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Sample records for metaplastic mucous cells

  1. Metaplastic changes of the mucous membrane of the esophagus and stomach with celiac disease and chronic nonspecific duodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Kilessa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research presents morphological comparisons of occurrence of a stomach mucosa metaplasia and a specialized metaplasia of esophagus at patients with gluten enteropathy and chronic nonspecific duodenitis. It is established fact that metaplastic changes of stomach mucosa are more spread at patients with a gluten enteropathy.

  2. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types and distribution of mucous cells of Haliotis diversicolorwere observed and analyzed using the alcian blue and periodic acid schiffs (AB-PAS) reaction and histological procedures. According to the color of the mucous cells, they were divided into four types: Type I, pure red; type II, pure blue; type III, purple reddish; ...

  3. The Role of Atoh1 in Mucous Cell Metaplasia

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    Yoshihisa Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A key issue in otitis media is mucous cell metaplasia which is responsible for mucous hypersecretion and persistence of the disease. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of mucous cell metaplasia in otitis media. Numerous studies of intestinal epithelial homeostasis have shown that Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor, is essential for the intestinal goblet cell differentiation. On the other hand, SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets transcription factor (SPDEF, a member of the “Ets” transcription factor family, has been reported to trigger the mucous cell metaplasia of pulmonary infectious diseases or athsma. Recent studies have demonstrated the relation of these factors, that is, Spdef functions downstream of Atoh1. We could take the adventages of these findings for the study of otitis media because both middle ear and pulmonary epithelia belong to the same respiratory tract. Atoh1 and SPDEF could be the therapeutic targets for otitis media associated with mucous cell metaplasia which is frequently considered “intractable” in the clinical settings.

  4. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... physical stress and predation (Davies and Hawkins,. 1998). On occasions, such products from several different types of mucocyte combine to produce multifunctional mucus (Shirbhate and Cook, 1987). The mucocyte is a type of gland cell, which has many physiological func- tions. Mucous cells secrete ...

  5. Mucin production and mucous cell metaplasia in otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jizhen; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Tono, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) with mucoid effusion, characterized by mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia in the middle ear cleft and thick fluid accumulation in the middle ear cavity, is a subtype of OM which frequently leads to chronic OM in young children. Multiple factors are involved in the developmental...

  6. Metaplastic thymoma with myasthenia gravis presumably caused by an accumulation of intratumoral immature T cells: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Shogo; Yanagiya, Masahiro; Sato, Masaaki; Nakajima, Jun; Fukayama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Among human neoplasms, thymomas are well known for their association with paraneoplastic autoimmune diseases such as myasthenia gravis. However, regarding rare metaplastic thymoma, only one case of an association with myasthenia gravis has been reported. Here, we present the second case of a 44-year-old woman with metaplastic thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis. In metaplastic thymoma, intratumoral terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive T-cells (immature T-cells) are generally scarce, while they were abundant in the present case. We believe that these immature T-cells could be related to the occurrence of myasthenia gravis.

  7. Focal Anomalous Expression of Cytokeratin and p63 in Malignant Phyllodes Tumor: A Comparison With Spindle Cell Metaplastic Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Meenakshi; Chen, Jianzhi; Wang, Xi

    2017-09-29

    Differentiating between malignant phyllodes tumors and metaplastic spindle cell carcinomas could be problematic, especially on core biopsies. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin cocktail and p63 has been utilized to differentiate between these tumor types. Forty-three phyllodes tumors (27 benign, 6 borderline, and 10 malignant) and 22 metaplastic carcinomas, consisting at least 80% of spindle cells, were identified. At least 4 tissue blocks from each phyllodes tumor were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin cocktail and p63. The immunohistochemical profiles for the spindle cells in metaplastic carcinoma were reviewed. Phyllodes tumor was diagnosed in the younger age group (mean age 41 y) with a larger tumor size (mean size 6.6 cm), compared with metaplastic spindle cell carcinoma (mean age 62.7 y, mean size 3.4 cm). Focal expression (5% of the tumor cells) of cytokeratin cocktail and p63 was identified in the stroma of 2 of 10 malignant phyllodes tumors in a scattered/patchy pattern. The stroma of benign and borderline phyllodes tumors was negative for these markers. In metaplastic spindle cell carcinomas, cytokeratin cocktail was negative in 2 of 15 cases and very focally positive in another 3 cases, whereas p63 was negative in one case and focally positive in another case. There can be anomalous, focal expression of cytokeratin and p63 in the stroma of malignant phyllodes tumors, whereas metaplastic spindle cell carcinoma can occasionally have cytokeratin and/or p63-negative staining or have very focal positivity. Caution should be exercised when relying on these markers for confirming a diagnosis, especially on core biopsies.

  8. Structural and functional development of rat and mouse gastric mucous cells in relation to their proliferative activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattel, W.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out to find a relation between the differentiation and the mitotic activity of gastric mucous cells of the rat and the mouse. It is shown that the bulk mucous production is carried out by the older, non-proliferative, surface mucous cells that line the foveolae and the gastric surface. One experiment describes the renewal of mouse gastric mucous cells following fast neutron irradiation. (C.F.)

  9. AFM stiffness nanotomography of normal, metaplastic and dysplastic human esophageal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, A; Staunton, J R; Banyai, N; Davies, P C W; Ros, R; Nandakumar, V

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical stiffness of individual cells is important in tissue homeostasis, cell growth, division and motility, and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition in the initiation of cancer. In this work, a normal squamous cell line (EPC2) and metaplastic (CP-A) as well as dysplastic (CP-D) Barrett's Esophagus columnar cell lines are studied as a model of pre-neoplastic progression in the human esophagus. We used the combination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a scanning confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope to study the mechanical properties of single adherent cells. Sixty four force indentation curves were taken over the nucleus of each cell in an 8 × 8 grid pattern. Analyzing the force indentation curves, indentation depth-dependent Young's moduli were found for all cell lines. Stiffness tomograms demonstrate distinct differences between the mechanical properties of the studied cell lines. Comparing the stiffness for indentation forces of 1 nN, most probable Young's moduli were calculated to 4.7 kPa for EPC2 (n = 18 cells), 3.1 kPa for CP-A (n = 10) and 2.6 kPa for CP-D (n = 19). We also tested the influence of nuclei and nucleoli staining organic dyes on the mechanical properties of the cells. For stained EPC2 cells (n = 5), significant stiffening was found (9.9 kPa), while CP-A cells (n = 5) showed no clear trend (2.9 kPa) and a slight softening was observed (2.1 kPa) in the case of CP-D cells (n = 16). Some force–indentation curves show non-monotonic discontinuities with segments of negative slope, resembling a sawtooth pattern. We found the incidence of these 'breakthrough events' to be highest in the dysplastic CP-D cells, intermediate in the metaplastic CP-A cells and lowest in the normal EPC2 cells. This observation suggests that the microscopic explanation for the increased compliance of cancerous and pre-cancerous cells may lie in their susceptibility to 'crumble and yield' rather than their

  10. AFM stiffness nanotomography of normal, metaplastic and dysplastic human esophageal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, A; Staunton, J R; Nandakumar, V; Banyai, N; Davies, P C W; Ros, R

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical stiffness of individual cells is important in tissue homeostasis, cell growth, division, and motility, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the initiation of cancer. In this work, a normal squamous cell line (EPC2) and metaplastic (CP-A) as well as dysplastic (CP-D) Barrett’s Esophagus columnar cell lines are studied as a model of pre-neoplastic progression in the human esophagus. We used the combination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a scanning confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (FLIM) to study the mechanical properties of single adherent cells. 64 force indentation curves were taken over the nucleus of each cell in an 8×8 grid pattern. Analyzing the force indentation curves, indentation depth dependent Young’s moduli were found for all cell lines. Stiffness tomograms demonstrate distinct differences between the mechanical properties of the studied cell lines. Comparing the stiffness for indentation forces of 1 nN, most probable Young’s moduli were calculated to 4.7 kPa for EPC2 (n=18 cells), 3.1 kPa for CP-A (n=10), and 2.6 kPa for CP-D (n=19). We also tested the influence of nuclei and nucleoli staining organic dyes on the mechanical properties of the cells. For stained EPC2 cells (n=5), significant stiffening was found (9.9 kPa), while CP-A cells (n=5) showed no clear trend (2.9 kPa) and a slight softening was observed (2.1 kPa) in the case of CP-D cells (n=16). Some force-indentation curves show non-monotonic discontinuities with segments of negative slope, resembling a sawtooth pattern. We found the incidence of these ‘breakthrough events’ to be highest in the dysplastic CP-D cells, intermediate in the metaplastic CP-A cells, and lowest in the normal EPC2 cells. This observation suggests that the microscopic explanation for the increased compliance of cancerous and pre-cancerous cells may lie in their susceptibility to ‘crumble and yield’ rather than their ability to ‘bend and flex’. PMID

  11. AFM stiffness nanotomography of normal, metaplastic and dysplastic human esophageal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, A.; Staunton, J. R.; Nandakumar, V.; Banyai, N.; Davies, P. C. W.; Ros, R.

    2011-02-01

    The mechanical stiffness of individual cells is important in tissue homeostasis, cell growth, division and motility, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the initiation of cancer. In this work, a normal squamous cell line (EPC2) and metaplastic (CP-A) as well as dysplastic (CP-D) Barrett's Esophagus columnar cell lines are studied as a model of pre-neoplastic progression in the human esophagus. We used the combination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a scanning confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope to study the mechanical properties of single adherent cells. Sixty four force indentation curves were taken over the nucleus of each cell in an 8 × 8 grid pattern. Analyzing the force indentation curves, indentation depth-dependent Young's moduli were found for all cell lines. Stiffness tomograms demonstrate distinct differences between the mechanical properties of the studied cell lines. Comparing the stiffness for indentation forces of 1 nN, most probable Young's moduli were calculated to 4.7 kPa for EPC2 (n = 18 cells), 3.1 kPa for CP-A (n = 10) and 2.6 kPa for CP-D (n = 19). We also tested the influence of nuclei and nucleoli staining organic dyes on the mechanical properties of the cells. For stained EPC2 cells (n = 5), significant stiffening was found (9.9 kPa), while CP-A cells (n = 5) showed no clear trend (2.9 kPa) and a slight softening was observed (2.1 kPa) in the case of CP-D cells (n = 16). Some force-indentation curves show non-monotonic discontinuities with segments of negative slope, resembling a sawtooth pattern. We found the incidence of these 'breakthrough events' to be highest in the dysplastic CP-D cells, intermediate in the metaplastic CP-A cells and lowest in the normal EPC2 cells. This observation suggests that the microscopic explanation for the increased compliance of cancerous and pre-cancerous cells may lie in their susceptibility to 'crumble and yield' rather than their ability to 'bend and flex'.

  12. T cells suppress memory-dependent rapid mucous cell metaplasia in mouse airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitendra S. Chand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway epithelial cells (AECs are crucial for mucosal and adaptive immunity but whether these cells respond in a memory-dependent manner is poorly studied. Previously, we have reported that LPS intratracheal instillation in rodents causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation and airway epithelial cell hyperplasia accompanied by mucous cell metaplasia (MCM. And the resolution process required a period of 40 d for the inflammation to subside and the lung epithelia to resemble the non-exposed condition. Therefore, the present study investigated the memory-dependent response of airway epithelial cells to a secondary LPS challenge after the initial inflammation was resolved. Methods Airway epithelial and mucous cells were assessed in response to a secondary LPS challenge in F344/N rats, and in C57BL/6 wild-type (Foxn1WT and T cell-deficient athymic (Foxn1nu mice that were instilled with LPS or saline 40 d earlier. Epithelial expression of TLR4, EGFR, and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (pERK were also analyzed. Results LPS-pretreated F344/N rats responded with elevated numbers of AECs after saline challenge and with 3-4-fold increased MCM following the LPS challenge in LPS- compared with saline-pretreated rats. LPS-pretreated rats showed 5-fold higher number of AECs expressing TLR4 apically than saline-pretreated rats. Also, the expression of EGFR was increased in LPS-pretreated rats along with the number of AECs with active or nuclear pERK, and the levels were further increased upon LPS challenge. LPS-pretreated Foxn1nu compared with Foxn1WT mice showed increased MCM and elevated levels of TLR4, EGFR, and nuclear pERK at 40 d after LPS instillation. LPS challenge further augmented MCM rapidly in Foxn1nu compared with Foxn1WT mice. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that AECs preserve an ‘innate memory’ that drives a rapid mucous phenotype via spatiotemporal regulation of TLR4 and EGFR. Further, T cells may suppress the sustained

  13. Role of Calcium and PKC in Salivary Mucous Cell Exocrine Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, D.J.; Zhang, Z.; Evans, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Fluid and exocrine secretion of mucins by salivary mucous glands is regulated predominantly by parasympathetic activation of muscarinic receptors. A direct role for subsequent putative signaling steps, phospholipase C (PLC), increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), and isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) in mediating muscarinic exocrine secretion has not been elucidated, and these are potential therapeutic targets to enhance mucin secretion in hyposalivary patients. We found that muscarinic-induced mucin secretion by rat sublingual tubulo-acini was dependent upon PLC activation and the subsequent increase in [Ca2+]i, and further identified a transient PKC-independent component of secretion dependent upon Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, whereas sustained secretion required entry of extracellular Ca2+. Interactions among carbachol, PKC inhibitors, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and thapsigargin to modulate [Ca2+]i implicated conventional PKC isoforms in mediating sustained secretion. With increasing times during carbachol perfusion of glands, in situ, PKC-α redistributed across glandular membrane compartments and underwent a rapid and persistent accumulation near the luminal borders of mucous cells. PKC-β1 displayed transient localization near luminal borders, whereas the novel PKCs, PKC-δ or PKC-ϵ, displayed little or no redistribution in mucous cells. Collective results implicate synergistic interactions between diacylglycerol (DAG) and increasing [Ca2+]i levels to activate cPKCs in mediating sustained muscarinic-induced secretion. PMID:21933938

  14. Fibrous lesions of the skin and mucous membranes which contain stellate and multinucleated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Courtney, R M; Kerr, D A

    1975-04-01

    Various fibrous lesions of the skin and mucous membranes share the common histologic feature of stellate and multinucleated fibroblasts. These cells are conspicuous under the light microscope because they contain a well-developed, rough endoplasmic reticulum which, because of its high RNA content, stains basophilic. These characteristic cells are a nearly constant feature of the retrocuspid papilla. They are apparent in about half of the fibrous papules of the nose and abundant in about 1 per cent of irritation fibromas. These lesions most likely represent a nonspecific proliferation of the lamina propria or papillary dermis to various stimuli.

  15. cGMP modulation of ACh-stimulated exocytosis in guinea pig antral mucous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Adel H; Shimamoto, Chikao; Nakahari, Takashi; Fujiwara, Shoko; Katsu, Ken-ichi; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2006-06-01

    In guinea pig antral mucous cells, ACh stimulates the Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis, which has a characteristics feature: an initial transient phase followed by a sustained phase. The effects of cGMP on ACh-stimulated exocytosis were studied in guinea pig antral mucous cells using video microscopy. cGMP enhanced the frequency of ACh-stimulated exocytotic events, whereas cGMP alone did not induce any exocytotic events under the ACh-unstimulated condition. cGMP did not stimulate either Ca(2+) mobilization or cAMP accumulation. The Ca(2+) dose-response studies demonstrated that cGMP shifted the dose-response curve upward with no shift to the lower concentration. This indicates that cGMP increased maximal responsiveness of the Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis, but not the Ca(2+) sensitivity. Moreover, under a condition of ATP depletion by dinitrophenol (DNP) or anoxia (N(2) bubbling), ACh evoked only a sustained phase in exocytotic events with no initial transient phase. However, ACh evoked an initial transient phase followed by a sustained phase with addition of cGMP before ATP depletion, whereas only a sustained phase was evoked in a case of cGMP addition after ATP depletion. Thus cGMP-induced enhancement in ACh-stimulated exocytotic events requires ATP, suggesting that cGMP modulates ATP-dependent priming of Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis in antral mucous cells. In conclusion, cGMP increases the number of primed granules via acceleration of the ATP-dependent priming, which enhances the Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis stimulated by ACh.

  16. Increased expression of Bcl-2 during mucous cell metaplasia induced by endotoxin and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Ray, L.M.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is accompanied by characteristic morphological changes that distinguish apoptosis from other forms of cell death. These changes include DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, cell surface pseudopodia, and finally the cellular collapse into membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies which are rapidly engulfed by macrophages or neighboring cells. Although the morphological features of apoptotic cells are well studied, the biochemical events that control apoptosis are not understood. Programmed cell death is triggered by a variety of pathways that are initiated by different stimuli including noxious agents, DNA damage, the activation of TNF receptors, or the withdrawl of growth factors. The central process of programmed cell death involves a cascade of biochemical events that begins with the initiation of a family of cysteine proteases, including the interleukin-1-{Beta}-converting enzyme, CPP-32, and Apopain. The ratio of Bax, a death-inducer gene, to Bcl-2, an apoptosis suppressor gene, determines whether or not the main apoptotic pathyway is blocked. Apoptosis is suppressed if the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax is > 1, and cells undergo apoptosis if the ratio is < 1. The overexpression of Bcl-2 has been shown to block the apoptotic program triggered by a variety of agents. Therefore, Bcl-2 must be involved in blocking the central pathway of the cell death program. In conclusion, this study showed that high levels of Bcl-2 were detected in some mucous cells at specific time points during mucous cell metaplasia, and this expression was reduced at later time points or was absent after remodeling of this epithelium.

  17. The Histochemical Characterization of the Glycoconjugates in the Epidermal Mucous Cells of the Red Californian Earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Çinar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the nature and regional distribution of the glycoconjugates secreted by epidermal mucous cells in Eisenia foetida (Annelida. Specimens were divided into six regions from anterior to posterior. The histochemistry was carried out by using standard histochemical methods. Histochemical staining properties of glycoconjugates in epidermal mucous cells were determined regionally. The epidermis of all regions contained strong to stronger PAS (+ cells in various degrees. The epidermis of the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth regions had strong to stronger AB pH 2.5 (+ cells. On the contrary, all regions contained weak to moderate AB pH 0.5 and AB pH 1.0 (+ cells. Most of mucous cells in epidermis of the first region contained both PAS (+ and AB (+ mucosubstances. All regions included weaker to weak AF (+ cells. All regions featured KOH/PAS (+ cells, with a slight reduction in reaction intensity in the epidermis of the last three regions. In this context, the different staining patterns observed in epidermal mucous cells hinted at their functional roles with respect to production of mucus with different physical properties. This study provided comprehensive information about the regional distribution patterns of the glycoconjugates and an opportunity to compare their distributional patterns in other annelids.

  18. Benign phyllodes tumor of the breast recurring as a malignant phyllodes tumor and spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Kristen E; Tafe, Laura J; de Abreu, Francine B; Peterson, Jason D; Wells, Wendy A; Barth, Richard J; Marotti, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    We report a unique case of a 59-year-old woman diagnosed with a benign phyllodes tumor (PT), which recurred twice in the same location over a 7-year period: first as a malignant PT and then as a malignant PT with coexisting spindle cell metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC). The MBC was differentiated from the malignant PT by expression of cytokeratins (CKs) AE1/AE3, CK MNF-116, CK 5/6, and p63. Somatic mutation analysis using a next-generation sequencing platform revealed a shared mutation in F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7, a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a ubiquitin ligase-associated protein, in the original benign PT and the first recurrent malignant PT. Chromosomal microarray analysis showed shared genetic gains and losses between the malignant PT and MBC. This case highlights the utility of immunohistochemistry to differentiate malignant PT from spindle cell MBC, describes a novel mutation in PT, and demonstrates a biologic relationship between these 2 entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Infection with human H1N1 influenza virus affects the expression of sialic acids of metaplastic mucous cells in the ferret airways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Glycans terminating in sialic acids serve as receptors for influenza viruses. In this study ferrets were infected with influenza virus A/New Caledonia/20/99, and the in situ localization of sialic acids linked a2-3 and a2-6 in the airways was investigated in infected and non-infected animals by u...

  20. Mucous cell metaplasia in rat nasal epithelium after a 20-month exposure to ozone: A morphometric study of epithelial differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Griffith, W.C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of long-term ozone exposure on nasal epithelia and intraepithelial mucosubstances (IM) throughout the nasal airways of F344/N rats. Animals were exposed to 0 (controls). 0. 12. 0.5, or 1.0 ppm ozone. 6 h/day, 5 days/wk. for 20 mo. Rats were killed 1 wk after the end of the exposure. and nasal tissues were processed for light and electron microscopy. Standard morphometric techniques were used to determine epithelial cell densities and the amounts of IM in the surface epithelium lining the nasal airways. No mucous cells or IM were present in the epithelia lining the nasal lateral meatus and maxillary sinus of rats exposed to 0 or 0.12 ppm ozone. In contrast, rats exposed to 0.5 or 1.0 ppm ozone had marked mucous cell metaplasia (MCM) with numerous mucous cells and conspicuous amounts of IM in the surface epithelium lining these upper airways. Ozone-induced increases in total epithelial cells (i.e., epithelial hyperplasia) were present only in rats exposed to 1.0 ppm. The results of this study indicate that rats chronically exposed to 1.0 or 0.5 ppm, but not 0. 121 ppm. ozone can develop marked MCM with significant increases in IM in both proximal and distal nasal airways. The epithelial chances observed throughout the nasal passages of ozone-exposed rats may be adaptive responses in an attempt to protect the upper and lower respiratory tract from further ozone-induced injury.

  1. Investigations of the dependence of radiation effects on the stem cells of the small intestine mucous membrane on dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gindele, S.

    1984-01-01

    For the study of the dependence of the radiation effects on the stem cells of the small intestine mucous membrane on dose fractionation mice from the strain C3H were exposed to a one-time irradiation, an irradiation in three fractions, five fractions on one day, five fractions on two days and an irradiation in ten fractions. It was shown, that the survival curves for the higher fractionation numbers were shifted to the right from the ones with higher total doses and have a lower slope than the curves lying more to the left. The accumulation of a total dose for an iso-effect is not proportional to the increase in the number of fractions, but instead in the area above 5 fractions reaches a plateau. The survival curve of the one-time dose which I constructed in the shoulder area showed a strong agreement with the survival curve which was given by Withers and Hussey. (orig.) [de

  2. [Cl-]i modulation of Ca2+-regulated exocytosis in ACh-stimulated antral mucous cells of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Chikao; Umegaki, Eiji; Katsu, Ken-ichi; Kato, Masumi; Fujiwara, Shoko; Kubota, Takahiro; Nakahari, Takashi

    2007-10-01

    The effects of intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) on acetylcholine (ACh)-stimulated exocytosis were studied in guinea pig antral mucous cells by video microscopy. ACh activated Ca2+-regulated exocytosis (an initial phase followed by a sustained phase). Bumetanide (20 microM) or a Cl- -free (NO3-) solution enhanced it; in contrast, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB, a Cl- channel blocker) decreased it and eliminated the enhancement induced by bumetanide or NO3- solution. ACh and Ca2+ dose-response studies demonstrated that NO3- solution does not shift their dose-response curves, and ATP depletion studies by dinitrophenol or anoxia demonstrated that exposure of NO3- solution prior to ATP depletion induced an enhanced initial phase followed by a sustained phase, whereas exposure of NO3- solution after ATP depletion induced only a sustained phase. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) measurements showed that bumetanide and NO3- solution enhanced the ACh-stimulated [Ca2+]i increase. Measurements of [Cl-]i revealed that ACh decreases [Cl-]i and that bumetanide and NO3- solution decreased [Cl-]i and enhanced the ACh-evoked [Cl-]i decrease; in contrast, NPPB increased [Cl-]i and inhibited the [Cl-]i decrease induced by ACh, bumetanide, or NO3- solution. These suggest that [Cl-]i modulates [Ca2+]i increase and ATP-dependent priming. In conclusion, a decrease in [Cl-]i accelerates ATP-dependent priming and [Ca2+]i increase, which enhance Ca2+-regulated exocytosis in ACh-stimulated antral mucous cells.

  3. Food deprivation causes rapid changes in the abundance and glucidic composition of the cutaneous mucous cells of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeira-Dabarca, A; Álvarez, M; Molist, P

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous mucus is the first physical and chemical barrier of fish. This slime layer is secreted by mucous cells located in the epidermis and is mainly composed of glycoproteins that have their origin in the diet. Therefore, food deprivation can potentially change the abundance and glucidic nature of skin mucous cells, thus changing the mucus properties. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Changes in the number and glucidic nature of epidermal mucus cells were analysed using standard techniques. The outcome of this study shows that food deprivation caused a rapid decrease in the density of epidermal mucous cells in Atlantic salmon. Lectin histochemistry revealed a change in the presence and stainability of some sugar residues in the mucous cells of unfed fish compared with fed fish. Given that the primary reason for mucus secretion in fish is for protection against infections, we speculate that the changes in the mucus properties caused by nutritional stress may affect their disease resistance. This fact is particularly important for fish that spend a period of time deprived of food, either as a part of their natural life cycle, or as part of farming practices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Role of nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine in mucous cell metaplasia, hyperplasia and airway mucus formation in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Wilder, Julie A.; Mishra, Neerad C.; Rir-sima-ah, Jules; Langley, Raymond J.; Singh, Shashi P.; Saeed, Ali Imran; Jaramillo, Richard J.; Gott, Katherine M.; Peña-Philippides, Juan Carlos; Harrod, Kevin S.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Buch, Shilpa; Sopori, Mohan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Airway mucus hypersecretion is a key pathophysiological feature in number of lung diseases. Cigarette smoke/nicotine and allergens are strong stimulators of airway mucus; however, the mechanism of mucus modulation is unclear. Objectives Characterize the pathway by which cigarette smoke/nicotine regulates airway mucus and identify agents that decrease airway mucus. Methods IL-13 and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are implicated in airway mucus. We examined the role of IL-13 and GABAARs in nicotine-induced mucus formation in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and A549 cells, and secondhand cigarette smoke and/or ovalbumin-induced mucus formation in vivo. Results Nicotine promotes mucus formation in NHBE cells; however, the nicotine-induced mucus formation is independent of IL-13 but sensitive to the GABAAR antagonist picrotoxin (PIC). Airway epithelial cells express α7/α9/α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and specific inhibition or knockdown of α7- but not α9/α10-nAChRs abrogates mucus formation in response to nicotine and IL-13. Moreover, addition of acetylcholine or inhibition of its degradation increases mucus in NHBE cells. Nicotinic but not muscarinic receptor antagonists block allergen or nicotine/cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus formation in NHBE cells and/or in mouse airways. Conclusions Nicotine-induced airway mucus formation is independent of IL-13 and α7-nAChRs are critical in airway mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia and mucus production in response to various pro-mucoid agents, including IL-13. In the absence of nicotine, acetylcholine may be the biological ligand for α7-nAChRs to trigger airway mucus formation. α7-nAChRs are downstream of IL-13 but upstream of GABAARα2 in the MUC5AC pathway. Acetylcholine and α-7-nAChRs may serve as therapeutic targets to control airway mucus. PMID:22578901

  5. Salicylate effects on a monolayer culture of gastric mucous cells from adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Ota, S; Razandi, M; Sekhon, S; Krause, W J; Terano, A; Hiraishi, H; Ivey, K J

    1988-01-01

    Aspirin, acetyl salicylic acid, damages gastric mucosal cells. This effect is considered related to its inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. On the other hand, sodium salicylate has been reported to be cytoprotective against drug damage to gastric mucosa in vivo. One reason for this difference is that salicylic acid, unlike acetyl salicylic acid does not inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by gastric mucosa in vivo. Previous studies on tissue culture cells from our laboratory have required gast...

  6. Mucous hypersecretion induced in isolated mucociliated epithelial cells by a factor in heated serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, B G; Bang, F B

    1972-08-01

    A factor in the serum of the marine coelomate, Sipunculus nudus, induced by injecting a mixture of a marine bacterial vibrio and a solution of dried cholera toxin, will, after heating to 85 to 90 C, cause intensive continuous hypersecretion of mucus in isolated free-swimming mucociliated cells from another Sipunculus. The factor, released from coleomic cells into the serum, is heat stable to 90 C, withstands several freeze-thawings, is induced only by specific stimuli, is rapidly released into the serum, persists for different time spans depending on the stimulus, and is not present in normal heated sera. It is proposed that in nature this factor is balanced by a heat labile inhibitory factor. Cholera toxin alone is a feeble stimulus. The marine vibrio alone is a powerful stimulus to mucus secretion but lethal for the host. In combination with cholera toxin, the vibrio is nonlethal.

  7. Mucus-stimulating substances in human body fluids assayed in an invertebrate mucous cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, B G; Bang, F B

    1979-12-01

    An in vitro cell system has been shown to respond differentially to body fluids from normal subjects and from those with disorders of mucus secretion. The urn cell complex of the marine invertebrate Sipunculus nudus responds to mucus-stimulating substances (MSS) in normal human lacrimal fluids and stool filtrates by producing mucus. The process of mucus secretion can be directly observed, and the amount produced can be measured, in a calibrated light microscope. MSS are decreased in lacrimal fluids of patients with dry-eye conditions, while they are periodically increased in filtered stools of patients with acute Shigella dysentery and acute cholera. MSS are remarkably increased isotonic dilutions of sera of rabbits with acute mucoid enteritis, but are absent from sera of normal rabbits. MSS are present in isotonic dilutions of normal human sera which are heated to 85 degrees C for 4 minutes, but are absent from similarly processed sera of immunosuppressed patients. Mean MSS values of heated sera of children with cystic fibrosis are higher than those of controls. The active factor in tears and serum is a large molecule and is heat-stable.

  8. Human Papillomavirus in Oral Leukoplakia, Verrucous Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Normal Mucous Membrane

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    Nasrollah Saghravanian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common oral malignancy, and verrucous carcinoma (VC is a less invasive type of SCC. Leukoplakia (LP is the most frequent premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. The human papillomavirus (HPV has been recognized as one of the etiologic factors of these conditions. The association of anogenital and cervical cancers with HPV particularly its high-risk subtypes (HPV HR has been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothetical association between HPV and the mentioned oral cavity lesions.  Methods: One hundred and seventy-three samples (114 SCCs, 21 VCs, 20 LPs and 18 normal mucosa samples (as a control group were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Mashhad Dental School, Iran. The association of HPV genotypes in LP, VC, and SCC was compared to normal oral mucosa using the polymerase chain reaction.  Results: The results showed the absence of HPV in normal mucosa and LP lesions. In three samples of VC (14.3%, we observed the presence of HPV HR (types 16 and 18. All VCs were present in the mandibular ridge of females aged over 65 years old. No statistically significant correlation between HPV and VC was observed (p=0.230. Additionally, 15 (13.1% SCCs showed HPV positivity, but this was not significant (p=0.830. The prevalence of SCC was higher on the tongue with the dominant presence of less carcinogenic species of HPV (types 6 and 11. A statistically significant association was not observed between HPV and SCC or VC in the oral cavity.  Conclusions: More studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between HPV and malignant/premalignant oral cavity lesions.

  9. Optimal structure of metaplasticity for adaptive learning.

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    Peyman Khorsand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning from reward feedback in a changing environment requires a high degree of adaptability, yet the precise estimation of reward information demands slow updates. In the framework of estimating reward probability, here we investigated how this tradeoff between adaptability and precision can be mitigated via metaplasticity, i.e. synaptic changes that do not always alter synaptic efficacy. Using the mean-field and Monte Carlo simulations we identified 'superior' metaplastic models that can substantially overcome the adaptability-precision tradeoff. These models can achieve both adaptability and precision by forming two separate sets of meta-states: reservoirs and buffers. Synapses in reservoir meta-states do not change their efficacy upon reward feedback, whereas those in buffer meta-states can change their efficacy. Rapid changes in efficacy are limited to synapses occupying buffers, creating a bottleneck that reduces noise without significantly decreasing adaptability. In contrast, more-populated reservoirs can generate a strong signal without manifesting any observable plasticity. By comparing the behavior of our model and a few competing models during a dynamic probability estimation task, we found that superior metaplastic models perform close to optimally for a wider range of model parameters. Finally, we found that metaplastic models are robust to changes in model parameters and that metaplastic transitions are crucial for adaptive learning since replacing them with graded plastic transitions (transitions that change synaptic efficacy reduces the ability to overcome the adaptability-precision tradeoff. Overall, our results suggest that ubiquitous unreliability of synaptic changes evinces metaplasticity that can provide a robust mechanism for mitigating the tradeoff between adaptability and precision and thus adaptive learning.

  10. The host-parasite relationship between the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura): epithelial mucous cell response, cortisol and factors which may influence parasite establishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, D.T.; Salm, van der A.L.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of short-term infection with the branchurian crustacean ectoparasite Argulus foliaceus, and the fish stress hormone cortisol (which is reported to stimulate mucus discharge), were studied on the mucous cell population of the head skin of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Argulus

  11. Metaplastic breast cancer with chondroid differentiation

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    Zin W. Myint

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare subtype of breast cancer with an incidence of <1% of all breast neoplasms. Metaplastic carcinoma with chondroid differentiation is the rarest among all histologic subtypes of breast cancer. We report a case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma with metaplastic features of chondroid differentiation. Case presentation: A 58-year-old-woman presented to our clinic with a 4-month history of a lump in her right breast. On examination, a firm non-tender mass measuring 2×2 cm was noted in the right upper outer quadrant. It was not attached to the underlying structures. Mammography revealed a dense irregular mass in the axillary tail and a circumscribed nodule in the 6 O'clock periareolar region. This was a new development compared to the patient's most recent screening mammogram performed 2 years and 6 months previously. Ultrasound demonstrated a lobulated solid mass in the axillary tail and a simple cyst in the 6 O'clock periareolar region. Biopsy of the areolar region of the right breast revealed atypical duct hyperplasia. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the right breast axillary tail revealed a poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma consistent with mammary duct origin. On histopathological examination, it was an infiltrating ductal carcinoma with metaplastic features of chondroid differentiation. The tumor was estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2 negative with 0% nuclear staining. Ki-67 index was 52% with strong nuclear staining. The overall ELSTON grade of invasive carcinoma was grade 3. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with AC-T (adriamycin, cytoxan, and taxol and is currently undergoing surveillance for recurrent disease. Conclusion: Metaplastic breast cancer is an extremely rare subtype of breast carcinoma. Initial management of localized disease consists of wide excision with clear surgical margins followed by radiation or mastectomy and sentinel

  12. Challenges to diagnose metaplastic carcinoma of the breast through cytologic methods: an eight-case series

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    Kure Kiyoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because metaplastic carcinoma of the breast encompasses a great variety of histopathology, diagnostic challenges abound, especially within the realm of cytology. The authors compiled and studied an eight-case series comprised of metaplastic breast carcinomas and lesions initially suspicious cytologically for metaplastic carcinoma in order to assess the degree of cytologic-histologic correlation and to identify recurring problematic themes surrounding the cytology-based diagnosis of this neoplasm. The cytologic and histologic slides from eight cases suspicious for metaplastic breast carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA were collected and analyzed through a seven-year retrospective search of case files at our institution. Based on cytologic characteristics, the cases were separated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of three cases presenting with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamoid components on FNA. Group 2 was composed of two cases that featured a monophasic, malignant ductal cell population on cytology, while the cytologic specimens for the third group of cases presented with a mesenchymal component with or without a malignant glandular constituent. Cytologic-histologic correlation was present in two of three cases demonstrating a mesenchymal component, and there was 100% sensitivity in the cytologic detection of those mesenchymal elements. However, in only one of three cases was there an accurate cytologic diagnosis of metaplastic carcinoma when squamoid changes were present on FNA. Both cases demonstrating only malignant glandular elements on cytologic specimens revealed an additional component of malignant squamous differentiation upon the examination of mastectomy-derived tissue. These results indicate that squamous-like changes identified on FNA should be interpreted with caution and that sampling error remains a problematic recurrence in cytology. Regardless, there appears to be promise concerning

  13. Oral mucous squamous cell carcinoma-an anticipated consequence of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckle, Barbara C; Wilhelm, Manuel; Müller, Hansgeorg; Götsch, Claudia; Sepp, Norbert T

    2010-05-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the AIRE gene. We report the case of a female patient with a 967-979del13 mutation in the AIRE gene. Her medical history included autoimmune hypoparathyroidism, Addison disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. At the age of 40, she developed multiple white verrucous plaques on the oral mucosa. Histologically, the lesions appeared as moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. The patient subsequently developed multiple local recurrences and therefore required repeated surgery. Notably, a higher incidence rate of oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has been observed in this syndrome. However, the critical pathogenetic pathways implicated in squamous cell carcinoma development in APECED are far from being well understood. Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Progress on metaplasticity and its role in learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Li; Lu, Wei

    2016-08-25

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two major forms of synaptic plasticity that are widely considered as important cellular models of learning and memory. Metaplasticity is defined as the plasticity of synaptic plasticity and thus is an advanced form of plasticity. The history of synaptic activity can affect the subsequent synaptic plasticity induction. Therefore, it is important to study metaplasticity to explore new mechanisms underlying various brain functions including learning and memory. Since the concept of metaplasticity was proposed, it has aroused widespread concerns and attracted numerous researchers to dig more details on this topic. These new-found experimental phenomena and cellular mechanisms have established the basis of theoretical studies on metaplasticity. In recent years, researchers have found that metaplasticity can not only affect the synaptic plasticity, but also regulate the neural network to encode specific content and enhance the learning and memory. These findings have greatly enriched our knowledge on plasticity and opened a new route to study the mechanism of learning and memory. In this review, we discuss the recent progress on metaplasticity on following three aspects: (1) the molecular mechanisms of metaplasticity; (2) the role of metaplasticity in learning and memory; and (3) the outlook of future study on metaplasticity.

  15. Role of nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine in mucous cell metaplasia, hyperplasia, and airway mucus formation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Wilder, Julie A; Mishra, Neerad C; Rir-Sima-Ah, Jules; Langley, Raymond J; Singh, Shashi P; Saeed, Ali Imran; Jaramillo, Richard J; Gott, Katherine M; Peña-Philippides, Juan Carlos; Harrod, Kevin S; McIntosh, J Michael; Buch, Shilpa; Sopori, Mohan L

    2012-09-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a key pathophysiologic feature in a number of lung diseases. Cigarette smoke/nicotine and allergens are strong stimulators of airway mucus; however, the mechanism of mucus modulation is unclear. We sought to characterize the pathway by which cigarette smoke/nicotine regulates airway mucus and identify agents that decrease airway mucus. IL-13 and γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are implicated in airway mucus. We examined the role of IL-13 and GABA(A)Rs in nicotine-induced mucus formation in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and A549 cells and secondhand cigarette smoke-induced, ovalbumin-induced, or both mucus formation in vivo. Nicotine promotes mucus formation in NHBE cells; however, the nicotine-induced mucus formation is independent of IL-13 but sensitive to the GABA(A)R antagonist picrotoxin. Airway epithelial cells express α7-, α9-, and α10-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and specific inhibition or knockdown of α7- but not α9/α10-nAChRs abrogates mucus formation in response to nicotine and IL-13. Moreover, addition of acetylcholine or inhibition of its degradation increases mucus in NHBE cells. Nicotinic but not muscarinic receptor antagonists block allergen- or nicotine/cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus formation in NHBE cells, murine airways, or both. Nicotine-induced airway mucus formation is independent of IL-13, and α7-nAChRs are critical in airway mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia and mucus production in response to various promucoid agents, including IL-13. In the absence of nicotine, acetylcholine might be the biological ligand for α7-nAChRs to trigger airway mucus formation. α7-nAChRs are downstream of IL-13 but upstream of GABA(A)Rα2 in the MUC5AC pathway. Acetylcholine and α7-nAChRs might serve as therapeutic targets to control airway mucus. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced polychronisation in a spiking network with metaplasticity

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    Mira eGuise

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of metaplasticity have usually focused on the modeling of single synapses (Shouval et al., 2002. In this paper we study the effect of metaplasticity on network behavior. Our guiding assumption is that the primary purpose of metaplasticity is to regulate synaptic plasticity, by increasing it when input is low and decreasing it when input is high. For our experiments we adopt a model of metaplasticity that demonstrably has this effect for a single synapse; our primary interest is in how metaplasticity thus defined affects network-level phenomena. We focus on a network-level phenomenon called polychronicity, that has a potential role in representation and memory. A network with polychronicity has the ability to produce non-synchronous but precisely timed sequences of neural firing events that can arise from strongly connected groups of neurons called polychronous neural groups (Izhikevich et al., 2004; Izhikevich, 2006a. Polychronous groups (PNGs develop readily when spiking networks are exposed to repeated spatio-temporal stimuli under the influence of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP, but are sensitive to changes in synaptic weight distribution. We use a technique we have recently developed called Response Fingerprinting to show that PNGs formed in the presence of metaplasticity are significantly larger than those with no metaplasticity. A potential mechanism for this enhancement is proposed that links an inherent property of integrator type neurons called spike latency to an increase in the tolerance of PNG neurons to jitter in their inputs.

  17. Progressive Metaplastic and Dysplastic Changes in Mouse Pancreas Induced by Cyclooxygenase-2 Overexpression

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    Jennifer K.L. Colby

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 overexpression is an established factor linking chronic inflammation with metaplastic and neoplastic change in various tissues. We generated transgenic mice (BK5.COX-2 in which elevation of COX-2 and its effectors trigger a metaplasia-dysplasia sequence in exocrine pancreas. Histologic evaluation revealed a chronic pancreatitis-like state characterized by acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and a well-vascularized fibroinflammatory stroma that develops by 3 months. By 6 to 8 months, strongly dysplastic features suggestive of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma emerge in the metaplastic ducts. Increased proliferation, cellular atypia, and loss of normal cell/tissue organization are typical features in transgenic pancreata. Alterations in biomarkers associated with human inflammatory and neoplastic pancreatic disease were detected using immunohistochemistry. The abnormal pancreatic phenotype can be completely prevented by maintaining mice on a diet containing celecoxib, a well-characterized COX-2 inhibitor. Despite the high degree of atypia, only limited evidence of invasion to adjacent tissues was observed, with no evidence of distant metastases. However, cell lines derived from spontaneous lesions are aggressively tumorigenic when injected into syngeneic or nude mice. The progressive nature of the metaplastic/dysplastic changes observed in this model make it a valuable tool for examining the transition from chronic inflammation to neoplasia.

  18. Caffeine-Induced Suppression of GABAergic Inhibition and Calcium-Independent Metaplasticity

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    Masako Isokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic inhibition plays a critical role in the regulation of neuron excitability; thus, it is subject to modulations by many factors. Recent evidence suggests the elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and calcium-dependent signaling molecules underlie the modulations. Caffeine induces a release of calcium from intracellular stores. We tested whether caffeine modulated GABAergic transmission by increasing [Ca2+]i. A brief local puff-application of caffeine to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells transiently suppressed GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs by 73.2 ± 6.98%. Time course of suppression and the subsequent recovery of IPSCs resembled DSI (depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, mediated by endogenous cannabinoids that require a [Ca2+]i rise. However, unlike DSI, caffeine-induced suppression of IPSCs (CSI persisted in the absence of a [Ca2+]i rise. Intracellular applications of BAPTA and ryanodine (which blocks caffeine-induced calcium release from intracellular stores failed to prevent the generation of CSI. Surprisingly, ruthenium red, an inhibitor of multiple calcium permeable/release channels including those of stores, induced metaplasticity by amplifying the magnitude of CSI independently of calcium. This metaplasticity was accompanied with the generation of a large inward current. Although ionic basis of this inward current is undetermined, the present result demonstrates that caffeine has a robust Ca2+-independent inhibitory action on GABAergic inhibition and causes metaplasticity by opening plasma membrane channels.

  19. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: multimodality imaging and histopathologic assessment

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    Choi, Bo Bae (Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)), Email: med20@hanmail.net; Shu, Kwang Sun (Department of Pathology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of))

    2012-02-15

    Background Metaplastic carcinomas are ductal carcinomas that display metaplastic transformation of the glandular epithelium to non-glandular mesenchymal tissue. Metaplastic carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than most other breast cancers, so the differential diagnosis is important. Although many clinical and pathologic findings have been reported, to our knowledge, few imaging findings related to metaplastic carcinoma have been reported. Purpose To investigate whole-breast imaging findings, including mammography, sonography, MRI, and pathologic findings, including immunohistochemical studies of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. Material and Methods We analyzed 33 cases of metaplastic carcinoma between January 2001 and January 2011. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI were recorded retrospectively using the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Immunohistochemical studies of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and C-erbB-2 were performed. Results The most common mammographic findings were oval shape (37%), circumscribed margin (59%), and high density (74%). The most common sonogfindings were irregular shape (59.4%), microlobulated margin (41%), complex echogenicity (81%), parallel orientation (97%), and posterior acoustic enhancement (50%). Axillary lymph node metastases were noted for 25% of the sonographic examinations. On MRI, the most common findings of margin and shape were irregularity (57% and 52.4%, respectively). High signal intensity was the most common finding on T2-weighted images (57%). Immunohistochemical profile was negative for ER (91%, 29/32) and PR (81%, 26/32). Conclusion Metaplastic carcinomas might display more benign features and less axillary lymph node metastasis than IDC. High signal intensity on T2 MRI images and hormone receptor negativity would be helpful in differentiating this tumor from other breast cancers

  20. Nanomedicine Drug Delivery across Mucous Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancina, Michael George, III

    Control over the distribution of therapeutic compounds is a complex and somewhat overlooked field of pharmaceutical research. When swallowing a pill or receiving an injection, it is commonly assumed that drug will spread throughout the body in a more or less uniform concentration and find its way to wherever it is needed. In truth, drug biodistribuition is highly non-uniform and dependent on a large number of factors. The development of advanced drug delivery systems to control biodistribution can produce significant advances in clinical treatments without the need to discover new therapeutic compounds. This work focuses on a number of nanostructured materials designed to improve drug delivery by direct and efficient transfer of drugs across one of the body's external mucous membranes. Chapter 1 outlines the central concept that unites these studies: nanomaterials and cationic particles can be used to delivery therapeutic compounds across mucous membranes. Special attention is given to dendritic nanoparticles. In chapter 2, uses for dendrimers in ocular drug delivery are presented. The studies are divided into two main groups: topical and injectable formulations. Chapter 3 does not involve dendrimers but instead another cationic particle used in transmembrane drug delivery, chitosan. Next, a dendrimer based nanofiber mat was used to deliver anti-glaucoma drugs in chapter 4. A three week in vivo efficacy trial showed dendrimer nanofiber mats outperformed traditional eye drops in terms of intra-ocular pressure decrease in a normotensive rat model. Finally, we have developed a new dendrimer based anti-glaucoma drug in chapter 5. Collectively, these studies demonstrate some of the potential applications for nanotechnology to improve transmembrane drug delivery. These particles and fibers are able to readily adhere and penetrate across epithelial cell lays. Utilizing these materials to improve drug absorption through these portals has the potential to improve the

  1. Brain Plasticity and the Concept of Metaplasticity in Skilled Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Furuya, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Early and extensive musical training provides plastic adaptations of the nervous system and enhanced sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. Over decades, neuronal mechanism underlying the plastic adaptation through musical training has been investigated using neuroimaging and transcranial stimulation techniques. Recently, plastic changes in neuroplastic functions through musical training have gradually gained some interest, so-called metaplasticity. Metaplasticity enables faster and more stable skill acquisition for individuals with a history of prior musical training. This mechanism may also serve for prevention of developing maladaptive changes in the nervous system, being pathophysiology of focal dystonia in musicians. The present chapter introduces neurophysiological mechanisms and functional significances of brain plasticity and metaplasticity of the sensory and motor systems of musicians.

  2. Fibromatosis-like carcinoma-an unusual phenotype of a metaplastic breast tumor associated with a micropapilloma

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    Badwe Rajan A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromatosis-like metaplastic carcinoma is a newly described metaplastic breast tumor, literature on which is still evolving. Case presentation A 77-year-old lady presented with a 2 × 2 cm mass with irregular margins in the upper and outer quadrant of left breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the lump was inconclusive. A lumpectomy was performed and sent for frozen section, which revealed presence of spindle cells showing mild atypia in a sclerotic stroma. The tumor cells revealed prominent infiltration into the adjacent fat. A differential diagnosis of a low-grade sarcoma vs. a metaplastic carcinoma, favoring the former, was offered. Final histology sections revealed an infiltrating tumor with predominant spindle cells in a collagenous background, simulating a fibromatosis. Adjacent to the tumor were foci of benign ductal hyperplasia and a micropapilloma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC showed diffuse co-expression of epithelial markers i.e. cytokeratins (CK, HMWCK, CK7 and EMA along with a mesenchymal marker i.e. vimentin in the tumor cells. Myoepithelial markers (SMA and p63 showed focal positivity. A diagnosis of a low-grade fibromatosis-like carcinoma breast associated with a micropapilloma was formed. Conclusion Fibromatosis-like carcinoma is a rare form of a metaplastic breast tumor. This diagnosis requires an index of suspicion while dealing with spindle cell breast tumors. The importance of making this diagnosis to facilitate an intra operative surgical planning is marred by diagnostic difficulties. In such cases, IHC is imperative in forming an objective diagnosis.

  3. Metaplastic thymoma: report of an unusual thymic epithelial neoplasm arising in the wall of a thymic cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorabdollah, Mihan; Mehdizadeh, Ehsan; Mohammadi, Foruzan; Sabeti, Shahram

    2009-02-01

    In this report, a case of metaplastic thymoma arising in a thymic cyst wall is discussed. The patient was a 61-year-old male whose chief complaint was sweating and chest pain. Imaging study revealed a mediastinal mass with right hemithoracic extension. He underwent surgical resection of the mass and remnants of the thymus. Histologic studies showed a primary thymic neoplasm with a biphasic histologic pattern composed of 2 distinct epithelial and stromal components arising in a thymic cyst wall. Immunohistochemically, the epithelial component was cytokeratin positive and focally reactive for EMA. Marked expression of EMA and vimentin was seen in spindle cells. Metaplastic thymoma is an extremely rare variant of primary thymic epithelial neoplasms with only a few cases reported in the literature.

  4. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; de ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; CESTARI, Tânia Mary; LARA, Vanessa Soares; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG) found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated. Objective The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death. Material and Methods 186 cadavers’ glands were allocated to age groups: I (0–30 years); II (31–60), and III (61–90). Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results There was correlation between age and acinar autolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001). However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis. Conclusion Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death. PMID:26537715

  5. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Tolentino, Elen de Souza; de Assis, Gerson Francisco; Cestari, Tânia Mary; Lara, Vanessa Soares; Damante, José Humberto

    2015-10-01

    Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG) found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated. The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death. 186 cadavers' glands were allocated to age groups: I (0-30 years); II (31-60), and III (61-90). Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (pautolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001). However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis. Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death.

  6. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study

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    Luciana Reis AZEVEDO-ALANIS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated.Objective The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death.Material and Methods 186 cadavers’ glands were allocated to age groups: I (0–30 years; II (31–60, and III (61–90. Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (p<0.05.Results There was correlation between age and acinar autolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001. However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis.Conclusion Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death.

  7. Dietary Yeast Cell Wall Extract Alters the Proteome of the Skin Mucous Barrier in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar: Increased Abundance and Expression of a Calreticulin-Like Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Micallef

    Full Text Available In order to improve fish health and reduce use of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture production, the immunomodulatory effect of various nutritional ingredients has been explored. In salmon, there is evidence that functional feeds can reduce the abundance of sea lice. This study aimed to determine if there were consistent changes in the skin mucus proteome that could serve as a biomarker for dietary yeast cell wall extract. The effect of dietary yeast cell wall extract on the skin mucus proteome of Atlantic salmon was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Forty-nine spots showed a statistically significant change in their normalised volumes between the control and yeast cell wall diets. Thirteen spots were successfully identified by peptide fragment fingerprinting and LC-MS/MS and these belonged to a variety of functions and pathways. To assess the validity of the results from the proteome approach, the gene expression of a selection of these proteins was studied in skin mRNA from two different independent feeding trials using yeast cell wall extracts. A calreticulin-like protein increased in abundance at both the protein and transcript level in response to dietary yeast cell wall extract. The calreticulin-like protein was identified as a possible biomarker for yeast-derived functional feeds since it showed the most consistent change in expression in both the mucus proteome and skin transcriptome. The discovery of such a biomarker is expected to quicken the pace of research in the application of yeast cell wall extracts.

