WorldWideScience

Sample records for metaphysics

  1. Metaphysics I

    OpenAIRE

    Lebech, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Metaphysics I is a course currently taught in the Faculty of Philosophy, NUIM. It attempts to answer three questions: 'What is metaphysics?', 'What happened as metaphysics was Christianised?' and 'What happenerd as metaphysics was Modernized?', while discussing texts of Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Edmund Husserl and Edith Stein.

  2. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  3. Deep Metaphysical Indeterminacy

    OpenAIRE

    Skow, Bradford

    2010-01-01

    A recent theory of metaphysical indeterminacy says that metaphysical indeterminacy is multiple actuality: there is metaphysical indeterminacy when there are many ‘complete precisifications of reality’. But it is possible for there to be metaphysical indeterminacy even when it is impossible to precisify reality completely. The orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics illustrates this possibility. So this theory of metaphysical indeterminacy is not adequate.

  4. Fibrous metaphyseal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritschl, P.; Hajek, P.C.; Pechmann, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients with fibrous metaphyseal defects were examined with both plain radiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Depending on the age of the fibrous metaphyseal defects, characteristic radiomorphologic changes were found which correlated well with MR images. Following intravenous Gadolinium-DTPA injection, fibrous metaphyseal defects invariably exhibited a hyperintense border and signal enhancement. (orig./GDG)

  5. Metaphysics and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, C

    1995-01-01

    I take issue with Frank Leavitt's sketch of a pragmatic criterion for the relevance of metaphysics to medical ethics. I argue that appeal to the potential for confusion generated by metaphysical subtlety establishes a need for better communication rather than shows philosophical insight beside the point. I demonstrate that the proposed Criterion of Relevance has absurd consequences, and I claim that the relevance of philosophical doctrines, whether ethical or metaphysical, is best accounted for in terms of improved understanding. PMID:7608933

  6. Cancer and metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, G

    2001-08-01

    Metaphysics, is generally a pleasant, and harmless intellectual endeavor. Even if leading to wrong conclusions, nobody is hurt. Suppose that contrary to general belief, the Big Bang (1) never happened and the world is eternal. No harm is done. Some philosophers, like Kant, enjoyed life despite the fact that, nature, or the thing in itself, eluded their understanding (2). But suppose that the thing in itself is your patient, and you apply metaphysical reasoning for his treatment, metaphysics may occasionally be damaging. This is particularly pertinent to cancer, a disease that is haunted by false metaphysical statements. Since cancer is part of medicine, the present discourse deals with medical metaphysics. Medicine provides a simple way, or rule of thumb, for distinguishing between correct and wrong medical metaphysical statements. If they harm the patient, they are wrong, and if they aid him, they are correct. Statements that do not affect a patient's well being, e.g., 'Big Bang may be hazardous to your health', are of no apparent value and doubtful. Since treatment outcome is generally uncertain, the physician continually searches for new ideas that may aid his patient, even if they are metaphysical. In diseases, like cancer, that elude his understanding, his adherence to metaphysics intensifies, and he is ready to consider even doubtful suggestions for treatment. Yet by relaxing the rules of thumb for evaluating metaphysical concepts, he gradually slips into the irrational domain. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. Metaphysics and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verran, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Is it possible to learn and simultaneously articulate the metaphysical basis of that learning? In my contribution to the forum I tell of how I came to recognise that bilingual Yoruba children could articulate the contrasting metaphysical framings of Yoruba and English numbering. The story introduces an arena I call "ontics" that recognises the…

  8. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed. (Author) [pt

  9. Meditations on Metaphysical Modality

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Edmund Lindsay James

    2011-01-01

    Although metaphysical modality has been much discussed and exploited by philosophers, its precise nature is often left unanalysed and obscure. This dissertation marks an attempt to understand it better. After examining modality in general, the specific topic is introduced through consideration of the views of Kripke and Lewis. Comparisons are then made with logical, scientific and conceptual modalities. Finally, it is argued that metaphysical modality is that variety of modality which is alet...

  10. Metaphysical Experience and Constitutive Error in Adorno's "Meditations on Metaphysics"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skirke, C.

    2012-01-01

    That current ideals of cognition impoverish experience is a classical observation, and complaint, of the early Frankfurt School. Adorno reacts to this phenomenon in several ways, among them his conception of metaphysical experiences. Metaphysical experiences are conventionally understood as

  11. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The metaphysics of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, John

    2017-10-06

    This paper briefly describes process metaphysics, and argues that it is better suited for describing life than the more standard thing, or substance, metaphysics. It then explores the implications of process metaphysics for conceptualizing evolution. After explaining what it is for an organism to be a process, the paper takes up the Hull/Ghiselin thesis of species as individuals and explores the conditions under which a species or lineage could constitute an individual process. It is argued that only sexual species satisfy these conditions, and that within sexual species the degree of organization varies. This, in turn, has important implications for species' evolvability. One important moral is that evolution will work differently in different biological domains.

  13. Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with ectodermal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jequier, S.; Bellini, F.; Mackenzie, D.A.

    1981-11-01

    The first case of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with marked cupping of the metaphyses and cone epiphyses combined with complete alopecia was described in 1966 by Bellini. A second identical case was found in another Italian patient. Both show extremely early epiphyseal fusion. This is probably a new form of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.

  14. Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with ectodermal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jequier, S.; Bellini, F.

    1981-01-01

    The first case of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with marked cupping of the metaphyses and cone epiphyses combined with complete alopecia was described in 1966 by Bellini. A second identical case was found in another Italian patient. Both show extremely early epiphyseal fusion. This is probably a new form of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. (orig.)

  15. On neuropsychoanalytic metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvitie, Vesa; Ihanus, Juhani

    2011-12-01

    Neuropsychoanalysis focuses on the neural counterparts of psychoanalytically interesting phenomena and has left the difference in the metaphysical presuppositions between neuroscience and psychoanalysis unexamined. The authors analyse the logical possibilities concerning the relation between the brain and the mental unconscious in terms of the serial, parallel, epiphenomenalist and Kantian conceptions, and conclude that none of them provides a satisfactory ground for neuropsychoanalysis. As far as psychoanalytic explanations refer to the mental unconscious, they cannot be verified with the help of neuroscience. Neither is it possible to form a picture of how a neuro-viewpoint might be of help for psychoanalytic theorizing. Neuropsychoanalysis has occasionally been seen as a reductionist affair, but the authors suggest that neuropsychoanalysts themselves lean on the hybrid conception, which combines neuroscientific and psychoanalytic viewpoints. The authors state arguments in favour of the interfield conception of neuropsychoanalysis that takes seriously the metaphysical tensions between neuroscience and psychoanalysis. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal chondroblastomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshwari, Aditya V. [State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Washington Hospital Center, Department of Orthopedic Oncology, Washington, DC (United States); Jelinek, James S.; Song, Albert J. [Washington Hospital Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Nelson, Kenneth J.; Henshaw, Robert M. [Washington Hospital Center, Department of Orthopedic Oncology, Washington, DC (United States); Murphey, Mark D. [The American Institute for Radiologic Pathology, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Epiphyseal/apophyseal locations are important diagnostic radiological features of chondroblastomas (CB). Although the tumor may secondarily involve the metaphysis, reports of primary metaphyseal or diaphyseal CB without any epiphyseal or apophyseal involvement are exceptionally rare and frequently present as a diagnostic dilemma. The purpose of this study was to present seven cases of pure metaphyseal and/or diaphyseal CB along with a review of pertinent literature. A retrospective review of databases at two major referral centers revealed 390 cases of CB between 1960 and 2009. Out of these, seven histologically proven CB cases (1.8%) were found to be radiologically located in metaphysis and/or diaphysis, without involving the epiphysis and/or apophysis, and formed the study cohort. There were four males and three females (age range 2-25 years). Locations included proximal femur (n = 1), distal femur (2), proximal humerus (2), clavicle (1), and proximal radius (1). All lesions showed marginal sclerosis. A periosteal reaction was seen in five cases (71%), cortical expansion in four cases (57%), and chondroid matrix in four cases (57%). A CT (two cases) demonstrated a matrix in both cases. An MR (one case) showed extensive perilesional edema. Bone scan (one case) showed intense uptake. Pure metaphyseal and/or diaphyseal CB are exceedingly rare. A presumptive diagnosis may be considered in the appropriate age group in the presence of chondroid matrix, perilesional edema, periosteal reaction, and marginal sclerosis. Regardless of all the diagnostic possibilities, biopsy may still be required. However, knowledge of this entity will help make the final diagnosis and guide the correct treatment. (orig.)

  17. Fibrous metaphyseal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, P.C.; Ritschi, P.; Kramer, J.; Imhof, H.; Karnel, F.

    1988-01-01

    Eighty-two patients (107 fibrous metaphyseal defects [FMDs]) were investigated with standard radiography and MR imaging (N = 15). Twenty-two of these were followed up sequentially up to 10 years (mean, 7.3 years). Histologic studies proved that FMDs originate at the site of insertion of a tendon in the perichondrium of the epiphyseal cartilage. After normal bone growth is regained, all FMDs were found to move diaphysically, following a straight line parallel to the long axis of the FMDs. This line pointed to the insertion of the tendon originally involved, a fact that was proved with MR imaging. Four characteristic stages were found to define a typical radiomorphologic course of an FMD

  18. Ontological engineering versus metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataj, Emanuel; Tomanek, Roman; Mulawka, Jan

    2011-10-01

    It has been recognized that ontologies are a semantic version of world wide web and can be found in knowledge-based systems. A recent time survey of this field also suggest that practical artificial intelligence systems may be motivated by this research. Especially strong artificial intelligence as well as concept of homo computer can also benefit from their use. The main objective of this contribution is to present and review already created ontologies and identify the main advantages which derive such approach for knowledge management systems. We would like to present what ontological engineering borrows from metaphysics and what a feedback it can provide to natural language processing, simulations and modelling. The potential topics of further development from philosophical point of view is also underlined.

  19. The Everyday Condition of Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Afloroaei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The question I intend to answer is whether one can speak of a tacit metaphysics, not expressed conceptually, but nevertheless common. If the answer is positive and providing that it is specific to day-to-day life, such metaphysics may be called everyday metaphysics. To this end, I review the meaning of everyday life and its ambivalent character. Next, I present several milestones in the debate on the subject, from authors who have focused on a kind of usual, common or ‘natural’ metaphysics. Lastly, I formulate the idea under consideration, namely that everyday life implies or underlies a certain metaphysics. I note that it is an implicit metaphysics – not expressed formally – and rather free. Embraced in experience with a certain degree of freedom, it is recognisable by means of certain representations active in our mind, by the manner of speaking or of understanding and by the common forms of expression. Its vibrancy, concrete and relaxed character makes it highly evocative of the mental life of an era. It ensures a truly essential difference in our everyday mode of being.

  20. Conceptual Realism. The Structure of Metaphysical Thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Metaphysics is now a respectable discipline within analytic philosophy: metaphysical realists are proposing their various theories as to the ultimate structure of reality. However, their project is also being fundamentally questioned, by metaphysical anti-realists. This ambivalent situation is due

  1. Metaphyseal bands in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta are undergoing pamidronate therapy to prevent the incidence of fragility fractures. The authors herein report a child aged 3 years who received five cycles of pamidronate, resulting in metaphyseal bands, known as "zebra lines."

  2. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  3. Metaphyseal bands in osteogenesis imperfecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, SS; Thomas, John K

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta are undergoing pamidronate therapy to prevent the incidence of fragility fractures. The authors herein report a child aged 3 years who received five cycles of pamidronate, resulting in metaphyseal bands, known as “zebra lines.”

  4. String theory : physics or metaphysics?

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    I will give arguments for why the enormous progress made during the last century on understanding elementary particles and their fundamental interactions suggests strings as the truly elementary constituents of Nature. I will then address the issue of whether the string paradigm can in principle be falsified or whether it should be considered as mere metaphysics.

  5. Towards a Metaphysics of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Keith

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I combine aspects of process philosophy and elements from philosophies of difference in order to give some indication of how we might begin to construct a metaphysics of contemporary science. I will focus on the work of Whitehead and Deleuze as representatives of each respective tradition and try to show how their work can be…

  6. The Scientific Metaphysics of Charles S. Peirce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo

    Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) was, perhaps, first and foremost a practising or experimental scientist. However, Peirce was also a philosopher, and to him the relation between science and metaphysics was intimate. Peirce not only wanted to develop a metaphysical system consistent with the important...... scientific results and conceptions of his time, but also, like Immanuel Kant, to set metaphysics on the path of a science. This collection of articles investigates central themes and difficulties in the metaphysics of Peirce - some of the articles clarify aspects of his metaphysics, others also show...

  7. Transhumanism, metaphysics, and the posthuman god.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2010-12-01

    After describing Heidegger's critique of metaphysics as ontotheology, I unpack the metaphysical assumptions of several transhumanist philosophers. I claim that they deploy an ontology of power and that they also deploy a kind of theology, as Heidegger meant it. I also describe the way in which this metaphysics begets its own politics and ethics. In order to transcend the human condition, they must transgress the human.

  8. Concurrence of metaphyseal fibrous defect and osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakos, M.; Murphy, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The case of a 15-year-old girl with juxtaposition of a femoral metaphyseal fibrous defect (fibrous cortical defect) and an osteosarcoma is reported. Despite the relatively common occurrence of metaphyseal fibrous defects, their reported association with other bone tumors is exceedingly rare. Only two previous acceptable examples of this association were found. Reports of malignant transformation of metaphyseal fibrous defect were reviewed and rejected because they lacked convincing radiologic or histopathologic evidence of a pre-existent benign fibrous lesion. The finding of a malignant bone tumor in association with a metaphyseal fibrous defect appears to be a chance occurrence. (orig.)

  9. On Darwin's 'metaphysical notebooks'. II: "Metaphysics" and final cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, L

    2001-01-01

    The first part of this paper was published in Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 94 (2001). In the second part below an examination is made of the meaning of the term Metaphysics in some passages of the Darwinian Notebooks for the years 1836-1844. Metaphysics no longer defines a field of philosophical enquiries mainly concerning the being and the essence after the manner of Aristotle; it now refers to a kind of philosophy of mind after the manner of J. Locke's criticism of the Hypokeimenon. However Aristotle's Metaphysics also encompasses a treatment of the idea of causes, and of final cause particularly, in the explanation of events, and in the explanation of natural phenomena especially. The criticism of the idea of final cause in the interpretation of the world of life is one of Darwin's foundational acts in his early years. When conceiving his Système du monde, in the last years of the XVIII Century, Laplace could think that God is a hypothesis not really needed by science, as we are told. For the knowledge of organic nature to attain the status of science, it remained to be shown that since--certain of the exemplariness of Newton's Principles as much as cautious before the mystery of life--did not need the hypothesis of final ends in order to understand and explain the productions of the living nature: not only in the form of that final cause (the First Cause, the Vera Causa) in which Natural Theology still rested, but also in the form of nature's inner finality which still moulded Whewell's Kantian philosophy. Such demonstration is a very important subject in Darwin's early enquiries, where he criticises finalism as a projection of self-conceiving Man, likely inherited from a knowing of causality in nuce to be found also in animals.

  10. On Metaphysical Cases against Political Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Buitenhuis (Manuel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers some arguments that argue against particular political theories on metaphysical grounds. These arguments contain the implicit premise that political theories are only viable if they are grounded in a plausible metaphysical theory. This thesis was called the

  11. Dewey's Naturalistic Metaphysics: Expostulations and Replies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    Critics of Dewey's metaphysics point to his dismissal of any philosophy which locates ideals in a realm beyond experience. However, Dewey's sustained critique of dualistic philosophies is but a first step in his reconstruction and recovery of the function of the metaphysical. Detaching the discussion of values from inquiry, whether scientific,…

  12. Quantum entanglement and a metaphysics of relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfeld, Michael

    This paper argues for a metaphysics of relations based on a characterization of quantum entanglement in terms of non-separability, thereby regarding entanglement as a sort of holism. By contrast to a radical metaphysics of relations, the position set out in this paper recognizes things that stand in the relations, but claims that, as far as the relations are concerned, there is no need for these things to have qualitative intrinsic properties underlying the relations. This position thus opposes a metaphysics of individual things that are characterized by intrinsic properties. A principal problem of the latter position is that it seems that we cannot gain any knowledge of these properties insofar as they are intrinsic. Against this background, the rationale behind a metaphysics of relations is to avoid a gap between epistemology and metaphysics.

  13. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  14. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  15. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics......The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  16. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  17. Metaphysics and medical ethics: a reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, G

    1994-01-01

    The total longitudinal form view of human beings is a metaphysical view which aims to locate our moral judgements about human embryos in a broader set of attitudes and characterisations. On this basis it has explanatory power and a real function in that it grounds our ethical discussion of embryos in other discourses. Contra Leavitt, this grounding suggests a broader criterion of relevance for metaphysical discussion than asking 'what comes out of' such a discussion for a particular ethical dilemma. PMID:8035442

  18. On the metaphysics of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, K

    2005-01-01

    This provocative and critical work addresses the question of why scientific realists and positivists consider experimental physics to be a natural and empirical science. Taking insights from contemporary science studies, continental philosophy, and the history of physics, this book describes and analyses the metaphysical presuppositions that underwrite the technological use of experimental apparatus and instruments to explore, model, and understand nature. By revealing this metaphysical foundation, the author questions whether experimental physics is a natural and empirical science at all.

  19. A proper metaphysics for cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Guy C; Moreno, Miguel A; Holden, John G

    2003-01-01

    The general failure to individuate component causes in cognitive performance suggests the need for an alternative metaphysics. The metaphysics of control hierarchy theory accommodates the fact of self-organization in nature and the possibility that intentional actions are self-organized. One key assumption is that interactions among processes dominate their intrinsic dynamics. Scaling relations in response time variability motivate this assumption in cognitive performance.

  20. The Intuitive Recommencement of Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Riquier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If we are to understand the complex relationship between Bergson and Kant, we must not approach the former’s philosophy as if it could only be either pre-critical or post-Kantian. Instead, the present essay seeks to shed light on this relationship by treating Kant (after Descartes and before Spencer as another “missing precursor of Bergson.” In Bergson’s eyes, Kant, like Descartes, contains two possible paths for philosophy, which reflect the two fundamental tendencies that are mixed together in the élan vital and continued in humankind: intuition and intelligence. Bergson breaks with Kant from the interior of his philosophy, which he divides into two Kantianisms: the one, which he rejects as ancient, and the other, which he appropriates. What the analysis of this Bergsonian appropriation of Kant reveals, however, is not the existence of a latent Bergsonism in Kant, but rather the recovery of a Kantianism that is completed in Bergson—a Kantianism that embarked down a path that Kant himself, who held himself back from following it in order to dispense with all “intellectual” intuition, had only sketched. Thus, if Bergson is to be believed, an intuitive metaphysics, which installs itself in pure duration, is neither below nor beyond Kantian critique, but can pass through it, can traverse it in its entirety, since it proposes to surpass it, to prolong it following the path that Kant himself had cleared in order to fulfill its suppressed virtualities.

  1. Internal Realism: Putnam's Alternative to Metaphysical Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Akbari Takhtameshlou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hilary Putnam, who was once one of the representatives and proponents of scientific and metaphysical realism, became an unrelenting opponent of metaphysical realism during the mid-70s. Having argued against alethic and ontological dimensions of metaphysical realism, he proposed “internal realism” as an alternative to it. Putnam's major objection to the alethic dimension of metaphysical realism was that this philosophy brings about an unbridgeable gap between the truth of a proposition and our epistemic justifications for it. As to the ontological dimension of metaphysical realism, he proposed the criticism to the effect that according to this philosophical position the world consists of “ready-made” objects. Putnam poses these criticisms because, as he argues, firstly, truth cannot be considered anything but the ideal justification and secondly, the world is not made of ready-made objects, but rather it is we that cut up the world into different objects when we take a conceptual scheme. Indeed, according to Putnam assuming any "external perspective", whether about truth or about ontology, is meaningless. Having introduced and reviewed Putnam's arguments in rejecting metaphysical realism, this article explains and examines the basic elements of internal realism. The results of this article show that Putnam's objections against metaphysical realism lack the necessary credibility and strength and at the same time his proposed alternative (internal realism has serious problems that made to be addressed. By his chosen conception of truth, internal realism, cannot touch its stated purpose i.e. the removal of a huge gap between the truth of a statement and our knowledge of it. The ontological claims of internal realism are not, indeed, the reliable and true consequences of the thesis of conceptual relativity, which is considered as Putnam’s main base in this regard, but rather it is more a consequence of mistaking the

  2. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  3. Mechanisms, determination and the metaphysics of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soom, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, I evaluate recently defended mechanistic accounts of the unity of neuroscience from a metaphysical point of view. Considering the mechanistic framework in general (Sections 2 and 3), I argue that explanations of this kind are essentially reductive (Section 4). The reductive character of mechanistic explanations provides a sufficiency criterion, according to which the mechanism underlying a certain phenomenon is sufficient for the latter. Thus, the concept of supervenience can be used in order to describe the relation between mechanisms and phenomena (Section 5). Against this background, I show that the mechanistic framework is subject to the causal exclusion problem and faces the classical metaphysical options when it comes to the relations obtaining between different levels of mechanisms (Section 6). Finally, an attempt to improve the metaphysics of mechanisms is made (Section 7) and further difficulties are pointed out (Section 8). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia: an unusual bone dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Prachi Pragya; Srinivasan, Ashok; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Kabra, Madhulika

    2003-01-01

    A rare case of spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia is reported in a 10-year-old boy. The features were metaphyseal dysplasia, markedly defective ossification of vertebral body centres and enlarged epiphyses. Although it shares some features with spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia, oto-spondylo-megaepiphyseal dysplasia and cleidocranial dysplasia, the presence of several unusual radiological findings sets it apart. (orig.)

  5. Metaphyseal impaction fractures in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, D.; Cockshott, W.P.; Martin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Patients with acute lymphatic leukaemia frequently are osteoporotic. A small subset of these develop disabling metaphyseal transverse fractures, usually bilateral and in the lower limb. These impaction fractures have a characteristic appearance and develop in recently laid down bone. They may develop ab initio of during therapy, Magnesium deficiency is found in these patients.

  6. Metaphyseal impaction fractures in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, D.; Cockshott, W.P.; Martin, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Patients with acute lymphatic leukaemia frequently are osteoporotic. A small subset of these develop disabling metaphyseal transverse fractures, usually bilateral and in the lower limb. These impaction fractures have a characteristic appearance and develop in recently laid down bone. They may develop ab initio of during therapy, Magnesium deficiency is found in these patients. (orig.)

  7. The Role of Metaphysical Naturalism in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper defends the view that metaphysical naturalism is a constitutive ontological principle of science in that the general empirical methods of science, such as observation, measurement and experiment, and thus the very production of empirical evidence, presuppose a no-supernature principle. It examines the consequences of metaphysical…

  8. Unusual metaphyseal disturbance in two kittens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn-Moore, D.A.; Hagard, G.; Turner, C.; Duncan, A.W.; Barr, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the presenting features, radiographic changes, biochemical alterations and clinical progress of two kittens, from separate litters, which were found to have a growth plate disturbance initially diagnosed and treated as vitamin D3-dependent rickets, but subsequently suspected to be a metaphyseal chondrodysplasia

  9. Stylistics and the Metaphysics of Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil

    2007-01-01

    In order to better understand the worth of aesthetic experience in encountering poetry, fresh perspectives are helpful. This paper introduces the reader to modern stylistics: that is linguistic examinations of "the speaker's meaning" in literature and notes such "scientific" approaches to poetry do find common metaphysical ground with leading…

  10. The Metaphysics of Chinese Information Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liqian, Zhou; Brier, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Compared with other transdisciplinary frames of information Wu Kun’s philosophy of information differs in its metaphysical framework in that it has a background in a conception of Dialectics of Nature coming from the old Stalin textbook system but also a part of the renewal of thinking in China...

  11. Quine, Putnam, and the Naturalization of Metaphysics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander; Baumgartner, S.; Heisenberg, T.; Krebs, S.

    2014-01-01

    Naturalists argue that metaphysics ought to be in some sense continuous with science. Putnam has claimed that if we push naturalism to its limits, we have to conclude with Quine that reference is indeterminate. Since Putnam believes Quine’s thesis to be extremely counterintuitive, he regards

  12. What is Metaphysical Equivalence? | Miller | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theories are metaphysically equivalent just if there is no fact of the matter that could render one theory true and the other false. In this paper I argue that if we are judiciously to resolve disputes about whether theories are equivalent or not, we need to develop testable criteria that will give us epistemic access to the obtaining ...

  13. Determination of death: Metaphysical and biomedical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irayda Jakušovaitė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational–logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question “Does a brain death mean death of a human being?” two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death.

  14. Determination of death: Metaphysical and biomedical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Luneckaitė, Žydrunė; Peičius, Eimantas; Bagdonaitė, Živilė; Riklikienė, Olga; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2016-01-01

    The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational-logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question "Does a brain death mean death of a human being?" two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. The many Metaphysics within Physics. Essay review of 'The Metaphysics within Physics' by Tim Maudlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Mauricio

    Tim Maudlin's new book The Metaphysics within Physics (Oxford University Press, 2007) collects six essays by one of the most thoughtful and original minds working in the philosophy of physics nowadays. Some had previously circulated informally for years. For example, Chapter 1 ('A Modest Proposal Concerning Laws, Counterfactuals and Explanations') is as old as my own philosophical career-I recall reading a draft in the early 1990s. The mere publication of such a long-awaited collection is therefore already good news. In addition, the degree of coherence and the lack of redundancy are greater than one would expect from a collection of disparate essays written at diverse times and with a range of different targets. The whole book can be understood coherently as an extended argument in favor of a particular 'physics-based' methodology for inquiry in metaphysics. This methodology recommends a detailed and thorough analysis of current physics as a benchmark for any thesis, dispute or argument in metaphysics. It follows that proper metaphysical inquiry must be suitably informed not just about the current state of play in analytical metaphysics but also about the current state of development of the relevant part of present day physics.

  16. Problems in the diagnosis of metaphyseal fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, Paul K.

    The radiographic projection influences the appearance of the metaphyseal fragment. If the long axis of the metaphysis and the radiographic projection are at right angles, the thicker peripheral margin of the metaphyseal fragment will be viewed end-on as a relatively discrete triangular bony fragment. A caudally or cranially angulated radiographic projection results in a curvilinear bony density that represents the dense peripheral margin of the fracture fragment that has been separated from the metaphysis. Thus, in one projection a fragment may appear as a corner fracture, and in another view, as a bucket-handle lesion. From autopsy and clinical studies it is evident that bruising overlying CMLs is often absent. (orig.)

  17. Metaphyseal osteopathy in three Australian Kelpie siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, C M; Brain, P H; Dunn, A L

    2014-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) was diagnosed in three Australian Kelpie puppies that were presented for veterinary assessment of lameness. The three puppies were siblings. Each was from a different litter by the same breeding pair. The puppy in case one was seen by the authors, and the puppies in cases two and three were patients at other veterinary hospitals. However, the medical records and radiographs were examined and reviewed for this report. Radiographic investigation of the lameness revealed pathognomonic appearance of MO affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones in all three puppies. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology in one patient. MO is considered a disease of large and giant-breed dogs, being rarely reported in non-large-breed dogs, and has not been reported in the Australian Kelpie, which is considered a medium-breed dog. This case series suggests a previously unreported breed predisposition to MO in the Australian Kelpie. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. The metaphysics of morality : a dispositionalist account

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, William Luke

    2005-01-01

    Each of the following theses is independently plausible: Principle. Morality is principled: right-making factors or moral reasons entail corresponding moral principles. Conflict. Conflicts of moral obligation are possible and metaphysically unproblematic (even if they can be quite difficult--or even impossible--to resolve). Holism. Whether a given factor contributes to the rightness or wrongness of an action may depend on factors other than itself; hence, what is a right-making factor or mora...

  19. Kant, God and Metaphysics: The Secret Thorn

    OpenAIRE

    Kanterian, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Kant is widely acknowledged as the greatest philosopher of modern times. He undertook his famous critical turn to save human freedom and morality from the challenge of determinism and materialism. Intertwined with his metaphysical interests, however, he also had theological commitments, which have received insufficient attention. He believed that man is a fallen creature and in need of ‘redemption’. He intended to provide a fortress protecting religious faith from the failure of rationalist m...

  20. Metaphysics and medical education: taking holism seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Medical education is now suffused with concepts that have their source outside the traditional scientific and medical disciplines: concepts such as holism, connectedness and reflective practice. Teaching of these, and other problematic concepts such as medical uncertainty and error, has been defined more by the challenge they pose to the standard model rather than being informed by a strong positive understanding. This challenge typically involves a critical engagement with the idea of objectivity, which is rarely acknowledged as an inherently metaphysical critique. Consequently, these ideas prove to be difficult to teach well. I suggest that the lack of an integrating, positive narrative is the reason for teaching difficulty, and propose that what is needed is an explicit commitment to teach the metaphysics of medicine, with the concept of holism being the fulcrum on which the remaining concepts turn. An acknowledged metaphysical narrative will encompass the scientific realism that medical students typically bring to their tertiary education, and at the same time enable a bigger picture to be drawn that puts the newer and more problematic concepts into context. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Kantowska metafizyka percepcji (Kant’s Metaphysics of Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sikora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article treats of an issue of Kant’s the metaphysics of perception as a specific sphere where concept of sense perception within transcendental philosophy seem to be rooted into a wider context of metaphysical presuppositions. The text is an epitome of a few Kant’s aporias which appear when he does not notice a metaphysical background which constitutes basic relation between subject and object in sense perception.

  2. Mendelssohn and Kant on Mathematics and Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Callanan, John Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The difference between the method of metaphysics and the method of mathematics was an issue of central concern for Kant in both the Pre-Critical and Critical periods. I will argue that when Kant speaks of the ‘philosophical method’ in the Doctrine of Method in the Critique of Pure Reason (CPR), he frequently has in mind not his own methodology but rather the method of conceptual analysis associated with rationalism. The particular target is Moses Mendelssohn’s picture of analysis contained in...

  3. The Interdependence of Pedagogy, Learning Theory, Morality and Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Explores the incompatibility between constructivist theories of learning and realist metaphysics (belief that knowledge and skills exist in mind-independent workplace practices). Shows how this results in conflict between constructivist teaching approaches and the transmission or banking mode favored by realist metaphysics. (SK)

  4. Metaphysical outlooks in physics and the anthropic principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaporta, N.

    In order to justify the various assumptions current in present day cosmology, it is necessary for each of them to build a frame of metaphysical postulates much more involved and artificial than the opposite straightforwardly metaphysical view of a universe built according to an a priori plan, requiring a planning intelligence adequate to have conceived it.

  5. Hylozoism as an Interpretive Principle in African Metaphysics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hylozoism as an Interpretive Principle in African Metaphysics. ... is only used as an interpretive principle in African Metaphysics; unlike the widely held assumption by some popular proponents that inanimate beings have elein vitale, that is, life-force. ... LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research, 8(1), 319-327, 2011 ...

  6. The Problem of Being in Metaphysics | Kanu | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is being? This was and still is one of the fundamental questions within the area of metaphysics. The researcher in this piece studies the dynamics of the problem of being in metaphysics. A historical approach is adopted to this study. The researcher goes through the Ancient, Medieval, Modern and Contemporary ...

  7. The Functionality of Being in Pantaleon's Operative Metaphysics vis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area of operative metaphysics speaks of a metaphysical system that does not just exist as an ivory tower apart from people's experience, but one that could be applied to a concrete historical circumstance. This piece studies the concept of being as understood by Pantaleon Iroegbu, as being qua belongingness.

  8. Observability, Visualizability and the Question of Metaphysical Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    Theories in fundamental physics are unlikely to be ontologically neutral, yet they may nonetheless fail to offer decisive empirical support for or against particular metaphysical positions. I illustrate this point by close examination of a particular objection raised by Wolfgang Pauli against Hermann Weyl. The exchange reveals that both parties to the dispute appeal to broader epistemological principles to defend their preferred metaphysical starting points. I suggest that this should make us hesitant to assume that in deriving metaphysical conclusions from physical theories we place our metaphysical theories on a purely empirical foundation. The metaphysics within a particular physical theory may well be the result of a priori assumptions in the background, not particular empirical findings.

  9. Metaphysics of the principle of least action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhovich, Vladislav

    2018-05-01

    Despite the importance of the variational principles of physics, there have been relatively few attempts to consider them for a realistic framework. In addition to the old teleological question, this paper continues the recent discussion regarding the modal involvement of the principle of least action and its relations with the Humean view of the laws of nature. The reality of possible paths in the principle of least action is examined from the perspectives of the contemporary metaphysics of modality and Leibniz's concept of essences or possibles striving for existence. I elaborate a modal interpretation of the principle of least action that replaces a classical representation of a system's motion along a single history in the actual modality by simultaneous motions along an infinite set of all possible histories in the possible modality. This model is based on an intuition that deep ontological connections exist between the possible paths in the principle of least action and possible quantum histories in the Feynman path integral. I interpret the action as a physical measure of the essence of every possible history. Therefore only one actual history has the highest degree of the essence and minimal action. To address the issue of necessity, I assume that the principle of least action has a general physical necessity and lies between the laws of motion with a limited physical necessity and certain laws with a metaphysical necessity.

  10. The metaphysics of quantum mechanics: Modal interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Stuart Murray

    2004-11-01

    This dissertation begins with the argument that a preferred way of doing metaphysics is through philosophy of physics. An understanding of quantum physics is vital to answering questions such as: What counts as an individual object in physical ontology? Is the universe fundamentally indeterministic? Are indiscernibles identical? This study explores how the various modal interpretations of quantum mechanics answer these sorts of questions; modal accounts are one of the two classes of interpretations along with so-called collapse accounts. This study suggests a new alternative within the class of modal views that yields a more plausible ontology, one in which the Principle of the Identity of Indisceribles is necessarily true. Next, it shows that modal interpretations can consistently deny that the universe must be fundamentally indeterministic so long as they accept certain other metaphysical commitments: either a perfect initial distribution of states in the universe or some form of primitive dispositional properties. Finally, the study sketches out a future research project for modal interpretations based on developing quantified quantum logic.

  11. Diderot’s ontology and Hollywood metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božovič Miran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diderot’s universe is somewhat weird, often dreamlike and hallucinatory, and his ontology fluid and elusive. It comprises the existing, the non-existent and even contradictory entities, the boundaries between which cannot always be clearly delimited. This universe in which nothing is of the essence of a particular being and everything is more or less something or other, resembles the amorphous and oneiric world of Zhuangzi in which nothing is clearly defined, while essenceless things, floating in uncertainty and indeterminacy, literally blend into one another. The author examines what the early Hollywood comedies of Preston Sturges and the Marx brothers can teach us about the metaphysics and the principles at work in this complex and intricate world.

  12. [The metaphysical dimension of animal ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Utilitarian ethics recognises animals as moral objects, but it does not attribute an absolute value to human or non-human individuals. Animal ethics according to Regan defines the non-human individual as an inherent value, but concedes that humans should be given precedence over animals if a situation involves a decision between life and death. Such life and death decisions relate to the fundamental structures of biological nature. To individuals these fundamental structures (the paradox of life and death) will necessarily appear absurd. The metaphysical dimension of animal ethics tries to shed light on the connections between life and death, body and mind that underly ethical discussions and searches for alternatives to the natural organisation of life.

  13. Audism: exploring the metaphysics of oppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, H-Dirksen L

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the development of the concept of "audism" from its inception in the mid-1970s by exploring three distinct dimensions of oppression: individual, institutional, and metaphysical. Although the first two aspects of audism have been identified, there is a deeply rooted belief system regarding language and human identity that is yet to be explored within the context of audism. This article attempts to expose how our particular historical and philosophical constructions of language and being have created what French philosopher Jacques Derrida calls phonocentrism. Although Derrida does not discuss audism, his deconstruction of the Western notion of language provides a lens through which we can better see the orientation that has provided fertile ground out of which individual and institutional audism has flourished.

  14. Leibniz on the metaphysical foundation of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Daniel R.

    This thesis examines how and why Leibniz felt that physics must be grounded in metaphysics. I argue that one of the strongest motivation Leibniz had for attempting to ground physics in metaphysics was his concern over the problem of induction. Even in his early writings, Leibniz was well aware of the problem of induction and how this problem threatened the very possibility of physics. Both his early and later theories of truth are geared towards solving this deep problem in the philosophy of science. In his early theory of truth, all truths are ultimately grounded in (but not necessarily reducible to) an identity. Hence, all truths are ultimately based in logic. Consequently, the problem of induction is seemingly solved since everything that happens, happens with the force of logical necessity. Unfortunately, this theory is incompatible with Leibniz's theory of possible worlds and hence, jeopardizes the liberty of God. In Leibniz's later theory of truth, Leibniz tries to overcome this weakness by acknowledging truths that are grounded in the free but moral necessity of God's actions. Since God's benevolence is responsible for the actualization of this world, then this world must possess rational laws. Furthermore, since God's rationality ensures that everything obeys the principle of sufficient reason, then we can use this principle to determine the fundamental laws of the universe. Leibniz himself attempts to derive these laws using this principle. Kant attempted to continue this work of securing the possibility of science, and the problems he encountered helped to shape his critical philosophy. So I conclude by a comparative analysis of Leibniz and Kant on the foundations of physics.

  15. The abundant world: Paul Feyerabend's metaphysics of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide an interpretation of Feyerabend's metaphysics of science as found in late works like Conquest of Abundance and Tyranny of Science. Feyerabend's late metaphysics consists of an attempt to criticize and provide a systematic alternative to traditional scientific realism, a package of views he sometimes referred to as "scientific materialism." Scientific materialism is objectionable not only on metaphysical grounds, nor because it provides a poor ground for understanding science, but because it implies problematic claims about the epistemic and cultural authority of science, claims incompatible with situating science properly in democratic societies. I show how Feyerabend's metaphysical view, which I call "the abundant world" or "abundant realism," constitute a sophisticated and challenging form of ontological pluralism that makes interesting connections with contemporary philosophy of science and issues of the political and policy role of science in a democratic society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperechoic metaphyses in hypophosphatasia: what does it mean?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasseur-Daudruy, Marie; Ickowicz, Valentine; Eurin, Danielle; Degre, Sophie; Le Goupils, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of hypophosphatasia diagnosed using US and CT at 29 weeks' gestation and confirmed by molecular analysis. Prenatal US revealed very short fetal limbs and severe demineralization of the skull. The diaphyses were normal, but the metaphyses of the long bones appeared hyperechoic with no posterior shadowing. No fractures or long-bone deformations were observed. Three-dimensional helical CT performed at 29 weeks' gestation provided additional details of the abnormal bones, i.e. irregular and cupped metaphyses that were very similar to the radiological findings of hypophosphatasia described postnatally. To our knowledge, the description of hyperechoic metaphyses in hypophosphatasia is unique and is a consequence of abnormal mineralization of the metaphyses that is specific to this pathology. (orig.)

  17. The tragic and the metaphysical in philosophy and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolorow, Robert D; Atwood, George E

    2013-06-01

    This article elaborates a claim, first introduced by Wilhelm Dilthey, that metaphysics represents an illusory flight from the tragedy of human finitude. Metaphysics, of which psychoanalytic metapsychologies are a form, transforms the unbearable fragility and transience of all things human into an enduring, permanent, changeless reality, an illusory world of eternal truths. Three "clinical cases" illustrate this thesis in the work and lives of a philosopher and two psychoanalytic theorists: Friedrich Nietzsche and his metaphysical doctrine of the eternal return of the same, Sigmund Freud and his dual instinct theory, and Heinz Kohut and his theoretical language of the self. It is contended that the best safeguard against the pitfalls of metaphysical illusion lies in a shared commitment to reflection on the constitutive contexts of all our theoretical ideas.

  18. OUT-OF-BODY EXPERIENCE, PURE BEING AND METAPHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Karivets

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The author will show that metaphysical concepts and the concepts of empirical sciences derive from experience. The only difference is that metaphysical concepts derive from unusual experience, i.e. out-of-body experience, while empirical sciences – from usual one. The example set metaphysical concept of pure being. Methodology. In order to obtain this goal the author uses two methods. The first one is comparative method. With the help of this method the stories of men who experienced clinical death and returned to life are compared with the famous philosophers’ metaphysical statements (Plato, Descartes, and Bonaventura. The second one is transpersonal method. It helps to study the peculiarities of the extraordinary experience in the state of clinical death or mystical ecstasy. Such experience lies in experience of transcendence, pure being as light, ultimate awareness of truth, which are identical to the metaphysical statements of philosophers and mystics. These ultimate experiences belong to different people, who lived and grown in different cultures, but nevertheless metaphysical statements of philosophers or mystics and statements of the ordinary people who experienced clinical death are the same. Therefore we can say that out-of-body experience is transpersonal. Originality. Metaphysics is neither speculative nor withdrawn from experience of a human being sphere. It arises from out-of-body experience while empirical sciences – from usual experience. Therefore, metaphysical concepts, in particular, pure being, are empirical, because they are based also on (extraordinary experience. In general, metaphysics becomes possible on the basis of out-of-body experience. Conclusions. In this article the author argues that the concepts of metaphysics are not a priori because they originate from out-of-body experience that is from the experience of the distinction between body and soul or body and mind. As a result of such experience

  19. Classic metaphyseal lesion following external cephalic version and cesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysack, John T.; Soboleski, Don [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Queen' s University, Kingston General Hospital, 76 Stuart Street, K7L 2V7, Kingston, Ont. (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    We report a case of an otherwise healthy neonate diagnosed at birth with a classic metaphyseal lesion of the proximal tibia following external cephalic version for frank breech presentation and a subsequent urgent cesarean section. Although the classic metaphyseal lesion is considered highly specific for infant abuse, this case demonstrates the importance of obtaining a history of obstetric trauma for neonates presenting to the imaging department for suspected non-accidental injury. (orig.)

