical mode, and it is suggested that both stars in such systems are of low mass. This may be the commonest type of cataclysmic binary. A possible explanation for the apparent clustering of classical novae to periods of 3 to 5 hr is given, and evolutionary schemes for cataclysmic binaries outlined. It is suggested that the short-period systems (approximately < 2 hr) arise mainly from late case B mass transfer in the original binary and the longer period systems mainly from case C. (author)
Abnormal scattering of polymer in binary solvent
To, Kiwing; Kim, Chul A.; Choi, Hyoung J.
The behavior of a high molecular weight polymer (polyethylene-oxide, PEO) in a binary liquid mixture (nitroethane/3-methyl-pentane, NE/MP) is studied at the one-phase temperature of NE/MP by static and dynamic light scattering methods. We found that the scattering intensity increased abruptly near the critical composition of NE/MP although the sample was very far from the critical temperature of NE/MP. Explanations in terms of critical opalescence and wetting layer inversion are discussed.
Computer Vision Using Local Binary Patterns
Pietikainen, Matti; Zhao, Guoying; Ahonen, Timo
2011-01-01
The recent emergence of Local Binary Patterns (LBP) has led to significant progress in applying texture methods to various computer vision problems and applications. The focus of this research has broadened from 2D textures to 3D textures and spatiotemporal (dynamic) textures. Also, where texture was once utilized for applications such as remote sensing, industrial inspection and biomedical image analysis, the introduction of LBP-based approaches have provided outstanding results in problems relating to face and activity analysis, with future scope for face and facial expression recognition, b
A Bi-Band Binary Mask Based Land-Use Change Detection Using Landsat 8 OLI Imagery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xian Li
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Land use and cover change (LUCC is important for the global biogeochemical cycle and ecosystem. This paper introduced a change detection method based on a bi-band binary mask and an improved fuzzy c-means algorithm to research the LUCC. First, the bi-band binary mask approach with the core concept being the correlation coefficients between bands from different images are used to locate target areas with a likelihood of having changed areas. Second, the improved fuzzy c-means (FCM algorithm was used to execute classification on the target areas. This improved algorithm used distances to the Voronoi cell of the cluster instead of the Euclidean distance to the cluster center in the calculation of membership, and some other improvements were also used to decrease the loops and save time. Third, the post classification comparison was executed to get more accurate change information. As references, change detection using univariate band binary mask and NDVI binary mask were executed. The change detection methods were applied to Landsat 8 OLI images acquired in 2013 and 2015 to map LUCC in Chengwu, north China. The accuracy assessment was executed on classification results and change detection results. The overall accuracy of classification results of the improved FCM is 95.70% and the standard FCM is 84.40%. The average accuracy of change detection results using bi-band mask is 88.92%, using NDVI mask is 81.95%, and using univariate band binary mask is 56.01%. The result of the bi-band mask change detection shows that the change from farmland to built land is the main change type in the study area: total area is 9.03 km2. The developed method in the current study can be an effective approach to evaluate the LUCC and the results helpful for the land policy makers.
Extreme gravity tests with gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences: (II) ringdown
Berti, Emanuele; Yagi, Kent; Yang, Huan; Yunes, Nicolás
2018-05-01
The LIGO/Virgo detections of binary black hole mergers marked a watershed moment in astronomy, ushering in the era of precision tests of Kerr dynamics. We review theoretical and experimental challenges that must be overcome to carry out black hole spectroscopy with present and future gravitational wave detectors. Among other topics, we discuss quasinormal mode excitation in binary mergers, astrophysical event rates, tests of black hole dynamics in modified theories of gravity, parameterized "post-Kerr" ringdown tests, exotic compact objects, and proposed data analysis methods to improve spectroscopic tests of Kerr dynamics by stacking multiple events.
Kiarostami, Vahid; Rouini, Mohamad-Reza; Mohammadian, Razieh; Lavasani, Hoda; Ghazaghi, Mehri
2014-02-03
Tramadol is an opioid, synthetic analog of codeine and has been used for the treatment of acute or chronic pain may be abused. In this work, a developed Dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) as binary solvents-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (BS-DLLME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD) was employed for determination of tramadol in the urine samples. This procedure involves the use of an appropriate mixture of binary extraction solvents (70 μL CHCl3 and 30 μL ethyl acetate) and disperser solvent (600 μL acetone) for the formation of cloudy solution in 5 ml urine sample comprising tramadol and NaCl (7.5%, w/v). After centrifuging, the small droplets of extraction solvents were precipitated. In the final step, the HPLC with fluorescence detection was used for determination of tramadol in the precipitated phase. Various factors on the efficiency of the proposed procedure were investigated and optimized. The detection limit (S/N = 3) and quantification limit (S/N = 10) were found 0.2 and 0.9 μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for the extraction of 30 μg L of tramadol was found 4.1% (n = 6). The relative recoveries of tramadol from urine samples at spiking levels of 10, 30 and 60 μg/L were in the range of 95.6 - 99.6%. Compared with other methods, this method provides good figures of merit such as good repeatability, high extraction efficiency, short analysis time, simple procedure and can be used as microextraction technique for routine analysis in clinical laboratories.
The binary fraction of planetary nebula central stars - III. the promise of VPHAS+
Barker, Helen; Zijlstra, Albert; De Marco, Orsola; Frew, David J.; Drew, Janet E.; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Eislöffel, Jochen; Parker, Quentin A.
2018-04-01
The majority of planetary nebulae (PNe) are not spherical, and current single-star models cannot adequately explain all the morphologies we observe. This has led to the Binary Hypothesis, which states that PNe are preferentially formed by binary systems. This hypothesis can be corroborated or disproved by comparing the estimated binary fraction of all PNe central stars (CS) to that of the supposed progenitor population. One way to quantify the rate of CS binarity is to detect near infrared excess indicative of a low-mass main-sequence companion. In this paper, a sample of known PNe within data release 2 of the ongoing VPHAS+ is investigated. We give details of the method used to calibrate VPHAS+ photometry, and present the expected colours of CS and main-sequence stars within the survey. Objects were scrutinized to remove PN mimics from our sample and identify true CS. Within our final sample of seven CS, six had previously either not been identified or confirmed. We detected an i-band excess indicative of a low-mass companion star in three CS, including one known binary, leading us to conclude that VPHAS+ provides the precise photometry required for the IR excess method presented here, and will likely improve as the survey completes and the calibration process finalized. Given the promising results from this trial sample, the entire VPHAS+ catalogue should be used to study PNe and extend the IR excess-tested CS sample.
Krylov iterative methods and synthetic acceleration for transport in binary statistical media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fichtl, Erin D.; Warsa, James S.; Prinja, Anil K.
2009-01-01
In particle transport applications there are numerous physical constructs in which heterogeneities are randomly distributed. The quantity of interest in these problems is the ensemble average of the flux, or the average of the flux over all possible material 'realizations.' The Levermore-Pomraning closure assumes Markovian mixing statistics and allows a closed, coupled system of equations to be written for the ensemble averages of the flux in each material. Generally, binary statistical mixtures are considered in which there are two (homogeneous) materials and corresponding coupled equations. The solution process is iterative, but convergence may be slow as either or both materials approach the diffusion and/or atomic mix limits. A three-part acceleration scheme is devised to expedite convergence, particularly in the atomic mix-diffusion limit where computation is extremely slow. The iteration is first divided into a series of 'inner' material and source iterations to attenuate the diffusion and atomic mix error modes separately. Secondly, atomic mix synthetic acceleration is applied to the inner material iteration and S 2 synthetic acceleration to the inner source iterations to offset the cost of doing several inner iterations per outer iteration. Finally, a Krylov iterative solver is wrapped around each iteration, inner and outer, to further expedite convergence. A spectral analysis is conducted and iteration counts and computing cost for the new two-step scheme are compared against those for a simple one-step iteration, to which a Krylov iterative method can also be applied.
Non-binary or genderqueer genders
Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O; T'Sjoen, Guy
2016-01-01
Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are genderqueer' or non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging ...
Statistical Analysis of a Comprehensive List of Visual Binaries
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Kovaleva D.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Visual binary stars are the most abundant class of observed binaries. The most comprehensive list of data on visual binaries compiled recently by cross-matching the largest catalogues of visual binaries allowed a statistical investigation of observational parameters of these systems. The dataset was cleaned by correcting uncertainties and misclassifications, and supplemented with available parallax data. The refined dataset is free from technical biases and contains 3676 presumably physical visual pairs of luminosity class V with known angular separations, magnitudes of the components, spectral types, and parallaxes. We also compiled a restricted sample of 998 pairs free from observational biases due to the probability of binary discovery. Certain distributions of observational and physical parameters of stars of our dataset are discussed.
Main Memory Implementations for Binary Grouping
May, Norman; Moerkotte, Guido
2005-01-01
An increasing number of applications depend on efficient storage and analysis features for XML data. Hence, query optimization and efficient evaluation techniques for the emerging XQuery standard become more and more important. Many XQuery queries require nested expressions. Unnesting them often introduces binary grouping. We introduce several algorithms implementing binary grouping and analyze their time and space complexity. Experiments demonstrate their performance.
Binary Tree Pricing to Convertible Bonds with Credit Risk under Stochastic Interest Rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianbo Huang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The convertible bonds usually have multiple additional provisions that make their pricing problem more difficult than straight bonds and options. This paper uses the binary tree method to model the finance market. As the underlying stock prices and the interest rates are important to the convertible bonds, we describe their dynamic processes by different binary tree. Moreover, we consider the influence of the credit risks on the convertible bonds that is described by the default rate and the recovery rate; then the two-factor binary tree model involving the credit risk is established. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, we make numerical simulation and get the pricing results when the stock prices are CRR model and the interest rates follow the constant volatility and the time-varying volatility, respectively. This model can be extended to other financial derivative instruments.
Distinguishing Between Formation Channels for Binary Black Holes with LISA
Breivik, Katelyn; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Rasio, Frederic A.
2017-01-01
The recent detections of GW150914 and GW151226 imply an abundance of stellar-mass binary-black-hole mergers in the local universe. While ground-based gravitational-wave detectors are limited to observing the final moments before a binary merges, space-based detectors, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), can observe binaries at lower orbital frequencies where such systems may still encode information about their formation histories. In particular, the orbital eccentricity and mass of binary black holes in the LISA frequency band can be used together to discriminate between binaries formed in isolation in galactic fields and those formed in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters. In this letter, we explore the orbital eccentricity and mass of binary-black-hole populations as they evolve through the LISA frequency band. Overall we find that there are two distinct populations discernible by LISA. We show that up to ~90% of binaries formed either dynamically or in isolation have eccentricities measurable by LISA. Finally, we note how measured eccentricities of low-mass binary black holes evolved in isolation could provide detailed constraints on the physics of black-hole natal kicks and common-envelope evolution.