  8. Risk factor analysis for metaplastic gastritis in Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonami; Lim, Yun Jeong; Park, Sue Kyung

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a retrospective study to determine the risk factors for development of metaplastic gastritis in Korean population. METHODS: The database of 113 449 subjects who underwent a gastroscopy for the purpose of a regular check-up at center for health promotion, Samsung medical center during 5 years was collected and retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 5 847 subjects who had endoscopically diagnosed as a metaplastic gastritis or 10 076 normal as well as answered to questionnaire were included for present study. The subjects were divided into 2 groups; Group I, normal and Group II, metaplastic gastritis. Age, gender, Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) seropositivity, body mass index (BMI), family history of cancer, smoking, alcohol consumption, total daily calories, folate and salt intake and dietary habit (out-eating, overeating, irregular eating) were retrieved from questionnaire or electronic medical record and compared between group I and group II. RESULTS: The prevalence of group II was 11% (13 578/113 449) increasing its prevalence with age (P = 0.000). But, there was no significant association between 2 groups in BMI, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, total daily calories, folate and salt intake and dietary habit (out-eating, overeating, irregular eating). Old age (P = 0.000), male gender (P = 0.000), H pylori seropositivity (P = 0.010) and current smoker (P = 0.000) were significantly more common in group II at multiple logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that old age, male gender, H pylori seropositivity and smoking were risk factors for metaplastic gastritis, precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. PMID:16688806

  9. Synaptic metaplasticity underlies tetanic potentiation in Lymnaea: a novel paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mehta

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model that explains and interprets a novel form of short-term potentiation, which was found to be use-, but not time-dependent, in experiments done on Lymnaea neurons. The high degree of potentiation is explained using a model of synaptic metaplasticity, while the use-dependence (which is critically reliant on the presence of kinase in the experiment is explained using a model of a stochastic and bistable biological switch.

  10. Clinical studies on the ex-vivo expansion of autologous adipose derived stem cells for the functional reconstruction of mucous membrane in empty nose syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang LI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze and evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using autologous adipose derived stem cells (ASCs for rebuilding the function of nasal mucosa in patients with empty nose syndrome (ENS. Methods Autologous adipose tissue 15-20ml were obtained from each of 5 ENS patients admitted from Aug. 2013 to Feb. 2014, and from which stem cells were isolated, cultured and expanded in vitro. The phenotype, differentiation, and genetic stability of the third generation of amplified stem cells were identified. For the patients with rudimental turbinate (n=3, ASCs were injected into the damaged nasal mucosa for 4 times (once every 10 days. For the patients with no rudimental turbinate (n=2, autologous pure fat granules 1-5ml were extracted after 3 times of ASCs injection into the damaged nasal mucosa, and mixed with the 3rd-6th generation of ASCs for inferior or middle nasal turbinate angioplasty. Nasal endoscopic examination was performed before treatment and 3, 6 and 9 months after treatment for comparison, and the data of SNOT-20 questionnaire, nasality resistance and nasal mucociliary clearance action were statistically analyzed. Results With injection transplantation of the 3rd-6th generation of ASCs in 2 patients with no rudimental turbinate, and 3, 6 and 9 months after the combined ASCs and fat granules transplantation in 3 patients with rudimental turbinate, nasal endoscopy showed that no obvious absorption in conchoplasty, nasal mucosa was improved significantly, and same as SNOT-20 scores, with statistically significant difference (P0.05. Conclusions The reconstruction of mucosa function by nasal turbinate angioplasty combined with adipose derived stem cells and autologous adipose transplantation may significantly improve the symptoms in patients with ENS with lasting effects. It is a new procedure which is helpful for the mucosal repair in patients with ENS. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.10.11

  11. Treatment strategies in mucous membrane pemphigoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann G Neff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ann G Neff, Matthew Turner, Diya F MutasimDepartment of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP is an autoimmune blistering disorder that is characterized by subepithelial bullae. Various basement membrane zone components have been identified as targets of autoantibodies in MMP. Considerable variability exists in the clinical presentation of MMP. Mucous membranes that may be involved include the oral cavity, conjunctiva, nasopharynx, larynx, esophagus, genitourinary tract, and anus. A multidisciplinary approach is essential in the management of MMP. Early recognition of this disorder and treatment may decrease disease-related complications. The choice of agents for treatment of MMP is based upon the sites of involvement, clinical severity, and disease progression. For more severe disease, or with rapid progression, systemic corticosteroids are the agents of choice for initial treatment, combined with steroid-sparing agents for long-term maintenance. Due to the rarity of this disease, large controlled studies comparing the efficacy of various agents are lacking.Keywords: mucous membrane pemphigoid, cicatricial pemphigoid

  12. Possible association of mucous blanket integrity with postirradiation colonization resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.I.; Brook, I.; Costerton, J.W.; MacVittie, T.; Myhal, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-induced infections can be associated with changes in colonization potential of the intestine. Since the mucous blanket, which overlays the epithelium, is a major mucosal structure and is heavily colonized by microorganisms, we examined the status of the mucus after radiation and evaluated susceptibility to intestinal challenge with bacteria. A downward shift (2.5 X 10(8) cells/g to 5.3 X 10(5)) of total facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the ileum of C3HeB/FeJ mice was detected by 3 days post exposure to 10 Gy 60Co. Numbers of flora returned to normal by 11 days after radiation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that the loss of bacteria could be associated with major disruptions of the continuity of the mucous blanket. The pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhered to mouse mucous films used in in vitro assays. When irradiated mice were challenged orally with 1 X 10(5) P. aeruginosa on days 1, 2, or 3 after irradiation, a progressive increase in susceptibility was seen, but no animals died before Day 4 postirradiation. Sensitivity to subcutaneous (sc) challenge with Pseudomonas also increased by Day 3 and was probably due largely to the profound neutropenia observed. Immunoglobulin G (Gamimmune), which protected burned mice infected with Pseudomonas, was ineffectual in treatment of 7 or 10 Gy irradiated mice challenged either orally or sc with the organism. The ileal mucosal barrier was compromised after radiation in ways which could facilitate epithelial colonization, an event which combined with other immunological and physiological decrements in this model can compromise the effectiveness of therapeutic modalities

  13. Cysteine Protease-Dependent Mucous Disruptions and Differential Mucin Gene Expression in Giardia duodenalis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Christina B; Motta, Jean-Paul; Fekete, Elena; Moreau, France; Chadee, Kris; Buret, Andre G

    2017-11-01

    The intestinal mucous layer provides a critical host defense against pathogen exposure and epithelial injury, yet little is known about how enteropathogens may circumvent this physiologic barrier. Giardia duodenalis is a small intestinal parasite responsible for diarrheal disease and chronic postinfectious illness. This study reveals a complex interaction at the surface of epithelial cells, between G. duodenalis and the intestinal mucous layer. Here, we reveal mechanisms whereby G. duodenalis evades and disrupts the first line of host defense by degrading human mucin-2 (MUC2), depleting mucin stores and inducing differential gene expression in the mouse small and large intestines. Human colonic biopsy specimens exposed to G. duodenalis were depleted of mucus, and in vivo mice infected with G. duodenalis had a thinner mucous layer and demonstrated differential Muc2 and Muc5ac mucin gene expression. Infection in Muc2 -/- mice elevated trophozoite colonization in the small intestine and impaired weight gain. In vitro, human LS174T goblet-like cells were depleted of mucus and had elevated levels of MUC2 mRNA expression after G. duodenalis exposure. Importantly, the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 prevented mucous degradation, mucin depletion, and the increase in MUC2 expression. This article describes a novel role for Giardia's cysteine proteases in pathogenesis and how Giardia's disruptions of the mucous barrier facilitate bacterial translocation that may contribute to the onset and propagation of disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mucous plug syndrome. A pulmonary embolism mimic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, S.T.; Johnstone, W.H.; Dee, P.M.; Pope, T.L. Jr.; Teates, C.D.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Reported are ten instances of major bronchial obstruction by mucous plugs in eight patients during which the clinical features resembled pulmonary embolism. Perfusion lung studies showed significantly diminished perfusion of the involved portions of the lungs. The chest radiographs generally did not, however, reflect the severity of the airway obstruction and in some instances were completely normal. The ventilation studies indicated the extent and severity of the obstruction and matched with the perfusion scans. Pulmonary arteriograms were performed in three patients and gave direct evidence of focally diminished lung perfusion without embolism. The physiologic mechanisms underlying the condition are discussed

  15. Power-law forgetting in synapses with metaplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A; Luck, J M

    2011-01-01

    The idea of using metaplastic synapses to incorporate the separate storage of long- and short-term memories via an array of hidden states was put forward in the cascade model of Fusi et al. In this paper, we devise and investigate two models of a metaplastic synapse based on these general principles. The main difference between the two models lies in their available mechanisms of decay, when a contrarian event occurs after the build-up of a long-term memory. In one case, this leads to the conversion of the long-term memory to a short-term memory of the opposite kind, while in the other, a long-term memory of the opposite kind may be generated as a result. Appropriately enough, the response of both models to short-term events is not affected by this difference in architecture. On the contrary, the transient response of both models, after long-term memories have been created by the passage of sustained signals, is rather different. The asymptotic behaviour of both models is, however, characterised by power-law forgetting with the same universal exponent

  16. Rare case of metaplastic breast cancer in a man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Heather; Jafri, Hassaan; Dougherty, Thomas; Lebowicz, Yehuda

    2018-03-07

    Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) in men is an extremely rare entity. MBC is typically very aggressive with a poor prognosis. In men, it has only been reported three times in the literature. We report a 47-year-old man who presented with right-sided breast erythema and nipple inversion. Mammogram revealed a 2.4 cm spiculated mass. Initial pathology was inconclusive; however, right-sided simple mastectomy showed invasive metaplastic carcinoma with adenosquamous histology. He received adjuvant chemotherapy with 4 cycles of dose dense Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide followed by 12 weeks of paclitaxel and chest wall radiation. Although oestrogen receptor status was 1%, tamoxifen was not given due to recent diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Two years after treatment, he is currently living with no signs of recurrence. This case will serve as a useful addition to the current literature discussing successful diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of a man with MBC. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Prognosis of mucous naso-sinus melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thariat, J.; Poissonnet, G.; Dassonville, O.; Santini, J.; Castillo, L.; Iattes, L.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Castillo, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mucous melanoma of superior aero-digestive tracts represents 1-2% of malignant melanomas, 5-10% of head and neck melanomas, and concerns particularly, the nasal cavities and naso-sinus cavities. The recurrences are frequent, often local ones, sometimes multifocal ones, the survival rate at five years is ≤ 30%. The Ballantyne classification distinguishes three stages: 1 localised tumors, 2 ganglions attack, 3 metastases. Are pejorative: a stage number 3 ( deep invasion, muscles, bones, cartilages) according to the Prasad classification (1: in situ or micro invasive, 2: invasion of the lamina propria), the achromia sub-type, a pseudo papillary or sarcoma, vascular emboli, necrosis. The recommendations rest on evidence level at 4. The complete excision is the rule and must be counterbalanced with the morbidity in case of orbital, dura-mater, frontal lobe, and infra temporal fossa. The adjuvant irradiation is debated.We evaluated the prognosis of mucous naso-sinus melanomas. Conclusion: The principal cause of death was the local failure. The Ballantyne classification does not take into account the extensions and overestimates the prognosis impact of ganglions invasion that is yet ≤10% ( and does not justify a radiotherapy in lack of adenopathy). It underestimates probably the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy. One should be able to distinguish the unfavourable stage 1 tumors (receiving eventually a radiotherapy) and these ones of very localised stage 1 for which it could be omitted. The fractionation and the optimal dose remain to be defined. The volume ≥100 ml and the irradiation by carbon ions seem promising in term of local control but the metastases stay a problem in the recent series. (N.C.)

  18. HIV Patient with Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV Patient with Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: A Case Report. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ... Background: Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid, a new denomination of cicatricial pemphigoid, encompasses a group of chronic subepithelial autoimmune blistering diseases that predominantly affect the oral cavity ...

  19. Analysis of metaplastic breast carcinoma: FNAC; histopathology and immunohistochemistry are complementary for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Hafez, Amal; Shawky, Abd El-Aty

    2013-01-01

    Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare malignancy comprised of ductal, squamous and/or mesenchymal elements with problematic diagnosis. This study analyses MBC identifying its cytologic and histologic features and emphasizing the combined role of FNAC, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in its diagnosis. Cytology and histopathology files search yielded 21 cases identified as MBC from January 2005 to December 2010. FNAC and the histopathology slides were re-examined for the presence and frequency of various elements. Cytological and histopathological diagnoses were made and the cases subtyped according to WHO classification. Cytokeratin and vimenten IHC were used to confirm diagnosis when required. On FNAC, 52.4% were diagnosed as malignant, 9.5% as suspicious for malignancy and 38.1% as benign lesions. Most frequent cytologic findings were squamous and spindle cell elements (52.4% each). Histopathology revealed 76.2% pure epithelial tumors and 23.8% mixed epithelial-mesenchymal tumors. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent histological subtype (33.3%). Carcinosarcomas were dimorphic on IHC& spindle cell carcinomas were positive for both cytokeratin and vimentin. Presence of dual components, squamous, spindle elements, mesenchymal fragments and necrosis in moderate to high cellularity breast FNAC provides clues for the diagnosis of MBC. FNAC; histopathology and IHC complement for diagnosis.

  20. Multiple forms of metaplasticity at a single hippocampal synapse during late postnatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. McHail

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metaplasticity refers to adjustment in the requirements for induction of synaptic plasticity based on the prior history of activity. Numerous forms of developmental metaplasticity are observed at Schaffer collateral synapses in the rat hippocampus at the end of the third postnatal week. Emergence of spatial learning and memory at this developmental stage suggests possible involvement of metaplasticity in the final maturation of the hippocampus. Three distinct metaplastic phenomena are apparent. (1 As transmitter release probability increases with increasing age, presynaptic potentiation is reduced. (2 Alterations in the composition and channel conductance properties of AMPARs facilitate the induction of postsynaptic potentiation with increasing age. (3 Low frequency stimulation inhibits subsequent induction of potentiation in animals older but not younger than 3 weeks of age. Thus, many forms of plasticity expressed at SC-CA1 synapses are different in rats younger and older than 3 weeks of age, illustrating the complex orchestration of physiological modifications that underlie the maturation of hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission. This review paper describes three late postnatal modifications to synaptic plasticity induction in the hippocampus and attempts to relate these metaplastic changes to developmental alterations in hippocampal network activity and the maturation of contextual learning.

  1. Oral Metastasis of Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis 1

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    Ana Paula Molina Vivas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 has been associated with an increased risk for development of malignancy, especially malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. In addition, recently, literature has demonstrated an increased risk of breast cancer in women with NF1. The present paper shows a 53-year-old woman with NF1 who presented with metaplastic breast carcinoma and developed multiple metastases, including mandible. Furthermore, we reviewed the English literature, found 63 cases showing the association between NF1 and breast cancer, and added one more case. The present study demonstrated an important association between NF1 and breast cancer. Until the present time, there has been only one case of metaplastic breast carcinoma associated with NF1. Curiously, in our case the oral metastasis corresponded to sarcomatous component of metaplastic breast carcinoma.

  2. The role of barrier function of mucous membranes in allergic diseases and sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana M. Kurbacheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently one of the factors of allergy predisposition is the increase in barrier permeability of the mucous membranes of the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. It defines the probability of an emergence of an allergic response. To understand the mechanisms of the interaction of the mucous membranes of different systems that explain their common function is undoubtedly necessary for discussion of this problem. The features of microbiome influence and the changes of the microbiome state during the formation of the immune response to the contact with allergens are of particular interest. The structure of the epithelial barrier of the airwaysand GIT, and mechanisms of allergen transport through barrier systems with the subsequent interaction with the cells (? associated with barrier fabrics have been considered. The possible role of the barrier function of mucous membranes in conducting sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT is discussed. 

  3. Histological and clinical evaluation of the hard palate mucous membrane graft for treatment of lower eyelid retraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofie D H; Heegaard, Steffen; Toft, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the histological appearances of the epithelial cells and the clinical effect of the hard palate mucous membrane (HPM) graft for the treatment of lower eyelid retraction (LER). METHODS: This was a follow-up study involving 15 patients, with a total of 16 eyes operated. Five...

  4. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences in metaplastic breast carcinomas of Mexican women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Vela-Chávez, Teresa; Carrillo-García, Adela; Lizano-Soberón, Marcela; Amador-Molina, Alfredo; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F; Hallmann, Rita Sotelo-Regil

    2013-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma, an uncommon subtype of breast cancer, is part of the spectrum of basal-like, triple receptor-negative breast carcinomas. The present study examined 20 surgical specimens of metaplastic breast carcinomas, for the presence of high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV), which is suspected to be a potential carcinogenic agent for breast carcinoma. Mastectomy specimens from patients harboring metaplastic breast carcinoma, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), and who attended the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City, were retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology accumulated during a 16-year period (1995–2008). Demographic and clinical information was obtained from patients’ medical records. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors and HPV type-specific amplification was performed by means of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative Real-time (RT) PCR was conducted in HPV positive cases. Statistically, the association of continuous or categorical variables with HPV status was tested by the Student t, the Chi square, or Fisher’s exact tests, as appropriate. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in eight (40%) of 20 metaplastic breast carcinomas: seven (87.5%) HPV-16 and one (12.5%) HPV-18. Mean age of patients with HPV-positive cases was 49 years (range 24–72 years), the same as for HPV-negative cases (range, 30–73 years). There were not striking differences between HPV + and HPV– metaplastic carcinomas regarding clinical findings. Nearly all cases were negative for estrogen, progesterone and Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), but positive for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). High-risk HPV has been strongly associated with conventional breast carcinomas, although the subtle mechanism of neoplastic transformation is poorly understood. In Mexican patients, the prevalence of HPV infection among metaplastic breast carcinomas is higher than in non-metaplastic ones

  5. Abnormal Mechanisms of Plasticity and Metaplasticity in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Ifert-Miller, Fritz; Najib, Umer; Bashir, Shahid; Heydrich, Joseph Gonzalez; Picker, Jonathan; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-09-01

    Multiple lines of evidence from genetic linkage studies to animal models implicate aberrant cortical plasticity and metaplasticity in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, direct experimental evidence of these alterations in humans with these disorders is scarce. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive tool for probing mechanisms of plasticity and metaplasticity in vivo, in humans. The aim of the current study was to examine mechanisms of plasticity and metaplasticity in humans with ASD and FXS. We employed a repetitive TMS protocol developed specifically to probe cortical plasticity, namely continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). We applied a 40-second train of cTBS to primary motor cortex (M1) to healthy control participants and individuals with ASD or FXS, and we measured the cTBS-induced modulation in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in a contralateral intrinsic hand muscle. Each participant completed two sessions of the same protocol on two consecutive days. The degree of modulation in MEPs after cTBS on the first day was evaluated as a putative index of cortical plasticity. Examination of the changes in the effects of cTBS on the second day, as conditioned by the effects on the first day, provided an index of metaplasticity, or the propensity of a given cortical region to undergo plastic change based on its recent history. After a 40-second cTBS train, individuals with ASD show a significantly longer duration of suppression in MEP amplitude as compared with healthy controls, whereas individuals with FXS show a significantly shorter duration. After a second train of cTBS, 24 hours later, the ASD group was indistinguishable from the control group, and while in the FXS group MEPs were paradoxically facilitated by cTBS. These findings offer insights into the pathophysiology of ASD and FXS, specifically providing direct experimental evidence that humans with these disorders show distinct

  6. Superficial melanomas of oral mucous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Hayward, J R; Pickens, T N

    1978-05-01

    In accordance with microscopic and clinical criteria established for superficial melanomas of the skin (superficial spreading melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, acral-lentiginous melanoma), three oral lesions have been evaluated. The literature on oral melanomas has also been reviewed, with special attention given to those cases that had pre-existing melanosis. One patient with a diagnosis of superficial spreading melanoma eventually died of his untreated lesion 11 years after its first appearance. Two patients had lesions diagnosed as acral-lentiginous melanoma (a group which also includes volar and subungual melanomas) that exhibited aggressive, recurrent behavior. These lesions had microsocpic features similar to lentigo maligna melanoma but did not behave in a manner consistent with that diagnosis. Electron microscopic study of one acral-lentiginous melanoma demonstrated malenosomes and premelanosomes that were like those seen in normal melanocytes and nevus cells. The superficial or radial growth phase of many oral melanomas has apparently gone unrecognized. Melanosis has been reported to be a common feature of invasive oral melanomas but has not generally been related to the natural history of these lesions. Oral lesions with a prolonged intra-epithelial or radial growth phase would be expected to have a better prognosis than nodular melanomas, but meaningful survival data are not available because of the infrequency with which oral melanomas have been subclassified.

  7. An Island Flap Technique for Laryngeal Intracordal Mucous Retention Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Izadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mucous retention cysts are a subtype of intracordal vocal cysts that may occur spontaneously or may be associated with poor vocal hygiene, and which require optimal treatment. The objective of this study was to present a new laser-assisted microsurgery technique for treating intracordal mucous retention cysts and to describe the final outcomes.   Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, we assessed the pre-operative and post-operative acoustic analysis, maximum phonation time (MPT, and voice handicap index (VHI of four patients with a diagnosis of mucous retention cyst. The island flap technique was applied to all patients without any complications. In this procedure, we favored the super-pulse mode using a 2-W power CO2 laser to remove the medial wall of the cyst, before clearing away the lateral wall margins of the cyst using repeat-pulse mode and a 2-W power CO2 laser. Indeed, we maintained the underlying epithelium and lamina propria, including the island flap attached to the vocal ligament.   Results: There was a statistically significant improvement in the MPT (pre-op,11.05 s; post-op,15.85 s; P=0.002 and the VHI (pre-operative, 72/120; post-operative,27/120; P=0.001 in all patients. Moreover, jitter and shimmer were refined after surgery, but there was no statistically significant relationship between pre-operative and post-operative data (P=0.071 (P=0.622. In the follow-up period (median, 150 days, there was no report of recurrence or mucosal stiffness.   Conclusion:  The island flap procedure in association with CO2 laser microsurgery appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for intracordal mucous retention cysts, but needs further investigation to allow comparison with other methods.

  8. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Tatlı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient’s history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage.

  9. Metaplasticity in human primary somatosensory cortex: effects on physiology and tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina B; Lulic, Tea; Bailey, Aaron Z; Mackenzie, Tanner N; Mi, Yi Qun; Tommerdahl, Mark; Nelson, Aimee J

    2016-05-01

    Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over human primary motor cortex evokes plasticity and metaplasticity, the latter contributing to the homeostatic balance of excitation and inhibition. Our knowledge of TBS-induced effects on primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is limited, and it is unknown whether TBS induces metaplasticity within human SI. Sixteen right-handed participants (6 females, mean age 23 yr) received two TBS protocols [continuous TBS (cTBS) and intermittent TBS (iTBS)] delivered in six different combinations over SI in separate sessions. TBS protocols were delivered at 30 Hz and were as follows: a single cTBS protocol, a single iTBS protocol, cTBS followed by cTBS, iTBS followed by iTBS, cTBS followed by iTBS, and iTBS followed by cTBS. Measures included the amplitudes of the first and second somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) via median nerve stimulation, their paired-pulse ratio (PPR), and temporal order judgment (TOJ). Dependent measures were obtained before TBS and at 5, 25, 50, and 90 min following stimulation. Results indicate similar effects following cTBS and iTBS; increased amplitudes of the second SEP and PPR without amplitude changes to SEP 1, and impairments in TOJ. Metaplasticity was observed such that TOJ impairments following a single cTBS protocol were abolished following consecutive cTBS protocols. Additionally, consecutive iTBS protocols altered the time course of effects when compared with a single iTBS protocol. In conclusion, 30-Hz cTBS and iTBS protocols delivered in isolation induce effects consistent with a TBS-induced reduction in intracortical inhibition within SI. Furthermore, cTBS- and iTBS-induced metaplasticity appear to follow homeostatic and nonhomeostatic rules, respectively. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Investigation of aluminum and iron deposition on metaplastic bones in three patients with diffuse pulmonary ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Yuji; Mori, Kousuke; Ohnishi, Hirozo; Enzan, Hideaki; Iguchi, Mitsuko; Lee, Gang-Hong; Furihata, Mutsuo

    2015-12-01

    Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare pulmonary lesion. DPO is typically detected at autopsy rather than premortem. Recently, however, several cases were diagnosed antemortem using computed tomography, high-resolution computed tomography, or video-assisted thoracic surgery. In the present study, we evaluated DPO at autopsy from two patients with post-myocardial infarction (cases 1 and 3) and one patient with duodenal cancer (case 2). Multiple metaplastic bones (nodular in case 1 and 3 or dendriform in case 2) were detected in these three cases. In an attempt to detect aluminum and iron deposition in these metaplastic bones, histochemical investigations were performed. The two nodular types of one and three cases were positive for aluminum and iron, but the dendriform type of case 2 was positive only for aluminum. The depositions occurred in a linear pattern along the calcifying front. It is of great interest that these deposition patterns were similar to those of bones from three previously reported DPO cases and from the bones of hemodialysis patients. It is suggested that these abnormal metal depositions in the calcifying front might disturb the normal mineralization processes of the metaplastic bones, although no morphological abnormality was detected, except for dense black color of calcifying front lines. Further investigations are needed in more patients with DPO to obtain more information on this topic.

  11. Neural field theory of synaptic metaplasticity with applications to theta burst stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, P K; Robinson, P A

    2014-01-07

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is characterized by strong nonlinear plasticity effects. Experimental results that highlight such nonlinearity include continuous and intermittent theta-burst stimulations (cTBS and iTBS, respectively), where depression is induced in the continuous case, but insertion of an off period of around 8s for every 2s of stimulation changes the induced plasticity to potentiation in the intermittent case. Another nonlinearity is that cTBS and iTBS exhibit dosage dependency, where doubling of the stimulation duration changes the direction of induced plasticity. Guided by previous experimental results, this study postulates on the characteristics of metaplasticity and formulates a physiological system-level plasticity theory to predict TMS experiments. In this theory, plasticity signaling induces plasticity in NMDA receptors to modulate further plasticity signals, and is followed by a signal transduction delayed plasticity expression. Since this plasticity in NMDA receptor affects subsequent plasticity induction, it is a form of metaplasticity. Incorporating this metaplasticity into a recent neural field theory of calcium dependent plasticity gives a physiological basis for the theory of Bienenstock, Cooper, Munro (1982), where postsynaptic intracellular calcium level becomes the measure of temporal averaged postsynaptic activity, and converges to the plasticity threshold to give homeostatic effects. Simulations of TMS protocol responses show that intracellular calcium oscillations around the threshold predicts the aforementioned nonlinearities in TMS-induced plasticity, as well as the interpersonal TBS response polarity found experimentally, where the same protocol may induce opposite plasticity effect for different subjects. Thereby, recommendations for future experiments and TMS protocol optimizations are made. Input selectivity via spatially extended, mean field neural dynamics is also explored. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Role of mini-scleral lens in mucous membrane pemphigoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report the use of mini-scleral contact lens in the management of mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP with persistent epithelial defects. A 68-year-old male with a history of ocular pain and declining visual acuity was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of MMP. His corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA was 20/200 in the right eye and 20/100 in the left eye. Despite being on lubricants, topical steroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide, the patient developed persistent corneal epithelial defects in both eyes. He was then given a trial of mini-scleral lenses. Within 4 weeks, corneal epithelial defects healed, and at 6 months, the CDVA had improved to 20/50 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. By improving the corneal surface integrity and visual function, mini-scleral lenses can play a role in the visual rehabilitation of patients with MMP.

  13. Role of mini-scleral lens in mucous membrane pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Shetty, Rohit; Jayadev, Chaitra

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to report the use of mini-scleral contact lens in the management of mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with persistent epithelial defects. A 68-year-old male with a history of ocular pain and declining visual acuity was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of MMP. His corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 20/200 in the right eye and 20/100 in the left eye. Despite being on lubricants, topical steroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide, the patient developed persistent corneal epithelial defects in both eyes. He was then given a trial of mini-scleral lenses. Within 4 weeks, corneal epithelial defects healed, and at 6 months, the CDVA had improved to 20/50 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. By improving the corneal surface integrity and visual function, mini-scleral lenses can play a role in the visual rehabilitation of patients with MMP.

  14. Synaptic plasticity modulation by circulating peptides and metaplasticity: Involvement in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peineau, Stéphane; Rabiant, Kevin; Pierrefiche, Olivier; Potier, Brigitte

    2018-02-06

    Synaptic plasticity is a cellular process involved in learning and memory whose alteration in its two main forms (Long Term Depression (LTD) and Long Term Potentiation (LTP)), is observed in most brain pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In humans, AD is associated at the cellular level with neuropathological lesions composed of extracellular deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) protein aggregates and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, cellular loss, neuroinflammation and a general brain homeostasis dysregulation. Thus, a dramatic synaptic environment perturbation is observed in AD patients, involving changes in brain neuropeptides, cytokines, growth factors or chemokines concentration and diffusion. Studies performed in animal models demonstrate that these circulating peptides strongly affect synaptic functions and in particular synaptic plasticity. Besides this neuromodulatory action of circulating peptides, other synaptic plasticity regulation mechanisms such as metaplasticity are altered in AD animal models. Here, we will review new insights into the study of synaptic plasticity regulatory/modulatory mechanisms which could influence the process of synaptic plasticity in the context of AD with a particular attention to the role of metaplasticity and peptide dependent neuromodulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term effects of Ag-containing alloys on mucous tissue present in biopsy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Hidekazu; Katagiri, Masataka

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of alloys containing silver (mainly Ag-Sn alloy) on oral mucous tissue. We observed biopsy tissue specimens from patients diagnosed as having amalgam tattoo and/or metal pigmentation by light and electron microscopy and electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA). In most cases, Ag-Sn alloy was present in the tissue but it could not be confirmed if the alloy originated from amalgam. Distributions of both Ag-S and Ag-Sn have typical patterns. Most Ag forms Ag2S and is stably deposited in three patterns along the collagen, basement membrane, and fibrous cells without inducing any host reaction. On the other hand, Sn forms large granules that contain Ag, S, C, N, P, and Ca, and is in soft state in the tissue. Tissue reactions to the alloy become weaker as time passes.

  16. Diagnostic relevance of direct immunofluorescence in ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Tarun; Guenova, Emmanuella; Dechent, Frieder; Würth, Florian; Zierhut, Manfred; Röcken, Martin; Schaller, Martin; Deuter, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to determine the diagnostic value of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) in ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (ocular MMP), taking into account immunofluorescence patterns and biopsy sites. DIF results and medical records of 54 patients with a suspected diagnosis of ocular MMP were reviewed. There was an overall prevalence of ocular MMP in 70.4 % of cases. Linear deposition of IgA, IgG, or C3 showed a high positive predictive value (84-100 %). Sensitivity and negative predictive value of IgG, IgM, IgG, and C3 in DIF were higher in cutaneous samples than in conjunctival biopsies, thus yielding a higher diagnostic accuracy. The sensitivity of DIF in ocular MMP seems to be lower than in bullous pemphigoid. The diagnostic value of DIF in the workup of ocular MMP was confirmed. However, biopsies taken from non-conjunctival, cutaneous tissue appear to yield more accurate results. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Atrophic and Metaplastic Progression in the Background Mucosa of Patients with Gastric Adenoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyong Na

    Full Text Available In patients with adenoma, assessing premalignant changes in the surrounding mucosa is important for surveillance. This study evaluated atrophic and metaplastic progression in the background mucosa of adenoma or early gastric cancer (EGC cases.Among 146 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic resection for intestinal-type gastric neoplasia, the adenoma group included 56 patients with low-grade dysplasia and the ECG group included 90 patients with high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. For histology, 3 paired biopsies were obtained from the antrum, corpus lesser curvature (CLC, and corpus greater curvature (CGC. Serological atrophy was determined based on pepsinogen A (PGA, progastricsin (PGC, gastrin-17, and total ghrelin levels. Topographic progression of atrophy and/or metaplasia was staged using the operative link on gastritis assessment (OLGA and operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM systems.Rates of moderate-to-marked histological atrophy/metaplasia in patients with adenoma were 52.7%/78.2% at the antrum (vs. 58.8%/76.4% in EGC group, 63.5%/75.0% at the CLC (vs. 60.2%/69.7% in EGC group, and 10.9%/17.9% at the CGC (vs. 5.6%/7.8% in EGC group. Serological atrophy indicated by PGA and PGC occurred in 23.2% and 15.6% of cases in the adenoma and ECG groups, respectively (p = 0.25. Mean serum gastrin-17 concentrations of the adenoma group and EGC group were 10.4 and 9.0 pmol/L, respectively (p = 0.54. Mean serum total ghrelin levels were 216.6 and 209.5 pg/mL, respectively (p = 0.71. Additionally, between group rates of stage III-IV OLGA and OLGIM were similar (25.9% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.90; 41.8% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.71, respectively.Atrophic and metaplastic progression is extensive and severe in gastric adenoma patients. A surveillance strategy for metachronous tumors should be applied similarly for patients with adenoma or EGC.

  18. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: Treatment, results and prognostic factors based on international literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Lucchini, Roberta; Santoprete, Stefano; Farabi, Raffaele; Fioriti, Lorella; Bistoni, Giovanni; Triola, Roberta; Avenia, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB) is a rare form of cancer containing mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal elements in variable combinations. Few and conflicting clinical data are available in the literature addressing optimal treatment modalities, prognosis and outcome. A retrospective study was conducted to review all patients with MCB diagnosed and treated at Breast Unit of Azienda Ospedaliera "Santa Maria" Terni - Italy between 2001/2010. The aim is to describe patient's clinic pathologic features and to analyze treatment results. Six female patients were studied. The median age was 48 years (range 14/58). The median tumor size was 9 cm. (range 3/18 cm.). Two cases (33%) were identified as purely epithelial and 4 (67%) as mixed epithelial and mesenchymal metaplasia. Hormone receptors were positive in only 2 patients. Modified radical mastectomy performed in 3 patients and 5 underwent axillary node dissection. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all patients and postoperative radiotherapy to 4. Four patients relapsed with median time of relapse of 12 months. MCB is an aggressive form of breast cancer associated with poor outcome, high incidence of local recurrence and pulmonary metastases. The disease tends to be estrogen/progesterone receptor negative. Tumor size has an important impact on outcome. The best treatment approach is yet to be defined.

  19. Omission of radiotherapy in elderly women with early stage metaplastic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Waqar; Verma, Vivek; Butler, E Brian; Teh, Bin S

    2018-04-01

    Multiple studies have evaluated the omission of radiation therapy (RT) in elderly women with invasive carcinoma; no studies to date have assessed this question for metaplastic breast cancer (MBC). This study is the only known study describing national practice patterns and addressing the impact of RT versus observation on survival in elderly women with T1-2N0 MBC. The National Cancer Data Base was queried (2004-2013) for women aged ≥70 years with T1-T2N0 MBC that underwent lumpectomy. Multivariable logistic regression ascertained factors associated with RT administration. Kaplan-Meier analysis evaluated overall survival (OS) between patients treated with or without postoperative RT. Cox proportional hazards modeling determined variables associated with OS. Propensity matching was performed in order to address indication bias. Of 547 total patients, 176 (32%) underwent observation, and 371 (68%) received postoperative RT. Temporal trends revealed that withholding RT steadily declined over the studied time period. RT delivery was less likely in patients not undergoing hormonal therapy or those ≥80 years old. In both the overall population and following propensity matching, delivery of RT was associated with higher OS (p postoperative RT (p routine withholding of RT in T1-2N0 MBC owing to the independent association with worse survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunohistochemical evaluation of oestrogen receptors α and β in epithelium of the vaginal mucous membrane in women after oestrogen therapy

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    Beata Sawczuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oestrogens act on target cells through α and β receptors (ERα and ERβ. Expression of oestrogen receptors is associated with the age and menopausal condition of women. The aim of the study was an immunohistochemical evaluation of ERα and ERβ receptors in epithelium of the vaginal mucous membrane of women subjected to different forms of hormonal therapy (HTM. Oestrogen receptors ERα and ERβ were identified using immunohistochemical methods and evaluated in smears of vaginal mucous membranes collected from 60 patients subjected to HTM (including 20 patients after oral therapy, 20 patients after transdermal therapy, and 20 patients after vaginal therapy. The results showed a significant change in immunoreactivity of both studied receptors after three months of hormone therapy. The biggest differences in the changes of intensity of ERα and ERβ reactions were observed in patients subjected to vaginal therapy. Immunostaining for α receptor showed differences between three types of hormone therapy. The highest increase in the overall intensity occurred after three months of topical therapy. Immunostaining for Erβ also varied for different types of hormone therapy. The results indicate that hormone therapy administered vaginally is the most effective in the treatment of urogenital ailments during menopause. In addition, topical therapy eliminates adverse effects of systemic oestrogen.

  1. Brief environmental enrichment elicits metaplasticity of hippocampal synaptic potentiation in vivo

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    Denise eManahan-Vaughan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term environmental enrichment (EE elicits enduring effects on the adult brain, including altered synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity may underlie memory formation and includes robust (>24h and weak (<2h forms of long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. Most studies of the effect of EE on synaptic efficacy have examined the consequences of very prolonged EE-exposure. It is unclear whether brief exposure to EE can alter synaptic plasticity. Clarifying this issue could help develop strategies to address cognitive deficits arising from neglect in children or adults.We assessed whether short-term EE elicits alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and if social context may play a role. Adult mice were exposed to EE for 14 consecutive days. We found that robust late-LTP (>24h and short-term depression (<2h at Schaffer-collateral-CA1 synapses in freely behaving mice were unaltered, whereas early-LTP (E-LTP, <2h was significantly enhanced by EE. Effects were transient: E-LTP returned to control levels 1 week after cessation of EE. Six weeks later animals were re-exposed to EE for 14d. Under these conditions, E-LTP was facilitated into L-LTP (>24h, suggesting that metaplasticity was induced during the first EE experience and that EE-mediated modifications are cumulative. Effects were absent in mice that underwent solitary enrichment or were group-housed without EE. These data suggest that EE in naïve animals strengthens E-LTP, and also promotes L-LTP in animals that underwent EE in the past. This indicates that brief exposure to EE, particularly under social conditions can elicit lasting positive effects on synaptic strength that may have beneficial consequences for cognition that depends on synaptic plasticity.

  2. Learning to learn - intrinsic plasticity as a metaplasticity mechanism for memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Megha; Song, Chenghui; Ehlers, Vanessa L; Moyer, James R

    2013-10-01

    "Use it or lose it" is a popular adage often associated with use-dependent enhancement of cognitive abilities. Much research has focused on understanding exactly how the brain changes as a function of experience. Such experience-dependent plasticity involves both structural and functional alterations that contribute to adaptive behaviors, such as learning and memory, as well as maladaptive behaviors, including anxiety disorders, phobias, and posttraumatic stress disorder. With the advancing age of our population, understanding how use-dependent plasticity changes across the lifespan may also help to promote healthy brain aging. A common misconception is that such experience-dependent plasticity (e.g., associative learning) is synonymous with synaptic plasticity. Other forms of plasticity also play a critical role in shaping adaptive changes within the nervous system, including intrinsic plasticity - a change in the intrinsic excitability of a neuron. Intrinsic plasticity can result from a change in the number, distribution or activity of various ion channels located throughout the neuron. Here, we review evidence that intrinsic plasticity is an important and evolutionarily conserved neural correlate of learning. Intrinsic plasticity acts as a metaplasticity mechanism by lowering the threshold for synaptic changes. Thus, learning-related intrinsic changes can facilitate future synaptic plasticity and learning. Such intrinsic changes can impact the allocation of a memory trace within a brain structure, and when compromised, can contribute to cognitive decline during the aging process. This unique role of intrinsic excitability can provide insight into how memories are formed and, more interestingly, how neurons that participate in a memory trace are selected. Most importantly, modulation of intrinsic excitability can allow for regulation of learning ability - this can prevent or provide treatment for cognitive decline not only in patients with clinical disorders but

  3. Hyperviscous airway periciliary and mucous liquid layers in cystic fibrosis measured by confocal fluorescence photobleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derichs, Nico; Jin, Byung-Ju; Song, Yuanlin; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Verkman, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Airway surface liquid (ASL) volume depletion and mucus accumulation occur in cystic fibrosis (CF). The ASL comprises a superficial mucus layer (ML) overlying a periciliary fluid layer (PCL) that contacts surface epithelial cells. We measured viscosity of the ML and PCL from the diffusion of FITC-dextran dissolved in the ASL of unperturbed, well-differentiated primary cultures of human bronchial epithelia grown at an air-liquid interface. Diffusion was measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, using a perfluorocarbon immersion lens and confocal fluorescence detection. Bleaching of an in-plane 6-μm-wide region was done in which diffusion coefficients were computed using solution standards of specified viscosity and finite-element computations of 2-layer dye diffusion in 3 dimensions. We found remarkably elevated viscosity in both ML and PCL of CF vs. non-CF bronchial epithelial cell cultures. Relative viscosities (with saline=1) were in the range 7–10 in the non-CF ML and PCL, and 25–30 in both ML and PCL in CF, and greatly reduced by amiloride treatment or mucin washout. These data indicate that the CF airway surface epithelium, even without hyperviscous secretions from submucosal glands, produces an intrinsically hyperviscous PCL and ML, which likely contributes to CF lung disease by impairment of mucociliary clearance. Our results challenge the view that the PCL is a relatively watery, nonviscous fluid layer in contact with a more viscous ML, and offer an explanation for CF lung disease in the gland-free lower airways.—Derichs, N., Jin, B. -J., Song, Y., Finkbeiner, W. E., Verkman, A. S. Hyperviscous airway periciliary and mucous liquid layers in cystic fibrosis measured by confocal fluorescence photobleaching. PMID:21427214

  4. Involved mechanisms in the radioprotector effect of the insulinic-1 type growth factor (IGF-1) in the mucous of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, N.; Medina, V.; Sambuco, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G.; Rivera, E.; Bergoc, R.; Croci, M.; Crescenti, E.

    2006-01-01

    The use of radiant therapies in malignant tissues presents the inconvenience of affecting also to the healthy tissues, mainly when these present a high rate of proliferation like in the case of the mucous of the small intestine. The growth factor of insulinic-1 type (IGF-1) it has been pointed out as a possible protector of normal tissues under irradiation conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the IGF-1 like radioprotector of the mucous of the small intestine in mice irradiated with 10 Gy to whole body, determining the histological characteristics of the tissue, the presence of apoptotic cells, the expression of antigen of cellular proliferation (PCNA) and of anti-oxidant enzymes. Four groups of mice were used: control, treated with IGF-1, irradiated and irradiated and treated with IGF-1. The two treated groups were injected subcutaneously with two dose by day of 2.5 μg of IGF-I /0.1ml during four days (days 1 at 4). The two irradiated groups 10 Gy received to whole body the day 2. The day 5 all the animals were sacrificed and cuts of the mucous of the small intestine were obtained. The histological cuts were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells its were determined by the Tunnel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA, superoxide dependent dismutase of copper and zinc (CuZnSOD), superoxide dependent dismutase of manganese (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathion peroxidase (GPX), by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that the treatment with IGF-1 preserves the partially histology of the mucous of the intestine, the expression of PCNA and the presence of apoptotic cells in the crypts in front of the irradiation. The CuZnSOD it was expressed mainly in the hairiness and, in smaller measure, in the crypts increase in the group IR+IGF-1. The IGF-1 produced the expression of MnSOD in the crypts and in the intestinal hairiness. The expression of CAT in the hairiness increase significantly

  5. Immune diagnosis of pure ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid : indirect immunofluorescence versus immunoblot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Marcell F.; De Groot, Anton C.; Slegers, Tanja P. A. M.; De Jong, Marcel C. J. M.; Pas, Hendri H.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of pure ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (OMMP) is based on the demonstration of linear depositions of IgG, IgA, C3 or combinations thereof alongside the epithelial basal membrane zone with direct immunofluorescence (DIF) or immunoperoxidase ( DIP) analysis of a freeze biopsy of the

  6. A Voltage-Based STDP Rule Combined with Fast BCM-Like Metaplasticity Accounts for LTP and Concurrent "Heterosynaptic" LTD in the Dentate Gyrus In Vivo.

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    Peter Jedlicka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD are widely accepted to be synaptic mechanisms involved in learning and memory. It remains uncertain, however, which particular activity rules are utilized by hippocampal neurons to induce LTP and LTD in behaving animals. Recent experiments in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats revealed an unexpected pattern of LTP and LTD from high-frequency perforant path stimulation. While 400 Hz theta-burst stimulation (400-TBS and 400 Hz delta-burst stimulation (400-DBS elicited substantial LTP of the tetanized medial path input and, concurrently, LTD of the non-tetanized lateral path input, 100 Hz theta-burst stimulation (100-TBS, a normally efficient LTP protocol for in vitro preparations produced only weak LTP and concurrent LTD. Here we show in a biophysically realistic compartmental granule cell model that this pattern of results can be accounted for by a voltage-based spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP rule combined with a relatively fast Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM-like homeostatic metaplasticity rule, all on a background of ongoing spontaneous activity in the input fibers. Our results suggest that, at least for dentate granule cells, the interplay of STDP-BCM plasticity rules and ongoing pre- and postsynaptic background activity determines not only the degree of input-specific LTP elicited by various plasticity-inducing protocols, but also the degree of associated LTD in neighboring non-tetanized inputs, as generated by the ongoing constitutive activity at these synapses.

  7. Preventive effects of etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on cancer development in extensive metaplastic gastritis, a Helicobacter pylori-negative precancerous lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Oka, Masashi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Enomoto, Shotaro; Maekita, Takao; Inoue, Izumi; Ueda, Kazuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasushi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Inada, Kenichi; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Ichinose, Masao

    2010-03-15

    The present study investigated the preventive effects of etodolac, a selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, on metachronous cancer development after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer. Among 267 early gastric cancer patients who underwent endoscopic resection, 47 patients with extensive metaplastic gastritis were selected based on endoscopic findings and our previously described criteria of serum pepsinogen (PG) test-positive and Helicobacter pylori antibody-negative conditions. Nonrandomized etodolac treatment (300 mg/day) was administered to 26 patients (Group A), while the remaining 21 patients were untreated (Group B). No significant differences in age, sex distribution, lifestyle factors or extent of metaplastic gastritis at baseline were identified between groups. Patients were followed for metachronous cancer development with endoscopy every 6-12 months for up to 5 years. Mean (standard deviation) follow-up period was 4.2 (0.9) years. In Group B, 5 cancers developed (incidence rate = 6,266/100,000 person-years), significantly more than the 1 cancer in Group A (incidence rate = 898/100,000 person-years; p gastritis as revealed by endoscopic findings or by serum PG levels, but effectively reduced metachronous cancer development in patients with extensive metaplastic gastritis. These results strongly suggest that chemoprevention of cancer in the metaplastic stomach is possible by controlling COX-2 expression.

  8. Unilateral Oral Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: Refractory Atypical Presentation Successfully Treated with Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Laureano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old male presented with a 6-month history of blisters and painful erosions on the right buccal mucosa. No skin or other mucosal involvement was seen. The findings of histopathological and direct immunofluorescence examinations were sufficient for the diagnosis of oral mucous membrane pemphigoid in the context of adequate clinical correlation. No response was seen after topical therapies and oral corticosteroids or dapsone. Intravenous immunoglobulin was started and repeated every three weeks. Complete remission was achieved after three cycles and no recurrence was seen after two years of follow-up. The authors report a rare unilateral presentation of oral mucous membrane pemphigoid on the right buccal and hard palate mucosa, without additional involvement during a period of five years. Local trauma or autoimmune factors are possible etiologic factors for this rare disorder, here with unique presentation.

  9. Specific characteristics of immunohistochemical changes of the cellular infiltrate (the content of mucins MUC 2, 3, 4 in the mucous tunic of the bronchi in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kovalenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Changes of the mucin expression by the competent cells of the bronchial mucous membrane (MM and dyscrinia are the common evidence of the inflammatory process in case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that logically substantiates the importance for the investigation of the mucin influence on the progression processes of the inflammation in the airways tract (AW. Purpose of the research. A complex study of the immunohistochemical changes of the cellular infiltration according to the mucin content MUC 2, 3, 4 in the mucous membrane of the bronchi at different variants of COPD exacerbation. Materials and Methods. An analysis of 30 case histories of patients with exacerbation of COPD undergoing inpatient treatment at the department of pulmonology was carried out. With the object of determining the degree and character of bronchial inflammation fibrobronchoscopy was carried out in all patients by means of Olympus fibrobronchoscopy. Intravital biopsy of the bronchial MM according to generally accepted technique was performed in connection with a necessity of preserving integrity of antigens in the bronchial structures for immunohistochemical investigations. For the first time an immunohistochemical study of the expression of mucin has been carried out by means of primary monoclonal antibodies to the antigens of proteins MUC-2, MUC-3, MUC-4 in the integumentary epithelium, goblet cells, the epithelium of the mucous glands and the fusiform cells of the stroma of the mucous tunic of the bronchi in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD during an infectious and noninfectious exacerbation. Results of the research. It has been established that during an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in different types of epithelial cells of the mucous tunic of the bronchi a decline of the expression of antigens of MUC2 and MUC3 of a various degree of a marked character occurs. Synthesis of MUC 2 and MUC 3

  10. Metaplasticity and behavior: how training and inflammation affect plastic potential within the spinal cord and recovery after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, James W.; Huie, J. Russell; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Huang, Yung-Jen; Turtle, Joel D.; Strain, Misty M.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Miranda, Rajesh M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Garraway, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that spinal circuits have the capacity to adapt in response to training, nociceptive stimulation and peripheral inflammation. These changes in neural function are mediated by physiological and neurochemical systems analogous to those that support plasticity within the hippocampus (e.g., long-term potentiation and the NMDA receptor). As observed in the hippocampus, engaging spinal circuits can have a lasting impact on plastic potential, enabling or inhibiting the capacity to learn. These effects are related to the concept of metaplasticity. Behavioral paradigms are described that induce metaplastic effects within the spinal cord. Uncontrollable/unpredictable stimulation, and peripheral inflammation, induce a form of maladaptive plasticity that inhibits spinal learning. Conversely, exposure to controllable or predictable stimulation engages a form of adaptive plasticity that counters these maladaptive effects and enables learning. Adaptive plasticity is tied to an up-regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Maladaptive plasticity is linked to processes that involve kappa opioids, the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor, glia, and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Uncontrollable nociceptive stimulation also impairs recovery after a spinal contusion injury and fosters the development of pain (allodynia). These adverse effects are related to an up-regulation of TNF and a down-regulation of BDNF and its receptor (TrkB). In the absence of injury, brain systems quell the sensitization of spinal circuits through descending serotonergic fibers and the serotonin 1A (5HT 1A) receptor. This protective effect is blocked by surgical anesthesia. Disconnected from the brain, intracellular Cl- concentrations increase (due to a down-regulation of the cotransporter KCC2), which causes GABA to have an excitatory effect. It is suggested that BDNF has a restorative effect because it up-regulates KCC2 and re-establishes GABA-mediated inhibition

  11. Seguimiento multidisciplinario en el control del penfigoide de membranas mucosas Multidisciplinary follow-up in mucous membranes pemphigoid control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Jeremias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El término penfigoide de membranas mucosas designa un grupo de enfermedades vesículo-bulosas autoinmunes crónicas, que afectan predominantemente mucosas. El presente artículo describe dos casos clínicos de penfigoide de membranas mucosas con compromiso gingival y tuvo como objetivo resaltar la importancia de un correcto diagnóstico de la lesión y discutir la conducta terapéutica. Fueron realizados diversos exámenes complementares como, examen de Nikolsky, biopsia incisional, investigación de células LE y de anticuerpos antinucleares, además de la evaluación de médicos especializados en dermatología y oftalmología. Fue fundamental la substitución de dentífricos, la orientación nutricional y psicológica, el cuidado con la higiene, además del uso de corticoides tópicos. Hubo periodos de remisión y exacerbación del cuadro clínico durante el seguimiento, fue necesario el ajuste en la terapéutica y refuerzo en los cuidados con la higiene bucal. Es muy importante la interacción multidisciplinaria en la atención de estos casos para el control del tratamiento y seguimiento, además de reforzar todas las orientaciones y cuidados en lo que se refiere a la salud bucal y cautela en el uso de corticoides.The term Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid includes a group of chronic and autoimmune vesiculobullous diseases involving mainly the mucosa. The aim of present paper is to describe two clinical cases of Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid with gingival involvement to arrive to a proper diagnosis of the lesion and also to discuss the therapeutic behavior. Different complementary examinations were conducted including Nikolsky test, incisional biopsy, the LE cells study and of antinuclear antibodies, as well as the evaluation of dermatologists and ophthalmologists. It was necessary the replacement of toothpastes, the nutritional and psychological guiding, the hygiene care and the use of topic corticoids. There were periods of remission and

  12. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the mucous glands in captive Archey's frogs (Leiopelma archeyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S D; Berger, L; Harvey, C; Alley, M R; Bishop, P J; Speare, R

    2017-05-01

    To describe the gross and light microscopic characteristics of skin lesions observed on the ventral skin of captive Archey's frogs (Leiopelma archeyi) between 2000 and 2012, and to investigate their occurrence, possible aetiology and association with survival. Postmortem skin samples were obtained for histological evaluation from 37 frogs, with and without skin lesions, that died while in captivity at Auckland Zoo between 2000 and 2012. Four frogs with skin lesions were biopsied under general anaesthesia and samples used for both light and transmission electron microscopy. The records of 94 frogs held at the University of Otago and Auckland Zoo between 2000-2012 were reviewed, which included some frogs recently collected from the wild. Information about the occurrence of skin lesions, and mortality associated with skin lesions was collated. Grossly the skin lesions varied in appearance; most were circular, pale grey papules, which measured from located predominantly on ventral surfaces including trunk, thighs, lower legs and forearms, and gular region, but not on digits. The number ranged from single to multiple, often confluent lesions covering the entire ventral surface of the frog. Histologically the lesions consisted of enlarged proliferating mucous glands that expanded the dermis and elevated the epidermis. They were semi-organised, solid or occasionally cavitated acinar structures with central lumina which sometimes contained mucus. Nuclei showed moderate anisokaryosis and mitotic figures were uncommon. Transmission electron microscopy did not show any infectious agents. Between 2000 and 2012, skin lesions were recorded in 35/94 (37%) frogs. The size and location of skin lesions varied over time, with some resolving and sometimes reappearing. Skin lesions were not associated with an increased risk of death. The skin lesions had the gross and microscopic characteristics of adenomatous hyperplasia of the dermal mucous glands. The aetiology of this adenomatous

  13. Epithelio-mesenchymal transitional attributes in oral sub-mucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Raunak Kumar; Anura, Anji; Pal, Mousumi; Bag, Swarnendu; Majumdar, Subhadipa; Barui, Ananya; Chakraborty, Chandan; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-12-01

    Evaluating molecular attributes in association with its epithelial and sub-epithelial changes of oral sub-mucous fibrosis is meaningful in exploring the plausibility of an epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignant potentiality of this pathosis. In this study histopathological and histochemical attributes for basement membrane and connective tissue in biopsies of oral sub-mucous fibrosis (n = 55) and normal oral mucosa (n = 16) were assessed and expressions of p63, E-cadherin, β-catenin, N-cadherin and TWIST were analyzed immunohistochemically. The p63 and its isoforms (TA and ∆N), PARD3, E-cadherin and β-catenin were also assessed transcriptomically by q-PCR and EMT players like TWIST1, ZEB1, MMP9 and micro-RNA 205 were searched in gene expression microarrays. Oral epithelium demonstrating impairment in progressive maturation in oral sub-mucous fibrosis concomitantly experienced an increase in basement membrane thickness and collagen deposition along with alteration in target molecular expressions. In comparison to non-dysplastic conditions dysplastic stages exhibited significant increase in p63 and p63∆N expressions whereas, E-cadherin and β-catenin exhibited loss from the membrane with concurrent increase in cytoplasm. Further the N-cadherin and TWIST were gained remarkably along with the appearance of nuclear accumulation features of β-catenin. The microarray search had noticed the up-regulation of TWIST1, ZEB1 and MMP9 along with down regulation of micro-RNA 205. The simultaneous increase in basement membrane thickness and sub-epithelial collagen deposition were the plausible indicators for increased matrix stiffness with expected impact on oral epithelial functional homoeostasis. This was corroborated with the increase in expressions of epithelial master regulator p63 and its oncogenic isoform (∆N) along with membranous loss of E-cadherin (EMT hallmark) and its associate β-catein and gain of mesenchymal markers like N-cadherin and TWIST

  14. Using tDCS priming to improve brain function: Can metaplasticity provide the key to boosting outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Roanne; Machado, Liana

    2017-12-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been trialled by many researchers attempting to improve brain function. Outcomes have been quite variable with seemingly similar protocols yielding either inconsistent or insufficiently robust improvements for clinical translation. A potentially fruitful avenue for increasing benefits conferred by tDCS stems from findings from motor and visual cortex studies that indicate tDCS priming prior to a subsequent period of stimulation (tDCS or transcranial magnetic stimulation) can in some cases boost outcomes compared to protocols without priming. The heightened effects from tDCS priming protocols are thought to be underpinned by metaplastic interactions, in which the state induced by the priming influences the effects of the second stimulation period. The purpose of the current review is to evaluate the potential of tDCS priming protocols to boost outcomes. After dissecting the literature, we conclude that although outcomes have varied, tDCS priming protocols have demonstrated sufficient promise to warrant attention from researchers trying to enhance the efficacy of tDCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of dexpanthenol and aloe vera to influence the irradiation response of the oral mucous membrane (mouse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlichting, S.; Spekl, K.; Doerr, W.