  20. Classic metaphyseal lesion following external cephalic version and cesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysack, John T.; Soboleski, Don

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of an otherwise healthy neonate diagnosed at birth with a classic metaphyseal lesion of the proximal tibia following external cephalic version for frank breech presentation and a subsequent urgent cesarean section. Although the classic metaphyseal lesion is considered highly specific for infant abuse, this case demonstrates the importance of obtaining a history of obstetric trauma for neonates presenting to the imaging department for suspected non-accidental injury. (orig.)

  1. Newton's Metaphysics of Space as God's Emanative Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquette, Dale

    2014-09-01

    In several of his writings, Isaac Newton proposed that physical space is God's "emanative effect" or "sensorium," revealing something interesting about the metaphysics underlying his mathematical physics. Newton's conjectures depart from Plato and Aristotle's metaphysics of space and from classical and Cambridge Neoplatonism. Present-day philosophical concepts of supervenience clarify Newton's ideas about space and offer a portrait of Newton not only as a mathematical physicist but an independent-minded rationalist philosopher.

  2. Gould on species, metaphysics and macroevolution: A critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Sandy C

    2017-04-01

    Stephen Jay Gould's views on the ontology of species were an important plank of his revisionist program in evolutionary theory. In this paper I cast a critical eye over those views. I focus on three central aspects of Gould's views on species: the relation between the Darwinian and the metaphysical notions of individuality, the relation between the ontology of species and macroevolution, and the issue of contextualism and conventionalism about the metaphysics of species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metaphyseal fractures mimicking abuse during treatment for clubfoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayev, A.M.; Boal, D.K.B.; Wallach, D.M.; Segal, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Metaphyseal injuries resembling the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) of abuse may occur as the result of serial casting during treatment of clubfoot deformity. Mentioned in the orthopedic literature in 1972, this iatrogenic fracture has not been described in the radiologic literature nor has the similarity to injuries occurring with abuse been previously recognized. Objective. To describe the mechanism and radiographic appearance of metaphyseal injury observed during serial casting of clubfoot. Note similarities to the CML of abuse. Materials and methods. Eight children ranging in age from 1 to 4 months underwent casting for clubfoot. Five orthopedic surgeons from three different institutions performed the casting. Two patients had spina bifida and one, arthrogryposis. A complete skeletal survey was performed on one child who was abused; there was no suspicion of abuse in the remaining seven. Results. All children manifest injury with periosteal new bone. One child had clear evidence of abuse with 24 rib fractures. X-rays of lower extremities in short leg casts revealed bilateral tibial metaphyseal fractures. Four other children had metaphyseal fractures resembling the CML of abuse, and three developed an area of sclerosis within the metaphysis. Conclusion. In the setting of serial casting for equinovarus deformity, metaphyseal injury even the CML of abuse may be noted. Since inflicted injuries are almost always unobserved and explanations rarely offered, the fact that the CML occurs as a result of orthopedic manipulation may offer some further insight concerning the pathogenesis of this well-described abuse injury. (orig.)

  5. Karl Popper's Conception of Metaphysics and its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n2p209 In this paper I intend to thoroughly analyse Karl Popper’s relation to metaphysics. I start with his first writings, where he states the differences between science, pseudoscience and metaphysics. I then describe how his thoughts on the subject evolved to culminate in his reflection on metaphysical research programmes and the need for a revival of natural philosophy. A major concern is Popper’s famous testability criterion to set apart science from non-science. I point at the problems of the conception of metaphysics as non-testable theories (which are similar to the problems of the conception of metaphysics as theories involving unobservables and, in order to avoid these problems, I propose to retain nothing but the traditional conception of metaphysics as the general theories about the nature of the world. This leads me to the conclusion that science is not only an empirical task but also, and in a very important sense, a speculative one.

  6. Metaphyseal fractures mimicking abuse during treatment for clubfoot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayev, A.M.; Boal, D.K.B. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Wallach, D.M.; Segal, L.S. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Background. Metaphyseal injuries resembling the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) of abuse may occur as the result of serial casting during treatment of clubfoot deformity. Mentioned in the orthopedic literature in 1972, this iatrogenic fracture has not been described in the radiologic literature nor has the similarity to injuries occurring with abuse been previously recognized. Objective. To describe the mechanism and radiographic appearance of metaphyseal injury observed during serial casting of clubfoot. Note similarities to the CML of abuse. Materials and methods. Eight children ranging in age from 1 to 4 months underwent casting for clubfoot. Five orthopedic surgeons from three different institutions performed the casting. Two patients had spina bifida and one, arthrogryposis. A complete skeletal survey was performed on one child who was abused; there was no suspicion of abuse in the remaining seven. Results. All children manifest injury with periosteal new bone. One child had clear evidence of abuse with 24 rib fractures. X-rays of lower extremities in short leg casts revealed bilateral tibial metaphyseal fractures. Four other children had metaphyseal fractures resembling the CML of abuse, and three developed an area of sclerosis within the metaphysis. Conclusion. In the setting of serial casting for equinovarus deformity, metaphyseal injury even the CML of abuse may be noted. Since inflicted injuries are almost always unobserved and explanations rarely offered, the fact that the CML occurs as a result of orthopedic manipulation may offer some further insight concerning the pathogenesis of this well-described abuse injury. (orig.)

  7. Socialcultural background of formation of classical metaphysics

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    I. Z. Derzhko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of philosophy has shaped ideas about its nature and aims that were laid in ancient metaphysics, but have been substantially amended by civilizational change. Socialcultural background of philosophy became trends that began to emerge in late medieval culture has particularly flourished there during modern times. Sphere of existence is important for the development of any spiritual phenomenon. For metaphysics it is the idea of humanity, acting as a kind of cultural protest against the domination of religion. This caused criticism of the medieval way of life and thinking. The idea of human revival based on spirit of antiquity has grounded. Disclaimer theological philosophy medieval variant type is as opposed to free philosophizing, coupled with poetry and literature, University dogmatic philosophy. There were a «rediscovery» of Plato, Aristotle reinterpretation. Philosophers explored a problem of human emotions and relationships, considering the person as a whole being, which is inherent in the mind, which cannot be considered without bodily desires and emotions. Change of the values awakened activity of the human person, led its transformation settings concerning himself and the surrounding world. Thus objectively obtained expression and ideological embodiment of civilization in a need of a new type of man - to a much greater extent compared to medieval activity, initiative, freedom, rationality, responsibility. Under the influence of such attitudes changes within religion gradually took place. Through the efforts of thinkers like Luther, Calvin, Munzer there were laid ideas of the Reformation that go far beyond its borders, gaining general cultural nature. The Church was increasingly losing control over everyday human existence. Gradually standards of a free, relaxed life became conventional; requirements of the body, «earthly» spirit demands fulfilling played a huge role. Thought and Culture of the Renaissance reflects

  8. Life after Newton: an ecological metaphysic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowicz, R E

    1999-05-01

    Ecology may indeed be 'deep', as some have maintained, but perhaps much of the mystery surrounding it owes more simply to the dissonance between ecological notions and the fundamentals of the modern synthesis. Comparison of the axioms supporting the Newtonian world view with those underlying the organicist and stochastic metaphors that motivate much of ecosystems science reveals strong disagreements--especially regarding the nature of the causes of events and the scalar domains over which these causes can operate. The late Karl Popper held that the causal closure forced by our mechanical perspective on nature frustrates our attempts to achieve an 'evolutionary theory of knowledge.' He suggested that the Newtonian concept of 'force' must be generalized to encompass the contingencies that arise in evolutionary processes. His reformulation of force as 'propensity' leads quite naturally to a generalization of Newton's laws for ecology. The revised tenets appear, however, to exhibit more scope and allow for change to arise from within a system. Although Newton's laws survive (albeit in altered form) within a coalescing ecological metaphysic, the axioms that Enlightenment thinkers appended to Newton's work seem ill-suited for ecology and perhaps should yield to a new and coherent set of assumptions on how to view the processes of nature.

  9. The classic metaphyseal lesion and traumatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, Jonathan D.; Wannemacher, Jacob; Adler, Brent H.; Lindberg, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a traumatic lesion, strongly associated with abuse in infants. Nevertheless, various non-traumatic origins for CMLs continue to be suggested in medical and legal settings. No studies to date systematically describe the association of CMLs with other traumatic injuries. The primary objective of this study is to examine the association of CMLs with other traumatic injuries in a large data set of children evaluated for physical abuse. This was a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective, observational study of children <120 months of age who underwent evaluation by a child abuse physician. For this secondary analysis, we identified all children ≤12 months of age with an identified CML and determined the number and type of additional injuries identified. Descriptive analysis was used to report frequency of additional traumatic injuries. Among 2,890 subjects, 119 (4.1%) were identified as having a CML. Of these, 100 (84.0%) had at least one additional (non-CML) fracture. Thirty-three (27.7%) had traumatic brain injury. Nearly half (43.7%) of children had cutaneous injuries. Oropharyngeal injuries were found in 12 (10.1%) children. Abdominal/thoracic injuries were also found in 12 (10.1%) children. In all, 95.8% of children with a CML had at least one additional injury; one in four children had three or more categories of injury. CMLs identified in young children are strongly associated with traumatic injuries. Identification of a CML in a young child should prompt a thorough evaluation for physical abuse. (orig.)

  10. A critical introduction to the metaphysics of time

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    What is the nature of time? Does it flow? Do the past and future exist? Drawing connections between historical and present-day questions, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Time provides an up-to-date guide to one of the most central and debated topics in contemporary metaphysics. Introducing the views and arguments of Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Newton and Leibniz, this accessible introduction covers the history of the philosophy of time from the Pre-Socratics to the beginning of the 20th Century. The historical survey presents the necessary background to understanding more recent developments, including McTaggart's 1908 argument for the unreality of time, the open future, the perdurance/endurance debate, the possibility of time travel, and the relevance of current physics to the philosophy of time. Informed by cutting-edge philosophical research, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Time evaluates influential historical arguments in the context of contemporary developments. ...

  11. The Metaphysical Instincts & Spiritual Bypassing in Integral Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman A.K. Shirazi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Instincts are innate, unconscious means by which Nature operates in all forms of life including animals and human beings. In humans however, with progressive evolution of consciousness, instincts become increasingly conscious and regulated by egoic functions. Biological instincts associated with the lower-unconscious such as survival, aggressive, and reproductive instincts are well known in general psychology. The higher-unconscious, which is unique to human beings, may be said to have its own instinctual processes referred to here as the ‘metaphysical instincts’. In traditional spiritual practices awakening the metaphysical instincts has often been done at the expense of suppressing the biological instincts—a process referred to as spiritual bypassing. This essay discusses how the metaphysical instincts initially expressed as the religious impulse with associated beliefs and behaviors may be transformed and made fully conscious, and integrated with the biological instincts in integral yoga and psychology in order to achieve wholeness of personality.

  12. A new type of spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia - Algerian type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Bacha, L.; Massen, R.; Ayati, M.; Sator, S.; Brahimi, L.

    1988-01-01

    A new, dominantly inherited, severe form of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia in five members of an Algerian family is reported. Another child, not investigated, was also probably affected. The disease is characterised by a unique clinical and radiological set of features: dwarfism, genu valgum deformity, progressive kypho-scoliosis, wrist deformity, myopia and severe metaphyseal dysplasia, with moderate spinal changes and minimal changes in the hands and feet. In view of the geographical localisation of the disorder and the anatomical distribution we propose the name Algerian type of spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia. (orig.)

  13. The metaphysical basis of a liberal organ procurement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenov, David B; Delaney, James J

    2010-08-01

    There remains a need to properly analyze the metaphysical assumptions underlying two organ procurement policies: presumed consent and organ sales. Our contention is that if one correctly understands the metaphysics of both the human body and material property, then it will turn out that while organ sales are illiberal, presumed consent is not. What we mean by illiberal includes violating rights of bodily integrity, property, or autonomy, as well as arguing for or against a policy in a manner that runs afoul of Rawlsian public reason.

  14. METAPHYSICAL REVOLUTION OF DESCARTES AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROJECT

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    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to reveal and comprehend forms of influence metaphysical' revolution for a way of interpretation of the anthropological project by Descartes on the basis of investigations of modern dekartes's researchers, that is the recognition of a fundamental role of metaphysics. Methodology. As methodological base modern investigations of dekartes's researchers accenting a fundamental role of metaphysics and expediency of unbiassed judgment of heritage of the great thinker are used. The scientific novelty. The transformation of the anthropological project is outlined as manifestation of metaphysical revolution. It is about a transcendencecy of naive anthropology (as an embodiment of reductive mindset, that is interpretations of human nature as its corporality and transition to metaphysical anthropology which consists in upholding of unconditional priority of human thinking as associated with God. As result of transition concentration of attention on intense human nature, that is at tension between sensuality and intelligence, aspiration to truth and tendency to delusion, between Life and Nothing, etc. Conclusions. The appeal to the incomplete anthropological project of Descartes on the basis of innovative researches allows proving the thesis about influence of metaphysical revolution on a way of its interpretation. The main forms of oriented to science ideals of naive anthropology, trust in evidence of the senses, atheism, interpretation of science as the main form of detection rationality of human nature, which Descartes tends constructively to overcome in the text of "meditation", are highlighted. During creation of metaphysical anthropology the attention of the thinker is drawn by the fact of impossibility of comprehension of human nature by means of natural-science rationality and expediency of the appeal to metaphysics. The subject of attention of the thinker is the tension between sensuality and intelligence, need

  15. [The mark of envy: metaphysics and embryology according to Descartes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudemard, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between medicine and metaphysics in modern natural philosophy and especially in Descartes' philosophy. I argue that Descartes hypothetical account of birthmarks in connection with his embryology provides an argumentative proof of the metaphysical necessity of a substantial union between mind and body, which however does not threaten his doctrine of the real distinction between these two substances. It would appear that his argument relies on a temporal conception of alethic modalities and provides a new answer to Henricus Regius who in 1641 claimed that, for Descartes, the human being is an ensper accidens.

  16. Information in Reality: Logic and Metaphysics

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    Joseph E. Brenner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent history of information theory and science shows a trend in emphasis from quantitative measures to qualitative characterizations. In parallel, aspects of information are being developed, for example by Pedro Marijuan, Wolfgang Hofkirchner and others that are extending the notion of qualitative, non-computational information in the biological and cognitive domain to include meaning and function. However, there is as yet no consensus on whether a single acceptable definition or theory of the concept of information is possible, leading to many attempts to view it as a complex, a notion with varied meanings or a group of different entities. In my opinion, the difficulties in developing a Unified Theory of Information (UTI that would include its qualitative and quantita-tive aspects and their relation to meaning are a consequence of implicit or explicit reliance on the principles of standard, truth-functional bivalent or multivalent logics. In reality, information processes, like those of time, change and human con-sciousness, are contradictory: they are regular and irregular; consistent and inconsistent; continuous and discontinuous. Since the indicated logics cannot accept real contradictions, they have been incapable of describing the multiple but interre-lated characteristics of information. The framework for the discussion of information in this paper will be the new extension of logic to real complex processes that I have made, Logic in Reality (LIR, which is grounded in the dualities and self-dualities of quantum physics and cos-mology. LIR provides, among other things, new interpretations of the most fundamental metaphysical questions present in discussions of information at physical, biological and cognitive levels of reality including, especially, those of time, continuity vs. discontinuity, and change, both physical and epistemological. I show that LIR can constitute a novel and general ap-proach to the non-binary properties of

  17. Fall and Rise of Aristotelian Metaphysics in the Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, John

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the fortunes of Aristotelian metaphysics in science and the philosophy of science. It considers the Enlightenment claim that such a metaphysics is fundamentally unscientific, and that its abandonment was essential to the scientific revolution. The history of the scientific revolution and the metaphysical debates involved in it…

  18. Metaphysical Modality, Modality of Predicate and the Theory of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l nabavi

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the historical overview of the metaphysical modality firstly and then shows that the theory of "Decisive Necessity” is true and justified in a model of modal logic with equivalent accessibility relation and homogeneous possible world view (fixed domain.

  19. Morals, Metaphysics and The Method of Cases | Beck | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I discuss a set of problems concerning the method of cases as it is used in applied ethics and in the metaphysical debate about personal identity. These problems stem from research in social psychology concerning our access to the data with which the method operates. I argue that the issues facing ethics are ...

  20. Metaphyseal osteopathy-like disease in two sibling kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Valeria; D'Ettorre, Paolo; Caldin, Marco; Vezzoni, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of a growth plate disturbance resembling canine metaphyseal osteopathy in two, two-month-old, sibling, intact, female Domestic Shorthair cats. Clinical signs and radiographic lesions resolved spontaneously after three months. Follow-up examination at six months of age showed complete recovery and no radiographic abnormalities.

  1. Metaphysical Concept of Secularization versus Islamic Concept of Secularization

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    Volkan ERTİT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In early 21st century, the question “Is Turkey becoming secularized contrary to popular belief?” was one of the discussions occupying Turkish public opinion. These discussions led to the encounter of two different concepts of secularization, “theological (Islamic” and "metaphysical", and to put forward different claims using the same concept. Hence, it became evidentwas understood that a discussion was necessary to understand what secularization is and what it is not before starting any debate on Turkey's secularization. That is because the metaphysical discussion that defines secularization as the decline in the social influence of metaphysical realm (religion, religion-like mechanisms, folk religions, superstitious beliefs, etc. is overshadowed by the Islamic definition describing secularization as "irreligiousness" or "non-Islamism". Therefore, discussingTo understand the social transformation in Turkey, this article attempts to explain that metaphysical rather than theological definition of secularization is necessary for understanding the social implications of the process of modernization.

  2. DECONSTRUCTION OF THE METAPHYSICS OF PRESENCE IN PHENOMENOLOGY AND STRUCTURALISM

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    A. A. Polivoda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work is a description of critical position of J. Derrida on metaphysics of presence in phenomenological and structuralist discourses. As a philosophical strategy, deconstruction tries to destroy a violent hierarchy of terms, in which one term dominates the other according to its ontological or rational sense. Methodology of research is based on J. Derrida’s strategy of deconstruction, which tries to undermine the basic principles of knowledge and Western philosophy existence, for example, the opposition between nature and culture. In terms of J. Derrida, to deconstruct Western philosophy means to explore the tensions and contradictions in text, which should clarify false reliability of accepted hierarchies. The originality of the work lies in the identification of metaphysic of presence problem in structuralist and phenomenological discourses through the deconstruction project. Deconstruction should show instability of logocentrism, which focuses on repression of writing in terms of thought, truth, reason or logic. Conclusions: J. Derrida’s deconstruction appeared as an attempt to overthrow metaphysics and get focused on the concept of writing, which scope is limited by discourse. Deconstruction of metaphysics of presence is a continuous request of legitimacy of the existing logocentrism, and search of its weaknesses, aporias and contradictions, which make impossible the tradition, centered around mind.

  3. Modes of Learning: Whitehead's Metaphysics and the Stages of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George

    2012-01-01

    Educators are familiar with Alfred North Whitehead's three stages of education: romance, precision, and generalization. Philosophers are familiar with his metaphysical theories about the primacy of temporal processes. In "Modes of Learning," George Allan brings these two sides of Whitehead's thought together for the first time in a book…

  4. Conceptual and Metaphysical Origins and Relevance of Temporal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, David; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Logic has sometimes been seen as an alternative to metaphysics and to speculation. In this paper it is argued that a different story should be told when it comes to temporal logic and tense-logic in particular. A.N. Prior’s first formulation of tense logic was mainly established in order to quali...

  5. Metaphyseal sclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W.; Sevcik, M.; Tallroth, K. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-04-01

    We reviewed radiographs of the hand and wrists of 33 patients with immature skeletons and chronic renal disease. Various radiographic manifestations of renal osteodystrophy were seen, including osteopenia in 23 patients (70%), subperiosteal resorption in 20 (61%), distal tuft resorption in 14 (42%), sclerosis of vertebral bodies in 2 (6%), and soft-tissue calcification in 1 (3%). We also noted that 13 patients (39%) exhibited metaphyseal sclerosis adjacent to the growth plates. Five of these 13 showed persistent sclerosis years after the growth plates had fused. None of the patients showed other radiographic changes of rickets, and there was no correlation between the serum calcium, phosphorus, or aluminum levels and the presence of metaphyseal sclerosis. Neiter was there any association with the underlying cause of renal failure, method of treatment, presence of a transplant, or type of dialysis. We view this finding as another manifestation of renal osteodystrophy. The importance of distinguishing it from other sclerotic lesions is discussed. (orig.).

  6. Can classic metaphyseal lesions follow uncomplicated caesarean section?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, AnnaMarie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin 1 (Ireland); Donoghue, Veronica B. [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin 1 (Ireland); National Maternity Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2007-05-15

    Classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is the term given to a fracture that most often occurs in the posteromedial aspect of the distal femur, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and proximal humerus in infants; this finding is strongly associated with non-accidental injury. To demonstrate that the CML may occur following simple lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). A review of 22 years of an obstetric practice that delivers 8,500 babies per year. We identified three neonates born by elective LSCS, each with distal femoral metaphyseal fractures on postpartum radiographs. All caesarean sections were elective and uncomplicated. External cephalic version was not employed preoperatively. Postpartum radiographs demonstrated a fracture of the distal femoral metaphysis in each neonate, typical of a CML. We propose that a CML can occur in the setting of a simple, elective and uncomplicated LSCS where no external cephalic version is employed. (orig.)

  7. The metaphysical lessons of synthetic biology and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I examine some important metaphysical lessons that are often presented as derived from two new scientific disciplines: synthetic biology and neuroscience. I analyse four of them: the nature of life, the existence of a soul (the mind-body problem), personhood, and free will. Many caveats are in order, and each 'advance' or each case should be assessed for itself. I conclude that a main lesson can nevertheless be learned: in conjunction with modern science, neuroscience and synthetic biology allow us to enrich old metaphysical debates, to deepen and even renew them. In particular, it becomes less and less plausible to consider life, mind, person, and agency as non-natural or non-physical entities. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Fibrous metaphyseal defect (fibrous cortical defect, non-ossifying fibroma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.; Saure, D.; Dammenhain, S.

    1981-01-01

    Fibrous cortical defect and nonossifying fibromas can be classified together as fibrous metaphyseal defects (FMD) since they have the same pahtological substrate, with a tendency to the same localisation around the knee, and occuring at the same age. They have a tendency to spontaneous healing, are clinically silent and are usually discovered accidentally during radiological examination. A radiological survey fo 5.674 metaphyseal regions in the upper and lower extremities of 2.065 unselected patients aged one to 20 years revealed an incidence of 1.8%; exlcusive examination of the distal femur showed an incidence of 2.7%. 96% of all lesions were in the lower extremities and only 4% in the upper. The marked discrepancy in the incidence rate between American and German publications is discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Psychotherapy: What's Metaphysical Got to Do With It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2009-12-01

    Clinicians have a number of treatment options for dealing with the emotional ills of patients, including psychoeducation, psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. However, after years of experience in the clinical field, we have recognized that these treatment options may not be sufficient to adequately address the problems of some patients. We have found that adding a metaphysical/spiritual component may be helpful, particularly for those patients with histories of childhood trauma. In this edition of The Interface, we discuss four metaphysical techniques for facilitating patient healing-1) refocusing on the present, 2) reframing adversity, 3) practicing surrender, and 4) meditation. These approaches can be mutually integrated and compliment a psychological treatment in either the psychiatric or primary care setting, regardless of whether or not the patient has formal religious beliefs.

  10. Metaphyseal sclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.; Sevcik, M.; Tallroth, K.

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed radiographs of the hand and wrists of 33 patients with immature skeletons and chronic renal disease. Various radiographic manifestations of renal osteodystrophy were seen, including osteopenia in 23 patients (70%), subperiosteal resorption in 20 (61%), distal tuft resorption in 14 (42%), sclerosis of vertebral bodies in 2 (6%), and soft-tissue calcification in 1 (3%). We also noted that 13 patients (39%) exhibited metaphyseal sclerosis adjacent to the growth plates. Five of these 13 showed persistent sclerosis years after the growth plates had fused. None of the patients showed other radiographic changes of rickets, and there was no correlation between the serum calcium, phosphorus, or aluminum levels and the presence of metaphyseal sclerosis. Neiter was there any association with the underlying cause of renal failure, method of treatment, presence of a transplant, or type of dialysis. We view this finding as another manifestation of renal osteodystrophy. The importance of distinguishing it from other sclerotic lesions is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Can classic metaphyseal lesions follow uncomplicated caesarean section?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, AnnaMarie; Donoghue, Veronica B.

    2007-01-01

    Classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is the term given to a fracture that most often occurs in the posteromedial aspect of the distal femur, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and proximal humerus in infants; this finding is strongly associated with non-accidental injury. To demonstrate that the CML may occur following simple lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). A review of 22 years of an obstetric practice that delivers 8,500 babies per year. We identified three neonates born by elective LSCS, each with distal femoral metaphyseal fractures on postpartum radiographs. All caesarean sections were elective and uncomplicated. External cephalic version was not employed preoperatively. Postpartum radiographs demonstrated a fracture of the distal femoral metaphysis in each neonate, typical of a CML. We propose that a CML can occur in the setting of a simple, elective and uncomplicated LSCS where no external cephalic version is employed. (orig.)

  12. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David Kelley

    In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

  13. Foucauldian diagnostics: space, time, and the metaphysics of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2009-08-01

    This essay places Foucault's work into a philosophical context, recognizing that Foucault is difficult to place and demonstrates that Foucault remains in the Kantian tradition of philosophy, even if he sits at the margins of that tradition. For Kant, the forms of intuition-space and time-are the a priori conditions of the possibility of human experience and knowledge. For Foucault, the a priori conditions are political space and historical time. Foucault sees political space as central to understanding both the subject and objects of medicine, psychiatry, and the social sciences. Through this analysis one can see that medicine's metaphysics is a metaphysics of efficient causation, where medicine's objects are subjected to mechanisms of efficient control.

  14. Beware of mereologists bearing gifts: prolegomena to a medical metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushf, George

    2013-10-01

    This essay considers implications of formal mereologies and ontologies for medical metaphysics. Edward Fried's extensional mereological account of the human body is taken as representative of a prominent strand in analytic metaphysics that has close affinities with medical positivism. I show why such accounts fail. First, I consider how Fried attempts to make sense of the medical case of Barney Clark, the first recipient of an artificial heart, and show that his analytic metaphysical categories do not have the right kind of fit with the case. A proper medical metaphysic should involve a richer two way dialogue with medicine, and it should not just "apply" formal accounts worked out in other settings. Second, I argue that any effort to account for real wholes with extensional mereological sums requires all sorts of ad hoc, supplementary mechanisms that do the real work, and the full repertoire of these mechanisms involves inconsistencies and semantic shifts. Finally, I consider an alternative strand of work on non-extensional whole/part relations that is closer to medicine and that can deepen reflection on some core problems in bioethics, for example, associated with the determination of death when an organism ceases to function as a whole. In addition to the utility such formal ontologies have for addressing traditional problems such as the determination of death, philosophers of medicine should appreciate the increasingly influential role such formal tools are playing in the development of data system ontologies. Assumptions integral to these ontologies have far reaching implications for the way future research and practice in medicine will be conducted, and much greater critical reflection is needed on the full range of issues associated with the development and use of such medical ontologies.

  15. Semantics and metaphysics in informatics: toward an ontology of tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figdor, Carrie

    2011-04-01

    This article clarifies three principles that should guide the development of any cognitive ontology. First, that an adequate cognitive ontology depends essentially on an adequate task ontology; second, that the goal of developing a cognitive ontology is independent of the goal of finding neural implementations of the processes referred to in the ontology; and third, that cognitive ontologies are neutral regarding the metaphysical relationship between cognitive and neural processes. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Probing the limits of reality: the metaphysics in science fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John L.

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction provides a genre in which metaphysical questions concerning the ultimate structure of reality regularly arise. In addressing these questions, contemporary scientists tend to assume that the questions are of a scientific nature and should be handled solely by reference to our best theories. In this paper, it is argued that we cannot afford to neglect the role of conceptual analysis - a distinctively philosophical task - in thinking critically about the possibilities that science fiction claims to describe.

  17. Natural kinds in evolution and systematics: metaphysical and epistemological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2009-06-01

    Despite the traditional focus on metaphysical issues in discussions of natural kinds in biology, epistemological considerations are at least as important. By revisiting the debate as to whether taxa are kinds or individuals, I argue that both accounts are metaphysically compatible, but that one or the other approach can be pragmatically preferable depending on the epistemic context. Recent objections against construing species as homeostatic property cluster kinds are also addressed. The second part of the paper broadens the perspective by considering homologues as another example of natural kinds, comparing them with analogues as functionally defined kinds. Given that there are various types of natural kinds, I discuss the different theoretical purposes served by diverse kind concepts, suggesting that there is no clear-cut distinction between natural kinds and other kinds, such as functional kinds. Rather than attempting to offer a unique metaphysical account of 'natural' kind, a more fruitful approach consists in the epistemological study of how different natural kind concepts are employed in scientific reasoning.

  18. Conscience claims, metaphysics, and avoiding an LGBT eugenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Abram

    2018-06-01

    Novel assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are poised to present our society with strange new ethical questions, such as whether lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) couples should be allowed to produce children biologically related to both parents, or whether trans-women who want to experience childbirth should be allowed to receive uterine transplants. Clinicians opposed to offering such technologies to LGBT couples on moral grounds are likely to seek legal shelter through the conscience clauses enshrined in U.S. law. This paper begins by briefly discussing some novel ART on the horizon and noting that it is unclear whether current conscience clauses will permit fertility clinics to deny such services to LGBT individuals. A compromise approach to conscience is any view that sees the value of respecting conscience claims within limits. I describe and critique the constraints proposed in the recent work of Wicclair, NeJaime and Siegel as ultimately begging the question. My purpose is to strengthen their arguments by suggesting that in the controversial situations that elicit claims of conscience, bioethicists should engage with the metaphysical claims in play. I argue that conscience claims against LGBT individuals ought to be constrained because the underlying metaphysic-that God has decreed the LGBT lifestyle to be sinful-is highly implausible from the perspective of a naturalized metaphysic, which ought to be the lens through which we evaluate conscience claims. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Metaphysical Underdetermination and Logical Determination: the Case of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenhart, Jonas R. B.

    2014-03-01

    The `underdetermination of metaphysics by the physics' is the thesis that our best scientific theories do not uniquely determine their ontologies. Non-relativistic quantum mechanics is famously thought to exemplify this kind of underdetermination: it may be seen as compatible with both an ontology of individual objects and with an ontology of non-individual objects. A possible way out of the dilema thus created consists in adopting some version of Ontic Structural Realism (OSR), a view according to which the metaphysically relevant aspect of the theory is its structure, not the nature of the objects dealt with. According to OSR, particular objects may be dispensed with (eliminated or re-conceptualized) in favor of the structure of the theory. In this paper we shall argue that the underdetermination of metaphysics by the physics is a consequence of a too strict naturalism in ontology. As a result, when a mitigated ontological naturalism is taken into account, underdetermination does not appear to have such dark consequences for object-oriented ontologies in quantum mechanics.

  20. Defining human death: an intersection of bioethics and metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Bertha Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    For many years now, bioethicists, physicians, and others in the medical field have disagreed concerning how to best define human death. Different theories range from the Harvard Criteria of Brain Death, which defines death as the cessation of all brain activity, to the Cognitive Criteria, which is based on the loss of almost all core mental properties, e.g., memory, self-consciousness, moral agency, and the capacity for reason. A middle ground is the Irreversibility Standard, which defines death as occurring when the capacity for consciousness is forever lost. Given all these different theories, how can we begin to approach solving the issue of how to define death? I propose that a necessary starting point is discussing an even more fundamental question that properly belongs in the philosophical field of metaphysics: we must first address the issue of diachronic identity over time, and the persistence conditions of personal identity. In this paper, I illustrate the interdependent relationship between this metaphysical question and questions concerning the definition of death. I also illustrate how it is necessary to antecedently attend to the metaphysical issue of defining death before addressing certain issues in medical ethics, e.g., whether it is morally permissible to euthanize patients in persistent vegetative states or procure organs from anencephalic infants.

  1. Feng Youlan’s Interpretation of Western Philosophy:A Critical Examination from the Perspective of Metaphysical Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to display a limited observation of Feng’s interpretation of Western philosophy through the window of metaphysical methodology. This paper concentrates on Feng’s interpretation of Western philosophy from the perspective of metaphysical methodology and aims to display a limited observation of Feng’s interpretation of Western philosophy through the window of metaphysical methodology. Based on a brief review the recent studies of Feng Youlan and Western philosophy, this paper analyzes the progress and insufficient aspects in current studies on this issue and particularly clarifies what are the metaphysics and metaphysical methods in the context of Feng Youlan’s philosophy. In clarifying Feng’s interpretation of Western philosophy from the perspective of methodology, this paper further critically analyzes the Feng’s positive metaphysical methods and negative metaphysical methods, and assumes that Feng’s negative metaphysical methods essentially is a kind of attitudes towards metaphysics but neither a kind of metaphysics nor a kind of metaphysical methods. Instead of characterizing metaphysical methods as positive and negative as Feng did, this paper suggests an alternative division of metaphysical methods: direct and indirect methods of dealing with metaphysical issues.

  2. Johann Christoph Sturm's universal mathematics and metaphysics (German Title: Universalmathematik und Metaphysik bei Johann Christoph Sturm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinsle, Ulrich G.

    In order to understand Sturm's concept of a universal mathematics as a replacement or complement of metaphysics, one first has to examine the evolution of the idea of a mathesis universalis up to Sturm, and his concept of metaphysics. According to the understanding of those times, natural theology belongs to metaphysics. The last section is concerned with Sturm's statements on the existence of God and his assessments for a physico-theology.

  3. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Peirce’s Scientific and Spiritual Process Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    Peirce saw as his primary task to develop a comprehensive metaphysical and epistemological system in which a new theory of categories, developed after Kant and Hegel, was defined in a completely new way. His triadic category theory was connected to a dynamic triadic web of semiotics viewed...... as the dynamics of objective mind. Peirce’s pragmaticist semiotics attempts to bridge the gap between natural sciences and humanities by combining a phenomenological approach with an evolutionary and realistic understanding of nature and society meaning and logic....

  5. Infanticide for handicapped infants: sometimes it's a metaphysical dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, T A

    1988-01-01

    Since 1973 the practice of infanticide for some severely handicapped newborns has been receiving more open discussion and defence in the literature on medical ethics. A recent and important argument for the permissibility of infanticide relies crucially on a particular concept of personhood that excludes the theological. This paper attempts to show that the dispute between the proponents of infanticide and their religious opponents cannot be resolved because one side's perspective on the infant is shaped by a metaphysics that is emphatically rejected by the other. In such a situation philosophical argument is powerless to bring about a resolution because there can be no refutation of one side by the other. PMID:2969052

  6. The metaphysical art of Giorgio de Chirico. Migraine or epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Olaf; Landis, Theodor

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that the great Italian painter Giorgio de Chirico (1888-1978), who developed the unique style of 'metaphysical art', suffered from migraine and used some of his morbid manifestations as a source of inspiration for his paintings. Yet, whereas many of the symptoms that de Chirico described are rare in migraine, they are frequently encountered in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we rediscuss de Chirico's symptoms critically and suggest that, if his symptoms were of neurological origin, they rather relate to temporal lobe epilepsy than migraine. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Rejecting medical humanism: medical humanities and the metaphysics of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2008-03-01

    The call for a narrative medicine has been touted as the cure-all for an increasingly mechanical medicine. It has been claimed that the humanities might create more empathic, reflective, professional and trustworthy doctors. In other words, we can once again humanise medicine through the addition of humanities. In this essay, I explore how the humanities, particularly narrative medicine, appeals to the metaphysical commitments of the medical institution in order to find its justification, and in so doing, perpetuates a dualism of humanity that would have humanism as the counterpoint to the biopsychosociologisms of our day.

  8. Delayed-Choice Experiments and the Metaphysics of Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egg, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Delayed-choice experiments in quantum mechanics are often taken to undermine a realistic interpretation of the quantum state. More specifically, Healey has recently argued that the phenomenon of delayed-choice entanglement swapping is incompatible with the view that entanglement is a physical relation between quantum systems. This paper argues against these claims. It first reviews two paradigmatic delayed-choice experiments and analyzes their metaphysical implications. It then applies the results of this analysis to the case of entanglement swapping, showing that such experiments pose no threat to realism about entanglement.

  9. Like an Image: Sensibility and Reflexivity in Descartes’ Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Dumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at questioning the role of image and imagination in Descartes’ Metaphysics, especially in the Meditations on First Philosophy, by holding both a certain doctrinal or theoretical discourse on image/imagination and the Cartesian use of images/imagination. Besides the fact that this rarely considered perspective prevents from freezing the original text, this strategy allows to highlight the ambiguity of theses notions, revealed through what is doing by the act of imagining compared to the act of conceiving with the understanding.

  10. Science and Metaphysics in the Three Religions of the Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby E. Huff

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The three religions of the Book trace their origins back to the same Abrahamic experience, but only one, Christianity, developed a metaphysical framework consistent with that of modern science. Both Judaism and Islam during their formative years, and continuously up to modern times, considered Greek philosophy and science alien wisdom, jeopardizing their sacred scriptures. The different path followed by Christianity is due to the influence of Hellenistic thought during Christianity's early formative period. Both Judaism and Islam were spared the direct mediation of Greek culture and ideas because both Judaism and Islam developed geographically and linguistically isolated from the Greek influences during the reception of their scriptures.

  11. Basic structures of reality essays in meta-physics

    CERN Document Server

    McGinn, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In Basic Structures of Reality, Colin McGinn deals with questions of metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of mind from the vantage point of physics. Combining general philosophy with physics, he covers such topics as the definition of matter, the nature of space, motion, gravity, electromagnetic fields, the character of physical knowledge, and consciousness and meaning. Throughout, McGinn maintains an historical perspective and seeks to determine how much we really know of the world described by physics. He defends a version of "structuralism": the thesis that our knowledge is p

  12. Metaphyseal cortical irregularities in children: A new perspective on a multi-focal growth variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.; Joyce, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of metaphyseal cortical irregularities in adolescents in many different bones indicates a commonality of these lesions as a variation of normal growth, rater than a stress or avulsive by-product. The histologically recognized incomplete nature of the metaphysical cortex in children offers an attractive explanation for this phenomenon. (orig.)

  13. Reception, criticism and appropriation of the metaphysics in Hegel’s Science of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Vaz-Curado R. M. Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis defends the thesis that Hegel elaborates an original transformation of the concept of metaphysics, assuming its presuppositions as they were developed in the philosophic tradition, that metaphysics is a doctrine of the first principles, a theory of Being, a theodicy and even, as for Kant, a theory of knowledge.

  14. Serial MR findings of metaphyseal cyst in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Chang Min; Na, Jae Boem; Moon, Haeng Jin

    2001-01-01

    Metaphyseal cysts are common findings in Lee-Calve-Perthes(LCP) disease, though usually disappear within 6-12 months several studies have described the MR imaging findings of these cysts, though serial MRI findings have not been documented. In this report, therefore, we report the serial MRI results of metaphyseal cyst in LCP patients

  15. Metaphyseal cortical irregularities in children: A new perspective on a multi-focal growth variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keats, T.E.; Joyce, J.M.

    1984-07-01

    The occurrence of metaphyseal cortical irregularities in adolescents in many different bones indicates a commonality of these lesions as a variation of normal growth, rather than a stress or avulsive by-product. The histologically recognized incomplete nature of the metaphysical cortex in children offers an attractive explanation for this phenomenon.

  16. "Bewitching" or confusing methaphysics? The demarcation between science and metaphysics according to Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of both classical and modern theory of knowledge, according to Popper, reside in the problem of demarcation: a problem closely re­ lated to the problem of induction. The paper argues the view that Popper's view of metaphysics is ambiguous, requiring another criterion to distinguish between "good " and "bad " metaphysics. The sources of the problem are pinpointed, and Popper's distinction between three types of theory outlined. The article then explores the distinction between types of theories and the issues of falsification, testability and refutation, before going on to a consideration of the relationship between science and metaphysics, and w eighing up the issue of good ancid metaphysics. From this emerges clearly that the second "criterionot demarcation" is needed to make precisely this distinction; also in view of Popper's u n ­ clear, even ambiguous, view of metaphysics.

  17. The will: from metaphysical freedom to normative functionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthous, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Free will is regarded by some as the most and by others as the least relevant concept for criminal responsibility. Contributions from religious and philosophical thinkers over the classical and medieval Christian eras demonstrate that, despite the passionate and historically consequential debates over the meaning of "freedom," the unifying theme that joined the will with the intellect remained persistent and pervasive. Leading historical jurists in England eventually dropped the descriptor "free," but retained the central importance of the will to criminal responsibility and emphasized its dependence on the intellect to function properly. Modern rationalist philosophers denied the will's metaphysical freedom, but not its existence. Today the neurosciences reveal more and more about how the will functions, even as lawyers and psychiatrists hesitate to utter the word. In properly avoiding metaphysical freedom within forensic inquiry and discourse, it is a grave conceptual mistake to overlook the will itself. Once greater conceptual clarity on the empirical nature of the will is achieved and accepted, the law itself could rediscover the core mental faculty behind human agency, the will.