Binary joint transform correlation using error-diffusion techniques
Inbar, Hanni; Marom, Emanuel; Konforti, Naim
1993-08-01
Optical pattern recognition techniques based on the optical joint transform correlator (JTC) scheme are attractive due to their simplicity. Recent improvements in spatial light modulators (SLM) increased the popularity of the JTC, providing means for real time operation. Using a binary SLM for the display of the Fourier spectrum, first requires binarization of the joint power spectrum distribution. Although hard-clipping is the simplest and most common binarization method used, we suggest to apply error-diffusion as an improved binarization technique. The performance of a binary JTC, whose input image is considered to contain additive zero-mean white Gaussian noise, is investigated. Various ways for nonlinearly modifying the joint power spectrum prior to the binarization step, which is based on either error-diffusion or hard-clipping techniques, are discussed. These nonlinear modifications aim at increasing the contrast of the interference fringes at the joint power spectrum plane, leading to better definition of the correlation signal. Mathematical analysis, computer simulations and experimental results are presented.
QTest: Quantitative Testing of Theories of Binary Choice.
Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Lim, Shiau Hong; Guo, Ying; Popova, Anna; Zwilling, Chris; Cha, Yun-Shil; Messner, William
2014-01-01
The goal of this paper is to make modeling and quantitative testing accessible to behavioral decision researchers interested in substantive questions. We provide a novel, rigorous, yet very general, quantitative diagnostic framework for testing theories of binary choice. This permits the nontechnical scholar to proceed far beyond traditionally rather superficial methods of analysis, and it permits the quantitatively savvy scholar to triage theoretical proposals before investing effort into complex and specialized quantitative analyses. Our theoretical framework links static algebraic decision theory with observed variability in behavioral binary choice data. The paper is supplemented with a custom-designed public-domain statistical analysis package, the QTest software. We illustrate our approach with a quantitative analysis using published laboratory data, including tests of novel versions of "Random Cumulative Prospect Theory." A major asset of the approach is the potential to distinguish decision makers who have a fixed preference and commit errors in observed choices from decision makers who waver in their preferences.
QTest: Quantitative Testing of Theories of Binary Choice
Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Lim, Shiau Hong; Guo, Ying; Popova, Anna; Zwilling, Chris; Cha, Yun-Shil; Messner, William
2014-01-01
The goal of this paper is to make modeling and quantitative testing accessible to behavioral decision researchers interested in substantive questions. We provide a novel, rigorous, yet very general, quantitative diagnostic framework for testing theories of binary choice. This permits the nontechnical scholar to proceed far beyond traditionally rather superficial methods of analysis, and it permits the quantitatively savvy scholar to triage theoretical proposals before investing effort into complex and specialized quantitative analyses. Our theoretical framework links static algebraic decision theory with observed variability in behavioral binary choice data. The paper is supplemented with a custom-designed public-domain statistical analysis package, the QTest software. We illustrate our approach with a quantitative analysis using published laboratory data, including tests of novel versions of “Random Cumulative Prospect Theory.” A major asset of the approach is the potential to distinguish decision makers who have a fixed preference and commit errors in observed choices from decision makers who waver in their preferences. PMID:24999495
Enthalpies of a binary alloy during solidification
Poirier, D. R.; Nandapurkar, P.
1988-01-01
The purpose of the paper is to present a method of calculating the enthalpy of a dendritic alloy during solidification. The enthalpies of the dendritic solid and interdendritic liquid of alloys of the Pb-Sn system are evaluated, but the method could be applied to other binaries, as well. The enthalpies are consistent with a recent evaluation of the thermodynamics of Pb-Sn alloys and with the redistribution of solute in the same during dendritic solidification. Because of the heat of mixing in Pb-Sn alloys, the interdendritic liquid of hypoeutectic alloys (Pb-rich) of less than 50 wt pct Sn has enthalpies that increase as temperature decreases during solidification.
Optical three-step binary-logic-gate-based MSD arithmetic
Fyath, R. S.; Alsaffar, A. A. W.; Alam, M. S.
2003-11-01
A three-step modified signed-digit (MSD) adder is proposed which can be optically implmented using binary logic gates. The proposed scheme depends on encoding each MSD digits into a pair of binary digits using a two-state and multi-position based encoding scheme. The design algorithm depends on constructing the addition truth table of binary-coded MSD numbers and then using Karnaugh map to achieve output minimization. The functions associated with the optical binary logic gates are achieved by simply programming the decoding masks of an optical shadow-casting logic system.
THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bosch-Ramon, V., E-mail: vzabalza@am.ub.es [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2011-12-10
Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.
The cool surfaces of binary near-Earth asteroids
Delbo, Marco; Walsh, Kevin; Mueller, Michael; Harris, Alan W.; Howell, Ellen S.
2011-03-01
Here we show results from thermal-infrared observations of km-sized binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). We combine previously published thermal properties for NEAs with newly derived values for three binary NEAs. The η value derived from the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) for each object is then used to estimate an average thermal inertia for the population of binary NEAs and compared against similar estimates for the population of non-binaries. We find that these objects have, in general, surface temperatures cooler than the average values for non-binary NEAs as suggested by elevated η values. We discuss how this may be evidence of higher-than-average surface thermal inertia. This latter physical parameter is a sensitive indicator of the presence or absence of regolith: bodies covered with fine regolith, such as the Earth’s moon, have low thermal inertia, whereas a surface with little or no regolith displays high thermal inertia. Our results are suggestive of a binary formation mechanism capable of altering surface properties, possibly removing regolith: an obvious candidate is the YORP effect. We present also newly determined sizes and geometric visible albedos derived from thermal-infrared observations of three binary NEAs: (5381) Sekhmet, (153591) 2001 SN263, and (164121) 2003 YT1. The diameters of these asteroids are 1.41 ± 0.21 km, 1.56 ± 0.31 km, and 2.63 ± 0.40 km, respectively. Their albedos are 0.23 ± 0.13, 0.24 ± 0.16, and 0.048 ± 0.015, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rekaya R
2016-11-01
proposed method. Additionally, truly misclassified binary records were identified with high probability using the proposed method. The superiority of the proposed method was maintained across different simulation parameters (misclassification rates and odds ratios attesting to its robustness. Keywords: binary responses, misclassification, specificity, sensitivity
Dynamic Inertia Weight Binary Bat Algorithm with Neighborhood Search
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingwang Huang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Binary bat algorithm (BBA is a binary version of the bat algorithm (BA. It has been proven that BBA is competitive compared to other binary heuristic algorithms. Since the update processes of velocity in the algorithm are consistent with BA, in some cases, this algorithm also faces the premature convergence problem. This paper proposes an improved binary bat algorithm (IBBA to solve this problem. To evaluate the performance of IBBA, standard benchmark functions and zero-one knapsack problems have been employed. The numeric results obtained by benchmark functions experiment prove that the proposed approach greatly outperforms the original BBA and binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO. Compared with several other heuristic algorithms on zero-one knapsack problems, it also verifies that the proposed algorithm is more able to avoid local minima.
Thinking about the Unthinkable: Transgender in an Immutable Binary World
Cook-Daniels, Loree
2010-01-01
This essay discusses ways in which people attempt to reconcile or resolve their own cognitive dissonance engendered by transgender people in a society in which gender is perceived as both binary (male OR female) and immutable (an unalterable state or condition). The author suggests these cognitive dissonance reduction methods may be utilized in…
Asymmetric supernova explosions and the origin of binary pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sutantyo, W.
1978-01-01
The author investigates the effect of asymmetric supernova explosions on the orbital parameters of binary systems with a compact component. Such explosions are related to the origin of binary pulsars. The degree of asymmetry of the explosion is represented by the kick velocity gained by the exploding star due to the asymmetric mass ejection. The required kick velocity to produce the observed parameters of the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 should be larger than approximately 80 km s -1 if the mass of the exploding star is larger than approximately 4 solar masses. The mean survival probability of the binary system ( ) is examined for various degrees of asymmetry in the explosion. The rare occurrence of a binary pulsar does not neccessarily imply that such a probability is low since not all pulsars have originated in a binary system. Assuming the birth rate of pulsars by Taylor and Manchester (1977), it is derived that would be as high as 0.25. Such values of can be obtained if the mass of the exploding stars is, in general, not large (< approximately 10 solar masses). (Auth.)
Mass loss from interacting close binary systems
Plavec, M. J.
1981-01-01
The three well-defined classes of evolved binary systems that show evidence of present and/or past mass loss are the cataclysmic variables, the Algols, and Wolf-Rayet stars. It is thought that the transformation of supergiant binary systems into the very short-period cataclysmic variables must have been a complex process. The new evidence that has recently been obtained from the far ultraviolet spectra that a certain subclass of the Algols (the Serpentids) are undergoing fairly rapid evolution is discussed. It is thought probable that the remarkable mass outflow observed in them is connected with a strong wind powered by accretion. The origin of the circumbinary clouds or flat disks that probably surround many strongly interacting binaries is not clear. Attention is also given to binary systems with hot white dwarf or subdwarf components, such as the symbiotic objects and the BQ stars; it is noted that in them both components may be prone to an enhanced stellar wind.
The Discovery of the Most Accelerated Binary Pulsar
Cameron, A. D.; Champion, D. J.; Kramer, M.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bassa, C. G.; Bhandari, S.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Eatough, R. P.; Flynn, C. M. L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.
2018-01-01
Pulsars in relativistic binary systems have emerged as fantastic natural laboratories for testing theories of gravity, the most prominent example being the double pulsar, PSR J0737$-$3039. The HTRU-South Low Latitude pulsar survey represents one of the most sensitive blind pulsar surveys taken of the southern Galactic plane to date, and its primary aim has been the discovery of new relativistic binary pulsars. Here we present our binary pulsar searching strategy and report on the survey's fla...
Binary black hole initial data from matched asymptotic expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yunes, Nicolas; Owen, Benjamin J.; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bruegmann, Bernd
2006-01-01
We present an approximate metric for a binary black-hole spacetime to construct initial data for numerical relativity. This metric is obtained by asymptotically matching a post-Newtonian metric for a binary system to a perturbed Schwarzschild metric for each hole. In the inner zone near each hole, the metric is given by the Schwarzschild solution plus a quadrupolar perturbation corresponding to an external tidal gravitational field. In the near zone, well outside each black hole but less than a reduced wavelength from the center of mass of the binary, the metric is given by a post-Newtonian expansion including the lowest-order deviations from flat spacetime. When the near zone overlaps each inner zone in a buffer zone, the post-Newtonian and perturbed Schwarzschild metrics can be asymptotically matched to each other. By demanding matching (over a 4-volume in the buffer zone) rather than patching (choosing a particular 2-surface in the buffer zone), we guarantee that the errors are small in all zones. The resulting piecewise metric is made formally C ∞ with smooth transition functions so as to obtain the finite extrinsic curvature of a 3-slice. In addition to the metric and extrinsic curvature, we present explicit results for the lapse and the shift, which can be used as initial data for numerical simulations. This initial data is not accurate all the way to the asymptotically flat ends inside each hole, and therefore must be used with evolution codes which employ black hole excision rather than puncture methods. This paper lays the foundations of a method that can be straightforwardly iterated to obtain initial data to higher perturbative order
Shrinking of Binaries in a WIMPY Background at the Galactic Center
Hills, J. G.