    2004-01-01

    In summarising the outcome of the present study it can be said spraying the agent on the oral mucous membrane once a day had an effect on the incidence of mucous membrane ulceration in the case of both placebo and dexpanthenol treatment. However, there was no significant difference between placebo and dexpanthenol treatment, the only finding being a slight prolongation of latency time through aloe vera. These experimental findings give good reason to critically reconsider the clinical use of dexpanthenol as a supportive treatment for the prevention of radiogenic mucositis enoralis following irradiation of tumours in the head and neck region. However thorough oral lavage is an effective means of moderating the irradiation response of the oral mucous membrane [de

  16. Online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes of a human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-07-31

    We have developed a method for online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes (MMs) of a human body (transport scattering coefficient, scattering anisotropy factor, haemoglobin concentration, degrees of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries with blood) from measurements of spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection. The method is based on regression relationships between linearly independent components of the measured light signals and the unknown parameters of MMs, obtained by simulation of the radiation transfer in the MM under conditions of its general variability. We have proposed and justified the calibration-free fibre-optic method for determining the concentration of haemoglobin in MMs by measuring the light signals diffusely reflected by the tissue in four spectral regions at two different distances from the illumination spot. We have selected the optimal wavelengths of optical probing for the implementation of the method. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  17. Immunopathogenic Oral Diseases: An Overview 
Focusing on Pemphigus Vulgaris and Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Liviu; Ballyram, Raoul; Khammissa, Razia Ag; Altini, Mario; Lemmer, Johan

    Pemphigus vulgaris, mucosal pemphigoid (mucous membrane pemphigoid), lichen planus, discoid lupus erythematosus and erythema multiforme are a group of immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorders characterised clinically by the formation of blisters, erosions or ulcers. The oral mucosa is often affected, and sometimes the disease is limited to the mouth. The target antigens, autoreactive immune responses, microscopic features, treatment and prognosis vary from one disease to the other. Treatment aims to eliminate exogenous risk factors, suppress the pathogenic immuno-inflammatory reactions, promote healing and prevent infection. The aim of this article is to provide the general dental practitioner with a succinct overview of the diagnostic, clinical, aetiopathogenic features and characteristics of, as well as treatment guidelines for oral pemphigus vulgaris and oral mucosal pemphigoid. Early diagnosis and treatment could prevent severe consequences of the disease in their full-blown forms.

  18. Prognosis of mucous naso-sinus melanomas; Pronostic des melanomes muqueux naso-sinusiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thariat, J.; Poissonnet, G.; Dassonville, O.; Santini, J.; Castillo, L. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Iattes, L.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Castillo, L. [CHU, 06 - Nice (France)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The mucous melanoma of superior aero-digestive tracts represents 1-2% of malignant melanomas, 5-10% of head and neck melanomas, and concerns particularly, the nasal cavities and naso-sinus cavities. The recurrences are frequent, often local ones, sometimes multifocal ones, the survival rate at five years is {<=} 30%. The Ballantyne classification distinguishes three stages: 1 localised tumors, 2 ganglions attack, 3 metastases. Are pejorative: a stage number 3 ( deep invasion, muscles, bones, cartilages) according to the Prasad classification (1: in situ or micro invasive, 2: invasion of the lamina propria), the achromia sub-type, a pseudo papillary or sarcoma, vascular emboli, necrosis. The recommendations rest on evidence level at 4. The complete excision is the rule and must be counterbalanced with the morbidity in case of orbital, dura-mater, frontal lobe, and infra temporal fossa. The adjuvant irradiation is debated.We evaluated the prognosis of mucous naso-sinus melanomas. Conclusion: The principal cause of death was the local failure. The Ballantyne classification does not take into account the extensions and overestimates the prognosis impact of ganglions invasion that is yet {<=}10% ( and does not justify a radiotherapy in lack of adenopathy). It underestimates probably the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy. One should be able to distinguish the unfavourable stage 1 tumors (receiving eventually a radiotherapy) and these ones of very localised stage 1 for which it could be omitted. The fractionation and the optimal dose remain to be defined. The volume {>=}100 ml and the irradiation by carbon ions seem promising in term of local control but the metastases stay a problem in the recent series. (N.C.)

  19. Occurrence of mucous aggregates and their impact on Posidonia oceanica beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenti, Maurizio; Buia, Maria Cristina; Di Martino, Vincenzo; Modigh, Monica

    2005-12-15

    Mucous macro-aggregates of both pelagic and benthic origin are recurrently observed in the meadows formed by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica around the island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy). In the past two decades, major events occurred in 1991, 1993 and 2000, when a thick layer of mucilage covered vast areas of the meadows. To investigate the environmental triggers for mucilage formation and the effects of macro-aggregates on the functional and structural status of P. oceanica, a number of abiotic and biotic parameters were monitored over three years within the frame of a research project on Adriatic and Tyrrhenian mucilages (MAT). Basic environmental parameters (salinity, temperature, irradiance, dissolved oxygen concentration) in the water column and inorganic nutrient concentrations above and within P. oceanica meadows were measured. As descriptors of the status of the seagrass, shoot density and the nitrogen content of the leaves were monitored. Moreover, a reconstructive technique (lepidochronology) was employed to track back annual plant production. During the three-year study, mucous aggregates produced by benthic algae were observed in spring-summer and a major event of macro-aggregates of pelagic origin affecting P. oceanica canopy was observed in autumn 2000. Each of these episodes was observed for a few weeks to one month. We hypothesize nutrient limitation to explain the short duration of the benthic algal blooms that were responsible of macroaggregate formation; a highly dynamic circulation resulted in the dispersion of the pelagic aggregates deposited on the meadows. None of the descriptors of the structure of the meadow and of plant performance showed any obvious alterations in relation to the occurrence of mucilage coverage. Presumably, the short duration of the mucilage episodes recorded were not enough to induce such alterations, at least at the temporal and spatial scales considered.

  20. [Central mechanism of electric-acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) for gastric mucous membrane protection with FMRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Wang, Pei-jun; Zeng, Hong-wu; Zhao, Xiao-hu

    2010-06-01

    To explore the central mechanism of acupuncture in protecting gastric mucous membrane by a composite analysis of gastric mucous membrane related indices in peripheral blood and functional MRI (fMRI) signal changes after electric-acupuncturing Zusanli (ST36) acupoint. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers were divided into true acupoint group (A) and sham acupoint group (B). Zusanli acupoint was used for Group A. Peripheral blood was drawn 5 min before and 5, 15, 25, 30 min after needle-removal for the detection of gastric mucous membrane related indices. fMRI was performed during acupuncture and the acquired fMRI data were analyzed by SPM2 (P 0.05). Acupuncturing Zusanli activated the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, caudate, left precentral and postcentral gyri, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, right hippocampus, insula and cerebellar hemisphere. But acupuncturing the sham acupoint only activated the paracentral lobule and cerebellar hemisphere. Acupuncturing Zusanli acupoint activates certain cortex areas and multiple systems to stimulate the release of neurotransmitters and regulate the peripheral humoral factors to achieve the protection of gastric mucous membrane.

  1. Prediction of anticancer peptides against MCF-7 breast cancer cells from the peptidomes of Achatina fulica mucus fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Teerasak E-kobon; Pennapa Thongararm; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Ladda Meesuk; Pramote Chumnanpuen

    2016-01-01

    Several reports have shown antimicrobial and anticancer activities of mucous glycoproteins extracted from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. Anticancer properties of the snail mucous peptides remain incompletely revealed. The aim of this study was to predict anticancer peptides from A. fulica mucus. Two of HPLC-separated mucous fractions (F2 and F5) showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and normal epithelium cell line (Vero). According to the mass spec...

  2. Intermittent fasting promotes prolonged associative interactions during synaptic tagging/capture by altering the metaplastic properties of the CA1 hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Ananya; Kim, Joonki; Manakkadan, Anoop; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2017-12-19

    Metaplasticity is the inherent property of a neuron or neuronal population to undergo activity-dependent changes in neural function that modulate subsequent synaptic plasticity. Here we studied the effect of intermittent fasting (IF) in governing the interactions of associative plasticity mechanisms in the pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal area CA1. Late long-term potentiation and its associative mechanisms such as synaptic tagging and capture at an interval of 120 min were evaluated in four groups of animals, AL (Ad libitum), IF12 (daily IF for 12 h), IF16 (daily IF for 16 h) and EOD (every other day IF for 24 h). IF had no visible effect on the early or late plasticity but it manifested a critical role in prolonging the associative interactions between weak and strong synapses at an interval of 120 min in IF16 and EOD animals. However, both IF12 and AL did not show associativity at 120 min. Plasticity genes such as Bdnf and Prkcz, which are well known for their expressions in late plasticity and synaptic tagging and capture, were significantly upregulated in IF16 and EOD in comparison to AL. Specific inhibition of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) prevented the prolonged associativity expressed in EOD. Thus, daily IF for 16 h or more can be considered to enhance the metaplastic properties of synapses by improving their associative interactions that might translate into animprovedmemoryformation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Oral mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris-a retrospective two-center cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, A S; Villa, A; Saavedra, A P; Treister, N S; Woo, S-B

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have compared oral mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) and pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Descriptive analysis of oral features, extent of extra-oral involvement, and management outcomes were performed. Patients with PV and MMP, the latter with exclusive oral involvement at first presentation, were included. There were 26 MMP (46%) and 31 PV (54%) patients. Desquamative gingivitis was evident in 84% of MMP cases compared to 28% of PV cases (P < 0.05). Non-gingival lesions were noted in 6% of MMP cases compared to 55% of PV cases (P < 0.01). Management of MMP consisted of only topical corticosteroids in 88% of cases while 12% of cases required concomitant systemic therapy. All PV cases (100%) required systemic therapy. No patients with MMP developed scarring or ocular lesions, and one patient (4%) developed cutaneous lesions. Five PV cases (16%) had oral cavity involvement only with three (60%) developing pharyngeal involvement and two (40%) developing cutaneous lesions on follow-up. Oral MMP presents primarily as desquamative gingivitis, infrequently involving extragingival sites, and is highly amenable to topical therapy, while PV is a systemic mucocutaneous disease with extensive non-gingival oral lesions that almost always requires systemic therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mucous membrane grafting for the post-Steven-Johnson syndrome symblepharon: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old woman was referred with late sequelae of chloroquine-induced Steven-Johnson syndrome. At the time of presentation, the symblepharon was involving the upper lids to almost the whole of the cornea, and part of the lower bulbar conjunctiva with the lower lid bilaterally. Other ocular examinations were not possible due to the symblepharon. B-scan ultrasonography revealed acoustically clear vitreous, normal chorioretinal thickness, and normal optic nerve head, with an attached retina. Conjunctivo-corneal adhesion released by superficial lamellar dissection of the cornea. Ocular surface reconstruction was carried out with a buccal mucous membrane. A bandage contact lens was placed over the cornea followed by the symblepharon ring to prevent further adhesion. The mucosal graft was well taken up along with corneal re-epithelization. Best corrected visual acuity of 20/120 in both sides after 1 month and 20/80 after 3 months was achieved and maintained till the 2.5-year follow-up.

  5. Treatment of 63 Subjects With Digital Mucous Cysts With Percutaneous Sclerotherapy Using Polidocanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Gavin A; Holme, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Digital mucous cysts (digital myxoid cysts or DMCs) are benign cystic swellings typically affecting the digital distal interphalangeal joint or the proximal nail fold. Many treatment modalities exist; however, permanent scarring, wound infection, and recurrence are common. Polidocanol sclerotherapy has been reported as a potential treatment. To assess the efficacy and safety of percutaneous polidocanol sclerotherapy in the treatment of DMC. The authors performed polidocanol sclerotherapy in 63 patients (23 men and 40 women). For each patient, the DMC contents were extruded and 3% polidocanol (0.02-0.5 mL) was injected to gently refill the cyst to its previous size. Subjects were reviewed after 6 weeks and offered a second treatment if necessary, and reviewed again after 12 weeks. Changes in lesions and adverse reactions were noted. Of the 63 subjects treated, 43 (68.3%) experienced complete resolution of the cyst by 6 weeks, and 49 (77.8%) experienced complete resolution by 12 weeks. Side effects were minor and had resolved in all patients by 12-week review. Percutaneous polidocanol sclerotherapy is a simple, safe, and effective approach to treating DMC, and is suitable for office-based practice.

  6. Mucous membrane grafting for the post-Steven-Johnson syndrome symblepharon: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayanta Kumar; Medhi, Jnanankar; Chakravarty, Ranjay; Soibam, Ronel

    2011-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman was referred with late sequelae of chloroquine-induced Steven-Johnson syndrome. At the time of presentation, the symblepharon was involving the upper lids to almost the whole of the cornea, and part of the lower bulbar conjunctiva with the lower lid bilaterally. Other ocular examinations were not possible due to the symblepharon. B-scan ultrasonography revealed acoustically clear vitreous, normal chorioretinal thickness, and normal optic nerve head, with an attached retina. Conjunctivo-corneal adhesion released by superficial lamellar dissection of the cornea. Ocular surface reconstruction was carried out with a buccal mucous membrane. A bandage contact lens was placed over the cornea followed by the symblepharon ring to prevent further adhesion. The mucosal graft was well taken up along with corneal re-epithelization. Best corrected visual acuity of 20/120 in both sides after 1 month and 20/80 after 3 months was achieved and maintained till the 2.5-year follow-up.

  7. Clinical Implications of Direct Immunofluorescence Findings in Patients With Ocular Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labowsky, Mary T; Stinnett, Sandra S; Liss, Jason; Daluvoy, Melissa; Hall, Russell P; Shieh, Christine

    2017-11-01

    To examine the clinical implications of positive or negative direct immunofluorescence biopsies (DIF) in patients with clinically typical ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP). Retrospective cohort study. The study population was patients with clinically typical ocular MMP disease with documented DIF results who were followed for at least 1 year at the Duke University multidisciplinary ocular MMP clinic. Data were collected by chart review and included patient demographics, clinical examination findings, and history of autoimmune disease and/or malignancy, as well as topical, systemic, and surgical treatments received. Main outcome measures included MMP Disease Area Index, Foster stages, proportion legally blind, duration of follow-up, and use of systemic immunosuppression and ocular procedures in treatment. In multivariable analysis restricted to 55 patients, patients with negative and positive biopsies were similar in the outcome measures; however, positive-biopsy patients were more likely to be treated with systemic immunosuppression and were followed for longer at our clinic. Patients with isolated ocular disease were also more likely to have negative biopsies compared to those who also had extraocular disease. Patients who had conjunctival biopsies were more likely to have a negative direct immunofluorescence result than patients with biopsies from other sites. We encourage clinicians and patients to consider treatment with systemic immunosuppression even in the absence of diagnosis confirmation by DIF. Furthermore, this study supports current standard of care to pursue a nonocular biopsy of normal-appearing, perilesional skin or oral mucosa when possible. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Dietary Shifts May Trigger Dysbiosis and Mucous Stools in Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Candace L; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Vandewege, Michael W; Sparks, Darrell L; Willard, Scott T; Kouba, Andrew J; Suen, Garret; Brown, Ashli E

    2016-01-01

    Dietary shifts can result in changes to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota, leading to negative outcomes for the host, including inflammation. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are physiologically classified as carnivores; however, they consume an herbivorous diet with dramatic seasonal dietary shifts and episodes of chronic GIT distress with symptoms including abdominal pain, loss of appetite and the excretion of mucous stools (mucoids). These episodes adversely affect the overall nutritional and health status of giant pandas. Here, we examined the fecal microbiota of two giant pandas' non-mucoid and mucoid stools and compared these to samples from a previous winter season that had historically few mucoid episodes. To identify the microbiota present, we isolated and sequenced the 16S rRNA using next-generation sequencing. Mucoids occurred following a seasonal feeding switch from predominately bamboo culm (stalk) to leaves. All fecal samples displayed low diversity and were dominated by bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes and to a lesser extent, Proteobacteria. Fecal samples immediately prior to mucoid episodes had lower microbial diversity as compared to mucoids. Mucoids were mostly comprised of common mucosal-associated taxa including Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, and exhibited increased abundance for bacteria in the family Pasteurellaceae. Taken together, these findings indicate that mucoids may represent an expulsion of the mucosal lining that is driven by changes in diet. We suggest that these occurrences serve to reset their GIT microbiota following changes in bamboo part preference, as giant pandas have retained a carnivorous GIT anatomy while shifting to an herbivorous diet.

  9. Periodontal status in oral mucous membrane pemphigoid: initial results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, P G; Farci, V; D'Aiuto, F; Carcieri, P; Carbone, M; Tanteri, C; Gardino, N; Gandolfo, S; Carrozzo, M; Broccoletti, R

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the periodontal status of mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) patients and compare it with that of healthy controls. A prospective study was undertaken to examine the impact of gingival MMP lesions on the human periodontium of 29 patients. Parameters evaluated included full mouth plaque score (FMPS), full mouth bleeding upon probing scores, probing depths (PD), gingival recession, clinical attachment level (CAL), mobility score, furcation involvement, number of missing teeth and Machtei criteria. All periodontal parameters recorded were increased in cases when compared to controls in univariate statistics. The mean differences between groups in PD (0.8±0.2mm, 95% CI 0.3-1.3), CAL (1.3±0.4mm, 95% CI 0.4-2.2), FMPS (41.0±6.2%, 95% CI 28.7-53.4), FMBS (16.2±6.6%, 95% CI 3.0-29.4) and tooth loss (2±1 teeth, 95% CI 1-3) were all statistically significant (Pcontrols due to a substantial difference in oral hygiene. Oral health should be promoted in MMP. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric mucin cell metaplasia: the duodenum revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan, G; Offerhaus, A; Molyvas, E N; Hoedemaeker, P J

    1990-11-01

    The histological material of 158 Billroth II gastrectomy specimens, used for a former study that established a relationship between duodenal ulcers and the presence of gastric metaplastic epithelium in the duodenal bulb, was reinvestigated for the presence of Helicobacter pylori. The results show that in all duodenal ulcer patients with gastric mucin cell metaplasia H. pylori colonized the metaplastic epithelium accompanied by an inflammatory response. The intestinal mucosa was always negative for H. pylori. H. pylori-positive patients also had the micro-organism in their gastric antrum. The results further support the hypothesis that infection of gastric mucosa in the bulb by H. pylori underlies duodenal ulcer disease.

  11. Local mucous membrane lesions caused by irradiation of the oropharynx can be prevented by a dental shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schratter-Sehn, A.U.; Vienna Univ.; Schmidt, W.F.O.; Kaercher, K.H.; Kielhauser, R.; Langer, H.

    1992-01-01

    In patients with metallic dental fillings radiation therapy to the oral cavity can cause mucous membrane lesions, which are more severe than expected. They appear as circumscribed erosions, opposite to metallic fillings and are caused by an increase in radiation dose through secondary radiation due to the higher density and atomic number of the filling material. This dose increase can be directly measured with 0.1 mm thin sheets of graphite-loaded TLD's (LiF, Vinten). For Co-60 gamma rays a commercial amalgam filling caused a dose increase by a factor of 1.7. The half value layer for this additional radiation was measured to be approximately 0.4 mm tissue. In order to avoid painful mucous membrane ulcerations which are even more a problem if hyperfractionated treatment schedules are used, we constructed individual dental shields for each patient. As shielding material we used a dental impression material (Optosil P + , Bayer). This method was tested in 35 patients, in all of them circumscribed mucous membrane ulcerations could be avoided. The method proved to be fast and simple and was very well tolerated by all patients. (orig.) [de

  12. Mucous Secretion and Cilia Beating Defend Developing Coral Larvae from Suspended Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard F Ricardo

    Full Text Available Suspended sediments produced from dredging activities, or added to the sediment budget via river runoff, are a concern for marine resource managers. Understanding the impact of suspended sediments on critical life history stages of keystone species like corals is fundamental to effective management of coastlines and reefs. Coral embryos (Acropora tenuis and A. millepora and larvae (A. tenuis, A. millepora and Pocillopora acuta were subjected to a range of suspended sediment concentrations of different sediment types (siliciclastic and carbonate to assess concentration-response relationships on ecologically relevant endpoints, including survivorship and ability to metamorphose. Embryos were subjected to short (12 h suspended sediment exposures from ages of 3-12 hours old or a long (30 h exposure at 6 hours old. Neither the survivorship nor metamorphosis function of embryos were significantly affected by realistic sediment exposures to ~1000 mg L-1. However, some embryos exhibited a previously undescribed response to dynamically suspended sediments, which saw 10% of the embryos form negatively buoyant cocoons at siliciclastic suspended sediment concentrations ≥35 mg L-1. Scanning electron and optical microscopy confirmed the presence of a coating on these embryos, possibly mucus with incorporated sediment particles. Cocoon formation was common in embryos but not in larvae, and occurred more often after exposure to siliciclastic rather than carbonate sediments. Once transferred into sediment-free seawater, functional ~36-h-old embryos began emerging from the cocoons, coinciding with cilia development. Ciliated (> 36-h-old larvae exposed to suspended sediments for 60 h were also observed to secrete mucus and were similarly unaffected by suspended sediment concentrations to ~800 mg L-1. This study provides evidence that mucous secretion and cilia beating effectively protect coral embryos and larvae from suspended sediment and that these mechanisms

  13. Bacterial colonization of colonic crypt mucous gel and disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.

  14. Dietary shift and dysbiosis may trigger mucous stools in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace L Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary shifts can result in dysbiosis between the host and its gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiota, leading to negative outcomes including inflammation. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca are physiologically classified as carnivores; however, they consume a herbivorous diet with dramatic seasonal feeding shifts and episodes of chronic GIT distress with symptoms including abdominal pain, loss of appetite and the excretion of mucous stools (mucoids. These episodes adversely affect the overall nutritional and health status of giant pandas. Here, we examined the fecal microbiota of two giant pandas’ normal and mucoid stools and compared these microbiota to baseline samples from a season with historically few episodes. To identify the microbiota present, we isolated and sequenced 16S rRNA using next-generation sequencing. Mucoids occurred following a seasonal feeding switch from predominately bamboo culm (stalk to leaves. All fecal samples displayed low diversity and were dominated by bacterial in the phyla Firmicutes and to a lesser extent, the Proteobacteria. Fecal samples immediately prior to mucoid episodes had lower microbial diversity compared to baseline samples, followed by increased diversity in mucoids. Mucoids were mostly comprised of common mucosal-associated taxa including Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, and exhibited increased abundance for bacteria in the family Pasteurellaceae. Taken together, these findings indicate that diet-induced intestinal dysbiosis in giant pandas likely results in an expulsion of the mucosal lining in the form of mucoids. We suggest that these occurrences serve to reset their GIT microbiota, as giant pandas have retained a carnivorous GIT anatomy while shifting to an herbivorous diet.

  15. Lectin histochemical study on the olfactory organ of the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, revealed heterogeneous mucous environments in a single nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shouichiro; Matsui, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Naoto; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Mominoki, Katsumi; Matsuda, Seiji; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2003-04-01

    Expression patterns of glycoconjugates were examined by lectin histochemistry in the nasal cavity of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Its nasal cavity consisted of two components, a flattened chamber, which was the main nasal chamber (MNC), and a lateral diverticulum called the lateral nasal sinus (LNS), which communicated medially with the MNC. The MNC was lined with the olfactory epithelium (OE), while the diverticulum constituting the LNS was lined with the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE). Nasal glands were observed beneath the OE but not beneath the VNE. In addition, a secretory epithelium was revealed on the dorsal boundary between the MNC and the LNS, which we refer to as the boundary secretory epithelium (BSE) in this study. The BSE seemed to play an important role in the construction of the mucous composition of the VNE. Among 21 lectins used in this study, DBA, SBA and Jacalin showed different staining patterns between the OE and the VNE. DBA staining showed remarkable differences between the OE and the VNE; there was intense staining in the free border and the supporting cells of the VNE, whereas there was no staining or weak staining in the cells of the OE. SBA and Jacalin showed different stainings in the receptor neurons for the OE and the VNE. Furthermore, UEA-I and Con A showed different stainings for the nasal glands. UEA-I showed intense staining in the BSE and in the nasal glands located in the ventral wall of the MNC (VNG), whereas Con A showed intense staining in the BSE and in the nasal glands located in the dorsal and medial wall of the MNC (DMNG). The DMNG were observed to send their excretory ducts into the OE, whereas no excretory ducts were observed from the VNG to the OE or the VNE. These results suggested that the secretion by the supporting cells as well as the BSE and the DMNG establishes that there are heterogeneous mucous environments in the OE and the VNE, although both epithelia are situated in the same nasal cavity.

  16. Histochemistry of reactive oxygen-species (ROS)-generating oxidases in cutaneous and mucous epithelia of laboratory rodents with special reference to xanthine oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossrau, R.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Cutaneous and mucous epithelia of various organs of laboratory rodents were analysed histochemically for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating oxidases using cerium methods. High activities of xanthine oxidase and also superoxide dismutase were present in orthokeratotic stratified squamous

  17. MULTIPLE-COURSE PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY FOR VERRUCOUS LEUKOPLAKIA OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF BODY OF THE TONGUE (CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Istomin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment of the patient with verrucous luekoplakia of mucous membrane of body of the tongue with photodynamic therapy are represented. In 2015 the patient underwent 4 courses of photodynamic therapy with photosensitizer photolon. Photolon was injected at dose of 2 mg/kg 3 h before irradiation (laser output power was 0.262 W, light dose – 50 and 100 J/cm2. The result of treatment was assessed as complete regression: 4 months after multiple-course photodynamic therapy there were no clinical and histological signs of luekoplakia.

  18. Detection of constituent layers of histological oral sub-mucous fibrosis: images using the hybrid segmentation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tathagata; Reddy, D Shivashanker; Mukherjee, Anirban; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Paul, Ranjan R; Dutta, Pranab K

    2008-12-01

    This paper concentrates on the segmentation of histological images of oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSF) into its constituent layers. In this regard hybrid segmentation algorithm shows very interesting results. The segmentation results depict the superiority of hybrid segmentation algorithm (HSA) in comparison to region growing algorithm (RGA). In clinical sense, the presented method provides an automatic means for segmenting histological layers (reference class map provided by the expert). The method shows potential in mimicking clinical acumen to act as a support system to oncologist.

  19. Validation of the commitment index of skin and mucous membranes in pemphigus vulgaris for the clinical evaluation of patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Sávio Reder de; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Nascimento, Leninha Valério do

    2011-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a severe bullous disease, produced by the autoimmune destruction of desmosomes, resulting in the formation of intraepidermal blisters, affecting skin and mucous membranes, with a mortality of 5 to 10%. Side effects of therapy contributed to increased morbidity, accounting for considerable part of the immediate causes of death due to PV today. There is no reproducible score for clinical evaluation of patients with Pemphigus vulgaris, making the therapeutic decision subjective, and its results, uncertain. Create and evaluate the reproducibility of a scoring system for clinical evaluation of patients with pemphigus vulgaris. The Commitment Index of Skin and Mucous in Pemphigus Vulgaris was created, scoring easily observed findings on clinical examination. During 3 years, 7 patients with active PV were submitted to pairings of Commitment Index of Skin and Mucous in Pemphigus Vulgaris conduced by independent examiners for determinate its reproducibility. The Commitment Index of Skin and Mucous in Pemphigus Vulgaris proved that it is reproducible in all the statistical methods used to assess agreement between the independent examiners. In adition, it permited us to separate the patients into classes of severity. The Commitment Index of Skin and Mucous in Pemphigus Vulgaris can classify the severity of Pemphigus Vulgaris, contributing to medical research, and to the standardization of the therapy in the near future.

  20. Enzymatic sulfation of gastric mucous glycoprotein in rat--changes in glycoprotein sulfotransferase activity with stress and anti-ulcer agent, sofalcone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Aihara, H.; Honda, A.; Mori, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Enzymatic sulfation of mucous glycoprotein (GP) was studied in gastric mucosa of rat. After rat stomach was incubated with [ 35 S]-sulfate, incorporation of radioactivity into gastric mucosal APS (adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate), PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) and endogenous GPs could be detected. The degree of sulfation of endogenous GPs was highest in the macromolecular GP (peak I) and lowest in the low molecular GP (peak III). By using a crude preparation of GP sulfotransferase from rat gastric mucosa, the transfer of [ 35 S]-sulfate from [ 35 S]-PAPS into macromolecular mucous GP was determined as being the activity of sulfotransferase. The activity of GP sulfotransferase was mainly distributed in the microsomal fraction, and was proportional to the incubation time, substrate (mucous GP) concentration and [ 35 S]-PAPS concentration. The enzyme activity was significantly higher in the corpus than that in the antral mucosa. The activity of GP sulfotransferase was significantly decreased at 6 h and was significantly increased at 12 h after the stress load, compared with that of the non-stressed condition. Anti-ulcer agent, sofalcone, increased the GP sulfotransferase activity under the stressed condition. On the other hand, cimetidine showed a significant inhibitory effect under the same condition. Changes in the GP sulfotransferase activity with stress and anti-ulcer agents were consistent with those in the incorporation of [ 35 S]-sulfate into macromolecular mucous GP. These results suggest the importance of GP sulfotransferase as a key enzyme regulating the sulfation of mucous GP

  1. [Endoscopic diagnosis of local chemical burn of mucous membranes of the stomach, induced with the purpose of simulation of gastric ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzov, N V; Plekhanov, V N

    2013-01-01

    With the purpose of improvement of diagnosis of induced gastric ulcer were examined 11 patients who took aggressive agents for simulation of gastric ulcer and 33 patients who took pseudo-aggressive agents. Observables, conduced diagnosis of local chemical burn of mucous coat of stomach during initial 6 days after taking aggressive agents. Stages of ulcerous process, resulting from local chemical burn of mucous coat of stomach, coressponds to real gactric ulcer. Gelatin capsule using as a container for delivery of aggressive agents, melts in stomach in 5-6 minutes after taking. Independent from body position, mucous coat of greater curvature of the stomach is damaged. It is impossible to simulate duodenal bulb ulcer using the gelatine capsule or ball made of breadcrumb. The last method of delivery of aggressive agent can damage the small intestine because of uncontrollability of the place of breaking the ball.

  2. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Deswal, Balbir Singh; Singh, Bachu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. (1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014. All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule. Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7). All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes. 48.48% and 90.52% of the workers were using hand gloves in the sodium dichromate manufacturing

  3. [Peptic ulcers evoked by retention of the antral portion of mucous membrane at the duodenum after a Bilroth II stomach resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, V I; Matrosova, E M

    1978-08-01

    From the authors' data the retained mucous membrane of the antral region at the duodenum following gastric resection for peptic ulcer results in the development of gastric ulcers. It has been found that only the removal of the retained antral mucous membrane stops the production of HCl and promotes the healing of ulcer. The reflux of the duodenal contents into the isolated pylorus does not constitute a cause of the gastrin production, the continuation of which is mainly due to the vagal denervation of the glands producing the antral hormone.

  4. Kahalalide F analogues from the mucous secretion of Indian sacoglossan mollusc Elysia ornata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; PrabhaDevi; Carbone, M.; Mathieu, V.; Kiss, R.; Casapullo, A.; Gavagnin, M.

    and subsequently from the alga Bryopsis pennata upon which it feeds.4Preclinical studies showed strong activity of KF against cell lines and tumor specimens derived from different human solid tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), prostate, breast....Licensed to PharmaMar, KF entered clinical trials against prostate cancer, malignant melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, with a mechanism of action that involved oncosis (ischemic cell death).7But, recently, the lead was dropped from phase II clinical trials...

  5. Involved mechanisms in the radioprotector effect of the insulinic-1 type growth factor (IGF-1) in the mucous of the small intestine; Mecanismos involucrados en el efecto radioprotector del factor de crecimiento tipo insulinico-1 (IGF-1) en la mucosa del intestino delgado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, N.; Medina, V.; Sambuco, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G.; Rivera, E.; Bergoc, R. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Junin 956, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Croci, M.; Crescenti, E. [Instituto de Inmunooncologia, Cordoba 3200, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: rmbergoc@ffyb.uba.ar

    2006-07-01

    The use of radiant therapies in malignant tissues presents the inconvenience of affecting also to the healthy tissues, mainly when these present a high rate of proliferation like in the case of the mucous of the small intestine. The growth factor of insulinic-1 type (IGF-1) it has been pointed out as a possible protector of normal tissues under irradiation conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the IGF-1 like radioprotector of the mucous of the small intestine in mice irradiated with 10 Gy to whole body, determining the histological characteristics of the tissue, the presence of apoptotic cells, the expression of antigen of cellular proliferation (PCNA) and of anti-oxidant enzymes. Four groups of mice were used: control, treated with IGF-1, irradiated and irradiated and treated with IGF-1. The two treated groups were injected subcutaneously with two dose by day of 2.5 {mu}g of IGF-I /0.1ml during four days (days 1 at 4). The two irradiated groups 10 Gy received to whole body the day 2. The day 5 all the animals were sacrificed and cuts of the mucous of the small intestine were obtained. The histological cuts were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells its were determined by the Tunnel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA, superoxide dependent dismutase of copper and zinc (CuZnSOD), superoxide dependent dismutase of manganese (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathion peroxidase (GPX), by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that the treatment with IGF-1 preserves the partially histology of the mucous of the intestine, the expression of PCNA and the presence of apoptotic cells in the crypts in front of the irradiation. The CuZnSOD it was expressed mainly in the hairiness and, in smaller measure, in the crypts increase in the group IR+IGF-1. The IGF-1 produced the expression of MnSOD in the crypts and in the intestinal hairiness. The expression of CAT in the hairiness increase

  6. COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE PEMPHIGOID IN A MEDICALLY COMPROMISED PATIENT (DIABETES MELLITUS AND HYPERTENSION (A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Meutia Sari

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP is an autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies to components within the basement membrane zone. The lesions may produce risk of scarring of the cants (symblepharon, inversion of the eyelashes (entropion and trauma to the cornea (trichiasis. We reported a case of MMP in a 56-year old female with controlled diabetes mellitus and hypertension whose ocular involvement has lead to blindness of the right eye. The diagnosis of MMP was based on the history and clinical findings in oral medicine department. Management of this patient included the administration of anti-fungal, corticosteroid, diaminodiphenylsulfone, nutritional supplementation oral hygiene promotion and consultation to internal medicine specialist and ophtalmologist. The improvement of oral lesions progressed well within five months. We conclude that optimal improvement can be reached by comprehensive management with controlling systemic factor and good cooperation between medical team and patient.

  7. Lectin staining shows no evidence of involvement of glycocalyx/mucous layer carbohydrate structures in development of celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Nielsen, Christian; Biagini, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The presence of unique carbohydrate structures in the glycocalyx/mucous layer of the intestine may be involved in a susceptibility to celiac disease (CD) by serving as attachment sites for bacteria. This host-microbiota interaction may influence the development of CD and possibly other diseases...... with autoimmune components. We examined duodenal biopsies from a total of 30 children, of which 10 had both celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D); 10 had CD alone; and 10 were suspected of having gastrointestinal disease, but had normal duodenal histology (non-CD controls). Patients with both CD and T1D...... showed no significant differences. Based on our material, we found no indication that the presence of Gal-β(1,3)-GalNAc or Fucα1-2Gal-R is involved in the susceptibility to CD, or that the disease process affects the expression of these carbohydrates....

  8. The Impact Of Oral Vitamin E In Preventing Mucositis (Bucal Mucous Inflammation Resulting From The Radiotherapy In Tumors Of Head And Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador M

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucositis [bucal Mucous inflamation] is the most common complication resulting from the radiotherapy in tumors of head and neck. These malignancies are often curable through radiotherapy. This complication, however, may impair the treatment process and cause malnutrition. So far no medicine has been Known to prevent this complication. Vitamin E is a stabilizer of cell membrane and is also used in mucositis treatment. The survey of oral vitamin E effect on mucositis prophylaxis in radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients afflicted with head and neck malignancies referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital were randomly divided into 2groups, two of whom died during treatment process. The first group (The case group consisting of 34 patients Consumed oral vitamin E 200 mg daily for seven days. The second group (The control group did not use any medicine at all. The two group underwent radiotherapy. They were compared and contrasted as to mucositis severity and dysphagia during treatment. Results: In the first group, since the fourth week up to the end of the treatment, there was a lower frequency and grade of mucositis in contrast with the control group. In the fourth week, the grade two mucositis in the first group (Case group was 20.6% and 47.5% in the control group the difference was statistically significant (P=0.024. There was also a lower frequency and grade of dysphagia in the case group since the fourth week versus the control group. In the fourth week, moderate dysphagia was 29.4% in the case group and 55.9% in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.023. Conclusion: Oral vitamin E has Proved to be effective in the Prophylaxis of Moderate and severe mucositis and dysphagia resulting from radiotherapy. It is advisable to conduct more research with more cases, lengthier duration and heavier doses.

  9. Immunofluorescence serration pattern analysis as a diagnostic criterion in antilaminin-332 mucous membrane pemphigoid : immunopathological findings and clinical experience in 10 Dutch patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, J. B.; Pas, H. H.; Hertl, M.; Dikkers, F. G.; Kamminga, N.; Jonkman, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Antilaminin-332 mucous membrane pemphigoid (anti-LN-332 MMP) is a chronic subepidermal blistering disease characterized by IgG anti-epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ) autoantibodies against laminin-332 (LN-332). Patients with anti-LN-332 MMP have an increased relative risk of

  10. Ocular surface cytokine profile in chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome and its response to mucous membrane grafting for lid margin keratinisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurumurthy, Srividya; Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy

    2018-02-01

    To study the tear cytokine and the conjunctival and oral mucosal marker profile in chronic ocular Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and their alteration following mucous membrane grafting (MMG) for lid margin keratinisation (LMK). In a 1-year prospective study, SJS cases (n=25) and age-matched/sex-matched healthy controls (n=25) were recruited. Tear specimen (Schirmer's strip), conjunctival and oral mucosal imprints were collected from controls and SJS cases pre-MMG and post-MMG (at first follow-up, n=17). Tear cytokines were profiled using 27-bioplex array. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-mediated extracellular matrix changes in conjunctival and oral mucosal cells were analysed by gene expression studies. 30 RESULTS: Tear cytokine profiling of chronic SJS cases at pre-MMG stage revealed significant upregulation of cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-15, IL-2, IL-17A and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with downregulation of IP-10 (interferon gamma-induced protein 10), tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), IL-7, IL-12p70 and IL-13, with maximal increase in GM-CSF and maximal downregulation of IP-10, respectively. Of these, IL-2, IL-15, bFGF and IL-17A showed significant correlation with disease severity, pre-MMG. Conjunctival cells pre-MMG showed increase in TGF-β1, TGF-βRII, connective tissue growth factor and collagen-III gene expression by 10, 67, 173 and 184 folds, respectively, which dropped to 1.3, 11, 13.5 and 19 folds correspondingly, post-MMG. However, their expressions in oral mucosa were negligible. A proinflammatory, profibrotic, antiapoptotic ocular surface milieu characterises chronic ocular SJS. IP-10, an antifibrotic cytokine was noted to be maximally downregulated, unlike in other forms of chronic dry eye disease. The

  11. Multiple and repeated sampling increases the sensitivity of direct immunofluorescence testing for the diagnosis of mucous membrane pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanovich, Iakov; Nitz, Julia Marie; Zillikens, Detlef

    2017-10-01

    Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the predominant blistering of mucosal surfaces and the linear deposition of complement, IgG, or IgA along the basement membrane detected by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) test. To assess the impact of multiple and repeated DIF sampling on establishing the diagnosis of MMP. We reviewed the results of DIF studies in 136 nonlesional biopsies from 78 patients who were immunologically confirmed to have MMP. Thirty-six of 52 patients (69%) who underwent only 1 biopsy at the first workup were positive. In 13 cases, the initial single biopsy was negative, and later biopsies were positive. Twenty-two of 26 patients (85%) who underwent multiple biopsies at the initial workup showed ≥1 positive DIF test result. Simultaneously obtained biopsies yielded discordant positive and negative findings in 11 patients. Overall, 74 of 78 patients (95%) had ≥1 positive result by DIF test. In the remaining 4 cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of circulating autoantibodies against BP180. This is a retrospective, single-center study. Our data demonstrate that multiple and repeated biopsies increase the sensitivity of the DIF test for MMP diagnosis. Negative DIF test findings in cases clinically suggestive of MMP should prompt repeat biopsies. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of dexpanthenol and aloe vera to influence the irradiation response of the oral mucous membrane (mouse); Beeinflussung der Strahlenreaktion der Mundschleimhaut (Maus) durch Dexpanthenol {+-} Aloe vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlichting, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Dresden Univ. (Germany); Spekl, K.; Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Dresden Univ. (Germany)]|[Experimentelles Zentrum, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden Univ. (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In summarising the outcome of the present study it can be said spraying the agent on the oral mucous membrane once a day had an effect on the incidence of mucous membrane ulceration in the case of both placebo and dexpanthenol treatment. However, there was no significant difference between placebo and dexpanthenol treatment, the only finding being a slight prolongation of latency time through aloe vera. These experimental findings give good reason to critically reconsider the clinical use of dexpanthenol as a supportive treatment for the prevention of radiogenic mucositis enoralis following irradiation of tumours in the head and neck region. However thorough oral lavage is an effective means of moderating the irradiation response of the oral mucous membrane. [German] Zusammenfassend ist festzustellen, dass in den vorliegenden Versuchen mit einmal taeglichem Aufspruehen des Praeparates auf die Mundschleimhaut sowohl die Placebo - wie auch die Dexpanthenol-Behandlung die Inzidenz von Schleimhautulzerationen modifiziert hat; zwischen Placebo- und Dexpanthenol-Behandlung ergab sich jedoch kein signifikanter Unterschied. Lediglich eine geringe Verlaengerung der Latenzzeit durch Aloe vera war zu beobachten. Auf der Basis dieser experimentellen Ergebnisse muss der klinische Einsatz von Dexpanthenol im Rahmen der Supportivtherapie zur Prophylaxe der radiogenen Mucositis enoralis bei der Bestrahlung von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren kritisch ueberdacht werden. Regelmaessige, intensive Mundspuelungen sind jedoch ein probates Mittel zur Verminderung der Strahlenreaktion der Mundschleimhaut. (orig.)

  13. Local mucous membrane lesions caused by irradiation of the oropharynx can be prevented by a dental shield. Praevention lokaler Schleimhautlaesionen waehrend Oropharynx-Bestrahlung durch einen Plombenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schratter-Sehn, A.U. (Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie Vienna Univ. (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Strahlenbiologie); Schmidt, W.F.O.; Kaercher, K.H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Strahlenbiologie); Kielhauser, R. (Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie); Langer, H. (Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Vienna (Austria). Abt. fuer Zahnheilkunde)

    1992-01-01

    In patients with metallic dental fillings radiation therapy to the oral cavity can cause mucous membrane lesions, which are more severe than expected. They appear as circumscribed erosions, opposite to metallic fillings and are caused by an increase in radiation dose through secondary radiation due to the higher density and atomic number of the filling material. This dose increase can be directly measured with 0.1 mm thin sheets of graphite-loaded TLD's (LiF, Vinten). For Co-60 gamma rays a commercial amalgam filling caused a dose increase by a factor of 1.7. The half value layer for this additional radiation was measured to be approximately 0.4 mm tissue. In order to avoid painful mucous membrane ulcerations which are even more a problem if hyperfractionated treatment schedules are used, we constructed individual dental shields for each patient. As shielding material we used a dental impression material (Optosil P{sup +}, Bayer). This method was tested in 35 patients, in all of them circumscribed mucous membrane ulcerations could be avoided. The method proved to be fast and simple and was very well tolerated by all patients. (orig.).

  14. Anti-inflammation of the oral mucous after radiotherapy of side effect to the propolis combined effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenori, Yamashita; Gu, Yeunhwa; Park, Sangrae

    2002-01-01

    Recently, allege acid sodium (AL-G) that affect is proved in the bleeding digestion pipe tumor, the effect on treatment for wound such as a radiation esophagus flame because of the inflammation reduction inside such a mouth is used. Because a tumor and an inflammation are effective, propolis to use for this research is the purpose of examining the anti-inflammation action of the mucous membrane flame in the mouth. The inside of the mouth was made to contain each medicine, and effect on organization repair was examined from the viewpoint of study of the organization. An ICR mail mice used at age of seven weeks. Feed and water were taken freely. As for the experiment group, 2Gy, 4Gy, 8Gy irradiated each of the control group, the oral part separately. Two times gave it 2Gy, 4Gy and 8Gy group, AL-G, a physiology solution of salt, propolis combination thing (Propolis + royal jelly (RJ) +EF2001), PVP in the morning. We used in each groups of 10 mail mice AL-G+2G, AL-G+4GyAL-G+8Gy, Saline+2Gy, Saline+4Gy, Saline+8Gy,Propolis+(RJ+EF2001)+2Gy,Propolis+ (RJ+EF2001)+4Gy,Propolis+(RJ+EF2001)+8Gy, PVP+2Gy, PVP+4Gy and PVP+8Gy groups. It was divided into each group of 2Gy, 4Gy and 8Gy groups from the bottom part of the ear of the ICR mice by the nose head, and it irradiated it once

  15. Anti-inflammation of the oral mucous after radiotherapy of side effect to the propolis combined effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenori, Yamashita; Gu, Yeunhwa; Park, Sangrae [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    Recently, allege acid sodium (AL-G) that affect is proved in the bleeding digestion pipe tumor, the effect on treatment for wound such as a radiation esophagus flame because of the inflammation reduction inside such a mouth is used. Because a tumor and an inflammation are effective, propolis to use for this research is the purpose of examining the anti-inflammation action of the mucous membrane flame in the mouth. The inside of the mouth was made to contain each medicine, and effect on organization repair was examined from the viewpoint of study of the organization. An ICR mail mice used at age of seven weeks. Feed and water were taken freely. As for the experiment group, 2Gy, 4Gy, 8Gy irradiated each of the control group, the oral part separately. Two times gave it 2Gy, 4Gy and 8Gy group, AL-G, a physiology solution of salt, propolis combination thing (Propolis + royal jelly (RJ) +EF2001), PVP in the morning. We used in each groups of 10 mail mice AL-G+2G, AL-G+4GyAL-G+8Gy, Saline+2Gy, Saline+4Gy, Saline+8Gy,Propolis+(RJ+EF2001)+2Gy,Propolis+ (RJ+EF2001)+4Gy,Propolis+(RJ+EF2001)+8Gy, PVP+2Gy, PVP+4Gy and PVP+8Gy groups. It was divided into each group of 2Gy, 4Gy and 8Gy groups from the bottom part of the ear of the ICR mice by the nose head, and it irradiated it once.

  16. Increased methylation of lung cancer-associated genes in sputum DNA of former smokers with chronic mucous hypersecretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruse, Shannon; Petersen, Hans; Weissfeld, Joel; Picchi, Maria; Willink, Randall; Do, Kieu; Siegfried, Jill; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2014-01-09

    Chronic mucous hypersecretion (CMH) contributes to COPD exacerbations and increased risk for lung cancer. Because methylation of gene promoters in sputum has been shown to be associated with lung cancer risk, we tested whether such methylation was more common in persons with CMH. Eleven genes commonly silenced by promoter methylation in lung cancer and associated with cancer risk were selected. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was used to profile the sputum of 900 individuals in the Lovelace Smokers Cohort (LSC). Replication was performed in 490 individuals from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS). CMH was significantly associated with an overall increased number of methylated genes, with SULF2 methylation demonstrating the most consistent association. The association between SULF2 methylation and CMH was significantly increased in males but not in females both in the LSC and PLuSS (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.51-4.91, p = 0.001 and OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.48-5.95, p = 0.002, respectively). Further, the association between methylation and CMH was more pronounced among 139 male former smokers with persistent CMH compared to current smokers (SULF2; OR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.59-8.37, p = 0.002). These findings demonstrate that especially male former smokers with persistent CMH have markedly increased promoter methylation of lung cancer risk genes and potentially could be at increased risk for lung cancer.