  18. Critics to Metaphysics by Modern Philosophers: A Discourse on Human Beings in Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederikus Fios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have entered the 21st century that is popularly known as the era of the development of modern science and technology. Philosophy provides naming for contemporary era as postmodern era. But do we suddenly come to this day and age? No! Because humans are homo viator, persona that does pilgrimage in history, space and time. Philosophy has expanded periodically in the long course of history. Since the days of classical antiquity, philosophy comes with a patterned metaphysical paradigm. This paradigm survives very long in the stage history of philosophy as maintained by many philosophers who hold fast to the philosophical-epistemic claim that philosophy should be (das sollen metaphysical. Classical Greek philosopher, Aristotle was a philosopher who claims metaphysics as the initial philosophy. Then, Immanuel Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, Marx even Habermas offer appropriate shades of metaphysical philosophy versus spirit of the age. Modern philosophers offer a new paradigm in the way of doing philosophy. The new spirit of modern philosophers declared as if giving criticism on traditional western metaphysics (since Aristotle that are considered irrelevant. This paper intends to show the argument between traditional metaphysical and modern philosophers who criticize metaphysics. The author will make a philosophical synthesis to obtain enlightenment to the position of human beings in the space of time. Using the method of Hegelian dialectic (thesis-antiteses-synthesis, this topic will be developed and assessed in accordance with the interests of this paper. 

  19. MR evaluation of 'Metaphyseal' change in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Haeng Jin; Na, Jae Boem; Shin, Chang Min; You, Jin Jong; Chung, Sung Hoon [Gyeongsang National Univ. College of Medicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    To determine the metaphyseal changes occurring in Legg-Calve-Perthes(LCP) disease using MRI. Between 1992 to 1999, 80 LCP patients (87 hips) underwent MR imaging and plain radiography. All MR images were reviewed, bone marrow signal intensity, the size and locatiion of the metaphyseal cyst and its epiphyseal necrosis grade determined. Metaphyses were abnormal in 43hips (49%), while bone marrow edema was present in 28 (32%) and a metaphyseal cyst in 30 (34%). Metaphyseal cysts were classified as either 'true' (n=9) or 'false' (n=21) according to the enhancement pattern. The maximum diameters of true and false cysts were 1.1{+-}0.3 cm and 1.1{+-}0.4 cm, respectively. Their most commom location was the anterior column; a true cyst occurred there in 7cases (78%), and false cyst in 16 (76%). Using the Waldenstrom classification, seven of the nine hips wih a true cyst (78%), were found to be at the avascular stage and 15 of the 21 with a false cyst (71%) were at the fragmentation stage. Seven of these nine (78%) and 19 of these 21 (90%) were Catterall grade IV. According to the findings of MR imaging, the metaphyseal changes occurring in LCP disease were bone marrow edema and metaphyseal cyst. This latter was visualized mainly in the anterior column and severely affected hip, and was classified as 'true' or 'false'.

  20. MR evaluation of 'Metaphyseal' change in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Haeng Jin; Na, Jae Boem; Shin, Chang Min; You, Jin Jong; Chung, Sung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    To determine the metaphyseal changes occurring in Legg-Calve-Perthes(LCP) disease using MRI. Between 1992 to 1999, 80 LCP patients (87 hips) underwent MR imaging and plain radiography. All MR images were reviewed, bone marrow signal intensity, the size and locatiion of the metaphyseal cyst and its epiphyseal necrosis grade determined. Metaphyses were abnormal in 43hips (49%), while bone marrow edema was present in 28 (32%) and a metaphyseal cyst in 30 (34%). Metaphyseal cysts were classified as either 'true' (n=9) or 'false' (n=21) according to the enhancement pattern. The maximum diameters of true and false cysts were 1.1±0.3 cm and 1.1±0.4 cm, respectively. Their most commom location was the anterior column; a true cyst occurred there in 7cases (78%), and false cyst in 16 (76%). Using the Waldenstrom classification, seven of the nine hips wih a true cyst (78%), were found to be at the avascular stage and 15 of the 21 with a false cyst (71%) were at the fragmentation stage. Seven of these nine (78%) and 19 of these 21 (90%) were Catterall grade IV. According to the findings of MR imaging, the metaphyseal changes occurring in LCP disease were bone marrow edema and metaphyseal cyst. This latter was visualized mainly in the anterior column and severely affected hip, and was classified as 'true' or 'false'

  1. Classical metaphyseal lesions thought to be pathognomonic of child abuse are often artifacts or indicative of metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marvin; Mirkin, L David

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to review the histopathology in the original articles by authors Kleinman and Marks that described the specificity of the classical metaphyseal lesion for child abuse and to determine if there were any oversights in the authors' analysis. We reviewed the histopathology of the original studies that equated the classical metaphyseal lesion with child abuse. We compared this with the histopathology of metaphyseal fractures caused by known accidental, severe trauma in children and reviewed the histopathology of artifacts that can sometimes be produced in bone histology preparations. Acute classical metaphyseal lesions showed no hemorrhage, and the chronic classical metaphyseal showed islands of cartilage proliferation at the metaphyses and growth plate, findings consistent with rickets and other metabolic bone disorders. Some of the acute metaphyseal lesions were consistent with artifacts. We believe the original studies that equate the classical metaphyseal lesion with child abuse are flawed. The most compelling observation that challenges the histopathology of the classical metaphyseal lesion as being a fracture is the absence of hemorrhage in the acute classical metaphyseal lesion. We hypothesize that some of the classical metaphyseal lesions were artifacts or represent metabolic bone disorders that were not considered and that these two non-traumatic explanations may have been the basis of the abnormal bone findings. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterologous embryo transfer: Magisterial answers and metaphysical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accad, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The debate regarding the morality of heterologous embryo transfer (HET) as a solution for the fate of cryopreserved embryos remains active. This paper endeavors to show that the magisterial instructions on bioethical issues can only lead to the conclusion that HET is always morally illicit. I begin by showing that the text of Dignitas personae recognizes HET as a procedure accomplishing a procreative function, and I indicate that it is through gestation that this procreative function occurs. I further show that the previous Instruction, Donum vitae, implicitly points to an ontological or spiritual consideration at play during gestation. This consideration is likely related to the procreative function identified in Dignitas personae. Finally, I place these two textual arguments in the context of the debate concerning HET and conclude that metaphysical questions must be clarified in order for the immorality of HET to be understood from a suitable anthropological perspective and gain more widespread acceptance.

  3. Particles, particle labels, and quanta: The toll of unacknowledged metaphysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redhead, M.; Teller, P.

    1991-01-01

    The practice of describing multiparticle quantum systems in terms of labeled particles indicates that the authors think of quantum entities as individuatable. The labels, together with particle indistinguishability, create the need for symmetrization or antisymmetrization (or, in principle, higher-order symmetries), which in turn results in 'surplus formal structure' in the formalism, formal structure which corresponds to nothing in the real world. The authors argue that these facts show quanta to be unindividuatable entities, things in principle incapable of supporting labels, and so things which support no factual difference if two of them are thought of as being switched. When thinking of the metaphysics of quanta, one should eschew the misleading labels of the tensor product Hilbert space formalism and prefer the ontologically more faithful description of the Fock space formalism. This conception eliminates puzzles about the quantum statistics of bosons

  4. Metaphyseal bone loss demonstrated with routine planar radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintzer, C.M.; Robertson, D.D.; Weissman, B.; Ewald, F.; Spector, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on an vitro study performed to examine the ability of current-day radiography for detecting metaphyseal bone loss. A block was cut from the anterior aspect of a cadaveric distal femur, sequential sections (approximately 4% of the BMC of the block) were cut from the block, and a fat-equivalent material was substituted in to the void. Following removal of each bone section, the femur was placed in a water bath, a lateral radiography was taken, and the ash content of the section was determined. Five readers each evaluated over 100 combinations of two radiographs side by side, noting whether there was no difference or whether one femur's region of interest was denser. The readings were compared with bone mineral differences as determined by ashing. All readers identified losses of 25% or more, and 5%-10% losses were seen by four of five readers half of the time

  5. Metaphysical and ethical perspectives on creating animal-human chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Jason T; Ballard, Rebecca A

    2009-10-01

    This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards as to the moral permissibility of the research in question. Are a-h chimeras entitled to the more restrictive and protective ethical standards applied to human research subjects? We elucidate an Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical framework in which to argue how such chimeras ought to be defined ontologically. We then examine when the creation of, and experimentation upon, certain types of a-h chimeras may be morally permissible.

  6. Pragmatism, metaphysics, and bioethics: beyond a theory of moral deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamental, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Pragmatism has been understood by bioethicists as yet another rival in the "methods wars," as yet another theory of moral deliberation. This has led to criticism of pragmatic bioethics as both theoretically and practically inadequate. Pragmatists' responses to these objections have focused mainly on misunderstandings of pragmatism's epistemology. These responses are insufficient. Pragmatism's commitment to radical empiricism gives it theoretical resources unappreciated by critics and defenders alike. Radical empiricism, unlike its more traditional ancestors, undercuts the gaps between theory and practice, and subjective and objective accounts of experience, and in so doing provides the metaphysical and epistemological basis for a thoroughgoing empirical naturalism in ethics. Pragmatism's strength as an approach to moral problems thus emerges as a result of a much wider array of resources than contemporary interpreters have acknowledged, which makes it a richer, deeper framework for understanding moral deliberation in general and bioethical decision making in particular.

  7. On Some Troubles with the Metaphysics of Fermionic Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigaj, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    In this paper I discuss some metaphysical consequences of an unorthodox approach to the problem of the identity and individuality of "indistinguishable" quantum particles. This approach is based on the assumption that the only admissible way of individuating separate components of a given system is with the help of the permutation-invariant qualitative properties of the total system. Such a method of individuation, when applied to fermionic compositions occupying so-called GMW-nonentangled states, yields highly implausible consequences regarding the number of distinct components of a given composite system. I specify the problem (which I call the problem of fermionic inflation) in detail, and I consider several strategies of solving it. The preferred solution of the problem is based on the premise that spatial location should play a privileged role in identifying and making reference to quantum-mechanical systems.

  8. Spreading disease: a controversy concerning the metaphysics of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, R

    1998-01-01

    This article concerns the metaphysics of disease. Is disease a fixed feature of the world or a social value or preference? I argue that disease is not a value-laden concept and thus debates concerning it differ fundamentally from debates concerning health, harm, or suffering where evaluative judgements are central. I show how the so-called social constructionist view of disease has been motivated both by ethical concerns with medical practices and general theoretical doubts about scientific naturalism. If I can show that ethical concerns about medical treatment can be answered without adopting social constructionism, that leaves only the broader theoretical question of naturalism. I cannot completely answer those theoretical doubts, but I show that the theoretical motivation is less convincing when it is separated from the moral challenge often accompanying it. I conclude that a convincing defense of the non-naturalistic conception of disease is rarely attempted and proves more difficult and counter-intuitive than its proponents assume.

  9. Murk Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with long-term follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverthorn, K.G.; Houston, C.S.; Duncan, B.P.

    1987-02-01

    The fourteenth reported patient with Murk Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is presented, with a remarkable followup from birth to the age of 15 years. Numerous invasive procedures were performed in pursuit of erroneous provisional diagnoses. Five of these patients presented in infancy with radiographic metaphyseal changes similar to rickets, but with preservation of the provisional zone of calcification. Following infancy, these patients reveal the more typical short-limbed dwarfism, with fusiform joints and bowed extremities.

  10. Metaphysical conspiracism: UFOs as discursive object between popular millennial and conspiracist fields

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, David George

    2014-01-01

    This thesis argues that narratives about Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) act as the central point of contact between conspiracist and popular millennial fields. Their confluence has come to form a field here termed ‘metaphysical conspiracism’, combining teleological narratives, the promise of soteriological knowledge and the threat of occluded malevolent agencies. I argue that metaphysical conspiracism offers a unique perspective on the interplay of knowledge, power and the ...

  11. Fibrous metaphyseal defects - determination of their origin and natural history using a radiomorphological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritschl, P.; Karnel, F.; Hajek, P.

    1988-01-01

    The radiomorphological appearance of fibrous metaphyseal defects (FMDs) is demonstrated by long-term follow-up studies. A characteristic radiomorphological course rather than a typical single appearance can be established. These findings correlate well with the duration of these tumor-like lesions; therefore, the radiological findings allow conclusions to be made about the age of a fibrous metaphyseal defect. In addition, the characteristic locations of FMDs will be explained in respect of theier origins at insertions of tendons and ligaments. (orig.)

  12. Metaphysical accounts of the zygote as a person and the veto power of facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, T J

    1989-12-01

    That the soul of a human person is infused at conception is a metaphysical claim. But given its traditional articulation, it has the empirical consequence that the zygote must have a substantial continuity with the adult person, a continuity which is already determined at conception. This empirical consequence is contradicted by the fact that the zygote may become a hydatidiform mole, or several persons. The metaphysical claim is falsified by the facts.

  13. Murk Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverthorn, K.G.; Houston, C.S.; Duncan, B.P.

    1987-01-01

    The fourteenth reported patient with Murk Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is presented, with a remarkable followup from birth to the age of 15 years. Numerous invasive procedures were performed in pursuit of erroneous provisional diagnoses. Five of these patients presented in infancy with radiographic metaphyseal changes similar to rickets, but with preservation of the provisional zone of calcification. Following infancy, these patients reveal the more typical short-limbed dwarfism, with fusiform joints and bowed extremities. (orig.)

  14. Parfit's and Scanlon's Non-Metaphysical Moral Realism as Alethic Pluralism

    OpenAIRE

    Veluwenkamp, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Thomas Scanlon and Derek Parfit have recently defended a meta-ethical view that is supposed to satisfy our realistic intuitions about morality, without the metaphysical implications that many find hard to accept in other realist views. Both philosophers argue that truths in the normative domain do not have ontological implications, while truths in the scientific domain presuppose a metaphysical reality. What distinguishes Scanlon and Parfit’s approach from other realistic meta-ethical theorie...

  15. Fundamental awareness: A framework for integrating science, philosophy and metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theise, Neil D; Kafatos, Menas C

    2016-01-01

    The ontologic framework of Fundamental Awareness proposed here assumes that non-dual Awareness is foundational to the universe, not arising from the interactions or structures of higher level phenomena. The framework allows comparison and integration of views from the three investigative domains concerned with understanding the nature of consciousness: science, philosophy, and metaphysics. In this framework, Awareness is the underlying reality, not reducible to anything else. Awareness and existence are the same. As such, the universe is non-material, self-organizing throughout, a holarchy of complementary, process driven, recursive interactions. The universe is both its own first observer and subject. Considering the world to be non-material and comprised, a priori, of Awareness is to privilege information over materiality, action over agency and to understand that qualia are not a "hard problem," but the foundational elements of all existence. These views fully reflect main stream Western philosophical traditions, insights from culturally diverse contemplative and mystical traditions, and are in keeping with current scientific thinking, expressible mathematically.

  16. Overcoming O: Dewey and the Problem of Bion's Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nir

    2015-10-01

    Bion guides us to eschew memory, desire, and understanding in order to become one with O-the ultimate reality of the analytic moment. However, his directions are valid only to the extent that such a meta-reality actually exists. Otherwise there is nothing to unite with and no reason to shun memory or desire. The present work inquires whether we may provide Bion's technique with a less speculative philosophy, specifically Dewey's pragmatist theory of aesthetics. It begins with reviewing the similarities between the two writers' methods, highlighting their shared emphasis on openness to the unknown. Yet listening to their intonations reveals that they actually convey opposite ideas as to what this "unknown" may be. Whereas Dewey sanguinely portrays the possibilities of the "yet-unknown," Bion emphasizes the dread of our inescapable encounter with the unknowable. This dread is embodied in his concept of O. Thus, rather than being merely a metaphysical speculation, O communicates Bion's conviction that fear forms the core of our existence. Banishing O from the counseling room may indeed aid his method in becoming accessible to a wider audience; at the same time, however, doing so might also deprive it of the very context that gives it meaning. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  17. Participation: A Descending Road of the Metaphysical Cognition of Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When we see in the world the fact that there are many beings, and we indicate that the particular beings exist in a compositional way, we face the task of learning about a new problem: how can we define and determine the relations between beings and between the elements within a being? Although the theory of participation has roots that go back to Plato, and so to a philosophy in which the pluralism of being was rejected and which accepted an identity-based conception of being, participation finds its ontological rational justification only (and ultimately in the pluralistic and compositional conception of being. With the description of participation as a “descending road” in the cognition of being, we are restricting ourselves to the presentation of how participation is understood in realistic metaphysics (while we shall leave aside the history of the question. We will show the aspects of participation that provide a foundation for wisdom-oriented cognition, and we will show the specific character of participation-oriented cognition as a “descending road.”

  18. Beyond positivism: a metaphysical basis for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J

    1992-09-01

    Medicine does not have its own unified body of scientific knowledge. Instead, physicians who are oriented to research make sporadic incursions into the basic sciences such as genetics, biochemistry, immunology, epidemiology, physiology, pharmacology and so on. These latter, taken together, comprise biomedicine which is said to have adopted the positivist epistemology or the Cartesian/Newtonian one that regards the scientist as an uninvolved observer of nature. In effect, medical science has come to rest on a theory of knowledge which links meaning to probability and considers prediction as the scientist's chief task. Like its predecessor, the probability theory of meaning rejects metaphysical speculation and remains connected to observations made, directly or indirectly, by means of the five senses. Despite some brilliant successes touching on relatively uncommon disorders, biomedicine cannot explain most day-to-day clinical activity. An understanding of what transpires between patient and doctor, of its diagnostic potential and therapeutic weight requires hermeneutic, or phenomenological, inquiry which brings about changes in both parties to it. Such a science, as ontological speculation has been called, cannot be deciphered by an epistemology couched in the imagery of physics and chemistry.

  19. Philosophical Creationism: Thomas Aquinas’ Metaphysics of Creatio ex Nihilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All philosophers, beginning with the pre-Socratics, through Plato and Aristotle, and up to Thomas Aquinas, accepted as a certain that the world as a whole existed eternally. The foundation for the eternity of the world was the indestructible and eternal primal building material of the world, a material that existed in the form of primordial material elements (the Ionians, in the form of ideas (Plato, or in the form of matter, eternal motion, and the first heavens (Aristotle. The article outlines the main structure of the philosophical theory of creation ex nihilo developed by St. Thomas Aquinas and indebted to his metaphysical thought. It shows the wisdom-based and ratiocinative foundation of the rational cognition of reality—reality that comes from the personal creative act of God. It concludes that the perception that the beings called to existence by the personal act of God the Creator are intelligible is the ultimate rational justification for the fact that our human cognition, love, and spiritual creativity are rational.

  20. Four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howsepian, A A

    2008-04-01

    In this essay, I attempt to provide answers to the following four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis. (1) Following its first cellular fission, is it coherent to claim that one and only one of two "blastomeric" twins of a human zygote is identical with that zygote? (2) Following the fusion of two human pre-embryos, is it coherent to claim that one and only one pre-fusion pre-embryo is identical with that postfusion pre-embryo? (3) Does a live human being come into existence only when its brain comes into existence? (4) At implantation, does a pre-embryo become a mere part of its mother? I argue that either if things have quidditative properties or if criterialism is false, then queries (1) and (2) can be answered in the affirmative; that in light of recent developments in theories of human death and in light of a more "functional" theory of brains, query (3) can be answered in the negative; and that plausible mereological principles require a negative answer to query (4).

  1. Method and metaphysics in Clements's and Gleason's ecological explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    To generate explanatory theory, ecologists must wrestle with how to represent the extremely many, diverse causes behind phenomena in their domain. Early twentieth-century plant ecologists Frederic E. Clements and Henry A. Gleason provide a textbook example of different approaches to explaining vegetation, with Clements allegedly committed, despite abundant exceptions, to a law of vegetation, and Gleason denying the law in favor of less organized phenomena. However, examining Clements's approach to explanation reveals him not to be expressing a law, and instead to be developing an explanatory structure without laws, capable of progressively integrating causal complexity. Moreover, Clements and Gleason largely agree on the causes of vegetation; but, since causal understanding here underdetermines representation, they differ on how to integrate recognized causes into general theory--that is, in their methodologies. Observers of the case may have mistakenly assumed that scientific representation across the disciplines typically aims at laws like Newton's, and that representations always reveal scientists' metaphysical commitments. Ironically, in the present case, this assumption seems to have been made even by observers who regard Clements as nai ve for his alleged commitment to an ecological law.

  2. Paul Karl Feyerabend: The Projections of Theoretical Proliferation in the Relation Science-Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gargiulo de Vázquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Paul Karl Feyerabend’s doctrine of theoretical proliferation has been interpreted by his experts as an attempt to preserve the ideal of scientific progress. This hermeneutics describes, in part, the intention of our philosopher. However, this reading does not explain the fundamental criticism that theoretical pluralism supposes for Feyerabend. The theoretical proliferation is itself a reductio ad absurdum of the attempts of logical positivism and critical rationalism to define science at the expense of the metaphysical. This article presents the theoretical proliferation as a vindication of the positive role that the metaphysical plays in scientific practice. We expose the Feyerabend’s defense of metaphysics inasmuch as it is constitute the possibility to overcome the conceptual conservatism, to increase empirical content of science and to recover the descriptive value of scientific theories.

  3. The Discovery of the Existence of the Absolute in Existential Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the way in which the discovery of the existence of the Absolute is made in existential metaphysics. This existential metaphysics provides us with knowledge about reality. It shows the content of the experience of being, the content given to us in the transcendentals. It also unveils the foundation of the rational order, which is given to us in the discovery of the first principles of the existence of being and of cognition. Metaphysics provides us also with knowledge concerning the structure of being. It shows us being as composite and plural; being which is “insufficient” in its structure and calls for an explanation. That being—that is problematized in existence, given to us in experience, and incompletely intelligible in itself—lifts us toward its ultimate “complement” and understanding, to the Absolute.

  4. Mind, medicine, and metaphysics: reflections on the reclamation of the human spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Michael L; Wilson, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Following the publication of such works as Auguste Comte's Cour de Philosophie Positive (1830-1842), in which he argued the inherent immaturity of metaphysical discourse, metaphysics, for Western intellectuals--and especially for Western intellectuals committed to science--has largely been abandoned. In recent years, however, we have seen renewed interest in metaphysics among some researchers and clinicians, due, in part, to increasing attempts to integrate diverse fields of study into some unified and coherent understanding of human life. For many psychologists and psychiatrists, this renewed interest is accompanied by an implicit, and sometimes explicit, re-embrace of the notion of the "human spirit." In this paper we explore some of the processes animating this movement and some of the clinical implications that flow from it.

  5. Pyle metaphyseal dysplasia in an African child: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonkam, A; Makubalo, N; Roberts, T; Chetty, M

    2016-05-25

    Pyle disease (OMIM 265900), also known as metaphyseal dysplasia, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with no known gene mutation. We report a case of Pyle disease in a 7-year-old African boy of mixed ancestry who presented with finger and wrist fractures following minor trauma. The radiological findings revealed abnormally broad metaphyses of the tubular bones, known as Erlenmeyer-flask bone deformity, and mild cranial sclerosis, both hallmarks of the condition. We report the first case in a patient with African ancestry, which could help in the gene discovery of this rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia with unknown mutations.

  6. The old with the die. A contribution to metaphysics of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijjas, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Since the rise of quantum mechanics also their ideological implications and consequences were discussed. Meanwhile still scarcely a metaphysical problem exists, which was not supposedly solved under calling on quantum theory. Anna Ijjas inquires the usual practice and developes a new model of the assignment of quantum mechanics and metaphysics. She discusses both the physical foundations and the classical philosophical controversies, before she draws consequencies for the relation determination of brain and consciousness, the problem of freedom of will, as well as for the question of the influence of God in the world.

  7. Of poetics and possibility: Richard Kearney’s post-metaphysical God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Steenkamp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of Richard Kearney’s attempt at re-imagining God post-metaphysically. In the context of a continental dialogue on the topic, Kearney has responded to onto-theology with a hermeneutic and phenomenologically informed attempt to rethink God post-metaphysically. This eschatological understanding of God is expounded in the article and is placed in relation to Kearney’s more recent concept of Anatheism. The article closes with a few remarks on what may be gained by Kearney’s work, as well as outlining a few critical questions.

  8. On How physics Could impact on the Metaphysics of Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mansouri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to illustrate the mutual inter-relation of physics and metaphysics in the context of the philosophy of space and time. We especially emphasize, in this paper, that scientific development could impact on our position regarding the reality of space and time. To illustrate this point, we investigate the mutual inter-relation of physics and metaphysics in the modern developments of physics, i.e. neo-Newtonian structure, special and general relativity (GR. This paper ends up anticipating that it is likely, by considering modern physics, especially GR, that substantivalism to be a more defensible position.

  9. Biomechanics of the classic metaphyseal lesion: finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Coats, Brittany [University of Utah, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2017-11-15

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is strongly associated with infant abuse, but the biomechanics responsible for this injury have not been rigorously studied. Radiologic and CT-pathological correlates show that the distal tibial CML always involves the cortex near the subperiosteal bone collar, with variable extension of the fracture into the medullary cavity. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the primary site of bone failure is cortical, rather than intramedullary. This study focuses on the strain patterns generated from finite element modeling to identify loading scenarios and regions of the cortex that are susceptible to bone failure. A geometric model was constructed from a normal 3-month-old infant's distal tibia and fibula. The model's boundary conditions were set to mimic forceful manipulation of the ankle with eight load modalities (tension, compression, internal rotation, external rotation, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, valgus bending and varus bending). For all modalities except internal and external rotation, simulations showed increased cortical strains near the subperiosteal bone collar. Tension generated the largest magnitude of cortical strain (24%) that was uniformly distributed near the subperiosteal bone collar. Compression generated the same distribution of strain but to a lesser magnitude overall (15%). Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion generated high (22%) and moderate (14%) localized cortical strains, respectively, near the subperiosteal bone collar. Lower cortical strains resulted from valgus bending, varus bending, internal rotation and external rotation (8-10%). The highest valgus and varus bending cortical strains occurred medially. These simulations suggest that the likelihood of the initial cortical bone failure of the CML is higher along the margin of the subperiosteal bone collar when the ankle is under tension, compression, valgus bending, varus bending, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion, but not under internal

  10. Biomechanics of the classic metaphyseal lesion: finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K.; Coats, Brittany

    2017-01-01

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is strongly associated with infant abuse, but the biomechanics responsible for this injury have not been rigorously studied. Radiologic and CT-pathological correlates show that the distal tibial CML always involves the cortex near the subperiosteal bone collar, with variable extension of the fracture into the medullary cavity. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the primary site of bone failure is cortical, rather than intramedullary. This study focuses on the strain patterns generated from finite element modeling to identify loading scenarios and regions of the cortex that are susceptible to bone failure. A geometric model was constructed from a normal 3-month-old infant's distal tibia and fibula. The model's boundary conditions were set to mimic forceful manipulation of the ankle with eight load modalities (tension, compression, internal rotation, external rotation, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, valgus bending and varus bending). For all modalities except internal and external rotation, simulations showed increased cortical strains near the subperiosteal bone collar. Tension generated the largest magnitude of cortical strain (24%) that was uniformly distributed near the subperiosteal bone collar. Compression generated the same distribution of strain but to a lesser magnitude overall (15%). Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion generated high (22%) and moderate (14%) localized cortical strains, respectively, near the subperiosteal bone collar. Lower cortical strains resulted from valgus bending, varus bending, internal rotation and external rotation (8-10%). The highest valgus and varus bending cortical strains occurred medially. These simulations suggest that the likelihood of the initial cortical bone failure of the CML is higher along the margin of the subperiosteal bone collar when the ankle is under tension, compression, valgus bending, varus bending, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion, but not under internal

  11. An introduction to a metaphysics of nature: Representation, realism and scientific laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Laskowski Tozzini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ghins, Michel. Introdução a uma metafísica da natureza: Representação, realismo e leis científicas (An introduction to a metaphysics of nature: Representation, realism and scientific laws. Transl. Eduardo Barra e Ronei Clécio Mocellin. Editora UFPR, 2013. 96 pp. R$ 35,00 – ISBN- 9788565888356.

  12. About Being a Friend: Friendship and Metaphysics by Plato, Aristotle, Augustine and Albert the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Quero Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    of friendship in his commentaries on the Nicomachian Ethics (both Super Ethica and Ethica and we show how his metaphysics should be considered as Christian Aristotelism, according to the traditional interpretation, which has, as is known, been questioned for decades

  13. Parfit's and Scanlon's Non-Metaphysical Moral Realism as Alethic Pluralism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veluwenkamp, Herman

    Thomas Scanlon and Derek Parfit have recently defended a meta-ethical view that is supposed to satisfy our realistic intuitions about morality, without the metaphysical implications that many find hard to accept in other realist views. Both philosophers argue that truths in the normative domain do

  14. New Grand Narratives: The Metaphysical Worldview of 'Avatar' and 'Cloud Atlas'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Früchtl, J.

    2016-01-01

    Referring to the films Avatar (2009) and Cloud Atlas (2012), the author will demonstrate that a new era of metaphysical holism follows Postmodernism. These films celebrate a resurrection of the flesh with 3-D technology and a reincarnation of souls with the aesthetic technique of morphing. However

  15. Migraine and Metaphysics: Sentinels of science in nineteenth-century physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    In an old boy network of nineteenth-century natural philosophers, all with a background in mathematics from the University of Cambridge, a conspicuous aversion ruled against metaphysics. Within these circles it produced a strong compulsion to define the limits of genuine scientific endeavour...

  16. The Problem of Absolute Knowledge. Metaphysics as Intellectual Intuition in Classic Modern European Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torubarova, Tatyana V.

    2016-01-01

    Classic modern European philosophy explicate, reflect; leaving own history in fundamental metaphysical position, where the existence is understood as conscience. This position is representative in the process of historic development, transition of philosophical thought from R. Dekart to G. Hegel. It appears exactly the field of key metaphysical…

  17. Let's keep metaphysics out of medical ethics: a critique of Poplawski and Gillett.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, F J

    1992-01-01

    I argue that the concept of 'longitudinal form', which Poplawski and Gillett have introduced into ethical discussions about embryos and gametes, involves too many metaphysical subtleties to be a useful aid to making moral decisions. I conclude by suggesting a criterion for relevance in medical ethics. PMID:1460650

  18. Combining science and metaphysics contemporary physics, conceptual revision and common sense

    CERN Document Server

    Morganti, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Offering a new perspective on the debate concerning naturalism in philosophy, this book defends the autonomy of metaphysics while also making science centre stage. Three independent case studies provide a clear introduction to, and discussion of, key philosophical issues.

  19. The fine-grained metaphysics of artifactual and biological functional kinds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrara, M.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the emerging position in metaphysics that artifact functions characterize real kinds of artifacts. We analyze how it can circumvent an objection by David Wiggins (Sameness and substance renewed, 2001, 87) and then argue that this position, in comparison to expert judgments,

  20. Metaphysical Communication of I. Kant’s Theory of Experience: M. Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardas Rimkus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the reception of Kantian conception of experience in Martin Heidegger’s book Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics. The context of Immanuel Kant’s theory of experience forms the basis for collation of Kant’s and Heidegger’s philosophies. Epistemological and metaphysical components of Kantian conception of experience are extracted. Two main Kant’s theoretical distinctions are discussed: the difference between the sensual matter of experience and conceptual form of experience; and the difference between the thing-in-itself and appearance. The research is focused on Kantian understanding of experience or empirical cognition, which is a process of synthesis of sensuous data and concepts. Collation of Kant’s and Heidegger’s philosophies and evaluation of Heidegger’s interpretational position appeals to theoretical contexts of metaphysical nominalism and metaphysical realism. The basic conclusion states that Heidegger’s interpretation of Kant’s theory of experience is transfused by the premises of Heidegger’s fundamental Dasein ontology. These premises determine significant transformations of Kant’s philosophy and the omission of some aspects of Kant’s theory of experience.

  1. Local physeal widening on MR imaging: an incidental finding suggesting prior metaphyseal insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laor, T.; Hartman, A.L.; Jaramillo, D.

    1997-01-01

    To offer a descriptive review which characterizes and evaluates the significance of local physeal widening, (cartilaginous signal extending from the physis into the adjacent metaphysis), identified on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR images (recollected from exams performed between 1988 and 1995) of 31 metaphyses in 22 children where we recognized local physeal widening were examined retrospectively. These areas of physeal widening were evaluated for morphology, depth, location, signal intensity, and the coexistence of epiphyseal alterations. The characteristics of the signal abnormalities were correlated with the duration and type of any identifiable insult to the adjacent metaphysis, and with the development of growth disturbance. Twenty-six metaphyses had identifiable insults (19 single event and 7 sustained or repetitive). The widened physes were of focal tongue (n = 15), broad band (n 10), or mixed (n = 6) morphology. Most (n = 27) areas of widening were isointense with the physeal cartilage on all sequences. Subsequent growth disturbance was more likely when the metaphyseal insult was a single event rather than sustained or repetitive (P = 0.023), with focal tongues (P = 0.029), and with centrally located lesions (P = 0.030). In five cases, the adjacent epiphysis showed signal abnormalities; all developed growth disturbance. Histologic examinations available in two limbs confirmed that the MR findings represented extensions of hypertrophic physeal chondrocytes into the metaphysis. Incidentally observed local physeal widening in a growing bone may represent the imprint of a previous or ongoing interference with endochondral ossification from a prior metaphyseal insult, rather than a primary metaphyseal disorder. Single event insults, physeal widening of focal tongue morphology, central distribution in the metaphysis, and concomitant epiphyseal signal abnormalities on MR imaging are significant predictors of subsequent growth disturbance. (orig.). With 9

  2. Cementless Hip Stem Anteversion in the Dysplastic Hip: A Comparison of Tapered Wedge vs Metaphyseal Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Naofumi; Jinno, Tetsuya; Koga, Daisuke; Hagino, Tetsuo; Okawa, Atsushi; Haro, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    Appropriate stem anteversion is important for achieving stability of the prosthetic joint in total hip arthroplasty. Anteversion of a cementless femoral stem is affected by the femoral canal morphology and varies according to stem geometry. We investigated the difference and variation of the increase in anteversion between 2 types of cementless stems, and the correlation between each stem and the preoperative femoral anteversion. We retrospectively compared 2 groups of hips that underwent total hip arthroplasty using a metaphyseal filling stem (78 hips) or a tapered wedge stem (83 hips). All the patients had osteoarthritis due to hip dysplasia. Computed tomography was used to measure preoperative femoral anteversion at 5 levels and postoperative stem anteversion. The increase in anteversion of the tapered wedge stem group (22.7° ± 11.6°) was more than that of the metaphyseal filling stem group (17.2° ± 8.3°; P = .0007). The variation of the increase in the tapered wedge stem group was significantly larger than that in the metaphyseal filling stem group (P = .0016). The metaphyseal filling stem group was more highly and positively correlated with femoral anteversion than the tapered wedge stem group. Femoral anteversion affects stem anteversion differently according to stem geometry. The tapered wedge stems had greater variation of the increase in anteversion than did the metaphyseal filling stems. Based on the results of this study, it is difficult to preoperatively estimate the increase in stem anteversion for tapered wedge stems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion.

  4. Prolegomena to any future metaphysics that will be able to come forward as science the Paul Carus translation

    CERN Document Server

    Kant, Immanuel

    1977-01-01

    Kant’s Prolegomena -- its full title, in the eighteenth-century manner, is Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Which Will Be Able to Come Forth as Science -- is a classic in metaphysics and the theory of knowledge. It deals with the perennially baffling questions: How do we know? How much can we know? Its answers to these questions are interesting especially now. We live in one of the recurring periods of intellectual and cultural history that are skeptical and impatient of systems of speculative metaphysics, and a distrust of speculation is the leading motif of the Prolegomena. Though Kant's arguments against speculative metaphysics differ from those of our contemporaries, in some of his results he anticipates their negative conclusions. The Prolegomena, however, is not interesting merely as an historical anticipation of recent views; indeed, as such it has been as it were condemned in advance by Kant (Prolegomena, Introduction). Rather, its chief interest to the student of philosophy is probably the way...

  5. Montage, Militancy, Metaphysics: Chris Marker and André Bazin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Abstract (E: This article focuses on the relationship between the work of André Bazin and Chris Marker from the late 1940s through to the late 1950s and beyond. The division between Bazin's ŘRight Bankř affiliation with Les Cahiers du Cinéma on the one hand, and Markerřs ŘLeft Bankř allegiances on the other, is called into question here as my argument seeks to muddy the waters of their conventional ideological separation across the river Seine. Working alliteratively through Markerřs well-known talent for deft montage along with his militancy, I consider Bazinřs praise for Markerřs editing technique Ŕ in spite of famously expressing a preference elsewhere for the long take, and deep focus cinematography Ŕ and I address their political differences and convergences. Yet I also explore the rather more unexpected question of metaphysics in order to further emphasize a closer relationship between these two figures. I chart the emergence of an enduring spiritual bond between critic and filmmaker that surfaces first in Markerřs writings for the left-wing Catholic journal L’EspritBeing Itself and the Being of Beings : Reading Aristotle’s Critique of Parmenides (Physics 1.3) after Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Backman, Jussi

    2018-01-01

    The essay studies Aristotle’s critique of Parmenides (Physics 1.3) in the light of the Heideggerian account of Platonic-Aristotelian metaphysics as an approach to being (Sein) in terms of beings (das Seiende). Aristotle’s critique focuses on the presuppositions of the Parmenidean thesis of the unity of being. It is argued that a close study of the presuppositions of Aristotle’s own critique reveals an important difference between the Aristotelian metaphysical framework and the ...

  6. Osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia: a skeletal dysplasia that may mimic lead poisoning in a child with hypotonia and seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennel, Emilie A.; John, Susan D.

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 23-month-old male with hypotonia, developmental delay, and complex seizures. Radiographs revealed profound sclerosis of the metaphyses and epiphyses of the long and short bones in the extremities, with a unique pattern of distribution. Sclerosis also involved the anterior ribs, iliac crests, talus, and calcaneus. The skull and vertebral bodies appeared unaffected. Blood lead levels were normal. We believe that this constellation of clinical and radiographic abnormalities closely resembles osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia (OMD) due to an autosomal recessive defect. Characteristic skeletal findings were instrumental in determining the diagnosis. OMD is a very rare sclerosing bone disorder, first described in 1993. The syndrome is characterized clinically by developmental delay of a progressive nature, hypotonia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and late-onset spastic paraplegia. We encountered a young child with these neurologic symptoms who displayed sclerotic metaphyseal changes on hand radiographs obtained to determine the bone age. Lead poisoning, a known cause of metaphyseal sclerosis, was initially suspected. Careful analysis of the metaphyseal bone changes helped to distinguish this bone dysplasia from lead poisoning and other causes of metaphyseal sclerosis. (orig.)

  7. Reality, locality and all that: "experimental metaphysics" and the quantum foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Eric G.

    2008-10-01

    In recent decades there has been a resurge of interest in the foundations of quantum theory, partly motivated by new experimental techniques, partly by the emerging field of quantum information science. Old questions, asked since the seminal article by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR), are being revisited. The work of John Bell has changed the direction of investigation by recognising that those fundamental philosophical questions can have, after all, input from experiment. Abner Shimony has aptly termed this new field of enquiry "experimental metaphysics". The objective of this Thesis is to contribute to that body of research, by formalising old concepts, proposing new ones, and finding new results in well-studied areas. Without losing from sight that the appeal of experimental metaphysics comes from the adjective, every major result is followed by clear experimental proposals for quantum-atom optical setups.

  8. Purpose in the Universe the moral and metaphysical case for ananthropocentric purposivism

    CERN Document Server

    Mulgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Two familiar worldviews dominate Western philosophy: materialist atheism and the benevolent God of the Abrahamic faiths. Tim Mulgan explores a third way. Ananthropocentric Purposivism claims that there is a cosmic purpose, but human beings are irrelevant to it. Purpose in the Universe develops a philosophical case for Ananthropocentric Purposivism that it is at least as strong as the case for either theism or atheism. The book borrows traditional theist arguments to defend a cosmic purpose. These include cosmological, teleological, ontological, meta-ethical, and mystical arguments. It then borrows traditional atheist arguments to reject a human-centred purpose. These include arguments based on evil, diversity, and the scale of the universe. Mulgan also highlights connections between morality and metaphysics, arguing that evaluative premises play a crucial and underappreciated role in metaphysical debates about the existence of God, and Ananthropocentric Purposivism mutually supports an austere consequentialis...

  9. Aesthetics as metaphysical meaning-making in the face of death

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    Maija Khandro Butters

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In my ethnographic research on death and dying in contemporary Finland, I explore how Finns facing end of life due to a long-term illness or other terminal condition seek to orient themselves and make meaning with cultural tools such as imagery, language, and metaphysical thinking. My primary research material is based on extensive fieldwork at Terhokoti Hospice and in the cancer clinic of Helsinki University Hospital, where I have had numerous conversations with terminally ill patients. This paper seeks to explore the way in which metaphysical aesthetics is assuming the role that religious thinking has traditionally played. When the role of institutional religion is diminishing, it becomes important to understand how emotional and spiritual resolution can be arrived at by means of aesthetics.