2001-12-01
The nature of the dark matter in the Galactic Halo is still not clear. Constraints can be placed on it; e.g., it cannot be in baryons less massive than about 1022 grams (Hills, 1986, Astron. J. 92, 595). It may be in elementary weakly interacting massive particles, WIMPS. Apart from providing most of the mass of the Galaxy, the only known significant dynamical effect of WIMPS is to cause a gradual shrinking of tightly bound binaries (Hills 1983, Astron. J. 88, 1269) as they interact with the background soup of WIMPS. This effect may be observable in binaries close to the Galactic Center if a significant fraction of the mass density near the central black hole is from WIMPS. The requisite binaries would have to have orbital velocities greater than the local velocity dispersion of the WIMPS relative to the binary. The velocity dispersion increases near the black hole. The binary cannot be too close to the black hole or its tidal field will breakup the binary. If the local WIMP density is 107 g/cm3, the fractional rate of reduction in the binary orbital period is about 5 x 10-10/yr for a binary having a semimajor axis equal to 3 solar radii in a soup of WIMPS having a velocity dispersion of 200 km/s relative to the binary. This gradual erosion of the binary period may be detectable, particularly, if one of the binary components is a pulsar.
Higher-order relativistic periastron advances and binary pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, T.; Schafer, G.
1988-01-01
The contributions to the periastron advance of a system of two condensed bodies coming from relativistic dynamical effects of order higher than the usual first post-Newtonian (1PN) equations of motion are investigated. The structure of the solution of the orbital second post-Newtonian (2PN) equations of motion is given in a simple parametrized form. The contributions to the secular pariastron advance, and the period, of orbital 2PN effects are then explicitly worked out by using the Hamilton-Jacobi method. The spin-orbit contribution to the secular precession of the orbit in space is rederived in a streamlined way by making full use of Hamiltonian methods. These results are then applied to the theoretical interpretation of the observational data of pulsars in close eccentric binary systems. It is shown that the higher-order relativistic contributions are already of theoretical and astophysical significance for interpreting the high-precision measurement of the secular periastron advance of PSR 1913+16 achived by Taylor and coworkers. The case of extremely fast spinning (millisecond) binary pulsars is also discussed, and shown to offer an easier ground for getting new tests of general relativity, and/or, a direct measurement of the moment of inertia of a neutron star
Optimized reversible binary-coded decimal adders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert
2008-01-01
Abstract Babu and Chowdhury [H.M.H. Babu, A.R. Chowdhury, Design of a compact reversible binary coded decimal adder circuit, Journal of Systems Architecture 52 (5) (2006) 272-282] recently proposed, in this journal, a reversible adder for binary-coded decimals. This paper corrects and optimizes...... their design. The optimized 1-decimal BCD full-adder, a 13 × 13 reversible logic circuit, is faster, and has lower circuit cost and less garbage bits. It can be used to build a fast reversible m-decimal BCD full-adder that has a delay of only m + 17 low-power reversible CMOS gates. For a 32-decimal (128-bit....... Keywords: Reversible logic circuit; Full-adder; Half-adder; Parallel adder; Binary-coded decimal; Application of reversible logic synthesis...
FORMATION OF BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanova, N.; Heinke, C. O.; Woods, T. E.; Chaichenets, S.; Fregeau, J.; Lombardi, J. C.
2010-01-01
Inspired by the recent identification in extragalactic globular clusters of the first candidate black hole-white dwarf (BH-WD) X-ray binaries, where the compact accretors may be stellar-mass black holes (BHs), we explore how such binaries could be formed in a dynamical environment. We provide analyses of the formation rates via well-known formation channels like binary exchange and physical collisions and propose that the only possibility of forming BH-WD binaries is via coupling these usual formation channels with subsequent hardening and/or triple formation. In particular, we find that the most important mechanism for the creation of a BH-WD X-ray binary from an initially dynamically formed BH-WD binary is mass transfer induced in a triple system via the Kozai mechanism. Furthermore, we find that BH-WD binaries that evolve into X-ray sources can be formed by exchanges of a BH into a WD-WD binary or possibly by collisions of a BH and a giant star. If BHs undergo significant evaporation from the cluster or form a completely detached subcluster of BHs, then we cannot match the observationally inferred production rates even using the most optimistic estimates of formation rates. To explain the observations with stellar-mass BH-WD binaries, at least 1% of all formed BHs, or presumably 10% of the BHs present in the core now, must be involved in interactions with the rest of the core stellar population.
Evolution in close binary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.
1983-01-01
Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components
Automated calculation of complete Pxy and Txy diagrams for binary systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cismondi, Martin; Michelsen, Michael Locht
2007-01-01
phase equilibrium calculations in binary systems, in: Proceedings of the CD-ROM EQUIFASE 2006, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, October 21-25, 2006; www.gpec.plapiqui.edu.ar]. In this work we present the methods and computational strategy for the automated calculation of complete Pxy and Txy diagrams...
Automated Generation of Phase Diagrams for Binary Systems with Azeotropic Behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cismondi, Martin; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Zabaloy, Marcelo S.
2008-01-01
In this work, we propose a computational strategy and methods for the automated calculation of complete loci of homogeneous azeotropy of binary mixtures and the related Pxy and Txy diagrams for models of the equation-of-state (EOS) type. The strategy consists of first finding the system...
The gravitational-wave memory from eccentric binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Favata, Marc
2011-01-01
The nonlinear gravitational-wave memory causes a time-varying but nonoscillatory correction to the gravitational-wave polarizations. It arises from gravitational-waves that are sourced by gravitational-waves. Previous considerations of the nonlinear memory effect have focused on quasicircular binaries. Here I consider the nonlinear memory from Newtonian orbits with arbitrary eccentricity. Expressions for the waveform polarizations and spin-weighted spherical-harmonic modes are derived for elliptic, hyperbolic, parabolic, and radial orbits. In the hyperbolic, parabolic, and radial cases the nonlinear memory provides a 2.5 post-Newtonian (PN) correction to the leading-order waveforms. This is in contrast to the elliptical and quasicircular cases, where the nonlinear memory corrects the waveform at leading (0PN) order. This difference in PN order arises from the fact that the memory builds up over a short ''scattering'' time scale in the hyperbolic case, as opposed to a much longer radiation-reaction time scale in the elliptical case. The nonlinear memory corrections presented here complete our knowledge of the leading-order (Peters-Mathews) waveforms for elliptical orbits. These calculations are also relevant for binaries with quasicircular orbits in the present epoch which had, in the past, large eccentricities. Because the nonlinear memory depends sensitively on the past evolution of a binary, I discuss the effect of this early-time eccentricity on the value of the late-time memory in nearly circularized binaries. I also discuss the observability of large ''memory jumps'' in a binary's past that could arise from its formation in a capture process. Lastly, I provide estimates of the signal-to-noise ratio of the linear and nonlinear memories from hyperbolic and parabolic binaries.
Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories
Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán
2017-09-01
Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.
Coalescence of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masaru Shibata
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We review the current status of general relativistic studies for the coalescence of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS binaries. First, procedures for a solution of BH-NS binaries in quasi-equilibrium circular orbits and the numerical results, such as quasi-equilibrium sequence and mass-shedding limit, of the high-precision computation, are summarized. Then, the current status of numerical-relativity simulations for the merger of BH-NS binaries is described. We summarize our understanding for the merger and/or tidal disruption processes, the criterion for tidal disruption, the properties of the remnant formed after the tidal disruption, gravitational waveform, and gravitational-wave spectrum.
Light equation in eclipsing binary CV Boo: third body candidate in elliptical orbit
Bogomazov, A. I.; Kozyreva, V. S.; Satovskii, B. L.; Krushevska, V. N.; Kuznyetsova, Y. G.; Ehgamberdiev, S. A.; Karimov, R. G.; Khalikova, A. V.; Ibrahimov, M. A.; Irsmambetova, T. R.; Tutukov, A. V.
2016-12-01
A short period eclipsing binary star CV Boo is tested for the possible existence of additional bodies in the system with a help of the light equation method. We use data on the moments of minima from the literature as well as from our observations during 2014 May-July. A variation of the CV Boo's orbital period is found with a period of {≈}75 d. This variation can be explained by the influence of a third star with a mass of {≈}0.4 M_{⊙} in an eccentric orbit with e≈0.9. A possibility that the orbital period changes on long time scales is discussed. The suggested tertiary companion is near the chaotic zone around the central binary, so CV Boo represents an interesting example to test its dynamical evolution. A list of 14 minima moments of the binary obtained from our observations is presented.
Dielectric properties of binary solutions a data handbook
Akhadov, Y Y
1980-01-01
Dielectric Properties of Binary Solutions focuses on the investigation of the dielectric properties of solutions, as well as the molecular interactions and mechanisms of molecular processes that occur in liquids. The book first discusses the fundamental formulas describing the dielectric properties of liquids and dielectric data for binary systems of non-aqueous solutions. Topics include permittivity and dielectric dispersion parameters of non-aqueous solutions of organic and inorganic compounds. The text also tackles dielectric data for binary systems of aqueous solutions, including permittiv
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
B. S. Chandravanshi
Miscellaneous binary blends containing solvent neutral-150 (SN-150), ... viscosity, the flash point test has always been a standard part of a lubricant's specification. ... between structure and flash points of organic compounds [5-12] and fuels [13, 14]. ... in binary mixtures, the gaps between flash points would be high enough.
2014-01-01
Background Tramadol is an opioid, synthetic analog of codeine and has been used for the treatment of acute or chronic pain may be abused. In this work, a developed Dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) as binary solvents-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (BS-DLLME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD) was employed for determination of tramadol in the urine samples. This procedure involves the use of an appropriate mixture of binary extraction solvents (70 μL CHCl3 and 30 μL ethyl acetate) and disperser solvent (600 μL acetone) for the formation of cloudy solution in 5 ml urine sample comprising tramadol and NaCl (7.5%, w/v). After centrifuging, the small droplets of extraction solvents were precipitated. In the final step, the HPLC with fluorescence detection was used for determination of tramadol in the precipitated phase. Results Various factors on the efficiency of the proposed procedure were investigated and optimized. The detection limit (S/N = 3) and quantification limit (S/N = 10) were found 0.2 and 0.9 μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for the extraction of 30 μg L of tramadol was found 4.1% (n = 6). The relative recoveries of tramadol from urine samples at spiking levels of 10, 30 and 60 μg/L were in the range of 95.6 – 99.6%. Conclusions Compared with other methods, this method provides good figures of merit such as good repeatability, high extraction efficiency, short analysis time, simple procedure and can be used as microextraction technique for routine analysis in clinical laboratories. PMID:24495475
Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.
Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A
2015-07-31
The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments.