  17. MICROECOLOGY OF THE MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF THE ALVEOLAR RIDGES IN THE PERIOD OF ADAPTATION TO COMPLETE DENTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanishen I. V.,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The oral cavity is an open ecosystem for various microorganisms and is one of the most populated biotopes of human. Removable dental prosthesis creates favorable conditions for the breeding of various microorganisms, including fungi. Stomatitis of dentition (SOD refers to a group of the most frequent pathologies of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity inflammatory character, due to the presence of the patient's dental prosthesis. For the prevention of SOD due to removable prostheses are used proper hygiene of dental prostheses, manufacture of technologically optimal designs of dentures, the shielding of the prosthesis and the use of cushioning materials. In this regard, the aim of this work was to study the dynamics characteristics of the microbiota of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity when performing prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with complete removable acrylic dentures with the use of adhesive and without its use. Materials and methods. The formation of the clinical groups of the patients occurred according to the following criteria: the study group comprised 23 patients with complete edentulous upper and lower jaw, which produced full removable laminar dentures on the upper and lower jaw, which used water-resistant adhesive based on polyvinylacetate and carboxymethilcellulose (cushions and/or cream "Fittydent" according to the instructions of the manufacturer, the control group consisted of 12 patients with complete edentulous upper and lower jaw, which produced full removable laminar dentures on the upper and lower jaw, in the period of adaptation to removable dentures has not applied the adhesive to improve the fixation of dentures. Microbiological examination of patients was carried out in dynamics before developing the prosthesis, after a week and after a month's stay of the prosthesis in the oral cavity. Results and discussion. Microbiological studies included determination of the qualitative and

  18. Primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Kinra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet cell cancer of the urinary bladder is a relatively rare entity. Since there is no mucinous epithelium in the bladder, It is proposed that the tumor arises from metaplastic urothelium. Two thirds of the tumours are mucin secreting, in most of which the site of the deposition is either extracellular or intracellular displacing the nucleus to a peripheral crescent, giving the cells a signet ring appearance. The tumours are most often infiltrative and diffusely involving the majority of the bladder akin to its name sake in stomach. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from gastrointestinal metastases as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary.

  19. Joint influence of temperature and ions of metals on level of activity alkaline phosphatase the mucous membrane of intestines beluga, the starlet and their hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Bednyakov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In work joint influence of ions of bivalent metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and temperatures on level of activity alkaline phosphatase mucous membrane beluga, starlet and their hybrid is shown. Dependence of response of enzyme on action of ions of metals according to their position in a periodic table of chemical elements is shown. The given dependence remains and at temperature change incubation, only at low temperatures the activating effect of metals being in the period beginning is maximum, and at high, is maximum inhibiting effect of metals being in the period end.

  20. [Occurrence and number of bacteria from the Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus genera on skin and mucous membranes in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerba, Izabela

    2003-01-01

    The aim of work was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of bacteria from genera of Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, kytococcus and Dermatococcus on human skin and mucous membranes in healthy population. Among 150 investigated persons these bacteria were found in 122 (81.3%). The frequency of isolation was similar in both sex (82.4% in female and 79.7% in male). Most often the strains were isolated from oral cavity (48.7%), and from skin of palm and forearm (40.7% and 37.3%). Least frequency of occurrence was observed in vestibule of nose (26%). The predominant isolated strains were: M. luteus (26.2%), and N. halobia (21%) followed by K. varians (16.4%), M. lylae (12.2%), D. sedentarius (9.1%), K. kristinae (7.3%), K. nishinomiyaensis (7.3%), K. rosea (0.3%).

  1. The thickness of the intestinal mucous layer in the colon of rats fed various sources of non-digestible carbohydrates is positively correlated with the pool of SCFA but negatively correlated with the proportion of butyric acid in digesta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette S; Theil, Peter K; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment aimed to study the influence of six sources of non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) on the mucous layer in the colon of rats. The NDC sources used were as follows: cellulose (C); pectin (P); inulin; resistant starch (RS); barley hulls. The diets contained 108-140g NDC/kg DM...

  2. To understand and manage the digestive radiation injuries: importance of the mucous reaction and new therapy orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, A.

    2007-09-01

    Actually the radiotherapy that concerns 50% of anti tumoral treatments is accompanied by side effects. The evolution of this therapy turns towards the limitation of the early effects but also the delayed effects in order to improve the quality of life of patients. The first answer was to reduce the radiation doses and the irradiated volume. Three directions are to be kept in mind concerning the digestive tissues: Fight against the break of the epithelial homeostasis by increasing the pool of cells before irradiation and by facilitating the processes of restoration and epithelial regeneration by the stimulation of the proliferation of the cells of progenitor compartments; Fight against the phenotype changes of the cells, and more globally against the cellular activation and its consequences: activation of the vascular endothelium and the initiation of the inflammatory and thrombosis processes; activation of the vascular smooth muscular cells and stenosis; oxidative stress and tissue hypoxia; recruitment and activation of the mesenchyme cells and matrix unbalance; to consider the global nature of the secondary effects, and become aware that there is, besides the physical twilight connected to the irradiation configuration, a biological twilight, that is to say a potential repercussion of the irradiation effects out of the field, on the global nature of an organ even an organism, and this in the therapy and accident configurations. (N.C.)

  3. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaoro, Luis Alberto; Guerra, Fernando; Angeleri, Anabela; Palamas, Marta; Melba, Sardi-Segovia; Rocher, Adriana Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the cytological criteria to identify the urothelial cells in cervical smears in order to avoid mistakes in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cervical smears from 34 post menopausal women with vesicovaginal fistulas, advanced bladder prolapse and genital erosive lichen planes (vulvar kraurosis) (Group 1) and transitional cell metaplasia of the cervix (TCM, Group 2) were stained with Papanicolaou technique. The cervical samples were taken during the routine annual examination for prevention of the uterine cancer. Results: The smears of cervix from Group 1 showed urothelial cells from the three layers of the transitional epithelium. The umbrella cells are the bigger ones with relatively large nuclei. Frequently, they are multinucleated with single or multiple nucleoli and a typical “frothy” cytoplasm (cytoplasmic vacuoles). The cells of the Group 2 showed nuclei with oval to spindled shapes, some tapered ends, less cytoplasm than squamous metaplastic cells, powdery chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves. Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs) due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper. PMID:22438615

  4. Granular cell tumors of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Batsakis, J G; Courtney, R M

    1979-06-01

    Forth-two granular cell tumors of the head and neck were collected and studied with light and electron microscopy. Granular cells were found in four odontogenic tumors, two congenital epulides of newborn infants, and 36 myoblastoma lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. Support is presented for the hypothesis that granular cells represent an unusual nonspecific degenerative process and that nonodontogenic granular cell tumors develop from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells that subsequently undergo autophagocytosis.

  5. Relationship between selected indoor volatile organic compounds, so-called microbial VOC, and the prevalence of mucous membrane symptoms in single family homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Eitaki, Yoko; Kanazawa, Ayako; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio; Shibata, Eiji; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Takigawa, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms are known to produce a range of volatile organic compounds, so-called microbial VOC (MVOC). Chamber studies where humans were exposed to MVOC addressed the acute effects of objective and/or subjective signs of mucosal irritation. However, the effect of MVOC on inhabitants due to household exposure is still unclear. The purpose of this epidemiological study was to measure indoor MVOC levels in single family homes and to evaluate the relationship between exposure to them and sick building syndrome (SBS). All inhabitants of the dwellings were given a self-administered questionnaire with standardized questions to assess their symptoms. Air samples were collected and the concentrations of eight selected compounds in indoor air were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry - selective ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM). The most frequently detected MVOC was 1-pentanol at a detection rate of 78.6% and geometric mean of 0.60 μg/m 3 . Among 620 participants, 120 (19.4%) reported one or more mucous symptoms; irritation of the eyes, nose, airway, or coughing every week (weekly symptoms), and 30 (4.8%) reported that the symptoms were home-related (home-related symptoms). Weekly symptoms were not associated with any of MVOC, whereas significant associations between home-related mucous symptoms and 1-octen-3-ol (per log 10 -unit: odds ratio (OR) 5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1 to 14.8) and 2-pentanol (per log 10 -unit: OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0 to 4.9) were obtained after adjustment for gender, age, and smoking. Associations between home-related symptoms and 1-octen-3-ol remained after mutual adjustment. However, concentrations of the selected compounds in indoors were lower than the estimated safety level in animal studies. Thus, the statistically significant association between 1-octen-3-ol may be due to a direct effect of the compounds or the associations may be being associated with other offending compounds. Additional studies are needed to evaluate

  6. Autoradiographic studies on the cell proliferation of the human chronic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagami, Yoshifumi

    1982-01-01

    Cell proliferation of human gastric mucosa was studied in the cases of chronic gastritis using the in vitro incubation method of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography. The study was carried out using the material consisted of 92 biopsy specimens and 83 stomachs diagnosed as carcinoma, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis. The labelling index was expressed in a percentage of labelled cells in ratio to the total number of epithelial cells. In the normal gastric mucosae, 3 H-TdR labeled cells were in the neck region of the gastric gland, but did not appear in the surface epithelium. Higher incorporation of 3 H-TdR was observed in the lower part of the neck region of the glands. The average indices, both labeling and mitotic, were generally higher in the antrum than in the pylorus in the cases of chronic gastritis and also higher than normal mucosae. Superficial gastritis showed many labeled cells which were located in the neck region and foveolae. Simple gastitis showed scattered labeled cells in various parts of mucosae. In atrophic and atrophic hyperplastic gastritis, labeled cells were found in the neck and fobeolae of the gastric glands. Metaplastic gastritis showed labeled cells especially in the neck regions. The average labeling index is higher in simple chronic gastritis than in other superficial gastritis, atrophic, atrophic hyperplastic and metaplastic gastritis. Information concerned with cell renewal and proliferation is important for further understanding of the development of disease. (J.P.N.)

  7. Autoradiographic studies on the cell proliferation of the human chronic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagami, Y. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)

    1982-02-01

    Cell proliferation of human gastric mucosa was studied in the cases of chronic gastritis using the in vitro incubation method of /sup 3/H-thymidine autoradiography. The study was carried out using the material consisted of 92 biopsy specimens and 83 stomachs diagnosed as carcinoma, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis. The labelling index was expressed in a percentage of labelled cells in ratio to the total number of epithelial cells. In the normal gastric mucosae, /sup 3/H-TdR labeled cells were in the neck region of the gastric gland, but did not appear in the surface epithelium. Higher incorporation of /sup 3/H-TdR was observed in the lower part of the neck region of the glands. The average indices, both labeling and mitotic, were generally higher in the antrum than in the pylorus in the cases of chronic gastritis and also higher than normal mucosae. Superficial gastritis showed many labeled cells which were located in the neck region and foveolae. Simple gastitis showed scattered labeled cells in various parts of mucosae. In atrophic and atrophic hyperplastic gastritis, labeled cells were found in the neck and fobeolae of the gastric glands. Metaplastic gastritis showed labeled cells especially in the neck regions. The average labeling index is higher in simple chronic gastritis than in other superficial gastritis, atrophic, atrophic hyperplastic and metaplastic gastritis. Information concerned with cell renewal and proliferation is important for further understanding of the development of disease.

  8. Expression of TRPV4 in the stimulated rat oral mucous membrane--nociceptive mechanisms of lingual conical papillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Michiko; Iwai, Yasutomo

    2009-08-01

    The study was supported by 2006-2007 Aid Program for Overseas Training of the Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation for Private School of Japan and International Exchange Grant, Osaka Dental University. We studied the function of TRPV4 expression and its neuronal activation in response to noxious stimulation of oral mucosa. The intermolar region of dorsal lingual eminence (IDLE) of rats was stimulated with 10 microl of either normal saline or 5% formalin. Immunohistological studies of the TRPV4, pERK and serotonin (5HT) expression in designated regions of tongues and brainstems were performed for studying the descending pain modulatory system in response to nociception. Specimens of the experimental IDLE demonstrated a significant increase of TRPV4 activity in particular in stratum basale of conical papillae (p < 0.01). pERK-IR positive neurons were significantly increased in the RMg (p < 0.05), Sp5C (p < 0.05) and Md (p < 0.01); TRPV4-IR neurons were found to show a similar distribution with pERK-IR cells in the peripheral Sp5C (p < 0.05). A significant increase of 5HT expression was observed in the RMg (p < 0.01), RPa (p < 0.01) and ROb (p < 0.05). The results suggest that TRPV4 in the oral mucosa is nociceptor of peripheral hyperalgesia, and pERK expression in the Sp5C is closely related with central hyperalgesia of the nociception. Furthermore, pERK-IR cells of the central 5HT nervous system are activated to accelerate 5HT release for neuronal modulation of the descending pain modulatory system in response to nociception.

  9. Targeting of the P2X7 receptor in pancreatic cancer and stellate cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannuzzo, Andrea; Saccomano, Mara; Napp, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-gated receptor P2X7 (P2X7R) is involved in regulation of cell survival and has been of interest in cancer field. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly cancer and new markers and therapeutic targets are needed. PDAC is characterized by a complex tumour microenvironment, which...... into nude mice and tumour growth was followed noninvasively by bioluminescence imaging. AZ10606120-treated mice showed reduced bioluminescence compared to saline-treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed P2X7R expression in cancer and PSC cells, and in metaplastic/neoplastic acinar and duct...

  10. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory building related symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-09-01

    Using the US EPA 100 office-building BASE Study dataset, they conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the relationship between indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (LResp) building related symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. In addition, they tested the hypothesis that certain environmentally-mediated health conditions (e.g., allergies and asthma) confer increased susceptibility to building related symptoms within office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependent associations (p < 0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100 ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average, reduce the prevalence of several building related symptoms by up to 70%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. Building occupants with certain environmentally-mediated health conditions are more likely to experience building related symptoms than those without these conditions (statistically significant ORs ranged from 2 to 11).

  11. Professional oral hygiene treatment and detailed oral hygiene instructions in patients affected by mucous membrane pemphigoid with specific gingival localization: a pilot study in 12 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, P G; Lopetuso, E; Carcieri, P; Giacometti, S; Carbone, M; Tanteri, C; Broccoletti, R

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this prospective case series was to assess the clinical efficiency of an oral hygiene protocol in patients affected by mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) with specific gingival localization, before starting any medical treatment. Patients received oral hygiene instruction followed by non-surgical periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions in a 3-week cohort study. Clinical outcome variables were recorded at baseline and 5 weeks after intervention and included, as periodontal parameters, full mouth plaque (FMPS) and bleeding (FMBS) scores and patient-related outcomes (visual analogue score of pain). A total of 12 patients were recruited. The mean age at presentation was 59.5 ± 14.52 years. Five weeks after finishing the oral hygiene and periodontal therapy protocol, a statistical significant reduction was observed for FMPS (P = 0.001), FMBS (P = 0.022) and reported pain (P = 0.0028). Professional oral hygiene procedures and non-surgical periodontal therapy are connected with improvement of gingival status and decrease in gingival-related pain, in female patients affected by MMP with specific gingival localization. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Comparison of MR and fluoroscopic mucous fistulography in the pre-operative evaluation of infants with anorectal malformation: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Jose C.G.; Lotz, Jan W.; Pitcher, Richard D. [Stellenbosch University, Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Sidler, Daniel [Stellenbosch University, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-08-15

    Anorectal malformations are often associated with rectal pouch fistulas. Surgical correction requires accurate evaluation of the presence and position of such fistulas. Fluoroscopy is currently the chosen modality for the detection of fistulas. The role of MRI is unexplored. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of MR versus fluoroscopic fistulography in the pre-operative evaluation of infants with anorectal malformation. We conducted a pilot study of infants requiring defunctioning colostomy for initial management of anorectal malformation. Dynamic sagittal steady-state free-precession MRI of the pelvis was acquired during introduction of saline into the mucous fistulas. Findings were compared among MR fistulography, fluoroscopic fistulography and intraoperative inspection. Eight children were included. Median age at fistulography was 15 weeks, inter-quartile range 13-20 weeks; all were boys. There was full agreement among MR fistulography, fluoroscopic fistulography and surgical findings. The pilot data suggest that MR fistulography is promising in the pre-operative evaluation of children with anorectal malformation. (orig.)

  13. Histochemical analysis of glycoproteins in the secretory cells in the gill epithelium of a catfish, Rita rita (Siluriformes, Bagridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Usha; Yashpal, Madhu; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2009-08-01

    Glycoproteins (GPs) were visualised histochemically in the secretory cells - the mucous goblet cells (the type A and the type B), the serous goblet cells, the club cells and the epithelial cells in the gill epithelium of Rita rita. The type A mucous goblet cells, the type B mucous goblet cells and the epithelial cells elaborate GPs with oxidizable vicinal diols and GPs with sialic acid residue without O-acyl substitution. In addition, GPs with O-sulphate esters are elaborated by the type A and GPs with O-acyl sugars by the type B mucous goblet cells. GPs are absent in the serous goblet cells and are with oxidizable vicinal diols in low moieties in the club cells. The analysis of the results elucidates interesting differences in the composition and concentration of GPs in the mucus elaborated by the epithelium of the gill arches and the gill rakers; and the gill filaments and the secondary lamellae indicating the potential importance of the glycoproteins at these locations. GPs elaborated on the surfaces of the gill arches and the gill rakers could be associated to assist in feeding activities and on the surfaces of the gill filaments and the secondary lamellae in the respiratory activity.

  14. Vorinostat differentially alters 3D nuclear structure of cancer and non-cancerous esophageal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Vivek; Hansen, Nanna; Glenn, Honor L; Han, Jessica H; Helland, Stephanie; Hernandez, Kathryn; Senechal, Patti; Johnson, Roger H; Bussey, Kimberly J; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2016-08-09

    The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat has received significant attention in recent years as an 'epigenetic' drug used to treat solid tumors. However, its mechanisms of action are not entirely understood, particularly with regard to its interaction with the aberrations in 3D nuclear structure that accompany neoplastic progression. We investigated the impact of vorinostat on human esophageal epithelial cell lines derived from normal, metaplastic (pre-cancerous), and malignant tissue. Using a combination of novel optical computed tomography (CT)-based quantitative 3D absorption microscopy and conventional confocal fluorescence microscopy, we show that subjecting malignant cells to vorinostat preferentially alters their 3D nuclear architecture relative to non-cancerous cells. Optical CT (cell CT) imaging of fixed single cells showed that drug-treated cancer cells exhibit significant alterations in nuclear morphometry. Confocal microscopy revealed that vorinostat caused changes in the distribution of H3K9ac-marked euchromatin and H3K9me3-marked constitutive heterochromatin. Additionally, 3D immuno-FISH showed that drug-induced expression of the DNA repair gene MGMT was accompanied by spatial relocation toward the center of the nucleus in the nuclei of metaplastic but not in non-neoplastic cells. Our data suggest that vorinostat's differential modulation of 3D nuclear architecture in normal and abnormal cells could play a functional role in its anti-cancer action.

  15. Immunohistochemical characterization of mammary squamous cell carcinoma of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Francesco; Sarli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Barbara; Morandi, Federico; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2008-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary gland is rare in both veterinary and human medicine. Whereas human metaplastic and squamous variants are known, the objectives of the current study were to ascertain the presence of such entities in canine mammary tumors and to distinguish them from other (epidermal, sweat gland) squamous tumors that may develop in the same area. A panel of antibodies (anti-cytokeratin [CK] 19, CK 14, CK 5/6, pancytokeratin, and vimentin) was used on 18 mammary gland malignancies with squamous features and 16 malignant skin tumors (11 squamous cell carcinomas of the skin and 5 sweat glands). Fifteen of the 18 mammary carcinomas were classified as metaplastic carcinomas, and the remaining 3 were classified as squamous cell carcinomas. The 2 most useful markers to establish the histogenesis of mammary tumors were pancytokeratin and CK 19. All other antibodies were equally expressed (CK 14 and 5/6) in all histotypes. The antibody panel discriminated primary epidermal squamous tumors (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 negative) from gland-derived squamous neoplasms (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 positive) but failed to distinguish primary mammary tumors from other squamous tumors of glandular origin.

  16. Clinical Validation of the Indicators and Definitions of the Nursing Outcome "Tissue Integrity: Skin and Mucous Membranes" in People With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal Magalhães da Silva, Natália; de Souza Oliveira-Kumakura, Ana Railka; Moorhead, Sue; Pace, Ana Emília; Campos de Carvalho, Emília

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to validate clinically the indicators of the nursing outcome "Tissue Integrity: Skin and Mucous Membranes" and its conceptual and operational definitions in people with diabetes mellitus. A methodological study was conducted with an evaluation of 100 participants for two pairs: one of these pairs used the indicators without the definitions and the other used the indicators with their definitions. The pair who used the definitions presented greater concordance and similarity in the ratings. The indicators and their definitions have been validated clinically. The use of indicators with definitions can contribute to reliable and accurate evaluation of the tissue integrity of the feet in people with diabetes mellitus and, thus, assist in the measurement of the effectiveness of the nursing care provided. Validar clinicamente os indicadores do resultado de enfermagem "Integridade Tissular: pele e mucosas" e suas definições conceituais e operacionais em pessoas com diabetes mellitus. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico que consistiu na avaliação de 100 participantes por duas duplas de avaliadores: uma dupla utilizou os indicadores sem as definições e, a outra dupla, os indicadores com suas definições. A dupla que utilizou as definições apresentou maior concordância e similaridade nas avaliações. CONCLUSÃO: Os indicadores e suas definições foram validados clinicamente. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA DE ENFERMAGEM: A utilização de indicadores com suas respectivas definições pode contribuir para a avaliação confiável e precisa da integridade tissular dos pés de pessoas com diabetes mellitus e, assim, auxiliar na mensuração da eficácia da assistência de enfermagem. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  17. Expression of the Na+/l- symporter (NIS is markedly decreased or absent in gastric cancer and intestinal metaplastic mucosa of Barrett esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wapnir Irene L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates iodide (I- transport in the thyroid, lactating breast, salivary glands, and stomach. Whereas NIS expression and regulation have been extensively investigated in healthy and neoplastic thyroid and breast tissues, little is known about NIS expression and function along the healthy and diseased gastrointestinal tract. Methods Thus, we investigated NIS expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 155 gastrointestinal tissue samples and by immunoblot analysis in 17 gastric tumors from 83 patients. Results Regarding the healthy Gl tract, we observed NIS expression exclusively in the basolateral region of the gastric mucin-producing epithelial cells. In gastritis, positive NIS staining was observed in these cells both in the presence and absence of Helicobacter pylori. Significantly, NIS expression was absent in gastric cancer, independently of its histological type. Only focal faint NIS expression was detected in the direct vicinity of gastric tumors, i.e., in the histologically intact mucosa, the expression becoming gradually stronger and linear farther away from the tumor. Barrett mucosa with junctional and fundic-type columnar metaplasia displayed positive NIS staining, whereas Barrett mucosa with intestinal metaplasia was negative. NIS staining was also absent in intestinalized gastric polyps. Conclusion That NIS expression is markedly decreased or absent in case of intestinalization or malignant transformation of the gastric mucosa suggests that NIS may prove to be a significant tumor marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric malignancies and also precancerous lesions such as Barrett mucosa, thus extending the medical significance of NIS beyond thyroid disease.

  18. Prediction of anticancer peptides against MCF-7 breast cancer cells from the peptidomes of Achatina fulica mucus fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E-Kobon, Teerasak; Thongararm, Pennapa; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Meesuk, Ladda; Chumnanpuen, Pramote

    2016-01-01

    Several reports have shown antimicrobial and anticancer activities of mucous glycoproteins extracted from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. Anticancer properties of the snail mucous peptides remain incompletely revealed. The aim of this study was to predict anticancer peptides from A. fulica mucus. Two of HPLC-separated mucous fractions (F2 and F5) showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and normal epithelium cell line (Vero). According to the mass spectrometric analysis, 404 and 424 peptides from the F2 and F5 fractions were identified. Our comprehensive bioinformatics workflow predicted 16 putative cationic and amphipathic anticancer peptides with diverse structures from these two peptidome data. These peptides would be promising molecules for new anti-breast cancer drug development.

  19. Prediction of anticancer peptides against MCF-7 breast cancer cells from the peptidomes of Achatina fulica mucus fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerasak E-kobon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports have shown antimicrobial and anticancer activities of mucous glycoproteins extracted from the giant African snail Achatina fulica. Anticancer properties of the snail mucous peptides remain incompletely revealed. The aim of this study was to predict anticancer peptides from A. fulica mucus. Two of HPLC-separated mucous fractions (F2 and F5 showed in vitro cytotoxicity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and normal epithelium cell line (Vero. According to the mass spectrometric analysis, 404 and 424 peptides from the F2 and F5 fractions were identified. Our comprehensive bioinformatics workflow predicted 16 putative cationic and amphipathic anticancer peptides with diverse structures from these two peptidome data. These peptides would be promising molecules for new anti-breast cancer drug development.

  20. Ductal metaplasia in oesophageal submucosal glands is associated with inflammation and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Katherine S; Kruger, Leandi; Thomas, Samantha; Swiderska-Syn, Marzena; Moser, Barry K; Diehl, Anna Mae; McCall, Shannon J

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that oesophageal submucosal gland (ESMG) ducts harbour progenitor cells that may contribute to oesophageal metaplasia. Our objective was to determine whether histological differences exist between the ESMGs of individuals with and without oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We performed histological assessment of 343 unique ESMGs from 30 control patients, 24 patients with treatment-naïve high-grade columnar dysplasia (HGD) or EAC, and 23 non-EAC oesophagectomy cases. A gastrointestinal pathologist assessed haematoxylin and eosin-stained ESMG images by using a scoring system that assigns individual ESMG acini to five histological types (mucous, serous, oncocytic, dilated, or ductal metaplastic). In our model, ductal metaplastic acini were more common in patients with HGD/EAC (12.7%) than in controls (3.5%) (P = 0.006). We also identified greater proportions of acini with dilation (21.9%, P < 0.001) and, to a lesser extent, ductal metaplasia (4.3%, P = 0.001) in non-EAC oesophagectomy cases than in controls. Ductal metaplasia tended to occur in areas of mucosal ulceration or tumour. We found a clear association between ductal metaplastic ESMG acini and HGD/EAC. Non-EAC cases had dilated acini and some ductal dilation. Because ESMGs and ducts harbour putative progenitor cells, these associations could have significance for understanding the pathogenesis of EAC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Conjunctival Goblet Cell Function: Effect of Contact Lens Wear and Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Garc?a-Posadas, Laura; Contreras-Ruiz, Laura; Soriano-Roman?, Laura; Dartt, Darlene A.; Diebold, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on conjunctival goblet cells and their essential function in the maintenance of eye health. The main function of goblet cells is to produce and secrete mucins that lubricate the ocular surface. An excess or a defect in those mucins leads to several alterations that makes goblet cells central players in maintaining the proper mucin balance and ensuring the correct function of ocular surface tissues. A typical pathology that occurs with mucous deficiency is dry eye disease, ...

  2. The Esophageal Squamous Epithelial Cell—Still a Reasonable Candidate for the Barrett’s Esophagus Cell of Origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Wang MD,, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus is the metaplastic change of the squamous epithelium lining the distal esophagus into an intestinalized columnar epithelium that predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma development. The cell that gives rise to Barrett's esophagus has not been identified definitively, although several sources for the Barrett's esophagus cell of origin have been postulated. One possible source is a fully differentiated squamous epithelial cell or a squamous epithelial progenitor or stem cell native to the esophagus that, through molecular reprogramming, either transdifferentiation or transcommitment, could give rise to an intestinalized columnar cell. Multilayered epithelium found in human patients and rodents with Barrett's esophagus and direct phenotypic conversion of mouse embryonic esophageal epithelium provide support for this. Limitations in current experimental approaches may explain why it has been difficult to fully change an esophageal squamous epithelial cell into an intestinalized columnar cell in vitro.

  3. ATP-ase activity in the human oral mucous membrane, the guinea pig and the rabbit epidermis. A light- and electronmicroscopical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1984-01-01

    The activity for ATP-ase was investigated in cells of rabbit and guinea pig epidermis and human oral mucosa. Observations both in the light- and electron microscope indicate that the ATP-ase positive cells of guinea pig and human epithelia are Langerhans cells while in the rabbit epidermis...

  4. [The character of the morphological changes of the mucous membrane of the large intestine and the genetic polymorphism of IL-1RA, IL-1B, IL-4 TNFA in patient with irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsenbaeva, A S; Ivanova, E L; Burmistrova, A L; Drozdov, I V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence or absence of a relationship between the variants of the course of IBS and their association with genetic polymorphisms of genes and intergenic interaction of cytokines. The sample consisted of 81 patients, the diagnosis was verified according to the criteria of the Rome III, were isolated psychopathological, morphological complications, extra-intestinal symptoms. Polymorphism genotyping IL-1Ra, IL-b, IL-4, TNFa performed by PCR. Statistical treatment are a non-parametric analysis of multiple comparisons, hierarchical log-linear analysis. It is found out the relation between the clinical variants with morphological changes of the mucous membrane of the large intestine, the association between gender characteristics of patients with IBS is established and with genetic polymorphisms of cytokines.

  5. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  6. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  7. The short-term effects of various oral care methods in dependent elderly: comparison between toothbrushing, tongue cleaning with sponge brush and wiping on oral mucous membrane by chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Kazuhisa; Katoh, Tamiko; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Hirai, Kaname; Andoh, Nobuyuki; Makii, Kakuma; Matsuo, Kouichiro; Ogasawara, Tadashi

    2012-06-01

    To explore the short-term effects from toothbrushing, tongue cleaning with sponge brush and wiping on oral mucous membrane by chlorhexidine. Numerous reports have been seen in recent years proving the effectiveness of mouth cleaning with a toothbrush for the prevention of respiratory infections among the dependent elderly. However, the short-term effects from each oral care method have not yet been clarified. Hence, an investigation was conducted by having each subject independently perform various oral care methods for five consecutive days. The subjects consisted of 12 assistance-dependent elderly who have difficulties with tooth brushing by themselves, have 10 or more residual teeth and are not yet using plate dentures. After the pre-intervention examination, each of the following oral care methods were performed on the same subject on an approximately three week basis: 1) Tooth brushing 2) Tongue cleaning with sponge brush 3) Wiping on oral mucous with sponge brush by chlorhexidine. Each method was performed independently, once a day for 5 consecutive days and the subjects were reexamined on the sixth day for comparative verification. Consequently, toothbrushing decreased the plaque index and gingival index significantly and an improvement of oral malodour was also acknowledged (p brush decreased the tongue coat score significantly (p brush soaked in chlorhexidine significantly decreased opportunistic infections in the pharynx region (p < 0.05). It was suggested that the use of not only a toothbrush but also chlorhexidine gluconate may be indicated for dependent elderly people in whom pathogens of opportunistic infection are detected. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Identification of Volatile Biomarkers of Gastric Cancer Cells and Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection based on Sensing Interface of Au-Ag Alloy coated MWCNTs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yixia; Gao, Guo; Liu, Huijuan; Fu, Hualin; Fan, Jun; Wang, Kan; Chen, Yunsheng; Li, Baojie; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhi, Xiao; He, Lin; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-01-01

    Successful development of novel electrochemical biosensing interface for ultrasensitive detection of volatile biomarkers of gastric cancer cells is a challenging task. Herein we reported to screen out novel volatile biomarkers associated with gastric cancer cells and develop a novel Au-Ag alloy composites-coated MWCNTs as sensing interface for ultrasensitive detection of volatile biomarkers. MGC-803 gastric cancer cells and GES-1 gastric mucous cells were cultured in serum-free media. The sam...

  9. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  10. Reserve stem cells: Differentiated cells reprogram to fuel repair, metaplasia, and neoplasia in the adult gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jason C; Sansom, Owen J

    2015-07-14

    It has long been known that differentiated cells can switch fates, especially in vitro, but only recently has there been a critical mass of publications describing the mechanisms adult, postmitotic cells use in vivo to reverse their differentiation state. We propose that this sort of cellular reprogramming is a fundamental cellular process akin to apoptosis or mitosis. Because reprogramming can invoke regenerative cells from mature cells, it is critical to the long-term maintenance of tissues like the pancreas, which encounter large insults during adulthood but lack constitutively active adult stem cells to repair the damage. However, even in tissues with adult stem cells, like the stomach and intestine, reprogramming may allow mature cells to serve as reserve ("quiescent") stem cells when normal stem cells are compromised. We propose that the potential downside to reprogramming is that it increases risk for cancers that occur late in adulthood. Mature, long-lived cells may have years of exposure to mutagens. Mutations that affect the physiological function of differentiated, postmitotic cells may lead to apoptosis, but mutations in genes that govern proliferation might not be selected against. Hence, reprogramming with reentry into the cell cycle might unmask those mutations, causing an irreversible progenitor-like, proliferative state. We review recent evidence showing that reprogramming fuels irreversible metaplastic and precancerous proliferation in the stomach and pancreas. Finally, we illustrate how we think reprogrammed differentiated cells are likely candidates as cells of origin for cancers of the intestine. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Reserve stem cells: Reprogramming of differentiated cells fuels repair, metaplasia, and neoplasia in the adult gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jason C.; Sansom, Owen J.

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that differentiated cells can switch fates, especially in vitro, but only recently has there been a critical mass of publications describing the mechanisms adult, post-mitotic cells use in vivo to reverse their differentiation state. We propose that this sort of cellular reprogramming is a fundamental cellular process akin to apoptosis or mitosis. Because reprogramming can invoke regenerative cells from mature cells, it is critical to the longterm maintenance of tissues like the pancreas, which encounter large insults during adulthood but lack constitutively active adult stem cells to repair the damage. However, even in tissues with adult stem cells, like stomach and intestine, reprogramming may allow mature cells to serve as reserve (“quiescent”) stem cells when normal stem cells are compromised. We propose that the potential downside to reprogramming is that it increases risk for cancers that occur late in adulthood. Mature, long-lived cells may have years of exposure to mutagens. Mutations that affect the physiological function of differentiated, post-mitotic cells may lead to apoptosis, but mutations in genes that govern proliferation might not be selected against. Hence, reprogramming with reentry into the cell cycle might unmask those mutations, causing an irreversible progenitor-like, proliferative state. We review recent evidence showing that reprogramming fuels irreversible metaplastic and precancerous proliferations in stomach and pancreas. Finally, we illustrate how we think reprogrammed differentiated cells are likely candidates as cells of origin for cancers of the intestine. PMID:26175494

  12. Human mast cells decrease SLPI levels in type II – like alveolar cell model, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyström Max

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are known to accumulate at sites of inflammation and upon activation to release their granule content, e.g. histamine, cytokines and proteases. The secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI is produced in the respiratory mucous and plays a role in regulating the activity of the proteases. Result We have used the HMC-1 cell line as a model for human mast cells to investigate their effect on SLPI expression and its levels in cell co-culture experiments, in vitro. In comparison with controls, we found a significant reduction in SLPI levels (by 2.35-fold, p Conclusion These results indicate that SLPI-producing cells may assist mast cell migration and that the regulation of SLPI release and/or consumption by mast cells requires interaction between these cell types. Therefore, a "local relationship" between mast cells and airway epithelial cells might be an important step in the inflammatory response.

  13. [Mast cells and eosinophils of the respiratory mucosa of sheep with Oestrus ovis (Linné, 1761) infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V K; Bourges, N; Concordet, D; Dorchies, P

    1996-09-01

    Mast cells and eosinophils have been identified by differential stainings and counted in mucous membrane of nasal septum, turbinates and sinus of 77 ewes naturally infected with Oestrus ovis. Results have been compared with those of nine parasite free lambs. Anova tests indicate significant differences between infected and parasite-free sheep for the cell numbers and their distribution among the septum, the turbinates and the sinus and according to their position in mucous membrane, interglandular chorion of sub-mucosa. In infected sheep, the mean number of mast cells is twice the number present in parasite free animals. The burdens of eosinophils are multiplied by 17 for the septum, 29 for the turbinates and 58 for the sinus. The hypothesis of the development of an hypersensitivity phenomenon in ovine oestrosis is sustained by these results.

  14. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: The histogenetic diatribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabibi D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article entitled “Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: a report of two cases and review of the literature” by Spinelli et al. [1]. The authors stated that “the histogenesis is still unclear because the presence of neuroendocrine cells in normal breast has not been proved conclusively”. Moreover they reported two histogenetic hypotheses, the first one stating that “small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC is a variant of metaplastic carcinoma arising from a lobular or ductal carcinoma”, the second one claiming that “it is a distinct type of breast carcinoma different from the usual type”. We appreciate this case report and we agree with the authors on the histogenetic diatribe of this rare type of breast neoplasia. In this background, we would highlight our previous case report about a solid variant of mammary adenoid cystic carcinoma merging with "small cell carcinoma" [2] in which we found positivity for CD10 and S100 and negativity for estrogen receptors, both in sbACC and in SCC, in keeping with a myoepithelial origin of both neoplastic areas [3] supporting the hypothesis that the “two components share the same histogenetic myoepithelial origin and represent an example of dedifferentiation along neuroendocrine phenotype lines occurring in a multipotential neoplastic stem line, already committed towards a myoepithelial phenotype”. These findings are in keeping with the first hypothesis about the metaplastic, divergent histogenetic nature of SNSC and we think that this rare SNSC, albeit arising from a different tumor, could be introduced in this case review of the literature, also for its contribute to the histogenetic diatribe.

  15. Methylation status of CDH1 gene in samples of gastric mucous from brazilian patients with chronic gastritis infected by Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kague

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is one of the top list of cancer types that most leads to death in Brazil and worldwide. Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori is a class I carcinogen and infect almost 90% of chronic gastritis patients. Some genotypes confer different virulent potential to H. pylori and can increase the risk of gastritis development. Methylation of CpG islands can inactivate tumor suppressor genes and therefore, it can be involved in the tumorigenic process. CDH1 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes the E-cadherin protein, which is important in maintaining cell-cell contacts. The inactivation of this gene can increase the chance of metastasis. Promoter methylation of CDH1 at early steps of gastric carcinogenesis is not yet completely understood. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the methylation status of CDH1 in chronic gastritis samples and correlated it with the presence of H. pylori. METHODS: Sixty gastric mucosal biopsies were used in this study. The detection of H. pylori was performed with the PCR primers specific to urease C gene. H. pylori genotyping was performed by PCR to cagA and vacA (s and m region. The methylation status of these gene CDH1 was analyzed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the PCR products was performed using primers methylated and unmethylated in both forward and reverse directions. RESULTS: H. pylori was detected in 90% of chronic gastritis samples; among these 33% were cagA positive and 100% vacA s1. The genotype vacA s2/m1 was not detected in any sample analyzed. Methylation of CDH1 was detected in 63.3% of chronic gastritis samples and 95% of them were also H. pylori-positive. CONCLUSION: This work suggests that CDH1 gene methylation and H. pylori infection are frequent events in samples from Brazilian patients with chronic gastritis and reinforces the correlation between H. pylori infection and CDH1 inactivation in early steps of gastric tumorigenesis

  16. Effects of histamine and activators of the cyclic AMP system on protein synthesis in and release of high molecular weight glycoproteins from isolated gastric non-parietal cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Heim, H. K.; Oestmann, A.; Sewing, K. F.

    1991-01-01

    1. Glycoprotein and protein synthesis in and release from pig isolated, enriched gastric mucous cells were measured by the incorporation of N-acetyl-[14C]-D-glucosamine and [3H]-L-leucine, respectively, into cellular and released acid precipitable material. 2. Histamine and activators of the adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) system maximally stimulated total protein and glycoprotein synthesis in and release from the cells at concentrations of histamine (10 microM), forskolin (...

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to silicon and protection against aluminium accumulation in the brain (ID 290), “cardiovascular health” (ID 289), forming a protective coat on the mucous membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to silicon and protection against aluminium accumulation in the brain, cardiovascular health, forming a protective coat on the mucous membrane of the stomach, neutralisation of gastric acid, contribution to normal formation of collagen and connective tissue, maintenance of normal bone...... that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is silicon. The Panel considers that silicon is sufficiently characterised....

  18. Gut Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Messina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, first found in bone marrow (BM, are the structural architects of all organs, participating in most biological functions. MSCs possess tissue-specific signatures that allow their discrimination according to their origin and location. Among their multiple functions, MSCs closely interact with immune cells, orchestrating their activity to maintain overall homeostasis. The phenotype of tissue MSCs residing in the bowel overlaps with myofibroblasts, lining the bottom walls of intestinal crypts (pericryptal or interspersed within intestinal submucosa (intercryptal. In Crohn’s disease, intestinal MSCs are tightly stacked in a chronic inflammatory milieu, which causes their enforced expression of Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC. The absence of Class II MHC is a hallmark for immune-modulator and tolerogenic properties of normal MSCs and, vice versa, the expression of HLA-DR is peculiar to antigen presenting cells, that is, immune-activator cells. Interferon gamma (IFNγ is responsible for induction of Class II MHC expression on intestinal MSCs. The reversal of myofibroblasts/MSCs from an immune-modulator to an activator phenotype in Crohn’s disease results in the formation of a fibrotic tube subverting the intestinal structure. Epithelial metaplastic areas in this context can progress to dysplasia and cancer.

  19. Alterations of mTOR and PTEN protein expression in schistosomal squamous cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makboul, Rania; Refaiy, Abeer; Abdelkawi, Islam F; Hameed, D A; Elderwy, Ahmad A; Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Merseburger, Axel S; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2016-05-01

    mTOR signaling pathway is commonly activated in cancer. PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, is a potent inhibitor of this pathway. To date the expression pattern of mTOR and PTEN in schistosomal bladder squamous cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma was not investigated. Also, whether alterations of these proteins are associated with pathological parameters was not established. We hypothesize that "expression of mTOR and/or PTEN will be altered in schistosomal-related urothelial and squamous cell carcinomas". To test our hypothesis we examined the expression pattern of mTOR and PTEN in normal and hyperplastic urothelium, squamous metaplasia, schistosomal urothelial carcinomas (70 cases) and squamous cell carcinomas (47 cases) using immunohistochemical methods. mTOR protein expression was absent in the normal, hyperplastic urothelium and metaplastic squamous epithelium. mTOR was over-expressed in muscle invasive urothelial and high grade squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, PTEN protein expression was seen in the normal and hyperplastic urothelium. The expression was reduced (metaplastic squamous epithelium) or lost in muscle invasive urothelial and high grade squamous carcinomas. Alterations of these proteins were associated with some clinicopathological features. mTOR expression was negatively correlated with PTEN expression in urothelial carcinoma only. We report, for the first time, altered expression of mTOR and PTEN proteins in schistosomal urothelial and squamous cell carcinomas. Alterations of these proteins may contribute to the progression and aggressive behavior of schistosomal bladder carcinoma. Targeting mTOR, may be a promising therapeutic strategy in these tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Desempenho e morfometria da mucosa de duodeno de frangos de corte alimentados com farelo de canola, durante o período inicial Performance and duodenum mucous morphometry of broiler chickens fed canola meal, during the starting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Fontana Figueiredo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para verificar o efeito da utilização de níveis crescentes (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% de farelo de canola nas rações de frangos de corte, sobre o desempenho e a morfologia da mucosa, durante o período inicial (1 - 21 dias e os efeitos de sua utilização no período de crescimento. Foram utilizados 1000 pintos machos de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições e 50 aves por unidade experimental. No 1º, 21º e 41º dia, as aves e as rações foram pesadas e no 21º dia duas aves de cada unidade experimental foram sacrificadas para a colheita de um segmento do duodeno para avaliação de morfometria intestinal. Os resultados demonstraram que níveis crescentes de farelo de canola induziram à redução linear no ganho de peso, peso médio e consumo de ração e piora na conversão alimentar. Durante o período de crescimento (21 a 41 dias, no qual todas as aves receberam ração semelhante, observou-se decréscimo no peso médio e ganho de peso, com o aumento dos níveis de farelo de canola, enquanto os parâmetros conversão alimentar e consumo de ração foram semelhantes. Os dados referentes a morfometria da mucosa intestinal, submetidos à análise de regressão, demonstraram que houve aumento na profundidade de cripta conforme o aumento nos níveis de farelo de canola. Os resultados permitem afirmar que é possível a inclusão de até 20% de farelo de canola, sem prejuízos no desempenho das aves e no trato digestório.A trial was carried to verify the effect of increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of canola meal in diets of broiler chickens, on performance and mucous morphology, during the starting period (1 - 21 days. 1,000 male chicks one-day-old were used, distributed in a randomized experimental assay, with five treatments, four replicates and 50 birds per experimental unit. At the 1st, 21st and 41st days, the birds

  1. Fungal infections of the mucous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2010-01-01

    A clinical review of three potentially severe fungal diseases, which are characterized in many cases by mucosal involvement, is presented. They are paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and mucormycosis. Mucosal involvement for paracoccidioidomycosis and rhinocerebral mucormycosis is frequent. Thus, oral involvement may provide early clue for diagnosis. In paracoccidioidomycosis, the mucosal lesion classically shows superficial ulcers with granular appearance and hemorrhagic points, usually on lips, palate, and jugal mucosa. In mucormycosis, necrosis of the palate followed for purulent discharge is a hallmark of rhinocerebral disease. Treatment with amphotericin B desoxycholate or the new second-generation triazoles is highly efficacious.

  2. Conjunctival Goblet Cell Function: Effect of Contact Lens Wear and Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Posadas, Laura; Contreras-Ruiz, Laura; Soriano-Romaní, Laura; Dartt, Darlene A; Diebold, Yolanda

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on conjunctival goblet cells and their essential function in the maintenance of eye health. The main function of goblet cells is to produce and secrete mucins that lubricate the ocular surface. An excess or a defect in those mucins leads to several alterations that makes goblet cells central players in maintaining the proper mucin balance and ensuring the correct function of ocular surface tissues. A typical pathology that occurs with mucous deficiency is dry eye disease, whereas the classical example of mucous hyperproduction is allergic conjunctivitis. In this review, we analyze how goblet cell number and function can be altered in these diseases and in contact lens (CL) wearers. We found that most published studies focused exclusively on the goblet cell number. However, recent advances have demonstrated that, along with mucin secretion, goblet cells are also able to secrete cytokines and respond to them. We describe the effect of different cytokines on goblet cell proliferation and secretion. We conclude that it is important to further explore the effect of CL wear and cytokines on conjunctival goblet cell function.

  3. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katano, Takahito [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Ootani, Akifumi [Department of Gastroenterology and GI Endoscopy Center, Shin-Kokura Hospital, Federation of National Public Service Personnel Mutual Aid Associations, 1-3-1 Kanada, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu 803-0816 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Mizoshita, Tsutomu, E-mail: tmizoshi@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Toda, Shuji [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  4. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ► In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ► The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ► This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment

  5. Alteraciones de la mucosa bucal causadas por la asociación entre el tabaco y los colutorios bucales con una concentración de alcohol del 26,9 % Alterations of the oral mucous membrane caused by the association between tobacco and the mouthwashes with an alcohol concentration of 26.9 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Medeiros Fossati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron el epitelio y la capa de queratina de la mucosa oral de 15 ratas que durante 45 días fueron sometidas a una aplicación tópica de picadura de tabaco y de colutorio bucal con una concentración de alcohol del 26,9 %. Tras ese período, se extrajeron las mucosas y se les realizó un análisis histológico. Se observó una significativa disminución del espesor del epitelio y de la capa de queratina, lo que indica que la picadura asociada con colutorios bucales con alta concentración de alcohol, provoca la reducción del espesor de la capa de queratina y del epitelio de la boca.The epithelium and the keratin layer of the oral mucous membrane of 15 rats that were subjected to a topical application of cut tobacco and mouthwashes with an alcohol concentration of 26.9 % during 45 days were analyzed. After that period, the oral mucous membranes were removed and a histological analysis was made. It was observed a significant decrease of the thickness of the epithelium and of the keratin layer, which shows that cut tobbaco associated with collutories with a high concentration of alcohol causes the reduction of the thickness of the keratin layer and of the mouth epithelium.

  6. Ligands for histamine H3 receptors modulate cell proliferation and migration in rat oxyntic mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Morini, Giuseppina; Grandi, Daniela; Schunack, Walter

    2002-01-01

    (R)-α-methylhistamine, a selective agonist of histamine H3 receptors, promotes mucus secretion and increases the number and volume of mucus-secreting cells. The hypothesis that the increased number of mucous cells could reside in an alteration of homeostasis in the gastric epithelium was investigated.(R)-α-methylhistamine was administered to rats 1 h (10–100 mg kg−1 by intragastric and by intraperitoneal route) and 24 h (100 mg kg−1 by intragastric route) prior to killing. The (S)-isomer of α...

  7. [Research progress of cell sheet technology and its applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyang; Ren, Liling; Mao, Tianqiu

    2014-10-01

    Cell sheet engineering is an important technology to harvest the cultured cells in the form of confluent monolayers using a continuous culture method and a physical approach. Avoiding the use of enzymes, expended cells can be harvested together with endogenous extracellular matrix, cell-matrix contacts, and cell-cell contacts. With high efficiency of cell loading ability and without using exogenous scaffolds, cell sheet engineering has several advantages over traditional tissue engineering methods. In this article, we give an overview on cell sheet technology about its applications in the filed of tissue regeneration, including the construction of soft tissues (corneal, mucous membrane, myocardium, blood vessel, pancreas islet, liver, bladder and skin) and hard tissues (bone, cartilage and tooth root). This techonoly is promising to provide a novel strategy for the development of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. And further works should be carried out on the operability of this technology and its feasibility to construct thick tissues.

  8. GLUT-1 Expression in Cutaneous Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Eldien, Marwa Mohammad Serag; Elsakka, Daliah

    2015-09-01

    Glucose uptake is a key regulating step in glucose metabolism and is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), and GLUT-1 is the predominant glucose transporter in many types of human cells. Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represent the most common skin cancer in Egypt. The present study aimed at evaluation of the pattern and distribution of GLUT-1 in cutaneous BCC (16 cases) and SCC (16 cases) by means of immunohistochemistry. GLUT-1 was expressed in all SCC (100%) and in 62.5% of BCC. Membranous pattern of GLUT-1 was seen in 62.5% of SCC and 31.25% of BCC. Positivity (P = .02) and percentage (P = .000) of GLUT-1 expression were in favor of SCC in comparison to BCC. The high percentage of GLUT-1 expression was associated with high grade in SCC (P = .03). The immunoreactivity for GLUT-1 was more in the periphery of malignant nests of SCC while it was more in the center of BCC nests. GLUT-1 is overexpressed in cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer. Its expression in SCC is related to differentiation status, and its expression in BCC is intimately associated with squamous metaplastic areas. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Mucin secreting cells in the stomach and colon are altered by combination antiretroviral treatment in an obese rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, Danélle; Strijdom, Hans; Everson, Frans; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2017-03-01

    Mucins, secreted by intestinal goblet cells, form an integral part of the intestinal biofilm, which is important for the functioning of a healthy gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This mucous layer is sensitive to factors such as diet, drugs and inflammation. Histochemically, mucins can be classified as neutral or acidic, where acidic mucins can contain sulphate groups (sulphomucins) or sialic acid (sialomucins). The aim of the present study was to determine the composition of various mucin secreting cells using histochemical stains in rats fed on a high calorie diet (HCD) treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Wistar rats (N=24) were divided into a lean control group (C/ART-), high calorie diet group (C/HCD+), ART group (C/ART+) and HCD and ART group (HCD+/ART+). The body of the stomach as well as the colon were stained with Alcian Blue Periodic Schiff (ABPAS) to distinguish between neutral and acidic mucins and Alcian Blue Aldehyde Fuschin (ABAF) to distinguish between sialo-and sulphomucins. An increase of the total gastric mucous cells was observed in the HCD+/ART+ group compared to the C/ART- group using both ABPAS and ABAF. A decrease of neutral cells in the distal part of the colonic crypts in the C/HCD+ and C/ART+ groups compared to the C/ART- group were observed. Mixed goblet cells in the colonic crypts of the C/ART- and HCD+/ART+ groups were decreased in comparison to the C/ART+ group. The study showed that the total mean percentage of mucous cells in the stomach as well as the total amount of neutral goblet cells in the colon were most affected by ART and a HCD. These changes in a rat model suggest that the quality of the biofilm may be altered and should be considered when ART is prescribed to obese patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunohistochemical Examination for the Distribution of Podoplanin-Expressing Cells in Developing Mouse Molar Tooth Germs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Yuri; Amano, Ikuko; Tsuruga, Eichi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported the expression of podoplanin in the apical bud of adult mouse incisal tooth. This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of podoplanin-expressing cells in mouse tooth germs at several developing stages. At the bud stage podoplanin was expressed in oral mucous epithelia and in a tooth bud. At the cap stage podoplanin was expressed on inner and outer enamel epithelia but not in mesenchymal cells expressing the neural crest stem cell marker nestin. At the early bell stage nestin and podoplanin were expressed in cervical loop and odontoblasts. At the root formation stage both nestin and podoplanin were weakly expressed in odontoblasts generating radicular dentin. Podoplanin expression was also found in the Hertwig epithelial sheath. These results suggest that epithelial cells of developing tooth germ acquire the ability to express nestin, and that tooth germ epithelial cells maintain the ability to express podoplanin in oral mucous epithelia. The expression of podoplanin in odontoblasts was induced as tooth germ development advanced, but was suppressed with the completion of the primary dentin, suggesting that podoplanin may be involved in the cell growth of odontoblasts. Nestin may function as an intermediate filament that binds podoplanin in odontoblasts. PMID:21060740

  11. Treatment of squamous cell and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathbone B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Barrie Rathbone,1 Janusz Jankowski,2 Michael Rathbone31University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, 2Sir James Black Professor Queen Mary University of London, 3St George's University of London, London, United KingdomAbstract: Esophageal cancer is the sixth commonest cause of cancer death worldwide. It predominantly occurs in two histological types, ie, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, each with its own distinct geographical distribution and natural history. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising, as is that of its precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, which consists of metaplastic change in the squamous mucosa of the esophagus in response to damage by gastroesophageal reflux disease. The principal risk factors for esophageal cancer are cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, reflux disease, and obesity. In tumors without local invasion or distant metastases, surgery remains the treatment option of choice, although there are considerable differences of opinion regarding the roles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A wide variety of endoscopic treatments are available for dysplastic lesions and palliation. Despite the availability of increasingly complex imaging modalities and expensive and possibly ineffective attempts at screening, the evidence base is conflicted and the prognosis remains poor. However, from a recent large systematic review, three clear recommendations can be made, ie, use of endoscopic resection for high grade dysplasia, use of radiofrequency ablation for residual premalignant lesions, and, finally, prevention of risk factors for cancer, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity.Keywords: cancer, Barrett's, esophagus, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma

  12. Role of Notch signaling in cell-fate determination of human mammary stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Jackson, Kyle W; McNicholas, Erin; Kawamura, Mari J; Abdallah, Wissam M; Wicha, Max S

    2004-01-01

    Notch signaling has been implicated in the regulation of cell-fate decisions such as self-renewal of adult stem cells and differentiation of progenitor cells along a particular lineage. Moreover, depending on the cellular and developmental context, the Notch pathway acts as a regulator of cell survival and cell proliferation. Abnormal expression of Notch receptors has been found in different types of epithelial metaplastic lesions and neoplastic lesions, suggesting that Notch may act as a proto-oncogene. The vertebrate Notch1 and Notch4 homologs are involved in normal development of the mammary gland, and mutated forms of these genes are associated with development of mouse mammary tumors. In order to determine the role of Notch signaling in mammary cell-fate determination, we have utilized a newly described in vitro system in which mammary stem/progenitor cells can be cultured in suspension as nonadherent 'mammospheres'. Notch signaling was activated using exogenous ligands, or was inhibited using previously characterized Notch signaling antagonists. Utilizing this system, we demonstrate that Notch signaling can act on mammary stem cells to promote self-renewal and on early progenitor cells to promote their proliferation, as demonstrated by a 10-fold increase in secondary mammosphere formation upon addition of a Notch-activating DSL peptide. In addition to acting on stem cells, Notch signaling is also able to act on multipotent progenitor cells, facilitating myoepithelial lineage-specific commitment and proliferation. Stimulation of this pathway also promotes branching morphogenesis in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. These effects are completely inhibited by a Notch4 blocking antibody or a gamma secretase inhibitor that blocks Notch processing. In contrast to the effects of Notch signaling on mammary stem/progenitor cells, modulation of this pathway has no discernable effect on fully committed, differentiated, mammary epithelial cells. These studies

  13. Tetrandrine, a Compound Common in Chinese Traditional Medicine, Preferentially Kills Breast Cancer Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Debeb, Bisrat G; Lacerda, Lara; Li, Jessica; Woodward, Wendy A

    2011-05-04

    Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs). Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), we found that the IC50 for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 µM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 µM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC50 around 1 µM for SUM-149 and around 2 µM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs.