  10. The metaphysical club at the Johns Hopkins University (1879-1885).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Peter J

    2005-11-01

    Of the earliest American universities, The Johns Hopkins in Baltimore holds a unique position for psychology. At Hopkins, many of America's first psychologists received their graduate training. Of special interest is the Hopkins Metaphysical Club, organized in 1879 by Charles Sanders Peirce. It provided a forum for research and scholarship by faculty and students. Papers related to topics of the "new" psychology began to appear in 1883, about the time G. Stanley Hall was given a 3-year appointment at Hopkins. When Peirce departed Hopkins in 1885, Hall was free to develop psychology in his image and disbanded the club. Nevertheless, the Metaphysical Club played an important role in the emergence of American scientific psychology.

  11. Successful treatment of two cases of metaphyseal osteomyelitis in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.K.; Dennis, R.; Houlton, J.E.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes two cases of metaphyseal osteomyelitis in young dogs. The condition was characterised by generalised stiffness, muscle atrophy and reluctance to stand. Pain was evident on deep palpation of the distal extremities of long bones. Radiographic lesions, consisting of diffuse areas of bone lysis and pronounced periosteal reaction, were demonstrated in the metaphyseal regions of multiple long bones, particularly the distal radii and ulnae. Growth plates appeared unaffected and remained open. Biochemical abnormalities included significant increases in the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and alkaline phosphatase. A pronounced neutrophilia and absolute monocytosis were noted in one dog. A six week course of amoxycil-lin/clavulanic acid in combination with metronidazole resulted in complete resolution of clinical and radiographic signs in each case. Growth disturbances were not observed

  12. Metaphyseal pattern: Uniqueness of this structure in growing bones originating from cartilaginous anlage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmain, N.; Moscofian, A.; Cuisinier-Gleizes, P.

    1983-01-01

    Microradiographic examination of metaphyses in long and short tubular growing bones allowed detection of a repetitive, clearly defined pattern of three adjacent zones; the latter are successively formed by the mineralization of cartilaginous longitudinal intercolumnar septa and by the subsequent apposition of other mineralized tissues concurrently with resorption. Consequently, each zone of the metaphysis includes mineralized tissues of various compositions and ages, identifiable by their different mineralization densities. Microradiography of pieces of the growing skeleton in several animal species shows that the same organization is not only present in long and short tubular bones but also in many other such as the pelvis and scapula, cuboid bones like the calcaneum and talus, and cartilaginous bones at the base of the skull. This suggests that there is no difference between the osteogenesis pattern of these bones and tubular ones. The problem of identifying the factors generating such metaphyseal organization is raised. (orig.)

  13. Hughlings Jackson and the "doctrine of concomitance": mind-brain theorising between metaphysics and the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirimuuta, M

    2017-09-11

    John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) is a major figure at the origins of neurology and neuroscience in Britain. Alongside his contributions to clinical medicine, he left a large corpus of writing on localisation of function in the nervous system and other theoretical topics. In this paper I focus on Jackson's "doctrine of concomitance"-his parallelist theory of the mind-brain relationship. I argue that the doctrine can be given both an ontological and a causal interpretation, and that the causal aspect of the doctrine is especially significant for Jackson and his contemporaries. I interpret Jackson's engagement with the metaphysics of mind as an instance of what I call meta-science-the deployment by scientists of metaphysical positions and arguments which help streamline empirical investigations by bracketing off unanswerable questions and focussing attention on matters amenable to the current tools of experimental research.

  14. Crititics to Metaphysics by Modern Philosophers (Discourse on Human Beings in Reality)

    OpenAIRE

    Frederikus Fios

    2016-01-01

    We have entered the 21st century that is popularly known as the era of the development of modern science and technology. Philosophy provides naming for contemporary era as postmodern era. But do we suddenly come to this day and age? No! Because humans are homo viator, persona that does pilgrimage in history, space and time. Philosophy has expanded periodically in the long course of history. Since the days of classical antiquity, philosophy comes with a patterned metaphysical paradigm. T...

  15. The Problem of the Object of Mathematics as Intelligible Substance in Aristotle's Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Cattanei, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The A. examines the problem of intermediat emathematical entities by analyzing Metaphysics l017a9-l4, since, according to Aristotle. this passage is both a source and a critique of Plato's theory. The goal is to identify four cardinal points that may ground a dialogue between two contesting positions regarding this problem. Through them, it becomes evident that Aristotle severs the question of the intelligible nature of mathematical entities by using the conceptual scalpel of his own ousiolog...

  16. Arguments for the Existence of God in the Francisco Suarez’ "Metaphysical Disputations"

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    Galina Vdovina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers arguments for the existence of God that are presented in Francisco Suarez’ treatise Metaphysical Disputations. The work of Suarez contains the most developed and detailed exposition of natural theology that exists in the scholastic tradition. Suarez explicitates the problem, formulating three questions: what is a being that we call God? Is it possible to prove or justify his existence? How is it possible? Suarez answers the first question by showing that we come to a concept of the prime and excellent being through a series of divisions in the concept of being. That prime being is infinite, absolute, necessary and uncreated. The second question is answered by the procedure of that division and its result. In his answer to the third question, Suarez distinguishes physical and metaphysical arguments. According to Suarez, the most significant physical proofs are the argument from motion and the argument from the rational soul. Nevertheless, he demonstrates that purely physical arguments cannot lead us to a being, which we call God. Only metaphysical argument from the principle, everything which is produced, is produces by something else, is really effective. The logic of the metaphysical proof is as follows: first, we have to demonstrate the necessary existence of the first non-produced thing: secondly, we are to show that such a thing can only be one. The first point is proved through the demonstration of an absolutely first cause in each series of causes, the second one is made evident through a demonstration of the impossibility to coexist simultaneously for two equally perfect first causes of equal causing power.

  17. Truth, Art, and the “New Sensuousness”: Understanding Heidegger’s Metaphysical Reading of Nietzsche

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    James Magrini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first of four lectures on Nietzsche’s philosophy, “The Will to Poweras Art” (1936-37, Heidegger argues that the unique and importantrelationship between truth and art, which Nietzsche suggests, must beunderstood “with a view to the conquest of nihilism,” i.e., within the historical context of a radically novel interpretation of sensuous reality. Beginning with the project of overturning Platonism as the active countermovement to nihilism, this essay interprets Heidegger’s difficult notion of the discordant relationship between truth (the fixation of semblance and art (the transfiguration of semblance in Nietzsche’s philosophy, emphasizing the supreme importance of art as life’s greatest enhancing force. The analysis is conducted within the context of Nietzsche’s metaphysics as presented by Heidegger, who claims thatas a metaphysical thinker, Nietzsche could not explain such topics as “truth,” “Being,” and “Becoming” in terms beyond the conceptualization of Western philosophy. In spite of that, his thought intimates a movement beyond the constraints of the tradition within which he was entrenched. In addition to providing a detailed exegesis of Heidegger’s lecture course, the problems associated with Heidegger’s metaphysical interpretation of Nietzsche’s philosophy will be discussed, problems that commentators such as Alan Schrift (Nietzsche and the Question of Interpretation believe stem from Heidegger’s stringent and restrictive methodological choices for approaching the reading of Nietzsche.

  18. Metaphysical perspectives on YHWH as a fictional entity in the Hebrew Bible

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    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Within a literary ontology, YHWH in the Hebrew Bible is technically also a fictional entity or object. In Hebrew Bible scholarship, a variety of philosophical issues surrounding fiction have received sustained and in-depth attention. However, the mainstream research on these matters tends to focus on the philosophical foundations of or backgrounds to a particular literary theory, rather than on metaphysical puzzles as encountered in the philosophy of fiction proper. To fill this gap, the present article seeks to provide a meta-theoretical overview of the main contemporary philosophical perspectives on the metaphysics of fictional objects. Three views (and their sub-currents are discussed, namely possibilism, (neo-Meinongianism and (literary creationism. Each view’s theory is introduced and critically appropriated with reference to what is implied to be an answer to the question of what exactly the biblical character YHWH can meaningfully be said to be in the context of the metaphysics of fictional objects. In this way, the present study also goes beyond the traditional concern with the nature of God in Old Testament theology.

  19. Typology reconfigured: from the metaphysics of essentialism to the epistemology of representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to encourage a reconfiguration of the discussion about typology in biology away from the metaphysics of essentialism and toward the epistemology of classifying natural phenomena for the purposes of empirical inquiry. First, I briefly review arguments concerning 'typological thinking', essentialism, species, and natural kinds, highlighting their predominantly metaphysical nature. Second, I use a distinction between the aims, strategies, and tactics of science to suggest how a shift from metaphysics to epistemology might be accomplished. Typological thinking can be understood as a scientific tactic that involves representing natural phenomena using idealizations and approximations, which facilitates explanation, investigation, and theorizing via abstraction and generalization. Third, a variety of typologies from different areas of biology are introduced to emphasize the diversity of this representational reasoning. One particular example is used to examine how there can be epistemological conflict between typology and evolutionary analysis. This demonstrates that alternative strategies of typological thinking arise due to the divergent explanatory goals of researchers working in different disciplines with disparate methodologies. I conclude with several research questions that emerge from an epistemological reconfiguration of typology.

  1. Different methods and metaphysics in early molecular genetics--a case of disparity of research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute

    2008-01-01

    The encounter between two fundamentally different approaches in seminal research in molecular biology--the problems, aims, methods and metaphysics--is delineated and analyzed. They are exemplified by the microbiologist Oswald T. Avery who, in line with the reductionist mechanistic metaphysics of Jacques Loeb, attempted to explain basic life phenomena through chemistry; and the theoretical physicist Max Delbrück who, influenced by Bohr's antimechanistic views, preferred to explain these phenomena without chemistry. Avery's and Delbrück's most important studies took place concurrently. Thus analysis of their contrasting approaches lends itself to examination of the Weltanschauungen view concerning the role of fundamental (metaphysical) assumptions in scientific change, that is, the view that empirical research cannot be neutral in regard to the worldviews of the researchers. This study shows that the initial ostensible disparity (non-integratibility) of the two approaches lasted for just a short time. Ironically it was a student of Delbrück's school, James Watson, who (with Crick) proposed a chemical model, the DNA double helix, as a solution to Delbrück's problem. The structure of DNA has not been seriously challenged over the past half century Moreover, Watson's and Crick's work did not call into question the validity of Delbrück's research, but opened it up to entirely new approaches. The case of Avery and Delbrück demonstrates that after initial obstacles were overcome the different fundamental attitudes and the resulting research practices were capable of integration.

  2. Czy sądy metafizyczne mówią coś o świecie? Wittgensteinowskie źródła deflacjonizmu metafizycznego i jego modele [Do metaphysical judgments say something about the world or not? Wittgensteinian roots of deflationary metaphysics and its models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kolodziejczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many of contemporary philosophers argue against metaphysics putting forward a thesis that metaphysical claims are deflationary. This way of thinking seems to be not only persuasive but above all it rightly expresses a main difficulty of metaphysical inquires. In this paper I am trying to shed a little light on the problem of deflation of metaphysical judgments. In the first section I refer to some Wittgenstein's ideas from Tractatus logico-philosophicus and I focus on the phenomenon of manifestation as a possible source of deflation of metaphysics. The second section is devoted to the Wittgenstein's concepts of language games on the one hand and rules on the other; both of them are a key to understanding of the deepest dimensions of deflationary metaphysics. The third section is an elaboration of three models of deflation of metaphysical expressions: 1. deflation in regard to the informative status of metaphysical judgments; 2. deflation in regard to the metasemantic properties of judgments about the world, and 3. deflation in regard to the semantic ground of ontological judgments. The fourth and last part of the paper is an exposition of two crucial problems which metaphysics has to face with. I call the first of them 'a problem with conceptualization of the metaphysical experience', whereas the second one is labeled 'a problem with semantic inclusion of metaphysical expressions into judgments about facts'.

  3. Realitas vs wirklichkeit: the genesis of the two concepts of western metaphysics

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    V. Y. Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The terms «reality» and «reality» are used interchangeably, or quite similar to each other іn the modern Ukrainian philosophical literature. However, they have significant substantive differences, which not only with their etymology, but also fundamentally different metaphysical foundations of their origin and use. Category «reality» in the European metaphysics is closely linked substantiality, and not as a process. Category «reality» reflects a dynamic dimension of being, and originates from the «» «Metaphysics» of Aristotle, which later developed into the category of German philosophy Wirklichkeit». In the article it is proved that the notions of «realitas» and «Wirklichkeit» born in the end of the age of high scholasticism, and their founders were Duns Scotus and Eckhart Meister. In particular, the concept of «realitas» is entered Duns Scotus to denote «ultima realitas» («ultimate reality» things that is haecceitas «thisness» individual things. The concept of «realitas» (reality speaking only a subsidiary subsequently in Western ontology acquires metaphysical significance. Eckhart Meister borrows from albert the Great, the term «actualitas» (actuality and translates this word into the language of their sermons as «wercelicheit», which later became «Wirklichkeit». This word in the mouth of a preacher mystic ceases to be a simple translation of «actualitas» turning from the Divine actus purus in «non­action activities». However, these mystical layering subsequently disappear; Сh. Wolf word «Wirklichkeit» means the certainty of the existence or possible implementation. However, in the German classics (I. Kant, G. Hegel a continued separation «Wirklichkeit­Realitt». In Marxism reality more and more identified with the objective reality. Similar processes occur in the English­analytic philosophy (for example L. Wittgenstein. However, the article notes that the problem of the delimitation of the

  4. Descriptive Metaphysics, Natural Language Metaphysics, Sapir-Whorf, and All That Stuff: Evidence from the Mass-Count Distinction

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    Francis Jeffry Pelletier

    2010-12-01

    . Language 5: 207–214. Reprinted in David Mandelbaum (ed., Selected Writings of Edward Sapir in Language Culture and Personality, 160-166 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968.Schank, Roger. 1972. ‘Conceptual Dependency: A Theory of Natural Language Understanding’. Cognitive Psychology 3: 552–631.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(7290022-9Sharvy, Richard. 1978. ‘Maybe English has No Count Nouns: Notes on Chinese Semantics’. Studies in Language 2: 345–365.http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/sl.2.3.04shaStrawson, Peter. 1959. Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. London: Methuen.Strawson, Peter. 1966. The Bounds of Sense. London: Methuen.Vendler, Zeno. 1967. Linguistics in Philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. Chapter 5. “Nouns and Nominalizations”.Vendler, Zeno. 1972. Res Cogitans. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. Chapter 5. “On What One Knows”.Whorf, Benjamin. 1940a. ‘Linguistics as an Exact Science’. Technology Review 43: 61–63, 80–83. Reprinted in (Whorf 1956, 220–232.Whorf, Benjamin. 1940b. ‘Science and Linguistics’. Technology Review 42: 229–231,247–248. Reprinted in (Whorf 1956, 207–219.Whorf, Benjamin. 1941. ‘The Relation of Habitual Thought and Behavior to Language’. In L. Spier (ed. ‘Language, Culture, and Personality: Essays in Memory of Edward Sapir’, 75–93. Menasha, WI: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund. Reprinted in (Whorf 1956, 134–159.Whorf, Benjamin. 1956. Language, Thought and Reality. Cambridge UP: MIT Press. Edited by J. Carroll.Wierzbicka, Anna. 1988a. ‘Oats and Wheat: Mass Nouns, Iconicity, and Human Categorization’. In Anna Wierzbicka (ed. ‘The Semantics of Grammar’, 499–560. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Wierzbicka, Anna. 1988b. The Semantics of Grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Wierzbicka, Anna. 1994. ‘Opening Statement’. In ‘Semantic and Lexical Universals’, 1–3. Philadelphia: J. Benjamins.Wierzbicka, Anna. 1996. Semantics: Primes and Universals

  5. Fibrous metaphyseal defect (fibrous cortical defect, non-ossifying fibroma). Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.; Ostertag, H.; Saure, D.

    1981-01-01

    FMD, whether in the stage of a fibrous cortical defect or a non-ossifying fibroma, possesses very characteristic radiological appearances which rarely make it necessary to resort to biopsy. In order to avoid mistakes, it is necessary to observe strictly the known radiological features: metaphyseal position, clearcut relationship to the cortex, well defined margins, maximal size 6 to 7 cm., presence during growth, rarely observed in the upper extremity. The differential diagnosis, which needs to be considered only rarely, is discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. The Metaphysics of Morals: between the a priori and a practical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Borges

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the place of the Metaphysics of morals in the Kantian system. I claim that this work is the passage between a pure part of ethics and a practical anthropology. Although this book was first conceived to be a pure moral theory - moralia pura-, it ended up dealing with principle of applications of the moral law to sensible moral beings- philosophia moralis applicata. I also hold that the Doctrine of Virtue presents some sensible elements that are important to understand how morality affects us.

  7. Spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity and severe, progressive kyphoscoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beighton, P.

    1980-01-01

    Spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia with progressive, severe kyphoscoliosis and gross joint laxity is a distinctive entity. The clinical and radiographic manifestations of seven affected children are presented and it is concluded that this order is probably more common than previously suspected. Skeletal survey is indicated in all patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis, kyphosis, or kyphoscoliosis. In this context, radiographic studies of the pelvis may be of great diagnostic value. Referal for expert orhtopaedic management is essential for all patients with this disorder, as profound disability with pulmonary and spinal complications may be expected. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type - clinical and radiographic deliniation with a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachmann, R.S.; Rimoin, D.L.; Spranger, J.; Mainz Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of 20 cases of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type as well as a review of the world literature reveals a specific autosomal dominant disorder that was often over diagnosed in the past, sometimes resulting in incorrect genetic counselling. Significant radiologic features include an enlarged capital femoral epiphysis in early childhood, coxa vara, greater involvement of the distal femoral metaphysis than the proximal, anterior rib changes and a normal spine. Chondroosseous morphology is not specific. Presentation in nonfamilial cases is no earlier than the second year of life. (orig.)

  9. Familial congenital bowing with short thick bones and metaphyseal changes, a distinct entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezza, E.; Lendvai, D.; Iannaccone, G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe two siblings, a male and a female, with disproportionate short stature, rhizomelic-mesomelic shortening of the limb bones, marked bowing of the femora, moderate bowing of the humeri, radii and ulnae, straight tibiae and fibulae, normal hands, flared cupped metaphyses of the tibiae, ulnae, raddi and ribs, and narrow chest. There was some improvement of the bone changes with advancing age. These two patients are similar to five other cases from the literature and strongly support Hall and Spranger's view that this pseudocampomelic condition most likely represents a distinct familial bowing syndrome. The differential diagnosis and the hereditary aspects in the two patients, are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  10. . I. VVEDENSKIYS’ INTERPRETATION OF THE MORAL TEACHING AND METAPHYSICS OF IMMANUEL KANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMITRY SAMOILOV

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the works and ideas of Russian philosopher-kantianist, professor of philosophy at Sankt-Petersburg University A. I. Vvedenskiy. The author discusses a contribution of Vvedenskiy to the substantiation of «critical metaphysics» of the German philosopher, based on so called «moral faith». Special attention is given to problem of faith and knowledge, to understanding of postulates of practical reason as dogmata of moral faith, to «logicisation» of Kant’s conception by Vvedenskiy

  11. Spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity and severe, progressive kyphoscoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beighton, P.; Kozlowski, K.

    1980-01-01

    Spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia with progressive, severe kyphoscoliosis and gross joint laxity is a distinctive entity. The clinical and radiographic manifestations of seven affected children are presented and it is concluded that this disorder is probably more common than previously suspected. Skeletal survey is indicated in all patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis, kyphosis, or kyphoscoliosis. In this context, radiographic studies of the pelvis may be of great diagnostic value. Referal for expert orthopaedic management is essential for all patients with this disorder, as profound disability with pulmonary and spinal complications may be expected.

  12. Duhem’s Analysis of Newtonian Method and the Logical Priority of Physics over Metaphysics

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    Eduardo Salles de Oliveira Barra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a discussion of Duhemian analysis of Newton's method in the Principia considering both the traditional response to this analysis (Popper et alii and the more recent ones (Harper et alii. It is argued that in General Scholium to the Principia, Newton is not advocating what Duhem suggests in his best-known criticism, but he is proposing something very close to the establishment of a logical priority of physics over metaphysics, a familiar thesis defended by the French physicist himself.

  13. [Change on the rate of children's finger metaphysics in the non-Kaschin-Beck disease areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mei; Liu, Yunqi; Zhou, Lingwang; Liu, Hui; Deng, Qing; Song, Jiucheng; Yu, Jun

    2014-11-01

    36 non-Kaschin-Beck disease villages in five provinces including Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia in the severe endemic areas of Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD) were selected. The aim of this project was to provide the basis showing these KBD villages had already eliminated the KBD. Fully digital versatile X-ray radiography systems(DR) was used to shoot children's right hand X-ray, in accordance with the "Kashin-Beck Disease Diagnosis Standard" (WS/T 207-2010) for diagnosis. Results indicated that children showing metaphyseal changes only appeared in 13 of the 36 villages, where the rate of change on metaphyseal was less than or equal to three percent. When KBD had been eliminated in a village, the rate of change on aged 7 to 12 children's metaphyseal would have been less than three percent.

  14. Lower trabecular volumetric BMD at metaphyseal regions of weight-bearing bones is associated with prior fracture in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Tomás, Rita; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the etiology of skeletal fragility during growth is critical for the development of treatments and prevention strategies aimed at reducing the burden of childhood fractures. Thus we evaluated the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters in young girls. Data from 465 girls aged 8 to 13 years from the Jump-In: Building Better Bones study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the nondominant femur and tibia using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess femur, tibia, lumbar spine, and total body less head bone mineral content. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between prior fracture and bone parameters, controlling for maturity, body mass, leg length, ethnicity, and physical activity. Associations between prior fracture and all DXA and pQCT bone parameters at diaphyseal sites were nonsignificant. In contrast, lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at distal metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia was significantly associated with prior fracture. After adjustment for covariates, every SD decrease in trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of the distal femur and tibia was associated with 1.4 (1.1-1.9) and 1.3 (1.0-1.7) times higher fracture prevalence, respectively. Prior fracture was not associated with metaphyseal bone size (ie, periosteal circumference). In conclusion, fractures in girls are associated with lower trabecular vBMD, but not bone size, at metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. Lower trabecular vBMD at metaphyseal sites of long bones may be an early marker of skeletal fragility in girls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. Groundwork for Kant’s Practical Philosophy: Construction and Meaning of the Work "Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Gretić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the author provides a systematic analysis and interpretation of Kant’s major work ‘Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals’. The author demonstrates that Kant viewed his programme of founding a new kind of metaphysics as a distinctive unity of the practical and theoretical part of philosophy, i.e. a unity of pure practical reason with speculative reason. It is already manifested in the original common assumption of the ‘Groundwork’, because ‘at the end there can only be one and the same reason that can be diff erent only in its application’.

  16. Metaphysical Modality, Modality of Predicate and the Theory of "Decisive Necessity”

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    L. Nabavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle in the Organon (1949: 9,30 a ,15-19 explicitly states that in a categorical syllogism when the minor premise is absolute (without modality operator and the major is necessary, the conclusion will be necessary too. This Aristotle's view has been the source of many conflicts and disputes in the history of logic. The famous logicians and historians of logic in the twentieth century as "Nicholas Rescher" and "Becker" believe that Aristotle's view is justifiable and defensible (at least compared to the first figure only if, the modality of major premise is considered as the property of predicate (modality de re. Today, we know very well that the modality of predicate is closely linked to Metaphysical and philosophical Modality. “Shihab al-Din al- Suhrawardi” in the theory of "Decisive (Battateh Necessity” by accepting this base, explicitly states that, in the beginning, the modality must be mentioned as a part of the predicate and then the modality of relation or copula is summarized and reduced to necessity. The modern formalization of the most important part of this theory is as follows: ("x (àAx É à Bx º ("x □ (àAx É à BxThis paper discusses the historical overview of the metaphysical modality firstly and then shows that the theory of "Decisive Necessity” is true and justified in a model of modal logic with equivalent accessibility relation and homogeneous possible world view (fixed domain.

  17. Coralline hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes in a canine metaphyseal defect model: Radiographic-biomechanical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.; Holmes, R.E.; Tencer, A.F.; Texas Univ., Dallas; Mooney, V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic and biomechanical assessment of a new type of bone graft substitute derived from reef-building sea coral was performed in a canine metaphyseal defect model. Blocks of this material and autogenous iliac crest graft were implanted, respectively, into the right and left proximal tibial metaphyses of eight dogs. Qualitative and quantitative radiographic evaluation was performed in the immediate postoperative period and at 6 months after surgery. Biomechanical testing was carried out on all grafts following harvest at 6 months, as well as on nonimplanted coralline hydroxyapatite and autogenous iliac cancellous bone. In contrast to autografts, incorporation of coralline implants was characterized by predictable osseous growth and apposition with preservation of intrinsic architecture. Greater percent increase in radiography density, higher ultimate compressive strength, and lower stiffness with incorporation were documented advantages of coralline hydroxyapatite over autogenous graft. Densitometric measurements correlated moderately with strength for both types of graft material (r=0.65). These promising results have important implications to the clinical application of coralline hydroxyapatite bone graft substitutes as an alternative to autogenous grafting. (orig.)

  18. Darkened Counsel: The Problem of Evil in Bergson’s Metaphysics of Integral Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Paul Smith

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Henri Bergson's work is often presented as an optimistic philosophy. This essay presents a counter-narrative to that reading by looking to the place of the problem of evil within his integral metaphysics. For, if Bergson’s philosophy is simply optimistic, or simply derives meaning from the wholeness of experience, then it risks a theodical structure which undercuts its ability to speak to contemporary social and political problems of suffering. A theodical structure is one that, at bottom, justifies the experience of suffering by way of a concept of the whole or some concept that functions to subsume everything within it. Suffering is subsumed and given meaning by placing it within a relation, often with a telos that redeems or sublimates the experience of suffering. This takes such a singular experience such as suffering and renders it merely relative to the part it plays within the system of everything. On my reading, Bergson’s philosophy contains a supplement of what we might call pessimism or negativity inherent in his metaphysics as integral experience. This supplement undermines the theodical structure that may be assumed to undercut Bergson’s philosophy when confronted with evil or suffering and is seen most clearly in his critique of the notion of “everything.”

  19. Substantial Union or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes' Metaphysics

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    Fahime Jamei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body union, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial union. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial union of mind and body with their substantial distinction; despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than union theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories

  20. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Jamei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.

  1. Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of "Experimental Metaphysics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Geoffrey

    After reviewing paradigmatic cases of "experimental metaphysics" basing inferences against local realism and determinism on experimental tests of Bells theorem (and successors), we concentrate on clarifying the meaning and status of "objective probability" in quantum mechanics. The terms "objective" and "subjective" are found ambiguous and inadequate, masking crucial differences turning on the question of what the numerical values of probability functions measure vs. the question of the nature of the "events" on which such functions are defined. This leads naturally to a 2×2 matrix of types of interpretations, which are then illustrated with salient examples. (Of independent interest are the splitting of "Copenhagen interpretation" into "objective" and "subjective" varieties in one of the dimensions and the splitting of Bohmian hidden variables from (other) modal interpretations along that same dimension.) It is then explained why Everett interpretations are difficult to categorize in these terms. Finally, we argue that Bohmian mechanics does not seriously threaten the experimental-metaphysical case for ultimate randomness and purely physical probabilities.

  2. Low dose PTH improves metaphyseal bone healing more when muscles are paralyzed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Olof; Macias, Brandon R; Aspenberg, Per

    2014-06-01

    Stimulation of bone formation by PTH is related to mechanosensitivity. The response to PTH treatment in intact bone could therefore be blunted by unloading. We studied the effects of mechanical loading on the response to PTH treatment in bone healing. Most fractures occur in the metaphyses, therefor we used a model for metaphyseal bone injury. One hind leg of 20 male SD rats was unloaded via intramuscular botulinum toxin injections. Two weeks later, the proximal unloaded tibia had lost 78% of its trabecular contents. At this time-point, the rats received bilateral proximal tibiae screw implants. Ten of the 20 rats were given daily injections of 5 μg/kg PTH (1-34). After two weeks of healing, screw fixation was measured by pull-out, and microCT of the distal femur cancellous compartment was performed. Pull-out force provided an estimate for cancellous bone formation after trauma. PTH more than doubled the pull-out force in the unloaded limbs (from 14 to 30 N), but increased it by less than half in the loaded ones (from 30 to 44 N). In relative terms, PTH had a stronger effect on pull-out force in unloaded bone than in loaded bone (p=0.03). The results suggest that PTH treatment for stimulation of bone healing does not require simultaneous mechanical stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  4. Metaphysical labour

    OpenAIRE

    Raastrup Kristensen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    This thesis offers a critical contribution to the theories of work-life balance. Within the contemporary theoretical perspectives on work and life the individuals are constructed as being responsible for work-life balance by turning it into a problem of the personal behaviour, decisions, psychological traits and family condition of the human subject. In this sense the everyday problem of balancing between work and home is reduced to be primarily an individual problem and decisi...

  5. Copernican Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ennis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1781 Kant introduced the transcendental method on a precarious footing and he never shied away from the fact that the transcendental method is structured, and I mean it in the most direct sense possible, aporetically. The aporetic element, the unstable core within Kantian thought, is the distinction between phenomenal and noumenal content in the chapter entitled "On the ground of the distinction [Unterscheidung] of all objects [Gegenstände] in general into phenomena and noumena" (Kant A236/B295-A260/B315. This distinction is noteworthy for introducing into the philosophical tradition the notion of the thing-in-itself [Ding-an-sich]. Depending on your interests this is either the most profound or absurd of ideas in our tradition. I prefer to think of it as the most productive notion in our tradition. We can see its generative function at work almost immediately when it spurred the German idealists into thinking obscenely ingenious thoughts, but the phenomenal-noumenal distinction, hereafter the aporetic distinction, remains an ever-persistent aporia for all continental thinking after Kant. In this article I want to focus on how the aporetic distinction functions in its generative capacity with an emphasis on its ontological rather than epistemological register. Considered as such I claim that it is possible to identify in the aporetic distinction a generative capacity (or logic or function that is intrinsic to both it and all thought responding to it including, or perhaps especially, the speculative responses.

  6. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  7. 'Say goodbye to opinions!' : Plutarch’s philosophy of natural phenomena and the journey to metaphysical knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma-Agteres, Suzan; Meeusen, Michiel; van der Stockt, Luc

    2015-01-01

    As a Platonist, Plutarch acknowledges a clear ontological separation between the sensible and the metaphysical world, and, consequently, a neat epistemological distinction between opinion and knowledge. At the same time, his personal contributions to the study of natural phenomena show his

  8. Into the White: Larry Eigner’s Meta-Physical Poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Juliet Lauro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disabled poet Larry Eigner makes striking use of the space of the page to create poetry that operates in a visual as well as linguistic register. Many critics have read Eigner’s oeuvre in light of his physical condition, but no scholar has previously looked to the parallels between the Black Mountain artists’ experiments in abstraction and Black Mountain poet Larry Eigner’s work, though the same influences are clearly evident. Working collaboratively and interdisciplinarily, the authors combine their expertise in the disciplines of literature and art history, reading both the words on the page and the page as picture, in a manner that engages specifically with phenomenological philosophy, to explicate how these poems work on the body of the reader.   Key words: embodiment, abstraction, poetics, typography, metaphysics, phenomenology

  9. Transcendence in the current theology, philosophy and metaphysics in Russian cosmism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human interests to Religion and Metaphysics are well explained by the desire of the people to answer to fundamental and eternal questions as “what is the sense of life” and “what is the purpose of life”. These questions have accompanied them from the beginning of conscious life. Many intellectuals, scientists and writers of former USSR and democratic Russia have brought essential contributions, opened new directions and finally have enriched with new concepts, ideas, ideologies and systems the worldwide Philosophy and Religion. A possible answer is the Creation allowing to Divinity to transcend in common life. Soul as Spiritual reflection of Divinity tends to perfection, reiterating in every generation the transcendence to God. At first sight there are no meeting points between Transcendence and Cosmism because the last notion has its beginning in the progress of Science. The evolution of modern Sciences, philosophical concepts and Religion gradually demonstrates correlated aspects which must be discovered in the future.

  10. A new syndrome of 'spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia: mixed type''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    A new type of rare bone dysplasia is described, which shares some common features with spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia: short limb-abnormal calcification type and lethal metatropic dysplasia. Besides these features, the present case has some additional unusual features. Facial malformation was very obvious and of a different type. The nose and nares were completely flattened. Hypertrophied acetabular bones, round densities on the ilia, premature ossification of many epiphyses and carpal bones, curvilinear calcifications in some joints, fusion of the ischiopubic rami, calcification of many costal cartilages and thick sclerotic base of the skull were a few of the significant findings. On the basis of the clinical and radiological features, the condition has been named ''spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia: mixed type''. (orig.)

  11. KIEVAN PERIOD OF V. V. ZENKOVSKY’S CREATIVE WORK: REFORM OF METAPHYSICAL BACKGROUND OF PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. LETTSEV

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the Kiev’s period of creative work of V.V. Zenkovsky, re-markable Christian philosopher, psychologist and pedagogue. The main point of interest of the thinker of that time was a philosophical psychology, i.e. a branch of science direct-ed to the source of psychics and seeking to make clear the nature and basis of mental re-ality. Zenkovsky’s defense of the idea of substantiality of soul and original interpretation of the problem of psychophysical interaction brought him to the deep reform of meta-physical background of psychology. This also became the conceptual basis for his latest investigations in the spheres of pedagogy, theology and pure philosophy

  12. Stress and human spirituality 2000: at the cross roads of physics and metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, B L

    2000-12-01

    Although stress is defined as a perceived threat, the implications of stress go well beyond physical well-being. In the words of Carl Jung, "Every crisis is a spiritual crisis." Western science, so strongly influenced by the Cartesian Principle of Reductionism, has ignored the essence and significance of human spirituality in the health and healing process. Holistic healing honors the integration, balance, and harmony of mind, body, spirit, and emotions, where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Stress (unresolved issues of anger and fear) chokes the human spirit, the life force of human energy, which ultimately affects the physical body. From the perspectives of both physics and metaphysics, stress is a disruption in the state of coherence between the layers of consciousness in the human energy field. The emerging paradigm of health reunites mind, body, and spirit, and considers health as a function of coherence among the energy levels of these components.

  13. Locking plate fixation in distal metaphyseal tibial fractures: series of 79 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh K; Rohilla, Rajesh Kumar; Sangwan, Kapil; Singh, Vijendra; Walia, Saurav

    2010-12-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation in distal tibial fractures jeopardises fracture fragment vascularity and often results in soft tissue complications. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis, if possible, offers the best possible option as it permits adequate fixation in a biological manner. Seventy-nine consecutive adult patients with distal tibial fractures, including one patient with a bilateral fracture of the distal tibia, treated with locking plates, were retrospectively reviewed. The 4.5-mm limited-contact locking compression plate (LC-LCP) was used in 33 fractures, the metaphyseal LCP in 27 fractures and the distal medial tibial LCP in the remaining 20 fractures. Fibula fixation was performed in the majority of comminuted fractures (n = 41) to maintain the second column of the ankle so as to achieve indirect reduction and to prevent collapse of the fracture. There were two cases of delayed wound breakdown in fractures fixed with the 4.5-mm LC-LCP. Five patients required primary bone grafting and three patients required secondary bone grafting. All cases of delayed union (n = 7) and nonunion (n = 3) were observed in cases where plates were used in bridge mode. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) with LCP was observed to be a reliable method of stabilisation for these fractures. Peri-operative docking of fracture ends may be a good option in severely impacted fractures with gap. The precontoured distal medial tibial LCP was observed to be a better tolerated implant in comparison to the 4.5-mm LC-LCP or metaphyseal LCP with respect to complications of soft tissues, bone healing and functional outcome, though its contour needs to be modified.

  14. On Darwin's 'metaphysical notebooks'. I: teleology and the project of a theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, L

    2001-01-01

    Huxley's essay On the Reception of the 'Origin of Species' brings us close to the issue of cause and of why- and how-questions in the understanding of the living world. The present contribution, which is divided into two parts, reviews the problem of Teleology as conceived by Huxley and re-examines Darwin as the author who revealed the existence of a 'foundations problem' in the explanation of an entire realm of nature, i.e., the problem of explaining such realm in terms of its own, specific legality, or iuxta sua propria principia. In the first part the enquiry is mainly focused on the secularization of natural history after Paley; in the second part it is mainly focused on the desubjectivization of the inquiry into natural history after Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck. The second part will be published in the next issue of Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum. In the first part below an analysis is made of Notebooks M and N. The author disputes the correctness of conceiving them only as the works where Darwin envisages the 'metaphysical' themes later to become the subject of The Expression of the Emotions. He suggests to conceive of them also as the works where Darwin defines the terms of the general project of his own, peculiar evolutionary theory. The author then outlines the intellectual progress of Darwin from the inosculation to the transmutation hypotheses. Darwin's reading of Malthus appears to be analytically decisive, because it offers him the vintage point to attack the metaphysical and theological citadels on the morphological side. Darwin is thus able to re-consider Erasmus' comprehensive zoonomic project, by displacing it, however, from the old idea of the scala naturae to the new one of the "coral of life", and by emphasising the distinction between "the fittest" and "the best" vs. the tradition of Natural Theology.

  15. Descartes and the “metaphysical dualism”: Excesses in interpreting a classic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Afloroaei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on one of the most serious accusations brought against Descartes and modern philosophy, namely “the dualism of substance”. The accusers claim that the human body and soul were viewed as completely separate; consequently, their relationship as such and the united being of man become incomprehensible. As has been shown above, the idea of the separation of the soul from the body did not originate with Descartes; it was formulated much earlier, and repeated by a disciple of Descartes’, Henry Leroy, known as Regius. When Descartes became aware of this bizarre interpretation he was dismayed and sought to clarify the matter. He sought to distinguish between two terms, “distinction” and “separation” and to illuminate the relationship between body and soul at three different levels, i.e. ordinary experience, analytical mind and metaphysical meditation.Eventually, he embraced the paradox of the two natures – the double substantial make-up of the human being, a paradox of patristic inspiration. However, the later history of ideas was not sympathetic to Descartes: nowadays, when one looks up the term “metaphysical dualism” in dictionaries or glossaries, even in the studies of prestigious researchers, one will find views similar to those of the unfaithful disciple Regius. The resilience of this locus obscurus is explained both by the power of a new mode of interpreting discourse (as technical or logical analysis and by the ever more privilegedposition of the reader (intentio lectoris. Both attitudes are related to modern ideologies and to changes which have occurred in the intersubjective lifeworld, especially in the communication of the scholarly and academic world.

  16. Crusius et la certitude métaphysique en 1762 Crusius and metaphysical certainty in 1762

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinca Prunea-Bretonnet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’article se propose d’analyser le rôle joué par la pensée de Christian August Crusius dans la genèse et l’articulation de la Preisschrift kantienne de 1762. Décidément anti-wolffien, Kant opte pour la méthode analytique comme seule capable d’assurer la scientificité de la philosophie. Dans un double mouvement de rapprochement et de prise de distance par rapport à certaines thèses crusiennes centrales, il entend démontrer que la certitude atteignable en métaphysique est suffisante pour la conviction, qu’elle est toute aussi « sûre » et « complète » que la certitude mathématique. Ne pouvant fonder cette certitude sur une simple conviction subjective, selon le principe de Crusius, Kant s’éloignera définitivement de ce dernier, non sans avoir intégré dans sa propre doctrine des éléments crusiens fondamentaux.This article aims to discuss the role played by Crusius’ thought in the genesis and the structure of Kant’s Preisschrift of 1762. Definitely opposed to Wolffian philosophy, Kant argues for the analythical method as the only method capable of ensuring a scientific status for philosophy. Simultaneously embracing and criticizing some central Crusian principles, he intends to demonstrate the possibility of a “sure” and “complete” metaphysical certainty, which would be as sufficient for conviction as the mathematical certainty. Kant refuses, however, to base metaphysical certainty on a simply subjective conviction, as Crusius suggests. That is why he ultimately rejects his predecessor’s philosophy, although not without making some fundamental Crusian elements part of his own doctrine.