Prša, Andrej; Batalha, Natalie; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Koch, David; Borucki, William
2011-03-01
The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg2 field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD0, P 0), morphology type, physical parameters (T eff, log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T 2/T 1, q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T 2/T 1, (R 1 + R 2)/a, esin ω, ecos ω, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be ~1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prsa, Andrej; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Batalha, Natalie; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Koch, David; Borucki, William
2011-01-01
The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg 2 field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD 0 , P 0 ), morphology type, physical parameters (T eff , log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T 2 /T 1 , q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T 2 /T 1 , (R 1 + R 2 )/a, esin ω, ecos ω, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be ∼1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitrašinović, A.M.; Robles Hernández, F.C.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A new method to determine the growth restricting factor. (Q) is proposed ► The proposed method is highly accurate (R 2 = 0.99) and simple. ► A major novelty of this method is the determination of Q for non-dilute samples. ► The method proposed herein is based on quasi-binary phase diagrams and composition. ► This method can be easily implemented industrially or as a research tool. - Abstract: In the present research paper is suggested a new methodology to determine the growth restricting factor (Q) and grain size (GS) for various Al-alloys. The present method combines a thermodynamical component based on the liquidus behavior of each alloying element that is later incorporated into the well known growth restricting models for multi-component alloys. This approach that can be used to determine Q and/or GS based on the chemical composition and the slope of the liquidus temperature of any Al-alloy solidified in close to equilibrium conditions. This method can be modified further in order to assess the effect of cooling rate or thermomechanical processing on growth restricting factor and grain size. In the present paper is proposed a highly accurate (R 2 = 0.99) and validated model for Al–Si alloys, but it can be modified for any other Al–X alloying system. The present method can be used for alloys with relatively high solute content and due to the use of the thermodynamics of liquidus this system considers the poisoning effects of single and multi-component alloying elements.
Binary multiplexing and the phase-retrieval problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghiglia, D.C.
1982-01-01
A binary-mask multiplexing method is developed that provides a means of recovering phase information unambiguously from measurements of the modulus of masked complex waves in the object and image planes, respectively. The technique is developed from Fourier-transform theory and combinatorial analysis and is derived for both the continuous case (optical-digital-hybrid implementation) and the totally discrete case (digital computer simulation). Computer simulations provide unambiguous recovery of phase information and indicate that the matrix equations are reasonably well conditioned for cases of practical significance
Binary evolution and observational constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loore, C. de
1984-01-01
The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apparao, K.M.V.
1977-01-01
Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)
Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics
Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.
2007-01-01
We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a
Fitting Markovian binary trees using global and individual demographic data
Hautphenne, Sophie; Massaro, Melanie; Turner, Katharine
2017-01-01
We consider a class of branching processes called Markovian binary trees, in which the individuals lifetime and reproduction epochs are modeled using a transient Markovian arrival process (TMAP). We estimate the parameters of the TMAP based on population data containing information on age-specific fertility and mortality rates. Depending on the degree of detail of the available data, a weighted non-linear regression method or a maximum likelihood method is applied. We discuss the optimal choi...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruntt, Hans; Southworth, J.; Penny, A. J.
2006-01-01
Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep.......Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep....
Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data
Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela
2010-01-01
"Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."
ADDITIONAL MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Ewing, Ian; Lundquist, Michael; Alexander, Michael; Vargas-Alvarez, Carlos; Choi, Heather; Bagley Kiminki, Megan M.; Henderson, C. B.
2012-01-01
We report the discovery and orbital solutions for two new OB binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association, MT311 (B2V + B3V) and MT605 (B0.5V + B2.5:V). We also identify the system MT429 as a probable triple system consisting of a tight eclipsing 2.97 day B3V+B6V pair and a B0V at a projected separation of 138 AU. We further provide the first spectroscopic orbital solutions to the eclipsing, double-lined, O-star binary MT696 (O9.5V + B1:V), the double-lined, early B binary MT720 (B0-1V + B1-2V), and the double-lined, O-star binary MT771 (O7V + O9V). These systems exhibit orbital periods between 1.5 days and 12.3 days, with the majority having P <6 days. The two new binary discoveries and six spectroscopic solutions bring the total number of known massive binaries in the central region of the Cygnus OB2 Association to 20, with all but two having full orbital solutions.
ADDITIONAL MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Ewing, Ian; Lundquist, Michael; Alexander, Michael; Vargas-Alvarez, Carlos; Choi, Heather [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070 (United States); Bagley Kiminki, Megan M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Henderson, C. B. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
2012-03-01
We report the discovery and orbital solutions for two new OB binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association, MT311 (B2V + B3V) and MT605 (B0.5V + B2.5:V). We also identify the system MT429 as a probable triple system consisting of a tight eclipsing 2.97 day B3V+B6V pair and a B0V at a projected separation of 138 AU. We further provide the first spectroscopic orbital solutions to the eclipsing, double-lined, O-star binary MT696 (O9.5V + B1:V), the double-lined, early B binary MT720 (B0-1V + B1-2V), and the double-lined, O-star binary MT771 (O7V + O9V). These systems exhibit orbital periods between 1.5 days and 12.3 days, with the majority having P <6 days. The two new binary discoveries and six spectroscopic solutions bring the total number of known massive binaries in the central region of the Cygnus OB2 Association to 20, with all but two having full orbital solutions.
Ghosh, A.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.
2016-09-01
Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. Hence, by the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays need not reflect the true variation of the mass supply rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale t_{{visc}} also to spread around a mean value. In high mass X-ray binaries, which are thought to be primarily wind-fed, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller and thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the low mass X-ray binaries which are primarily fed by Roche lobe overflow. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales, such as when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term All Sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift satellites by different methods to look for such smearing effects and to infer what these results can tell us about the viscous processes inside the respective disks. We employ three different methods to seek imprints of periodicity on the X-ray variation and found that in all the cases, the location of the peak in the power density spectra is consistent with the orbital frequencies. Interestingly, in high mass X-ray binaries the peaks are sharp with high rms values, consistent with a small Keplerian disk in a wind fed system. However, in low mass X-ray binaries with larger Keplerian disk component, the peaks are spreaded out with much lower rms values. X-ray reflections, or superhump phenomena which may also cause such X-ray modulations would not be affected by the size of
Physics of Relativistic Objects in Compact Binaries: From Birth to Coalescence
Colpi, Monica; Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Possenti, Andrea
2009-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive, authoritative and timely review of the astrophysical approach to the investigation of gravity theories. Particular attention is paid to strong-field tests of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity, performed using collapsed objects (neutron stars, black holes and white dwarfs) in relativistic binaries as laboratories. The book starts with an introduction which gives the background linking experimental gravity in cosmic laboratories to astrophysics and fundamental physics. Subsequent chapters cover observational and theoretical aspects of the following topics: from binaries as test-beds of gravity theories to binary pulsars as cosmic laboratories; from binary star evolution to the formation of relativistic binaries; from short gamma-ray bursts to low mass X-ray binaries; from stellar-mass black hole binaries to coalescing super-massive black holes in galaxy mergers. The book will be useful to researchers, PhD and graduate students in Astrophysics, Cosmology, ...
Soot modeling of counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene-based binary mixture fuels
Wang, Yu; Raj, Abhijeet Dhayal; Chung, Suk-Ho
2015-01-01
of ethylene and its binary mixtures with methane, ethane and propane based on the method of moments. The soot model has 36 soot nucleation reactions from 8 PAH molecules including pyrene and larger PAHs. Soot surface growth reactions were based on a modified
Optical studies of massive X-ray binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuiderwijk, E.J.
1979-01-01
Photometric and spectroscopic studies of several optical counterparts of massive X-ray binaries are presented. Subjects of study were the binary systems:HD77581/4U0900-40 (Vela X-1), HD153919/4U1700-37, Wray 977/4U1223-62 and Sk160/4U0115-74 (=SMC X-1). (Auth.)
Novel phases of lithium-aluminum binaries from first-principles structural search
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Cerqueira, Tiago F. T.; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L., E-mail: marques@tddft.org [Institut Lumière Matière (UMR5306) and ETSF, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Valencia-Jaime, Irais [Institut Lumière Matière (UMR5306) and ETSF, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, MX-76230 Querétaro (Mexico); Amsler, Maximilian; Goedecker, Stefan [Department of Physics, Universität Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Romero, Aldo H. [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)
2015-01-14
Intermetallic Li–Al compounds are on the one hand key materials for light-weight engineering, and on the other hand, they have been proposed for high-capacity electrodes for Li batteries. We determine from first-principles the phase diagram of Li–Al binary crystals using the minima hopping structural prediction method. Beside reproducing the experimentally reported phases (LiAl, Li{sub 3}Al{sub 2}, Li{sub 9}Al{sub 4}, LiAl{sub 3}, and Li{sub 2}Al), we unveil a structural variety larger than expected by discovering six unreported binary phases likely to be thermodynamically stable. Finally, we discuss the behavior of the elastic constants and of the electric potential profile of all Li–Al stable compounds as a function of their stoichiometry.
Removal of binary azo dyes from water by UV-irradiated degradation in TiO2 suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juang, Ruey-Shin; Lin, Su-Hsia; Hsueh, Pei-Ying
2010-01-01
Photodegradation and mineralization of single and binary Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and Reactive Red 2 (RR2) under UV irradiation in TiO 2 suspensions was examined. Experiments were conducted as a function of initial pH, TiO 2 dose, and initial dye concentration. First-order derivative spectrophotometric method was used to simultaneously analyze AO7 and RR2 in binary solutions. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model was applied to evaluate and compare the apparent rate constants for the photodegradation of both dyes in single and binary solutions. It was shown that photodegradation of both dyes in binary solution was slower than those in single solution under comparable conditions. Moreover, the difference between the apparent rate constants of RR2 and AO7 became smaller in contrast to the cases of single solutions. After 20-min UV irradiation with 0.5 g/L TiO 2 , complete removal of single 0.086 mM AO7 and 0.086 mM RR2 at pH 6.8 was obtained, but only 60% and 45% of binary 0.086 mM AO7 and 0.086 mM RR2 was removed, respectively.
Binary pairs of supermassive black holes - Formation in merging galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valtaoja, L.; Valtonen, M.J.; Byrd, G.G. (Turku Univ. (Finland); Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa (USA))
1989-08-01
A process in which supermassive binary blackholes are formed in nuclei of supergiant galaxies due to galaxy mergers is examined. There is growing evidence that mergers of galaxies are common and that supermassive black holes in center of galaxies are also common. Consequently, it is expected that binary black holes should arise in connection with galaxy mergers. The merger process in a galaxy modeled after M87 is considered. The capture probability of a companion is derived as a function of its mass. Assuming a correlation between the galaxy mass and the blackholes mass, the expected mass ratio in binary black holes is calculated. The binary black holes formed in this process are long lived, surviving longer than the Hubble time unless they are perturbed by black holes from successive mergers. The properties of these binaries agree with Gaskell's (1988) observational work on quasars and its interpretation in terms of binary black holes. 39 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geier, S.; Schaffenroth, V.; Drechsel, H.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Tillich, A.; Oestensen, R. H.; Smolders, K.; Degroote, P.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Barlow, B. N.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Napiwotzki, R.