  14. Tetrandrine, a Compound Common in Chinese Traditional Medicine, Preferentially Kills Breast Cancer Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Lacerda, Lara; Li, Jessica; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2011-01-01

    Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs). Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS), we found that the IC 50 for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 μM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC 50 around 1 μM for SUM-149 and around 2 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs

  15. Tetrandrine, a Compound Common in Chinese Traditional Medicine, Preferentially Kills Breast Cancer Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs. Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS, we found that the IC50 for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 µM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 µM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC50 around 1 µM for SUM-149 and around 2 µM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs.

  16. FGF10 maintains distal lung bud epithelium and excessive signaling leads to progenitor state arrest, distalization, and goblet cell metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobberup Sune

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction with the surrounding mesenchyme is necessary for development of endodermal organs, and Fibroblast growth factors have recently emerged as mesenchymal-expressed morphogens that direct endodermal morphogenesis. The fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10 null mouse is characterized by the absence of lung bud development. Previous studies have shown that this requirement for Fgf10 is due in part to its role as a chemotactic factor during branching morphogenesis. In other endodermal organs Fgf10 also plays a role in regulating differentiation. Results Through gain-of-function analysis, we here find that FGF10 inhibits differentiation of the lung epithelium and promotes distalization of the embryonic lung. Ectopic expression of FGF10 in the lung epithelium caused impaired lung development and perinatal lethality in a transgenic mouse model. Lung lobes were enlarged due to increased interlobular distance and hyperplasia of the airway epithelium. Differentiation of bronchial and alveolar cell lineages was inhibited. The transgenic epithelium consisted predominantly of proliferating progenitor-like cells expressing Pro-surfactant protein C, TTF1, PEA3 and Clusterin similarly to immature distal tip cells. Strikingly, goblet cells developed within this arrested epithelium leading to goblet cell hyperplasia. Conclusion We conclude that FGF10 inhibits terminal differentiation in the embryonic lung and maintains the distal epithelium, and that excessive levels of FGF10 leads to metaplastic differentiation of goblet cells similar to that seen in chronic inflammatory diseases.

  17. Regulation of the Hippocampal Network by VGLUT3-Positive CCK- GABAergic Basket Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fasano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal interneurons release the inhibitory transmitter GABA to regulate excitation, rhythm generation and synaptic plasticity. A subpopulation of GABAergic basket cells co-expresses the GABA/glycine vesicular transporters (VIAAT and the atypical type III vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3; therefore, these cells have the ability to signal with both GABA and glutamate. GABAergic transmission by basket cells has been extensively characterized but nothing is known about the functional implications of VGLUT3-dependent glutamate released by these cells. Here, using VGLUT3-null mice we observed that the loss of VGLUT3 results in a metaplastic shift in synaptic plasticity at Shaeffer’s collaterals – CA1 synapses and an altered theta oscillation. These changes were paralleled by the loss of a VGLUT3-dependent inhibition of GABAergic current in CA1 pyramidal layer. Therefore presynaptic type III metabotropic could be activated by glutamate released from VGLUT3-positive interneurons. This putative presynaptic heterologous feedback mechanism inhibits local GABAergic tone and regulates the hippocampal neuronal network.

  18. To understand and manage the digestive radiation injuries: importance of the mucous reaction and new therapy orientations; Apprehender et gerer les lesions radiques digestives: importance de la reaction muqueuse et nouvelles orientations therapeutiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A

    2007-09-15

    Actually the radiotherapy that concerns 50% of anti tumoral treatments is accompanied by side effects. The evolution of this therapy turns towards the limitation of the early effects but also the delayed effects in order to improve the quality of life of patients. The first answer was to reduce the radiation doses and the irradiated volume. Three directions are to be kept in mind concerning the digestive tissues: Fight against the break of the epithelial homeostasis by increasing the pool of cells before irradiation and by facilitating the processes of restoration and epithelial regeneration by the stimulation of the proliferation of the cells of progenitor compartments; Fight against the phenotype changes of the cells, and more globally against the cellular activation and its consequences: activation of the vascular endothelium and the initiation of the inflammatory and thrombosis processes; activation of the vascular smooth muscular cells and stenosis; oxidative stress and tissue hypoxia; recruitment and activation of the mesenchyme cells and matrix unbalance; to consider the global nature of the secondary effects, and become aware that there is, besides the physical twilight connected to the irradiation configuration, a biological twilight, that is to say a potential repercussion of the irradiation effects out of the field, on the global nature of an organ even an organism, and this in the therapy and accident configurations. (N.C.)

  19. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Final report, April 1, 1988 - December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by α particles and develop into cancers have been determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This research included extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, a second major part of this research consisted of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheobronchial epithelial population(s) using immunocytochemistry and the proliferation marker PCNA on paraffin sections. The basal and suprabasal cycling cell populations of the bronchi of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women were compared. Normal human airway linings were also compared with normal adult dog trachea and bronchi as well as metaplastic and repairing human airways. The quantitative data from this project resulted in several publications on the cycling and putative stem cells of the tracheobronchial epithelium and more accurate radon dosimetry and risk analyses

  20. Targeting of the P2X7 receptor in pancreatic cancer and stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannuzzo, Andrea; Saccomano, Mara; Napp, Joanna; Ellegaard, Maria; Alves, Frauke; Novak, Ivana

    2016-12-01

    The ATP-gated receptor P2X7 (P2X7R) is involved in regulation of cell survival and has been of interest in cancer field. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a deadly cancer and new markers and therapeutic targets are needed. PDAC is characterized by a complex tumour microenvironment, which includes cancer and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), and potentially high nucleotide/side turnover. Our aim was to determine P2X7R expression and function in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro as well as to perform in vivo efficacy study applying P2X7R inhibitor in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of PDAC. In the in vitro studies we show that human PDAC cells with luciferase gene (PancTu-1 Luc cells) express high levels of P2X7R protein. Allosteric P2X7R antagonist AZ10606120 inhibited cell proliferation in basal conditions, indicating that P2X7R was tonically active. Extracellular ATP and BzATP, to which the P2X7R is more sensitive, further affected cell survival and confirmed complex functionality of P2X7R. PancTu-1 Luc migration and invasion was reduced by AZ10606120, and it was stimulated by PSCs, but not by PSCs from P2X7(-/-) animals. PancTu-1 Luc cells were orthotopically transplanted into nude mice and tumour growth was followed noninvasively by bioluminescence imaging. AZ10606120-treated mice showed reduced bioluminescence compared to saline-treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed P2X7R expression in cancer and PSC cells, and in metaplastic/neoplastic acinar and duct structures. PSCs number/activity and collagen deposition was reduced in AZ10606120-treated tumours. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  1. DNA from BK virus and JC virus and from KI, WU, and MC polyomaviruses as well as from simian virus 40 is not detected in non-UV-light-associated primary malignant melanomas of mucous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Géraldine; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Ragnarsson-Olding, Boel; Dalianis, Tina

    2008-11-01

    The single most important causative factor for malignant melanomas of the skin is UV radiation. However, this is not true for melanomas on body surfaces sheltered from the sun; thus, it is important to seek new causative factors of melanoma genesis. Human papillomaviruses and gammaherpesviruses are associated with human skin cancer; for example, human papillomavirus types 5 and 8 are associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and human herpesvirus 8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. Recently, a newly described human polyomavirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), has been associated with Merkel cell carcinoma, an unusual form of neurotropic skin cancer. Moreover, melanocytes are of neuroepithelial origin. This background impelled us to investigate if human polyomavirus DNA could play a role in the development of extracutaneous melanomas. Sixty-four extracutaneous melanomas were initially collected and dissected. Of these, 38 could be successfully used for further testing for the presence of the five human polyomaviruses known so far-BK virus (BKV), JC virus (JCV), KI polyomavirus (KIPyV), WU polyomavirus (WUPyV), and MCPyV-and of simian virus 40 (SV40). No polyomavirus DNA could be detected in any of the samples tested by use of a nested PCR detecting BKV, JCV, and SV40; a newly designed PCR detecting KIPyV and WUPyV; or a newly designed PCR for MCPyV. We conclude that since no human polyomavirus DNA was detected in primary malignant melanomas on non-sun-exposed body surfaces, these polyomaviruses presumably are not major factors for the development of extracutaneous melanomas.

  2. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1994-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by {alpha} particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis.

  3. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1994-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by α particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis

  4. Mitochondrial STAT3 contributes to transformation of Barrett's epithelial cells that express oncogenic Ras in a p53-independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhua; Huo, Xiaofang; Agoston, Agoston T; Zhang, Xi; Theiss, Arianne L; Cheng, Edaire; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zaika, Alexander; Pham, Thai H; Wang, David H; Lobie, Peter E; Odze, Robert D; Spechler, Stuart J; Souza, Rhonda F

    2015-08-01

    Metaplastic epithelial cells of Barrett's esophagus transformed by the combination of p53-knockdown and oncogenic Ras expression are known to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). When phosphorylated at tyrosine 705 (Tyr705), STAT3 functions as a nuclear transcription factor that can contribute to oncogenesis. STAT3 phosphorylated at serine 727 (Ser727) localizes in mitochondria, but little is known about mitochondrial STAT3's contribution to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus, which is the focus of this study. We introduced a constitutively active variant of human STAT3 (STAT3CA) into the following: 1) non-neoplastic Barrett's (BAR-T) cells; 2) BAR-T cells with p53 knockdown; and 3) BAR-T cells that express oncogenic H-Ras(G12V). STAT3CA transformed only the H-Ras(G12V)-expressing BAR-T cells (evidenced by loss of contact inhibition, formation of colonies in soft agar, and generation of tumors in immunodeficient mice), and did so in a p53-independent fashion. The transformed cells had elevated levels of both mitochondrial (Ser727) and nuclear (Tyr705) phospho-STAT3. Introduction of a STAT3CA construct with a mutated tyrosine phosphorylation site into H-Ras(G12V)-expressing Barrett's cells resulted in high levels of mitochondrial phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) with little or no nuclear phospho-STAT3 (Tyr705), and the cells still formed tumors in immunodeficient mice. Thus tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is not required for tumor formation in Ras-expressing Barrett's cells. We conclude that mitochondrial STAT3 (Ser727) can contribute to oncogenesis in Barrett's cells that express oncogenic Ras. These findings suggest that agents targeting STAT3 might be useful for chemoprevention in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Characterization of a naturally occurring breast cancer subset enriched in EMT and stem cell characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Bryan T.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana-Maria; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Gilcrease, Michael Z.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Lee, Ju-Seog; Fridlyand, Jane; Sahin, Aysegul; Agarwal, Roshan; Joy, Corwin; Liu, Wenbin; Stivers, David; Baggerly, Keith; Carey, Mark; Lluch, Ana; Monteagudo, Carlos; He, Xiaping; Weigman, Victor; Fan, Cheng; Palazzo, Juan; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Nolden, Laura K.; Wang, Nicholas J.; Valero, Vicente; Gray, Joe W.; Perou, Charles M.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2009-05-19

    Metaplastic breast cancers (MBC) are aggressive, chemoresistant tumors characterized by lineage plasticity. To advance understanding of their pathogenesis and relatedness to other breast cancer subtypes, 28 MBCs were compared with common breast cancers using comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and reverse-phase protein arrays and by sequencing for common breast cancer mutations. MBCs showed unique DNA copy number aberrations compared with common breast cancers. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 9 of 19 MBCs (47.4%) versus 80 of 232 hormone receptor-positive cancers (34.5%; P = 0.32), 17 of 75 HER-2-positive samples (22.7%; P = 0.04), 20 of 240 basal-like cancers (8.3%; P < 0.0001), and 0 of 14 claudin-low tumors (P = 0.004). Of 7 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway phosphorylation sites, 6 were more highly phosphorylated in MBCs than in other breast tumor subtypes. The majority of MBCs displayed mRNA profiles different from those of the most common, including basal-like cancers. By transcriptional profiling, MBCs and the recently identified claudin-low breast cancer subset constitute related receptor-negative subgroups characterized by low expression of GATA3-regulated genes and of genes responsible for cell-cell adhesion with enrichment for markers linked to stem cell function and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In contrast to other breast cancers, claudin-low tumors and most MBCs showed a significant similarity to a 'tumorigenic' signature defined using CD44{sup +}/CD24{sup -} breast tumor-initiating stem cell-like cells. MBCs and claudin-low tumors are thus enriched in EMT and stem cell-like features, and may arise from an earlier, more chemoresistant breast epithelial precursor than basal-like or luminal cancers. PIK3CA mutations, EMT, and stem cell-like characteristics likely contribute to the poor outcomes of MBC and suggest novel therapeutic targets.

  6. [Reactions of cells of nasal and sinusoidal mucosa of goats and sheep naturally infected by Oestrus ovis Linné 1758 (Diptera: Oestridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V K; Jacquiet, P; Duranton, C; Bergeaud, J P; Prevot, F; Dorchies, P

    1999-06-01

    OEstrosis is a very common myiasis of sheep and goats in mediterranean and tropical countries. Goats are suitable hosts for OEstrus ovis but the parasitic burden remain lower than in sheep. Cellular responses (mucous and serous mast cells, eosinophis and globules leucocytes) were measured in 30 infected and 30 non infected sheep and in 23 infected and 24 non infected goats. The presence of OEstrus ovis larvae led to an important inflammatory response in sheep and in goats as well. Furthermore, the intensity of the cellular response correlated with the larva burden, specially with globules leucocytes and eosinophils. Nevertheless, huge differences occurred between sheep and goats responses even in similar larval burden range. Infected sheep showed larger counts of mucous mast cells than goats, the differences were smaller in serous mast cells and eosinophils and no difference was detected in globules leucocytes (intraepithelial mast cells) counts between the two hosts species. These results were compared with those obtained in gastro-intestinal strongyles infections.

  7. Mastocytemia associated with a visceral mast cell tumor in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graille, Mélanie; Huyghe, François-Pierre; Nicolier, Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    A 6-yr-old male Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris) with no significant past clinical history was anesthetized for clinical examination after 5 days of lethargy. Clinically, the animal presented with anorexia, pale mucous membranes, and icterus. Hematologic results indicated moderate anemia and severe thrombocytopenia and showed a circulating population of atypical mast cells. The tiger died during anesthesia. On postmortem examination, abdominal hemorrhage associated with marked diffuse hepato-splenomegaly and mesenteric, hepatic, and splenic lymph node hypertrophy were observed. A visceral mast cell tumor was confirmed by histologic examination and toluidine blue staining, with splenic, hepatic, lymphoid, renal, and pulmonary infiltration. Hematologic, postmortem, and histologic findings were consistent with mastocytemia associated with the splenic form of mast cell tumor described in domestic cats.

  8. Cytochromes P450 are Expressed in Proliferating Cells in Barrett's Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Hughes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal squamous mucosa was investigated. Esophagectomy specimens from 23 patients were examined for CYP expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9/10, and CYP2E1 by immunohistochemical analysis, and the expression of CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 in these tissues was further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis of esophageal squamous mucosa (n = 12 showed expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 proteins, but it was noted that cells within the basal proliferative zone did not express CYPs. Immunohistochemical analysis of Barrett's esophagus (n = 13 showed expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 that was prominent in the basal glandular regions, which are areas containing a high percentage of actively proliferating cells. Immunohistochemical staining for both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the CYPs further supported the colocalization of CYP expression to areas of active cell proliferation in Barrett's esophagus, whereas in the esophageal squamous epithelium, CYP expression is limited to cells that are not proliferating. RT-PCR with amplification product sequence analysis confirmed CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 mRNA expression in Barrett's esophagus. These data suggest that the potential ability of cells in Barrett's esophagus to both activate carcinogens and proliferate may be important risk factors affecting carcinogenesis in this metaplastic tissue.

  9. Adult renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid morphology represents a neoplastic dedifferentiation analogous to sarcomatoid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman-Fredricks, Jennifer R; Herrera, Loren; Bracho, Jorge; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen; Leveillee, Raymond; Rey, Luis; Jorda, Merce

    2011-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with rhabdoid morphology (RCC-RM) is a recently described variant of RCC, which has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis, akin to sarcomatoid RCC. The current World Health Organization classification of RCC does not include the rhabdoid phenotype as a distinct histologic entity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether RCC-RM represents a dedifferentiation of a classifiable-type World Health Organization RCC or a carcinosarcoma with muscle differentiation. We reviewed 168 cases of RCC obtained between 2003 and 2008. From these cases, 10 (6%) were found to have areas of classic rhabdoid morphology. Immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, CD10, and CD117 was performed in each case using the labeled streptavidin-biotin method. Rhabdoid differentiation was identified in association with conventional-type RCC (9) and with unclassifiable-type RCC with spindle cell morphology (1). In all cases, both the rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid tumoral areas were positive for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen and negative for desmin. Cytokeratin positivity in the rhabdoid areas was focal. In cases associated with conventional-type RCC, CD10 was positive in both the rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid foci. CD117 was negative in these tumors. The unclassifiable-type RCC with spindle cell morphology was negative for both CD10 and CD117. The similar immunophenotype between the rhabdoid and nonrhabdoid tumoral foci supports the origin of the rhabdoid cells from the classifiable-type RCC. Areas of rhabdoid morphology do not represent muscle metaplastic differentiation. Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid morphology may represent a dedifferentiation of a classifiable-type RCC, similar to that of sarcomatoid differentiation. The recognition of RCC-RM is important as it allows for the inclusion of these high-grade malignancies into a category associated with poor prognosis despite lacking the spindle cell component

  10. Role of ROCK2 in CD4+cells in allergic airways responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, D I; Mathews, J A; Ninin, F M C; Wurmbrand, A P; Liao, J K; Shore, S A

    2017-02-01

    Rho kinases (ROCKs) contribute to allergic airways disease. ROCKs also play a role in lymphocyte proliferation and migration. To determine the role of ROCK2 acting within CD4 + cells in allergic airways responses. ROCK2-haploinsufficient (ROCK2 +/- ) and wild-type mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). ROCK2 +/- mice then received either CD4 + cells from ROCK2-sufficient OVA TCR transgenic (OT-II) mice or saline i.v. 48 h before challenge with aerosolized OVA. Wild-type mice received saline before challenge. Allergic airways responses were measured 48 h after the last challenge. Allergic airways responses were also assessed in mice lacking ROCK2 only in CD4 + cells (ROCK2 CD 4Cre mice) vs. control (CD4-Cre and ROCK2 flox/flox ) mice. OVA-induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes, eosinophils, IL-13, IL-5, and eotaxin were reduced in ROCK2 +/- vs. wild-type mice, as were airway hyperresponsiveness and mucous hypersecretion. In ROCK2 +/- mice, adoptive transfer with CD4 + cells from OT-II mice restored effects of OVA on lymphocytes, eosinophils, IL-13, IL-5, and mucous hypersecretion to wild-type levels, whereas eotaxin and airway hyperresponsiveness were not affected. ROCK2 inhibitors reduced IL-13-induced release of eotaxin from airway smooth muscle (ASM), similar to effects of these inhibitors on ASM contractility. Despite the ability of adoptive transfer to restore allergic airways inflammation in ROCK2-insufficient mice, allergic inflammation was not different in ROCK2 CD 4Cre vs. control mice. ROCK2 contributes to allergic airways responses likely via effects within ASM cells and within non-lymphocyte cells involved in lymphocyte activation and migration into the airways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Isolamento e PCR para detecção de Mollicutes em muco vaginal e sua associação com problemas reprodutivos em ovinos criados na região de Piedade, São Paulo, Brasil Mollicutes isolation and PCR on ovine vaginal mucous and its association with reproductive problems in Piedade, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Rizzo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se Mycoplasma spp, Ureaplasma spp e Acholeplasma laidlawiii em amostras de muco vaginal de 60 ovinos, criados na região de Piedade no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, que apresentavam ou não vulvovaginite no exame específico do sistema genital. A caracterização desses microrganismos baseou-se no cultivo e detecção do respectivo DNA pela Reação da Polimerase em Cadeia (PCR com os primers para classe Mollicutes (GPO e MGSO, para o gênero Ureaplasma (UGPF e UGPS e a espécie Acholeplasma laidlawii (UNI e ACH3. A presença de micoplasmas não foi associada com distúrbios do trato reprodutivo dos animais, entretanto todos os isolados obtidos de Ureaplasma spp foram provenientes de animais com distúrbios reprodutivos, sugerindo o possível envolvimento desse agente nas enfermidades da reprodução. A PCR para a espécie Acholeplasma laidlawii detectou somente uma amostra positiva.It was evaluated the presence of Mycoplasma spp, Ureaplasma spp and Acholeplasma laidlawiii in 60 samples of ovine vaginal mucous with the presence or absence of vulvovaginitis in the specific exam of the reproductive tract. The microorganisms were characterized based on bacteriological culture and DNA detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR with specific primers to Mollicutes (GPO and MGSO, Ureaplasma (UGPF and UGPS and Acholeplasma laidlawii (UNI and ACH3. The presence of mycoplasmas could not be associated with reproductive disorders in animals. The PCR to Acholeplasma laidlawii detected only one positive sample. However, all isolations of Ureaplasma spp were from animals presenting reproductive disorders, suggesting a possible involvement of this agent in reproductive diseases.

  12. A comparative Analysis by SAGE of Gene Expression Profiles of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantine W. P. M. van Baal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC are the two main types of esophageal cancer. Despite extensive research the exact molecular basis of these cancers is unclear. Therefore we evaluated the transcriptome of EA in comparison to non-dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE, the metaplastic epithelium that predisposes for EA, and compared the transcriptome of ESCC to normal esophageal squamous epithelium. For obtaining the transcriptomes tissue biopsies were used and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE was applied. Validation of results by RT-PCR and immunoblotting was performed using tissues of an additional 23 EA and ESCC patients. Over 58,000 tags were sequenced. Between EA and BE 1013, and between ESCC and normal squamous epithelium 1235 tags were significantly differentially expressed (p < 0.05. The most up-regulated genes in EA compared to BE were SRY-box 4 and Lipocalin2, whereas the most down-regulated genes in EA were Trefoil factors and Annexin A10. The most up-regulated genes in ESCC compared to normal squamous epithelium were BMP4, E-Cadherin and TFF3. The results could suggest that the BE expression profile is closer related to normal squamous esophagus then to EA. In addition, several uniquely expressed genes are identified.

  13. Effects of misoprostol on cell migration and transit in the dog stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodlad, R.A.; Madgwick, A.J.; Moffatt, M.R.; Levin, S.; Allen, J.L.; Wright, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    Prostaglandins of the E series increase stomach mucosal mass by inducing hyperplasia, which could be the result either of increased cell production or of decreased cell loss. This report describes an investigation of the effect of the prostaglandin E1 analogue, misoprostol, on cell migration and transit. 3H-thymidine was used to label those cells synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid in dogs that had been given an oral dose of 300 micrograms/kg per day misoprostol for 11 weeks. The animals were killed at timed intervals, and tissue from the gastric fundus was prepared for autoradiography. The distribution of labeled cells at various times after labeling was used to follow the movement of the wave of label and to calculate median cell migration rates and transit times. The migration rate of cells toward the gastric lumen was significantly increased from 1.4 +/- 0.3 to 3.6 +/- 0.6 cell positions per day in the misoprostol-treated group (p less than 0.001); however, the gland length (from the most basal mucous neck cell to the luminal surface) was also increased (from 52.1 +/- 1.1 to 74.0 +/- 1.6; p less than 0.001), thus there was no significant difference in the (transit) time taken for cells to reach the top of the gland (control, 17.5 +/- 9.8 days; test, 12.2 +/- 7.1 days)

  14. Effects of misoprostol on cell migration and transit in the dog stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodlad, R.A.; Madgwick, A.J.; Moffatt, M.R.; Levin, S.; Allen, J.L.; Wright, N.A. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

    1990-01-01

    Prostaglandins of the E series increase stomach mucosal mass by inducing hyperplasia, which could be the result either of increased cell production or of decreased cell loss. This report describes an investigation of the effect of the prostaglandin E1 analogue, misoprostol, on cell migration and transit. 3H-thymidine was used to label those cells synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid in dogs that had been given an oral dose of 300 micrograms/kg per day misoprostol for 11 weeks. The animals were killed at timed intervals, and tissue from the gastric fundus was prepared for autoradiography. The distribution of labeled cells at various times after labeling was used to follow the movement of the wave of label and to calculate median cell migration rates and transit times. The migration rate of cells toward the gastric lumen was significantly increased from 1.4 +/- 0.3 to 3.6 +/- 0.6 cell positions per day in the misoprostol-treated group (p less than 0.001); however, the gland length (from the most basal mucous neck cell to the luminal surface) was also increased (from 52.1 +/- 1.1 to 74.0 +/- 1.6; p less than 0.001), thus there was no significant difference in the (transit) time taken for cells to reach the top of the gland (control, 17.5 +/- 9.8 days; test, 12.2 +/- 7.1 days).

  15. Transitional cell carcinoma of urethra with cardiac and pulmonary metastasis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serakides, R.; Rachid, M.A.; Veado, J.C.; Menezes, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    A case of urethral carcinoma in 15-year-old mongrel male dog is described. Signs of dysuria, urethral obstruction, tenesmus, pain and cough were mentioned. Clinically, the animal was undernourished and showed signs of pain and bladder repletion during the palpation of the abdominal region. Other complementary exams were made such as routine urinalyses, X-ray, ultrassonography and measurement of blood urea and creatinine. Macroscopically, the mucous membrane of pelvic urethra was somewhat irregular, due to the presence of several small white irregular and ulcerated nodules of imprecise boundaries. Similar nodules were found in the lungs and heart. Histologically, transitional cell carcinoma of urethra with metastasis to lung and heart was detected [pt

  16. Tff3 is Expressed in Neurons and Microglial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Fu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The trefoil factor family (TFF peptide TFF3 is typically secreted by mucous epithelia, but is also expressed in the immune system and the brain. It was the aim of this study to determine the cerebral cell types which express Tff3. Methods: Primary cultures from rat embryonic or neonatal cerebral cortex and hippocampus, respectively, were studied by means of RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Moreover, Tff3 expression was localized by immunocytochemistry in sections of adult rat cerebellum. Results: Tff3 transcripts were detectable in neural cultures of both the cortex and the hippocampus as well as in glial cell-enriched cultures. Tff3 peptide co-localized with Map2 indicating an expression in neurons in vitro. The neuronal expression was confirmed by immunofluorescence studies of adult rat cerebellum. Furthermore, Tff3 peptide showed also a clear co-localization with Iba-1 in vitro typical of activated microglial cells. Conclusion: The neuronal expression of Tff3 is in line with a function of a typical neuropeptide influencing, e.g., fear, memory, depression and motoric skills. The expression in activated microglial cells, which is demonstrated here for the first time, points towards a possible function for Tff3 in immune reactions in the CNS. This opens a plethora of additional possible functions for Tff3 including synaptic plasticity and cognition as well as during neuroinflammatory diseases and psychiatric disorders.

  17. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in periungual squamous cell carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, R.L.; Eliezri, Y.D.; Bennett, R.G. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Nuovo, G.J.; Siverstein, S. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (USA) Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Zitelli, J.A. (Montefiore Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1989-05-12

    Ten squamous cell carcinomas (in situ or invasive) of the fingernail region were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to human papilloma-virus (HPV) by dot blot hybridization. In most patients, the lesions were verrucae of long-term duration that were refractory to conventional treatment methods. Eight of the lesions contained HPV DNA sequences, and in six of these the sequences were related to HPV 16 as deduced from low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Furthermore, the restriction endonuclease digestion pattern of DNA isolated from four of these lesions was diagnostic of episomal HPV 16. The high-frequency association of HPV 16 with periungual squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that reported for HPV 16 with squamous cell carcinomas on mucous membranes at other sites, notably the genital tract. The findings suggest that HPV 16 may play an important role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the finger, most notably those lesions that are chronic and located in the periungual area.

  18. Cancer Microenvironment: What Can We Learn from the Stem Cell Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Lacina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal stem cells (ESCs are crucial for maintenance and self- renewal of skin epithelium and also for regular hair cycling. Their role in wound healing is also indispensable. ESCs reside in a defined outer root sheath portion of hair follicle—also known as the bulge region. ECS are also found between basal cells of the interfollicular epidermis or mucous membranes. The non-epithelial elements such as mesenchymal stem cell-like elements of dermis or surrounding adipose tissue can also contribute to this niche formation. Cancer stem cells (CSCs participate in formation of common epithelial malignant diseases such as basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma. In this review article, we focus on the role of cancer microenvironment with emphasis on the effect of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs. This model reflects various biological aspects of interaction between cancer cell and CAFs with multiple parallels to interaction of normal epidermal stem cells and their niche. The complexity of intercellular interactions within tumor stroma is depicted on example of malignant melanoma, where keratinocytes also contribute the microenvironmental landscape during early phase of tumor progression. Interactions seen in normal bulge region can therefore be an important source of information for proper understanding to melanoma. The therapeutic consequences of targeting of microenvironment in anticancer therapy and for improved wound healing are included to article.

  19. Manifestações cutâneo-mucosas da coccidioidomicose: estudo de trinta casos procedentes dos estados do Piauí e Maranhão Skin and mucous membrane manifestations of coccidioidomycosis: a study of thirty cases in the Brazilian states of Piauí and Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio de Deus Filho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A coccidioidomicose é micose sistêmica usualmente manifesta como infecção benigna de resolução espontânea; porém, uma pequena proporção dos infectados desenvolve quadros progressivos potencialmente fatais, podendo atingir a pele com lesões pleomórficas disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Identificar e descrever as manifestações cutâneo-mucosas da coccidioidomicose, as ocupações de risco relacionadas à doença e o quadro clínico associado. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado entre os anos 2003 e 2006 em 30 pacientes portadores de coccidioidomicose provenientes dos estados do Piauí e Maranhão e diagnosticados por exame microscópico direto, cultivo do escarro ou sorologia de triagem de imunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar, aliados à anamnese e exame físico. RESULTADOS: Identificaram-se lesões extrapulmonares em 13 casos (43,3%, com predomínio de manifestações dermatológicas de hipersensibilidade: eritema nodoso (26,6%, exantema com lesões eritemato-escamosas (26,6% e eritema multiforme (23,3%, além de úlceras de língua (13,3% e lábio (6,6% e abscesso subcutâneo (3,3%. Tais manifestações foram observadas na fase aguda da doença. CONCLUSÕES: As manifestações cutâneas associadas à infecção respiratória aguda fortalecem a hipótese diagnóstica desta doença, especialmente, em caçadores de tatus ou pessoas expostas à escavação do solo.BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis that usually presents as a benign infection. Patients generally recover spontaneously; however, a small proportion of infected individuals develop progressive complications that may affect the skin in the form of disseminated pleomorphic lesions and may become fatal. OBJECTIVES: To identify and describe skin and mucous membrane manifestations of coccidioidomycosis, to identify occupational hazards associated with the disease and to determine its associated clinical presentation. METHODS: A study conducted between 2003 and 2006

  20. Mechanisms of permanent loss of olfactory receptor neurons induced by the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile: Effects on stem cells and noninvolvement of acute induction of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Fang; Fang, Cheng [Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Schnittke, Nikolai [Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Program in Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Schwob, James E. [Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Ding, Xinxin, E-mail: xding@wadsworth.org [Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We explored the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of two olfactory toxicants, the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) and the anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMZ), on olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) regeneration in mouse olfactory epithelium (OE). DCBN, but not MMZ, induced inflammation-like pathological changes in OE, and DCBN increased interleukin IL-6 levels in nasal-wash fluid to much greater magnitude and duration than did MMZ. At 24 h after DCBN injection, the population of horizontal basal cells (HBCs; reserve, normally quiescent OE stem cells) lining the DMM became severely depleted as some of them detached from the basal lamina, and sloughed into the nasal cavity along with the globose basal cells (GBCs; heterogeneous population of stem and progenitor cells), neurons, and sustentacular cells of the neuroepithelium. In contrast, the layer of HBCs remained intact in MMZ-treated mice, as only the mature elements of the neuroepithelium were shed. Despite the respiratory metaplasia accompanying the greater severity of the DCBN lesion, residual HBCs that survived intoxication were activated by the injury and contributed to the metaplastic respiratory epithelium, as shown by tracing their descendants in a K5CreEr{sup T2}::fl(stop)TdTomato strain of mice in which recombination causes HBCs to express TdTomato in advance of the lesion. But, contrary to published observations with MMZ, the HBCs failed to form ORNs. A role for IL-6 in suppressing ORN regeneration in DCBN-treated mice was rejected by the failure of the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone to prevent the subsequent respiratory metaplasia in the DMM, suggesting that other factors lead to HBC neuro-incompetence. - Highlights: • The herbicide dichlobenil (DCBN) can damage olfactory epithelium stem cells. • Another olfactory toxicant, methimazole, leaves the olfactory stem cells intact. • DCBN, but not methimazole, induces a prolonged increase in nasal IL-6 levels. • Dexamethasone

  1. Cell lineage distribution atlas of the human stomach reveals heterogeneous gland populations in the gastric antrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunyoung; Roland, Joseph T; Barlow, Brittney J; O'Neal, Ryan; Rich, Amy E; Nam, Ki Taek; Shi, Chanjuan; Goldenring, James R

    2014-11-01

    The glands of the stomach body and antral mucosa contain a complex compendium of cell lineages. In lower mammals, the distribution of oxyntic glands and antral glands define the anatomical regions within the stomach. We examined in detail the distribution of the full range of cell lineages within the human stomach. We determined the distribution of gastric gland cell lineages with specific immunocytochemical markers in entire stomach specimens from three non-obese organ donors. The anatomical body and antrum of the human stomach were defined by the presence of ghrelin and gastrin cells, respectively. Concentrations of somatostatin cells were observed in the proximal stomach. Parietal cells were seen in all glands of the body of the stomach as well as in over 50% of antral glands. MIST1 expressing chief cells were predominantly observed in the body although individual glands of the antrum also showed MIST1 expressing chief cells. While classically described antral glands were observed with gastrin cells and deep antral mucous cells without any parietal cells, we also observed a substantial population of mixed type glands containing both parietal cells and G cells throughout the antrum. Enteroendocrine cells show distinct patterns of localisation in the human stomach. The existence of antral glands with mixed cell lineages indicates that human antral glands may be functionally chimeric with glands assembled from multiple distinct stem cell populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from Marshmallow roots (Althea officinalis L.): cellular internalisation and stimulation of cell physiology of human epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Alexandra; Zippel, Janina; Hellenbrand, Nils; Pappai, Dirk; Possemeyer, Cathleen; Hensel, Andreas

    2010-01-08

    Aqueous extracts from the roots of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) are widely used for treatment of irritated mucosa. The clinical proven effects are related to the presence of bioadhesive and mucilaginous polysaccharides from the rhamnogalacturonan type, leading to the physical formation of mucin-like on top of the irritated tissues. No data are available if the extracts or the polysaccharides from these extract exert an active influence on mucosal or connective tissue cells, in order to initiated changes in cell physiology, useful for better tissue regeneration. In vitro investigations of aqueous A. officinalis extract AE and raw polysaccharides (RPS) on epithelial KB cells and primary dermal human fibroblasts (pNHF) using WST1 vitality test and BrdU proliferation ELISA. Gene expression analysis by microarray from KB cells. Internalisation studies of polysaccharides were performed by laser scanning microscopy. AE (1, 10 microg/mL) had stimulating effect on cell viability and proliferation of epithelial KB cells. RPS (1, 10 microg/mL) stimulated cell vitality of epithelial cells significantly without triggering the cells into higher proliferation status. Neither AE nor RPS had any effect on fibroblasts. FITC-labeled RPS was shown to be internalised into epithelial cells, but not into fibroblasts. FITC-RPS was shown to form bioadhesive layers on the cell surface of dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis indicated an up-regulation of genes related to cell adhesion proteins, growth regulators, extracellular matrix, cytokine release and apoptosis. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from the roots of A. officinalis are effective stimulators of cell physiology of epithelial cells which can prove the traditional use of Marshmallow preparations for treatment of irritated mucous membranes within tissue regeneration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonredundant functions of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells in acrolein-induced pulmonary pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Michael T; Wesselkamper, Scott C; Eppert, Bryan L; Motz, Gregory T; Sartor, Maureen A; Tomlinson, Craig R; Medvedovic, Mario; Tichelaar, Jay W

    2008-09-01

    Acrolein exposure represents a significant human health hazard. Repeated acrolein exposure causes the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes, mucous cell metaplasia, and epithelial injury. Currently, the mechanisms that control these events are unclear, and the relative contribution of T-cell subsets to pulmonary pathologies following repeated exposures to irritants is unknown. To examine whether lymphocyte subpopulations regulate inflammation and epithelial cell pathology, we utilized a mouse model of pulmonary pathology induced by repeated acrolein exposures. The role of lymphocyte subsets was examined by utilizing transgenic mice genetically deficient in either alphabeta T cells or gammadelta T cells, and changes in cellular, molecular, and pathologic outcomes associated with repeated inhalation exposure to 2.0 and 0.5 ppm acrolein were measured. To examine the potential functions of lymphocyte subsets, we purified these cells from the lungs of mice repeatedly exposed to 2.0 ppm acrolein, isolated and amplified messenger RNA, and performed microarray analysis. Our data demonstrate that alphabeta T cells are required for macrophage accumulation, whereas gammadelta T cells are critical regulators of epithelial cell homeostasis, as identified by epithelial cell injury and apoptosis, following repeated acrolein exposure. This is supported by microarray analyses that indicated the T-cell subsets are unique in their gene expression profiles following acrolein exposures. Microarray analyses identified several genes that may contribute to phenotypes mediated by T-cell subpopulations including those involved in cytokine receptor signaling, chemotaxis, growth factor production, lymphocyte activation, and apoptosis. These data provide strong evidence that T-cell subpopulations in the lung are major determinants of pulmonary pathology and highlight the advantages of dissecting their effector functions in response to toxicant exposures.

  4. Essential role for CD103+ cells in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Le Goff, Benoît; Martin, Jérome; Maugars, Yves; Josien, Régis

    2015-01-01

    The clinical features of spondyloarthritides include extraarticular manifestations involving the skin, eyes, and gastrointestinal tract. At these sites, a membrane integrin can be acquired by virtue of the presence of CD4+ T cells and specific dendritic cells and correlates with a regulatory behavior of these cells. This membrane integrin conjugates the beta7 subunit and the alphaE subunit, also known as CD103. CD103 expression requires high levels of TGF-beta and retinoic acid; in addition, expression of CD103 by T cells requires antigen recognition. Whether CD103 is found in the entheses has not yet been investigated. CD103 is expressed at high levels in the skin, eyes, and bowel but it is found in only very low levels in the bloodstream. CD8+ CD103+ T cells differ markedly from other CD103+ cells in that they are resident cells with no tendency to migrate and usually exert predominantly cytotoxic functions as opposed to regulatory functions. Several bacteria, such as Salmonella, can become dormant within the mucous membranes and/or their lymph nodes, where they use CD103+ dendritic cells and CD4+ CD103+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) to evade the immune response. This phenomenon could be studied in other tissues targeted by spondyloarthritides, where dormant microorganisms can migrate by using M2 macrophages as Trojan horses, since M2 macrophages express the CD103 ligand E-cadherin. Microorganism peptide recognition by CD8+ CD103+ T cells (which are overrepresented in psoriasis and joint fluid in some forms of spondyloarthritis) induces an inflammatory response that may be sufficient to transiently reverse the regulatory function of the CD103+ dendritic cells and CD4+ CD103+ T cells during disease flares. The sensitivity of these diseases to retinoids further supports a pathogenic role for transient CD103+ cell failure. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Autoimmune gastritis mediated by CD4+ T cells promotes the development of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Long M; Khurana, Shradha S; Bellone, Clifford J; Capoccia, Benjamin J; Sagartz, John E; Kesman, Russell A; Mills, Jason C; DiPaolo, Richard J

    2013-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for cancer, including gastric cancers and other gastrointestinal cancers. For example, chronic inflammation caused by autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is associated with an increased risk of gastric polyps, gastric carcinoid tumors, and possibly adenocarcinomas. In this study, we characterized the progression of gastric cancer in a novel mouse model of AIG. In this model, disease was caused by CD4(+) T cells expressing a transgenic T-cell receptor specific for a peptide from the H(+)/K(+) ATPase proton pump, a protein expressed by parietal cells in the stomach. AIG caused epithelial cell aberrations that mimicked most of those seen in progression of human gastric cancers, including chronic gastritis followed by oxyntic atrophy, mucous neck cell hyperplasia, spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia, dysplasia, and ultimately gastric intraepithelial neoplasias. Our work provides the first direct evidence that AIG supports the development of gastric neoplasia and provides a useful model to study how inflammation drives gastric cancer. ©2013 AACR.

  6. Autologous stem cell transplantation following high-dose whole-body irradiation of dogs - influence of cell number and fractionation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenberger, U.

    1981-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome after a single dose of 1600 R (approx. 12-14 Gy in body midline) and after fractionated irradiation with 2400 R (approx. 18-20 Gy) was studied with regard to fractionation time and to the number of bone marrow cells infused. The acute radiation syndrome consisted of damage to the alimentary tract and of damage to the hemopoietic system. Damage of hemopoiesis was reversible in dogs which had been given a sufficient amount of hemopoietic cells. Furthermore changes in skin and in the mucous membranes occurred. Hemopoietic recovery following infusion of various amounts of bone marrow was investigated in dogs which were irradiated with 2400 R within 7 days. Repopulation of bone marrow as well as rise of leukocyte and platelet counts in the peripheral blood was taken as evidence of complete hemopoietic reconstitution. The results indicate that the acute radiation syndrom following 2400 R TBI and autologous BMT can be controlled by fractionation of this dose within 5 or 7 days. The acute gastrointestinal syndrome is aggravated by infusion of a lesser amount of hemopoietic cells. However, TBI with 2400 R does not require greater numbers of hemopoietic cells for restoration of hemopoiesis. Thus, the hemopoiesis supporting tissue can not be damage by this radiation dose to an essential degree. Longterm observations have not revealed serious late defects which could represent a contraindication to the treatment of malignent diseases with 2400 R of TBI. (orig./MG) [de

  7. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 regulate epithelial cell proliferation in mouse and human gastric corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitrack, Elise S; Gifford, Gail B; Keeley, Theresa M; Horita, Nobukatsu; Todisco, Andrea; Turgeon, D Kim; Siebel, Christian W; Samuelson, Linda C

    2017-02-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is known to regulate stem cells and epithelial cell homeostasis in gastrointestinal tissues; however, Notch function in the corpus region of the stomach is poorly understood. In this study we examined the consequences of Notch inhibition and activation on cellular proliferation and differentiation and defined the specific Notch receptors functioning in the mouse and human corpus. Notch pathway activity was observed in the mouse corpus epithelium, and gene expression analysis revealed NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 to be the predominant Notch receptors in both mouse and human. Global Notch inhibition for 5 days reduced progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse corpus, as well as in organoids derived from mouse and human corpus tissue. Proliferation effects were mediated through both NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 receptors, as demonstrated by targeting each receptor alone or in combination with Notch receptor inhibitory antibodies. Analysis of differentiation by marker expression showed no change to the major cell lineages; however, there was a modest increase in the number of transitional cells coexpressing markers of mucous neck and chief cells. In contrast to reduced proliferation after pathway inhibition, Notch activation in the adult stomach resulted in increased proliferation coupled with reduced differentiation. These findings suggest that NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 signaling promotes progenitor cell proliferation in the mouse and human gastric corpus, which is consistent with previously defined roles for Notch in promoting stem and progenitor cell proliferation in the intestine and antral stomach. Here we demonstrate that the Notch signaling pathway is essential for proliferation of stem cells in the mouse and human gastric corpus. We identify NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 as the predominant Notch receptors expressed in both mouse and human corpus and show that both receptors are required for corpus stem cell proliferation. We show that chronic Notch activation in corpus stem

  8. Intercalated duct cell is starting point in development of pancreatic ductal carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is well known that the pancreatic ductal carcinoma may develop having a relationship to the mucous gland hyperplasia (MGH with atypia (PanIN-1B by PanIN system, the starting point of this atypical MGH is unclear. To know it, we examined the pancreas tissue using many methods described below. Methods 1. Twenty-seven surgically resected pancreas tissue specimens, including pancreatic ductal carcinomas (PDC, chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas, were investigated using immunohistochemical stainings for MUC1, MUC6, 45M1, Ki67 and p53. 2. DNA extraction and analysis of K-ras mutation at codon 12 using microdissection method: The paraffin blocks with 16 regions including the intercalated duct cell (IC adjacant to the atypical MGH were prepared for DNA extraction. Mutation of K-ras codon 12 was analized and compared in enriched polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked minisequence assay (PCR-ELMA. Results 1. In the normal pancreas, although no positive cell was seen in 45M1, p53, Ki67, the cytoplasm of IC were always positive for MUC1 and sometimes positive for MUC6. In the pancreas with fibrosis or inflammation, MGH was positive for MUC6 and 45M1. And atypical MGH was positive for MUC1, MUC6 and 45M1. Some IC adjacent to the atypical MGH was positive for Ki67 as well as atypical MGH. The carcinoma cells in all cases of PDC were diffusely positive for MUC1, 45M1, p53 and Ki67, and focally positive for MUC6. 2. In K-ras mutation, we examined the regions including IC adjacent to the atypical MGH, because the immunohistochemical apomucin stainings of these regions resembled those of PDC as decribed above. And K-ras mutation was confirmed in 12 of 16 regions (75%. All mutations were a single mutation, in 6 regions GTT was detected, in 4 regions GAT was detected and in 2 region AGT was detected. Conclusion Some intercalated duct cell may be the starting point of the pancreatic ductal carcinoma, because the exhibitions of

  9. Effects of diesel exhaust particles on human lung epithelial cells: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, G; Ferraraccio, F; Prati, M V; Annunziata, S; Bianco, A; Mezzogiorno, A; Liguori, G; Angelillo, I F; Cazzola, M

    2007-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), an ingredient of urban pollution matter, is a mixture of solid and liquid particles differing in origin, dimension and composition. There is big concern about inhaled PM in urban areas, especially due to its adverse effects on the respiratory system. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), which constitutes the major part of PM, is characterized by a carbonic mixture composed of approximately 18,000 different high-molecular-weight organic compounds. Diesel engines release 10 times the amount of NO(2) aldehydes and breathable PM compared to unleaded gasoline engines and more than 100 times that produced by catalysed gasoline engines; these data gain great significance when taken into account the fact that diesel-powered vehicles are becoming more and more popular. DEP polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), once deposited on airways mucous surfaces easily pass through epithelial cells (ECs) membranes, bind themselves to cytosolic receptors and then affect cell growth and differentiation. Human lung epithelial cells and macrophages engulf DEP, this resulting in increased proinflammatory cytokines release (IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF). We investigated the biological effects of DEP-PM on the human lung EC line A549. Light microscopy analysis suggested the presence of cell wall alterations, and provided evidence of PM internalization and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Following PM stimulation, nuclei also were seen undergo clear gross morphological modifications. Immunocytochemistry was used to detect intracytoplasmic IL-6 and IL-8 expression.