  17. Aeg maast ikus. Ristikivi metafüüsiline kronotoop / Time in the landscape. Ristikivi’s metaphysical chronotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Õnne Kepp

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines two novels published during the early years of Karl Ristikivi’s exile, All That Ever Was (1946 and Nothing Happened (1947, and his poetry from 1950s. The main aim is to explain the poetic and semantic mechanism that transformed Ristikivi’s realism of the 1930s into a metaphysical outlook in the 1940s and 1950s. The Estonian landscape has long been a significant source of inspiration for Estonian poetry (and, frequently, prose for the expression of an individual’s spatio-temporal relations. For Ristikivi, landscape plays an essential role in the conception of his literary chronotope. To gain a deeper understanding of the emergence of Ristikivi’s metaphysical chronotope in these two novels one must search for corresponding time and space imagery. Natural elements manifest the spatio-temporal relations that find expression in time-containing landscapes. Often the cyclical landscape reflects a character’s life, although the narrator’s perspective is always from the present to the past. In Ristikivi’s works, the present lacks a sense of place – a permanent relationship with a physical place. Regarding the time aspect, one could however refer to the so-called biographical inversion, biographical reversals, retreating to a long-gone golden era, where space too had different qualities. The spatio-temporal universality of nature imagery is vividly expressed in Ristikivi’s poetry. Metaphysical space is portrayed using concrete metaphors (sea, island, shore, but time-specific independent imagery is missing – time is portrayed as an organic part of landscape and of space as a whole. Here, what is important is not the realistic passage of time and its peripherally associated phenomena, but the experience of an earthly journey, the so-called destined time. The atmosphere is one of metaphysical flight from life, unreal landscapes in a bizarre world and a temporal vacuum. In the lyrics, Risikivi’s metaphysical

  18. Radiation absorbed-dose estimates for the liver, spleen, and metaphyseal growth complexes in children undergoing gallium-67 citrate scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R.; Gelfand, M.J.; Burns, G.S.; Purdom, R.C.; Kereiakes, J.G.; Maxon, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative conjugate-view external counting techniques were applied to estimate the radiation dose to the liver, spleen, and metaphyseal growth complexes (distal femur and proximal tibia) for ten pediatric patients undergoing gallium-67 scanning procedures. The effective half-life of Ga 67 in these organs was approximately 78 hours. The dose per unit of administered activity for the liver and spleen was between 0.3 and 4.0 rad/mCi (0.08 to 1.08 Gy/GBq) and 0.5 and 7.0 rad/mCi (0.13 to 1.89 Gy/GBq), respectively. For the metaphyseal growth plates, the range was 2.3 to 14.3 rad/mCi (0.62 to 3.86 Gy/GBq)

  19. Is it possible to delete a philosophical consciousness? Metaphysical aspects of Ssearle’s neurobiological approach of free will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to adjust his theoretical comprehension to the existing natural-scientific paradigm, Searle develops neurobiological naturalism, an approach which should rely on basic facts obtained from the neuroscience researches of living organisms when solving basic philosophical problems. This paper briefly presents this view’s theory leading to the argumentation that Searle’s point of view is of metaphysical characteristics which is exactly what he was trying to avoid. The metaphysical character of Searle’s neurobiological naturalism has been seen through the problem of free will resulting from his understanding of consciousness. The argumentation is based on an analysis of the concepts, the gap and the self, as well as on possible solutions of the problem of free will (hypothesis 1 and 2.

  20. THE THIRD MAN ARGUMENT(PARM.132A1-B2-A ‘PURELY’ METAPHYSICAL EXERCISE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nabielek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available All commentators of the ‘Parmenides’ agree that the Third Man argument, 132a-b2, raises a difficulty for Plato’s theory of forms. Many commentators, following Vlastos, hold that the argument’s infinite regress is vicious for epistemic reasons. Rickless contends that the infinite regress is vicious for exclusively metaphysical reasons. This essay intends to show that Rickless’ interpretation is inadequate, as well as to vindicate Vlastos’ interpretation.

  1. Unusual bone dysplasia featuring severe platyspondyly and vertebral 'coronal cleft' in infancy, and changes of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Texas Univ., Dallas

    1986-01-01

    This is the report of a boy who presented at birth with severe generalized platyspondyly, a vertebral ''coronal cleft'', and an abnormal configuration of the pelvis with short and broad iliac and ischial bones and horizontal acetabular roofs. The rest of the skeleton was normal. In the ensuing years the vertebral bodies and pelvis assumed a near normal configuration, but the patient developed changes of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia in the long bones of the lower limbs with progressive shortness of stature. (orig.)

  2. Absence of rickets in infants with fatal abusive head trauma and classic metaphyseal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; McDonald, Anna G; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K

    2015-06-01

    To determine if rickets is present in cases of infant homicide with classic metaphyseal lesions (CMLs) and other skeletal injuries. This study was exempt from the institutional human subjects board review because all infants were deceased. An archival review (1984-2012) was performed of the radiologic and histopathologic findings of 46 consecutive infant fatalities referred from the state medical examiner's office for the evaluation of possible child abuse. Thirty infants with distal femoral histologic material were identified. Additional inclusion criteria were as follows: (a) The medical examiner determined that the infant had sustained a head injury and that the manner of death was a homicide, (b) at least one CML was evident at skeletal survey, (c) CMLs were confirmed at autopsy, and (d) non-CML fractures were also present. Nine infants (mean age, 3.9 months; age range, 1-9 months) were identified. Two pediatric radiologists independently reviewed the skeletal surveys for rachitic changes at the wrists and knees. A bone and soft tissue pathologist reviewed the distal femoral histologic slices for rickets. There were no radiographic or pathologic features of rickets in the cohort. The findings provide no support for the view that the CML is due to rickets. Rather, they strengthen a robust literature that states that the CML is a traumatic injury commonly encountered in physically abused infants. RSNA, 2015

  3. The Voluntary Nature of Decision-Making in Addiction: Static Metaphysical Views Versus Epistemologically Dynamic Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Rousseau-Lesage, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The degree of autonomy present in the choices made by individuals with an addiction, notably in the context of research, is unclear and debated. Some have argued that addiction, as it is commonly understood, prevents people from having sufficient decision-making capacity or self-control to engage in choices involving substances to which they have an addiction. Others have criticized this position for being too radical and have counter-argued in favour of the full autonomy of people with an addiction. Aligning ourselves with middle-ground positions between these two extremes, we flesh out an account of voluntary action that makes room for finer-grained analyses than the proposed all-or-nothing stances, which rely on a rather static metaphysical understanding of the nature of the voluntariness of action. In contrast, a dynamic concept of voluntary action better accounts for varying levels of voluntariness of the person with an addiction which takes into consideration internal (e.g. cravings) and external (e.g. perceptions of degrees of freedom related to different options) determinants of choice. Accordingly, like other components of autonomous choices such as level of information, voluntariness can fluctuate. Therefore, there are important implications for research and clinical ethics in matters of consent, recruitment, and therapeutic approaches. Overall, our proposal is inspired by a pragmatist understanding of voluntary action, notably with respect to how voluntariness is both informed by actions and experiences that shape one's view of the world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The uncertain foundation of neo-Darwinism: metaphysical and epistemological pluralism in the evolutionary synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Richard G

    2009-06-01

    The Evolutionary Synthesis is often seen as a unification process in evolutionary biology, one which provided this research area with a solid common theoretical foundation. As such, neo-Darwinism is believed to constitute from this time onward a single, coherent, and unified movement offering research guidelines for investigations. While this may be true if evolutionary biology is solely understood as centred around evolutionary mechanisms, an entirely different picture emerges once other aspects of the founding neo-Darwinists' views are taken into consideration, aspects potentially relevant to the elaboration of an evolutionary worldview: the tree of life, the ontological distinctions of the main cosmic entities (inert matter, biological organisms, mind), the inherent properties of self-organizing matter, evolutionary ethics, and so on. Profound tensions and inconsistencies are immediately revealed in the neo-Darwinian movement once this broader perspective is adopted. This pluralism is such that it is possible to identify at least three distinct and quasi-incommensurable epistemological/metaphysical frameworks as providing a proper foundation for neo-Darwinism. The analysis of the views of Theodosius Dobzhansky, Bernhard Rensch, and Ernst Mayr will illustrate this untenable pluralism, one which requires us to conceive of the neo-Darwinian research agenda as being conducted in more than one research programme or research tradition at the same time.

  5. Terrorists: analogies and differences with mental diseases. A phenomenological-metaphysical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisogni, Primavera

    2010-01-01

    Are islamic terrorists insane? International scholars generally concede that Al Qaeda members are not mentally ill. But, until now, there has not been a shared consensus and a strong argument that can prove it. This paper intends to throw light on the specific dehumanization of terrorists and to show that they are always responsible for their acts, unlike those who are affected by mental diseases. The members of Al Qaeda deny the world of life and take the distance from its sense and value: in their perspective only subversive action makes sense. However they always maintain a transcendent relation with the world (I-you; I-it). Persons with serious mental diseases have generally lost the sense of their self and the transcendence with the world. Terrorists and people with mental illness share a common separation from the world of life: one is voluntary, the other is the consequence of a number of factors (biological, social, etc.). Terrorists and psychotics have nevertheless something in common: the deprivation of the self. A loss of being that--I argue--is at the origin of the ordinariness of terrorists and the experience of void in psychotics. Two symptoms that reveal the condition of an intimate dryness, from a phenomenological and a metaphysical point of view as a consequence of a distorted relation with the world of life. I shall discuss how ordinariness is strictly related with the blurring definition of terrorism.

  6. On problems in defining abstract and metaphysical concepts--emergence of a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahod, Bruno; Nahod, Perina Vukša

    2014-12-01

    Basic anthropological terminology is the first project covering terms from the domain of the social sciences under the Croatian Special Field Terminology program (Struna). Problems that have been sporadically noticed or whose existence could have been presumed during the processing of terms mainly from technical fields and sciences have finally emerged in "anthropology". The principles of the General Theory of Terminology (GTT), which are followed in Struna, were put to a truly exacting test, and sometimes stretched beyond their limits when applied to concepts that do not necessarily have references in the physical world; namely, abstract and metaphysical concepts. We are currently developing a new terminographical model based on Idealized Cognitive Models (ICM), which will hopefully ensure a better cross-filed implementation of various types of concepts and their relations. The goal of this paper is to introduce the theoretical bases of our model. Additionally, we will present a pilot study of the series of experiments in which we are trying to investigate the nature of conceptual categorization in special languages and its proposed difference form categorization in general language.

  7. Morphological assessment of bone mineralization in tibial metaphyses of ascorbic acid-deficient ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoka; Li, Minqi; Hara, Kuniko; Sasaki, Muneteru; Tabata, Chihiro; de Freitas, Paulo Henrique Luiz; Hongo, Hiromi; Suzuki, Reiko; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kiichiro; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Oohata, Noboru; Oda, Kimimitsu; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Amizuka, Norio

    2011-08-01

    Osteogenic disorder shionogi (ODS) rats carry a hereditary defect in ascorbic acid synthesis, mimicking human scurvy when fed with an ascorbic acid-deficient (aa-def) diet. As aa-def ODS rats were shown to feature disordered bone formation, we have examined the bone mineralization in this rat model. A fibrous tissue layer surrounding the trabeculae of tibial metaphyses was found in aa-def ODS rats, and this layer showed intense alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-immunopositivity. Many osteoblasts detached from the bone surfaces and were characterized by round-shaped rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), suggesting accumulation of malformed collagen inside the rER. Accordingly, fine, fragile fibrillar collagenous structures without evident striation were found in aa-def bones, which may result from misassembling of the triple helices of collagenous α-chains. Despite a marked reduction in bone formation, ascorbic acid deprivation seemed to have no effect on mineralization: while reduced in number, normal matrix vesicles and mineralized nodules could be seen in aa-def bones. Fine needle-like mineral crystals extended from these mineralized nodules, and were apparently bound to collagenous fibrillar structures. In summary, collagen mineralization seems unaffected by ascorbic acid deficiency in spite of the fine, fragile collagenous fibrils identified in the bones of our animal model.

  8. Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of ``Experimental Metaphysics''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Geoffrey

    After reviewing paradigmatic cases of “experimental metaphysics” basing inferences against local realism and determinism on experimental tests of Bells theorem (and successors), we concentrate on clarifying the meaning and status of “objective probability” in quantum mechanics. The terms “objective” and “subjective” are found ambiguous and inadequate, masking crucial differences turning on the question of what the numerical values of probability functions measure vs. the question of the nature of the “events” on which such functions are defined. This leads naturally to a 2×2 matrix of types of interpretations, which are then illustrated with salient examples. (Of independent interest are the splitting of “Copenhagen interpretation” into “objective” and “subjective” varieties in one of the dimensions and the splitting of Bohmian hidden variables from (other) modal interpretations along that same dimension.) It is then explained why Everett interpretations are difficult to categorize in these terms. Finally, we argue that Bohmian mechanics does not seriously threaten the experimental-metaphysical case for ultimate randomness and purely physical probabilities.

  9. The problem of contextuality and the impossibility of experimental metaphysics thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Ronnie

    Recently a new impulse has been given to the experimental investigation of contextuality. In this paper we show that for a widely used definition of contextuality there can be no decisive experiment on the existence of contextuality. To this end, we give a clear presentation of the hidden variable models due to Meyer, Kent and Clifton (MKC), which would supposedly nullify the Kochen-Specker theorem. Although we disagree with this last statement, the models do play a significant role in the discussion on the meaning of contextuality. In fact, we introduce a specific MKC-model of which we show that it is non-contextual and completely in agreement with quantum mechanical predictions. We also investigate the possibility of other definitions of non-contextuality-with an emphasis on operational definitions-and argue that any useful definition relies on the specification of a theoretical framework. It is therefore concluded that no experimental test can yield any conclusions about contextuality on a metaphysical level.

  10. [Critical Review of Gender Ideology in the Light of Metaphysical Realism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguete Miguel, Enrique Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    The implementing of gender ideology in the imaginary of current welfare-state societies owes much to a long process in the history of thought, which has culminated in an accommodation of post-feminist discourse. This paper sets out the epistemological principles that are present in gender ideology, as a response to both its recent and more-remote antecedents. It is furthermore framed by an urge for emancipation that began with medieval scholasticism, the latest manifestation of which lies in the post-structuralist deconstructionism that outlines the concept of queer. This concept has dissociated the categories of sex and gender to the point of making them irrelevant for the determination of sexual identity, leaving the latter susceptible to being infinitely de- and reconstructed. This article also reviews the liberal-hedonistic context of the new postmodern setting, while showing how the concepts of ″a subjective feeling of happiness″ and ″a life fulfilled″ do not express similar content. The paper goes on to challenge the theory of gender from the perspective of metaphysic realism; stressing that the human being only appears as a real person via the possibility of anticipating another's contemplation, thereby cancelling out the abstraction of pure subjectivity. It finally offers its conclusions, with certain substantive recommendations in the field of education.

  11. Deus: metafísica e pensar pós-metafísico (God: metaphysics and post-metaphysical thinking - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n16p8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraim Vitor de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Editorial - Dossiê: Pensamento pós-metafísico e discurso sobre Deus – (Dossier: Post-metaphysical thought and speech about God Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Deus: metafísica e pensar pós-metafísico (God: metaphysics and post-metaphysical thinking - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n16p8 

  12. High-resolution CT with histopathological correlates of the classic metaphyseal lesion of infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); McDonald, Anna G. [Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, MA (United States); Rosenberg, Andrew E. [University of Miami Hospital, Department of Pathology, Miami, FL (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a common high specificity indicator of infant abuse and its imaging features have been correlated histopathologically in infant fatalities. High-resolution CT imaging and histologic correlates were employed to (1) characterize the normal infant anatomy surrounding the chondro-osseous junction, and (2) confirm the 3-D model of the CML previously inferred from planar radiography and histopathology. Long bone specimens from 5 fatally abused infants, whose skeletal survey showed definite or suspected CMLs, were studied postmortem. After skeletal survey, selected specimens were resected and imaged with high-resolution digital radiography. They were then scanned with micro-CT (isotropic resolution of 45 μm{sup 3}) or with high-resolution flat-panel CT (isotropic resolutions of 200 μm{sup 3}). Visualization of the bony structures was carried out using image enhancement, segmentation and isosurface extraction, together with volume rendering and multiplanar reformatting. These findings were then correlated with histopathology. Study of normal infant bone clarifies the 3-D morphology of the subperiosteal bone collar (SPBC) and the radiographic zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). Studies on specimens with CML confirm that this lesion is a fracture extending in a planar fashion through the metaphysis, separating a mineralized fragment. This disk-like mineralized fragment has two components: (1) a thick peripheral component encompassing the SPBC; and (2) a thin central component comprised predominantly of the radiologic ZPC. By manipulating the 3-D model, the varying appearances of the CML are displayed. High-resolution CT coupled with histopathology provides elucidation of the morphology of the CML, a strong indicator of infant abuse. This new information may prove useful in assessing the biomechanical factors that produce this strong indicator of abusive assaults in infants. (orig.)

  13. An Analysis of the Agency and Providence in Platonic, Aristotelian and Avicennan Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Hadad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions as to whether the cosmic order of this world is based on action/agent or not? And if an agent is involved and the world and what it contains have to be seen as action, could we declare the cosmic order a providential order? are among the problems which have always occupied the mind of philosophers.      Reading through Platonic corpse leads us to the conclusion that he has founded his metaphysics upon the very idea of world of ideas. According to his works and words, Plato is a proponent of the theory of ideas. As a matter of fact, Plato's metaphysics lies in the theory of ideas. Plato illustrates the general makeup of the world of ideas and the way sensible objects stand in relation with the beings dwelling in the latter world by the well-known cave allegory in the seventh book of Republic. In his view, whatever we find around ourselves not only are not authentic realities but rather they are merely shadows of the truth. Every phenomenon has an essence or reality which is known as its form. The idea of Good overshadows the other ideas insofar as these latter ideas or forms are seen as the effects of the former. It seems we can take God, the One, Absolute Good, Absolute Beauty and Good in itself as expressions of the same reality which Plato has used in different contexts through his works. Along these terms some other notions have also been brought up like intellect, divine intellect, Demiurge, ideas and the particulars of material world. By explaining Plato's taking of these notions and terms, we believe, one can discover Platonic ontological system.    In Republic, Plato argues that God is the creator of ideal bed and all other things, and he is the creator of intelligible entities (ideas. The One or reality as a whole not only contains ideas but the spirit too. The One is the final principle and the source of ideas and is beyond all human attributes. Having said these, it is not clear how reason gets itself related to the

  14. An Analysis of the Agency and Providence in Platonic, Aristotelian and Avicennan Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdi Emamijomeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions as to whether the cosmic order of this world is based on action/agent or not? And if an agent is involved and the world and what it contains have to be seen as action, could we declare the cosmic order a providential order? are among the problems which have always occupied the mind of philosophers.      Reading through Platonic corpse leads us to the conclusion that he has founded his metaphysics upon the very idea of world of ideas. According to his works and words, Plato is a proponent of the theory of ideas. As a matter of fact, Plato's metaphysics lies in the theory of ideas. Plato illustrates the general makeup of the world of ideas and the way sensible objects stand in relation with the beings dwelling in the latter world by the well-known cave allegory in the seventh book of Republic. In his view, whatever we find around ourselves not only are not authentic realities but rather they are merely shadows of the truth. Every phenomenon has an essence or reality which is known as its form. The idea of Good overshadows the other ideas insofar as these latter ideas or forms are seen as the effects of the former. It seems we can take God, the One, Absolute Good, Absolute Beauty and Good in itself as expressions of the same reality which Plato has used in different contexts through his works. Along these terms some other notions have also been brought up like intellect, divine intellect, Demiurge, ideas and the particulars of material world. By explaining Plato's taking of these notions and terms, we believe, one can discover Platonic ontological system.    In Republic, Plato argues that God is the creator of ideal bed and all other things, and he is the creator of intelligible entities (ideas. The One or reality as a whole not only contains ideas but the spirit too. The One is the final principle and the source of ideas and is beyond all human attributes. Having said these, it is not clear how reason gets itself related to the

  15. High-resolution CT with histopathological correlates of the classic metaphyseal lesion of infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K.; McDonald, Anna G.; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Gupta, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a common high specificity indicator of infant abuse and its imaging features have been correlated histopathologically in infant fatalities. High-resolution CT imaging and histologic correlates were employed to (1) characterize the normal infant anatomy surrounding the chondro-osseous junction, and (2) confirm the 3-D model of the CML previously inferred from planar radiography and histopathology. Long bone specimens from 5 fatally abused infants, whose skeletal survey showed definite or suspected CMLs, were studied postmortem. After skeletal survey, selected specimens were resected and imaged with high-resolution digital radiography. They were then scanned with micro-CT (isotropic resolution of 45 μm 3 ) or with high-resolution flat-panel CT (isotropic resolutions of 200 μm 3 ). Visualization of the bony structures was carried out using image enhancement, segmentation and isosurface extraction, together with volume rendering and multiplanar reformatting. These findings were then correlated with histopathology. Study of normal infant bone clarifies the 3-D morphology of the subperiosteal bone collar (SPBC) and the radiographic zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). Studies on specimens with CML confirm that this lesion is a fracture extending in a planar fashion through the metaphysis, separating a mineralized fragment. This disk-like mineralized fragment has two components: (1) a thick peripheral component encompassing the SPBC; and (2) a thin central component comprised predominantly of the radiologic ZPC. By manipulating the 3-D model, the varying appearances of the CML are displayed. High-resolution CT coupled with histopathology provides elucidation of the morphology of the CML, a strong indicator of infant abuse. This new information may prove useful in assessing the biomechanical factors that produce this strong indicator of abusive assaults in infants. (orig.)

  16. Low-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT improves metaphyseal fracture healing in an osteoporotic rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina A Mackert

    Full Text Available As result of the current demographic changes, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are becoming an increasing social and economic burden. In this experimental study, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT, was evaluated as a treatment option for the improvement of osteoporotic fracture healing.A well-established fracture model in the metaphyseal tibia in the osteoporotic rat was used. 132 animals were divided into 11 groups, with 12 animals each, consisting of one sham-operated group and 10 ovariectomized (osteoporotic groups, of which 9 received ESWT treatment. Different energy flux intensities (0.15 mJ/mm2, 0.35 mJ/mm2, or 0.55 mJ/mm2 as well as different numbers of ESWT applications (once, three times, or five times throughout the 35-day healing period were applied to the osteoporotic fractures. Fracture healing was investigated quantitatively and qualitatively using micro-CT imaging, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis, histomorphometric analysis and biomechanical analysis.The results of this study show a qualitative and quantitative improvement in the osteoporotic fracture healing under low-energy (energy flux intensity: 0,15 mJ/mm2 ESWT and with fewer treatment applications per healing period.In conclusion, low-energy ESWT seems to exhibit a beneficial effect on the healing of osteoporotic fractures, leading to improved biomechanical properties, enhanced callus-quantity and -quality, and an increase in the expression of bone specific transcription factors. The results suggest that low-energy ESWT, as main treatment or as adjunctive treatment in addition to a surgical intervention, may prove to be an effective, simple to use, and cost-efficient option for the qualitative and quantitative improvement of osteoporotic fracture healing.

  17. The Possibility of a New Metaphysics for Quantum Mechanics from Meinong's Theory of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Matías

    According to de Ronde it was Bohr's interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (QM) which closed the possibility of understanding physical reality beyond the realm of the actual, so establishing the Orthodox Line of Research. In this sense, it is not the task of any physical theory to look beyond the language and metaphysics supposed by classical physics, in order to account for what QM describes. If one wishes to maintain a realist position (though not nave) regarding physical theories, one seems then to be trapped by an array of concepts that do not allow to understand the main principles involved in the most successful physical theory thus far, mainly: the quantum postulate, the principle of indetermination and the superposition principle. If de Ronde is right in proposing QM can only be completed as a physical theory by the introduction of `new concepts' that admit as real a domain beyond actuality, then a new ontology that goes beyond Aristotelian and Newtonian actualism is needed. It was already in the early 20th century that misunderstood philosopher Alexius von Meinong proposed a Theory of Objects that admits a domain of being beyond existence-actuality. Member of the so called `School of Brentano', Meinong's concerns were oriented to provide an ontology of everything that can be thought of, and at the same time an intentionality theory of how objects are thought of. I wish to argue that in Meinong's theory of objects we find the rudiments of the ontology and the intentionality theory we need to account for QM's basic principles: mainly the possibility of predicating properties of non-entities, or in other words, the possibility of objectively describing a domain of what is, that is different from the domain of actual existence.

  18. Comparing return to sport activities after short metaphyseal femoral arthroplasty with resurfacing and big femoral head arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampinas, Panagiotis K; Papadelis, Eustratios G; Vlamis, John A; Basiliadis, Hlias; Pneumaticos, Spiros G

    2017-07-01

    Young patients feel that maintaining sport activities after total hip arthroplasty constitutes an important part of their quality of life. The majority of hip surgeons allow patients to return to low-impact activities, but significant caution is advised to taking part in high-impact activities. The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the post-operative return to daily living habits and sport activities following short-metaphyseal hip and high functional total hip arthroplasties (resurfacing and big femoral head arthroplasties). In a study design, 48 patients (55 hips) were enrolled in three different comparative groups, one with the short-metaphyseal arthroplasties, a second with high functional resurfacing arthroplasties and a third of big femoral head arthroplasties. Each patient experienced a clinical examination and evaluated with Harris Hip Score, WOMAC, Sf-36, UCLA activity score, satisfaction VAS, anteroposterior and lateral X-rays of the hip and were followed in an outpatient setting for 2 years. Statistical analysis revealed no notable differences between the three groups regarding their demographic data however significant differences have been found between preoperative and postoperative clinical scores of each group. Also, we fail to reveal any significant differences when comparing data of all three groups at the final 2 years postoperative control regarding their clinical scores. The overall outcome of all three groups was similar, all the patients were satisfied and returned to previous level of sport activities. Short metaphyseal hip arthroplasties in young patients intending to return to previous and even high impact sport activities, similar to high functional resurfacing, big femoral head arthroplasties. Short stems with hard on hard bearing surfaces might become an alternative to standard stems and hip resurfacing.

  19. Chance: from metaphysical principle to explanatory concept. The idea of uncertainty in a natural history of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Baptiste

    2012-09-01

    The term "chance" has been given varied and different meanings in the history of occidental thought, carrying metaphysical connotations and controversial power. Despite the obscurity implied by this polysemy, this term is still frequently used without undergoing the conceptual clarifications that could locate its precise meaning and its original function in a theory. Here I propose a brief genealogical draft of this term and of its conceptual forms, from Aristotle to Darwin, to demonstrate the necessity of specifying what function it is fulfilling in each precise theoretical framework, in order not to be overwhelmed by the wide spectrum of the word. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dose to the metaphyseal growth complexes in children undergoing /sup 99m/Tc-EHDP bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R.; Gelfand, M.J.; Kerelakes, J.G.; Ascoli, F.A.; Maxon, H.R.; Saenger, E.L.; Feller, P.A.; Sodd, V.J.; Paras, P.

    1978-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in children may differ greatly from that accepted for adults. Following injection of a bone-seeking agent (/sup 99m/Tc-EHDP), radioactivity in the metaphyseal growth complexes of the distal femur and proximal tibia was quantitated in a series of children 4 to 16 years of age, using a gamma camera/computer system. The dose to the growth plate was found to range from 0.8 to 4.7 rads when adjusted to an administered activity of 200 μci/kg, compared to approximately 0.6 rad to the adult skeleton for a corresponding study

  1. Nihilism and Violence in the Age of Technology: A Historical Diagnosis from Heidegger’s Critique of Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pérez Espigares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to throw light on the ultimate roots of violence currently hitting our technological civilization. For this purpose we will analyze to what extent western philosophical tradition, beginning from its metaphysical core, has restricted the power of nothingness and how, as a consequence, it has favoured a biased view of nihilism that generates the perfect framework for the development of its destructive consequences. Following Heidegger's reflection, we will examine his «essential thinking» proposal as a way to overcome nihilism. We will then be able to arrive at its originary meaning and  penetrate into the essential origin of present-day violence.

  2. The old with the die. A contribution to metaphysics of quantum mechanics; Der Alte mit dem Wuerfel. Ein Beitrag zur Metaphysik der Quantenmechanik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Since the rise of quantum mechanics also their ideological implications and consequences were discussed. Meanwhile still scarcely a metaphysical problem exists, which was not supposedly solved under calling on quantum theory. Anna Ijjas inquires the usual practice and developes a new model of the assignment of quantum mechanics and metaphysics. She discusses both the physical foundations and the classical philosophical controversies, before she draws consequencies for the relation determination of brain and consciousness, the problem of freedom of will, as well as for the question of the influence of God in the world.

  3. Science Awareness and Science Literacy through the Basic Physics Course: Physics with a bit of Metaphysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2016-08-01

    Until the 1980s, it is well known and practiced in Indonesian Basic Physics courses, to present physics by its effective technicalities: The ideally elastic spring, the pulley and moving blocks, the thermodynamics of ideal engine models, theoretical electrostatics and electrodynamics with model capacitors and inductors, wave behavior and its various superpositions, and hopefully closed with a modern physics description. A different approach was then also experimented with, using the Hobson and Moore texts, stressing the alternative aim of fostering awareness, not just mastery, of science and the scientific method. This is hypothesized to be more in line with the changed attitude of the so-called Millenials cohort who are less attentive if not interested, and are more used to multi-tasking which suits their shorter span of attention. The upside is increased awareness of science and the scientific method. The downside is that they are getting less experience of the scientific method which intensely bases itself on critical observation, analytic thinking to set up conclusions or hypotheses, and checking consistency of the hypotheses with measured data. Another aspect is recognition that the human person encompasses both the reasoning capacity and the mental- spiritual-cultural capacity. This is considered essential, as the world grows even smaller due to increased communication capacity, causing strong interactions, nonlinear effects, and showing that value systems become more challenging and challenged due to physics / science and its cosmology, which is successfully based on the scientific method. So students should be made aware of the common basis of these two capacities: the assumptions, the reasoning capacity and the consistency assumption. This shows that the limits of science are their set of basic quantifiable assumptions, and the limits of the mental-spiritual-cultural aspects of life are their set of basic metaphysical (non-quantifiable) assumptions. The

  4. Science Awareness and Science Literacy through the Basic Physics Course: Physics with a bit of Metaphysics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2016-01-01

    Until the 1980s, it is well known and practiced in Indonesian Basic Physics courses, to present physics by its effective technicalities: The ideally elastic spring, the pulley and moving blocks, the thermodynamics of ideal engine models, theoretical electrostatics and electrodynamics with model capacitors and inductors, wave behavior and its various superpositions, and hopefully closed with a modern physics description. A different approach was then also experimented with, using the Hobson and Moore texts, stressing the alternative aim of fostering awareness, not just mastery, of science and the scientific method. This is hypothesized to be more in line with the changed attitude of the so-called Millenials cohort who are less attentive if not interested, and are more used to multi-tasking which suits their shorter span of attention. The upside is increased awareness of science and the scientific method. The downside is that they are getting less experience of the scientific method which intensely bases itself on critical observation, analytic thinking to set up conclusions or hypotheses, and checking consistency of the hypotheses with measured data. Another aspect is recognition that the human person encompasses both the reasoning capacity and the mental- spiritual-cultural capacity. This is considered essential, as the world grows even smaller due to increased communication capacity, causing strong interactions, nonlinear effects, and showing that value systems become more challenging and challenged due to physics / science and its cosmology, which is successfully based on the scientific method. So students should be made aware of the common basis of these two capacities: the assumptions, the reasoning capacity and the consistency assumption. This shows that the limits of science are their set of basic quantifiable assumptions, and the limits of the mental-spiritual-cultural aspects of life are their set of basic metaphysical (non-quantifiable) assumptions. The

  5. The Personal metaphysics of B. P. Bowne as the self-experience of cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Patsan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the peculiarities of the primary for American personalism – performed by B. P. Bowne – explication of the personal character of cognitive activity which laid the foundations for his “personalized” ontology. On the base of the analytical review of the main vectors of problematizing the personal subjectivity actualized in the philosophical-humanitarian space of contemporaneity the author reveals the development of the personalistic inspiration of post-non-classical philosophy into renewing the interaction of philosophical and theological discourses which was initial for the  personalist thought and intended to reunite rationality with its spiritual sources in the course of reflecting the personal mode of being realized on the ground of theism.  The study connects this orientation on overcoming the delimination between rational and ethic dimensions of the personhood with establishing at the emerging - “post-secular” -  stage of historical-philosophical process the meta-ontological character of the problem of the personality revealed in the midst of the twentieth century by the prominent Orthodox theologian and philosopher-personalist V. N. Lossky. The research argues for correlating the further reflection of the meta-ontology of the personhood uncovered by the Scripture and expounded by patristic trinitology with the retrospection of the trajectory of moving towards the Supernatural Revelation paved in the late nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries by the attempts of personalizing the ontology, in particular by B. P. Bowne’s personal metaphysics. The historical-philosophical reconstruction discovers that the originator of the personalistic philosophy of the USA constructed his “personal world” considering the validity of the person’s knowledge to be the empirical fact forming the all-sufficient epistemological criteria and formed by the alive person realizing that his

  6. The Contingency Of Our Own Beatitude. Some Reflections On Gilson’s The Future Of Augustinian Metaphysics

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    James V. Schall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by selected passages from Wendell Berry’s story “A Place in Time,” the article discusses Étienne Gilson’s essay “The Future of Augustinian Metaphysics” with a special regard to the relation of habits to metaphysics. The basis of this relation is human being whose life, from the perspective of Augustinian metaphysics, is permanently unsettled. Man is the one mortal being whose perfection does not come with his being, but only with his own input into what it already is. Habits, then, prefect an already constituted human being in what he or she is. Man is not born, however, with habits, but acquires them through acts of the virtues or vices. The article develops the Augustinian idea according to which the moral effort of man to pursue virtues and escape vices results not so much from his natural desire of ‘beatitude’, but rather from the fact of being led to God by God.

  7. Serum levels of innate immunity cytokines are elevated in dogs with metaphyseal osteopathy (hypertrophic osteodytrophy) during active disease and remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safra, Noa; Hitchens, Peta L; Maverakis, Emanual; Mitra, Anupam; Korff, Courtney; Johnson, Eric; Kol, Amir; Bannasch, Michael J; Pedersen, Niels C; Bannasch, Danika L

    2016-10-15

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) (hypertrophic osteodystrophy) is a developmental disorder of unexplained etiology affecting dogs during rapid growth. Affected dogs experience relapsing episodes of lytic/sclerotic metaphyseal lesions and systemic inflammation. MO is rare in the general dog population; however, some breeds (Weimaraner, Great Dane and Irish Setter) have a much higher incidence, supporting a hereditary etiology. Autoinflammatory childhood disorders of parallel presentation such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), involve impaired innate immunity pathways and aberrant cytokine production. Given the similarities between these diseases, we hypothesize that MO is an autoinflammatory disease mediated by cytokines involved in innate immunity. To characterize immune dysregulation in MO dogs we measured serum levels of inflammatory markers in 26 MO and 102 control dogs. MO dogs had significantly higher levels (pg/ml) of serum Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-18, IL-6, Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-10. Notably, recovered MO dogs were not different from dogs during active MO disease, providing a suggestive mechanism for disease predisposition. This is the first documentation of elevated immune markers in MO dogs, uncovering an immune profile similar to comparable autoinflammatory disorders in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Japanese-American Sam Spade: The Metaphysical Detective in Death in Little Tokyo, by Dale Furutani

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    Portilho Carla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to discuss the legacy of the roman noir in contemporary detective fiction produced outside the hegemonic center of power, here represented by the novel Death in Little Tokyo (1996, written by Japanese-American author Dale Furutani. Starting from the concept of the metaphysical detective (Haycraft 76; Holquist 153-156, characterized by deep questioning about narrative, interpretation, subjectivity, the nature of reality and the limits of knowledge, this article proposes a discussion about how these literary works, which at first sight represent a traditionally Anglo-American genre, constitute narratives that aim to rescue the memory, history and culture of marginalized communities. Typical of late modernity detective fiction, the metaphysical detective has none of the positivistic detective’s certainties, as he does not share in his Cartesian notion of totality, being presented instead as a successor of the hardboiled detective of the roman noir. In this article I intend to analyze the paths chosen by the author and discuss how his re-reading of the roman noir dialogues with the texts of hegemonic noire detective fiction, inscribing them in literary tradition and subverting them at the same time.

  9. DWORKIN ALÉM DA METAFÍSICA E DO CETICISMO / DWORKIN BEYOND THE METAPHYSICS AND SCEPTICISM

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    João Paulo Mansur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article starts in the existence or not of justice in personal preferences and in the content of the rules of law. It examines the response of legal idealistic philosophies, specifically, the philosophy of Plato, according to which, there is a metaphysically correct answer for each legal issue. It analyzes the response of skeptical philosophies, specifically the skeptical point of Erasmus of Rotterdam in “Praise of Folly”, according to which, naturalistic responses are results of arbitrary actions that not even the philosopher escapes. It also identifies the influences of skepticism in the political and legal philosophies, as the political realism by Machiavelli and the Legal Positivism. Our research notes the paradox that both platonism and skepticism start from the same conception of truth that is used to criticize human conduct and the contents in the rules of law. It exposes the legal theory of Ronald Dworkin, for which there is rationality and criteria to criticize besides metaphysical entities. This article begins in the comparison of philosophical ideas to achieve the objective of demonstrating the relevance of political tradition in Dworkin.

  10. The mind electric: Challenges to clinical categories from a person-centred perspective and the possibilities of metaphysics and art for clinician, patient, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2018-06-21

    The paper proposes that frameworks typical to metaphysics and art could be used in clinical treatment in somatic and psychiatric contexts to ensure improved care. The concept of the "body electric" of somatic patients which I introduced in previous work is developed further and paired with the "mind electric" of psychiatric patients. Both are defined as a patient's personally generated metaphysical possibility of being healthy-within-illness which is experientially actualized. Both concepts are used here to explore the alternative and the serious challenges to treatment approaches focused on clinical categories, disease, provision, and promotion of standardized or "black-box" therapies. An argument against the idea implied by the hope for such mass treatments and corresponding overreliance on science, namely, that health comes from fixing and regularizing, is developed based on cultural history and the evidenced fact that personally assumed health, just like art and metaphysics, is transgressive of scientific data, and accommodates the untrue, the impossible or the irregular as actual and normal. Because normality is created only with the help of disorder and from within it for chronic patients, clinicians should offer them the metaphysical care they need to produce and actualize their possibility of irregular normality or their body/mind electric. Better treatments can only be provided when scientific advances will be matched with advances in the humanistic competence of clinicians. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Critica metafizicii şi noua retorică a liberalismului (The critics of metaphysics and the new rethoric of liberalism

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    Mark BUCUCI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Enlightment, the emergence and the prestige of sciences influenced the rhetoric of liberalism. This metaphysical rhetoric, according to Richard Rorty, became an ostacle to liberalism’ efficient marketing . Rorty deconstructs this rhetorical fusion and conceives a new kind of rhetoric for liberalism.

  12. Comparing case-control study for treatment of proximal tibia fractures with a complete metaphyseal component in two centers with different distinct strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berven, Haakon; Brix, Michael; Izadpanah, Kaywan

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare two methods of stabilization for proximal tibia fractures (AO 41) with a complete metaphyseal component, external fixation with the Ilizarov wire frame, and internal fixation with locking plates. METHODS: Patients from two level 1 trauma centers...

  13. Metaphyseal osteomyelitis in children: how often does MRI-documented joint effusion or epiphyseal extension of edema indicate coexisting septic arthritis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallert, Erica K.; Kan, J.H.; Monsalve, Johanna; Zhang, Wei; Bisset, George S.; Rosenfeld, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Joint effusions identified by MRI may accompany osteomyelitis and determining whether the joint effusion is septic or reactive has important implications on patient care. Determine the incidence of epiphyseal marrow edema, joint effusions, perisynovial edema and epiphyseal non-enhancement in the setting of pediatric metaphyseal osteomyelitis and whether this may be used to predict coexisting septic arthritis. Following IRB approval, we retrospectively evaluated children who underwent MRI and orthopedic surgical consultation for suspected musculoskeletal infection between January 2011 and September 2013. Criteria for inclusion in the study were microbiologically/pathologically proven infection, MRI prior to surgical intervention, long bone involvement and age 0-18 years. MRI exams were independently reviewed by two faculty pediatric radiologists to confirm the presence of appendicular metaphyseal osteomyelitis, to evaluate extent of edema, to determine subjective presence of a joint effusion and to assess perisynovial edema and epiphyseal non-enhancement. Any discrepant readings were reviewed in consensus. Charts and operative notes were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. One hundred and three joints with metaphyseal osteomyelitis were identified (mean age: 7.1 years; M:F 1.3:1), of whom 53% (55/103) had joint effusions, and of those, 75% (41/55) had surgically confirmed septic arthritis. The incidence of coexisting septic arthritis was 40% in the setting of epiphyseal edema, 74% in epiphyseal edema and effusion, 75% with perisynovial edema, 76% with epiphyseal non-enhancement and 77% when all four variables were present. Of these, the only statistically significant variable, however, was the presence of a joint effusion with a P-value of <0.0001 via Fisher exact test. Statistical significance for coexisting septic arthritis was also encountered when cases were subdivided into intra-articular vs. extra-articular metaphyses (P

  14. Metaphyseal osteomyelitis in children: how often does MRI-documented joint effusion or epiphyseal extension of edema indicate coexisting septic arthritis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schallert, Erica K.; Kan, J.H.; Monsalve, Johanna; Zhang, Wei; Bisset, George S. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Rosenfeld, Scott [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Joint effusions identified by MRI may accompany osteomyelitis and determining whether the joint effusion is septic or reactive has important implications on patient care. Determine the incidence of epiphyseal marrow edema, joint effusions, perisynovial edema and epiphyseal non-enhancement in the setting of pediatric metaphyseal osteomyelitis and whether this may be used to predict coexisting septic arthritis. Following IRB approval, we retrospectively evaluated children who underwent MRI and orthopedic surgical consultation for suspected musculoskeletal infection between January 2011 and September 2013. Criteria for inclusion in the study were microbiologically/pathologically proven infection, MRI prior to surgical intervention, long bone involvement and age 0-18 years. MRI exams were independently reviewed by two faculty pediatric radiologists to confirm the presence of appendicular metaphyseal osteomyelitis, to evaluate extent of edema, to determine subjective presence of a joint effusion and to assess perisynovial edema and epiphyseal non-enhancement. Any discrepant readings were reviewed in consensus. Charts and operative notes were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. One hundred and three joints with metaphyseal osteomyelitis were identified (mean age: 7.1 years; M:F 1.3:1), of whom 53% (55/103) had joint effusions, and of those, 75% (41/55) had surgically confirmed septic arthritis. The incidence of coexisting septic arthritis was 40% in the setting of epiphyseal edema, 74% in epiphyseal edema and effusion, 75% with perisynovial edema, 76% with epiphyseal non-enhancement and 77% when all four variables were present. Of these, the only statistically significant variable, however, was the presence of a joint effusion with a P-value of <0.0001 via Fisher exact test. Statistical significance for coexisting septic arthritis was also encountered when cases were subdivided into intra-articular vs. extra-articular metaphyses (P

  15. Brachial Plexus Injury in a 6-Year-Old Boy with 100% Displaced Proximal Humeral Metaphyseal Fracture: A Case Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovich, Elizabeth Nora; Howard, James F

    2017-12-01

    Posttraumatic brachial plexopathies can occur following displaced proximal humeral fractures, causing profound functional deficits. Described here is an unusual case of a displaced proximal humeral metaphyseal fracture in a young child. The patient underwent closed reduction and serial casting, but hand weakness and forearm sensory loss persisted. Needle electromyography localized the injury to the mid/proximal arm near the fracture site, resulting in damage to the posterior and medial cords of the brachial plexus with profound involvement of the radial, ulnar, and median nerves and sparing of the axillary nerve. After months of occupational therapy, hand strength improved, with a nearly full return of function. V. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Prolonged states of virtual recovery after atypical pubertal schizophrenic episodes with over-valuation disorders of the "metaphysical intoxication" type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil'zho, A G

    1986-01-01

    Using clinical and follow-up methods of investigation the authors studied a number of patients with juvenile slowly progressive schizophrenia in whom the disease picture in youth was characterized by over-worship disturbances of the "metaphysical intoxication" type which were attended by marked social and occupational disadaptation. A group of patients (n = 25) was identified with a state of practical cure after youth. Three most characteristic patterns of personality changes in these patients were described. The dominant role in their structure was played by manifestations of delay of mental maturation and the syndrome of psychic juvenilism of a dissociated nature. A certain relationship was found between the level and nature of the patients' occupational adaptation and the type of their personality changes. The question is discussed about the determination of the disease stage in such cases. The authors consider them as recovery states with some personality changes which can be ascribed to residual schizophrenia.