2011-01-01
Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are extreme horizontal branch stars believed to originate from close binary evolution. Indeed about half of the known sdB stars are found in close binaries with periods ranging from a few hours to a few days. The enormous mass loss required to remove the hydrogen envelope of the red-giant progenitor almost entirely can be explained by common envelope ejection. A rare subclass of these binaries are the eclipsing HW Vir binaries where the sdB is orbited by a dwarf M star. Here, we report the discovery of an HW Vir system in the course of the MUCHFUSS project. A most likely substellar object (≅0.068 M sun ) was found to orbit the hot subdwarf J08205+0008 with a period of 0.096 days. Since the eclipses are total, the system parameters are very well constrained. J08205+0008 has the lowest unambiguously measured companion mass yet found in a subdwarf B binary. This implies that the most likely substellar companion has not only survived the engulfment by the red-giant envelope, but also triggered its ejection and enabled the sdB star to form. The system provides evidence that brown dwarfs may indeed be able to significantly affect late stellar evolution.
Study of Molecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures by Acoustical Method at 303K
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Paul Divakar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity and density measurements were made in two binary liquid mixtures Isopropyl acetate (IPA and Isobutyl acetate (IBA with cyclohexanone (CY as a common component at 303K, at fixed frequency of 2MHz using single crystal variable path interferometer and specific gravity bottle respectively. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustic impedance, adiabatic compressibility, inter molecular free length and molar volume. The excess thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and discussed in the light of molecular interactions.
GRAVITATIONAL MEMORY IN BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pollney, Denis; Reisswig, Christian
2011-01-01
In addition to the dominant oscillatory gravitational wave signals produced during binary inspirals, a non-oscillatory component arises from the nonlinear 'memory' effect, sourced by the emitted gravitational radiation. The memory grows significantly during the late-inspiral and merger, modifying the signal by an almost step-function profile, and making it difficult to model by approximate methods. We use numerical evolutions of binary black holes (BHs) to evaluate the nonlinear memory during late-inspiral, merger, and ringdown. We identify two main components of the signal: the monotonically growing portion corresponding to the memory, and an oscillatory part which sets in roughly at the time of merger and is due to the BH ringdown. Counterintuitively, the ringdown is most prominent for models with the lowest total spin. Thus, the case of maximally spinning BHs anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum exhibits the highest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for interferometric detectors. The largest memory offset, however, occurs for highly spinning BHs, with an estimated value of h tot 20 ≅ 0.24 in the maximally spinning case. These results are central to determining the detectability of nonlinear memory through pulsar timing array measurements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yimeng Zhang
2013-05-01
Full Text Available A method of blind recognition of the coding parameters for binary Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH codes is proposed in this paper. We consider an intelligent communication receiver which can blindly recognize the coding parameters of the received data stream. The only knowledge is that the stream is encoded using binary BCH codes, while the coding parameters are unknown. The problem can be addressed on the context of the non-cooperative communications or adaptive coding and modulations (ACM for cognitive radio networks. The recognition processing includes two major procedures: code length estimation and generator polynomial reconstruction. A hard decision method has been proposed in a previous literature. In this paper we propose the recognition approach in soft decision situations with Binary-Phase-Shift-Key modulations and Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN channels. The code length is estimated by maximizing the root information dispersion entropy function. And then we search for the code roots to reconstruct the primitive and generator polynomials. By utilizing the soft output of the channel, the recognition performance is improved and the simulations show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic
Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing
2016-01-01
Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals. PMID:27413364
A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic.
Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing
2016-01-01
Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals.
Binaries traveling through a gaseous medium: dynamical drag forces and internal torques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Apt. Postal 70 264, C.P. 04510, Mexico City (Mexico); Chametla, Raul O., E-mail: jsanchez@astro.unam.mx [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UP Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico City (Mexico)
2014-10-20
Using time-dependent linear theory, we investigate the morphology of the gravitational wake induced by a binary, whose center of mass moves at velocity V{sub cm} against a uniform background of gas. For simplicity, we assume that the components of the binary are on circular orbits about their common center of mass. The consequences of dynamical friction is twofold. First, gas dynamical friction may drag the center of mass of the binary and cause the binary to migrate. Second, drag forces also induce a braking torque, which causes the orbits of the components of the binary to shrink. We compute the drag forces acting on one component of the binary due to the gravitational interaction with its own wake. We show that the dynamical friction force responsible for decelerating the center of mass of the binary is smaller than it is in the point-mass case because of the loss of gravitational focusing. We show that the braking internal torque depends on the Mach numbers of each binary component about their center of mass, and also on the Mach number of the center of mass of the binary. In general, the internal torque decreases with increasing the velocity of the binary relative to the ambient gas cloud. However, this is not always the case. We also mention the relevance of our results to the period distribution of binaries.
Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges
Giménez, Àlvaro; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Rucinski, Slavek
2006-01-01
An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and ev...
Yamada, Kazuhiro; Ibata, Ami; Suzuki, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Masakado; Yamashita, Teruo; Minagawa, Hiroko; Kurane, Ryuichiro
2015-01-01
Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the majority of Campylobacter infections. As the molecular epidemiological study of outbreaks, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is performed in general. But PFGE has several problems. PCR binary typing (P-BIT) method is a typing method for Campylobacter spp. that was recently developed, and was reported to have a similar discriminatory power and stability to those of PFGE. We modified the P-BIT method from 18 monoplex PCRs to two multiplex PCR systems (mP-BIT). The same results were obtained from monoplex PCRs using original primers and multiplex PCR in the representative isolates. The mP-BIT can analyze 48 strains at a time by using 96-well PCR systems and can identify C. jejuni because mP-BIT includes C. jejuni marker. The typing of the isolates by the mP-BIT and PFGE demonstrated generally concordant results and the mP-BIT method (D = 0.980) has a similar discriminatory power to that of PFGE with SmaI digest (D = 0.975) or KpnI digest (D = 0.987) as with original article. The mP-BIT method is quick, simple and easy, and comes to be able to perform it at low cost by having become a multiplex PCR system. Therefore, the mP-BIT method with two multiplex PCR systems has high potential for a rapid first-line surveillance typing assay of C. jejuni and can be used for routine surveillance and outbreak investigations of C. jejuni in the future. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A DEEPLY ECLIPSING DETACHED DOUBLE HELIUM WHITE DWARF BINARY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Koester, D.
2011-01-01
Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hr period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100 K primary star and a 10,500 K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy, we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the Hα absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M 1 = 0.283 ± 0.064 M sun and M 2 = 0.274 ± 0.034 M sun , making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary, CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.
Binary Biometric Representation through Pairwise Adaptive Phase Quantization
Chen, C.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in template compression and protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Quantization and coding is the straightforward way to extract binary representations
Baqer, Anwar Ali; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Al-Hada, Naif Mohammed; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Saion, Elias; Chyi, Josephine Liew Ying; Abdullah, Che Azurahanim Che
2018-06-01
A binary (CuO)0.6 (CeO2)0.4 nanoparticles were prepared via thermal treatment method, using copper nitrate, cerium nitrate as precursors, PVP as capping agent and de-ionized water as a solvent. The structures, morphology, composition of the element and optical properties of these nanoparticles have been studied under different temperatures using various techniques. The XRD spectrum of the samples at 500 °C and above confirmed the existence of both monoclinic (CuO) and cubic fluorite (CeO2) structures. The findings of FESEM and TEM exhibited the average practical size and agglomeration increment with an elevation in the calcination temperature. The synthesized nanoparticles were also characterized by FTIR, which indicated the formation of binary Cu-O and Ce-O bonds. The EDX analysis was performed to indicate the chemical composition of the sample. The double energy band gaps of (CuO)0.6(CeO2)0.4 reduction with rising calcination temperature, can be referred to the enhancement of the crystallinity of the samples. PL intensity of (CuO)0.6(CeO2)0.4 nanoparticles peaks, which increased with the elevation of the calcination temperature to 800 °C was observed from the PL spectrum; this was due to the increment of the particle size that occurred.
Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stolwijk, N.A.
1980-01-01
This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)
An Introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Henrik Reif
1996-01-01
This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996.......This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Steene, Griet Van de [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ringlaan 3, Brussels (Belgium); Winckel, Hans Van [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K.U. Leuven University, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sperauskas, Julius [Vilnius University Observatory, Ciurlionio 29 Vilnius 2009 (Lithuania); Bohlender, David, E-mail: bruce.hrivnak@valpo.edu, E-mail: wen.lu@valpo.edu, E-mail: g.vandesteene@oma.be, E-mail: Hans.VanWinckel@ster.kuleuven.be, E-mail: julius.sperauskas@ff.vu.lt, E-mail: David.Bohlender@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)
2017-09-10
We present the results of an expanded, long-term radial velocity search (25 years) for evidence of binarity in a sample of seven bright proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). The goal is to investigate the widely held view that the bipolar or point-symmetric shapes of planetary nebulae (PNe) and PPNe are due to binary interactions. Observations from three observatories were combined from 2007 to 2015 to search for variations on the order of a few years and then combined with earlier observations from 1991 to 1995 to search for variations on the order of decades. All seven show velocity variations due to periodic pulsation in the range of 35–135 days. However, in only one PPN, IRAS 22272+5435, did we find even marginal evidence for multi-year variations that might be due to a binary companion. This object shows marginally significant evidence of a two-year period of low semi-amplitude, which could be due to a low-mass companion, and it also displays some evidence of a much longer period of >30 years. The absence of evidence in the other six objects for long-period radial velocity variations due to a binary companion sets significant constraints on the properties of any undetected binary companions: they must be of low mass, ≤0.2 M {sub ⊙}, or long period, >30 years. Thus the present observations do not provide direct support for the binary hypothesis to explain the shapes of PNe and PPNe and severely constrains the properties of any such undetected companions.
Gravitational waves from spinning eccentric binaries
Csizmadia, Péter; Debreczeni, Gergely; Rácz, István; Vasúth, Mátyás
2012-12-01
This paper is to introduce a new software called CBwaves which provides a fast and accurate computational tool to determine the gravitational waveforms yielded by generic spinning binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes on eccentric orbits. This is done within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework by integrating the equations of motion and the spin precession equations, while the radiation field is determined by a simultaneous evaluation of the analytic waveforms. In applying CBwaves various physically interesting scenarios have been investigated. In particular, we have studied the appropriateness of the adiabatic approximation, and justified that the energy balance relation is indeed insensitive to the specific form of the applied radiation reaction term. By studying eccentric binary systems, it is demonstrated that circular template banks are very ineffective in identifying binaries even if they possess tiny residual orbital eccentricity, thus confirming a similar result obtained by Brown and Zimmerman (2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 024007). In addition, by investigating the validity of the energy balance relation we show that, contrary to the general expectations, the PN approximation should not be applied once the PN parameter gets beyond the critical value ˜0.08 - 0.1. Finally, by studying the early phase of the gravitational waves emitted by strongly eccentric binary systems—which could be formed e.g. in various many-body interactions in the galactic halo—we have found that they possess very specific characteristics which may be used to identify these type of binary systems. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Péter Csizmadia a young physicist, computer expert and one of the best Hungarian mountaineers who disappeared in China’s Sichuan near the Ren Zhong Feng peak of the Himalayas on 23 Oct. 2009. We started to develop CBwaves jointly with Péter a couple of months before he left for China.
Vapor-liquid equilibria of the binary system 1,5-hexadiene + allyl chloride
Raeissi, S.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.