  10. Baseline Goblet Cell Mucin Secretion in the Airways Exceeds Stimulated Secretion over Extended Time Periods, and Is Sensitive to Shear Stress and Intracellular Mucin Stores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiang Zhu

    Full Text Available Airway mucin secretion studies have focused on goblet cell responses to exogenous agonists almost to the exclusion of baseline mucin secretion (BLMS. In human bronchial epithelial cell cultures (HBECCs, maximal agonist-stimulated secretion exceeds baseline by ~3-fold as measured over hour-long periods, but mucin stores are discharged completely and require 24 h for full restoration. Hence, over 24 h, total baseline exceeds agonist-induced secretion by several-fold. Studies with HBECCs and mouse tracheas showed that BLMS is highly sensitive to mechanical stresses. Harvesting three consecutive 1 h baseline luminal incubations with HBECCs yielded equal rates of BLMS; however, lengthening the middle period to 72 h decreased the respective rate significantly, suggesting a stimulation of BLMS by the gentle washes of HBECC luminal surfaces. BLMS declined exponentially after washing HBECCs (t1/2 = 2.75 h, to rates approaching zero. HBECCs exposed to low perfusion rates exhibited spike-like increases in BLMS when flow was jumped 5-fold: BLMS increased >4 fold, then decreased within 5 min to a stable plateau at 1.5-2-fold over control. Higher flow jumps induced proportionally higher BLMS increases. Inducing mucous hyperplasia in HBECCs increased mucin production, BLMS and agonist-induced secretion. Mouse tracheal BLMS was ~6-fold higher during perfusion, than when flow was stopped. Munc13-2 null mouse tracheas, with their defect of accumulated cellular mucins, exhibited similar BLMS as WT, contrary to predictions of lower values. Graded mucous metaplasia induced in WT and Munc13-2 null tracheas with IL-13, caused proportional increases in BLMS, suggesting that naïve Munc13-2 mouse BLMS is elevated by increased mucin stores. We conclude that BLMS is, [i] a major component of mucin secretion in the lung, [ii] sustained by the mechanical activity of a dynamic lung, [iii] proportional to levels of mucin stores, and [iv] regulated differentially from agonist

  11. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  12. Defining the cellular precursors to human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Patricia J.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Skibinski, Adam; Logvinenko, Tanya; Klebba, Ina; Dong, Shumin; Smith, Avi E.; Prat, Aleix; Perou, Charles M.; Gilmore, Hannah; Schnitt, Stuart; Naber, Stephen P.; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human breast cancers are broadly classified based on their gene-expression profiles into luminal- and basal-type tumors. These two major tumor subtypes express markers corresponding to the major differentiation states of epithelial cells in the breast: luminal (EpCAM+) and basal/myoepithelial (CD10+). However, there are also rare types of breast cancers, such as metaplastic carcinomas, where tumor cells exhibit features of alternate cell types that no longer resemble breast epithelium. Until now, it has been difficult to identify the cell type(s) in the human breast that gives rise to these various forms of breast cancer. Here we report that transformation of EpCAM+ epithelial cells results in the formation of common forms of human breast cancer, including estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors with luminal and basal-like characteristics, respectively, whereas transformation of CD10+ cells results in the development of rare metaplastic tumors reminiscent of the claudin-low subtype. We also demonstrate the existence of CD10+ breast cells with metaplastic traits that can give rise to skin and epidermal tissues. Furthermore, we show that the development of metaplastic breast cancer is attributable, in part, to the transformation of these metaplastic breast epithelial cells. These findings identify normal cellular precursors to human breast cancers and reveal the existence of a population of cells with epidermal progenitor activity within adult human breast tissues. PMID:21940501

  13. Cell cycle indicators of buccal epithelial cells in the treatment of different types of removable plate partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Beliaiev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work. To investigate nuclear DNA and buccal epithelial cells proliferative activity in patients with dental defects, who use removable partial dentures plates made of acrylic or thermoplastic. Materials and Methods. The study of buccal epithelial cell cycle parameters was carried out in 70 people. Among them 23 patients were treated with acrylic dentures prostheses, 23 patients – with thermoplastic-based prostheses. The comparison group consisted of 24 clinically healthy persons without defects in the dentition. DNA content in human buccal epithelial cells nuclei was determined by flow cytometry. Results. The obtained indicators of buccal epithelial cell cycle of the control group indicate a high intensity of cell self-renewal in the normal range. It is suggested by a significant percentage of events occurring within the Sub-G1 range that characterizes apoptosis, as well as the fact that more than half of the cells were in the range of S + G2/M. It has been revealed by flow cytometry that the percentage of apoptosis in cells was higher in patients using acrylic dentures base plastic, showed initial signs of keratinization that was confirmed by increase in cells in the range of Sub-G1 and by their decrease in the range of S-G2/M. It has been established in the study of buccal epithelium cell cycle indicators in the dentures bases thermoplastic application that these prostheses did not affect the proliferative activity of buccal epithelial cells compared to the group using acrylic dentures bases with prolonged use. This is evident in almost the same number of cellular events ranging Sub-G1, so apoptosis in the thermoplastic dentures bases application corresponded to the control group indicators both in the early period and over a year of use. Conclusions. The direct negative effect of prostheses with acrylic bases on the complex mechanism of the oral cavity mucous membrane functioning has been revealed. Absence of dentures

  14. LncRNAs as an intermediate in HPV16 promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaping; Gao, Xiaolei; Cen, Xiao; Wu, Jiashun; Wang, Shasha; Tang, Yajie; Tang, Yaling; Liang, Xinhua

    2017-01-01

    The emerging evidence showed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in cell growth and apoptosis as well as cancer progression and metastasis of malignant tumor, however, limited data are available on the role of lncRNAs in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Here, we demonstrated that 23.98% of 196 HNSCC cases in Southwest China could be classified as HPV16 infection. The number of MDSCs in HPV-positive HNSCC was significantly higher than normal control, indicating that HPV infection may promote MDSCs aggregation. Then, we applied an array-based approach to monitor the lncRNA expression between HPV-positive HNSCC, HPV-negative HNSCC and normal oral mucous, and obtained 132 different lncRNAs in different HPV infected states of HNSCC. HOTAIR, PROM1, CCAT1, and MUC19 mRNA levels, determined by qRT-PCR were inversely correlated with MDSCs collection of HPV-associated HNSCC in 2 independent patient cohorts. The results may provide a rationale for the further evaluation of lncRNAs as a molecular target to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HPV promoting MDSCs collection of HNSCC. PMID:28159935

  15. Bronchial neuroendocrine elements in late post-radiation stage in humans after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilmane, M.; Luts, A.; Sundler, F.; Kjoerell, U.; Forsgren, S.

    1998-01-01

    It is not known how long-term total body irradiation affects the neuroendocrine cells (Nc) and peptidergic innervation in the bronchial wall. This study examined, by immunohistochemical and radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques, the distribution of NC and neuropeptide-containing nerve fibres in the large bronchi of Chernobyl nuclear accident cleanup workers displaying pulmonary fibrosis and metaplastic epithelium. Bronchial mucous and submucous layers from 16 Chernobyl patients and 6 control subjects were examined by conventional light microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques for determination of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), chromogranin A, chromogranin A and B (CAB), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), calcitonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), helospectin I, neuropeptide Y (NPY), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), serotonin (5-hydroxyltryptamine, 5-HT), and substance P (SP). Additionally, bronchial biopsies from 6 Chernobyl cleanup workers and 3 control patients were examined by RIA for VIP and NPY/peptideYY-Ievels. The Chernobyl patients were examined 10 years after exposure during the cleanup works in the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. PGP immunoreactive nerve fibres appeared to be more frequent in the bronchial wall after long term irradiation as compared with controls. However, no specific alterations in the amounts of NPY-, PACAP-, helospectin-, SP- and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were seen in bronchi of control and Chernobyl patients. 5-HT -immunoreactive NC appeared to be more numerous in normal bronchial epithelium adjacent to metaplastic epithelium, in which numerous CAB- immunoreactive NC were seen in Chernobyl patients. RIA for VIP and NPY/PYY showed individual variations in the levels of these peptides in the bronchial tissue. In two cases (one Chernobyl patient and one control patient) there was a high concentration of VIP in parallel with a high concentration of NPY

  16. Induction of T regulatory cells by the superagonistic anti-CD28 antibody D665 leads to decreased pathogenic IgG autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 in a HLA-transgenic mouse model of pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Willenborg, Sebastian; Hünig, Thomas; Deeg, Cornelia A; Sonderstrup, Grete; Hertl, Michael; Eming, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially life-threatening autoimmune disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Its pathogenesis is based on IgG autoantibodies that target the desmosomal cadherins, desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) and desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) and induce intra-epidermal loss of adhesion. Although the PV pathogenesis is well-understood, therapeutic options are still limited to immunosuppressive drugs, particularly corticosteroids, which are associated with significant side effects. Dsg3-reactive T regulatory cells (Treg) have been previously identified in PV and healthy carriers of PV-associated HLA class II alleles. Ex vivo, Dsg3-specific Treg cells down-regulated the activation of pathogenic Dsg3-specific T-helper (Th) 2 cells. In this study, in a HLA-DRB1*04:02 transgenic mouse model of PV, peripheral Treg cells were modulated by the use of Treg-depleting or expanding monoclonal antibodies, respectively. Our findings show that, in vivo, although not statistically significant, Treg cells exert a clear down-regulatory effect on the Dsg3-driven T-cell response and, accordingly, the formation of Dsg3-specific IgG antibodies. These observations confirm the powerful immune regulatory functions of Treg cells and identify Treg cells as potential therapeutic modulators in PV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Odontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, fibroosseous, and giant cell lesions of the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, Joseph A

    2002-03-01

    Odontogenic cysts that can be problematic because of recurrence and/or aggressive growth include odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), calcifying odontogenic cyst, and the recently described glandular odontogenic cyst. The OKC has significant growth capacity and recurrence potential and is occasionally indicative of the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. There is also an orthokeratinized variant, the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, which is less aggressive and is not syndrome associated. Ghost cell keratinization, which typifies the calcifying odontogenic cyst, can be seen in solid lesions that have now been designated odontogenic ghost cell tumor. The glandular odontogenic cyst contains mucous cells and ductlike structures that may mimic central mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Several odontogenic tumors may provide diagnostic challenges, particularly the cystic ameloblastoma. Identification of this frequently underdiagnosed cystic tumor often comes after one or more recurrences and a destructive course. Other difficult lesions include malignant ameloblastomas, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, squamous odontogenic tumor, and clear-cell odontogenic tumor. Histologic identification of myxofibrous lesions of the jaws (odontogenic myxoma, odontogenic fibroma, desmoplastic fibroma) is necessary to avoid the diagnostic pitfall of overdiagnosis of similar-appearing follicular sacs and dental pulps. Fibroosseous lesions of the jaws show considerable microscopic overlap and include fibrous dysplasia, ossifying fibroma, periapical cementoosseous dysplasia, and low-grade chronic osteomyelitis. The term fibrous dysplasia is probably overused in general practice and should be reserved for the rare lesion that presents as a large, expansile, diffuse opacity of children and young adults. The need to use clinicopathologic correlation in assessing these lesions is of particular importance. Central giant cell granuloma is a relatively common jaw lesion of young adults that has an

  18. Adhesive properties of Enterobacter sakazakii to human epithelial and brain microvascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospischil Andreas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. However, up to now little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenicity in E. sakazakii. A necessary state in the successful colonization, establishment and ultimately production of disease by microbial pathogens is the ability to adhere to host surfaces such as mucous membranes, gastric and intestinal epithelial or endothelial tissue. This study examined for the first time the adherence ability of 50 E. sakazakii strains to the two epithelial cell lines HEp-2 and Caco-2, as well as the brain microvascular endothelial cell line HBMEC. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial culture conditions on the adherence behaviour were investigated. An attempt was made to characterize the factors involved in adherence. Results Two distinctive adherence patterns, a diffuse adhesion and the formation of localized clusters of bacteria on the cell surface could be distinguished on all three cell lines. In some strains, a mixture of both patterns was observed. Adherence was maximal during late exponential phase, and increased with higher MOI. The adhesion capacity of E. sakazakii to HBMEC cells was affected by the addition of blood to the bacteria growth medium. Mannose, hemagglutination, trypsin digestion experiments and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the adhesion of E. sakazakii to the epithelial and endothelial cells is mainly non-fimbrial based. Conclusion Adherence experiments show heterogeneity within different E. sakazakii strains. In agreement with studies on E. cloacae, we found no relationship between the adhesive capacities in E. sakazakii and the eventual production of specific fimbriae. Further studies will have to be carried out in order to determine the adhesin(s involved in the interaction of E. sakazakii with cells and to

  19. Regulatory T cells in cutaneous lesions of patients with Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline Alves de Lima; Sotto, Mirian N; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Pagliari, Carla

    2013-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, with high incidence in Brazil and very significant in Latin America. The disease is clinically classified as acute, subacute or chronic where the primary lesion initiates in the lungs and can spread to other organs such as the skin and mucous membranes. The lesions are characterized by granulomatous formation, organized according to the type of pattern of host immune response. We demonstrated and quantified by immunohistochemistry the expression of Foxp3, CD25, TGF-beta and IL-10 in thirty cutaneous lesions with different presentation of granulomatous response. Cells expressing Foxp3 and CD25 were increased in lesions with compact granulomas. The expression of TGF-beta and IL-10 was similar in all PCM lesions. As previous studies, our data suggest the correlation of Treg cells with the chronicity of the disease and the participation in suppressing mechanism as a possible source of IL-10. TGF-β and IL-10, two important suppressor cytokines, are expressed in great amounts in the lesions but our results do not allow correlating with the differences in the granulomatous response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic interaction of systemically-administered mesenchymal stem cells with peri-implant mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Kondo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of systemically transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on the peri-implant epithelial sealing around dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of donor rats and expanded in culture. After recipient rats received experimental titanium dental implants in the bone sockets after extraction of maxillary right first molars, donor rat MSCs were intravenously transplanted into the recipient rats. RESULTS: The injected MSCs were found in the oral mucosa surrounding the dental implants at 24 hours post-transplantation. MSC transplantation accelerated the formation of the peri-implant epithelium (PIE-mediated mucosa sealing around the implants at an early stage after implantation. Subsequently, enhanced deposition of laminin-332 was found along the PIE-implant interface at 4 weeks after the replacement. We also observed enhanced attachment and proliferation of oral mucous epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: Systemically transplanted MSCs might play a critical role in reinforcing the epithelial sealing around dental implants.

  1. Clinical role in biopsy after interstitial irradiation to squamous cell carcinoma of tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomoichi

    1995-01-01

    The clinical role of biopsy after interstitial irradiation therapy was evaluated in 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of tongue on which biopsy was done in our hospital. More residual tumors were observed in the induration-positive groups compared to those of the induration-negative groups. No tumor was histologically observed in 71.4% of the induration-positive groups. On the adjacent and covering mucous membranes, epithelial dysplasia was detected in 15 patients, 1 of them was Grade III and 9 were Grade IV. Two patients had recurrence. In the initial stage of interstitial irradiation, reaction of stoma showed decrease of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, regeneration and dilation of vessels after 6 weeks. The regeneration of collagen fiber increased within 3-14 weeks after irradiation, followed by decrease of its activity. After interstitial irradiation, 2 of 9 Grade IIb patients treated by surgery and 2 by re-interstitial irradiation survived. One of 3 Grade III patients manifested recurrence and was treated by surgery. All patients were alive. Fourteen of 17 Grade IV patients under careful observation were still alive. Eleven of 15 patients treated by total neck dissection after interstitial irradiation survived. Four Grade IV patients showed recurrence. Two-year primary lesion control rate was 91.2% and the survival rate for 5 year was 74.0%. (S.Y.). 54 refs

  2. Therapeutic Interaction of Systemically-Administered Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Peri-Implant Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Ryosuke; Atsuta, Ikiru; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Matsuura, Yuri; Furuhashi, Akihiro; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of systemically transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the peri-implant epithelial sealing around dental implants. Materials and Methods MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of donor rats and expanded in culture. After recipient rats received experimental titanium dental implants in the bone sockets after extraction of maxillary right first molars, donor rat MSCs were intravenously transplanted into the recipient rats. Results The injected MSCs were found in the oral mucosa surrounding the dental implants at 24 hours post-transplantation. MSC transplantation accelerated the formation of the peri-implant epithelium (PIE)-mediated mucosa sealing around the implants at an early stage after implantation. Subsequently, enhanced deposition of laminin-332 was found along the PIE-implant interface at 4 weeks after the replacement. We also observed enhanced attachment and proliferation of oral mucous epithelial cells. Conclusion Systemically transplanted MSCs might play a critical role in reinforcing the epithelial sealing around dental implants. PMID:24651408

  3. Effect of histamine on Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways in rat conjunctival goblet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dayu; Carozza, Richard B; Shatos, Marie A; Hodges, Robin R; Dartt, Darlene A

    2012-10-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Ca(2+)-dependent cellular signaling pathways used by histamine to stimulate conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Cultured rat goblet cells were grown in RPMI 1640. Goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoconjugates was measured by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured by loading cultured cells with the Ca(2+) sensitive dye fura-2. The level of [Ca(2+)](i) was measured using fluorescence microscopy. Extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 2 was depleted using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Histamine-stimulated conjunctival goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoproteins was blocked by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) and depletion of ERK2 by siRNA. Histamine increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was desensitized by repeated addition of agonist and blocked by a phospholipase C antagonist. Histamine at higher doses increased [Ca(2+)](i) by stimulating influx of extracellular Ca(2+), but at a lower dose released Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. Activation of each histamine receptor subtype (H(1)-H(4)) increased [Ca(2+)](i) and histamine stimulation was blocked by antagonists of each receptor subtype. The H(2) receptor subtype increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was cAMP dependent. We conclude that histamine activates phospholipase C to release intracellular Ca(2+) that induces the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and activates ERK1/2 to stimulate conjunctival goblet cell mucous secretion, and that activation of all four histamine receptor subtypes can increase [Ca(2+)](i).

  4. Co-Effect of Histamine on Ca2+-Dependent Signaling Pathways in Rat Conjunctival Goblet Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dayu; Carozza, Richard B.; Shatos, Marie A.; Hodges, Robin R.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the Ca2+-dependent cellular signaling pathways used by histamine to stimulate conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Methods. Cultured rat goblet cells were grown in RPMI 1640. Goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoconjugates was measured by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) was measured by loading cultured cells with the Ca2+ sensitive dye fura-2. The level of [Ca2+]i was measured using fluorescence microscopy. Extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 2 was depleted using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Results. Histamine-stimulated conjunctival goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoproteins was blocked by removal of extracellular Ca2+ and depletion of ERK2 by siRNA. Histamine increase in [Ca2+]i was desensitized by repeated addition of agonist and blocked by a phospholipase C antagonist. Histamine at higher doses increased [Ca2+]i by stimulating influx of extracellular Ca2+, but at a lower dose released Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Activation of each histamine receptor subtype (H1–H4) increased [Ca2+]i and histamine stimulation was blocked by antagonists of each receptor subtype. The H2 receptor subtype increase in [Ca2+]i was cAMP dependent. Conclusions. We conclude that histamine activates phospholipase C to release intracellular Ca2+ that induces the influx of extracellular Ca2+ and activates ERK1/2 to stimulate conjunctival goblet cell mucous secretion, and that activation of all four histamine receptor subtypes can increase [Ca2+]i. PMID:22956601

  5. Epithelial Regeneration After Gastric Ulceration Causes Prolonged Cell-Type AlterationsSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitaro Aihara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The peptic ulcer heals through a complex process, although the ulcer relapse often occurs several years later after healing. Our hypothesis is that even after visual evidence of healing of gastric ulceration, the regenerated epithelium is aberrant for an extended interval, increasing susceptibility of the regenerated epithelium to damage and further diseases. Methods: Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by serosal topical application of acetic acid. Results: Gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid visually healed within 30 days. However, regenerated epithelial architecture was poor. The gene profile of regenerated tissue was abnormal, indicating increased stem/progenitor cells, deficient differentiated gastric cell types, and deranged cell homeostasis. Despite up-regulation of PDX1 in the regenerated epithelium, no mature antral cell type was observed. Four months after healing, the regenerated epithelium lacks parietal cells, trefoil factor 2 (TFF2 and (sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9 remain up-regulated deep in the gastric gland, and the Na/H exchanger 2 (a TFF2 effector in gastric healing remains down-regulated. Gastric ulcer healing was strongly delayed in TFF2 knockout mice, and re-epithelialization was accompanied with mucous metaplasia. After Helicobacter pylori inoculum 30 days after ulceration, we observed that the gastric ulcer selectively relapses at the same site where it originally was induced. Follow-up evaluation at 8 months showed that the relapsed ulcer was not healed in H pylori–infected tissues. Conclusions: These findings show that this macroscopically regenerated epithelium has prolonged abnormal cell distribution and is differentially susceptible to subsequent damage by H pylori. Keywords: Gastric Ulcer Healing, Metaplasia, H pylori, SOX9, TFF2, NHE2

  6. Eosinophils promote generation and maintenance of immunoglobulin-A-expressing plasma cells and contribute to gut immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Van Trung; Beller, Alexander; Rausch, Sebastian; Strandmark, Julia; Zänker, Michael; Arbach, Olga; Kruglov, Andrey; Berek, Claudia

    2014-04-17

    Although in normal lamina propria (LP) large numbers of eosinophils are present, little is known about their role in mucosal immunity at steady state. Here we show that eosinophils are needed to maintain immune homeostasis in gut-associated tissues. By using eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 and PHIL mice or an eosinophil-specific depletion model, we found a reduction in immunoglobulin A(+) (IgA(+)) plasma cell numbers and in secreted IgA. Eosinophil-deficient mice also showed defects in the intestinal mucous shield and alterations in microbiota composition in the gut lumen. In addition, TGF-β-dependent events including class switching to IgA in Peyer's patches (PP), the formation of CD103(+) T cells including Foxp3(+) regulatory (Treg), and also CD103(+) dendritic cells were disturbed. In vitro cultures showed that eosinophils produce factors that promote T-independent IgA class switching. Our findings show that eosinophils are important players for immune homeostasis in gut-associated tissues and add to data suggesting that eosinophils can promote tissue integrity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Embryonic stem cells markers Oct4 and Nanog correlate with perineural invasion in human salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Setúbal; Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Esteves, Carina Magalhães; de Andrade, Nathália Paiva; Altemani, Albina; de Sousa, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

    2017-02-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common salivary gland malignancy and is successfully treated by surgery and radiation. However, some patients have recurrent tumours and in these cases, few treatments options are available. Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been observed and isolated from different solid tumours based on the expression of stem cell markers. These cells are associated with tumour initiation, progression as well as treatment resistance. In this study, the expression of stem cell markers CD44, Bmi1, Oct4 and Nanog was evaluated in non-neoplastic salivary tissue and in MEC. Twenty-eight samples of MEC and their corresponding non-neoplastic salivary tissue were examined by immunohistochemistry and the stem cell markers expression was correlated with histological and clinical parameters. CD44 was expressed in the membrane of serous and mucous acini as well as in the ductal cells in normal gland tissue. Bmi1, Oct4 and Nanog were mainly expressed in ductal structures. In MEC, CD44 and Bmi1 showed strong expression in all types of neoplastic cells and both markers revealed intense expression in tumour invasive front. Oct4 and Nanog protein expression was associated with desmoplasia and perineural invasion. Only Oct4 positive tumours were associated with dissociative growth pattern and committed margins. The stem cell markers CD44, Bmi1, Oct4 and Nanog are frequently expressed in MEC in relation to normal salivary gland and Oct4 and Nanog expression may contribute to aggressiveness and worst prognosis in MEC patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Autologous transplantation of oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets cultured on an amniotic membrane substrate for intraoral mucosal defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Amemiya

    Full Text Available The human amniotic membrane (AM is a thin intrauterine placental membrane that is highly biocompatible and possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties. Using AM, we developed a novel method for cultivating oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets. We investigated the autologous transplantation of oral mucosal epithelial cells cultured on AM in patients undergoing oral surgeries. We obtained specimens of AM from women undergoing cesarean sections. This study included five patients without any history of a medical disorder who underwent autologous cultured oral epithelial transplantation following oral surgical procedures. Using oral mucosal biopsy specimens obtained from these patients, we cultured oral epithelial cells on an AM carrier. We transplanted the resultant cell sheets onto the oral mucosal defects. Patients were followed-up for at least 12 months after transplantation. After 2-3 weeks of being cultured on AM, epithelial cells were well differentiated and had stratified into five to seven layers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cultured cells expressed highly specific mucosal epithelial cell markers and basement membrane proteins. After the surgical procedures, no infection, bleeding, rejection, or sheet detachment occurred at the reconstructed sites, at which new oral mucous membranes were evident. No recurrence was observed in the long-term follow-up, and the postoperative course was excellent. Our results suggest that AM-cultured oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets represent a useful biomaterial and feasible method for oral mucosal reconstruction. However, our primary clinical study only evaluated their effects on a limited number of small oral mucosal defects.

  9. -Structure of the respiratory system of the Ulodera Hynobius neblosus tokyoensis Tago, with special reference to the distribution of serotonin-immunoreactive cells in its respiratory tract epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y

    1995-12-01

    developed capillary networks that were assumed to be involved in gas exchange. The lumen of the laryngotrachea and the pulmonary airway portion contained pseudostratified cilio-mucous epithelium. In the caudaldorsal region of the laryngotrachea adjacent to the lungs, the non-ciliated respiratory epithelium was seen lining the capillaries. In cilio-mucous epithelium of the laryngotrachea, all serotonin-immunoreactive cells were solitary. They apposed to be columnar, cuboidal, triangular, oval, and flask- or spindle-shaped. Solitary serotonin-immunoreactive cells were classified "open type cell" with appical process reaching to the luminal surface and "closed type cell" insulated from the lumen by an epithelial lining. In the pulmonary airway portion, serotonin-immunoreactive cells were solitary cells and in clusters. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells were widely distributed throughout the respiratory tract, but they tended to be found mainly in the cranial portion. The density was highest in the area with the laryngeal sphincter, and decreased caudally in the laryngotrachea and lung. No serotonin-immunoreactive cells were found in the respiratory portion of the dorsal-caudal area of the laryngotrachea or in the part of the lung with non-ciliated cells. So the structure and distribution of serotonin-immunoreactive cells in the respiratory tract of the Tokyo salamander are similar to those of NEE cells and NEBs in mammalian respiratory systems. The density of serotonin-immunoreactive cells appears to be related to the distribution of smooth muscles in the fibromuscular layer and airway portion. The cells may be involved in regulation of the respiratory system. Serotonin is released in response to stimulation, which could result in constriction of the fibromuscular layer and shrinkage of the laryngotracheal cavity, and may regulate pulmonary volume by constricting smooth muscles

  10. Cell-cell channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baluška, F; Volkmann, Dieter; Barlow, P. W

    2006-01-01

    ...-Negative Bacteria Pheromone-Responsive Conjugative Plasmids in E. faecalis Nonpheromone-Responsive Plasmids in G+ Bacteria 21 22 27 28 Section II: Ciliate Cells 3. The Tetrahymena Conjugation Ju...

  11. Constituents from oak bark (Quercus robur L.) inhibit degranulation and allergic mediator release from basophils and mast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Peter; Heinrich, Miriam; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Grunewald, Franziska; Messerschmidt, Silke; Herrick, Anja; Gruber, Kim; Beckmann, Christiane; Knoedler, Matthias; Huber, Roman; Steinborn, Carmen; Stintzing, Florian C; Gründemann, Carsten

    2016-12-24

    Oak bark has been used since ancient times in Europaen ethnomedicine because of its adstringent, antimicrobial and hemostatic features, e.g. as a remedy for the treatment of wounds and skin diseases. Oak bark tannins are considered as bioactive natural products, interacting with surface proteins of mucous membranes and might be beneficial for the treatment of allergic diseases. This study investigated the effect of an oak bark decoction (OBD) and isolated tannin fractions on the degranulation capacity and cytokine/chemokine release from rat basophilic cells and human mast cells in vitro, which are essential for the initiation of early- and late-phase allergic reactions. By chromatographic separation on Sephadex ® LH-20 high- and low-molecular weight tannins were separated from OBD and the tannin composition analyzed by HPLC(DAD)-MS n . Then, the OBD and its fractions were tested in degranulation (β-hexosaminidase activity) of allergen-specific-activated basophilic cells in a photometric assay. The OBD and the high-molecular tannin fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell degranulation. Furthermore, the OBD and particularly its high molecular weight tannin fraction exhibited an inhibitory activity on the IL-8-, IL-6- and TNF-α-secretion from stimulated human mast cells, detected and quantified by ELISA. The OBD and its high-molecular weight tannins revealed an impact on allergic mediator release of basophilic cells and human mast cells and thereby provide a rationale for the topical treatment with OBD preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CHLORHEXIDINE INHIBITS L1 CELL ADHESION MOLECULE MEDIATED NEURITE OUTGROWTH IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstone, Aaron M.; Bamford, Penny; Aucott, Susan W.; Tang, Ningfeng; White, Kimberly R.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlorhexidine is a skin disinfectant that reduces skin and mucous membrane bacterial colonization and inhibits organism growth. Despite numerous studies assessing chlorhexidine safety in term infants, residual concerns have limited its use in hospitalized neonates, especially low birth weight preterm infants. The aim of this study was to assess the potential neurotoxicity of chlorhexidine on the developing central nervous system using a well-established in vitro model of neurite outgrowth that includes laminin and L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1) as neurite outgrowth promoting substrates. Methods Cerebellar granule neurons are plated on either poly L-lysine, L1 or laminin. Chlorhexidine, hexachlorophene or their excipients are added to the media. Neurons are grown for 24 h, then fixed and neurite length measured. Results Chlorhexidine significantly reduced the length of neurites grown on L1 but not laminin. Chlorhexidine concentrations as low as 125 ng/ml statistically significantly reduced neurite length on L1. Hexachlorophene did not affect neurite length. Conclusion Chlorhexidine at concentrations detected in the blood following topical applications in preterm infants specifically inhibited L1 mediated neurite outgrowth of cerebellar granule neurons. It is now vital to determine whether the blood brain barrier is permeable to chlorhexidine in preterm infants. PMID:24126818

  13. Correlation analysis of mast cells and EGFR with endoscopic application of tissue glue for treatment of peptic ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y-Y; Liu, H-F; Min, M; Wang, W; Li, J; He, C-Y; Du, Q-P

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the impact of tissue glue on mast cells (MC) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in rat peptic ulcer. SD rats were used to establish peptic ulcer model. Cimetidine gavage was adopted in the positive control, while cimetidine and endoscopic tissue glue therapy were applied in the experimental group. The ulcer inhibition rate and ulcer index were measured to evaluate healing quality. Real-time PCR was performed to test EGFR mRNA in the ulcer surrounded gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry was selected to determine MC quantity. HE staining and apoptosis detection were used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Tissue glue significantly reduced MC number in the peptic ulcer rat compared with control with dose dependence (p ulcer area, and elevated ulcer index and inhibition rate (p 0.05). Tissue glue induced MC apoptosis with dose dependence. Endoscopic application of tissue glue accelerated ulcer mucosa healing via up-regulating EGFR mRNA, enhancing gastrointestinal mucous membrane regeneration and repair ability, and decreasing MC number.

  14. Cytotoxicity test of 40, 50 and 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner by using MTT assay on culture cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Khoswanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Open dentin is always covered by smear layer, therefore before restoration is performed, cavity or tooth which has been prepared should be clean from dirt. The researchers suggested that clean dentin surface would reach effective adhesion between resin and tooth structure, therefore dentin conditioner like citric acid was used to reach the condition. Even though citric acid is not strong acid but it can be very erosive to oral mucous. Several requirements should be fulfilled for dental product such as non toxic, non irritant, biocompatible and should not have negative effect against local, systemic or biological environment. Cytotoxicity test was apart of biomaterial evaluation and needed for standard screening. Purpose: This study was to know the cytotoxicity of 40, 50, 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner using MTT assay. Method: This study is an experimental research using the Post-Test Only Control Group Design. Six samples of each 40, 50 and 60% citric acid for citotoxicity test using MTT assay. The density of optic formazan indicated the number of living cells. All data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. Result: The percentage of living cells in 40, 50 and 60% citric acid were 95.14%, 93.42% and 93.14%. Conclusion: Citric acid is non toxic and safe to be used as dentine conditioner.

  15. Expression and Functional Activity of the Human Bitter Taste Receptor TAS2R38 in Human Placental Tissues and JEG-3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Wölfle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs are expressed in mucous epithelial cells of the tongue but also outside the gustatory system in epithelial cells of the colon, stomach and bladder, in the upper respiratory tract, in the cornified squamous epithelium of the skin as well as in airway smooth muscle cells, in the testis and in the brain. In the present work we addressed the question if bitter taste receptors might also be expressed in other epithelial tissues as well. By staining a tissue microarray with 45 tissue spots from healthy human donors with an antibody directed against the best characterized bitter taste receptor TAS2R38, we observed an unexpected strong TAS2R38 expression in the amniotic epithelium, syncytiotrophoblast and decidua cells of the human placenta. To analyze the functionality we first determined the TAS2R38 expression in the placental cell line JEG-3. Stimulation of these cells with diphenidol, a clinically used antiemetic agent that binds TAS2Rs including TAS2R38, demonstrated the functionality of the TAS2Rs by inducing calcium influx. Restriction enzyme based detection of the TAS2R38 gene allele identified JEG-3 cells as PTC (phenylthiocarbamide-taster cell line. Calcium influx induced by PTC in JEG-3 cells could be inhibited with the recently described TAS2R38 inhibitor probenecid and proved the specificity of the TAS2R38 activation. The expression of TAS2R38 in human placental tissues points to further new functions and hitherto unknown endogenous ligands of TAS2Rs far beyond bitter tasting.

  16. Cytological Characteristics of Mucose Cell and Vaginal Temperature and pH During Estrous Cycle in Local Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Darodjah Rasad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to examine the characteristics cytology of mucous cell-,temperature- and pH vagina during estrous cycle in local sheep.  31local sheep were synchronized with vaginal sponge consist of 20  mg  progesterone hormone before carried out observations of cytology of cells from the vaginal mucose through vaginal swabs, temperature and pH of the vagina.  Vaginal swabs were collected daily at 7 am for a weeks.Vaginal temperature and pH measurement is carried out twice a day, at 07.00 am and 15.00 pm for a weeks after vaginal swabs. Smears of the swab were then prepared on glass slide and they were stained with Giemsa.  Vaginal epithelial cells; Parabasal, intermediate and superficial cells were counted and their percentages during pro-estrous, estrous and di-estrous were determined. Di-estrous was characterized by the absent of superficial cells in the epithelial vagina. Pro-estrous was characterized by the increasing progressively of intermediate/superficial cells in epithelial vagina, whereas estrous was characterized by the presence of superficial/cornification cells in most epithelial vagina. Based on the dominance of superficial cell, the number of sheep identified as estrous is highest on third day, with 52%.  Observation on vaginal temperature also resulting that the highest temperature values obtained on the third day of 39,08±0.28°C.  It could be effected of the vaginal pH during the observation. Underthe influence ofestrogen, the epithelial vaginalcellssynthesizeand accumulateglycogenin large quantitiesdepositedin the lumen ofvagina. Vaginal bacteriametabolizethe glycogenformlactic acid, which causesvaginal pHis low.The pH conditions prevent from pathogenic microorganisms and fungi. Increased estrogenal so cause cell proliferation through the thickening of the epithelium lining of the vagina so that the cells differentiate.Increasing of glycogenin the superficial cells, and  ceratin cells found in the cytoplasm of

  17. Positive selection of Wharton's jelly-derived CD105(+) cells by MACS technique and their subsequent cultivation under suspension culture condition: A simple, versatile culturing method to enhance the multipotentiality of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Fatemeh; Halabian, Raheleh; Dehgan Harati, Mozhgan; Bahadori, Marzie; Mehdipour, Ahmad; Mohammadi Roushandeh, Amaneh; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar

    2015-05-01

    Wharton's jelly (WJ), an appropriate source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), has been shown to have a wide array of therapeutic applications. However, the WJ-derived MSCs are very heterogeneous and have limited expression of pluripotency markers. Hence, improvement of their culture condition would promote the efficiency of WJ-MSCs. This study aims to employ a simple method of cultivation to obtain WJ-MSCs which express more pluripotency markers. CD105(+) cells were separated by magnetic-associated (activated) cell sorting from umbilical cord mucous tissue. CD105(+) cells were added to Methocult medium diluted in α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) and seeded in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly-HEMA)-coated plates for suspension culture preparation. Differentiation capacity of isolated cells was evaluated in the presence of differentiation-inducing media. The expression of pluripotency markers such as Oct3/4, Nanog, and Sox2 was also analyzed by RT-PCR and western blot techniques. Moreover, immunocytochemistry was performed to detect alpha-smooth muscle actin (antigene) (α-SMA) protein. WJ-MSCs grew homogeneously and formed colonies when cultured under suspension culture conditions (Non-adhesive WJ-MSCs). They maintained their growth ability in both adherent and suspension cultures for several passages. Non-adhesive WJ-MSCs expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Sox2 both at transcriptional and translational levels in comparison to those cultured in conventional adherent cultures. They also expressed α-SMA protein. In this study, we isolated WJ-MSCs using a slightly modified culture condition. Our simple non-genetic method resulted in a homogeneous population of WJ-MSCs, which highly expressed pluripotency markers. In the future, more multipotent WJ-MSCs can be harnessed as a non-embryonic source of MSCs in MSC-based cell therapy.

  18. Fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooie, D. T.; Harrington, B. C., III; Mayfield, M. J.; Parsons, E. L.

    1992-07-01

    The primary objective of DOE's Fossil Energy Fuel Cell program is to fund the development of key fuel cell technologies in a manner that maximizes private sector participation and in a way that will give contractors the opportunity for a competitive posture, early market entry, and long-term market growth. This summary includes an overview of the Fuel Cell program, an elementary explanation of how fuel cells operate, and a synopsis of the three major fuel cell technologies sponsored by the DOE/Fossil Energy Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell program, the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell program, and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell program.

  19. Gingival osteogenic melanoma in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Angela E; Harmon, Barry G; Miller, Debra L; Northrup, Nicole C; Latimer, Kenneth S; Uhl, Elizabeth W

    2010-01-01

    Osteogenic melanoma is a rare variant of metaplastic malignant melanoma in human medicine and appears to be a similarly rare variant in dogs. Two dogs with oral malignant melanoma with neoplastic bone formation are reported in this study. Both tumors were characterized by malignant melanocytes that transitioned into neoplastic bone at the deep margins of the neoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed S100- and Melan-A-positive neoplastic cells adjacent to, and occasionally embedded within, an osteoid and chondroblastic matrix. Scattered clusters of neoplastic cells were also positive for osteocalcin. The findings indicate that in dogs, as in humans, neoplastic melanocytes have metaplastic potential and can be osteogenic.

  20. The distribution of advanced glycation end products and their receptor in the gastrointestinal tract in the rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    and squamous epithelial cells. In the stomach, AGEs were mainly distributed in parietal cells, and RAGE was strongly expressed in chief cells, mast cells and neurons in ganglia, moderately in parietal cells, and mildly in surface mucous cells. In the intestine, colon and rectum, AGEs and RAGE were distributed....... RAGE is also distributed in chief cells, mast cells, parietal cells and surface mucous cells in the stomach and neurons in the whole GI tract....

  1. The luminal surface of thyroid cysts in SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted.......Four of the five kinds of cells constituting the walls of thyroid cysts can be identified in the SEM. These are cuboidal cells, mucous cells, cells with large granules and ciliated cells. A correlation between SEM and TEM observations is attempted....

  2. [Effect of industrial pollutants on mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, L

    1978-01-01

    A survey of literature on upper respiratory tract diseases in workers exposed to irritating and toxic substances in industry has been presented. The effects of dusts of cotton, wood, rock-salt, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, ammonia and fluorine compounds have been discussed.

  3. Effects of a radiosensitizer and radiation on the ciliated mucous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertsson, M.

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated irradiation (2 Gy/F, TD:2-20 Gy) in vivo on the ciliated epithelium of the rabbit's trachea, caused measurable physiological alternations ten consecutive days after completion of irradiation with an initial heightening of the ciliary activity after 2 and 4 Gy, followed by a dose-dependent decrease. On scanning electron microscopy-pictures, knobs were observed on the cilia with the number being related to the dose. The addition of misonidazole potentiated the effects described above, with an enhancement ratio ( physiologically) of 1.2 and an enhancement ratio (morphologically) of 1.6. Furthermore, administration of misonidazole to the rabbits caused an increased vascularity in the subepithelial layer of the trachea, directly correlated to an oedema in the same region. Single doses (2,2.5,5,10,15,20,25, and 30 Gy) were given to the trachea in vivo and daily investigation of the ciliary beating and morphologic examinations of the tissue were made for ten days. The ciliary activity showed a dose-dependent reduction of about 50% after 30 Gy. A development of damage, in relation to the dose, was observed in the cilia. The changes were blebs, swollen tips, bent and curved tips, and broken cilia clustered together. During in vitro irradiation with 10 Gy Single Dose, an increase of the ciliary activity to about 25 % of its original value was observed without any morphological changes, while in vivo irradiation and examinations during 10 days thereafter, showed three different phases, day 1-3: Stimulation phase, day 4-8: Damage-phase, day 9-10: Repair-phase. The ciliary epithelium offers an exceptional system for the study of early radiobiological effects, since mutual comparisons can be made between physiology and morphology. (Author)

  4. Xyloglucan, a Plant Polymer with Barrier Protective Properties over the Mucous Membranes: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Piqué

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of the epithelial barrier function has been recently associated with a variety of diseases, mainly at intestinal level, but also affecting the respiratory epithelium and other mucosal barriers. Non-pharmacological approaches such as xyloglucan, with demonstrated protective barrier properties, are proposed as new alternatives for the management of a wide range of diseases, for which mucosal disruption and, particularly, tight junction alterations, is a common characteristic. Xyloglucan, a natural polysaccharide derived from tamarind seeds, possesses a “mucin-like” molecular structure that confers mucoadhesive properties, allowing xyloglucan formulations to act as a barrier capable of reducing bacterial adherence and invasion and to preserve tight junctions and paracellular flux, as observed in different in vitro and in vivo studies. In clinical trials, xyloglucan has been seen to reduce symptoms of gastroenteritis in adults and children, nasal disorders and dry eye syndrome. Similar mucosal protectors containing reticulated proteins have also been useful for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and urinary tract infections. The role of xyloglucan in other disorders with mucosal disruption, such as dermatological or other infectious diseases, deserves further research. In conclusion, xyloglucan, endowed with film-forming protective barrier properties, is a safe non-pharmacological alternative for the management of different diseases, such as gastrointestinal and nasal disorders.

  5. Influences of the colonic microbiome on the mucous gel layer in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lennon, Gráinne

    2014-04-01

    The colonic mucus gel layer (MGL) is a critical component of the innate immune system acting as a physical barrier to microbes, luminal insults, and toxins. Mucins are the major component of the MGL. Selected microbes have the potential to interact with, bind to, and metabolize mucins. The tolerance of the host to the presence of these microbes is critical to maintaining MGL homeostasis. In disease states such as ulcerative colitis (UC), both the mucosa associated microbes and the constituent MGL mucins have been shown to be altered. Evidence is accumulating that implicates the potential for mucin degrading bacteria to negatively impact the MGL and its stasis. These effects appear more pronounced in UC.   This review is focused on the host-microbiome interactions within the setting of the MGL. Special focus is given to the mucolytic potential of microbes and their interactions in the setting of the colitic colon.

  6. Dust exposure, eye redness, eye cytology and mucous membrane irritation in a tobacco industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Pedersen, O.F.

    1989-01-01

    . It could not be explained by differences in tobacco smoking, sex, age, sleeping habits or use of glasses. Irritation of lips and upper airways as reported by questionnaire were more common in tobacco workers than in referents. In conclusion the tobacco workers, more often than the referents, had complaints...

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor--a major player in stimulation-induced homeostatic metaplasticity of human motor cortex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastroeni, Claudia; Bergmann, Til Ole; Rizzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    , at the same time priming the after effects caused by the second TBS intervention in a homeostatic fashion. Critically, val(66)met carriers and val(66)val carriers showed very similar response patterns to cTBS and iTBS regardless of the order of TBS interventions. Since none of the observed TBS effects......Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human motor hand area (M1HAND) can induce lasting changes in corticospinal excitability as indexed by a change in amplitude of the motor-evoked potential. The plasticity-inducing effects of rTMS in M1HAND show substantial inter......TBS followed by cTBS (n = 27), cTBS followed by iTBS (n = 29), and iTBS followed by iTBS (n = 28). Participants and examiner were blinded to the genotype at the time of examination. As expected, the first TBS intervention induced a decrease (cTBS) and increase (iTBS) in corticospinal excitability, respectively...

  8. Tracheobronchial air-liquid interface cell culture: a model for innate mucosal defense of the upper airways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Kirkham, Sara; Pickles, Raymond J.; Henderson, Ashley G.; Alexis, Neil E.; DeMaria, Genevieve; Knight, David; Thornton, David J.; Sheehan, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Human tracheobronchial epithelial cells grown in air-liquid interface culture have emerged as a powerful tool for the study of airway biology. In this study, we have investigated whether this culture system produces “mucus” with a protein composition similar to that of in vivo, induced airway secretions. Previous compositional studies of mucous secretions have greatly underrepresented the contribution of mucins, which are major structural components of normal mucus. To overcome this limitation, we have used a mass spectrometry-based approach centered on prior separation of the mucins from the majority of the other proteins. Using this approach, we have compared the protein composition of apical secretions (AS) from well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial cells grown at air-liquid interface and human tracheobronchial normal induced sputum (IS). A total of 186 proteins were identified, 134 from AS and 136 from IS; 84 proteins were common to both secretions, with host defense proteins being predominant. The epithelial mucins MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 and the gel-forming mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC were identified in both secretions. Refractometry showed that the gel-forming mucins were the major contributors by mass to both secretions. When the composition of the IS was corrected for proteins that were most likely derived from saliva, serum, and migratory cells, there was considerable similarity between the two secretions, in particular, in the category of host defense proteins, which includes the mucins. This shows that the primary cell culture system is an important model for study of aspects of innate defense of the upper airways related specifically to mucus consisting solely of airway cell products. PMID:18931053

  9. Culture Supernatants of Lactobacillus gasseri and L. crispatus Inhibit Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Adhesion to HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yuko; Cho, Otomi; Sugita, Takashi; Ogishima, Daiki; Takeda, Satoru

    2018-03-30

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common superficial infection of the vaginal mucous membranes caused by the fungus Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of the culture supernatants of Lactobacillus gasseri and L. crispatus, the predominant microbiota in Asian healthy women, on C. albicans biofilm formation. The inhibition of C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells by Lactobacillus culture supernatant was also investigated. Candida albicans biofilm was formed on polystyrene flat-bottomed 96-well plates, and the inhibitory effects on the initial colonization and maturation phases were determined using the XTT reduction assay. The expression levels of biofilm formation-associated genes (HWP1, ECE1, ALS3, BCR1, EFG1, TEC1, and CPH1) were determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The inhibition of C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells by Lactobacillus culture supernatant was evaluated by enumerating viable C. albicans cells. The culture supernatants of both Lactobacillus species inhibited the initial colonization and maturation of C. albicans biofilm. The expression levels of all biofilm formation-related genes were downregulated in the presence of Lactobacillus culture supernatant. The culture supernatant also inhibited C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells. The culture supernatants of L. gasseri and L. crispatus inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation by downregulating biofilm formation-related genes and C. albicans adhesion to HeLa cells. These findings support the notion that Lactobacillus metabolites may be useful alternatives to antifungal drugs for the management of VVC.

  10. c-Kit Expression is Rate-Limiting for Stem Cell Factor-Mediated Disease Progression in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janyaporn Phuchareon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands in which c-Kit is overexpressed and activated, although the mechanism for this is as yet unclear. We analyzed 27 sporadic ACC tumor specimens to examine the biologic and clinical significance of c-Kit activation. Mutational analysis revealed expression of wild-type c-Kit in all, eliminating gene mutation as a cause of activation. Because stem cell factor (SCF is c-Kit's sole ligand, we analyzed its expression in the tumor cells and their environment. Immunohistochemistry revealed its presence in c-Kit–positive tumor cells, suggesting an activation of autocrine signaling. We observed a significant induction of ERK1/2 in the cells. SCF staining was also found in other types of non-cancerous cells adjacent to tumors within salivary glands, including stromal fibroblasts, neutrophils, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, vascular endothelial cells, mucous acinar cells, and intercalated ducts. Quantitative PCR showed that the top quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression distinguished ACCs from normal salivary tissues and was cross-correlated with short-term poor prognosis. Expression levels of SCF and c-Kit were highly correlated in the cases with perineural invasion. These observations suggest that c-Kit is potentially activated by receptor dimerization upon stimulation by SCF in ACC, and that the highest quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression could be a predictor of poor prognosis. Our findings may support an avenue for c-Kit-targeted therapy to improve disease control in ACC patients harboring the top quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression.

  11. The spatial distribution of LGR5+ cells correlates with gastric cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Simon

    Full Text Available In this study we tested the prevalence, histoanatomical distribution and tumour biological significance of the Wnt target protein and cancer stem cell marker LGR5 in tumours of the human gastrointestinal tract. Differential expression of LGR5 was studied on transcriptional (real-time polymerase chain reaction and translational level (immunohistochemistry in malignant and corresponding non-malignant tissues of 127 patients comprising six different primary tumour sites, i.e. oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, colon and rectum. The clinico-pathological significance of LGR5 expression was studied in 100 patients with gastric carcinoma (GC. Non-neoplastic tissue usually harboured only very few scattered LGR5(+ cells. The corresponding carcinomas of the oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, colon and rectum showed significantly more LGR5(+ cells as well as significantly higher levels of LGR5-mRNA compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic tissue. Double staining experiments revealed a coexpression of LGR5 with the putative stem cell markers CD44, Musashi-1 and ADAM17. Next we tested the hypothesis that the sequential changes of gastric carcinogenesis, i.e. chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and invasive carcinoma, are associated with a reallocation of the LGR5(+ cells. Interestingly, the spatial distribution of LGR5 changed: in non-neoplastic stomach mucosa, LGR5(+ cells were found predominantly in the mucous neck region; in intestinal metaplasia LGR5(+ cells were localized at the crypt base, and in GC LGR5(+ cells were present at the luminal surface, the tumour centre and the invasion front. The expression of LGR5 in the tumour centre and invasion front of GC correlated significantly with the local tumour growth (T-category and the nodal spread (N-category. Furthermore, patients with LGR5(+ GCs had a shorter median survival (28.0±8.6 months than patients with LGR5(- GCs (54.5±6.3 months. Our results show that LGR5 is

  12. A facial lesion … the face of cutaneous tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan. Early diagnosis and treatment is extremely important in order to prevent complications. The rapid response to treatment is well demonstrated by this case. Complications include metaplastic change (Marjolin's ulcer) into squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Deformities such as destruction of the ...

  13. The responses of endothelial cells to Zr{sub 61}Ti{sub 2}Cu{sub 25}Al{sub 12} metallic glass in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing, E-mail: monkeys0109@sina.com; Ai, Hong-jun

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of newly developed Zr{sub 61}Ti{sub 2}Cu{sub 25}Al{sub 12} metallic glass (denoted ZT1) and its parallel material, commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti), as dental implants. To this end, we evaluated their cytotoxicity in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo by performing an oral mucosa irritation test in hamsters. Specifically, cytotoxicity was determined in HUVECs by evaluating their cell morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their cell viability using CCK-8 assays. Moreover, we examined the mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and von Willebrand factor by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In the early stages of proliferation and differentiation, no differences were observed between HUVECs inoculated on ZT1 compared to those on CP-Ti. However, in the later stages of proliferation and differentiation, the HUVECs inoculated on ZT1 were significantly better than the cells cultured on CP-Ti. In the oral mucosa irritation test, we sutured sample discs into the cheek pouch of hamsters. After 2, 3, and 4 weeks, we harvested the corresponding mucosal tissues, stained them with hematoxylin and eosin, obtained blood samples for biochemical analysis, and finally, observed the topography of the sample discs by SEM. Immunohistochemistry and hematology analyses showed no differences in the biocompatibility of ZT1 and CP-Ti, and neither of these compounds caused irritation of the mucosa. In addition, SEM images showed that no pitting occurred on the sample discs. Together, these data indicate that ZT1 may be a good candidate for dental implants and should be further studied. - Graphical abstract: The results of blood analysis. (a) WBC, (b) Mon %, (c) Neu %, and (d) Eos %. - Highlights: • We used HUVECs to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Zr{sub 61}Ti{sub 2}Cu{sub 25}Al{sub 12} BMG. • We are the first to evaluate Zr{sub 61}Ti{sub 2}Cu{sub 25}Al{sub 12} BMG using an

  14. Early invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinoma arising in a woman with vulvar pemphigus vulgaris and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mignogna Michele D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pemphigus vulgaris (PV is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Genital involvement occurs when most other common sites are concurrently affected or are in remission. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease that may affect many parts of the body and the skin with occasional bullous lesions. Pemphigus vulgaris and SLE may be associated, albeit rarely. Here, we report the first case of a woman affected with SLE presenting with early invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising from Pemphigus Vulgaris of the vulva. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our Gynaecology Unit for bleeding vegetant lesions of the vulva. Her history was characterized by systemic lupus erythematosus and PV. Biopsy showed concomitant PV and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN grade 3. One month later a new biopsy revealed progression from VIN 3 to early SCC. Despite chemotherapy, no remission of disease was observed. She died six months after diagnosis Conclusion Our case underlines PV as another chronic inflammatory disease of the lower genital tract predisposing to VIN-SCC. It suggests the need for careful follow-up of patients with chronic inflammatory disease, especially when concomitant autoimmune disorders are present. Moreover, a biopsy should be always performed if there are PV lesions because of the possibility of neoplastic disease.

  15. Early invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinoma arising in a woman with vulvar pemphigus vulgaris and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Giuseppe; Mandato, Vincenzo D; Piccoli, Roberto; Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Mignogna, Chiara; Mignogna, Michele D; Costagliola, Luigi; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-06-23

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Genital involvement occurs when most other common sites are concurrently affected or are in remission. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that may affect many parts of the body and the skin with occasional bullous lesions. Pemphigus vulgaris and SLE may be associated, albeit rarely. Here, we report the first case of a woman affected with SLE presenting with early invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from Pemphigus Vulgaris of the vulva. A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our Gynaecology Unit for bleeding vegetant lesions of the vulva. Her history was characterized by systemic lupus erythematosus and PV. Biopsy showed concomitant PV and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grade 3. One month later a new biopsy revealed progression from VIN 3 to early SCC. Despite chemotherapy, no remission of disease was observed. She died six months after diagnosis Our case underlines PV as another chronic inflammatory disease of the lower genital tract predisposing to VIN-SCC. It suggests the need for careful follow-up of patients with chronic inflammatory disease, especially when concomitant autoimmune disorders are present. Moreover, a biopsy should be always performed if there are PV lesions because of the possibility of neoplastic disease.