  17. [Epilepsy from a metaphysical perspective: an interpretation of the biblical story of the epileptic boy and Raphael's Transfiguration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, D

    1994-01-01

    Raphael's last painting reveals, in the upper half of the picture, Christ's transfiguration on Mount Tabor and, in the lower half, the young boy's epileptic seizure at the foot of the mountain in the presence of the other disciples. Raphael depicts both events, which are told in succession in the Gospels, as if they took place at the same time. By synchronizing both scenes, Raphael demonstrated a significant correspondence between Christ and the epileptic boy which reveals the epileptic seizure as a symbolic representation of a transcendental event. This metaphysical aspect of epilepsy depicted by Raphael can also be found in the corresponding biblical passages. In the Gospels, the metamorphosis caused by the epileptic seizure is used as a simile for Christ's transfiguration through suffering, death and resurrection.

  18. Intramedullary screw fixation with bone autografting to treat proximal fifth metatarsal metaphyseal-diaphyseal fracture in athletes: a case series

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    Tsukada Sachiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed unions or refractures are not rare following surgical treatment for proximal fifth metatarsal metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures. Intramedullary screw fixation with bone autografting has the potential to resolve the issue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of the procedure. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed 15 athletes who underwent surgical treatment for proximal fifth metatarsal metaphyseal-diaphyseal fracture. Surgery involved intramedullary cannulated cancellous screw fixation after curettage of the fracture site, followed by bone autografting. Postoperatively, patients remain non weight-bearing in a splint or cast for two weeks and without immobilization for an additional two weeks. Full weight-bearing was allowed six weeks postoperatively. Running was permitted after radiographic bone union, and return-to-play was approved after gradually increasing the intensity. Results All patients returned to their previous level of athletic competition. Mean times to bone union, initiation of running, and return-to-play were 8.4, 8.8, and 12.1 weeks, respectively. Although no delayed unions or refractures was observed, distal diaphyseal stress fractures at the distal tip of the screw occurred in two patients and a thermal necrosis of skin occurred in one patient. Conclusions There were no delayed unions or refractures among patients after carrying out a procedure in which bone grafts were routinely performed, combined with adequate periods of immobilization and non weight-bearing. These findings suggest that this procedure may be useful option for athletes to assuring return to competition level.

  19. The metaphysics of D-CTCs: On the underlying assumptions of Deutsch's quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    I argue that Deutsch's model for the behavior of systems traveling around closed timelike curves (CTCs) relies implicitly on a substantive metaphysical assumption. Deutsch is employing a version of quantum theory with a significantly supplemented ontology of parallel existent worlds, which differ in kind from the many worlds of the Everett interpretation. Standard Everett does not support the existence of multiple identical copies of the world, which the D-CTC model requires. This has been obscured because he often refers to the branching structure of Everett as a "multiverse", and describes quantum interference by reference to parallel interacting definite worlds. But he admits that this is only an approximation to Everett. The D-CTC model, however, relies crucially on the existence of a multiverse of parallel interacting worlds. Since his model is supplemented by structures that go significantly beyond quantum theory, and play an ineliminable role in its predictions and explanations, it does not represent a quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel.

  20. The Concept of a Neutral Starting Point in Thomistic Metaphysics and its Relationship to the Assumptive Character of Knowledge

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    Piotr Duchliński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how certain Thomists understand the concept of a neutral (i.e. assumption free starting point, and outlines their arguments in favour of it. To be sure, within current epistemology, their position is considered outdated and unpopular: apart from Thomists, nobody would now argue that there is a privileged, assumption free starting point for philosophy. (After all, it is generally thought that any such thing would simply fail to yield determinate results, at least where human cognition or knowledge is concerned. This article, though, poses, and seeks to answer, the question of whether the Thomistic position is intended merely as a methodological commitment, or also as a stage in the pragmatic construction of a metaphysical theory. In the light of a discussion that confronts this with some points from contemporary philosophy of science concerning the theorizing of experience and the assumptive character of scientific knowledge, the author puts forward the following hypothesis as a point of departure for further inquiry: that philosophy itself be understood as a paradigm, in the sense that it be taken to function as a benchmark - a model responsible for organizing human experience as a whole. The considerations presented are of a theoretical-cognitive character, with no claims made regarding the issue of the correct starting point for philosophy.

  1. Relatively High Complication and Revision Rates of the Mayo® Metaphysical Conservative Femoral Stem in Young Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenberg, Tal Frenkel; Warshevski, Yaniv; Gold, Aviram; Shasha, Nadav; Snir, Nimrod; Chechik, Ofir; Dolkart, Oleg; Eilig, Dynai; Herman, Amir; Rath, Ehud; Kramer, Moti; Drexler, Michael

    2018-05-08

    The Mayo metaphysical conservative femoral stem (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana) is a wedge-shaped implant designed to transfer loads proximally, reduce femoral destruction, and enable the preservation of bone stock in the proximal femur. Thus, it is a potentially preferred prosthesis for active, non-elderly patients who may require additional future surgeries. This retrospective case study analyzed the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent total hip replacements with this stem between May 2001 and February 2013. All patients underwent clinical assessment, radiological evaluation for the presence and development of radiolucent lines, and functional assessment (numerical analog scale, Harris hip score, and Short Form-12 questionnaire). Ninety-five hips (79 patients) were available for analysis. The patients' mean age was 43 years (range, 18-64 years), and the mean follow-up was 97 months (range, 26.9-166 months). The postoperative clinical assessments and functional assessments revealed significant improvements. Sixteen patients (20.3%) had 18 orthopedic complications, the most common of which were an intraoperative femoral fracture and implant dislocation requiring revision surgeries in 10 hips (10.5%). Radiological analysis revealed evidence of femoral remodeling in 64 (67.4%) implants, spot welds (neocortex) in 35 (36.8%), and osteolysis in 3 (3.2%). These results suggest that the conservative hip femoral implant has an unacceptable complication rate for non-elderly patients. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Beyond the metaphysical: health-promoting existential mechanisms and their impact on the health status of clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Dean

    2003-09-01

    This paper aims to conceptualize the issues that surround the notion of existential health. It also seeks to establish the impact that existential issues have upon the health of the individual client and how these might explicitly be applied in clinical practice settings. The ability of clients to draw upon their own existential resources as a fundamental part of their health care experience often goes unrecognized in nursing. Whilst existential mechanisms may be theoretically recognized, as a valid aspect of an individual's unique and personal identity, they are not an established part of the health care activity of nurses. Entrenched biomedical frameworks of care delivery and the interchangeable use of metaphysical health states with existential health states in the established literature present particular dilemmas for the acknowledgement of existential health in clients. A review of the literature has been conducted. This account argues that the failure to recognize and assess a client's existential health status represents a major omission on the part of the clinical nurse. These nurses are, in effect, denying their clients the right to exercise and mobilize an important and valuable health resource.

  3. The effects of prostaglandin E2 in growing rats - Increased metaphyseal hard tissue and cortico-endosteal bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Ueno, K.; Deng, Y. P.; Woodbury, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of in vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in bone formation is investigated. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 223-267 g were injected subcutaneously with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg of PGE2-kg daily for 21 days. The processing of the tibiae for observation is described. Radiographs and histomorphometric analyses are also utilized to study bone formation. Body weight, weights of soft tissues and bones morphometry are evaluated. It is observed that PGE2 depressed longitudinal bone growth, increased growth cartilage thickness, decreased degenerative cartilage cell size and cartilage cell production, and significantly increased proximal tibial metaphyseal hard tissue mass. The data reveal that periosteal bone formation is slowed down at higher doses of PGE2 and endosteal bone formation is slightly depressed less than 10 days post injection; however, here is a late increase (10 days after post injection) in endosteal bone formation and in the formation of trabecular bone in the marrow cavity of the tibial shaft. It is noted that the effects of PGE2 on bone formation are similar to the responses of weaning rats to PGE2.

  4. Marionette, Mechanics, Metaphysics, Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    scientific analyses of the marionette as a historical and a thematical phenomenon from the tradistional via the avant-garde to the electronis version......scientific analyses of the marionette as a historical and a thematical phenomenon from the tradistional via the avant-garde to the electronis version...

  5. Metaphysics after Aquinas

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    Moses Aaron T. Angeles

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It is interesting to note that after the death of St. Thomas his mentor, St. Albert the Great, remarked that his student put up an end to everybody's labor, not only in their own time, but even right up to the end of time. This was reported to us by a certain Bartholomew of Capua, protonotary from the Kingdom of Sicily, who was a witness of St. Thomas' canonization process. After the sudden demise of Thomas, Albert, already advanced in age, has assumed the task of defending the integrity of his student as a theologian and philosopher. On his return to Cologne, he wanted that all the works of Thomas read to him in set order, and he concluded his encomia saying that "Brother Thomas had in his writings put an end to everybody's labors right up to the end of the world, and that from now on all further work would be without purpose." Certainly modern readers would question such an assertion. Now that every ideology and systems of thought are under the suspicious eyes of postmodern thinkers, care must be exercised in proclaiming something as final and definite. No wonder such a statement was rarely uttered even within the ranks of the Dominican Friars.

  6. Zabójstwo jako akt metafizyczny. Na marginesie dramatu alberta Camusa 'Kaligula' (CRIME AS A METAPHYSICAL ACT. ABOUT ALBERT CAMUS' DRAMA 'CALIGULA'

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    Ireneusz Ziemiński

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the article is the possibility of a crime as such. The analysis of the Caligula's crime motivation presented by Camus leads to conclusion that Caligula used to kill his dependents not by political or psychological reasons (as revenge for his sister's death, frightening of his own death or desire for eternity. It was not also moral motivation (an attempt to confirm his freedom, to realize absolute evil or to call people for authentic life. The main Caligula's motivation is rather metaphysical experience of his sister's death showing the cruelty of gods (they make people to live only to put them to death. According to Caligula, his own crimes are only imitation of gods to show how cruel and nonhuman the order of world is. The conclusion is that the question about the possibility of crime is incorrect, because the crime is essential part of the order of world.

  7. Necessidade, objetividade e o paradoxo metafísico do conhecimento científico Necessity, objectivity, and the metaphysical paradox of scientific knowledge

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    José Ricardo de C. M. Ayres

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A racionalidade científica moderna, buscando superar a fundamentação metafísica do conhecimento objetivo, toma a experiência do fato particular como a atualização de leis dadas a priori na mente humana ou na natureza, constituindo, paradoxalmente, uma nova e 'intransparente' metafísica. Entre as críticas contemporâneas a esta forma de pensar e fazer ciência, delineia-se uma compreensão construtivista, segundo a qual o fato particular e seu conhecimento objetivo resultam de relações circunstanciais entre o homem e seu mundo. Revisitando alguns dos principais fundadores da ciência ocidental, como Aristóteles, Bacon, Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Newton e Stuart Mill, este ensaio hermenêutico procura explorar a participação do metaconceito de 'necessidade' nessa dialética do conhecimento, interpretando, em termos epistemológicos, seu papel na construção e hipóstase da racionalidade científica moderna.Modern scientific rationality, seeking to move beyond the metaphysical foundations of objective knowledge, takes the experience of a particular fact to be the actual expression of prior laws of the human mind or of nature, thereby paradoxically constituting a new, 'invisible' metaphysics. Among contemporary critiques of this way of 'thinking and doing science', a constructivist understanding is gaining outline; according to this conception, a particular fact and objective knowledge thereof derive from circumstantial relations between human beings and their world. Revisiting some of the main founders of Western science, such as Aristotle, Bacon, Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Newton, and Stuart Mill, this hermeneutic essay explores the participation of the meta-concept of 'necessity' within this dialectic of knowledge and, in epistemological terms, interprets its role in the construction and hypostatization of modern scientific rationality.

  8. A prospective, randomised trial comparing closed intramedullary nailing with percutaneous plating in the treatment of distal metaphyseal fractures of the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J J; Tang, N; Yang, H L; Tang, T S

    2010-07-01

    We compared the outcome of closed intramedullary nailing with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis using a percutaneous locked compression plate in patients with a distal metaphyseal fracture in a prospective study. A total of 85 patients were randomised to operative stabilisation either by a closed intramedullary nail (44) or by minimally invasive osteosynthesis with a compression plate (41). Pre-operative variables included the patients' age and the side and pattern of the fracture. Peri-operative variables were the operating time and the radiation time. Postoperative variables were wound problems, the time to union of the fracture, the functional American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle surgery score and removal of hardware. We found no significant difference in the pre-operative variables or in the time to union in the two groups. However, the mean radiation time and operating time were significantly longer in the locked compression plate group (3.0 vs 2.12 minutes, p fractures had united. Patients who had intramedullary nailing had a higher mean pain score (40 = no pain, 0 = severe pain), [corrected] but better function, alignment and total American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle surgery scores, although the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.234, p = 0.157, p = 0.897, p = 0.177 respectively). Three (6.8%) patients in the intramedullary nailing group and six (14.6%) in the locked compression plate group showed delayed wound healing, and 37 (84.1%) in the former group and 38 (92.7%) in the latter group expressed a wish to have the implant removed. We conclude that both closed intramedullary nailing and a percutaneous locked compression plate can be used safely to treat Orthopaedic Trauma Association type-43A distal metaphyseal fractures of the tibia. However, closed intramedullary nailing has the advantage of a shorter operating and radiation time and easier removal of the implant. We therefore prefer closed intramedullary nailing for patients with

  9. [Early diagnosis, variety of outcomes and prognosis of juvenile schizophrenia with over-value disorders of the "metaphysical intoxication" type onset (results of a late follow-up study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsul'kovskaia, M Ia; Izvol'skiĭ, S A; Bol'zho, A G; Kopeĭko, G I

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of follow-up findings about juvenile schizophrenia first expressed in superworship manifestations according to the type of metaphysical intoxication (98 observations), the authors established that most frequently these cases were characterized by a torpid course of the disease in the framework of slowly progressing juvenile schizophrenia. There was a high rate of favourable outcomes at the level of "clinical recovery" (in 42.5%). Favourable prognostic signs were as follows: the complete nature of the clinical picture of the syndrome, its similarity to pubertal crisis manifestations, the absence in its structure of other positive disturbances and a number of specific features of the premorbid picture. The authors determined the pattern of correlation between the typological characteristics of the state of juvenile metaphysical intoxication and the outcome of the disease, peculiarities of manifestations of this phenomenon at the initial stage of psychotic forms of juvenile schizophrenia, as well as distinctive features of superworship formations according to the type of juvenile metaphysical intoxication observed in the framework of pubertal decompensation in schizoid psychopathies.

  10. The fate of the hip in spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia: clinical and radiological evaluation of adults with SEMD Handigodu type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddesh, N.D.; Shah, Hitesh; Joseph, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to document the fate of the hip with reference to its structure and function in patients with spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia tarda Handigodu type (SEMD HG ). Radiographs of 271 adult patients with SEMD HG were studied to identify the pattern of long-term sequelae in the hips. Several measurements of the proximal femur and acetabulum were made to quantify morphological alterations in the hip. Fifty-four adult patients were examined and administered a questionnaire to evaluate the extent of disability attributable to the hips. Three patterns of changes in the hips were noted: 35% had acetabular protrusio, 33% had subluxation of the hip, and 32% had no protrusio or subluxation. Distinctly different anthropometric measurements and dimensional alterations around the hip were noted in these three patterns. Patients with protrusio were relatively tall while those with subluxation were the shortest. All the patients had developed degenerative arthritis of the hips by the fourth decade of life irrespective of the pattern of hip involvement. The reduction in the range of hip motion and fixed deformities were most severe in patients with protrusio. All the patients had significant disability and very low functional hip scores. Degenerative arthritis of the hip develops in the majority of patients with SEMD HG ; the symptoms are severe enough to warrant reconstructive surgery by the fourth decade of life. Protrusio or subluxation develops in a third of the patients each; both these complications will influence the surgical approach if total hip arthroplasty is planned. (orig.)

  11. From the "metaphysics of the individual" to the critique of society: on the practical significance of Michel Henry's phenomenology of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigl, Michael

    This essay explores the practical significance of Michel Henry's "material phenomenology." Commencing with an exposition of his most basic philosophical intuition, i.e., his insight that transcendental affectivity is the primordial mode of revelation of our selfhood, the essay then brings to light how this intuition also establishes our relation to both the world and others. Animated by a radical form of the phenomenological reduction, Henry's material phenomenology brackets the exterior world in a bid to reach the concrete interior transcendental experience at the base of all exteriority. The essay argues that this "counter reduction," designed as a practical orientation to the world, suspends all traditional parameters of onto(theo)logical individuation in order to rethink subjectivity in terms of its transcendental corporeality, i.e., in terms of the invisible display of "affective flesh." The development of this "metaphysics of the individual" anchors his "practical philosophy" as he developed it-under shifting accents-throughout his oeuvre. In particular, the essay brings into focus Henry's reflections on modernity, the industry of mass culture and their "barbaric" movements. The essay briefly puts these cultural and political areas of Henry's of thinking into contact with his late "theological turn," i.e., his Christological account of Life and the (inter)subjective self-realization to which it gives rise.

  12. LAS CRÍTICAS DE ARISTÓTELES A PLATÓN EN METAFÍSICA I, 9 ARISTOTLE’S CRITICISMS OF PLATO IN METAPHYSICS I, 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gabriela Di Camillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O recurso à exposição crítica das doutrinas anteriores é um procedimento metodológico usual em Aristóteles. Mas a característica distintiva do Livro I da Metafísica é que, ao invés de estabelecer uma nova doutrina, o exame dos predecessores serve para confirmar os próprios conceitos aristotélicos, os quais ele usa para avaliar os êxitos e os erros das doutrinas analisadas. Essa imposição de conceitos próprios lhe valeu a acusação de ter uma compreensão histórica distorcida. Com a análise detalhada das críticas da teoria platônica das Idéias na Metafísica I, 9, pretendemos mostrar: a que as críticas de manipulação e distorção das opiniões dos seus antecessores ofuscam o grau em que as suas próprias posições emergem de uma análise crítica do pensamento anterior; e b que a imposição de conceitos próprios não é uma distorção, mas uma proposta de solução para os problemas que as teorias anteriores deixaram sem solução.

    The use of critical exposition of previous doctrines is a methodological procedure usual in Aristotle. But the distinctive characteristic of Book I of the Metaphysics is that, rather than to establish a new doctrine, a review of  predecessors serves to confirm the own concepts to be used in the evaluation of the doctrines examined. This imposition of own terms has cost him the charge of distorting historical understanding. With the detailed analysis of the criticisms of Plato's theory of Ideas in Metaphysics I, 9, we intend to show a that the criticism of manipulation and distortion of his predecessors' views overshadow the degree to which Aristotle's own positions emerge from a critical review of previous thought and b that the

  13. The fate of the hip in spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia: clinical and radiological evaluation of adults with SEMD Handigodu type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddesh, N.D.; Shah, Hitesh; Joseph, Benjamin [Kasturba Medical College, Paediatric Orthopaedic Service, Manipal, Karnataka State (India)

    2012-08-15

    This study was undertaken to document the fate of the hip with reference to its structure and function in patients with spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia tarda Handigodu type (SEMD{sub HG}). Radiographs of 271 adult patients with SEMD{sub HG} were studied to identify the pattern of long-term sequelae in the hips. Several measurements of the proximal femur and acetabulum were made to quantify morphological alterations in the hip. Fifty-four adult patients were examined and administered a questionnaire to evaluate the extent of disability attributable to the hips. Three patterns of changes in the hips were noted: 35% had acetabular protrusio, 33% had subluxation of the hip, and 32% had no protrusio or subluxation. Distinctly different anthropometric measurements and dimensional alterations around the hip were noted in these three patterns. Patients with protrusio were relatively tall while those with subluxation were the shortest. All the patients had developed degenerative arthritis of the hips by the fourth decade of life irrespective of the pattern of hip involvement. The reduction in the range of hip motion and fixed deformities were most severe in patients with protrusio. All the patients had significant disability and very low functional hip scores. Degenerative arthritis of the hip develops in the majority of patients with SEMD{sub HG}; the symptoms are severe enough to warrant reconstructive surgery by the fourth decade of life. Protrusio or subluxation develops in a third of the patients each; both these complications will influence the surgical approach if total hip arthroplasty is planned. (orig.)

  14. Absolute becoming, relational becoming and the arrow of time: Some non-conventional remarks on the relationship between physics and metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorato, Mauro

    The literature on the compatibility between the time of our experience-characterized by passage or becoming-and time as is represented within spacetime theories has been affected by a persistent failure to get a clear grasp of the notion of becoming, both in its relation to an ontology of events "spread" in a four-dimensional manifold, and in relation to temporally asymmetric physical processes. In the first part of my paper I try to remedy this situation by offering what I consider a clear and faithful explication of becoming, valid independently of the particular spacetime setting in which we operate. Along the way, I will show why the metaphysical debate between the so-called "presentists" and "eternalists" is completely irrelevant to the question of becoming, as the debate itself is generated by a failure to distinguish between a tensed and a tenseless sense of "existence". After a much needed distinction between absolute and relational becoming, I then show in what sense classical (non-quantum) spacetime physics presupposes both types of becoming, for the simple reason that spacetime physics presupposes an ontology of (timelike-separated) events. As a consequence, not only does it turn out that using physics to try to provide empirical evidence for the existence of becoming amounts to putting the cart before the horses, but also that the order imposed by "the arrow of becoming" is more fundamental than any other physical arrow of time, despite the fact that becoming cannot be used to explain why entropy grows, or retarded electromagnetic radiation prevails versus advanced radiation.

  15. Filling Open Screw Holes in the Area of Metaphyseal Comminution Does Not Affect Fatigue Life of the Synthes Variable Angle Distal Femoral Locking Plate in the AO/OTA 33-A3 Fracture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Luis; Collon, Kevin; Alhandi, Ali; Kaimrajh, David; Varon, Maria; Latta, Loren; Vilella, Fernando

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical effect of filling locking variable angle (VA) screw holes at the area of metaphyseal fracture comminution in a Sawbones® (Sawbones USA, Vashon, Washington) model (AO/OTA 33A-3 fracture) using a Synthes VA locking compression plate (LCP) (Depuy Synthes, Warsaw, Indiana). Seven Sawbones® femur models had a Synthes VA-LCP placed as indicated by the manufacturers technique. A 4cm osteotomy was then created to simulate an AO/OTA 33-A3 femoral fracture pattern with metaphyseal comminution. The control group consisted of four constructs in which the open screw holes at the area of comminution were left unfilled; the experimental group consisted of three constructs in which the VA screw holes were filled with locking screws. One of the control constructs was statically loaded to failure at a rate of 5mm/min. A value equal to 75% of the ultimate load to failure was used as the loading force for fatigue testing of 250,000 cycles at 3Hz. Cycles to failure was recorded for each construct and averages were compared between groups. The average number of cycles to failure in the control and experimental groups were 37524±8187 and 43304±23835, respectively (p=0.72). No significant difference was observed with respect to cycles to failure or mechanism of failure between groups. In all constructs in both the control and experimental groups, plate failure reproducibly occurred with cracks through the variable angle holes in the area of bridged comminution. The Synthes VA-LCP in a simulated AO/OTA 33-A3 comminuted metaphyseal femoral fracture fails in a reproducible manner at the area of comminution through the "honeycomb" VA screw holes. Filling open VA screw holes at the site of comminution with locking screws does not increase fatigue life of the Synthes VA-LCP in a simulated AO/OTA 33-A3 distal femoral fracture. Further studies are necessary to determine whether use of this particular plate is contraindicated when bridging

  16. Energy: Between Physics and Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2000-01-01

    The general concept of energy is somewhat unclear as long as it is confined to physics since every chapter of it defines its own particular concept of energy. The general concept can be elucidated in terms of the hypergeneral concepts of concrete things and changeability. Concludes that physicists and philosophers can learn from one another.…

  17. Defining disability: metaphysical not political.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2013-08-01

    Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British social model, unlike an interactional approach, is unable to provide a realistic account of the experience of disability, and subsequently, unable to be properly utilized to ensure justice for people with disabilities.

  18. The Metaphysics of Economic Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massin Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What are economic exchanges? The received view has it that exchanges are mutual transfers of goods motivated by inverse valuations thereof. As a corollary, the standard approach treats exchanges of services as a subspecies of exchanges of goods. We raise two objections against this standard approach. First, it is incomplete, as it fails to take into account, among other things, the offers and acceptances that lie at the core of even the simplest cases of exchanges. Second, it ultimately fails to generalize to exchanges of services, in which neither inverse preferences nor mutual transfers hold true. We propose an alternative definition of exchanges, which treats exchanges of goods as a special case of exchanges of services and which builds in offers and acceptances. According to this theory: (i The valuations motivating exchanges are propositional and convergent rather than objectual and inverse; (ii All exchanges of goods involve exchanges of services/actions, but not the reverse; (iii Offers and acceptances, together with the contractual obligations and claims they bring about, lie at the heart of all cases of exchange.

  19. Genetic Heterogeneity in Spondylo- epi- metaphyseal Dysplasias

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rme

    Human Genetics & Genome Research Division, National Research Centre and3 ... assessment, IQ, echocardiography, abdominopelvic ultrasound, serum level of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline ..... the brain showed cortical brain atrophy.

  20. Conceptual Relativity Meets Realism in Metaphysics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2016), s. 23-37 E-ISSN 1849-0514 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Hilary Putnam * conceptual relativity * realism * optional languages Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology https://www.ffri.hr/phil/casopis/content.html

  1. Metaphysics and mathematics: Perspectives on reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon J. Kühn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The essence of number was regarded by the ancient Greeks as the root cause of the existence of the universe, but it was only towards the end of the 19th century that mathematicians initiated an in-depth study of the nature of numbers. The resulting unavoidable actuality of infinities in the number system led mathematicians to rigorously investigate the foundations of mathematics. The formalist approach to establish mathematical proof was found to be inconclusive: Gödel showed that there existed true propositions that could not be proved to be true within the natural number universe. This result weighed heavily on proposals in the mid-20th century for digital models of the universe, inspired by the emergence of the programmable digital computer, giving rise to the branch of philosophy recognised as digital philosophy. In this article, the models of the universe presented by physicists, mathematicians and theoretical computer scientists are reviewed and their relation to the natural numbers is investigated. A quantum theory view that at the deepest level time and space may be discrete suggests a profound relation between natural numbers and reality of the cosmos. The conclusion is that our perception of reality may ultimately be traced to the ontology and epistemology of the natural numbers.

  2. The Metaphysical Case against Luck Egalitarianism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.A. van der Deijl (Willem)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractLuck egalitarianism is the name of a group of theories of justice that subscribe to the idea that a just society compensates for brute luck, but does not compensate for bad outcomes that fall under the responsibility of the agent himself. The theory has gained much popularity over the

  3. THE METAPHYSICS MARKET 1 MERCHANDIZING LANGUAGE AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for no purpose other than to provoke people in the pub, to ... Indeed, in the long run it is far more distressing ' ..... ties such as position in space and time, size, shape, duration, mass ..... Blade turned out all wrong. ..... without (c) being reducible to these properties. ... James and Dewey, and the operationism of Bridgman), of.

  4. The Market Order as Metaphysical Loot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism through which the ideology of market capitalism emerged has mostly been interpreted as part of an incremental, inevitable, and thus legitimate ousting of theological concepts from a public sphere that became organized around the principles of the Enlightenment as a secular project...... for the mobilization of individual choice as a principle of social organization. The same process was responsible for underpinning the often unjust and illiberal market order with the vision of the world as an ordered and benign kosmos that emerged spontaneously from chaos....

  5. The physics and metaphysics of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the current situation in the philosophy of time, partly to investigate Michael Dummett’s complaint that the philosophy of physics has become too specialized and technical to be able to communicate with mainstream philosophy. We conclude that the situation in this case is different: there

  6. A metaphysical journey in a comatose state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, R

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about the intense experience of being in the hospital in a comatose state resulting from an aneurysm with a massive brain hemorrhage and two subsequent surgeries. The event begins with a premonition of what will happen from a street name. The experience of brain surgeries, along with the fine care of the nurses, left me with a truly memorable impression. This paper describes the various feelings and strong emotions that I experienced while in a comatose state. It suggests that a patient in a comatose state can exist in a deep state of emotions close to ecstasy. The paper concludes with gratefulness to all the people who followed me step by step on this journey.

  7. Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    William James's overtly philosophical work may be more continuous with his psychological work than is sometimes thought. His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian psychology: that direct experience is primary and has to be taken at face value. An examination of James's theory of space perception suggests that, even in his early work, he presupposed the primacy of direct experience, and that later changes in his account of space perception can be understood as making his view more consistent with this presupposition. In his earlier view of space perception, James argued that sensations were directly experienced as spatial, though he accepted that spatial relations between sensations may be constructed by higher order thought. In his later view, however, James argued that spatial relations were just as directly experienced as sensations. The work of T. H. Green may have prompted James to recognize the full consequence of his ideas and to realize that taking experience at face value required that spatial relations be thought of as intrinsic to experience rather than the result of intellectual construction.

  8. A metaphysical remark on variational principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautman, A. [Inst. of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw Univ., Warsaw (Poland)]|[Laboratorio Interdisciplinare Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-04-01

    In theoretical physics, one often considers symmetries which change a Lagrangian by a total divergence. Such transformations preserve the equations of motion and lead to conservation laws. It is argued here, on the basis of a few examples, that the appearance of such a divergence is an indication that one is dealing with some approximation or a limiting case of a `better` theory, in which the corresponding, possibly modified, symmetries fully preserve the action integral. These suggestions are ``meta- physical`` in the sense that they cannot be tested by physical experiments. (author)

  9. Measurement of Workload: Physics, Psychophysics, and Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper reviews the results of two experiments in which workload analysis was conducted based upon performance measures, brain evoked potentials and magnitude estimations of subjective load. The three types of measures were jointly applied to the description of the behavior of subjects in a wide battery of experimental tasks. Data analysis shows both instances of association and dissociation between types of measures. A general conceptual framework and methodological guidelines are proposed to account for these findings.

  10. Ape metaphysics: object individuation without language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natacha; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2008-02-01

    Developmental research suggests that whereas very young infants individuate objects purely on spatiotemporal grounds, from (at latest) around 1 year of age children are capable of individuating objects according to the kind they belong to and the properties they instantiate. As the latter ability has been found to correlate with language, some have speculated whether it might be essentially language dependent and therefore uniquely human. Existing studies with non-human primates seem to speak against this hypothesis, but fail to present conclusive evidence due to methodological shortcomings. In the present experiments we set out to test non-linguistic object individuation in three great ape species with a refined manual search methodology. Experiment 1 tested for spatiotemporal object individuation: Subjects saw 1 or 2 objects simultaneously being placed inside a box in which they could reach, and then in both conditions only found 1 object. After retrieval of the 1 object, subjects reached again significantly more often when they had seen 2 than when they had seen 1 object. Experiment 2 tested for object individuation according to property/kind information only: Subjects saw 1 object being placed inside the box, and then either found that object (expected) or an object of a different kind (unexpected). Analogously to Experiment 1, after retrieval of the 1 object, subjects reached again significantly more often in the unexpected than in the expected condition. These results thus confirm previous findings suggesting that individuating objects according to their property/kind is neither uniquely human nor essentially language dependent. It remains to be seen, however, whether this kind of object individuation requires sortal concepts as human linguistic thinkers use them, or whether some simpler form of tracking properties is sufficient.

  11. "Humanitas", Metaphysics and Modern Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    There is a new myth of the heterogeneous that is reducing the concept of humanity to a sinful enlightenment. In this article I investigate the contribution that a renewed understanding of liberal arts education might offer for the idea of a humanist education and for the concept of humanity; and this at a time when not only the concept of humanity…

  12. The metaphysical foundation of morality in the Twelver's Shiite الأسس الميتافيزيقية للأخلاق لدى الشيعة الامامية

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Mohammed Reza Al - Hakim محمد علي محمد رضا الحكيم

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The research revolves around the moral values in the Twelver's Shiite Islamic thought , which we can touch a tendency to rational thinking imprinted in this thought in general , and for the subject of ethics in particular, when acknowledge that deeds have their self-values, despite of the Islamic view, and that the mind can grasp them, and can judge on the deed whether its good , which it will be praised , or bad, which it will be condemn. Since the research focuses on the metaphysical foundations of ethics for a religious thought, we must go back to the origins of belief which it is based on, and they are five: monotheism, justice, prophethood, imamate, resurrection day, and the disclosure of their contents and ethical implications.

  13. O darwinismo e o sagrado na segunda metade do século XIX: alguns aspectos ideológicos e metafísicos do debate Darwinism and "the sacred" during the second half of the 19 th century: some ideological and metaphysical features of the debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanma Sánchez Arteaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa alguns aspectos ideológicos e metafísicos da transformação do imaginário ocidental sobre a origem da espécie humana - a velha questão, "quem somos?", respondida de formas diversas pelo cristianismo e pela biologia evolutiva - na segunda metade do século XIX. Nesse período passa-se do predomínio da antropogênese cristã ao das explicações evolucionistas. Analisa-se a confrontação histórica que teve lugar, nesse período, entre alguns dos principais defensores científicos do evolucionismo materialista - Haeckel, Clémence Royer e Huxley - e os defensores de uma antropologia anti-evolucionista e cristã. Analisam-se brevemente os pontos principais da crítica de Darwin à religião e algumas similitudes e discrepâncias de sua crítica ao pensamento religioso com relação à realizada por Marx no mesmo período. Determinados aspectos ideológico-metafísicos foram componentes essenciais do discurso darwinista na sua luta para se impor às narrativas do cristianismo sobre a origem do ser humano.This paper analyzes some of the ideological and metaphysical features of the historical transformation of Western imaginary on human origins, during the second half of 19th Century. In this period, predominance of the Christian Natural Theology accounts about anthropogenesis gave place to a new paradigm, based on evolutionary biological explanations. We thus analyze the historical confrontation that took place between prominent materialistic scientists - Haeckel, Royer, Huxley - defending evolutionary theories, on one hand, and advocates of a non-evolutionist anthropology linked to Christian believe in Creation, on the other. This paper analyzes the main features of Darwin's criticism of religious thought, based on naturalistic basis, and presents some similarities and differences with the critique of religion made by Marx in the same period. Darwinism included some metaphysical and ideological elements as essential parts of

  14. Humanities’ Metaphysical Underpinnings of Late Frontier Scientific Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibiades Malapi-Nelson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The behavior/structure methodological dichotomy as locus of scientific inquiry is closely related to the issue of modeling and theory change in scientific explanation. Given that the traditional tension between structure and behavior in scientific modeling is likely here to stay, considering the relevant precedents in the history of ideas could help us better understand this theoretical struggle. This better understanding might open up unforeseen possibilities and new instantiations, particularly in what concerns the proposed technological modification of the human condition. The sequential structure of this paper is twofold. The contribution of three philosophers better known in the humanities than in the study of science proper are laid out. The key theoretical notions interweaving the whole narrative are those of mechanization, constructability and simulation. They shall provide the conceptual bridge between these classical thinkers and the following section. Here, a panoramic view of three significant experimental approaches in contemporary scientific research is displayed, suggesting that their undisclosed ontological premises have deep roots in the Western tradition of the humanities. This ontological lock between core humanist ideals and late research in biology and nanoscience is ultimately suggested as responsible for pervasively altering what is canonically understood as “human”.

  15. Particle metaphysics. A critical account of subatomic reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenburg, B.

    2007-01-01

    The empirical successes of atomic, nuclear, and particle physics have not reduced -- and may never fully resolve -- the philosophical controversies about the inner constitution of matter. This book examines these debates by exploring the particle concept in physics. Are the particles of modern physics ''real'' or are they fictitious entities, their existence deduced merely by the careless application of abstract theories? Or are the philosophers involved in the debate about ''scientific realism'' dedicating themselves to a problem that has long been solved by physicists? Studies of the experimental basis and theoretical relevance of the particle concept reveal that these questions are far from easy to answer, because, since the introduction of quantum theory, physical science no longer possesses a single unambiguous particle concept. All those interested in the ''true meaning'' of such physical concepts will find this book informative and thought provoking. It is written at a level accessible to scholars, students and teachers of science and philosophy. (orig.)

  16. Rosmini's metaphysical evidence for the existence of God | Swartz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmini is of the opinion that the soul consists of both a bodily (natural) and a godly component. Both components unite in humankind. In Rosmini's cosmology, humankind is viewed in relation to God and the world (cosmos). Cosmology cannot be comprehensively explained without linking ontology and theology, ...

  17. Heidegger and Levinas: Metaphysics, Ontology and the Horizon of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Already in his earlier works Levinas proposes a distinct phenomenological project which takes into consideration the radicality of the other and otherness by questioning intentionality and the validity of intersubjectivity within intentional consciousness. His move “towards Heidegger and against Husserl” was due primarily to ...

  18. Heidegger and Levinas: Metaphysics, Ontology and the Horizon of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    on reading intersubjective relations with the Other which strongly contrasts with the. Heideggerian .... Comprehension would be a satisfaction of the desirable; as such, it is ..... Other must latch onto 'empathy' as that act that is supposed to ...

  19. Food in the Metaphysical Orders: Gender, Race, and the Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Borghini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By looking at human practices around food, the paper brings novel evidence linking the social constructionist and the naturalist theories of gender, race, and the family, evidence that is based on the analysis of developmental trajectories. The argument rests on two main theoretical claims: (i unlike evolutionary explanations, developmental trajectories can play a decisive role in exhibiting the biological underpinnings of kinds related to gender, race, and family; (ii food constitutes a point of convergence between constructionist and naturalist perspectives because it embeds practices of particular significance for establishing identities of gender, race, and family that, at the same time, are rooted on skills and habits acquired through specific developmental patterns. The paper illustrates (i and (ii via two case studies involving women hunters and the diet of the Obamas. The latter also suggests that kinds associated to gender, race, and family are entangled.

  20. Metaphysics methods development for high temperature gas cooled reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seker, V.; Downar, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    Gas cooled reactors have been characterized as one of the most promising nuclear reactor concepts in the Generation-IV technology road map. Considerable research has been performed on the design and safety analysis of these reactors. However, the calculational tools being used to perform these analyses are not state-of-the-art and are not capable of performing detailed three-dimensional analyses. This paper presents the results of an effort to develop an improved thermal-hydraulic solver for the pebble bed type high temperature gas cooled reactors. The solution method is based on the porous medium approach and the momentum equation including the modified Ergun's resistance model for pebble bed is solved in three-dimensional geometry. The heat transfer in the pebble bed is modeled considering the local thermal non-equilibrium between the solid and gas, which results in two separate energy equations for each medium. The effective thermal conductivity of the pebble-bed can be calculated both from Zehner-Schluender and Robold correlations. Both the fluid flow and the heat transfer are modeled in three dimensional cylindrical coordinates and can be solved in steady-state and time dependent. The spatial discretization is performed using the finite volume method and the theta-method is used in the temporal discretization. A preliminary verification was performed by comparing the results with the experiments conducted at the SANA test facility. This facility is located at the Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology (ISR), Julich, Germany. Various experimental cases are modeled and good agreement in the gas and solid temperatures is observed. An on-going effort is to model the control rod ejection scenarios as described in the OECD/NEA/NSC PBMR-400 benchmark problem. In order to perform these analyses PARCS reactor simulator code will be coupled with the new thermal-hydraulic solver. Furthermore, some of the other anticipated accident scenarios in the benchmark require full three dimensional modeling and will be analyzed to include the malfunctioning of one of the de-fueling chutes and blockage of the helium flow channels in the side reflector at the PBMR-400 model

  1. Meaning in Life and the Metaphysics of Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    2017-01-01

    According to subjectivist views about a meaningful life, one's life is meaningful in virtue of desire satisfaction or feelings of fulfilment. Standard counterexamples consist of satisfaction found through trivial or immoral tasks. In response to such examples, many philosophers require that the

  2. Metaphysical and value underpinnings of traditional medicine in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omonzejele, Peter F; Maduka, Chukwugozie

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the extent to which recourse to traditional healers depended on biometric variables; ways of knowing in good time what ailments were more likely to be better handled by traditional healers; rationale behind traditional healing methodologies. On the whole, four research questions were engaged. The sample for the study included residents in urban (Benin City) and rural (Ehime Mbano) communities in Nigeria. The instruments comprised of two questionnaires. The traditional healers were also interviewed in addition. The findings of the research included the following: in both rural and urban areas, women and more elderly persons had more recourse than other groups to traditional medicine; Christians, less educated persons, self-employed persons and women affirmed most strongly to the efficacy of traditional medicine over Western medicine with respect to certain ailments; ways for averting spiritual illnesses included obeying instructions from ancestors and offering regular sacrifices to the gods; methods used by traditional healers to determine whether an ailment was "spiritual" or as a result of home problems included diagnosis linked to divination, interpretation of dreams particularly those involving visits by ancestors, interpretation of nightmares and omens such as the appearance of owls; methods for curing patients included use of herbs particularly those believed to have magical powers, offering of sacrifices, use of incantations and wearing of protective medicine.