2014-01-01
Knowledge of accurate vapor–liquid equilibrium data for mixtures of allyl chloride and 1,5-hexadiene is important for several industrial purposes. The bubble points of binary mixtures of allyl chloride and 1,5-hexadiene have been measured experimentally using a synthetic method. Measurements were
Overcomplete Blind Source Separation by Combining ICA and Binary Time-Frequency Masking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan
2005-01-01
a novel method for over-complete blind source separation. Two powerful source separation techniques have been combined, independent component analysis and binary time-frequency masking. Hereby, it is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture. By using merely two microphones we...
Precipitation kinetics in binary Fe–Cu and ternary Fe–Cu–Ni alloys via kMC method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Wang
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The precipitation kinetics of coherent Cu rich precipitates (CRPs in binary Fe–Cu and ternary Fe–Cu–Ni alloys during thermal aging was modelled by the kinetic Monte Carlo method (kMC. A good agreement of the precipitation kinetics of Fe–Cu was found between the simulation and experimental results, as observed by means of advancement factor and cluster number density. This agreement was obtained owing to the correct description of the fast cluster mobility. The simulation results indicate that the effects of Ni are two-fold: Ni promotes the nucleation of Cu clusters; while the precipitation kinetics appears to be delayed by Ni addition during the coarsening stage. The apparent delayed precipitation kinetics is revealed to be related with the cluster mobility, which are reduced by Ni addition. The reduction effect of the cluster mobility weakens when the CRPs sizes increase. The results provide a view angle on the effects of solute elements upon Cu precipitation kinetics through the consideration of the non-conventional cluster growth mechanism, and kMC is verified to be a powerful approach on that.
The Frequency of Binary Stars in the Globular Cluster M71
Barden, S. C.; Armandroff, T. E.; Pryor, C. P.
1994-12-01
The frequency of binary stars is a fundamental property of a stellar population. A comparison of the frequency of binaries in globular clusters with those in the field halo and disk populations tests the similarity of star formation in those environments. Binary stars in globular clusters also act as an energy source which ``heats" the cluster through super-elastic encounters with other stars and binaries. Such encounters can not only profoundly affect the dynamical evolution of the cluster, they can disrupt the widely separated binaries and catalyze the formation of exotic objects such as blue stragglers, x-ray binaries, and milli-second pulsars. We have used the KPNO 4-m and the multi-fiber instruments Nessie and Hydra to measure radial velocities at 4 epochs over two years for a sample of 126 stars in the globular cluster M71. Velocity errors are under 1 km s(-1) for the brighter stars and under 2 km s(-1) for the majority of our data set. These velocities will be valuable for studying the kinematics of M71, but here we focus on searching for binaries. The faintest stars are at V=17, or just above the main sequence turnoff. Our sample is thus deeper than any published globular cluster binary search utilizing spectroscopic techniques. By observing smaller stars, we double the number of decades of binary periods sampled compared to previous studies and come within a factor of 4 of the shortest possible periods for turnoff stars. This wider period window has produced the largest known sample of binaries in a globular cluster. Four stars show velocity ranges larger than 20 km s(-1) , nine have ranges larger than 10 km s(-1) , and others are clearly variable. We will compare the radial distribution of these stars to that predicted by theory and derive the main-sequence binary fraction.
Wind accretion and formation of disk structures in symbiotic binary systems
de Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stone, J. M.
2015-05-01
We investigate gravitationally focused wind accretion in binary systems consisting of an evolved star with a gaseous envelope and a compact accreting companion. We study the mass accretion and formation of an accretion disk around the secondary caused by the strong wind from the primary late-type component using global 2D and 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations. In particular, the dependence of the mass accretion rate on the mass loss rate, wind temperature and orbital parameters of the system is considered. For a typical slow and massive wind from an evolved star the mass transfer through a focused wind results in rapid infall onto the secondary. A stream flow is created between the stars with accretion rates of a 2--10% percent of the mass loss from the primary. This mechanism could be an important method for explaining periodic modulations in the accretion rates for a broad range of interacting binary systems and fueling of a large population of X-ray binary systems. We test the plausibility of these accretion flows indicated by the simulations by comparing with observations of the symbiotic variable system CH Cyg.
The use of continuous data versus binary data in MTC models: A case study in rheumatoid arthritis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schmitz Susanne
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of relative efficacy between alternative treatments are crucial for decision making in health care. When sufficient head to head evidence is not available Bayesian mixed treatment comparison models provide a powerful methodology to obtain such estimates. While models can be fit to a broad range of efficacy measures, this paper illustrates the advantages of using continuous outcome measures compared to binary outcome measures. Methods Using a case study in rheumatoid arthritis a Bayesian mixed treatment comparison model is fit to estimate the relative efficacy of five anti-TNF agents currently licensed in Europe. The model is fit for the continuous HAQ improvement outcome measure and a binary version thereof as well as for the binary ACR response measure and the underlying continuous effect. Results are compared regarding their power to detect differences between treatments. Results Sixteen randomized controlled trials were included for the analysis. For both analyses, based on the HAQ improvement as well as based on the ACR response, differences between treatments detected by the binary outcome measures are subsets of the differences detected by the underlying continuous effects. Conclusions The information lost when transforming continuous data into a binary response measure translates into a loss of power to detect differences between treatments in mixed treatment comparison models. Binary outcome measures are therefore less sensitive to change than continuous measures. Furthermore the choice of cut-off point to construct the binary measure also impacts the relative efficacy estimates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghanadzadeh, A. [Department of Chemistry, Guilan University, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: aggilani@guilan.ac.ir; Ghanadzadeh, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Guilan University, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sariri, R. [Department of Chemistry, Guilan University, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, L. [Department of Chemistry, Guilan University, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2005-04-15
Experimental results of dielectric investigations of three binary mixtures (ethanol + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol), (n-butanol + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol), and (tert-butanol + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) were reported for various mole fractions at 298.2 K. The variations of dipole moment and correlation factor, g, with mole fraction in these mixtures were investigated using a unified quasichemical method described by Durov. The molecular associations of (ethanol + cyclohexane), (n-butanol + cyclohexane), and (tert-butanol + cyclohexane) binary mixtures were also investigated using the static dielectric method. A similar trend was observed in the variation of the dipole moments with the solute mole fractions in the both binary systems (i.e., alcohol + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and alcohol + cyclohexane)
Time variability of X-ray binaries: observations with INTEGRAL. Modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabanac, Clement
2007-01-01
The exact origin of the observed X and Gamma ray variability in X-ray binaries is still an open debate in high energy astrophysics. Among others, these objects are showing aperiodic and quasi-periodic luminosity variations on timescales as small as the millisecond. This erratic behavior must put constraints on the proposed emission processes occurring in the vicinity of the neutrons star or the stellar mass black-hole held by these objects. We propose here to study their behavior following 3 different ways: first we examine the evolution of a particular X-ray source discovered by INTEGRAL, IGR J19140+0951. Using timing and spectral data given by different instruments, we show that the source type is plausibly consistent with a High Mass X-ray Binary hosting a neutrons star. Subsequently, we propose a new method dedicated to the study of timing data coming from coded mask aperture instruments. Using it on INTEGRAL/ISGRI real data, we detect the presence of periodic and quasi-periodic features in some pulsars and micro-quasars at energies as high as a hundred keV. Finally, we suggest a model designed to describe the low frequency variability of X-ray binaries in their hardest state. This model is based on thermal comptonization of soft photons by a warm corona in which a pressure wave is propagating in cylindrical geometry. By computing both numerical simulations and analytical solution, we show that this model should be suitable to describe some of the typical features observed in X-ray binaries power spectra in their hard state and their evolution such as aperiodic noise and low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations. (author) [fr
Compact Binary Progenitors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba; Rezzolla, Luciano; Troja, Eleonora; Lazzati, Davide
2013-01-01
In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy epsilon(sub jet) = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 Solar M, favoring "high-mass" binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses approx >1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since "high-mass" systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of approx. 0.9 or higher.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gholam Hossein Rounaghi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The complexation reactions between the macrocyclic ionophore, p-isopropylcalix[6]arene and Cs+ cation were studied in dimethylsulfoxide–acetonitrile (DMSO-AN binary non-aqueous solvents at different temperatures using a conductometry method. The conductance data show that the stoichiometry of the (p-isopropylcalix[6]-arene·Cs+ complex in all binary mixed solvents is 1:1. The stability of the complexes is affected by the composition of the binary solvent media and a non-linear behavior was observed for changes of log Kf of the complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents. The thermodynamic parameters (DH°c and DS°c for formation of (p-isopropyl-calix[6]arene·Cs+ complex were obtained from temperature dependence of the stability constant and the obtained results show that the (p-isopropylcalix[6]arene·Cs+ complex is enthalpy destabilized, but entropy stabilized, and the values of the mentioned parameters are affected strongly by the nature and composition of the binary mixed solvents.
Autocorrelation based reconstruction of two-dimensional binary objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mejia-Barbosa, Y.; Castaneda, R.
2005-10-01
A method for reconstructing two-dimensional binary objects from its autocorrelation function is discussed. The objects consist of a finite set of identical elements. The reconstruction algorithm is based on the concept of class of element pairs, defined as the set of element pairs with the same separation vector. This concept allows to solve the redundancy introduced by the element pairs of each class. It is also shown that different objects, consisting of an equal number of elements and the same classes of pairs, provide Fraunhofer diffraction patterns with identical intensity distributions. However, the method predicts all the possible objects that produce the same Fraunhofer pattern. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menhas, Muhammad Ilyas; Fei Minrui; Wang Ling; Qian Lin
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We extend the concept of co-operation and co-evolution in some PSO variants. ► We use developed co-operative PSOs in multivariable PID controller design/tuning. ► We find that co-operative PSOs converge faster and give high quality solutions. ► Dividing the search space among swarms improves search efficiency. ► The proposed methods allow the practitioner for heterogeneous problem formulation. - Abstract: In this paper, multivariable PID controller design based on cooperative and coevolving multiple swarms is demonstrated. A simplified multi-variable MIMO process model of a ball mill pulverizing system with steady state decoupler is considered. In order to formulate computational models of cooperative and coevolving multiple swarms three different algorithms like real coded PSO, discrete binary PSO (DBPSO) and probability based discrete binary PSO (PBPSO) are employed. Simulations are carried out on three composite functions simultaneously considering multiple objectives. The cooperative and coevolving multiple swarms based results are compared with the results obtained through single swarm based methods like real coded particle swarm optimization (PSO), discrete binary PSO (DBPSO), and probability based discrete binary PSO (PBPSO) algorithms. The cooperative and coevolving swarms based techniques outperform the real coded PSO, PBPSO, and the standard discrete binary PSO (DBPSO) algorithm in escaping from local optima. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the simulation results is performed to calculate the comparative reliability of various techniques. All of the techniques employed are suitable for controller tuning, however, the multiple cooperative and coevolving swarms based results are considerably better in terms of mean fitness, variance of fitness, and success rate in finding a feasible solution in comparison to those obtained using single swarm based methods.
Long-term captures of low-mass intruders by binary stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hills, J.G.