  16. Fast neutron therapy for squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region: results of a randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.; Orr, J.A.; Arnott, S.J.; Jack, W.J.; Kerr, G.R.; Williams, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A randomized trial of fast neuron therapy compared with 4MV photons for patients with head and neck cancer is reported. One hundred and sixty-eight patients were recruited between 1977 and 1984. The minimum follow-up is 2 years. Three patients were withdrawn before treatment began. Eighty-five were allocated to neutron therapy and 80 to receive photon therapy. All patients had squamous cell cancers in one of four primary sites: oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. Local tumor control was similar in both groups: 44.7% after neutrons and 45.0% after photons. Salvage surgery was performed on 18 patients in each treatment group for residual or recurrent cancer. Acute radiation reactions of the mucous membranes were significantly more severe after photons. The number of patients with serious late reactions was greater after neutron therapy but the difference was not statistically significant. There were six deaths related to late morbidity after neutron therapy but none after photon therapy. Survival was better after photon therapy but the difference compared with the neutron group failed to reach statistical significance. When intercurrent deaths are excluded, the difference is less marked. Photon therapy was clearly better in terms of disease-free survival giving a 2-year local disease-free rate of 41.3% (s.e. 5.5%) compared with 29.4% (s.e. 4.9%) after neutrons

  17. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  18. Cytotoxicity of new duplex drugs linking 3'-C-ethynylcytidine and 5-fluor-2'-deoxyuridine against human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Sarah; Niessner, Heike; Sinnberg, Tobias; Venturelli, Sascha; Berger, Alexander; Ikenberg, Kristian; Villanueva, Jessie; Meier, Friedegund; Garbe, Claus; Busch, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Melanoma is an increasingly common and potentially fatal malignancy of the skin and some mucous membranes. As no cure exists for metastatic disease, there is an urgent need for novel drugs. 2'-Deoxy-5-fluorouridylyl-(3'-5')-3'-C-ethynylcytidine [5-FdU(3'-5')ECyd] and 3'-C-ethynylcytidinylyl-(5' → 1-O)-2-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerylyl-(3-O → 5')-2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine [ECyd-lipid-5-FdU] represent cytostatic active duplex drugs, which can be metabolized into various active antimetabolites. We evaluated the cytotoxicity of these heterodinucleoside phosphate analogs, their corresponding monomers ECyd and 5-FdU and combinations thereof on six metastatic melanoma cell lines and six ex vivo patient-derived melanoma cells in comparison to current standard cytostatic agents and the BRAF V600E inhibitor Vemurafenib. In vitro (real-time)-proliferation assays demonstrated that 5-FdU(3'-5')ECyd and ECyd-lipid-5-FdU had a high cytotoxic efficacy causing 75% melanoma cell death at concentrations in the nanomolar and micromolar range. Cytotoxicity was conducted by induction of DNA cleavage indicating apoptotic cells. Chicken embryotoxicity demonstrated that the duplex drugs were less toxic than 5-FdU at 0.01 μM. In vivo the duplex drug 5-FdU(3'-5')ECyd was efficacious in the murine LOX IMVI melanoma xenograph model on administration of 11.2 mg/kg/injection every fourth day. Both duplex drugs are promising novel cytostatic agents for the treatment of malignant melanoma meriting clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an overview of photovoltaic cells that are currently manufactured and those being developed, including one or several p-n junction, organic and dye-sensitized cells using quantum dots. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of various photovoltaic cells, identifies the main parameters, explains the main reasons for the losses that may occur in photovoltaic cells and looks at the ways to minimize them.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. A status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmermann, G N

    1994-07-15

    Intestinal metaplasia in the stomach increases the risk of gastric cancer, and the increased risk is proportional to the extent of the metaplasia. This risk could be generated by one or more mechanisms: (1) the metaplastic tissue is an early step in a multistep induction process; (2) the metaplastic tissue is an epigenetic change that raises the pH of gastric juice by replacing oxyntic mucosa, favoring the growth of a bacteria capable of generating endogenous mutagens; and/or (3) the metaplasia is only a marker for chronic gastritis due to H. pylori infection or pernicious anemia. With the last mechanism, the inflammatory response favors intramural mutagenesis that might result in metaplasia or neoplasia as independent events. Finding gene rearrangements common to both metaplastic and neoplastic tissue may establish a direct link between them, but too few have been identified to account for the large number of stomach cancers that develop in high risk populations. Histochemical and immunochemical stains that identify enzymes or mucosubstances may suggest that metaplastic epithelial cells resemble small or large intestinal cells, but they are distinctly different from both. Moreover, these stains do not indicate whether a given cytologic change is genetic or epigenetic; therefore, they cannot be used to define the relationship between metaplasia and neoplasia. It is unnecessary for practicing physicians to await resolution of this question. It can be assumed that any person with extensive metaplasia is at high risk for gastric cancer and should be subject to periodic screening. The extent of the metaplastic process is probably more important than the metaplastic subtype.

  1. Electrochemical Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising a negative electrode, an electrolyte and a positive electrode in which the positive electrode structure comprises a lithium cobalt manganese oxide of the composition Li¿2?Co¿y?Mn¿2-y?O¿4? where 0 ... for capacity losses in lithium ion cells and lithium-alloy cells....

  2. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  3. Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Luciana N; Leimgruber, Carolina; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Acosta, Patricio L; Brahamian, Jorge M; Polack, Fernando P; Miró, María S; Quintar, Amado A; Sotomayor, Claudia E

    2014-01-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic allergic disease that involves T-helper type 2 (Th2)-inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchiolar club cells (CC) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are sentinel cells of airway barrier against inhaled injuries, where allergy induces mucous metaplasia of CC and the alternative activation of AM, which compromise host defense mechanisms and amplify Th2-inflammation. As there is evidence that high levels of environmental endotoxin modulates asthma, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the activation of local host defenses by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) previous to allergy development can contribute to preserving CC and AM protective phenotypes. Endotoxin stimulus before allergen exposition reduced hallmarks of allergic inflammation including eosinophil influx, Interleukin-4 and airway hyperreactivity, while the T-helper type 1 related cytokines IL-12 and Interferon-γ were enhanced. This response was accompanied by the preservation of the normal CC phenotype and the anti-allergic proteins Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) and Surfactant-D, thereby leading to lower levels of CC metaplasia and preventing the increase of the pro-Th2 cytokine Thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In addition, classically activated alveolar macrophages expressing nitric oxide were promoted over the alternatively activated ones that expressed arginase-1. We verified that LPS induced a long-term overexpression of CCSP and the innate immune markers Toll-like receptor 4, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, changes that were preserved in spite of the allergen challenge. These results demonstrate that LPS pre-exposition modifies the local bronchioalveolar microenvironment by inducing natural anti-allergic mechanisms while reducing local factors that drive Th2 type responses, thus modulating allergic inflammation. PMID:25504013

  4. Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Daqing [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Neonatology, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Yang, Niandi [Outpatient Department, School of Aerospace Engineering, Air Force Engineering University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Ma, Haixin, E-mail: drhaixinma@163.com [Department of Quality Control, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China)

    2016-08-12

    Matrine has been demonstrated to attenuate allergic airway inflammation. Elevated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was correlated with the severity of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on SOCS3 expression in airway inflammation. In this study, we found that matrine significantly inhibited OVA-induced AHR, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell differentiation, and mucous production in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Matrine also abrogated the level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, but enhanced interferon (IFN)-γ expression, both in BALF and in lung homogenates. Furthermore, matrine impeded TNF-α-induced the expression of IL-6 and adhesion molecules in airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and MLE-12). Additionally, we found that matrine inhibited SOCS3 expression, both in asthmatic mice and TNF-α-stimulated epithelial cells via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway by using pcDNA3.1-SOCS3 plasmid, SOCS3 siRNA, or nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) inhibitor PDTC. Conclusions: Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice. - Highlights: • Matrine attenuates asthmatic symptoms and regulates Th1/Th2 balance in vivo. • Matrine suppresses inflammation responses in vitro. • Matrine decreases SOCS3 expression both in vivo and in vitro. • Matrine inhibits SOCS3 expression by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

  5. Cell suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, E.; Coffigny, H.

    2000-01-01

    In the fight of the cell against the damages caused to its DNA by genotoxic agents and specially by ionizing radiations, the p53 protein plays a central part. It intervenes in the proliferation control and the differentiation but also in the keeping of genome integrity. It can direct the damages cells toward suicide, or apoptosis, to avoid the risk of tumor appearance that would be fatal to the whole organism. That is by the disordered state of cells suicide programs that the tumor cells are going to develop. The knowledge of apoptosis mechanisms, to eventually start them on demand, rises up broad hopes in the cancer therapy. (N.C.)

  6. Identification of volatile biomarkers of gastric cancer cells and ultrasensitive electrochemical detection based on sensing interface of Au-Ag alloy coated MWCNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixia; Gao, Guo; Liu, Huijuan; Fu, Hualin; Fan, Jun; Wang, Kan; Chen, Yunsheng; Li, Baojie; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhi, Xiao; He, Lin; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-01-01

    Successful development of novel electrochemical biosensing interface for ultrasensitive detection of volatile biomarkers of gastric cancer cells is a challenging task. Herein we reported to screen out novel volatile biomarkers associated with gastric cancer cells and develop a novel Au-Ag alloy composites-coated MWCNTs as sensing interface for ultrasensitive detection of volatile biomarkers. MGC-803 gastric cancer cells and GES-1 gastric mucous cells were cultured in serum-free media. The sample preparation approaches and HS-SPME conditions were optimized for screening volatile biomarkers. Volatiles emitted from the headspace of the cells/medium culture were identified using GC-MS. The Au-Ag nanoparticles-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared as a sensing interface for detection of volatile biomarkers. Results showed that eight different volatile metabolites were screened out between MGC-803 cells and GES-1 cells. Two compounds such as 3-octanone and butanone were specifically present in the headspace of the MGC-803 cells. Three volatiles such as 4-isopropoxybutanol, nonanol and 4-butoxy 1-butanol coexisted in the headspace of both the MGC-803 cells and the GES-1 cells, their concentrations in the headspace of the GES-1cells were markedly higher than those in the MGC-803 cells, three volatiles such as formic acid propyl ester, 1.4-butanediol and 2, 6, 11-trimethyl dodecane solely existed in the headspace of the GES-1 cells. The nanocomposites of MWNTs loaded with Au-Ag nanoparticles were prepared as a electrochemical sensing interface for detection of two volatile biomarkers, cyclic voltammetry studies showed that the fabricated sensor could detect 3-octanone in the range of 0~0.0025% (v/v) and with a detection limitation of 0.3 ppb, could detect butanone in the range of 0 ~ 0.055% (v/v), and with a detection limitation of 0.5 ppb, and exhibited good selectivity. The novel electrochemical biosensor combined with volatile biomarkers of gastric cancer

  7. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...

  8. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  9. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    '. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products....

  10. Solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo

    1988-08-18

    Concerning the exsisting solar cell utilizing wavelength transition, the area of the solar cell element necessary for unit electric power output can be made small, but transition efficiency of the solar cell as a whole including a plastic plate with phosphor is not high. This invention concerns a solar cell which is appropriate for transferring the light within a wide spectrum range of the sunlight to electricilty efficiently, utilizes wavelength transition and has high efficiency per unit area. In other words, the solar cell of this invention has the feature of providing in parallel with a photoelectric transfer layer a layer of wavelength transitioning material (phosphor) which absorbs the light within the range of wavelength of low photoelectric transfer efficiency at the photoelectric transfer layer and emits the light within the range of wavelength in which the photoelectric transfer rate is high on the light incident side of the photoelectric transfer layer. (5 figs)

  11. Histology and cell kinetics of rectal mucosa of A/HeJ mice administered syngeneic rectal antigen and its effects on radiation induced rectal cancer, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Yoritaka

    1980-01-01

    1. Four-week-old A/HeJ mice were immunized by rectal antigen and at the age of 6 weeks the pelvic region was exposed to 2,000 rad of X-ray for two times. They were observed for a maximum period of 84 weeks. The first rectal cancer detected 36 days after irradiation was histologically found to be mucous-secreting-adenocarinoma. Within 32 weeks after irradiation, rectal cancer was observed in 21 (61.76%) of the 34 autopsied mice. During the entire period of observation, rectal cancer was observed in 25 (55.56%) of the 45 mice. 2. On the other hand, among the mice whose pelvic region was exposed to 2,000 rad for two times, the first cancer was observed 56 days after irradiation. Within 32 weeks after irradiation, rectal cancer was observed in 4 (18.18%) of the 22 autopsied mice. During the entire period of observation, rectal cancer was observed in 12 (33.33%) of the 36 mice. 3. In the group of 51 non-irradiated mice, no rectal cancer was observed. 4. The stainability of HID-AB stain of the histologically normal mucosa near irradiated site was compared between cancer induced cases and normal cases. In 22 (84.62%) mice among 26 with induced cancer and in 9 (45%) among 20 mice without cancer, rectal crypt with AB positive goblet cells could be observed. (author)

  12. [Airway metaplasia related to smoking and environmental pollution through sputum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferman-Cano, Floribel; Padilla-Santamaría, Fernando; Moreno-Venegas, Luis; Torner-Aguilar, Carlos Alejandro; Molina-Medina, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    Both environmental pollution and smoking affect the respiratory epithelium, causing cellular adaptation changes. Therefore, this work explores the presence of metaplasia in smokers compared with non-smokers from Mexico City. A prospective cohort study was performed. The sample was performed through a home interview covering the five Mexico City zones delimited to the study and monitoring of air quality. We searched metaplastic cells and inflammation in sputum cytology stained with Papanicolaou technique, and we assessed the air quality in Mexico City. We calculated relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR) in relation to the presence of metaplasia and smoking. We performed 1897 home interviews obtaining a final sample of 30 participants. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers with the presence of metaplastic cells (p = 0.269), although the association of metaplastic cells and inflammation showed a significant difference in the non-smokers group (p = 0.010). The RR in association with the presence of metaplasia in sputum cytology and smoking was 1.6, and the RA was 0.2. The air quality in this city has led the population to undergo changes of cellular adaptation in the respiratory epithelium by the simple fact of being exposed to environmental pollution. Metaplastic changes in non-smokers suggest strongly that pollution causes the same effect as smoking.

  13. Antigastric parietal cell and antithyroid autoantibodies in patients with desquamative gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Wang, Yi-Ping; Wu, Yang-Che; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Sun, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is principally associated with erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP), mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), and pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Serum autoantibodies including antigastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA), antithyroglobulin antibody (TGA), and antithyroid microsomal antibody (TMA) were measured in 500 patients with DG, 287 EOLP without DG (EOLP/DG - ) patients, and 100 healthy control subjects. The 500 patients with DG were diagnosed as having EOLP in 455 (91%), PV in 40 (8%), and MMP in five (1%) patients. We found that 37.0%, 43.6%, and 42.6% of 500 patients with DG, 39.6%, 46.4%, and 45.1% of 455 EOLP with DG (EOLP/DG) patients, and 18.5%, 27.5%, and 30.3% of 287 EOLP/DG - patients had the presence of GPCA, TGA, and TMA in their sera, respectively. DG, EOLP/DG, and EOLP/DG - patients all had a significantly higher frequency of GPCA, TGA, or TMA positivity than healthy control subjects (all P-values < 0.001). Moreover, 455 EOLP/DG patients had a significantly higher frequency of GPCA, TGA, or TMA positivity than 287 EOLP/DG - patients (all P-values < 0.001). Of 210 TGA/TMA-positive patients with DG whose serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured, 84.3%, 6.7%, and 9.0% patients had normal, lower, and higher serum TSH levels, respectively. We conclude that 73.4% DG, 77.1% EOLP/DG, and 47.4% EOLP/DG - patients may have GPCA/TGA/TMA positivity in their sera. Because part of GPCA-positive patients may develop pernicious anemia, autoimmune atrophic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma, and part of TGA/TMA-positive patients may have thyroid dysfunction, these patients should be referred to medical department for further management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  15. Radiation-induced functional damages in the regeneration system for the gastrointestinal epithelium cell and analysis of its nutritional modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Narita, Mayumi; Ogawa, Yuko; Shinohara, Kiyoko; Nakazawa, Yukiko; Yamada, Keiko [National Inst. of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    It has been known that the stem cells of villus-crypt zone are highly sensitive to radiation exposure. In this study, radiation-induced damages in gastrointestinal cell regeneration system were investigated from an aspect of nutritional factors to clarify the damages in digestive functions caused by X-ray exposure and recovery from them. The activities of digestive enzymes in the small intestine after in vivo X-ray exposure at 100 Gy were determined. The sucrose activity in the upper intestine was gradually reduced to about a half 3 days after the exposure. This change pattern of activity was also observed in other regions in the intestine. This tendency was similar to that of trehalase activity, but the changes in alkaline phosphatase and leucine amino-peptidase activities were less than the above two enzymes. Therefore, time course changes of sucrose and trehalase pattern in the villus-crypt zone were monitored after radiation exposure. Either of the two enzyme activities was low in the crypt and gradually increased from the basement of villus to its top. These activities were dose-dependently reduced by X-ray exposure. Especially it was marked for trehalose activity. Moreover, the amounts of short-chain fatty acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butylic acid in the cecum were determined. Significant increases in acetic acid and propionic acid contents were fount at 1 or 2 days after the X-ray exposure. These increases in fatty acids contents were more distinctive in the animals that received forced and free administration of food than those that received free administration alone. The presence of food components in the intestine might be effective for protecting the mucous membrane regeneration from radiation exposure. (M.N.)

  16. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  17. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSEN1 Quantitative Immunoglobulins Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Identification Red Blood Cell (RBC) Antibody Screen Red Blood ... Hair loss Mucous membrane dryness Itching Liver dysfunction Cracks (fissures) at the corners of the mouth Inflammation ...

  18. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redey, L.I.; Myles, K.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-02

    An electrochemical cell is described with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof. 8 figs.

  19. Temporal dynamics of epidermal responses of guppies Poecilia reticulata to a sublethal range of waterborne zinc concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, C; Marcogliese, D J; Scott, M E

    2009-12-01

    This study assessed the histological changes in the epidermis of guppies Poecilia reticulata induced by waterborne zinc (Zn). Laboratory-reared P. reticulata fry were maintained individually in separate vessels containing artificial water (8 microg l(-1) Zn) to which 0, 15, 30, 60 or 120 microg l(-1) Zn was added. Their epidermal response to Zn was monitored regularly over 4 weeks. Compared with controls, mucus was rapidly released and mucous cell numbers decreased at all concentrations. Thereafter mucous release, epidermal thickness, numbers and size of mucous cells fluctuated at a rate that varied with Zn concentration, but fluctuations declined after day 18. Results clearly highlight the dynamic nature of the epidermal response to sublethal concentrations of waterborne Zn. In general, low concentrations of Zn induced a rapid response with reduced numbers and size of mucous cells and shift in mucin composition, and a subsequent thickening of the epidermis. Epidermal thickness and mucous cell area fluctuated over time but were normal after a month of exposure to low Zn concentrations. The number of mucous cells, however, remained low. Virtually all mucous cells from fish maintained in 15 and 60 microg l(-1) Zn contained acidic mucins throughout the month, whereas fish maintained at 30 microg l(-1) Zn responded by production of neutral mucins during the first 12 days followed by a mixture of neutral and acidic mucins. At 120 microg l(-1) Zn, the most dramatic effects were the gradual but sustained decrease in numbers and area of mucous cells, and the shift to acidic mucins in these cells. Thus, as concentration of Zn increased, the epidermal responses indicated a disturbed host response (dramatic decline in mucous cell numbers, with mixed composition of mucins), which may have been less effective in preventing Zn uptake across the epithelium.

  20. The Frequency and Clinical Implication of ROS1 and RET Rearrangements in Resected Stage IIIA-N2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Fu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the frequency and clinicopathological features of ROS1 and RET rearrangements in N2 node positive stage IIIA (IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, we retrospectively screened 204 cases with a tissue microarray (TMA panel by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, and confirmed by direct sequencing and immunohistochemistry (IHC. The relationship between ROS1 or RET rearrangements, clinicopathological features, and prognostic factors were analyzed in resected stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC. Of the 204 cases, 4 cases were confirmed with ROS1 rearrangement, but no RET rearrangement was detected. All 4 ROS1-rearranged cases were adenocarcinomas. The predominant pathological type was acinar pattern in ROS1-rearranged tumors, except for 1 case harboring a mixture acinar and mucous tumor cells. Variants of ROS1 rearrangement were SDC4-ROS1 (E2:E32, SDC4-ROS1 (E4:E32 and SDC4-ROS1 (E4:E34. There was no significant association between ROS1 rearrangement and clinicopathological characteristics. In this cohort, multivariate analysis for overall survival (OS indicated that squamous cell carcinoma and lobectomy were independent predictors of poor prognosis; R0 surgical resection and non-pleural invasion were independent predictors of good prognosis. In resected stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC patients, ROS1-rearranged cases tended to occur in younger patients with adenocarcinomas. The prognosis of resected stage IIIA-N2 is generally considered poor, but patients with ROS1 rearrangement will benefit from the targeted therapy.

  1. Growth and adherence of Staphylococcus aureus were enhanced through the PGE2 produced by the activated COX-2/PGE2 pathway of infected oral epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxia Wang

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of varieties of oral mucous infection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is a pro-inflammatory factor and Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 is a critical enzyme of PGE2 biosynthesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Staphylococcus aureus can increase PGE2 production of oral epithelial cells and how PGE2 functions in the growth and adherence of Staphylococcus aureus. mRNA levels of COX-2, fnbpA and fnbpB were estimated by quantitative PCR. PGE2 production was measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The binding biomass of Staphylococcus aureus to human fibronectin was investigated by crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy and the adherent force was measured by atomic force microscope (AFM. The COX-2 mRNA level and PGE2 production were increased by Staphylococcus aureus. PGE2 promoted the growth and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, enhanced the attachment of Staphylococcus aureus to the human fibronectin as well as to the HOK cells. The transcription of fnbpB was up-regulated by PGE2 in both early and middle exponential phase but not fnbpA. These results suggest that the activation of COX-2/PGE2 pathway in oral epithelial cell by Staphylococcus aureus can in turn facilitate the growth and the ability to adhere of the pathogen. These findings uncover a new function of PGE2 and may lead to the potential of COX-2/PGE2 targeting in the therapy of inflammation and cancer in both which the COX-2/PGE2 pathway were observed activated.

  2. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1 to 10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  3. Solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  4. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  5. Tuning Collective Cell Migration by Cell-Cell Junction Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.; Mayor, R.

    2017-01-01

    Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph

  6. Energy storage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulia, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    The book deals with the characteristics and potentialities of energy storage cells of various types. Attention is given to electrical energy storage cells (electrochemical, electrostatic, and electrodynamic cells), mechanical energy storage cells (mechanical flywheel storage cells), and hybrid storage systems.

  7. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  8. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use Disclaimer Privacy Policy

  9. Electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.H.; Kubala, D.M.; Bennett, R.J.

    1977-01-13

    The high energy densities of primary cells on the basis of lithium or sodium as anode material, liquid cathode materials and nonaqueous electrolytes could not previously be fully utilised, because volume changes appearing during the discharge process inside the cell lead to an increase of cell impedance. In order to overcome this disadvantage, according to the invention a tube consisting of carbon which is slotted in the longitudinal direction is used as the cathode current collector. It is elastic in the radial direction and exerts an even pressure in the beaker-shaped cell vessel on the separator and therefore on the anode material touching the inner wall of the vessel. In order to achieve the elastic deformability of the cathode current collector, acetylene soot is used, to which are added as described in the invention, elastomers and/or mixed polymers in quantities of 10 to 30% by weight. Further claims concern the use of at least one oxyhalide of an element of groups V or VI or a halide of an element of groups IV, V or VI of the periodic table in the cathode solution.

  10. Potent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  11. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  12. Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. Stem Cells: A Dormant Volcano Within Our Body? Devaveena Dey Annapoorni Rangarajan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 27-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  14. The determination of optimal cells disintegration method of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rybalkyn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is common infectious disease that affects the mucous membranes, skin, nails, hair, and internal organs. Now Ukraine has neither domestic nor registered imported vaccine against candidiasis. The development of vaccine for prevention and treatment of candidiasis is a key issue in modern medicine and pharmacy. Similar research is actively conducted in many countries of the world: Russia, USA, Japan and others. It should be noted that researchers have not yet reached a consensus view which vaccine is most effective with candidiasis. There are several types of vaccines: live, inactivated, subunit and others. In this article, we consider getting the potential subunit vaccine from Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungi. Subunit vaccine is composed of fragments of antigens that can provide an adequate immune response. These vaccines can be represented by particles of microbes. It is known that the main substances in cells of genus Candida fungi, which have antigenic properties, are proteins and polysaccharides. However, the question of their localization in the layers of the cell wall and cytoplasm nowadays require more detailed studies. Many researchers to highlight cytoplasm antigens and all the other layers of the cell use the following methods: grinding cells with quartz sand, destroying them in different machine disintegrating, freezing and thawing a multi others. To obtain potential subunit vaccine fungi were rejected by methods that are based on the processing of biomass fungi chemicals (extraction, hydrolysis. The aim of this work was to study experimentally the destruction method of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungi. Cells of Candida albicans fungi strain CCM 335-867 and Candida tropicalis fungi strain 20336 ATTS have been separately cultured in vitro on agar Sabouraud at 25 ± 2º C for 48 hours and then washed by 10 ml of sterile 0.9% isotonic sodium chloride solution. Cell suspension of Candida albicans and

  15. Monitoração e avaliação clínica da eficácia da transfusão de sangue total e concentrado de hemácias em cães Monitoring and evaluation of the efficacy of whole blood and packed red cells transfusion in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel K. Morikawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A terapia transfusional tem grande potencial de salvar vidas na clínica de pequenos animais, e é usada principalmente na terapêutica de emergência em animais anêmicos, entretanto este procedimento está associado a vários riscos. Uma das formas de minimizá-los é pela monitoração constante durante a transfusão sanguínea, permitindo assim avaliar a melhora clínica do paciente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia da transfusão de sangue total e de concentrado de hemácias em cães anêmicos, por meio da monitoração dos parâmetros vitais. Foram avaliadas 77 transfusões em cães, sendo 52 de sangue total armazenado e 25 de concentrado de hemácias. Durante todo o procedimento aferiu-se (a cada 15-30 minutos a temperatura, frequência cardíaca, frequência respiratória e a coloração de mucosas dos pacientes, além do tempo de preenchimento capilar. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que ambos os componentes promoveram melhora dos parâmetros avaliados a partir de 45 minutos do início da transfusão sanguínea, principalmente da frequência cardíaca, coloração de mucosas e tempo de preenchimento capilar (pTransfusion therapy has a great potential to save lives in small animals practice, and it has been used mainly in the emergency treatment for anemic animals, although this procedure is related to certain risks. A manner to minimize these risks is through keeping close monitoring during the time of transfusion, which furthermore allows an evaluation of recovering of the patient. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the efficacy of whole blood and packed red cells transfusions in anemic dogs. Seventy-seven transfusions in dogs have been done, 52 of whole blood and 25 of packed red cells, measuring (every 15-30 minutes temperature, cardiac and breathing frequency, mucous tissue color and capillaries filling time throughout the procedure. The outcome shows that both compounds, may cause improvements to every

  16. Renal Pelviceal Keratinizing Squamous Metaplasia with Sparing of Pyramidal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Siderits

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplastic changes in the urothelium of the upper urinary tract are relatively infrequent. Metaplasia may present as either squamous or less often glandular differentiation. The process may be associated with chronic inflammation or associated chronic infections. There may be malignant transformation to either squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. The demarcation of the metaplastic process in the minor calyces has not been well documented to date. We report the case of a 74-year-old female patient who presented with a history of chronic renal disease and acute pyohydronephrosis. The patient underwent a nephroureterectomy which revealed keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia throughout the renal pelvis and upper urinary tract with abrupt termination of metaplasia at the junction of the renal pelvis and the minor calyx (pyramidal zone. Immunohistochemical evaluation documents metaplastic urothelium stained positive for CK5, before converting sharply to simple cuboidal epithelium in the minor calyx (pyramidal zones which stained positive CK7. At the junction of the metaplastic components and low cuboidal lined minor calyceal surfaces, the underlying stroma showed loss of ureteral muscularis mucosa with transition to renal parenchymal type stroma. We believe that this observation is unique and potentially relevant to the etiology and pathophysiology of pelviceal metaplasia.

  17. Altered distribution of peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets in patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, James; Cavalcante, Ricardo Souza; Moris, Daniela Vanessa; Golim, Márjorie de Assis; Levorato, Adriele Dandara; Reis, Karoline Hagatha Dos; Arruda, Maria Sueli Parreira de; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio

    2017-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by fungi from the genus Paracoccidioides in Latin America. PCM-patients (PCM-p) are classified as having acute/subacute or chronic (CF) clinical forms. CF is responsible for 75%-90% of all cases, affects mainly adults over 30 years old and the clinical manifestation are associated mainly with lungs and mucosa of upper airdigestive tract. In addition, the CF patients exhibit fibrosis of the lungs, oral mucous membranes and adrenals, and pulmonary emphysema. Consequently, CF PCM-p with active disease, as well as those that have been apparently cured, seem to be an interesting model for studies aiming to understand the long-term host-fungi relationship and hypoxia. Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute a system that serve as a major link between innate and adaptive immunity composed of several subpopulations of cells including two main subsets: myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid (pDCs). The present study aimed to access the distribution of PBDC subsets of CF PCM-p who were not treated (NT) or treated (apparently cured - AC). CF PCM-p were categorized into two groups, consisting of 9 NTs and 9 ACs. Twenty-one healthy individuals were used as the control group. The determination of the PBDC subsets was performed by FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) and the dosage of serum TNF-α, IL1β, IL-18, CCL3, IL-10 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). A high count and percentage of mDCs was observed before treatment, along with a low count of pDCs in treated patients. Furthermore, the mDC:pDC ratio and serum levels of TNF-α was higher in both of the PCM-p groups than in the control group. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that active PCM influences the distribution of mDCs and pDCs, and after treatment, PCM-p retained a lower count of pDCs associated with pro-inflammatory profile. Therefore, we identified new evidences of persistent immunological abnormalities in

  18. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  19. Tuning Collective Cell Migration by Cell-Cell Junction Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Peter; Mayor, Roberto

    2017-04-03

    Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph receptors, Slit/Robo, connexins and integrins, and an adaptive array of intracellular adapter and signaling proteins. Depending on molecular composition and signaling context, cell-cell junctions adapt their shape and stability, and this gradual junction plasticity enables different types of collective cell movements such as epithelial sheet and cluster migration, branching morphogenesis and sprouting, collective network migration, as well as coordinated individual-cell migration and streaming. Thereby, plasticity of cell-cell junction composition and turnover defines the type of collective movements in epithelial, mesenchymal, neuronal, and immune cells, and defines migration coordination, anchorage, and cell dissociation. We here review cell-cell adhesion systems and their functions in different types of collective cell migration as key regulators of collective plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  20. Breast carcinosarcoma: clinical and pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Marco; Jensen, Lisbeth L; Vahl, Pernille; Funder, Jonas Amstrup

    2015-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare and highly aggressive breast tumor.It has two distinct malignant cell lines involving epithelial (carcinomatous) and mesenchymal (sarcomatous) components. The literature on the topic is sparse. We report a rare case of carcinosarcoma of the breast containing a small fraction of a pancytokeratin positive sarcomatous-appearing cell population i.e. a metaplastic cell population. The patient was treated with a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Electrorefining cell evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

    1989-04-14

    Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  3. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cell research is one of the most fascinating areas of ... as with many expanding fields of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as rapidly as it generates ...

  4. Sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - sickle cell; Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS); Sickle cell disease ... Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells ...

  5. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  6. Potency of Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Potency of Stem Cells. Totipotent Stem Cells (Zygote + first 2 divisions). -Can form placenta, embryo, and any cell of the body. Pluripotent (Embryonic Stem Cells). -Can form any cell of the body but can not form placenta, hence no embryo. Multipotent (Adult stem cells).

  7. Effect of Habits and Nutritional Status on Clinical Grading and Histopathological Staging in Patients with Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanke, Rama Brahmam; Shetty, Rakhith; Akifuddin, Syed; Sahu, Manish; Singh, Navneet; Kaur, Gagandeep; Goyal, Garish

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic progressive debilitating disease affecting the oral, oropharyngeal and sometimes the oesophageal mucosa resulting in inability to eat due to burning, ulcers and stiffness. Aim The study was undertaken, to evaluate the correlation of clinical staging, histological grading and nutritional status using body mass index (BMI) with gutkha (habit) index in OSMF patients. Materials and Methods The study group comprised of 50 patients clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed cases of OSMF. Habit (gutkha) index was calculated by multiplying duration and frequency. Body mass index was calculated by dividing weight in kilograms and height in centimetres of the patient. Results Male to female ratio was 2.8:1. Clinical grading increased with increase in gutkha index, patients with gutkha index 1-50, maximum were in mild stage; with gutkha index 51-100, maximum in moderate and patients with gutkha index 101-150, all were in severe stage. Histological staging showed direct correlation with gutkha index, it increased with increase in gutkha index with p <0.05. Site analysis showed that buccal mucosa and retromolar area were involved in all the patient and floor of mouth in 46% of patients Body mass index analysis revealed that out of 27 patients with moderate clinical staging 3 was underweight; out of 3 with severe clinical staging, 2 was underweight. Conclusion The duration and frequency of areca nut product use effects on the incidence and severity of OSMF and the patient becomes unable to eat due to burning, ulcers and inability to open mouth which affect the health of the individual. Thus it is important to access the nutritional status to improve the survival rate of patients. PMID:26557616

  8. Manifestaciones muco cutáneas en anorexia nerviosa: Mucous and cutaneous manifestations of the anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Leroux

    Full Text Available La anorexia nerviosa es una enfermedad psiquiátrica, cuya incidencia está creciendo en las últimas décadas. Afecta sobre todo a las adolescentes y mujeres jóvenes. Los signos clínicos son consecuencia de las carencias nutricionales y de los mecanismos de compensación, que el organismo implementa para conservar la vida. Las manifestaciones cutáneas y bucales son consecuencia de la desnutrición: vómitos autoprovocados, consumo de drogas o medicamentos no recetados y de la enfermedad psiquiátrica en sí misma. Se presentan diez pacientes, ocho mujeres y dos varones con signos cutáneos compatibles con anorexia nerviosa. El rango de edad es de 17 a 32 años. En orden de frecuencia se hallaron: acrocianosis, alopecia, acné, xerosis, palidez, hirsutismo, cambios en las membranas bucales y lesiones autoprovocadas. Creemos que el reconocimiento de estos signos cutáneos acompañado de un exhaustivo interrogatorio, puede colaborar en el diagnóstico de este trastorno alimentario.Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disease with an increasing incidence in the last decade, which affects principally adolescents and young women. Clinical signs are a consequence of malnutrition and the compensating mechanisms implemented to preserve life. Skin and oral lesions are caused by malnutrition, self-provoked vomiting, illegal drug consumption or therapeutic drugs utilization, and the psychiatric disease so far. Case reports: ten patients (eight females and two males with possible skin alterations due to anorexia nervosa, aged 17 to 32 yr. The most frequent signs, in order of priority were: acrocyanosis, alopecia, acne, xerodermia, pallor, hirsutism, oral injuries and self provoked injuries. We propose that the finding of these skin lesions plus an exhaustive questionnaire could aid to diagnose this eating disorder.

  9. Studying aerococci impact on colonization of intestinal mucous membrane with vibrions and ability to destroy staphilococus toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanskyi D.О.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the promising methods of prevention and treatment of intestinal infections is the use of probiotics. A series of experiments was carried out to study the protective effect of A. viridans vibrio in experimental vibroinfection and the introduction of staphylococcus toxin. In the intestine of animals receiving aerococcus competitive colonization takes place. Results of experiments on colonization in experimental animals which survived without signs of NAG infection showed that vibrios in the intestinal wall were almost absent, but a large number of aerococcus was found (2,5±0,2 *105. In cases of infectious process development, but in a mild form, aerococci prevailed over vibrios: (2,7±0,6 *104, and (2,0±0.2 *103 respectively. Aerococci injected subcutaneously can maintain livelihoods for several hours, destroying totally or partially introduced staphylococcus exotoxin, reducing the strength of its lethal activity

  10. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  11. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and erythroplakia (an abnormal red patch of cells). Leukoplakia and erythroplakia lesions on the mucous membranes may become cancerous. If lesions are seen in the mouth, the following procedures may be used to find ...

  12. Epidermal response of rainbow trout to Ichthyobodo necator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kuhn, Jesper Andreas; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar

    2014-01-01

    Infections with the parasitic flagellate Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1883) cause severe skin and gill disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) juveniles. The epidermal disturbances including hyperplasia and mucous cell exhaustion caused by parasitization are known, but no d...

  13. NKT Cell Responses to B Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxin; Sun, Wenji; Subrahmanyam, Priyanka B; Page, Carly; Younger, Kenisha M; Tiper, Irina V; Frieman, Matthew; Kimball, Amy S; Webb, Tonya J

    2014-06-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes that express characteristics of both T cells and natural killer cells. NKT cells mediate tumor immune-surveillance; however, NKT cells are numerically reduced and functionally impaired in lymphoma patients. Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d molecules and co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor immunity by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. In the presence of exogenous antigen, both mouse and human NKT cell lines produce cytokines following stimulation by B cell lymphoma lines. NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B cell lymphoma, and it was found that during early stages, NKT cell responses were enhanced in lymphoma-bearing animals compared to disease-free animals. In contrast, in lymphoma-bearing animals with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, NKT cells were functionally impaired. In a mouse model of blastoid variant mantle cell lymphoma, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a potent NKT cell agonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), resulted in a significant decrease in disease pathology. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that NKT cells from α-GalCer treated mice produced IFN-γ following α-GalCer restimulation, unlike NKT cells from vehicle-control treated mice. These data demonstrate an important role for NKT cells in the immune response to an aggressive hematologic malignancy like mantle cell lymphoma.

  14. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related......, deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis....

  15. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; Wang, S; Wang, Y; Wang, X-n

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ?entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  16. Regional variations of cell surface carbohydrates in human oral stratified epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Hakomori, S

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of blood group carbohydrate chains with antigen A, B, H type 2 chain (A and B precursor), and N-acetyllactosamine (H type 2 precursor) specificity was studied in human oral epithelium from different anatomical regions. These represented various epithelial differentiation patterns...... such as non-keratinized, parakeratinized, and orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The material included buccal and palatal epithelium from 20 persons with blood group A or O, gingival, and alveolar epithelium from 10 persons with blood group A or B, and buccal metaplastically keratinized......-acetyllactosamine by murine monoclonal antibodies. Each antigen showed a similar staining pattern in buccal and alveolar epithelium (non-keratinized) which differed considerably from that seen in palatal and gingival epithelium (ortho- and parakeratinized). The expression of blood group antigens A or B and the precursor...

  17. LIHNCS - Lugol's iodine in head and neck cancer surgery: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of Lugol's iodine to assist excision of moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ at mucosal resection margins of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, James A; Cymerman, James A; Hislop, Stuart; McConkey, Chris; McMahon, Jeremy; Mehanna, Hisham; Shaw, Richard; Sutton, David N; Dunn, Janet

    2013-09-24

    Oral cavity and oropharynx cancer are increasing in incidence worldwide but survival outcomes have not significantly improved over the last three decades. The presence of dysplasia or carcinoma in situ at surgical margins following resection of squamous carcinoma of the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck has been shown to be associated with a higher incidence of local recurrence and reduced survival. While invasive carcinoma in mucosal surfaces can usually be distinguished from adjacent normal mucous membrane, pre-malignant disease is much less readily distinguished at operation. We describe a protocol for a randomised, controlled trial in which we will assess the effectiveness of Lugol's iodine staining in allowing visualisation and excision of cancer margin dysplasia at time of primary surgery. We will recruit 300 patients diagnosed with oral cavity or oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma. All participants will be planned for primary surgery with curative intent. After completion of baseline assessment participants will be randomised into either a standard surgical treatment arm or surgical treatment including Lugol's iodine staining. This paper describes the rationale and design of a unique trial in head and neck surgical oncology. If margin dysplasia visualisation with Lugol's iodine allows complete excision of high-risk, pre-cancer mucosa at time of primary surgery, this may lead to a reduction in local recurrence and improved survival. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03712770.

  18. LIHNCS - Lugol’s iodine in head and neck cancer surgery: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of Lugol’s iodine to assist excision of moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ at mucosal resection margins of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral cavity and oropharynx cancer are increasing in incidence worldwide but survival outcomes have not significantly improved over the last three decades. The presence of dysplasia or carcinoma in situ at surgical margins following resection of squamous carcinoma of the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck has been shown to be associated with a higher incidence of local recurrence and reduced survival. While invasive carcinoma in mucosal surfaces can usually be distinguished from adjacent normal mucous membrane, pre-malignant disease is much less readily distinguished at operation. We describe a protocol for a randomised, controlled trial in which we will assess the effectiveness of Lugol’s iodine staining in allowing visualisation and excision of cancer margin dysplasia at time of primary surgery. Methods/Design We will recruit 300 patients diagnosed with oral cavity or oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma. All participants will be planned for primary surgery with curative intent. After completion of baseline assessment participants will be randomised into either a standard surgical treatment arm or surgical treatment including Lugol’s iodine staining. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of a unique trial in head and neck surgical oncology. If margin dysplasia visualisation with Lugol’s iodine allows complete excision of high-risk, pre-cancer mucosa at time of primary surgery, this may lead to a reduction in local recurrence and improved survival. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03712770. PMID:24063578

  19. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They ... last as long as normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also ...

  20. Host cell reactivation in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Benane, S.G.; Stafford, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The survival of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus was determined in cultured Potoroo (a marsupial) and human cells under lighting conditions which promoted photereactivation. Photoreactivation was readily demonstrated for herpes virus in two lines of Potoroo cells with dose reduction factors of 0.7 to 0.8 for ovary cells and 0.5 to 0.7 for kidney cells. Light from Blacklite (near UV) lamps was more effective than from Daylight (mostly visible) lamps, suggesting that near UV radiation was more effecient for photoreactivation in Potoroo cells. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of this photoreactivation were similar to those reported for a similar virus infecting chick embryo cells. UV-survival curves of herpes virus in Potoroo cells indicated a high level of 'dark' host cell reactivation. No photoreactivation was found for UV-irradiated vaccinia virus in Potoroo cells. A similar photoreactivation study was done using special control lighting (lambda>600 nm) and human cells with normal repair and with cells deficient in excision repair (XP). No photoreactivation was found for UV-irradiated herpes virus in either human cell with either Blacklite or Daylight lamps as the sources of photoreactivating light. This result contrasts with a report of photoreactivation for a herpes virus in the same XP cells using incandescent lamps. (author)

  1. The determination of optimal cells disintegration method of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis fungals

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Rybalkyn

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis is common infectious disease that affects the mucous membranes, skin, nails, hair, and internal organs. Now Ukraine has neither domestic nor registered imported vaccine against candidiasis. The development of vaccine for prevention and treatment of candidiasis is a key issue in modern medicine and pharmacy. Similar research is actively conducted in many countries of the world: Russia, USA, Japan and others. It should be noted that researchers have not yet reached a consensus view ...

  2. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  3. Are mesenchymal stromal cells immune cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be promising agents for the treatment of immunological disease. Although originally identified as precursor cells for mesenchymal lineages, in vitro studies have demonstrated that MSCs possess diverse immune regulatory capacities.

  4. [Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast and the impact of the p63 and cytokeratin 5/6: experience of 40 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwell-Cabello, S; Maffuz-Aziz, A; Hernández-Hernández, B; Bautista-Piña, V; Labastida-Almendaro, S; Rodríguez-Cuevas, S

    2016-03-01

    Metaplasic carcinoma of the breast was initially described by Huvos in 1974. It is a rare and aggressive entity characterized by the presence of mesenchymal and epithelial components. To know the incidence and biologic behaviour of the metaplasic carcinoma of the breast at the Instituto de Enfermedades de la Mama, FUCAM, AC. Data on women diagnosed with metaplasic carcinoma of the breast between January 2005 and December 2014 was collected by retrospectively reviewing in FUCAM. Clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics were assessed. The five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. a total of 4198 patients have been diagnosed with breast cancer in our institution, 40 (0.95%) of them with metaplasic carcinoma. The median age of the patients was 46 years (27-73). 60% of the patients were diagnosed with an advanced clinical stage (III) and the triple-negative subtype was the most frequently found. A mean follow-up of 24 months showed rates of overall survival and disease-free survival of 80% and 69.9%, respectively. The presence of both, cytokeratins 5/6 and p63, seems to have a negative impact in local recurrence. this study demonstrates that metaplasic carcinoma is a rare and aggressive disease. Expression of both tumor cytokeratins was associated with a worse outcome.

  5. Polyethylene glycol-functionalized poly (Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid and graphene oxide nanoparticles induce pro-inflammatory and apoptotic responses in Candida albicans-infected vaginal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Doug Wagner

    Full Text Available Mucous-penetrating nanoparticles consisting of poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-polyethylene glycol (PEG could improve targeting of microbicidal drugs for sexually transmitted diseases by intravaginal inoculation. Nanoparticles can induce inflammatory responses, which may exacerbate the inflammation that occurs in the vaginal tracts of women with yeast infections. This study evaluated the effects of these drug-delivery nanoparticles on VK2(E6/E7 vaginal epithelial cell proinflammatory responses to Candida albicans yeast infections. Vaginal epithelial cell monolayers were infected with C. albicans and exposed to 100 μg/ml 49.5 nm PLGA-PEG nanospheres or 20 μg/ml 1.1 x 500 nm PEG-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PEG sheets. The cells were assessed for changes in mRNA and protein expression of inflammation-related genes by RT-qPCR and physiological markers of cell stress using high content analysis and flow cytometry. C. albicans exposure suppressed apoptotic gene expression, but induced oxidative stress in the cells. The nanomaterials induced cytotoxicity and programmed cell death responses alone and with C. albicans. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles induced mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes and induced poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, increased BAX/BCL2 ratios, and chromatin condensation indicative of apoptosis. They also induced autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and DNA damage. They caused the cells to excrete inflammatory recruitment molecules chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, interleukin-1α (IL1A, interleukin-1β (IL1B, calprotectin (S100A8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF. GO-PEG nanoparticles induced expression of necrosis-related genes and cytotoxicity. They reduced autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic gene expression responses. The results show that stealth nanoparticle drug-delivery vehicles may cause intracellular damage to vaginal epithelial cells by several mechanisms and that

  6. Galvanic cells: setting up the Daniell cell.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    With the reagents (0.05M copper nitrate solution, 0.05M zinc nitrate solution) and material (glassware, potentiometer, electric wire) availabe in the laboratory, the user must set up the Daniell cell. Different configurations can be possible if the half cells are filled with either electrolyte solution. The cell connections to the measuring device can also be changed. In all instances, an explanation of the set up cell is obtained as well as of the measured potential difference.

  7. Inside the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS Home > Science Education > Inside the Cell Inside the Cell Seeing Cells Classroom Poster Order a Free Copy Spotlight The Cell’s Mailroom The Proteasome: The Cell’s Trash Processor in ...

  8. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Long-term self-renewal Meiosis Mesenchymal stem cells Mesoderm Microenvironment Mitosis Multipotent Neural stem cell Neurons Oligodendrocyte ... layers. The three layers are the ectoderm , the mesoderm , and the endoderm . Hematopoietic stem cell - A stem ...

  9. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  10. [Natural killer cells complot with dendritic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elżbieta; Duś, Danuta

    2013-03-18

    Dendritic cells (DC) were initially considered as antigen presenting cells participating in the polarization of the immune response. Further understanding of their biology allowed determining their additional functions such as immunoregulatory and cytotoxicity. Until recently natural killer (NK) cells were known as a homogeneous population of lymphocytes capable of non-specific recognizing and eliminating target cells. Now it is widely accepted that NK cells, as a heterogeneous population, may also possess immunomodulatory functions. Moreover, the most recent analysis of the interactions between DC and NK cells revealed the exceptional functions of these cells. As a result of these studies the existence of bitypic cell population was postulated. The distinguishing features of these hybrid cells are: the expression of surface receptors typical for NK cells and DC, the cytotoxic activity, the production of interferons as well as their ability to present antigen after prior stimulation. Despite the lack of strong direct evidence that the same cell can be both cytotoxic and effectively present the antigen at the same time, there are experimental findings suggesting that generated ex vivo bitypic cells may be used in antitumor therapy. 

  11. NK cells and T cells: mirror images?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, R.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of MHC class I molecules protects cells against lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. It is possible that NK cells are 'educated' to recognize self MHC class I molecules and that the combination of self peptide and MHC class I molecule blocks NK-mediated lysis. Here, Rogier Versteeg

  12. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  13. Cell control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This extensive report provides an essential overview of cells and their use as factory automation building blocks. The following issues are discussed in depth: Cell integration Cell software and standards Future technologies applied to cells Plus Cell control applications including: - rotary parts manufacturing - diesel engine component development - general cell control development at the General Electric Corporation - a vendor list.

  14. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  15. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  16. The hallmarks of cell-cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Javier M; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2017-12-15

    Cell-cell fusion is essential for fertilization and organ development. Dedicated proteins known as fusogens are responsible for mediating membrane fusion. However, until recently, these proteins either remained unidentified or were poorly understood at the mechanistic level. Here, we review how fusogens surmount multiple energy barriers to mediate cell-cell fusion. We describe how early preparatory steps bring membranes to a distance of ∼10 nm, while fusogens act in the final approach between membranes. The mechanical force exerted by cell fusogens and the accompanying lipidic rearrangements constitute the hallmarks of cell-cell fusion. Finally, we discuss the relationship between viral and eukaryotic fusogens, highlight a classification scheme regrouping a superfamily of fusogens called Fusexins, and propose new questions and avenues of enquiry. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Cell mechanics: a dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiaxiang; Li, Yizeng; Vig, Dhruv K.; Sun, Sean X.

    2017-03-01

    Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary. These mass fluxes can come from polymerization/depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton, as well as osmotic and hydraulic pressure-driven flow of water across the cell membrane. By combining hydraulic pressure control with force balance conditions at the cell surface, we discuss a quantitative mechanism of cell shape and volume control. The broad consequences of this model on cell mechanosensation and tissue mechanics are outlined.

  18. [Exosomes and Immune Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Naohiro

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the cytokines and cytotoxic granules, exosomes have been known as the intercellular communicator and cytotoxic missile of immune cells for the past decade. It has been well known that mature dendritic cell(DC)-derived exosomes participate in the T cell and natural killer(NK)cell activation, while immature DCs secrete tolerogenic exosomes for regulatory T(Treg)cell generation. Treg cell-derived EVs act as a suppressor against pathogenic type-1 T helper(Th1)cell responses. CD8+ T cells produce tumoricidal exosomes for preventing tumor invasion and metastasis transiently after T cell receptor(TCR)-mediated stimulation. Thus, immune cells produce functional exosomes in the activation state- and/or differentiation stage-dependent manner. In this review, the role of immune cell-derived exosomes will be introduced, focusing mainly on immune reaction against tumor.

  19. FNAC induced histological changes in Warthin tumor mimicking as cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NK Sinha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Warthin tumor is the second most common salivary gland tumor affecting male in 6th to 7th decade of life. It can grow in peri- parotid or cervical lymph nodes too. Preoperative FNAC procedure can induce partial to near total infarction and metaplastic changes in tumor masquerading with malignancy, mainly squamous cell carcinoma or low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma.Here, I present a case in which FNAC procedure was performed. Later on histopathology, metaplastic changes in epithelium of Warthin tumor and extensive infarction were noted. Such lesion could have been mistaken as Squamous cell carcinoma or low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Thus acquaintance with morphological alteration caused by FNAC procedure is very important to avoid misdiagnosis.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2015 Vol. 5, 778-780

  20. [The salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis Girard, 1857 (Serpentes, Colubridae). A morphological, morphometric and histological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R A; Contrera, M G; da Costa, J R; Petenusci, S O; Lima-Verde, J S

    1982-01-01

    Morphological, morphometrical and histochemical studies of the cell types in the salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis have been performed. It is concluded: 1) the acini of supra, infralabial and premaxillary glands are formed by mucous and mucoserous cells; the Duvernoy's gland by seromucous cells; 2) mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid; mucoserous cells show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals; seromucous cells of Duvernoy's gland show neutral mucosubstance and protein radicals. The acinar area, height of tubule and duct cells, and nuclear volume of acinar, tubule and duct cells were evaluated morphometrically.

  1. Tracking adult stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context,

  2. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  3. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: the effects of N-ethyl-maleimide and hydroxyurea on hamster cells in culture; sensitization of synchronized human cells to x rays by N-ethylmaleimide; sensitization of hypoxic mammalian cells with a sulfhydryl inhibitor; damage interaction due to ionizing and nonionizing radiation in mammalian cells; DNA damage relative to radioinduced cell killing; spurious photolability of DNA labeled with methyl- 14 C-thymidine; radioinduced malignant transformation of cultured mouse cells; a comparison of properties of uv and near uv light relative to cell function and DNA damage; Monte Carlo simulation of DNA damage and repair mechanisms; and radiobiology of fast neutrons

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwood, Nicole J.; Dazzi, Francesco; Zaher, Walid

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are stem cell populations present among the bone marrow stroma and a number of other tissues that are capable of multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSC provide supportive stroma for growth...... and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and hematopoiesis. These cells have been described as important immunoregulators due to their ability to suppress T cells proliferation. MSC can also directly contribute to tissue repair by migrating to sites of injury and providing a source of cells...