  3. The search for a metaphysical entity in modern drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborha Roos

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a thirst which all the fountains of the earth cannot quench. Each of these mysterious needs is one side of aperimeter whose complete figure, when we finally perceive it, has one name: GOD" (Bogardt, 1965. In the twentieth cen­ tury man finally murdered God and found himself ‘ left to live in a world hopeless, forlorn, desperate, frustrated, full of agony .... without an answer to the basic human questions”. When did this modern malaise start? In how far is this devastating new truth of nothingness reflected in the arts?

  4. Localizationism to neuroplasticity---the evolution of metaphysical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth; Mahajan, S N; Diwan, S K

    2012-09-01

    Neuroplasticity (also referred to as brain plasticity, cortical plasticity or cortical re-mapping) is the changing of neurons, organization of their networks, and their function via new experiences. The brain consists of nerve cells or neurons and glial cells which are interconnected, and learning may happen through changing of the strength of the connections between neurons, by adding or removing connections, or by adding new cells. "Plasticity" relates to learning by adding or removing connections, or adding cells. Contrary to the traditional belief of neurolocalizationism, which states that each region of brain is dedicated for a particular type of activity, neuroplasticity has struggled a long way and has created a safe niche in the neuroscientific hall of honor. Salute to the neuroplasticians for their efforts to revolutionize the doctrine of neurology for the better understanding of the remarkable powers of brain. This article is a brief attempt to fathom the mysterious and scientific ways of neuroplasticity.

  5. Neither metaphysical dichotomy nor pure identity: clarifying the emergentist creed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartenaer, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Emergentism is often misleadingly described as a monolithic "third way" between radical monism and pluralism. In the particular case of biology, for example, emergentism is perceived as a middle course between mechanicism and vitalism. In the present paper I propose to show that the conceptual landscape between monism and pluralism is more complex than this classical picture suggests. On the basis of two successive analyses-distinguishing three forms of tension between monism and pluralism and a distinction between derivational and functional reduction-I define three different versions of emergentism that can be considered as consistent middle courses between monism and pluralism (respectively theoretical, explanatory and causal emergence). I then emphasise the advantage of this taxonomy of the concepts of emergence by applying the results of my analysis to the historical controversy that pertains to the relationship between life and matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is Society Capable of Learning? Beyond a Metaphysical Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ya-hui

    2016-01-01

    There is an assumption that any contemporary society should become a learning society to maintain stability in the face of change. Although proponents and policymakers take for granted that a society has the ability to learn, can this idea be defended? There is a problem in determining exactly what is meant by a learning society that learns. One…

  7. Mirror neurons: Enigma of the metaphysical modular brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth

    2012-07-01

    Mirror neurons are one of the most important discoveries in the last decade of neuroscience. These are a variety of visuospatial neurons which indicate fundamentally about human social interaction. Essentially, mirror neurons respond to actions that we observe in others. The interesting part is that mirror neurons fire in the same way when we actually recreate that action ourselves. Apart from imitation, they are responsible for myriad of other sophisticated human behavior and thought processes. Defects in the mirror neuron system are being linked to disorders like autism. This review is a brief introduction to the neurons that shaped our civilization.

  8. The "Spiritual Handshake": Toward a Metaphysical Sustainability Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2007-01-01

    Is it feasible and appropriate to develop a sustainability metrics which captures cosmological-spiritual dimensions of un/sustainability? Departing from the supposition that the crisis of unsustainability is a crisis of worldview and misguided cosmology which needs redirection on a cultural and global scale, this essay introduces the notion of a…

  9. Social Darwinism, Scientific Racism, and the Metaphysics of Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Rutledge M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that science is often used as a justification to propose, project, and enact racist social policies. The philosophy of Social Darwinism is reviewed, and its assumptions about race and human abilities is discussed. The consequences of scientific racism for dominant groups are analyzed. (GR)

  10. THE CONCEPT OF SENCE IN THE WORLD, METAPHYSICS AND SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sicinski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of objective sense is commonly used in various contexts, and is also frequently misused. It has been often criticised in the context of natural sciences during the last 200 years - the period of positivistically oriented science. In the ancient Greek philosophy the problem of Nature possessing its own sense was stressed, and from the problem the first germs of science started in the Ionic and Pythagorean schools. Contrary to that, Aristotelean approach initiated the positivist tradition which banned from science the question of Nature as possessing an internal sense, and the scholastics introduced a concept of Nature's sense being not intrinsic but granted to it by the divine action. The mathematisation of physics caused that the the divine action started to be interpreted as "mathematical", and in consequence, the sense of Nature was seen as expressed by mathematics. Later on, this mathematically expressed sense of Nature, as seen in physical theories, started to be perceived as independent from God and having not much to as supernatural: inside the mathematical science there was no place for any anthropomorphic Creators.Recently, however when in the newest physics the mathematical structures have already been perceived not only as a language but also as a kind of ultimate reality, a place for quasi-religious feeling of mystery hidden in these structures has been welcome. It means that within the field of modern physical theories there is no place for the traditional religious concepts, but there is a place for a kind of mystics of objective mathematics in the Pythagorean style, related to the modern "new spirituality" mysticism.The situation is completely different in the area of less mathematised branches like biology. The tensions between science and religion are strong there, and the alternative is as follows: traditional religiousness versus traditional atheism, but not a neutral science separated from religion versus a non-traditional mysticism of the mathematics beings united with nature, as it is in the case of newest physics. So, the biologist who are not ready to accept the popular tradition notion of God directly interfering with nature, e.g. creating the phenomenon of life or man, are ready to accept the old-fashioned "scientific" atheism. That is why the dialogue science and religion is rather difficult in relation to biology, despite being so fruitful in relation to physics and cosmology.

  11. The Metaphysical and Ontological Symbolism of Total Gravitational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having laid a firm foundation in SPACETIME for a detailed analysis of total gravitational collapse, by linking Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR) to the General Theory (GTR) in the context of the Quantum Principle and within the all-embracing framework of GUT (the Grande Unification Theory), we proceed with an ...

  12. Particle metaphysics. A critical account of subatomic reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenburg, B. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Philosophie

    2007-07-01

    The empirical successes of atomic, nuclear, and particle physics have not reduced -- and may never fully resolve -- the philosophical controversies about the inner constitution of matter. This book examines these debates by exploring the particle concept in physics. Are the particles of modern physics ''real'' or are they fictitious entities, their existence deduced merely by the careless application of abstract theories? Or are the philosophers involved in the debate about ''scientific realism'' dedicating themselves to a problem that has long been solved by physicists? Studies of the experimental basis and theoretical relevance of the particle concept reveal that these questions are far from easy to answer, because, since the introduction of quantum theory, physical science no longer possesses a single unambiguous particle concept. All those interested in the ''true meaning'' of such physical concepts will find this book informative and thought provoking. It is written at a level accessible to scholars, students and teachers of science and philosophy. (orig.)

  13. Can metaphysical values protect mountain wildlands from development damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence S. Hamilton; Jeneda Benally

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether spiritual, religious or cultural values held by humans for some wild mountain areas can protect these special places from developments that impair both these values and wild nature. The answer is sometimes yes, sometimes no, and sometimes a minimization of damage. Examples of each of these scenarios are briefly given, along...

  14. Between physics and metaphysics: structure as a boundary concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Ramiro

    2015-03-01

    The notion of structure is found to be used in a great number of theories, scientific research programs and world views. However, its uses and definitions are as diverse as the objects of the scientific disciplines where it can be found. Without trying to recreate the structuralist aspiration from the mid XX century, which believed to have found in this notion a common transdisciplinary language, I discuss a specific aspect of this concept that could be considered a constant in different perspectives. This aspect refers to the location of the notions of structure as boundaries in the different scientific theories. With this, I try to argue that the definition or presentation of a structure configures in itself the frontier for scientific knowledge, defining at the same time implied ontological assumptions. In order to discuss this hypothesis, and taking into consideration the double origin of contemporary notions of structure -the mathematical and linguistic line-, I revise several theoretical perspectives which made explicit the relation between structures and knowledge, and their relation with the real: the arguments on physical knowledge by Eddington, structural anthropology, structural linguistics, Lacanian psychoanalysis and Piaget's genetic psychology.

  15. Neuroscientific Prediction and the Intrusion of Intuitive Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    How might advanced neuroscience-in which perfect neuro-predictions are possible-interact with ordinary judgments of free will? We propose that peoples' intuitive ideas about indeterminist free will are both imported into and intrude into their representation of neuroscientific scenarios and present six experiments demonstrating intrusion and importing effects in the context of scenarios depicting perfect neuro-prediction. In light of our findings, we suggest that the intuitive commitment to indeterminist free will may be resilient in the face of scientific evidence against such free will. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. What is a gene? From molecules to metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Holmes

    2006-01-01

    Mendelian genes have become molecular genes, with increasing puzzlement about locating them, due to increasing complexity in genomic webworks. Genome science finds modular and conserved units of inheritance, identified as homologous genes. Such genes are cybernetic, transmitting information over generations; this too requires multi-leveled analysis, from DNA transcription to development and reproduction of the whole organism. Genes are conserved; genes are also dynamic and creative in evolutionary speciation-most remarkably producing humans capable of wondering about what genes are.

  17. Cognitive Metaphor Theory and the Metaphysics of Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mathias W.

    2016-01-01

    One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are…

  18. Mirror neurons: Enigma of the metaphysical modular brain

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth

    2012-01-01

    Mirror neurons are one of the most important discoveries in the last decade of neuroscience. These are a variety of visuospatial neurons which indicate fundamentally about human social interaction. Essentially, mirror neurons respond to actions that we observe in others. The interesting part is that mirror neurons fire in the same way when we actually recreate that action ourselves. Apart from imitation, they are responsible for myriad of other sophisticated human behavior and thought process...

  19. Sports Activity Following Cementless Metaphyseal Hip Joint Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czech Szymon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An adequate level of physical activity has a substantial effect on both mental and physical human health. Physical activity is largely dependent on the function of the musculoskeletal and articular system. One of the most frequent diseases of this system is degenerative joint disease. Due to the changing and more demanding lifestyles and patients’ willingness to be involved in sports activity, the expectations of hip joint arthroplasty are becoming increasingly high. Alleviating pain ceases to be the only reason for which patients choose surgical interventions, while the expectations often include involvement in various sports. Only few studies contain recommendations concerning the frequency, type and intensity of sports activity which are acceptable after hip joint arthroplasty. The aim of the study was to evaluate function and physical activity of people following cementless short-stem hip joint arthroplasty in the observation of at least five years. The study group comprised 106 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty due to degenerative joint diseases, chosen according to inclusion criteria. Patients underwent routine physical examinations following the Harris Hip Score protocol, responded to the UCLA scale and questionnaires concerning pre-surgical and current physical activity. Our results demonstrated that hip joint arthroplasty in people suffering from degenerative joint diseases has a beneficial effect on their level of functioning and physical activity. Although physical activity and the level of functioning obviously reduced as a person aged, the level of physical activity continued to be very high in both groups, with function of the hip joint evaluated as very good.

  20. Sports Activity Following Cementless Metaphyseal Hip Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Szymon; Hermanson, Jacek; Rodak, Piotr; Stołtny, Tomasz; Rodak, Łukasz; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Koczy, Bogdan; Mielnik, Michał

    2017-12-01

    An adequate level of physical activity has a substantial effect on both mental and physical human health. Physical activity is largely dependent on the function of the musculoskeletal and articular system. One of the most frequent diseases of this system is degenerative joint disease. Due to the changing and more demanding lifestyles and patients' willingness to be involved in sports activity, the expectations of hip joint arthroplasty are becoming increasingly high. Alleviating pain ceases to be the only reason for which patients choose surgical interventions, while the expectations often include involvement in various sports. Only few studies contain recommendations concerning the frequency, type and intensity of sports activity which are acceptable after hip joint arthroplasty. The aim of the study was to evaluate function and physical activity of people following cementless short-stem hip joint arthroplasty in the observation of at least five years. The study group comprised 106 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty due to degenerative joint diseases, chosen according to inclusion criteria. Patients underwent routine physical examinations following the Harris Hip Score protocol, responded to the UCLA scale and questionnaires concerning pre-surgical and current physical activity. Our results demonstrated that hip joint arthroplasty in people suffering from degenerative joint diseases has a beneficial effect on their level of functioning and physical activity. Although physical activity and the level of functioning obviously reduced as a person aged, the level of physical activity continued to be very high in both groups, with function of the hip joint evaluated as very good.

  1. Reincarnation As A Metaphysical Principle Of Explanation In African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reincarnation is a belief taught by many of the World's religions. It is the doctrine of second birth to earthly life. It is held that though the physical body decays at death, the life-force, or soul or spirit reincarnates in another body on earth. It is as if our physical bodies are like a suit of clothes that has to be discarded for a new ...

  2. Infrared metaphysics: the elusive ontology of radiator (part 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonelli, S.; Chang, H.

    2005-01-01

    Hardly any ontological result of modern science is more firmly established than the fact that infrared radiation differs from light only in wavelength; this is part of the modern conception of the continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation reaching from radio waves to gamma radiation. Yet,

  3. Fidelity to western metaphysics: A challenge to authentic African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Metaphysics of Kola Nut: Towards an Authentic African Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. The Metaphysical Assumptions of the Conception of Truth in Martin Smiglecki’s Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pawlikowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The central element of the concept of truth in Smiglecki’s Logica (1618 is his approach to formulating definitions. Where the establishing of the truth is concerned, he always points to compliance at the level of the community (conformitas in respect of whether the intellectual recognition of a thing or things is in accordance with its intellectual equivalent, or the principles behind the latter, where these are understood as designating the corresponding idea inherent in the intellect of God. This is a form of the classical definition of truth --- similar to that used by St. Thomas Aquinas --- with a wide scope of applicability: to the field of existence (transcendental truth, to cognition and language (logical truth, and even to moral beliefs (moral rightness. Smiglecki distinguishes three types of truth: truth assigned to being, truth assigned to cognition, and truth assigned to moral convictions. Of these, the first is identified with transcendental truth, while the second is attributed not only to propositions and sentences, but also to concepts. The truth of concepts results from compliance with things by way of representation, while the truth of propositions and sentences issues from a compliance with things involving the implementation of some form of expression or other. Logical truth pertains to propositions rather than concepts. The kind of moral truth he writes about is what we would now be more likely to call “truthfulness”. With the exception of moral truth, which he defined as compliance of a statement with someone’s internal thoughts, Smiglecki considers every kind of truth to be a conditioned state of the object of knowledge. He says (a that the ultimate object of reference of human cognitive functioning is a real being, absolutely true by virtue of compliance with its internal principles and their idea as present in the intellect of God, and (b that the compatibility of human cognition with a real being is the ultimate basis for the truth of human cognition itself. Just knowing the real truth of a being furnishes us with an absolute form of truth, whereas merely knowing the default character of purely fictional objects can be true at most in relative terms. This pattern certainly also holds for sentences about what does not exist, and for sentences about future events whose truth or falsity is a contingent affair. Truth is of particular importance in science (scientia, although its scope covers a wider area than the area of scientific knowledge itself. It thus reaches to the very essence of scientific excellence. On the other hand, scientific knowledge is by its very nature always true. Therefore, truth is derived from our possession of its essence.

  6. 1-ii-asouzu-fidelity to western metaphysics-vol 5 no 1 jan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    thought to be wiser than the possessors of any sense-perception whatever, the artist wiser than ..... accompanies our actions. I seek thereby .... pursuing it in the type of fusion of horizon bestowed by what I call the experience of transcendent ...

  7. From physics to metaphysics. A sociological reconstruction of the interpretation problem of the quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogd, Werner

    2014-01-01

    The quantum theory represents one of the most fastidious and successful theory projects of the history of mankind. It is one, if not the universal theory of physics. The history of its interpretation and the discussion affects however by far more than only the field of theoretical physics. Such theory approach destroys ontological certainty. It calls the observer in question, and it lets us anticipate, what is to be expected, if we are employed in other fields with complex phenomena, which are infected with the observer problematics. As transclassical physics the quantum theory is so to say built on ''worlds without ground'' and disappoints by this the hope to be able to set themselves free from mind questions by physics or mathematics. Homologuously to the top forms of mystic reflexion the discussion about the interpretation of quantum physics can mediate an idea, what the mystery of the conditioned coproduction of system and environment - reflexion and world - can mean for us and possibly help us to become homelike in worlds without grounds. Hereby it becomes clear, that highly driven theory, which solves itself in its abstractions in a high degree from the live-worldly reality, stands not in contradiction to the possibility of knowledge of the world. On the contrary, at first a theory creation sufficiently elaborated and endowed with own internally conditioned consistency constraints represents the condition for the possibility of reflexion and gain of knowledge.

  8. CARTILAGE HAIR HYPOPLASIA, METAPHYSEAL CHONDRODYSPLASIA TYPE MCKUSICK - DESCRIPTION OF 7 PATIENTS AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBURGT, [No Value; HARALDSSON, A; OOSTERWIJK, JC; VANESSEN, AJ; WEEMAES, C; HAMEL, B

    1991-01-01

    We describe 7 cases of cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH) with emphasis on the clinical and immunological aspects. The literature on CHH is reviewed and symptoms in 63 non-Amish cases are summarized. In this autosomal recessive disorder the immunodeficiency, hair abnormalities, and severity of skeletal

  9. Phenomenology as research method or substantive metaphysics? An overview of phenomenology's uses in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Vicki

    2010-10-01

    In exploring phenomenological literature, it is evident that the term 'phenomenology' holds rather different meanings depending upon the context. Phenomenology has been described as both a philosophical movement and an approach to human science research. The phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty was philosophical in nature and not intended to provide rules or procedures for conducting research. The Canadian social scientist, van Manen, however, introduced specific guidelines for conducting human science research, which is rooted in hermeneutic phenomenology and this particular method has been employed in professional disciplines such as education, nursing, clinical psychology, and law. The purpose of this paper is to explore the difference between the phenomenological method as described by van Manen and that of other philosophers such as Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. In so doing, the author aims to address the blurred boundaries of phenomenology as a research method and as a philosophical movement and highlight the influence of these blurred boundaries on nursing knowledge development.

  10. Quantum non-locality and relativity metaphysical intimations of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maudlin, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The third edition of Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity has been carefully updated to reflect significant developments, including a new chapter covering important recent work in the foundations of physics. A new edition of the premier philosophical study of Bell's Theorem and its implication for the relativistic account of space and timeDiscusses Roderich Tumiulka's explicit, relativistic theory that can reproduce the quantum mechanical violation of Bell's inequality. Discusses the "Free Will Theorem" of John Conway and Simon KochenIntroduces philosophers to the relevant physics and demonstra

  11. The Life and Death of a Metaphor, or the Metaphysics of Metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Stern

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two issues: (1 what it is for a metaphor to be either alive or dead and (2 what a metaphor must be in order to be either alive or dead. Both issues, in turn, bear on the contemporary debate whether metaphor is a pragmatic or semantic phenomenon and on the dispute between Contextualists and Literalists. In the first part of the paper, I survey examples of what I take to be live metaphors and dead metaphors in order to establish that there is a phenomenon here to be explained. I then propose an explanation of metaphorical vitality (and by implication of metaphorical death in terms of the dependence of the interpretation of a metaphor on a family or network of expressions specific to its context of utterance. I then argue that only a Literalist account of metaphor — one that posits metaphorical expressions (a la Stern (2000—and not Contextualist and Gricean approaches can accommodate this explanation. Finally, I discuss some objections to my Literalist account and sketch an explanation of types to counter Platonistic objections to my metaphorical expression types.

  12. Igbo Proverbs and the Emergence of a Metaphysical Model of Music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of proverbs in the search for a model of analysis is the focus of this work. Igbo proverbs have continually offered access and insight into the thought patterns of Igbo people. Even though a collective consciousness may not be called a philosophy in the strict sense, an analysis of the thoughts, experiences and ...

  13. METAPHYSICS OF MONEY IN THE WORKS OF HONORÉ DE BALZAC AND FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris N. Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author examines similarities and diff erences in the aesthetic interpretation of the theme of money in terms of social realism of Balzac and Christian realism of Dostoevsky. Such notions as “human mystery”, “a dark side of human nature”, the “ME law”, “the law of love” are introduced to achieve the aforementioned objective. As part of these notions, the article analyzes artistic types and refl ection of both writers and shows the equalizing, reducing, transforming and compensating functions of the monetary absolute, which becomes a common equivalent of human freedom and personality and creates conditions for a new inequality. The author reveals anthropologic consequences caused by dominating principles of utilitarianism and monetarist perception, highlighted in the novels by French and Russian writers, that facilitate perversion and inversion of a hierarchy of values, displacement of spiritual and moral fundamentals, mental impoverishment, entropy and nihilism in the degrading society

  14. Metaphysics of love in the religious philosophy of Pável Florensky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Pavenkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the analysis of the concept of love in the religious philosophy of Pavel Florensky, who shares the ontological approach to the consideration of love with other representatives of Russian religious philosophy (N. berdyaev and S. bulgakov. We pay more careful attention to the understanding of love-άγαπαν by Florensky. We have drawn the conclusion that, in the philosophy of P. Florensky, Love, closely connected with truth and beauty, is considered an ontological basis existence of personality. We develop the ideas of Pavel Florensky, and accordingly assume that it is possible to synthesise love-agape and love-eros around the idea of sacrificial love. Agapelogical and erotical ‘bezels’ of one jewel of love is aspects of united love, which is given by God. this gift of God, the gift of united love, is kept by humans through prayer and deeds of love.

  15. Richard Rorty:From Anti-metaphysical Neo-Pragmatism to Rejection of Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akrami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Richard Rorty is a neo-Pragmatist philosopher. For three decades, he has attacked the traditional philosophy (from Plato to Kant as well as any other epistemology searching for truth or claiming to mirror the nature in his philosophical works. Rorty holds that, according to the history of philosophy in his reading, there is no final answer to the traditional questions concerning knowledge, truth, and representation. These questions, therefore, should be dissolved and denied. He maintains that knowledge is justified belief, justification, however, being not the consequence of some correspondence between the theory or the statement, but the consequence of conversation, social practice, group consensus, and social solidarity. Rorty also thinks that democracy has priority on philosophy, disagreeing with the thesis that philosophy is the foundation of the rest of culture.Despite of usefulness of some elements and implications of Rorty’s metaphilosophy (such as his emphasis on freedom, democracy, and pluralism as well as his insisting on philosophical humility and avoiding scientific pride, it is faced with several problems, including 1 ignoring the referential and realist features of language, 2 confusing interpretation and reality, 3 eliminating the border between objectivity and subjectivity, 4 interfering of public and private life, and 5 ignoring the need of science, culture, technology and, in particular, politics, in philosophy. The authors try to show and analyze some elements of these problems.

  16. Locking plate fixation in distal metaphyseal tibial fractures: series of 79 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Rakesh K.; Rohilla, Rajesh Kumar; Sangwan, Kapil; Singh, Vijendra; Walia, Saurav

    2009-01-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation in distal tibial fractures jeopardises fracture fragment vascularity and often results in soft tissue complications. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis, if possible, offers the best possible option as it permits adequate fixation in a biological manner. Seventy-nine consecutive adult patients with distal tibial fractures, including one patient with a bilateral fracture of the distal tibia, treated with locking plates, were retrospectively reviewed. The 4.5-...

  17. The Categorical Imperative Analyzing Immanuel Kant’s Grounding for A Metaphysics of Morals

    OpenAIRE

    Bordum, Anders

    2002-01-01

    In this article I first argue that Immanuel Kant’s conception of the categorical imperative is important to his philosophy. I systematically, though indirectly, interconnect the cognitive and moral aspects of his thinking. Second, I present an interpretation of the Kantian ethics, taking as my point of departure, the concept of the categorical imperative. Finally, I show how the categorical imperative is given a dialogical interpretation by Jürgen Habermas in his approach, usually referred to...

  18. Post-religional perspective and secular Buddhism: Stephen Batchelor and the post-metaphysical religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Durazzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present one of the contemporary trends on Buddhism, specially from the last decades in West, for its encounter with the globalized and dynamic context of present societies. This Buddhist trend, the progressive secularization of its traditions and practices, not to mention its increasing acceptance of historical-textual refutation, finds in Stephen Batchelor - a former monk in two different Buddhist traditions, Tibetan and Korean Zen - a catalyzer and a well-known advocate of secular perspective to the contemporary Buddhism. Here we will present the potential dialogue between the Secular Buddhism - besides the secularizing perspectives over orthodox cultural traditions - and the post-religional subject, as proposed by Marià Corbí and the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians. For the purposes of this paper we will focus on the modernizing and secular hermeneutics on Dharma practice, as defended by Stephen Batchelor and others.

  19. The problem with brain GUTs: conflation of different senses of "prediction" threatens metaphysical disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael L; Chemero, Tony

    2013-06-01

    Clark appears to be moving toward epistemic internalism, which he once rightly rejected. This results from a double over-interpretation of predictive coding's significance. First, Clark argues that predictive coding offers a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) of brain function. Second, he over-reads its epistemic import, perhaps even conflating causal and epistemic mediators. We argue instead for a plurality of neurofunctional principles.

  20. [Critical analysis of the immunological self/non-self model and of its implicit metaphysical foundations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeu, Thomas; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2004-05-01

    An examination of the concepts used in immunology prompts us to wonder about the origins and the legitimacy of the notions of self and non-self, which constitute the core of the dominant theoretical model in this science. All theoretical reflection concerning immunology must aim at determining a criterion of immunogenicity, that is, an operational definition of the conditions in which an immune reaction occurs or does not occur. By criticizing both conceptually and experimentally the self/non-self vocabulary, we can demonstrate the inaccuracy and even the inadequacy of the dichotomy of self/non-self. Accordingly, the self/non-self model must be reexamined, or even rejected. On the basis of this critique, we can suggest an alternative theoretical hypothesis for immunology, based on the notion of continuity. The 'continuity hypothesis' developed here attempts to give a criterion of immunogenicity that avoids the reproaches leveled at the self model.

  1. Heaps of health, metaphysical fitness: Ayurveda and the ontology of good health in medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, J S

    1999-02-01

    Because most scholars take it for granted that medicine is concerned with healing and problems of ill health, the way in which various medical systems define good health has not been adequately studied. Moreover, good health as such is usually regarded as a natural, normative state of being even by most medical anthropologists, who otherwise take a critical, relativist perspective on the subject of illness, pain, and disease. Using the case of Ayurvedic medicine, this article shows that there is a very different way of looking at the question of how health is embodied. This perspective is proactive and concerned with overall fitness rather than reactive and primarily concerned with either illness or disease. The argument presented here therefore seeks to go beyond the limiting--although extremely useful--orientation of remedial health care and suggest a radical challenge to some of the most basic ontological assumptions in the cross-cultural comparative study of medical systems.

  2. Analysis of the influence of a metha-type metaphysical stem on biomechanical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozowski, Andrzej; Ścigała, Krzysztof; Kierzek, Andrzej; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The full postoperative loading of the limb is possible if patients are properly selected and qualified for hip arthroplasty and the requirements as to the proper position of the metaphysial stem are met. The lack of precision, and patient qualification which does not satisfy the fixed criteria may result in stem setting inconsistent with the assumptions. An analysis based on the finite element method (FEM) will enable one to find out how to plan the magnitude of operated joint loading on the basis of the position of the stem in the postoperative radiograph. By analyzing the distribution of bone tissue deformations one can identify the zones where the spongy bone is overloaded and determine the strain level in comparison with the one determined for a model of the bone with the stem in proper position. On the basis of the results obtained one can estimate the range of loads for the operated limb, which will not result in the loss of the stem's primary stability prior to obtaining secondary stability through osteointegration. Moreover, an analysis of the formation of bone structures around the stem showed that the incorrect setting of a Metha-type stem may lead to the initiation of loosening.

  3. The whole is more than the sum of its parts: Aristotle, metaphysical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Joseph; Janeka, Ivo; Ferraro, Nalton

    2014-01-01

    This phrase, a favorite of Dr. Joseph E. Murray, can be interpreted in many ways. Mathematically, the whole is equal to the sum of its parts, neither more nor less. Psychological Gestalt theory would maintain that the whole is something else or something different than the sum of its parts. Merely adding up the component parts is meaningless compared with the "part-whole" relationship (SYNERGETICS: Explorations of Thinking. MacMillan Publishing Co, Inc; 1975). Organizational pundits maintain that this principle describes the synergy, which exists between individuals working together in a cooperative effort. Collectively, they are able to achieve an outcome superior to that of 1 or 2 people working alone. This concept is vintage Joseph E. Murray. He was an integral part of the Peter Bent Brigham team, which transformed the dream of organ transplantation into clinical reality over 50 years ago. Although many advances in medicine are made by the serendipity of a prepared mind making a critical observation (Alexander Fleming and penicillin), individual brilliance (Judah Folkman and angiogenesis), or by technology (magnetic resonance imaging), most are achieved by groups of physicians and scientists working together. All have prepared minds. When the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital physicians and researchers at the Harvard Medical School dedicated all of their energy on solving the problems of end-stage renal disease, their effort was concentrated and primarily regional. Today, this cooperation is global, as communication has been facilitated by the Internet, iPhone, iPad, video conferencing, electronic libraries, and the like.

  4. Embodied free will beliefs: some effects of physical states on metaphysical opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ent, Michael R; Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-07-01

    The present research suggests that people's bodily states affect their beliefs about free will. People with epilepsy and people with panic disorder, which are disorders characterized by a lack of control over one's body, reported less belief in free will compared to people without such disorders (Study 1). The more intensely people felt sexual desire, physical tiredness, and the urge to urinate, the less they believed in free will (Study 2). Among non-dieters, the more intensely they felt hunger, the less they believed in free will. However, dieters showed a trend in the opposite direction (Study 3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The complex itinerary of Leibniz’s planetary theory physical convictions, metaphysical principles and Keplerian inspiration

    CERN Document Server

    Bussotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents new insights into Leibniz’s research on planetary theory and his system of pre-established harmony. Although some aspects of this theory have been explored in the literature, others are less well known. In particular, the book offers new contributions on the connection between the planetary theory and the theory of gravitation. It also provides an in-depth discussion of Kepler’s influence on Leibniz’s planetary theory and, more generally, on Leibniz’s concept of pre-established harmony. Three initial chapters presenting the mathematical and physical details of Leibniz’s works provide a frame of reference. The book then goes on to discuss research on Leibniz’s conception of gravity and the connection between Leibniz and Kepler. .

  6. Phloem loading--not metaphysical, only complex: towards a unified model of phloem loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komor, E; Orlich, G; Weig, A; Köckenberger, W

    1996-08-01

    Phloem loading comprises the entire pathway of phloem-mobile solutes from their place of generation (or delivery) to the sieve tubes in a sequence of transport steps across or passing by several different cell types. Each of these steps can be classified as symplastic or apoplastic. The detailed anatomical-cytological work in the past ten years made clear that the symplastic continuity from mesophyll to sieve tubes may be very different for different plant species or even in different vein orders. Therefore data from one species are not transferable to another species and a well-rounded picture involving different experimental methods has to be aimed at for each species separately. The information obtained with the Ricinus seedling, where phloem loading and sieve tube sap analysis can be achieved relatively easily, is presented. The analysis of the radioactive labelling of sucrose from the sieve tubes of cotyledons, in which external and intracellular sucrose had been differently labelled, revealed that at sucrose concentrations close to the natural one, 50% of sucrose is loaded directly from the external medium. The other 50% is first taken up by mesophyll and then released for uptake into the sieve tubes. No bundle tissue works as obligate, intermediate sucrose storage. The apoplast therefore definitely serves as a transit reservoir for sucrose destined to be loaded into the sieve tubes. The sieve tube sap contains glycolytic metabolites at concentrations higher than found in the hypocotyl tissue, whereas the corresponding glycolytic enzymes are missing. It is concluded that the enzymes are sequestered in the companion cell or by parietal membrane stacks. Not only the sieve tubes but nearly all cotyledonary cells are equipped with a sucrose-H(+) symporter able to achieve sucrose accumulation and sensitive to inhibition by high salt concentrations or SH reagents. A cDNA clone coding for a sucrose carrier was isolated. It is transcribed at approximately the same level in most organs of the seedling and throughout the germination period. Leaves of adult Ricinus have significantly lower levels of this transcript. Recirculation of excess, phloem-delivered solutes from the sink back to the source is shown not only to be a common feature of long-distance transport, but the only way that an imbalance between supply to and consumption of nutrients in the sink can be adjusted in the source. It is a pathway by which sink activity regulates phloem loading. Non-invasive NMR imaging revealed the flow rates and flow speeds in phloem and xylem in the intact seedling and proved directly the existence of an internal circulating solution flow. A unified model of phloem loading is proposed, based on a pump-and-leak model, where active sucrose carriers (and other carriers) accumulate solutes in the sieve tubes with a concomitant build-up of pressure resulting in mass flow. Plasmodesmata are leaks (as are the transport carriers, too), slowing down the transport rate, but they also serve as diffusion channels for substances which are produced in the neighbouring cell. Therefore, compounds, which are not made in the sieve tubes themselves are translocated together with the bulk solution of sieve tube sap.

  7. Metaphysics, Epistemology, Utilitarianism, Intuitionism, and Egoism: A Response to Phillips on Sidgwick

    OpenAIRE

    Crisp, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The shape of contemporary ethics owes a great deal to Henry Sidgwick, through his influence on Rawls, Parfit, and others. No one who reads David Phillips’s outstanding book can be left in the slightest doubt about Sidgwick’s continuing significance for both metaethics and normative ethics. Phillips’s scholarship and his substantive arguments are powerful and insightful, and I find them largely persuasive. So in these remarks I intend merely to raise a few questions about each of his four main...

  8. Discovering reality: feminist perspectives on epistemology, metaphysics, methodology, and philosophy of science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harding, Sandra G; Hintikka, Merrill B

    1983-01-01

    ... FOX KELLER / Gender and Science EVELYN FOX KELLER AND CHRISTINE R. GRONTKOWSKI / The Mind's Eye NAOMI SCHEMAN / Individualism and the Objects of Psychology JANE FLAX / Political Philosophy and the Pa...

  9. The metaphysical mind in its physical environment: Religious implications of neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.W. du Toit

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces ideas originating from different sciences of mind and the challenge they present to religion. In spite of overcoming the mind-body dualism, it seems that the mind-brain dualism still prevails. The mind-brain relation is discussed in the light of some models. Special attention is given to supervenient theories of mind. In light of this information the article investigates how the impact of these theories on religious experience. D’Aquili and Newberg’s explanation of extraordinary religious experience is discussed. It is concluded that the phenomenon of religion and religious experience are more than mere brain functions. The place of religion and the continued importance of religion and religious experience are confirmed.

  10. Kabbalah, Symbolism and Metaphysics in Russian Freemasonry of the XVIIIth - XIXthcenturies

    OpenAIRE

    Khalturin, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo considera algunas conexiones entre la Cábala y la masonería en Rusia como se refleja en los archivos del Departamento de Manuscritos de la Biblioteca Estatal Rusa (DMS RSL). El vínculo entre ellos se basa en la comprensión tanto de la Cabala y la masonería como la filosofía simbólica y "verdaderamente metafísica". En el artículo se muestra cómo los masones rusos adoptaron doctrinas cabalísticas de Ein-Soph, Sephiroth, Adam Kadmon y los mezclan con la teoría del neoplatonismo de l...

  11. On Goody, his critics, and beyond: Social metaphysics for literacy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ungureanu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available I defend Jack Goody's approach to explaining expansive social and intellectual changes by pointing to the contributions of the technologies of communication, and specifically, of the use of writing (Goody 1987, 2000. I argue that conceptually driven approaches to social or human kinds contribute the clarifications needed to alleviate and respond to his critics’ concerns surrounding the notion of a literate society (Collins 1995, Finnegan 1999, Sawyer 2002, Bloch 2003. My defense of Goody also identifies and endorses a few main criteria and resources for the success of any satisfactory definition of the related notions of a literate society/literate mind.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difference in gene activation is caused by a phenomenon called genomic imprinting. When genomic imprinting reduces the ... 2 links) Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: Adrenal Gland Disorders National ...

  13. Constructing the principles: Method and metaphysics in the progress of theoretical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Lawrence C.

    This thesis presents a new framework for the philosophy of physics focused on methodological differences found in the practice of modern theoretical physics. The starting point for this investigation is the longstanding debate over scientific realism. Some philosophers have argued that it is the aim of science to produce an accurate description of the world including explanations for observable phenomena. These scientific realists hold that our best confirmed theories are approximately true and that the entities they propose actually populate the world, whether or not they have been observed. Others have argued that science achieves only frameworks for the prediction and manipulation of observable phenomena. These anti-realists argue that truth is a misleading concept when applied to empirical knowledge. Instead, focus should be on the empirical adequacy of scientific theories. This thesis argues that the fundamental distinction at issue, a division between true scientific theories and ones which are empirically adequate, is best explored in terms of methodological differences. In analogy with the realism debate, there are at least two methodological strategies. Rather than focusing on scientific theories as wholes, this thesis takes as units of analysis physical principles which are systematic empirical generalizations. The first possible strategy, the conservative, takes the assumption that the empirical adequacy of a theory in one domain serves as good evidence for such adequacy in other domains. This then motivates the application of the principle to new domains. The second strategy, the innovative, assumes that empirical adequacy in one domain does not justify the expectation of adequacy in other domains. New principles are offered as explanations in the new domain. The final part of the thesis is the application of this framework to two examples. On the first, Lorentz's use of the aether is reconstructed in terms of the conservative strategy with respect to the principles of Galilean relativity. A comparison between the conservative strategy as an application of the conservative strategy and TeVeS as one of the innovative constitutes the second example.

  14. Judgement and the role of the metaphysics of values in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, T

    2006-06-01

    Despite its authors' intentions, the four principles approach to medical ethics can become crudely algorithmic in practice. The first section sets out the bare bones of the four principles approach drawing out those aspects of Beauchamp and Childress's Principles of biomedical ethics that encourage this misreading. The second section argues that if the emphasis on the guidance of moral judgement is augmented by a particularist account of what disciplines it, then the danger can be reduced. In the third section, I consider how much the resultant picture diverges from Beauchamp and Childress's actual position.

  15. The Phenomenon of the Home: Metaphysics of the Innermost (as Illustrated by the Modern Russian Culture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupletsova, Elena Zh.; Solodov, Andrei V.; Samoilov, Anton O.; Polyakov, Nikita ?.; Pyankova, Anastasia Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is based on the influence of the expanding globalization processes that affect the view of life of a modern man: the internal balance is lost due to feeling of chaos, rhythm of life and constant changes. In these conditions there is a tendency to de-humanize the living environment, depersonalization of…

  16. Energy, Metaphysics, and Space: Ernst Mach's Interpretation of Energy Conservation as the Principle of Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzardi, Luca

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses Ernst Mach's interpretation of the principle of energy conservation (EC) in the context of the development of energy concepts and ideas about causality in nineteenth-century physics and theory of science. In doing this, it focuses on the close relationship between causality, energy conservation and space in Mach's antireductionist view of science. Mach expounds his thesis about EC in his first historical-epistemological essay, Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes von der Erhaltung der Arbeit (1872): far from being a new principle, it is used from the early beginnings of mechanics independently from other principles; in fact, EC is a pre-mechanical principle which is generally applied in investigating nature: it is, indeed, nothing but a form of the principle of causality. The paper focuses on the scientific-historical premises and philosophical underpinnings of Mach's thesis, beginning with the classic debate on the validity and limits of the notion of cause by Hume, Kant, and Helmholtz. Such reference also implies a discussion of the relationship between causality on the one hand and space and time on the other. This connection plays a major role for Mach, and in the final paragraphs its importance is argued in order to understand his antireductionist perspective, i.e. the rejection of any attempt to give an ultimate explanation of the world via reduction of nature to one fundamental set of phenomena.

  17. Physiology as the antechamber to metaphysics: the young William James's hope for a philosophical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, P J

    1999-11-01

    In the 5 years before 1878, when his career in psychology was becoming established, William James wrote a series of notes and reviews assessing the work of many of the pioneers in the new field. Adopting a public and confident voice, even while he was privately still uncertain and searching, James criticized the dogmatism of positivist and idealist claims to the study of the human brain and mind. In his short writings of 1873-1877, James started to formulate his own middle path. His first steps on that path show that he did not reject either scientific or philosophic inquiry; instead, he viewed scientific knowledge as a way to understand philosophical questions more deeply. Saving his sharpest critiques for positivism, James endorsed scientific investigation without materialist assmptions. While his career in psychology was still only a hope, James treated science as a means toward humanist insight.