1983-01-01
Intensive computer simulations were made of three families of encounters between a binary star and a low-mass intruder which previous work indicated have a high probability of producing long-lived triple-star systems. For comparison, a fourth family which produces few long-lived trinaries was also studied. In the first two families, the binary components are equally massive and the closest approach of the intruder to the center of mass of the binary is about two times its semimajor axis, a 0 . In Family 1, the orbit of the original binary is circular, e = 0, while in Family 2, e 0 = 0.95. In Family 3 one binary component is 100 times as massive as the other, the orbit is circular, and the low-mass intruder enters the binary at nearly zero impact parameter. The probability that the intruder is trapped for at least one revolution around the binary is 0.24, 0.46, and 0.51, respectively, for these three families of encounters. The fraction of the intruders surviving successive revolutions drops rapidly. However, one encounter in Family 1 and two in Family 3 resulted in the intruder making more than 300 revolutions around the inner binary before escaping. Some intruders remained bound for more than 20 000 revolutions of the inner binary. The longest duration captures occur when the intruder is thrown into an orbit with a very large semimajor axis. About 20% of the encounters in the three families result in the intruder being thrown into an orbit with a semimajor axis a>100 a 0 , while about 2% result in the intruder going into an orbit with a>1000 a 0 . Intruders thrown into these large semimajor axis orbits have the best chance of having their orbits stabilized by passing stars
Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ghezelbash, Gholam Reza; Pepe, Francesco
2017-05-01
Simultaneous biosorption of malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) on biosorbent Yarrowia lipolytica ISF7 was studied. An appropriate derivative spectrophotometry technique was used to evaluate the concentration of each dye in binary solutions, despite significant interferences in visible light absorbances. The effects of pH, temperature, growth time, initial MG and CV concentration in batch experiments were assessed using Design of Experiment (DOE) according to central composite second order response surface methodology (RSM). The analysis showed that the greatest biosorption efficiency (>99% for both dyes) can be obtained at pH 7.0, T=28°C, 24h mixing and 20mgL -1 initial concentrations for both MG and CV dyes. The quadratic constructed equation ability for fitting experimental data is judged based on criterions like R 2 values, significant p and lack-of-fit value strongly confirm its high adequacy and applicability for prediction of revel behavior of the system under study. The proposed model showed very high correlation coefficients (R 2 =0.9997 for CV and R 2 =0.9989 for MG), while supported by closeness of predicted and experimental value. A kinetic analysis was carried out, showing that for both dyes a pseudo-second order kinetic model adequately describes the available data. The Langmuir isotherm model in single and binary components has better performance for description of dyes biosorption with maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 59.4 and 62.7mgg -1 in single component and 46.4 and 50.0mgg -1 for CV and MB in binary components, respectively. The surface structure of biosorbents and the possible biosorbents-dyes interactions between were also evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The values of thermodynamic parameters including ΔG° and ΔH° strongly confirm which method is spontaneous and endothermic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
THE BINARY FRACTION OF LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Justin M.; Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.
2011-01-01
We describe spectroscopic observations of 21 low-mass (≤0.45 M sun ) white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey obtained over four years. We use both radial velocities and infrared photometry to identify binary systems, and find that the fraction of single, low-mass WDs is ≤30%. We discuss the potential formation channels for these single stars including binary mergers of lower-mass objects. However, binary mergers are not likely to explain the observed number of single low-mass WDs. Thus, additional formation channels, such as enhanced mass loss due to winds or interactions with substellar companions, are likely.
Two efficient label-equivalence-based connected-component labeling algorithms for 3-D binary images.
He, Lifeng; Chao, Yuyan; Suzuki, Kenji
2011-08-01
Whenever one wants to distinguish, recognize, and/or measure objects (connected components) in binary images, labeling is required. This paper presents two efficient label-equivalence-based connected-component labeling algorithms for 3-D binary images. One is voxel based and the other is run based. For the voxel-based one, we present an efficient method of deciding the order for checking voxels in the mask. For the run-based one, instead of assigning each foreground voxel, we assign each run a provisional label. Moreover, we use run data to label foreground voxels without scanning any background voxel in the second scan. Experimental results have demonstrated that our voxel-based algorithm is efficient for 3-D binary images with complicated connected components, that our run-based one is efficient for those with simple connected components, and that both are much more efficient than conventional 3-D labeling algorithms.
Su, Wei-Hung; Kuo, Cho-Yo; Kao, Fu-Jen
2014-08-20
A fringe projection technique to trace the shape of a fast-moving object is proposed. A binary-encoded fringe pattern is illuminated by a strobe lamp and then projected onto the moving object at a sequence of time. Phases of the projected fringes obtained from the sequent measurements are extracted by the Fourier transform method. Unwrapping is then performed with reference to the binary-encoded fringe pattern. Even though the inspected object is colorful, fringe orders can be identified. A stream of profiles is therefore retrieved from the sequent unwrapped phases. This makes it possible to analyze physical properties of the dynamic objects. Advantages of the binary-encoded fringe pattern for phase unwrapping also include (1) reliable performance for colorful objects, spatially isolated objects, and surfaces with large depth discontinuities; (2) unwrapped errors only confined in a local area; and (3) low computation cost.
Formation of the wide asynchronous binary asteroid population
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, Seth A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; McMahon, Jay
2014-01-01
We propose and analyze a new mechanism for the formation of the wide asynchronous binary population. These binary asteroids have wide semimajor axes relative to most near-Earth and main belt asteroid systems. Confirmed members have rapidly rotating primaries and satellites that are not tidally locked. Previously suggested formation mechanisms from impact ejecta, from planetary flybys, and directly from rotational fission events cannot satisfy all of the observations. The newly hypothesized mechanism works as follows: (1) these systems are formed from rotational fission, (2) their satellites are tidally locked, (3) their orbits are expanded by the binary Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (BYORP) effect, (4) their satellites desynchronize as a result of the adiabatic invariance between the libration of the secondary and the mutual orbit, and (5) the secondary avoids resynchronization because of the YORP effect. This seemingly complex chain of events is a natural pathway for binaries with satellites that have particular shapes, which define the BYORP effect torque that acts on the system. After detailing the theory, we analyze each of the wide asynchronous binary members and candidates to assess their most likely formation mechanism. Finally, we suggest possible future observations to check and constrain our hypothesis.
Targeted maximum likelihood estimation for a binary treatment: A tutorial.
Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Schomaker, Michael; Rachet, Bernard; Schnitzer, Mireille E
2018-04-23
When estimating the average effect of a binary treatment (or exposure) on an outcome, methods that incorporate propensity scores, the G-formula, or targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) are preferred over naïve regression approaches, which are biased under misspecification of a parametric outcome model. In contrast propensity score methods require the correct specification of an exposure model. Double-robust methods only require correct specification of either the outcome or the exposure model. Targeted maximum likelihood estimation is a semiparametric double-robust method that improves the chances of correct model specification by allowing for flexible estimation using (nonparametric) machine-learning methods. It therefore requires weaker assumptions than its competitors. We provide a step-by-step guided implementation of TMLE and illustrate it in a realistic scenario based on cancer epidemiology where assumptions about correct model specification and positivity (ie, when a study participant had 0 probability of receiving the treatment) are nearly violated. This article provides a concise and reproducible educational introduction to TMLE for a binary outcome and exposure. The reader should gain sufficient understanding of TMLE from this introductory tutorial to be able to apply the method in practice. Extensive R-code is provided in easy-to-read boxes throughout the article for replicability. Stata users will find a testing implementation of TMLE and additional material in the Appendix S1 and at the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/migariane/SIM-TMLE-tutorial. © 2018 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pillewan, Pradnya; Mukherjee, Shrabanti; Bansiwal, Amit; Rayalu, Sadhana
2014-07-01
Adsorption of arsenic on bimetallic Mn and Fe mixed oxide was carried out using both field as well as simulated water. The material was synthesized using hydrothermal method and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were computed using batch adsorption studies to determine the adsorption capacity of Mn-Fe binary mixed oxide for arsenic. Adsorption capacity for MFBMO obtained from Freundlich model was found to be 2.048 mg/g for simulated water and 1.084 mg/g for field water. Mn-Fe binary mixed oxide was found to be effective adsorbent for removal of arsenic from water.
B and V photometry and analysis of the eclipsing binary RZ CAS
Riazi, N.; Bagheri, M. R.; Faghihi, F.
1994-01-01
Photoelectric light curves of the eclipsing binary RZ Cas are presented for B and V filters. The light curves are analyzed for light and geometrical elements, starting with a previously suggested preliminary method. The approximate results thus obtained are then optimised through the Wilson-Devinney computer programs.
Construction of binary status information system using PC network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurnianto, K.; Azriani, A.; Teddy, S.
1998-01-01
Binary status information system is a part of establishing reactor parameter with Pc that function as MPR-30 Process Computer. Binary Alarm system, consist of interface hardware and input binary module terminal, prepare the information that be displayed in text message and graphical form. Monitor software give facilities that binary status of RSG-GAS components can be monitored using computer network (LAN). This program consist of two part : reside in server computer and reside in user computer. Program in server acquire data from interface and than store it in data base (Access file). Than, user computer read this file and display it in Dynamic Process and Instrumentation Diagram. The number of user computer can be more then one because data base was designed for multi-user operation
Massive Black-Hole Binary Mergers: Dynamics, Environments & Expected Detections
Kelley, Luke Zoltan
2018-05-01
This thesis studies the populations and dynamics of massive black-hole binaries and their mergers, and explores the implications for electromagnetic and gravitational-wave signals that will be detected in the near future. Massive black-holes (MBH) reside in the centers of galaxies, and when galaxies merge, their MBH interact and often pair together. We base our study on the populations of MBH and galaxies from the `Illustris' cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The bulk of the binary merger dynamics, however, are unresolved in cosmological simulations. We implement a suite of comprehensive physical models for the merger process, like dynamical friction and gravitational wave emission, which are added in post-processing. Contrary to many previous studies, we find that the most massive binaries with near equal-mass companions are the most efficient at coalescing; though the process still typically takes gigayears.From the data produced by these MBH binary populations and their dynamics, we calculate the expected gravitational wave (GW) signals: both the stochastic, GW background of countless unresolved sources, and the GW foreground of individually resolvable binaries which resound above the noise. Ongoing experiments, called pulsar timing arrays, are sensitive to both of these types of signals. We find that, while the current lack of detections is unsurprising, both the background and foreground will plausibly be detected in the next decade. Unlike previous studies which have predicted the foreground to be significantly harder to detect than the background, we find their typical amplitudes are comparable.With traditional electromagnetic observations, there has also been a dearth of confirmed detections of MBH binary systems. We use our binaries, combined with models of emission from accreting MBH systems, to make predictions for the occurrence rate of systems observable using photometric, periodic-variability surveys. These variables should be detectable in
Formation and Evolution of Contact Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter P. Eggleton
2012-06-01
Full Text Available describe a series of processes, including hierarchical fragmentation, gravitational scattering, Kozai cycles within triple systems, tidal friction and magnetic braking, that I believe are responsible for producing the modest but significant fraction of stars that are observed as contact binaries. I also discuss further processes, namely heat transport, mass transport, nuclear evolution, thermal relaxation oscillations, and further magnetic braking with tidal friction, that influence the evolution during contact. The endpoint, for contact, is that the two components merge into a single star, as recently was observed in the remarkable system V1309 Sco. The single star probably throws off some mass and rotates rapidly at first, and then slows by magnetic braking to become a rather inconspicuous but normal dwarf or subgiant. If however the contact binary was part of a triple system originally–as I suggested above was rather likely–then the result could be a widish binary with apparently non-coeval components. There are several such known.