  6. Removable hot cell liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgibbon, F.J.; Shaffer, D.S.; Ledbetter, J.M.; Wood, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    In 1959 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposed design requirements for an alpha-gamma box system. Among the requirements was a provision for conveniently removing a contaminated cell liner (alpha-gamma box) from an operating cell. Various situations, such as a change in program direction, outmoded equipment, or an unexpected development, could result in a decision to replace a cell liner and reuse the cell for another purpose. The contaminated cell liners could either be stored temporarily for possible future use or disposed of at the LASL contaminated Waste Disposal Area. LASL's experience removing used hot cell liners from operating cells is described

  7. Cell-Based Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kitada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell transplantation is a strategy with great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and many types of stem cells, including neural stem cells and embryonic stem cells, are considered candidates for transplantation therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells are a great therapeutic cell source because they are easy accessible and can be expanded from patients or donor mesenchymal tissues without posing serious ethical and technical problems. They have trophic effects for protecting damaged tissues as well as differentiation ability to generate a broad spectrum of cells, including dopamine neurons, which contribute to the replenishment of lost cells in Parkinson's disease. This paper focuses mainly on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic cell source and discusses their potential clinical application in Parkinson's disease.

  8. NK Cell Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jiacheng; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer cells are important effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, playing critical roles in antitumor and anti-infection host defense. Tumor progression or chronic infections, however, usually leads to exhaustion of NK cells, thus limiting the antitumor/infection potential of NK cells. In many tumors or chronic infections, multiple mechanisms might contribute to the exhaustion of NK cells, such as dysregulated NK cell receptors signaling, as well as suppressive effects by regulatory cells or soluble factors within the microenvironment. Better understanding of the characteristics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of NK cell exhaustion, not only should increase our understanding of the basic biology of NK cells but also could reveal novel NK cell-based antitumor/infection targets. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge on NK cell exhaustion in tumors, and in chronic infections. PMID:28702032

  9. Fuel cells seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  10. Cell fusion of bone marrow cells and somatic cell reprogramming by embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Sabrina; Pedram, Mehrdad; Stultz, Ryan; Zavazava, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is a curative treatment for many diseases, including leukemia, autoimmune diseases, and a number of immunodeficiencies. Recently, it was claimed that bone marrow cells transdifferentiate, a much desired property as bone marrow cells are abundant and therefore could be used in regenerative medicine to treat incurable chronic diseases. Using a Cre/loxP system, we studied cell fusion after bone marrow transplantation. Fused cells were chiefly Gr-1+, a myeloid cell mar...

  11. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Characterized by Abundant Stromal Components with Chondroid and Osseous Metaplasia in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    KOBAYASHI, Ryosuke; YAMADA, Naoaki; KITAMORI, Takashi; KITAMORI, Fumiyo; SATO, Kazunari; DOI, Takuya; WAKO, Yumi; SATO, Junko; TSUCHITANI, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A dog developed a cervical mass, and computed tomography verified a mass surrounding the trachea with some pulmonary masses. Histopathologically, the cervical mass was composed of malignant neoplastic cells showing follicular appearance which reacted positive for thyroglobulin on immunohistochemistry. A characteristic feature of the tumor was abundant and metaplastic stromal components. Anastomosed collagenous tissues connecting to capsule of the tumor were abundant in the stroma. In...

  12. Quantitative characterization of cell behaviors through cell cycle progression via automated cell tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Wang

    Full Text Available Cell behaviors are reflections of intracellular tension dynamics and play important roles in many cellular processes. In this study, temporal variations in cell geometry and cell motion through cell cycle progression were quantitatively characterized via automated cell tracking for MCF-10A non-transformed breast cells, MCF-7 non-invasive breast cancer cells, and MDA-MB-231 highly metastatic breast cancer cells. A new cell segmentation method, which combines the threshold method and our modified edge based active contour method, was applied to optimize cell boundary detection for all cells in the field-of-view. An automated cell-tracking program was implemented to conduct live cell tracking over 40 hours for the three cell lines. The cell boundary and location information was measured and aligned with cell cycle progression with constructed cell lineage trees. Cell behaviors were studied in terms of cell geometry and cell motion. For cell geometry, cell area and cell axis ratio were investigated. For cell motion, instantaneous migration speed, cell motion type, as well as cell motion range were analyzed. We applied a cell-based approach that allows us to examine and compare temporal variations of cell behavior along with cell cycle progression at a single cell level. Cell body geometry along with distribution of peripheral protrusion structures appears to be associated with cell motion features. Migration speed together with motion type and motion ranges are required to distinguish the three cell-lines examined. We found that cells dividing or overlapping vertically are unique features of cell malignancy for both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas abrupt changes in cell body geometry and cell motion during mitosis are unique to highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our live cell tracking system serves as an invaluable tool to identify cell behaviors that are unique to malignant and/or highly metastatic breast cancer cells.

  13. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  14. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  15. What are Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem cells are those that can only form specific cells in the body such as blood cells based. Based on the sources of stem cells we have three types of these cells: Autologous: Sources of the patient own cells are (Autologous either the cells from patient own body or his or her cord blood. For this type of transplant the physician now usually collects the periphery rather than morrow because the procedure is easier on like a bane morrow harvest it take place outside of an operating room, and the patient does not to be under general unsetting . Allogenic: Sources of stem cells from another donore are primarily relatives (familial allogenic or completely unrelated donors. Xenogenic: In these stem cells from different species are transplanted e .g striatal porcine fetal mesan cephalic (FVM xenotransplants for Parkinson’s disease. On sites of isolation such as embryo, umbilical cord and other body tissues stem cells are named embnyonic, cord blood, and adult stem cells. The scope of results and clinical application of stem cells are such as: Neurodegenerative conditions (MS,ALS, Parkinson’s, Stroke, Ocular disorders- Glaucoma, retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Auto Immune Conditions (Lupus, MS,R. arthritis, Diabetes, etc, Viral Conditions (Hepatitis C and AIDS, Heart Disease, Adrenal Disorders, Injury(Nerve, Brain, etc, Anti aging (hair, skin, weight control, overall well being/preventive, Emotional disorders, Organ / Tissue Cancers, Blood cancers, Blood diseases

  16. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  17. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Schwann Cell Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by

  18. Regulation of cell polarity by cell adhesion receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebnet, Klaus; Kummer, Daniel; Steinbacher, Tim; Singh, Amrita; Nakayama, Masanori; Matis, Maja

    2017-07-22

    The ability of cells to polarize is an intrinsic property of almost all cells and is required for the devlopment of most multicellular organisms. To develop cell polarity, cells integrate various signals derived from intrinsic as well as extrinsic sources. In the recent years, cell-cell adhesion receptors have turned out as important regulators of cellular polarization. By interacting with conserved cell polarity proteins, they regulate the recruitment of polarity complexes to specific sites of cell-cell adhesion. By initiating intracellular signaling cascades at those sites, they trigger their specific subcellular activation. Not surprisingly, cell-cell adhesion receptors regulate diverse aspects of cell polarity, including apico-basal polarity in epithelial and endothelial cells, front-to-rear polarity in collectively migrating cells, and planar cell polarity during organ development. Here, we review the recent developments highlighting the central roles of cell-cell adhesion molecules in the development of cell polarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell cycle control by components of cell anchorage

    OpenAIRE

    Gad, Annica

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular factors, such as growth factors and cell anchorage to the extracellular matrix, control when and where cells may proliferate. This control is abolished when a normal cell transforms into a tumour cell. The control of cell proliferation by cell anchorage was elusive and less well studied than the control by growth factors. Therefore, we aimed to clarify at what points in the cell cycle and through which molecular mechanisms cell anchorage controls cell cycle pro...

  20. The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-13

    The generation of insulin-producing β cells from stem cells in vitro provides a promising source of cells for cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. However, insulin-producing cells generated from human stem cells show deficiency in many functional characteristics compared with pancreatic β cells. Recent reports have shown molecular ties between the cell cycle and the differentiation mechanism of embryonic stem (ES) cells, assuming that cell fate decisions are controlled by the cell cycle machinery. Both β cells and ES cells possess unique cell cycle machinery yet with significant contrasts. In this review, we compare the cell cycle control mechanisms in both ES cells and β cells, and highlight the fundamental differences between pluripotent cells of embryonic origin and differentiated β cells. Through critical analysis of the differences of the cell cycle between these two cell types, we propose that the cell cycle of ES cells may act as a brake for β-cell regeneration. Based on these differences, we discuss the potential of modulating the cell cycle of ES cells for the large-scale generation of functionally mature β cells in vitro. Further understanding of the factors that modulate the ES cell cycle will lead to new approaches to enhance the production of functional mature insulin-producing cells, and yield a reliable system to generate bona fide β cells in vitro.

  1. Regulatory T cells and B cells: implication on autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Zheng, Song Guo

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Although most studies are focusing on the role of Treg cells in T cells and T cells-mediated diseases, these cells also directly affect B cells and other non-T cells. This manuscript updates the role of Treg cells on the B cells and B cell-mediated diseases. In addition, the mechanisms whereby Treg cells suppress B cell responses have been discussed.

  2. [Histochemical properties of secretory granules and fine structure of terminal portion in the Japanese Macaque labial gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutusumi, T; Kurabuchi, S; Aiyama, S

    1989-06-01

    The terminal portion of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) labial gland was examined ultrastructurally and histochemically. The results obtained are as follows. 1) The Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata has the upper and the lower labial glands, which can be described as a compound tubulo-acinar gland. 2) The terminal portion of the labial gland appears to be consisted of the mucous acini and the demilunes when examined with the light microscope. 3) The secretory granules containing in the glandular cells of the mucous acini and the demilunes are negative with napthol yellow S, ninhydrin-Schiff and DMAB nitrite. 4) The secretory granules containing in the glandular cells of mucous acini stain intensely with PAS, alcian blue (pH1.0, 2.5, 3.5), colloidal iron and PA-methenamine silver, while those of demilunes are negative with alcian blue (pH1.0). The glandular cells of demilune with the PA-methenamine silver method shows weak positive granules and positive granules which are limited to the hallo of them. 5) In the mucous acini the mucous granules are ejected from glandular cells by the process of exocytosis. 6) The myoepithelial cell can be seen in the terminal portion. This cell surrounds the acini with long processes. These findings suggest that the glandular cells of the demilune have the granules containing mucopoly saccharides and a small quantity of protein in addition to the mucous granules, although the terminal portion of the Japanese macaque labial gland is nearly composed of mucous cells.

  3. Follicular thyroid carcinoma characterized by abundant stromal components with chondroid and osseous metaplasia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Yamada, Naoaki; Kitamori, Takashi; Kitamori, Fumiyo; Sato, Kazunari; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Sato, Junko; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    A dog developed a cervical mass, and computed tomography verified a mass surrounding the trachea with some pulmonary masses. Histopathologically, the cervical mass was composed of malignant neoplastic cells showing follicular appearance which reacted positive for thyroglobulin on immunohistochemistry. A characteristic feature of the tumor was abundant and metaplastic stromal components. Anastomosed collagenous tissues connecting to capsule of the tumor were abundant in the stroma. In parts of the collagenous tissues, mature cartilages and bones were continuously formed. There was no cellular atypia or invasion in the components. We diagnosed this case as follicular thyroid carcinoma with metaplastic stroma. This is the first case report that characterizes stromal components with chondroid and osseous metaplasia in a canine thyroid carcinoma.

  4. Is mammary not otherwise specified-type sarcoma with CD10 expression a distinct entity? A rare case report with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guang-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mammary sarcoma is extremely rare and the diagnosis is established only after metaplastic carcinomas and malignant phyllodes tumours are excluded. A rare case of not otherwise specified-type sarcoma with CD10 expression in the left breast in a 45-year-old female was presented. It was a high-grade tumour composed of spindle cells histologically. The immunohistochemical results showed that CD10, vimentin and EGFR were positive diffusely and SMA presented focally, whereas epithelial markers and other myoepithelial or myogenic markers were all negative. The electron microscope investigation demonstrated fibroblast-like features. The exact entity of the tumour remains to be studied because it resembles undifferentiated sarcoma or sarcomatoid metaplastic carcinoma to some degree, as well as high-grade malignant phyllodes tumour in particular. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9019879588725702

  5. The ultrastructural localization of gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) in breast epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoujian, G.; Warhol, M. J.; Haagensen, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    GCDFP-15 is a major constituent protein of 15,000-dalton monomer size present in breast gross cystic disease fluid. Immunoperoxidase staining of GCDFP-15 has shown the protein to be present in normal apocrine epithelium, metaplastic apocrine epithelium of the breast, and breast carcinomas with apocrine features. To delineate ultrastructurally the localization of GCDFP-15 in benign breast epithelium, a low-temperature embedding colloidal gold technique was used. Metaplastic apocrine epithelium of the breast showed GCDFP-15 to be localized in Golgi vesicles and cytoplasmic granules. At the cell apices these granules were contained in vacuoles and appeared to be released by exocytosis. There was labeling of cyst fluid within microcyst lumens. This report is the first to ultrastructurally characterize this protein and its mode of secretion. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:6205595

  6. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell trait toolkit » Sickle cell trait fact sheet » SCT and Athletes Some people with SCT have been ... ill. Recommendations on Screening of Student Athletes for SCT Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders ...

  7. Antioxidants: Protecting Healthy Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrients Antioxidants - Protecting Healthy Cells Print Email Antioxidants - Protecting Healthy Cells Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... to cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Antioxidants — such as vitamins C and E and carotenoids, ...

  8. Fuel cells: Project Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellone, R.; Di Mario, F.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses research and development in the field of fuel cell power plants. Reference is made to the Italian research Project Volta. Problems related to research program financing and fuel cell power plant marketing are discussed.

  9. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  10. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  11. Fluorescence live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Andreas; Wittmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein (FP) tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate FP constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  13. Basal cell nevus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nevus syndrome Basal cell nevus syndrome - face References Evans DG, Farndon PA. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  14. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... H, Shuda M, Chang Y, et al . “Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma.” ... look at it under the microscope. This process continues until the surgeon no longer sees cancer cells. ...

  15. Separators for electrochemical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2018-01-16

    Provided are separators for use in an electrochemical cell comprising (a) an inorganic oxide and (b) an organic polymer, wherein the inorganic oxide comprises organic substituents. Also provided are electrochemical cells comprising such separators.

  16. Dendritic cell vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Paul J; Lyerly, H Kim; Clay, Timothy M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2007-05-01

    Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that have been shown to stimulate tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in preclinical studies. Consequently, there has been intense interest in developing dendritic cell based cancer vaccines. A variety of methods for generating dendritic cells, loading them with tumor antigens, and administering them to patients have been described. In recent years, a number of early phase clinical trials have been performed and have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of dendritic cell immunotherapies. A number of these trials have generated valuable preliminary data regarding the clinical and immunologic response to DC-based immunotherapy. The emphasis of dendritic cell immunotherapy research is increasingly shifting toward the development of strategies to increase the potency of dendritic cell vaccine preparations.

  17. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graft-versus-host disease: A potential risk when stem cells come from donors If you receive a transplant ... medications and blood products into your body. Collecting stem cells for transplant If a transplant using your own ...

  18. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  19. Sickle cell anemia.

    OpenAIRE

    ŘÍHOVÁ, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about the disease called sickle cell anemia, or drepanocytosis. In this thesis is described the history of the disease, pathophysiology, laboratory features, various clinical features, diferencial diagnosis, quality of life in sickle cell anemia and therapy.

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwood, Nicole J.; Dazzi, Francesco; Zaher, Walid

    2012-01-01

    and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and hematopoiesis. These cells have been described as important immunoregulators due to their ability to suppress T cells proliferation. MSC can also directly contribute to tissue repair by migrating to sites of injury and providing a source of cells......Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are stem cell populations present among the bone marrow stroma and a number of other tissues that are capable of multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSC provide supportive stroma for growth...... for differentiation and/or providing bystander support for resident stromal cells. This chapter discusses the cellular and molecular properties of MSC, the mechanisms by which they can modulate immune responses and the clinical applications of MSC in disorders such as graft-versus-host disease and aplastic anaemia...

  1. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  2. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies......-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories....

  3. Anterior Horn Cell Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Firinciogullari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement. Motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking lead patients to seek medical attention. In this article, anterior horn diseases were reviewed, diagnostic criteria and management were discussed in detail. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 269-303

  4. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  5. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  6. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indrani Bose

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... Cell differentiation is an important process in living organisms. Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with the progenitor cells choosing between two specific lineages. The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic and stochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell ...

  7. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells independe...

  8. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human

  9. Textured perovskite cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Tezsevin, Y.; Barink, M.

    2017-01-01

    Most research of texturization of solar cells has been devoted to Si based cells. For perovskites, it was assumed that texturization would not have much of an impact because of the relatively low refractive indexes lead to relatively low reflection as compared to the Si based cells. However, our

  10. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  11. Stem cell heterogeneity revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne S; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite...... of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance....

  12. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cell differentiation is an important process in living organisms. Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with theprogenitor cells choosing between two specific lineages. The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic andstochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell differentiation is a ...

  13. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sickle cell gene on to their kids. Symptoms of sickle cell disease Anemia is a common symptom of SCD. It occurs from a lack of ... SCD cannot be prevented since it is genetic. Sickle cell disease treatment ... of SCD, your symptoms, and your overall health. Most treatment options aim ...

  14. Sickle cell test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells that carries oxygen. In sickle cell disease, a person has two abnormal hemoglobin S genes. A person with sickle cell trait has only one of these abnormal genes and no symptoms, or only mild ones. This test does not ...

  15. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to

  16. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirmi, Goberdhan P.; Campisi, Judith; Peacocke, Monica

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, .beta.-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo.

  17. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  18. Mutagenesis in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burki, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mutagenic processes in synchronous cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells have been studied. There is a difference in the induction of mutants by ultraviolet light during the cell cycle. There appears to be a sensitive period in the middle of the G1 stage of the cell cycle suggesting some mutagenic mechanism is present at that time. Studies indicate that mutation induction during the cell cycle is also mutagen specific since exposure to ethyl nitrosourea in the same system produces different results. Two clones have been isolated which are ultrasensitive to ultraviolet light. These cells are being used to determine if this hypermutability is cell-cycle dependent, related to cell cycle biochemistry, or to repair processes independent of cell cycle. Tritium and bromodeoxyuridine induced damage to synchronously dividing cell cultures are also being studied in relation to DNA replication. Cell killing by ionizing radiation is also related to the cell cycle. Sensitive times in the cell cycle for mutation induction by ionization radiation are identified

  19. Mast cell activation disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Blood basophils also participate in allergic and other inflammatory reactions in the same way as mast cells.4. The capacity of mast cells and basophil to release mediators of anaphylaxis in response to cell activation, also termed releasability, depends on a number of different factors, including the primary underlying disease ...

  20. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  1. Spermatogonial stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de rooij, D. G.; Grootegoed, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    The mammalian seminiferous epithelium consists of a highly complex yet well-organized cell population, with germ cells in mitosis and meiosis and postmeiotic cells undergoing transformation to become spermatozoa. To study the factors which control renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem

  2. Evaluation of Barrett esophagus by multiphoton microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxin; Wong, Serena; Nathanson, Michael H; Jain, Dhanpat

    2014-02-01

    foveolar-type mucous cells, and parietal cells in the area of gastroesophageal junction. Based on the cell types identified, the mucosa was defined as squamous, columnar gastric type (cardia/fundic-type), and metaplastic columnar intestinal-type/BE. Various types of mucosa seen in the study of 35 biopsies included normal squamous mucosa only (n = 14; 40%), gastric cardia-type mucosa only (n = 2; 6%), gastric fundic mucosa (n = 6; 17%), and both squamous and gastric mucosa (n = 13; 37%). Intestinal metaplasia was identified by the presence of goblet cells in 10 of 25 cases (40%) leading to a diagnosis of BE on MPM imaging and only in 7 cases (28%) by histopathology. In 3 of 35 biopsies (9%), clear-cut goblet cells were seen by MPM imaging but not by histopathology, even after the entire tissue block was sectioned. Based on effective 2-photon excitation fluorescence of elastin and second-harmonic generation of collagen, connective tissue in the lamina propria and the basement membrane was also visualized with MPM. Multiphoton microscopy has the ability to accurately distinguish squamous epithelium and different cellular elements of the columnar mucosa obtained from biopsies around the gastroesophageal junction, including goblet cells that are important for the diagnosis of BE. Thus, use of MPM in the endoscopy suite might provide immediate microscopic images during endoscopy, improving screening and surveillance of patients with BE.

  3. Initial endometriosis showing direct morphologic evidence of metaplasia in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenxin; Li, Ning; Wang, Jun; Ulukus, E Cagnur; Ulukus, Murat; Arici, Aydin; Liang, Sharon X

    2005-04-01

    It is believed that ovarian endometriosis may be generated by a celomic metaplastic process from existing epithelium in the ovary. However, no morphologic evidence of metaplastic process has been described. In this study, we intended to identify the earliest morphologic changes of endometriosis within the ovary to examine if evidence of metaplasia exists. Included in this study were 110 ovarian endometriosis cases and 30 benign ovaries without endometriosis but with ovarian epithelial inclusions (OEIs). Among the 110 well-established ovarian endometriosis cases, 34 cases showed areas of initial endometriosis (IE), which is defined as lesions showing direct transitions from normal-looking ovarian tissue to areas of minimal formation of endometriosis and/or to areas of full-blown endometriosis. We further divided IE into two types: type I IE was present on the ovarian surface, which was associated with ovarian surface epithelia; type II was located within the ovarian cortex, which was associated with OEIs. Sections containing IE, OEIs, and well-formed endometriosis were subject to CD10 and aromatase immunostaining. In IE lesions, the number of CD10-positive cells were significantly higher than the number of that in OEIs, but lower than that of well-formed endometriosis areas (p OEI (p OEI to IE lesions provide direct metaplastic evidence for the pathogenesis of ovarian endometriosis. This metaplastic process may not only involve the ovarian epithelial cells, but also stromal components. Local production of estrogen, probably in high-levels, may be related to the initial process of endometriosis, although detailed mechanisms remain to be clarified.

  4. Place Cells, Grid Cells, Attractors, and Remapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Place and grid cells are thought to use a mixture of external sensory information and internal attractor dynamics to organize their activity. Attractor dynamics may explain both why neurons react coherently following sufficiently large changes to the environment (discrete attractors and how firing patterns move smoothly from one representation to the next as an animal moves through space (continuous attractors. However, some features of place cell behavior, such as the sometimes independent responsiveness of place cells to environmental change (called “remapping”, seem hard to reconcile with attractor dynamics. This paper suggests that the explanation may be found in an anatomical separation of the two attractor systems coupled with a dynamic contextual modulation of the connection matrix between the two systems, with new learning being back-propagated into the matrix. Such a scheme could explain how place cells sometimes behave coherently and sometimes independently.

  5. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe April 2012 Print this issue When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease Send us your ... Diabetes? Sound Health Wise Choices Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

  6. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  7. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  8. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  9. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  10. Pancreatic cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheong J; Dosch, Joseph; Simeone, Diane M

    2008-06-10

    Cellular heterogeneity in cancer was observed decades ago by studies in mice which showed that distinct subpopulations of cells within a tumor mass are capable of driving tumorigenesis. Conceptualized from this finding was the stem-cell hypothesis for cancer, which suggests that only a specific subset of cancer cells within each tumor is responsible for tumor initiation and propagation, termed tumor initiating cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent data has been provided to support the existence of CSCs in human blood cell-derived cancers and solid organ tumors of the breast, brain, prostate, colon, and skin. Study of human pancreatic cancers has also revealed a specific subpopulation of cancer cells that possess the characteristics of CSCs. These pancreatic cancer stem cells express the cell surface markers CD44, CD24, and epithelial-specific antigen, and represent 0.5% to 1.0% of all pancreatic cancer cells. Along with the properties of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, pancreatic CSCs display upregulation of important developmental genes that maintain self-renewal in normal stem cells, including Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and BMI-1. Signaling cascades that are integral in tumor metastasis are also upregulated in the pancreatic CSC. Understanding the biologic behavior and the molecular pathways that regulate growth, survival, and metastasis of pancreatic CSCs will help to identify novel therapeutic approaches to treat this dismal disease.

  11. Collision tumours, squamous cell carcinoma of larynx, papillary thyroid carcinoma, metastatic lymphatic node. Clinical Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, V; Gomez, R; Yoffe, I.; Liu, T.; Arias, J.; Quiroz, J.; Gonzalez, M; Ayala, E.

    2010-01-01

    the opening of the stoma. Papillary carcinoma compromises peritiroideo deep surgical limits and mucous upper right margin. Squamous cell carcinoma committed focally vocal cord left. Foci of vascular and perineural invasion papillary carcinoma. Two papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph nodes perilaringeos. Right middle yugulocarotidea 2-Chain: papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph node conglomerate (9.3 cm.) And tissue extension adipose periganglionar and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of two lymph nodes (macro metastasis with capsule intact). 3-Chain yugulocarotidea middle and lower left: papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph node conglomerate in (7.2 cm.) And metastatic squamous cell carcinoma four lymph nodes (macro metastases with capsule intact). In two of said nodes simultaneously both tumor metastases is observed. Starts radiation therapy (65Gy) weekly concurrent CDDP, after which there is no evidence of tumor. Six months later, treatment is performed with ablative doses of iodine 131 scintigraphy showed that the remaining thyroid nodular captante in glandular bed. The patient progresses with lung and liver metastases died at 10 months after surgery. Although the literature we found other cases of tumors in collision, we have not found a case with two metastatic tumors in a single node with these histologist

  12. The Human Cell Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A; Lander, Eric S; Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-12-05

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

  13. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  14. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  15. Stem Cell Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  16. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  17. Human regulatory B cells control the TFH cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Achouak; Simon, Quentin; Mohr, Audrey; Séité, Jean-François; Youinou, Pierre; Bendaoud, Boutahar; Ghedira, Ibtissem; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jamin, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Follicular helper T (T FH ) cells support terminal B-cell differentiation. Human regulatory B (Breg) cells modulate cellular responses, but their control of T FH cell-dependent humoral immune responses is unknown. We sought to assess the role of Breg cells on T FH cell development and function. Human T cells were polyclonally stimulated in the presence of IL-12 and IL-21 to generate T FH cells. They were cocultured with B cells to induce their terminal differentiation. Breg cells were included in these cultures, and their effects were evaluated by using flow cytometry and ELISA. B-cell lymphoma 6, IL-21, inducible costimulator, CXCR5, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressions increased on stimulated human T cells, characterizing T FH cell maturation. In cocultures they differentiated B cells into CD138 + plasma and IgD - CD27 + memory cells and triggered immunoglobulin secretions. Breg cells obtained by Toll-like receptor 9 and CD40 activation of B cells prevented T FH cell development. Added to T FH cell and B-cell cocultures, they inhibited B-cell differentiation, impeded immunoglobulin secretions, and expanded Foxp3 + CXCR5 + PD-1 + follicular regulatory T cells. Breg cells modulated IL-21 receptor expressions on T FH cells and B cells, and their suppressive activities involved CD40, CD80, CD86, and intercellular adhesion molecule interactions and required production of IL-10 and TGF-β. Human Breg cells control T FH cell maturation, expand follicular regulatory T cells, and inhibit the T FH cell-mediated antibody secretion. These novel observations demonstrate a role for the Breg cell in germinal center reactions and suggest that deficient activities might impair the T FH cell-dependent control of humoral immunity and might lead to the development of aberrant autoimmune responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Well-Controlled Cell-Trapping Systems for Investigating Heterogeneous Cell-Cell Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Koki; Abe, Yuta; Inoue, Kosuke; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kawano, Ryuji; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2018-03-01

    Microfluidic systems have been developed for patterning single cells to study cell-cell interactions. However, patterning multiple types of cells to understand heterogeneous cell-cell interactions remains difficult. Here, it is aimed to develop a cell-trapping device to assemble multiple types of cells in the well-controlled order and morphology. This device mainly comprises a parylene sheet for assembling cells and a microcomb for controlling the cell-trapping area. The cell-trapping area is controlled by moving the parylene sheet on an SU-8 microcomb using tweezers. Gentle downward flow is used as a driving force for the cell-trapping. The assembly of cells on a parylene sheet with round and line-shaped apertures is demonstrated. The cell-cell contacts of the trapped cells are then investigated by direct cell-cell transfer of calcein via connexin nanopores. Finally, using the device with a system for controlling the cell-trapping area, three different types of cells in the well-controlled order are assembled. The correct cell order rate obtained using the device is 27.9%, which is higher than that obtained without the sliding parylene system (0.74%). Furthermore, the occurrence of cell-cell contact between the three cell types assembled is verified. This cell-patterning device will be a useful tool for investigating heterogeneous cell-cell interactions. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Involvement of plant stem cells or stem cell-like cells in dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to procambium cells (stem cell-like cells are dedifferentiated and survive more easily than other cell types. This finding indicates that stem cells or stem cell-like cells may influence the dedifferentiating niche. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of stem cell maintenance and dedifferentiation regulation. We also summarize current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance between differentiation and dedifferentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation of stem cells or stem cell-like cells with dedifferentiation.

  20. What is Sickle Cell Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Congenital Anemias Including Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) and Beta-Thalassemia. Are you an adult with sickle cell disease ... Severe Congenital Anemias Including Sickle Cell Disease and Beta-Thalassemia. Are you 16 or older with sickle cell ...

  1. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  2. Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran S. Chaudhry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of only a finite number of tobacco toxins have been studied. Here, we describe exposure of cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells to low concentrations of tobacco carcinogens: nickel sulphate, benzo(bfluoranthene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. After a 24-hour exposure, EGFR was expressed in cell membrane and cytoplasm, BCL-2 was expressed only in the irregular nuclei of large atypical cells, MKI67 was expressed in nuclei with no staining in larger cells, cytoplasmic BIRC5 with stronger nuclear staining was seen in large atypical cells, and nuclear TP53 was strongly expressed in all cells. After only a 24-hour exposure, cells exhibited atypical nuclear and cytoplasmic features. After a 48-hour exposure, EGFR staining was localized to the nucleus, BCL-2 was slightly decreased in intensity, BIRC5 was localized to the cytoplasm, and TP53 staining was increased in small and large cells. BCL2L1 was expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells at 24- and 48-hour exposures. We illustrate that short-termexposure of a bronchial epithelial cell line to smoking-equivalent concentrations of tobacco carcinogens alters the expression of key proliferation regulatory genes, EGFR, BCL-2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, TP53, and MKI67, similar to that reported in biopsy specimens of pulmonary epithelium described to be preneoplastic lesions.

  3. Mast Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2014-01-01

    Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role. PMID:25062998

  4. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daland, Geneva A.; Isaacs, Raphael

    1927-01-01

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells. PMID:19869329

  5. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  6. NKT cells in leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Chimal, Jaime; Hernández-Ruiz, Joselín; Becker, Ingeborg

    2017-04-01

    The role of NKT cells in the resistance or susceptibility towards Leishmania infections remains to be defined, since controversial data persist. The response of these cells seems to depend on many variables such as the infection site, the number of infecting parasites, the virulence of the strain and the Leishmania species. We here revise the activation pathways leading to NKT cell activation. NKT cells can be activated by the direct pathway, in which Leishmania glycolipids are presented by CD1d molecules on antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC), leading to the secretion of diverse cytokines by NKT. NKT cells can also be activated by the indirect pathway, in which Leishmania glycolipids, such as LPG, stimulate TLR2 in DC, inducing their IL-12 production, which in turn activates NKT cells. The review further analyzes the role of NKT cells in disease development, both in humans as in mouse models. Finally we propose the activation of NKT cells for controlling Leishmania infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Biology of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Grahame J; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Trapp, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental roles of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve formation and regeneration have been recognized for more than 100 years, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that integrate Schwann cell and axonal functions continue to be elucidated. Derived from the embryonic neural crest, Schwann cells differentiate into myelinating cells or bundle multiple unmyelinated axons into Remak fibers. Axons dictate which differentiation path Schwann cells follow, and recent studies have established that axonal neuregulin1 signaling via ErbB2/B3 receptors on Schwann cells is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Extracellular matrix production and interactions mediated by specific integrin and dystroglycan complexes are also critical requisites for Schwann cell-axon interactions. Myelination entails expansion and specialization of the Schwann cell plasma membrane over millimeter distances. Many of the myelin-specific proteins have been identified, and transgenic manipulation of myelin genes have provided novel insights into myelin protein function, including maintenance of axonal integrity and survival. Cellular events that facilitate myelination, including microtubule-based protein and mRNA targeting, and actin based locomotion, have also begun to be understood. Arguably, the most remarkable facet of Schwann cell biology, however, is their vigorous response to axonal damage. Degradation of myelin, dedifferentiation, division, production of axonotrophic factors, and remyelination all underpin the substantial regenerative capacity of the Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. Many of these properties are not shared by CNS fibers, which are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms responsible for the complex biology of Schwann cells continues to have practical benefits in identifying novel therapeutic targets not only for Schwann cell-specific diseases but other disorders in which axons degenerate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Solar cell shingle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A solar cell shingle was made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in flourinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected solar cells were connected to connectors at the edge of the substrate through a connection to a common electrical bus or busses. An overlap area was arranged to receive the overlap of a cooperating similar shingle so that the cell portion of the cooperating shingle may overlie the overlap area of the roof shingle. Accordingly, the same shingle serves the double function of an ordinary roof shingle which may be applied in the usual way and an array of cooperating solar cells from which electrical energy may be collected.

  9. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  10. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  11. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely...... focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies...... in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta...

  12. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitkumar B Pandav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma, also known as inflammatory pseudotumor is a tumor-like lesion that manifests primarily in the lungs. But it may occur in various other anatomic locations like orbit, head and neck, liver and rarely in the oral cavity. We here report an exceedingly rare case of gingival plasma cell granuloma in a 58 year old woman who presented with upper gingival polypoidal growth. The histopathological examination revealed a mass composed of proliferation of benign spindle mesenchymal cells in a loose myxoid and fibrocollagenous stroma along with dense infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells predominantly containing plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma.

  13. Cell Therapy in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrof, Gabriela; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; McGrath, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the regenerative capacity of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from human skin has created new opportunities to develop cell-based therapies for patients. Cultured cells and bioengineered skin products are being used to treat patients with inherited and acquired skin disorders associated with defective skin, and further clinical trials of new products are in progress. The capacity of extracutaneous sources of cells such as bone marrow is also being investigated for its plasticity in regenerating skin, and new strategies, such as the derivation of inducible pluripotent stem cells, also hold great promise for future cell therapies in dermatology. This article reviews some of the preclinical and clinical studies and future directions relating to cell therapy in dermatology, particularly for inherited skin diseases associated with fragile skin and poor wound healing. PMID:24890834

  14. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    de Faria, J

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  15. Synaptic Cell Adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Missler, Markus; Südhof, Thomas C.; Biederer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Chemical synapses are asymmetric intercellular junctions that mediate synaptic transmission. Synaptic junctions are organized by trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules bridging the synaptic cleft. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules not only connect pre- and postsynaptic compartments, but also mediate trans-synaptic recognition and signaling processes that are essential for the establishment, specification, and plasticity of synapses. A growing number of synaptic cell adhesion molecules that inc...

  16. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  17. Different cell fates from cell-cell interactions: core architectures of two-cell bistable networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouault, Hervé; Hakim, Vincent

    2012-02-08

    The acquisition of different fates by cells that are initially in the same state is central to development. Here, we investigate the possible structures of bistable genetic networks that can allow two identical cells to acquire different fates through cell-cell interactions. Cell-autonomous bistable networks have been previously sampled using an evolutionary algorithm. We extend this evolutionary procedure to take into account interactions between cells. We obtain a variety of simple bistable networks that we classify into major subtypes. Some have long been proposed in the context of lateral inhibition through the Notch-Delta pathway, some have been more recently considered and others appear to be new and based on mechanisms not previously considered. The results highlight the role of posttranscriptional interactions and particularly of protein complexation and sequestration, which can replace cooperativity in transcriptional interactions. Some bistable networks are entirely based on posttranscriptional interactions and the simplest of these is found to lead, upon a single parameter change, to oscillations in the two cells with opposite phases. We provide qualitative explanations as well as mathematical analyses of the dynamical behaviors of various created networks. The results should help to identify and understand genetic structures implicated in cell-cell interactions and differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  19. Atmospheric Absorption Cell Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    was adequate for making empty cell measurements and filling the cell with artificial atmospheres. The procedure used in pumping and fillin the cell...carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. The artificial atmospheres in the cell used for these measurements are summarized in Table IV. Figures...LD_l -_10J J« LUZ . jr-U «—• »r—• «-CD CO — Q- —a CD -j" \\z — OC I — h- \\_IC\\J CM LUD -ÜU T 1 r 00*001 00󈧌 00*09 00*0

  20. Cancer stem cell metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-05-24

    Cancer is now viewed as a stem cell disease. There is still no consensus on the metabolic characteristics of cancer stem cells, with several studies indicating that they are mainly glycolytic and others pointing instead to mitochondrial metabolism as their principal source of energy. Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes. Determining the role of cancer stem cell metabolism in carcinogenesis has become a major focus in cancer research, and substantial efforts are conducted towards discovering clinical targets.

  1. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  2. Littoral Cells 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Littoral cells along the California Coast. Originally digitized by Melanie Coyne from the Assessment and Atlas of Shoreline Erosion Along the California Coast...

  3. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  4. Applications of Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Emmanuel C

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the different purposes for which the cell microencapsulation technology can be used. These include immunoisolation of non-autologous cells used for cell therapy; immobilization of cells for localized (targeted) delivery of therapeutic products to ablate, repair, or regenerate tissue; simultaneous delivery of multiple therapeutic agents in cell therapy; spatial compartmentalization of cells in complex tissue engineering; expansion of cells in culture; and production of different probiotics and metabolites for industrial applications. For each of these applications, specific examples are provided to illustrate how the microencapsulation technology can be utilized to achieve the purpose. However, successful use of the cell microencapsulation technology for whatever purpose will ultimately depend upon careful consideration for the choice of the encapsulating polymers, the method of fabrication (cross-linking) of the microbeads, which affects the permselectivity, the biocompatibility and the mechanical strength of the microbeads as well as environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, osmotic pressure, and storage solutions.The various applications discussed in this chapter are illustrated in the different chapters of this book and where appropriate relevant images of the microencapsulation products are provided. It is hoped that this outline of the different applications of cell microencapsulation would provide a good platform for tissue engineers, scientists, and clinicians to design novel tissue constructs and products for therapeutic and industrial applications.

  5. A brief history of T cell help to B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Shane

    2015-03-01

    In celebration of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of B cells, I take a look back at the history of T cell help to B cells, which was discovered 47 years ago. In addition, I summarize and categorize the distinct molecules that are expressed by CD4(+) T cells that constitute 'help' to B cells, and particularly the molecules expressed by T follicular helper (TFH) cells, which are the specialized providers of help to B cells.

  6. Using In Vitro Electrophysiology to Screen Medications: Accumbal Plasticity as an Engram of Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, R; Jeanes, Z M; Mangieri, R A; Maier, E Y; Kircher, D M; Buske, T R; Morrisett, R A

    2016-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a central component of the mesocorticolimbic reward system. Increasing evidence strongly implicates long-term synaptic neuroadaptations in glutamatergic excitatory activity of the NAc shell and/or core medium spiny neurons in response to chronic drug and alcohol exposure. Such neuroadaptations likely play a critical role in the development and expression of drug-seeking behaviors. We have observed unique cell-type-specific bidirectional changes in NAc synaptic plasticity (metaplasticity) following acute and chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. Other investigators have also previously observed similar metaplasticity in the NAc following exposure to psychostimulants, opiates, and amazingly, even following an anhedonia-inducing experience. Considering that the proteome of the postsynaptic density likely contains hundreds of biochemicals, proteins and other components and regulators, we believe that there is a large number of potential molecular sites through which accumbal metaplasticity may be involved in chronic alcohol abuse. Many of our companion laboratories are now engaged in identifying and screening medications targeting candidate genes and its products previously linked to maladaptive alcohol phenotypes. We hypothesize that if manipulation of such target genes and their products change NAc plasticity, then that observation constitutes an important validation step for the development of novel therapeutics to treat alcohol dependence. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of retrokeratoprosthetic membranes in the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Rebecca C; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Michaud, Norman A; Dohlman, Claes H; Colby, Kathryn A

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate retroprosthetic membranes that can occur in 25% to 65% of patients with the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro). Two patients with Peter anomaly and 2 with neurotrophic scarred corneas underwent revisions of their type 1 KPros because of visually compromising retroprosthetic membranes. The excised membranes were studied by light microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue stains. Immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic examination were also used. Light microscopic examination revealed that the retro-KPro fibrous membranes originated from the host's corneal stroma. These mildly to moderately vascularized membranes grew through gaps in the Descemet membrane to reach behind the KPro back plate and adhere to the anterior iris surface, which had undergone partial lysis. In 2 cases, the fibrous membranes merged at the pupil with matrical portions of metaplastic lens epithelium, forming a bilayered structure that crossed the optical axis. Retro-KPro membranes stained positively for α-smooth muscle actin but negatively for pancytokeratin. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of actin filaments within myofibroblasts and small surviving clusters of metaplastic lens epithelial cells. Stromal downgrowth, rather than epithelial downgrowth, was the major element of the retro-KPro membranes in this series. Metaplastic lens epithelium also contributed to opacification of the visual axis. Florid membranous inflammation was not a prominent finding and thus probably not a requisite stimulus for membrane development. Further advances in prosthetic design and newer antifibroproliferative agents may reduce membrane formation.

  8. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  9. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  10. c-Myc-Dependent Cell Competition in Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish S; Shah, Heta S; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2017-07-01

    Cell Competition is an interaction between cells for existence in heterogeneous cell populations of multicellular organisms. This phenomenon is involved in initiation and progression of cancer where heterogeneous cell populations compete directly or indirectly for the survival of the fittest based on differential gene expression. In Drosophila, cells having lower dMyc expression are eliminated by cell competition through apoptosis when present in the milieu of cells having higher dMyc expression. Thus, we designed a study to develop c-Myc (human homolog) dependent in vitro cell competition model of human cancer cells. Cells with higher c-Myc were transfected with c-myc shRNA to prepare cells with lower c-Myc and then co-cultured with the same type of cells having a higher c-Myc in equal ratio. Cells with lower c-Myc showed a significant decrease in numbers when compared with higher c-Myc cells, suggesting "loser" and "winner" status of cells, respectively. During microscopy, engulfment of loser cells by winner cells was observed with higher expression of JNK in loser cells. Furthermore, elimination of loser cells was prevented significantly, when co-cultured cells were treated with the JNK (apoptosis) inhibitor. Above results indicate elimination of loser cells in the presence of winner cells by c-Myc-dependent mechanisms of cell competition in human cancer cells. This could be an important mechanism in human tumors where normal cells are eliminated by c-Myc-overexpressed tumor cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1782-1791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Glycoprotein on cell surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, T.

    1975-01-01

    There are conjugated polysaccharides in cell membranes and outside of animal cells, and they play important role in the control of cell behavior. In this paper, the studies on the glycoprotein on cell surfaces are reported. It was found that the glycoprotein on cell surfaces have both N-glycoside type and O-glycoside type saccharic chains. Therefore it can be concluded that the basic structure of the saccharic chains in the glycoprotein on cell surfaces is similar to that of blood serum and body fluid. The main glycoprotein in the membranes of red blood corpuscles has been studied most in detail, and it also has both types of saccharic chains. The glycoprotein in liver cell membranes was found to have only the saccharic chains of acid type and to be in different pattern from that in endoplasmic reticula and nuclear membranes, which also has the saccharic chains of neutral type. The structure of the saccharic chains of H-2 antigen, i.e. the peculiar glycoprotein on the surfaces of lymph system cells, has been studied, and it is similar to the saccharic chains of glycoprotein in blood serum. The saccharic chain structures of H-2 antigen and TL antigen are different. TL, H-2 (D), Lna and H-2 (K) are the glycoprotein on cell surfaces, and are independent molecules. The analysis of the saccharic chain patterns on cell surfaces was carried out, and it was shown that the acid type saccharic chains were similar to those of ordinary glycoprotein, because the enzyme of pneumococci hydrolyzed most of the acid type saccharic chains. The change of the saccharic chain patterns of glycoprotein on cell surfaces owing to canceration and multiplication is complex matter. (Kako, I.)

  12. Molecular mechanisms controlling the cell cycle in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelalim, Essam M

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are originated from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst stage embryo. They can proliferate indefinitely, maintain an undifferentiated state (self-renewal), and differentiate into any cell type (pluripotency). ES cells have an unusual cell cycle structure, consists mainly of S phase cells, a short G1 phase and absence of G1/S checkpoint. Cell division and cell cycle progression are controlled by mechanisms ensuring the accurate transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. Therefore, control of cell cycle is a complicated process, involving several signaling pathways. Although great progress has been made on the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of ES cell cycle, many regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the cell cycle of ES cells and describes the relationship existing between cell cycle progression and the self-renewal.

  13. Single-cell sequencing in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2016-04-15

    Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of stem cell populations, but these differences are masked when bulk cells are used for omic analysis. Single-cell sequencing technologies serve as powerful tools to dissect cellular heterogeneity comprehensively and to identify distinct phenotypic cell types, even within a 'homogeneous' stem cell population. These technologies, including single-cell genome, epigenome, and transcriptome sequencing technologies, have been developing rapidly in recent years. The application of these methods to different types of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells, has led to exciting new findings in the stem cell field. In this review, we discuss the recent progress as well as future perspectives in the methodologies and applications of single-cell omic sequencing technologies.

  14. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  15. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...

  16. Retinal stem cells and potential cell transplantation treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chi Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The retina, histologically composed of ten delicate layers, is responsible for light perception and relaying electrochemical signals to the secondary neurons and visual cortex. Retinal disease is one of the leading clinical causes of severe vision loss, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt's disease, and retinitis pigmentosa. As a result of the discovery of various somatic stem cells, advances in exploring the identities of embryonic stem cells, and the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, cell transplantation treatment for retinal diseases is currently attracting much attention. The sources of stem cells for retinal regeneration include endogenous retinal stem cells (e.g., neuronal stem cells, Müller cells, and retinal stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone and exogenous stem cells (e.g., bone mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The success of cell transplantation treatment depends mainly on the cell source, the timing of cell harvesting, the protocol of cell induction/transplantation, and the microenvironment of the recipient's retina. This review summarizes the different sources of stem cells for regeneration treatment in retinal diseases and surveys the more recent achievements in animal studies and clinical trials. Future directions and challenges in stem cell transplantation are also discussed.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are clonogenic, non-haematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages e.g. neuronal-like cells. Several methods...

  18. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  19. T-cell costimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1996-01-01

    The CD40L molecule expressed by CD4+ regulatory T lymphocytes is known to deliver signals that activate B cells and macrophages. It now appears that CD40L regulates T cells themselves, during both their development and their participation in adaptive immune responses....

  20. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  2. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  3. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafman, Laura L.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed. PMID:26771642

  4. T-cell count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... count URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003516.htm T-cell count To use the sharing features on this ... as hepatitis or mononucleosis Lower than normal T-cell levels may be due to: Acute viral infections Aging Cancer Immune system diseases, such as HIV/AIDS ...

  5. Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    In proposed fuel-cell system, methanol converted to hydrogen in two places. External fuel processor converts only part of methanol. Remaining methanol converted in fuel cell itself, in reaction at anode. As result, size of fuel processor reduced, system efficiency increased, and cost lowered.

  6. Mesangial cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Hanna E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  7. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  8. Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic–inorganic halide perovskite, a newcomerin the solar cell industry has proved its potential forincreasing efficiency rapidly from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in2016. High efficiency, flexibility, and cell architecture of theemerging hybrid halide perovskite have caught the attentionof researchers and technologists in the field.

  9. Fuel cell sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of fuel cell technology is summarized, and the potential for utility-type fuel cell installations is assessed on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the construction of the first fuel cell by Sir William Grove. The only functional fuel-cell systems developed to date, the hydrogen-oxygen cells used by NASA, are indicated, and hydrazine and alcohol (methanol) cells are considered. Areas requiring development before the implementation of fuel cells as general purpose utility-type electric generators include catalysts for naturally occurring hydrocarbons or processes for low-cost methanol or hydrazine production, efficient means of scrubbing and enriching air, self-regulating systems, and 15- to 20-fold power density increases. It is argued that although ideas for eliminating certain of the above-mentioned problems have been proposed, fuel-cell systems can never be expected to equal the efficiency, reliability and low cost of conventional power plants, and thus developmental support should be discontinued.

  10. Cystic Granular Cell Ameloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Thillaikarasi, Rathnavel; Balaji, Jayaram; Gupta, Bhawna; Ilayarja, Vadivel; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Vidula, Balachander; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam; Ponniah, Irulandy

    2010-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive benign epithelial odontogenic tumor, while unicystic ameloblastoma is a relatively less aggressive variant. Although rare in unicystic or cystic ameloblastoma, granular cell change in ameloblastoma is a recognized phenomenon. The purpose of the present article is to report a case of cystic granular cell ameloblastoma in 34-year old female.

  11. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  12. Biosensors for Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Son, Kyungjin; Liu, Ying; Revzin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors first appeared several decades ago to address the need for monitoring physiological parameters such as oxygen or glucose in biological fluids such as blood. More recently, a new wave of biosensors has emerged in order to provide more nuanced and granular information about the composition and function of living cells. Such biosensors exist at the confluence of technology and medicine and often strive to connect cell phenotype or function to physiological or pathophysiological processes. Our review aims to describe some of the key technological aspects of biosensors being developed for cell analysis. The technological aspects covered in our review include biorecognition elements used for biosensor construction, methods for integrating cells with biosensors, approaches to single-cell analysis, and the use of nanostructured biosensors for cell analysis. Our hope is that the spectrum of possibilities for cell analysis described in this review may pique the interest of biomedical scientists and engineers and may spur new collaborations in the area of using biosensors for cell analysis.

  13. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  14. Programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  15. Mammary gland stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers.

  16. Cell-in-Cell Death Is Not Restricted by Caspase-3 Deficiency in MCF-7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; He, Meifang; Li, Linmei; Liang, Zhihua; Zou, Zehong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cell-in-cell structures are created by one living cell entering another homotypic or heterotypic living cell, which usually leads to the death of the internalized cell, specifically through caspase-dependent cell death (emperitosis) or lysosome-dependent cell death (entosis). Although entosis has attracted great attention, its occurrence is controversial, because one cell line used in its study (MCF-7) is deficient in caspase-3. Methods We investigated this issue using MCF-7 and A431 cell lines, which often display cell-in-cell invasion, and have different levels of caspase-3 expression. Cell-in-cell death morphology, microstructures, and signaling pathways were compared in the two cell lines. Results Our results confirmed that MCF-7 cells are caspase-3 deficient with a partial deletion in the CASP-3 gene. These cells underwent cell death that lacked typical apoptotic properties after staurosporine treatment, whereas caspase-3-sufficient A431 cells displayed typical apoptosis. The presence of caspase-3 was related neither to the lysosome-dependent nor to the caspase-dependent cell-in-cell death pathway. However, the existence of caspase-3 was associated with a switch from lysosome-dependent cell-in-cell death to the apoptotic cell-in-cell death pathway during entosis. Moreover, cellular hypoxia, mitochondrial swelling, release of cytochrome C, and autophagy were observed in internalized cells during entosis. Conclusion The occurrence of caspase-independent entosis is not a cell-specific process. In addition, entosis actually represents a cellular self-repair system, functioning through autophagy, to degrade damaged mitochondria resulting from cellular hypoxia in cell-in-cell structures. However, sustained autophagy-associated signal activation, without reduction in cellular hypoxia, eventually leads to lysosome-dependent intracellular cell death. PMID:27721872

  17. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  18. Fuel cells : emerging markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan Jerram, L.; Adamson, K.A.; Butler, J.; Huleatt-James, N.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation highlighted the findings of the 2009 review of the fuel cell industry and emerging markets as they appeared in Fuel Cell Today (FCT), a benchmark document on global fuel cell activity. Since 2008, the industry has seen a 50 per cent increase in fuel cell systems shipped, from 12,000 units to 18,000 units. Applications have increased for backup power for datacentres, telecoms and light duty vehicles. The 2009 review focused on emerging markets which include non-traditional regions that may experience considerable diffusion of fuel cells within the next 5 year forecast period. The 2009 review included an analysis on the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, Brazil and India and reviewed primary drivers, likely applications for near-term adoption, and government and private sector activity in these regions. The presentation provided a forecast of the global state of the industry in terms of shipments as well as a forecast of countries with emerging markets

  19. Cell manipulation in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available. (topical review)

  20. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.