Bit-Table Based Biclustering and Frequent Closed Itemset Mining in High-Dimensional Binary Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
András Király
2014-01-01
Full Text Available During the last decade various algorithms have been developed and proposed for discovering overlapping clusters in high-dimensional data. The two most prominent application fields in this research, proposed independently, are frequent itemset mining (developed for market basket data and biclustering (applied to gene expression data analysis. The common limitation of both methodologies is the limited applicability for very large binary data sets. In this paper we propose a novel and efficient method to find both frequent closed itemsets and biclusters in high-dimensional binary data. The method is based on simple but very powerful matrix and vector multiplication approaches that ensure that all patterns can be discovered in a fast manner. The proposed algorithm has been implemented in the commonly used MATLAB environment and freely available for researchers.
The Cool Surfaces of Binaries Near-Earth Asteroids
Delbo, Marco; Walsh, K.; Mueller, M.
2008-01-01
We present results from thermal-infrared observations of binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). These objects, in general, have surface temperatures cooler than the average values for non-binary NEAs. We discuss how this may be evidence of higher-than-average surface thermal inertia. The comparison of
The Mass-Ratio Distribution of Visual Binary Stars
Hogeveen, S.J.
1990-01-01
The selection effects that govern the observations of Visual Binary Stars are in- vestigated, in order to obtain a realistic statistical distribution of the mass-ratio q = Msec=Mprim. To this end a numerical simulation programme has been developed, which `generates' binary stars and `looks' at
Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.
2013-01-01
Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m 2 g −1 when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions
Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.
2013-11-01
Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.
A Penalization Approach for Tomographic Reconstruction of Binary Axially Symmetric Objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abraham, R.; Bergounioux, M.; Trelat, E.
2008-01-01
We propose a variational method for tomographic reconstruction of blurred and noised binary images based on a penalization process of a minimization problem settled in the space of bounded variation functions. We prove existence and/or uniqueness results and derive a penalized optimality system. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the relevance of the approach
Evolution of close binaries and the formation of pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Den Heuvel, E.P.J.
1981-01-01
The various ways in which compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) may be formed in interacting binary systems are examined. Attention is given to the final evolution of the primary star in a close binary system as a function of the time of Roche-lobe overflow relative to the onset of helium burning, and conditions on primary mass and orbital period leading to the appearance of a compact remnant are noted. Consideration of the fate of the stellar envelope in stars that directly evolve to core collapse indicates that binaries that evolve with conservation of total mass and orbital angular momentum will eventually become systems of two runaway pulsars. In cases of nonconservative evolution, the final state is expected to be a young runaway pulsar with a low- or moderate mass runaway star companion, or a low-mass population I X-ray binary with high space velocity. Compact objects may also be formed when a white dwarf of suitable chemical composition is driven over the Chandrasehkar limit by accretion, resulting in a low-mass X-ray binary
Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process
Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo
2014-06-24
A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.
Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.
1983-01-01
The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruce J. Hrivnak
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Binary companions are often invoked to explain the axial and point symmetry seen in the majority of planetary nebulae and proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs. To explore this hypothesis, we have undertaken a long-term (20 year study of light and velocity variations in PPNs. From the photometric study of 24 PPNs, we find that all vary in brightness, and from a subset of 12 carbon-rich PPNs of F-G spectral type we find periods of 35-155 days, with the cooler having the longer periods. The variations are seen to be due to pulsation; no photometric evidence for binarity is seen. A radial velocity study of a sub-sample of seven of the brightest of these shows that they all vary with the pulsation periods. Only one shows evidence of a longer-term variation that we tentatively identify as being due to a binary companion. We conclude that the present evidence for the binary nature of these PPNs is meager and that any undetected companions of these PPNs must be of low mass ( 30 years.
Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Excess molar volumes (E) and deviation in isentropic compressibilities (s) have been investigated from the density and speed of sound measurements of six binary liquid mixtures containing -alkanes over the entire range of composition at 298.15 K. Excess molar volume exhibits inversion in sign in one binary ...
Misaligned disks in the binary protostar IRS 43
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brinch, Christian; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.
2016-01-01
and position angle and also with respect to the binary orbital plane. Each stellar component has an associated circumstellar disk while the binary is surrounded by a circumbinary disk. Together with archival VLA measurements of the stellar positions over 25 years, and assuming a circular orbit, we use our...
IUE observations of the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hack, M.; Selvelli, P.L.
1978-01-01
It is stated that the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aur is a most peculiar binary system and it has not been explained satisfactorily. Observations of this system using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) collected at the Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station of the European Space Agency are here reported. (author)
A Search for Exoplanets in Short-Period Binary Star Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronald Kaitchuck
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the progress of a search for exoplanets with S-type orbits in short-period binary star systems. The selected targets have stellar orbital periods of just a few days. These systems are eclipsing binaries so that exoplanet transits, if planets exist, will be highly likely. We report the results for seven binary star systems.
Bonatto, C.; Lima, E. F.; Bica, E.
2012-04-01
Context. Usually, important parameters of young, low-mass star clusters are very difficult to obtain by means of photometry, especially when differential reddening and/or binaries occur in large amounts. Aims: We present a semi-analytical approach (ASAmin) that, when applied to the Hess diagram of a young star cluster, is able to retrieve the values of mass, age, star-formation spread, distance modulus, foreground and differential reddening, and binary fraction. Methods: The global optimisation method known as adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) is used to minimise the residuals between the observed and simulated Hess diagrams of a star cluster. The simulations are realistic and take the most relevant parameters of young clusters into account. Important features of the simulations are a normal (Gaussian) differential reddening distribution, a time-decreasing star-formation rate, the unresolved binaries, and the smearing effect produced by photometric uncertainties on Hess diagrams. Free parameters are cluster mass, age, distance modulus, star-formation spread, foreground and differential reddening, and binary fraction. Results: Tests with model clusters built with parameters spanning a broad range of values show that ASAmin retrieves the input values with a high precision for cluster mass, distance modulus, and foreground reddening, but they are somewhat lower for the remaining parameters. Given the statistical nature of the simulations, several runs should be performed to obtain significant convergence patterns. Specifically, we find that the retrieved (absolute minimum) parameters converge to mean values with a low dispersion as the Hess residuals decrease. When applied to actual young clusters, the retrieved parameters follow convergence patterns similar to the models. We show how the stochasticity associated with the early phases may affect the results, especially in low-mass clusters. This effect can be minimised by averaging out several twin clusters in the
KIC 7177553: A QUADRUPLE SYSTEM OF TWO CLOSE BINARIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehmann, H. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Borkovits, T. [Baja Astronomical Observatory of Szeged University, H-6500 Baja, Szegedi út, Kt. 766 (Hungary); Rappaport, S. A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Ngo, H. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mawet, D. [California Institute of Technology, Astronomy Dept. MC 249-17, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Csizmadia, Sz. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institut für Planeten-forschung, Rutherfordstraße 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Forgács-Dajka, E., E-mail: lehm@tls-tautenburg.de, E-mail: borko@electra.bajaobs.hu, E-mail: sar@mit.edu, E-mail: hngo@caltech.edu, E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: szilard.csizmadia@dlr.de, E-mail: e.forgacs-dajka@astro.elte.hu [Astronomical Department, Eötvös University, H-1118 Budapest, Pázmány Péter stny. 1/A (Hungary)
2016-03-01
KIC 7177553 was observed by the Kepler satellite to be an eclipsing eccentric binary star system with an 18-day orbital period. Recently, an eclipse timing study of the Kepler binaries has revealed eclipse timing variations (ETVs) in this object with an amplitude of ∼100 s and an outer period of 529 days. The implied mass of the third body is that of a super-Jupiter, but below the mass of a brown dwarf. We therefore embarked on a radial velocity (RV) study of this binary to determine its system configuration and to check the hypothesis that it hosts a giant planet. From the RV measurements, it became immediately obvious that the same Kepler target contains another eccentric binary, this one with a 16.5-day orbital period. Direct imaging using adaptive optics reveals that the two binaries are separated by 0.″4 (∼167 AU) and have nearly the same magnitude (to within 2%). The close angular proximity of the two binaries and very similar γ velocities strongly suggest that KIC 7177553 is one of the rare SB4 systems consisting of two eccentric binaries where at least one system is eclipsing. Both systems consist of slowly rotating, nonevolved, solar-like stars of comparable masses. From the orbital separation and the small difference in γ velocity, we infer that the period of the outer orbit most likely lies in the range of 1000–3000 yr. New images taken over the next few years, as well as the high-precision astrometry of the Gaia satellite mission, will allow us to set much narrower constraints on the system geometry. Finally, we note that the observed ETVs in the Kepler data cannot be produced by the second binary. Further spectroscopic observations on a longer timescale will be required to prove the existence of the massive planet.
An evaluation of different delivery methods for teaching binary, hex and decimal conversion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Kempthorne
Full Text Available The ability to convert between binary, hexadecimal, and decimal numbering systems is a fundamental skill commonly taught to tertiary-level computing and ICT students. This paper presents the results of a multiple year investigation into the application of differing approaches for the teaching and learning of these skills. Specifically, the study compares traditional lectures, games, and group activities with student levels of academic achievement. Student prior experience with numbering system conversion is also analysed. The study reveals that, overall, the game-based approach resulted in the highest average test scores; however, when students were divided into groups with and without prior experience, the students with prior experience performed better with a traditional lecture approach.
Control of broadband optically generated ultrasound pulses using binary amplitude holograms.
Brown, Michael D; Jaros, Jiri; Cox, Ben T; Treeby, Bradley E
2016-04-01
In this work, the use of binary amplitude holography is investigated as a mechanism to focus broadband acoustic pulses generated by high peak-power pulsed lasers. Two algorithms are described for the calculation of the binary holograms; one using ray-tracing, and one using an optimization based on direct binary search. It is shown using numerical simulations that when a binary amplitude hologram is excited by a train of laser pulses at its design frequency, the acoustic field can be focused at a pre-determined distribution of points, including single and multiple focal points, and line and square foci. The numerical results are validated by acoustic field measurements from binary amplitude holograms, excited by a high peak-power laser.
Binary black hole in a double magnetic monopole field
Rodriguez, Maria J.
2018-01-01
Ambient magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role in black hole jet formation. Furthermore, dual electromagnetic signals could be produced during the inspiral and merger of binary black hole systems. In this paper, we derive the exact solution for the electromagnetic field occurring when a static, axisymmetric binary black hole system is placed in the field of two magnetic or electric monopoles. As a by-product of this derivation, we also find the exact solution of the binary black hole configuration in a magnetic or electric dipole field. The presence of conical singularities in the static black hole binaries represent the gravitational attraction between the black holes that also drag the external two monopole field. We show that these off-balance configurations generate no energy outflows.