  18. On the reality of the incorporeal intelligibles: a reflection on the metaphysics of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, D

    2001-10-01

    An argument is made for the existence of entities which are neither necessarily material nor mental as real and which are apprehensible and generatable by human beings. Money, color, triangle, natural and social law, instruction, danger, and invention are given as examples. It is the task of the science of psychology to grasp, conceptualise, and characterise the human being that lives in a world of incorporeal intelligibles and makes them as well. The tradition of Aristotle, Brentano and his two students, Freud and Husserl, and Wertheimer is identified favorably in this connection.

  19. A metaphysics of living systems: the Yōga-Vāsistha view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, Roddam

    2002-12-01

    The Yōga-Vāsistha is a rich and complex philosophical 'poem' (kāvya) of epic length, written in classical Sanskrit by an unknown author some time between the 6th and 13th centuries CE, probably around the 7th century. It is notable for its eloquent praise of self-effort and enquiry or analysis, and for its severe disparagement of the notion of fate. It views consciousness as (a) characterizing all living forms (including plant and insect life), (b) being atomic, and (c) analogous to the emergence of waves and whirlpools in water; it therefore grapples with what today would be called the problems of reductionism and emergentism. Notions of the survival of the fittest, and of a dynamic process of creation and loss, are expressed with characteristic force. The paper presents a selection of verses (in an English translation) setting forth these views, and a brief analysis of their implications.

  20. The Metaphysics of Morris R. Cohen: From Realism to Objective Relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoone, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Morris Cohen is mainly remembered as a philosopher of history and law, a friend of jurists (Oliver Wendell Holmes, Felix Frankfurter), and a teacher of more prominent philosophers (e.g., Ernest Nagel, Paul Weiss, Morton White). But his unique position as a student of the work of Russell and Peirce led him to make a distinctive contribution to the debate over realism in in the 1910s. Largely ignored and completely uncited, his early papers formulated what would later be called "objective relativism," influencing the later work of Columbia naturalism, hence American philosophy, from the 1940s to the 1960s.

  1. Metaphysics for an enlightened public: The controversy over monads in Germany, 1746-1748.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This essay analyzes the controversy that attended the prize essay question on monads proposed by the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1746. The controversy was first touched off by an anonymous pamphlet published by the mathematician Leonhard Euler, the academy's most well known member, that attacked the doctrine of monads. It peaked with the awarding of the prize to Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi, whose winning essay closely followed Euler's arguments. This essay discusses the controversy as one instance in a broader quarrel in the German academic community over the suitability of Christian Wolff's philosophy as the foundation for a broad range of academic disciplines, including natural philosophy. It also analyzes the controversy as displaying the central role of the periodical press in the emergent German public sphere.

  2. Philosophy as capitalism and the socialist radically metaphysical response to it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Kolozova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The author starts from the thesis that there is no such thing as a "natural" or "apolitical" economy. The economy is always already political, as it is the economy’s material core of power, control, and its main mechanisms, i.e. exploitation and oppression. It is no less so in the era of neoliberalism, a time in which we witness the divorce between capitalism and democracy. In order to lay the foundations of a different economy, one that is not based on wage labor and the exploitation of human life and nature based on their auto-alienation, but rather on action in accordance with their resources, we need – according the author – to rethink the concept of the state in a non-philosophical and post-capitalist fashion, structurally different from the modern bourgeois state. If the structure originating in the bourgeois state, as conceived by modern humanism, is preserved, it will mean that the determination in the last instance is still the same. In order to arrive at a determination in the last instance of a non-exploitative, non-wage-labor-based social order where the determination is affected by the real, we must first arrive at the generic core of the notion of the modern state. As soon as we determine the generic term of "the state," we can radicalize it by letting it be determined by the effects of the real. The generic notion, isolated from the chôra of the transcendental material that is offered by modern philosophies originating in the Enlightenment, should be used as the minimal transcendental description for the determining effect (or "symptom" of the real.

  3. Grigore Vieru, the poet of the great metaphysical themes in Fanus Bailesteanu's vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa Florentina Boldeanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monograph, called Grigore Vieru, The Human and the Poet rises itself above all kind of prejudice exposed in the work of the author. Moreover, the whole approach compared with other contemporary Romanian writers reveals the ethic, aesthetic and poetic value of the work in the context of the literary history.If Stelian Gruia’s attitude towards the life and work of Grigore Vieru is a familiar one, Fanus Baileanu keeps a certain distance denoting academic professionalism and despite the rough context for the reception of the author’s work, he rather seems to highlight the profound, magical poetic voice, uttered in a natural, human way thus giving him a special place among the literary generations.

  4. From metaphysical to political: Does political culture make Rawls's principle of tolerance morally relativistic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze Rawls's conception of political (public culture, exploring whether his principle of tolerance (Political Liberalism falls in moral relativism. The analysis consists of three sections. Firstly, the author introduces different critical accounts on Rawls's theory and identifies where they go wrong. Secondly, the author delineates the intellectual tradition of social liberalism from which sprang Rawls's conception, showing that he significantly alters the key ideas of dominant liberal justice of the Western world. In the final section of the paper it is argued that Rawls's idea of political culture is a cornerstone of just society and the spring of tolerance, providing arguments in favor of the idea that Rawls's conception of political liberalism is not morally relativistic but it is, however, in line with liberal pluralism.

  5. Формування предметного поля метафізичних категорій у просторі філософських ідей Пізньої схоластики / The Formation of the Subject Field of Metaphysical Categories in Terms of Philosophical Ideas of Late Scholastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Скрицька Наталія

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Skrytska Natalya. The Formation of the Subject Field of Metaphysical Categories in Terms of Philosophical Ideas of Late Scholastics. The article considers the nature of such metaphysical concepts as essence, being, God, substance, logical quantifier on the basis of ideas of the late scholastics and of Duns Scott and William Ockham in particular. An attempt is made to learn and investigate intercommunication between metaphysical concepts and their further integration in the epistemological dimension. Continuing research of the most prominent scholastics of the 13th century the author analyzes contradictions and ambiguousness of their ideas toward the use of any concept. It is shown that interconnection of metaphysical concepts, real essence and rational essence in particular is a necessity. It serves as a base for the origin of epistemological metaphysics during the late of scholastics. Key-words: essence, being, God, universal, substance, concept, metaphysic, general, univocal, logical quantifier “all”. Skrytska Natalya. La Formation du domaine des catégories métaphysiques dans l'espace des idées philosophiques de la fin de la scolastique. Dans cette article on examine la nature de l' origine de ces concepts métaphysiques que la nature, l'être, l'existence, la substance, le Dieu, universel, concept logique de «tout» basé sur les idées de la fin des scolastiques, en particulier en utilisant la source Duns Scot et Wilm Occam . Une tentative d'étudier plus avant et d'étudier la relation entre les concepts métaphysiques et leur intégration ultérieure dans la dimension épistémologique. Poursuivre les recherches les plus grands scolastiques XIII – XIV siècles - J. Scott et V. Occam – une tentative pour identifier les conflits et l'ambiguïté dans leurs points de vue sur l'utilisation d'un concept. Il est montré que la relation des concepts métaphysiques est essentiel et constitue la base de l'émergence de la m

  6. Compartment syndrome like picture in metaphyseal comminuted fracture of tibia treated by locking plate due to tight closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prafulla Herode

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old male came to casualty on 5 th May 2012 after a fall from motorcycle. He complained of excruciating pain and swelling over right knee. There was an open wound of 7 × 2 cm over supra-patellar region and diffuse swelling over knee joint with severe tenderness over proximal aspect of right tibia. X-ray showed intra-articular fracture of proximal tibia extending to diaphysis classified as type 6 by Schatzker classification for proximal tibia, with fibula shaft transverse fracture. The skin over the fracture was contused. Debridement with primary wound closure was done in emergency. Skeletal traction was applied through a lower tibial Steinman pin. Patient was operated after 15 days when wound healed and swelling subsided. Locking plate was applied on medial aspect using Minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosysthesis (MIPPO technique. Post-operatively over 4 hours patient developed severe pain and swelling in operated leg which mimicked compartment syndrome. Suture removal was done immediately in the ward from the distal aspect, which relieved the symptoms but lead to exposure of the plate. A rotational flap was done to cover the plate in coordination with a plastic surgeon on the next day.

  7. Idiosyncratic reality claims, relaxation dispositions, and ABC relaxation theory: happiness, literal christianity, miraculous powers, metaphysics, and the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan C; Karmin, Aaron D

    2002-12-01

    This study examined idiosyncratic reality claims, that is, irrational or paranormal beliefs often claimed to enhance relaxation and happiness and reduce stress. The Smith Idiosyncratic Reality Claims Inventory and the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory (which measures relaxation and stress dispositions, or enduring states of mind frequently associated with relaxation or stress) were given to 310 junior college student volunteers. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation identified five idiosyncratic reality claim factors: belief in Literal Christianity; Magic; Space Aliens: After Death experiences; and Miraculous Powers of Meditation, Prayer, and Belief. No factor correlated with increased relaxation dispositions Peace, Energy, or Joy, or reduced dispositional somatic stress, worry, or negative emotion on the Smith Relaxation Dispositions Inventory. It was concluded that idiosyncratic reality claims may not be associated with reported relaxation, happiness, or stress. In contrast, previous research strongly supported self-affirming beliefs with few paranormal assumptions display such an association.

  8. Establishing a Democratic Religion: Metaphysics and Democracy in the Debates over the President's Commission on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Ethan

    2007-01-01

    World War II stands as a defining moment for American higher education. During the crisis of international relations that existed by the late 1930s, American thinkers of various stripes felt compelled to mobilize the country's intellectual and educational resources in defense of democracy, thus creating "a great ideological revival of democracy…

  9. The metaphysical nature of the non-adequacy claim an epistemological analysis of the debate on probability in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Piscopo, Carlotta

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the field of artificial intelligence has experienced a separation into two schools that hold opposite opinions on how uncertainty should be treated. This separation is the result of a debate that began at the end of the 1960’s when AI first faced the problem of building machines required to make decisions and act in the real world. This debate witnessed the contraposition between the mainstream school, which relied on probability for handling uncertainty, and an alternative school, which criticized the adequacy of probability in AI applications and developed alternative formalisms. The debate has focused on the technical aspects of the criticisms raised against probability while neglecting an important element of contrast. This element is of an epistemological nature, and is therefore exquisitely philosophical. In this book, the historical context in which the debate on probability developed is presented and the key components of the technical criticisms therein are illustrated. B...

  10. Composite Biomaterial as a Carrier for Bone-Active Substances for Metaphyseal Tibial Bone Defect Reconstruction in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Peter Frederik; Raina, Deepak Bushan; Isaksson, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    grouped according to defect filling: (1) Empty, (2) Allograft, (3) GBM, (4) GBM + ZA, and (5) GBM + ZA + BMP-2. In vivo microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) images at 4 weeks showed significantly higher mineralized tissue volume (MV) in the intramedullary defect region and the neocortical/callus region...... in all GBM-treated groups. After euthanization at 8 weeks, ex vivo micro-CT showed that addition of ZA (GBM + ZA) and BMP-2 (GBM + ZA + BMP-2) mainly increased the neocortical and callus formation, with the highest MV in the combined ZA and BMP-2-treated group. Qualitative histological analysis......, verifying the increased neocortical/callus thickness and finding of trabecular bone in all GBM-treated groups, supported that the differences in MV measured with micro-CT in fact represented bone tissue. In conclusion, GBM can serve as a carrier for ZA and BMP-2 leading to increased MV in the neocortex...

  11. “Whistlin’ Towards the Devil’s House”: Poetic Transformations and Natural Metaphysics in an Appalachian Folktale Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Sobol

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The late Ray Hicks of Beech Mountain, North Carolina was an acclaimed master of the traditional storytelling art. Yet little has been written that conveys the poetic dimensions of his tellings, nor their striking liberties within traditional molds. This study centers on a performance of one of Hicks’s signature tales, “Wicked John and the Devil.” His masterful play with markers of truth and belief are explored in order to question traditional folkloristic classifications of folktale genres.

  12. Finding the Right Kind of Awe and Wonder: The Metaphysical Potential of Religion to Ground an Environmental Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that an anthropocentric fallacy permeates thinking within both technological and ecological approaches to environmentalism. In consequence, sustainable development is an incoherent concept through the weakness of its anthropocentric ethical grounding. Using the Judaeo-Christian tradition as an example, this paper examines the…

  13. From physics to metaphysics. Physical unification and string approach; Von der Physik zur Metaphysik. Physikalische Vereinheitlichung und Stringansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrich, R.

    2007-07-01

    In spite the string approach as attempt of a nomologically unified comprehension of all interactions inclusively the gravitation exists already over three decades the physical principles on which it is based are yet completely unclear; and not the most unimportant empirically provable quantitative prediction exists. Without empirical data, which would be incompatible with the stablished theories - quantum-field theoretical standard model anf general relativity - only the conceptual incompatibility of both together with the unification idea yields a motivation for the string approach. By this however physics threatens to exceed under consequent continuation of their hitherto successful strategies the methodological framework of empirical sciences.

  14. Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: a randomized trial investigating the roles of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Radin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether drinking tea "treated" with good intentions would enhance mood more than drinking ordinary tea, under double-blind, randomized conditions. Each evening, for seven days in a row, volunteers recorded their mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. On days three, four, and five of the test, each participant drank 600 mL of oolong tea in the morning and again in the afternoon. One randomly assigned group blindly received tea that had been intentionally treated by three Buddhist monks; the other group blindly received untreated tea from the same source. On the last day of the test, each person indicated what type of tea he/she believed he/she had been drinking. Stratified, random sampling was used to assign 189 adults into two groups matched by age, gender, the psychological trait of neuroticism, and the amount of tea consumed on average per day. All participants were Taiwanese and lived in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and the test was conducted over the course of one week to reduce mood fluctuations due to changes in local weather and other common influences. Those who drank treated tea showed a greater increase in mood than those who drank untreated tea (Cohen's d = 0.65, P = .02, two-tailed). Change in mood in those who believed that they were drinking treated tea was much better than those who did not believe (Cohen's d = 1.45, P = .00002, two-tailed). Tea treated with good intentions improved mood more than ordinary tea derived from the same source. Belief that one was drinking treated tea produced a large improvement in mood, but only if one was actually drinking the treated tea, indicating that belief and intentional enhancement interact. This also suggests that the esthetic and intentional qualities associated with the traditional tea ceremony may have subtle influences that extend beyond the ritual itself. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental metaphysics2 : The double standard in the quantum-information approach to the foundations of quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Amit

    Among the alternatives of non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM) there are those that give different predictions than quantum mechanics in yet-untested circumstances, while remaining compatible with current empirical findings. In order to test these predictions, one must isolate one's system from environmental induced decoherence, which, on the standard view of NRQM, is the dynamical mechanism that is responsible for the 'apparent' collapse in open quantum systems. But while recent advances in condensed-matter physics may lead in the near future to experimental setups that will allow one to test the two hypotheses, namely genuine collapse vs. decoherence, hence make progress toward a solution to the quantum measurement problem, those philosophers and physicists who are advocating an information-theoretic approach to the foundations of quantum mechanics are still unwilling to acknowledge the empirical character of the issue at stake. Here I argue that in doing so they are displaying an unwarranted double standard.

  16. The deep metaphysics of quantum gravity: The seventeenth century legacy and an alternative ontology beyond substantivalism and relationism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Edward

    2013-11-01

    This essay presents an alternative to contemporary substantivalist and relationist interpretations of quantum gravity hypotheses by means of an historical comparison with the ontology of space in the seventeenth century. Utilizing differences in the spatial geometry between the foundational theory and the theory derived from the foundational, in conjunction with nominalism and platonism, it will be argued that there are crucial similarities between seventeenth century and contemporary theories of space, and that these similarities reveal a host of underlying conceptual issues that the substantival/relational dichotomy fails to distinguish.

  17. Un-thought out metaphysics in analytical psychology: a critique of Jung's epistemological basis for psychic reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robin McCoy

    2011-09-01

    The author investigates the relation of Kant, Schopenhauer and Heidegger to Jung's attempts to formulate theory regarding the epistemological conundrum of what can and what cannot be known and what must remain uncertain. Jung's ambivalent use and misuse of Kant's division of the world into phenomenal and noumenal realms is highlighted in discussion of concepts such as the psychoid archetype which he called 'esse in anima' and his use of Schopenhauer's concept of 'will' to justify a transcendence of the psyche/soma divide in a postulation of a 'psychoid' realm. Finally, the author describes Jung's reaction to Heidegger's theories via his assertion that Heidegger's 'pre-given world design' was an alternate formulation of his concept of the archetypes. An underlying theme of the paper is a critique of Jung's foundationalism which perpetuates the myth of an isolated mind. This model of understanding subjectivity is briefly contrasted with Heidegger's 'fundamental ontology' which focuses on a non-Cartesian 'understanding' of the 'presencing of being' in everyday social and historical contexts. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. A metaphysical and neuropsychological assessment of musical tones to affect the brain, relax the mind and heal the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pretorius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been empirically established through many controlled studies that one of the most rewarding experiences known to humanity is listening to music, especially because it affects various parts of the brain and causes emotional arousal. The aim of this article is to do a succinct study on music and its effect on, especially, the nervous system, by referring to various empirical studies undertaken on the subject. The article, therefore, has a twofold purpose: (1 to show that throughout history, music has played a special role in various cultures and religions, especially as a healing tool and (2 to demonstrate that sound frequencies and vibrations found in music have the potential to realign the emotions of the nervous system and bring the body back into harmony by reducing stress.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article�s challenge and purpose are to show that science and religion are not in conflict, but rather that together they can benefit both disciplines and make better sense of complicated topics, especially those related to how natural science and religion deal with the human body and health, and its relationship to the mind.

  19. Effects of combined therapy of alendronate and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on metaphyseal bone repair after osteotomy in the proximal tibia of glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Kawano

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: ALN monotherapy and combined ALN and LUPUS treatment augmented BMD and stimulated cancellous bone repair with increased Runx2 expression at the osteotomy site in GIO rats. However, the combined treatment had no additional effect on cancellous bone healing compared to ALN monotherapy.

  20. Retrospective analysis of extra-articular distal humerus shaft fractures treated with the use of pre-contoured lateral column metaphyseal LCP by triceps-sparing posterolateral approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatinder Kharbanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Management of extra-articular distal humerus fractures presents a challenge to the treating surgeon due to the complex anatomy of the distal part of the humerus and complicated fracture morphology. Although surgical treatment has shown to provide a more stable reduction and alignment and predictable return to function, it has been associated with complications like iatrogenic radial nerve palsy, infection, non-union and Implant failure. We in the present series retrospectively analysed 20 patients with extra-articular distal humerus shaft fractures surgically treated using the extra-articular distal humeral locking plate approached by the triceps-sparing posterolateral approach. The outcome was assessed using the DASH score, range of motion at the elbow and the time to union. The mean time to radiographic fracture union was 12 weeks.

  1. Retrospective analysis of extra-articular distal humerus shaft fractures treated with the use of pre-contoured lateral column metaphyseal LCP by triceps-sparing posterolateral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbanda, Yatinder; Tanwar, Yashwant Singh; Srivastava, Vishal; Birla, Vikas; Rajput, Ashok; Pandit, Ramsagar

    2017-04-01

    Management of extra-articular distal humerus fractures presents a challenge to the treating surgeon due to the complex anatomy of the distal part of the humerus and complicated fracture morphology. Although surgical treatment has shown to provide a more stable reduction and alignment and predictable return to function, it has been associated with complications like iatrogenic radial nerve palsy, infection, non-union and Implant failure. We in the present series retrospectively analysed 20 patients with extra-articular distal humerus shaft fractures surgically treated using the extra-articular distal humeral locking plate approached by the triceps-sparing posterolateral approach. The outcome was assessed using the DASH score, range of motion at the elbow and the time to union. The mean time to radiographic fracture union was 12 weeks.

  2. From physics to metaphysics. A sociological reconstruction of the interpretation problem of the quantum theory; Von der Physik zur Metaphysik. Eine soziologische Rekonstruktion des Deutungsproblems der Quantentheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogd, Werner

    2014-07-01

    The quantum theory represents one of the most fastidious and successful theory projects of the history of mankind. It is one, if not the universal theory of physics. The history of its interpretation and the discussion affects however by far more than only the field of theoretical physics. Such theory approach destroys ontological certainty. It calls the observer in question, and it lets us anticipate, what is to be expected, if we are employed in other fields with complex phenomena, which are infected with the observer problematics. As transclassical physics the quantum theory is so to say built on ''worlds without ground'' and disappoints by this the hope to be able to set themselves free from mind questions by physics or mathematics. Homologuously to the top forms of mystic reflexion the discussion about the interpretation of quantum physics can mediate an idea, what the mystery of the conditioned coproduction of system and environment - reflexion and world - can mean for us and possibly help us to become homelike in worlds without grounds. Hereby it becomes clear, that highly driven theory, which solves itself in its abstractions in a high degree from the live-worldly reality, stands not in contradiction to the possibility of knowledge of the world. On the contrary, at first a theory creation sufficiently elaborated and endowed with own internally conditioned consistency constraints represents the condition for the possibility of reflexion and gain of knowledge.

  3. O fundamento epistemológico da metafísica da Vontade de Arthur Schopenhauer The epistemological basis of the metaphysics of the Will of Arthur Schopenhauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlee Oliveira Silva Salviano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos neste artigo a teoria do conhecimento de Arthur Schopenhauer com base em sua dissertação Sobre a quádrupla raiz do princípio de razão suficiente (1813, seu ensaio Sobre a visão e as cores (1816, os dois primeiros livros de O mundo como vontade e representação (1819, bem como o apêndice a esta obra intitulado Crítica da filosofia kantiana. Aqui temos em mente a relação de Schopenhauer com as filosofias anteriores (em especial a de Kant e a fundamentação de sua intuição do mundo como Vontade baseada em uma epistemologia de raízes kantianas.We analyse in this article the theory of knowledge by Arthur Schopenhauer included in his dissertation On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (1813, his essay On Vision and Colours (1816, the two first books of The World as Will and Representation (1819, and the appendix at this work, intitled Criticism of the Kantian Philosophy. We have here in mind the relation of Schopenhauer with the previous philosophies (especially that by Kant and the establishment of his intuition of world as Will based in an epistemology of Kantian sources.

  4. Metaphysic of anthropotheism in genealogy of Nazi-supermans-mythology (on materials of Heidegger’s analysis of Nietzsche’s ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je. V. Rahmaylov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available E. Junger was asked to design social neoantropology, called the theory of total mobilization was aimed at resolving the contradictions of modernism and the need to construct the total social fabric of life . As such, the community was declared a working community. The authors also developed a typology of the masses. During the processing of military experience E. Junger allocated antropotyp warrior radykalized and mythologized by the author, who by fire and sword was intended to clear the way for a new social world. Fusion warrior with technology aiming at the formation of the next type, which has incorporated features such as warrior ­ worker as a representant of a new era. If the sense of modernism technique was instrumental character, E. Junger lifted her to the organic fusion of man, creating a social image tehnolyudyny and totalitarian community that would meet the technological relationship to the person by the authorities. Worker, by E. Jnger, claiming the global spread of its domination goes beyond modernism characteristic classes, states, nation­state boundaries. Individuals are too fragile to cope with the devastating process of changing the old with new values. The person must give the totality of the workflow. Human Dignity is a new era of substitutability and functionality. This need resulted in the characterization reflection of social atomism and fragmentation as a consequence of radical modernization. The ideal of working age in the image E. Junger is typical of a lack of self­ filling, the cause of which is the negation of these ideals modernist ideals.

  5. Bone mineral density changes of the proximal tibia after revision total knee arthroplasty. A randomised study with the use of porous tantalum metaphyseal cones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus L; Petersen, Michael M; Schrøder, Henrik M

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients were enrolled in a prospective randomised study using conventional method or "Trabecular Metal Cone" (TM Cone) (Zimmer inc., Warsaw, USA) for reconstruction of bone loss of the proximal tibia during revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). The aim was to evaluate changes in bone mi...

  6. Memories in photography and rebirth: toward a psychosocial therapy of the metaphysics of reincarnation among traditional Esan people of Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpokolo, Isaac E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that beyond the need for the justification of the belief in reincarnation, beyond the quest for evidences to prove its reality or otherwise, the idea of rebirth has a pragmatic role in the cultures where it is held. Using the theorization of rebirth among the Esan people of southern Nigeria as a pilot, it asserts that the idea of rebirth plays a psychosocial, therapeutic function of comfort and healing for those traumatized by the death of a loved one. This, it shall be seen, is similar to, even more reliable than, the role of photography in preserving cherished memories. The article does not, therefore, mean to join issues in the myth-reality or truth-falsehood debate on rebirth among scholars but attempts to establish the role of reincarnation, like photography, in bringing the past into the present.

  7. Influence of varus/valgus positioning of the Nanos® and Metha® short-stemmed prostheses on stress shielding of metaphyseal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, V; Radetzki, F; Gutteck, N; Delank, S; Zeh, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze bone remodeling around the Nanos® (Smith & Nephew) and Metha® (Aesculap AG) implants as a function of varus/valgus stem positioning. In 75 patients with diagnosed coxarthrosis, either Nanos® (n= 51) or Metha® (n= 24) prostheses were implanted. Digital assessment of plain radiographs immediately, 97 days, and 381 days after THA showed no clinically-relevant migration, angulation, or change in offset and center of rotation. The DEXA scans showed significant BMD changes in Gruen zones 1 (-12.8%), 2 (-3.3%), 6 (+6.4%), and 7(-7.8%)(t-test). The pre/postoperative CCD for the Nanos® was 129°/ 135° and for the Metha® 131°/ 127°. Linear regression analysis showed no prediction for BMD by postoperative CCD or stem type. In conclusion, there was no clinically-relevant influence on proximal femur BMD according to varus/valgus implantation of the Nanos® or Metha® prostheses.

  8. The effect of previous conditioning exercise on diaphyseal and metaphyseal bone to imposition and withdrawal of training in young Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Elwyn C; Rogers, Christopher W; van Weeren, P Rene; Barneveld, Albert; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Goodship, Allen E; Smith, Roger K W

    2012-04-01

    This study recorded the response to training of the diaphysis of the proximal phalangeal bone and the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) and the Mc3 proximal metaphysis. Nineteen 2- and 3-year old horses in training were exposed either to spontaneous exercise at pasture (PASTEX group) or additional imposed exercise (CONDEX group) from a very young age. Quantitative computed tomography scans were analysed for bone mineral content, size, bone mineral density, periosteal and endosteal circumference, cortical thickness and an estimate of bone strength. The bones of the CONDEX horses were bigger and stronger than those of the PASTEX horses at the start of the observation period, and these differences were maintained after adjusting for training workload. Increase in the bone strength index was through size and not density increase. Density increased during training and decreased during paddock rest between the two training campaigns, during which time bone strength continued to increase because of the slow growth that was still occurring. The greatest variance in the response to the training exercise of diaphyseal bone mineral content, bone strength index or cortical thickness was associated with the cumulative workload index at the gallop, although statistically significant unexplained variances remained. There were no differences in bone response to training, with the exception of the endosteal circumference at 55% of the Mc3 length from the carpometacarpal joint space between CONDEX and PASTEX, which indicated that young horses may be able to be exercised slightly more vigorously than currently accepted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of radiation therapy on growing long bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Kuhns, L.R.; Fayos, J.V.; Holt, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristic radiographic changes were seen in six of 14 children who received radiation therapy to the epiphyseal plate of a long bone. These changes, which include metaphyseal sclerosis, metaphyseal fraying, and epiphyseal plate widening, resemble rickets. In three patients, these changes were followed by development of a broad metaphyseal band of increased density. The absence of metaphyseal changes may indicate sterilization of cartilage cells and may be predictive of significant limb shortening

  10. Disease: H00863 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00863 Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia... is a rare skeletal dysplasia. Its features are disproportionate short stature. On radiograp...h, defective ossification of vertebral bodies, enlarged epiphyses, and metaphyseal dysplasia are noted. It i...s inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Skeletal dysplasia NKX3-2 [HSA:579] ...[KO:K09995] ... The diseases similar to spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia include spondylometaphyseal dysplasia

  11. Aristotle's Humanistic Ethics | Onwuegbusi | Global Journal of Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to argue that Aristotle has no clear metaphysical basis for his ethical treatise as presented in his Nicomachean Ethics. What he claims as the supreme good for man which is happiness in accordance with the highest virtue of the soul has no metaphysical foundation in his metaphysical system.

  12. Die filosofie van Immanuel Kant en Protestants-teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The philosophy of Immanuel Kant and Protestant theological structures. Kant's critical epistemology destroyed the idea of scientific metaphysics (valid up to Wolff) as the foundation of theology. Kant, however, reconstructed his own metaphysics on the basis of practical reason. In this scheme metaphysics and ethics are ...

  13. LA MARAVILLA DE LAS MARAVILLAS: QUE EL ENTE ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Volpi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the discussion on the overcoming of metaphysics in Heidegger, Carnap, and Wittgenstein. The goal is to determine if we really live in a post-metaphysical world, and to show that metaphysics cannot ignore practical philosophy.

  14. Uma solução aristotélica para o paradoxo do mentiroso em Metafísica IV, 8 = An Aristotelian solution to the liar paradox in metaphysics IV, 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, Nazareno Eduardo de

    2013-01-01

    A solução aristotélica, assim defendo, é levada a cabo por meio dos seguintes princípios: (i toda declaração é sempre precedida por um operador de verdade da forma ‘é verdade que. . . ’, ou seja, toda declaração, qualquer que seja o que ela possa declarar a mais, primariamente assevera a sua própria verdade; e, em conformidade com o princípio anterior, (ii toda declaração que assevera a sua própria falsidade ou acarreta a verdade de sua contraditória é necessariamente falsa. Através desses princípios, a refutação de Aristóteles da synalethia e da sympseudia é bemsucedida. Mostrarei que obtemos uma boa solução para as versões do mentiroso acima mencionadas (e implicitamente presentes nas posições refutadas, apenas aplicando esses mesmos princípios a elas. Esse tipo de solução ao mentiroso tanto quanto para as teses antes citadas é muito parecido com aquele explicitamente encontrado nas obras de diversos filósofos, a saber, Guilherme de Sherwood, Tomás Bradwardine, João Buridano, Alberto da Saxônia, Paulo Venetus, Charles S. Peirce e Arthur Prior. Assim, também defendo que essa linhagem tem as suas raízes na solução de Aristóteles

  15. A felicidade em foco – mensurando conceito metafísico para estratégia governamental e recomendações organizacionais HAPPINESS IN FOCUS – MEASURING METAPHYSICAL CONCEPT FOR COUNTRY STRATEGY AND ORGANIZATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jardim Pardini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For Aristotle, Happiness should be ultimate reason for life. Researchers have demonstrated that Happiness is positively correlated with creativity and productivity. So, the subject is relevant for each one as well as for organizations. Bentham's Utility Principle proposed that each people action should be judged according its final contribution to Happiness, whether positive or negative. Now the question of this work arises: are the organizational concepts (e.g.: Innovation, Competitiveness, Sustainability, Quality of Life, so frequent in administration technical literature, "useful" for Happiness? Are they "useful" for people as well as for organizations? The analysis of an interrelationship model proposed, covering such concepts, has positively answered this question. Hume (1741 and Bentham's proposal, in which administrators should take Happiness in account when establishing their government strategy, is very actual.Para Aristóteles, a Felicidade seria a razão última da vida. Pesquisadores demonstraram que ela está positivamente correlacionada com a criatividade e produtividade. Portanto, o tema possui relevância para os indivíduos e as organizações. O Princípio da Utilidade de Bentham (1789 propunha que cada ação dos indivíduos deveria ser julgada pela sua contribuição final à Felicidade, positiva ou negativa. Daí a questão deste estudo: conceitos organizacionais (ex: Inovação, Competitividade, Sustentabilidade, Qualidade de Vida, tão frequentes na literatura técnica sobre administração nas últimas duas décadas, são “úteis” para a Felicidade? E, consequentemente, para os indivíduos e para as próprias organizações? Este trabalho propõe um modelo de relacionamento desses conceitos, cuja análise respondeu afirmativamente a essa questão. A proposta de Hume (1741 e Bentham, para que administradores públicos considerem a Felicidade como referência ao estabelecerem sua estratégia de governo seria, então, muito atual.

  16. Patients' 'thingification', unexplained symptoms and response-ability in the clinical context: in response to 'Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and the metaphysical care', by Alexandra Parvan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Thor Eirik; Kirkengen, Anna Luise

    2016-08-01

    The types of diseases, or categories of suffering, referred to as medically unexplained symptoms or syndromes (MUS) are the focus for the following commentary. Such cases seem to invite reflection. The very nature of such complex patterns of disease and suffering raises a number of fundamental epistemological and ontological issues. Furthermore, such health challenges can serve as the basis for an exploration of how the suffering person as well as the medical caretaker comes to grip with disease, incapacitation or suffering. We have structured our comments into two parts: first, we will describe medically unexplained health problems as the background for an inquiry into a process wherein patients reify their suffering in order to meet their doctors on equal terms, which carries a potential for alienation. Second, we will reflect on Alexandra Parvan's text as regards patients' 'substantialization' of their disease, the resulting 'hybrid symptom' and a proposed model for care and healing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Proposta de argumento contra o naturalismo metafísico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Faria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n3p361 In this paper I present a proposal to reformulate the argument of Alvin Plantinga (2011 against metaphysical naturalism. Contrary to Plantinga’s argument, in this new version I propose to consider the probability of the reliability of cognitive faculties, not with regard to any kind of beliefs, but only with respect to metaphysical beliefs. I claim that those who accept naturalism have a defeater for the belief that their cognitive faculties are reliable with respect to metaphysical beliefs and, thus, they have a defeater for any of their metaphysical beliefs, including the belief in metaphysical naturalism. Therefore, those who accept naturalism have a defeater for naturalism; in other words, metaphysical naturalism is self-defeating.

  18. Die filosofie van Immanuel Kant en Protestants-teologiese denkstrukture

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Dreyer

    1990-01-01

    The philosophy of Immanuel Kant and Protestant theological structures Kant’s critical epistemology destroyed the idea of scientific metaphysics (valid up to Wolff) as the foundation of theology. Kant, however, reconstructed his own metaphysics on the basis of practical reason. In this scheme metaphysics and ethics are interwoven and culminate in a religion exclusively based on and conditioned by pure reason, usually known as Kant’s moral theology or rational religion. The purpose of this ...

  19. The Philosophy of Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn W. Erickson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac: In an extended discussion, within the context of a"philosophy offorestry", of the relationships of the concepts of truth and of tree some fundamental aspects of occidental metaphysics are examined from a Heideggerian perspective. But the paper tries to go beyond Heidegger's thematization of metaphysics in the context of pre-Socratic philosophy by establishing Indo-European etymology as a more inclusive horizon. In this manner, the transition from anti-metaphysics to post-metaphysics is anticipated.

  20. PICTORIAL ESSAY Pseudoachondroplasia: Report on a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and waddling gait become evident. The radiological manifestations are descriptively termed spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD). Significant retardation of epiphyseal ossification manifests with small, round epiphyses. The epiphyseal dysplasia leads to premature degenerative joint disease. The metaphyses are ...

  1. Heidegger and the problem of the nothingness. His criticism of Nietzsche’s position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Ávila Crespo Ávila Crespo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper takes as its theme the philosophical problem of nothingness in the thought of Heidegger. The paper has two purposes: On one hand, to clarify the position that metaphysics has in Heidegger; and, on the other, to show the relationship he establishes between metaphysics and nihilism.

  2. Il nichilismo come destino della paideia occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Borrelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From Nietzsche to Heidegger, it seems that the will to power and the technique are not, if not the way today’s nihilism is articulated, ultimate fulfillment of the history of being as metaphysics but not as being. If these are the preconditions of the intrusiveness and of the inevitability nihilistic of Western metaphysics, which paideia today is still thinkable?

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... However, Islamic art (Islamic Iran art) has its origins in the culture of Mazdean monotheism ... as a criterion for the metaphysics theory, since the lingual system has .... In continue, Sedgwick explains that solar metaphysics could provide ..... universe and spirituality of people that was neglected before this ...

  4. Teleología y ética en la obra tardía de Edmund Husserl

    OpenAIRE

    Sepp, H. (Hans-Rainer)

    2005-01-01

    In his later writings Husserl treats ethics as a discipline wherein he transforms it step by step and connects it with a teleological concept. In this process the ethical enquiry into the strivings of the 'Vernunft' get integrated into metaphysics. This metaphysics is an ontological teleology to be founded on a transcendental pehenomenology which thematises the absolute facticity of the transcendental subject.

  5. Blurring Boundaries : Carnap, Quine, and the Internal-External Distinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    Quine is routinely perceived as saving metaphysics from Carnapian positivism. Where Carnap rejects metaphysical existence claims as meaningless, Quine is taken to restore their intelligibility by dismantling the former's internal-external distinction. The problem with this picture, however, is that

  6. Foreign Security Force Advisor Training, Doctrine, and Manning for 2015 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    physical and metaphysical environment, and ways to mitigate stressors.  Social Perspective Taking 2 hour class—Gain an understanding of how a foreign...Recognize Cultural Stress 1 hour class—Recognizing stressors in a physical and metaphysical environment, and ways to mitigate stressors. Don’t Recall N

  7. The contextual and modal character of quantum mechanics : a formal and philosophical analysis in the foundations of physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronde, C. de

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation contains four main elements: 1. We put forward an interpretational map of quantum mechanics in general and of the modal interpretation in particular based on metaphysical and anti-metaphysical stances. 2. In contraposition to what we characterize as the

  8. The Sound of Violets: The Ethnographic Potency of Poetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Saunders, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes the form of a dialogue between the two authors, and is in two halves, the first half discursive and propositional, and the second half exemplifying the rhetorical, epistemological and metaphysical affordances of poetry in critically scrutinising the rhetoric, epistemology and metaphysics of educational management discourse. The…

  9. The (Even) Bolder Model: The Clinical Psychologist as Metaphysician-Scientist-Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William

    1989-01-01

    Examines the roles of metaphysics in science and psychotherapy. Examines the views of Karl Popper and Imre Lakatos. Concludes that psychotherapy involves metaphysics in the following ways: (1) problem choice; (2) research and therapy design; (3) observation statements; (4) resolving the Duhemian problem; and (5) including anomalous results in…

  10. What is cultural analysis? And what is the role of philosophy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Früchtl, J.

    2008-01-01

    'What is' questions are suspicious in 'post-metaphysical' times. A question that starts with: 'What is ...?' aims at grasping the essence of what it is aiming at, and grasping the essence of something or even of everything is the essence of metaphysics. At least this is what Nietzsche, Heidegger and

  11. Die filosofíe van Immanuel Kant en Protestants'teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kant's critical epistemology destroyed the idea of scien tific metaphysics (valid up to Wolff) as the foundation of theology. Kant, however, reconstructed his own meta physics on the basis of practical reason. In this scheme metaphysics and ethics are interwoven and culminate in a religion exclusively based on and ...

  12. Facing being: the significance of Thomist ontological epistemology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inevitable consequence of things not being knowable in themselves is the philosophical distance from 'the world', which Stephen Hawking has argued, makes the philosophical enterprise 'dead'. In dialogue with this widespread decline in metaphysics, I will attempt to reclaim realist metaphysics through the employment ...

  13. O fim da metafísica segundo Habermas: ponderações à luz do pensamento heideggeriano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In his work Post-Metaphysical Thinking, the philosopher Habermas announces the end of metaphysics as a totalizing and self-referential thinking, which intends to have a privileged access to truth. The devaluation of this kind of thinking culminates in the passage to what he calls post-metaphysical thinking, making a resizing of the role of philosophy necessary considering that a new scenario of thinking is being established. This article intends to problematize – in the light of the philosophy of Martin Heidegger – assumptions of Habermas, which justify his proposition of the end of metaphysics. In this sense, this article wants to show that the proposition of the contemporary empire of technique makes the announcement of the establishment of a post-metaphysical thinking something difficult to sustain.

  14. Jansen type of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.B.; Kozlowski, K.; Lejman, T.; Sulko, J.

    2000-01-01

    Metaphyseal dysplasia, type Jansen (JMD), is a rare skeletal dysplasia with characteristic radiographic abnormalities. Of the various types of metaphyseal dysplasia, JMD shows the most severe alteration in metaphyseal architecture. All of the long tubular bones, including those of the hands and feet, show metaphyseal irregularity with a fragmented appearance and slight widening. The adjacent physes are abnormally widened, while the epiphyses tend to be slightly enlarged, rounded but otherwise normal. The spine in infancy and childhood usually appears normal. This report describes a young girl with metaphyseal changes typical of JMD except for the hands and feet, which appeared normal. She also showed very unusual abnormalities of the spine. This appears, therefore, to represent a unique osteochondrodysplasia for which we propose the term spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, type Jansen. (orig.)

  15. Radiographic changes in rhesus macaques affected by scurvy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Eisele, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Spontaneous vitamin C deficiency, or scurvy, was recognized in juvenile rhesus monkeys maintained in a research center as a result of being fed a commercial diet for 2 to 3 months with low levels of vitamin C. Most severely affected animals (13) were radiographed repeatedly up to day 300 following detection of the disease. Early radiographic changes consisted of widened, lucent metaphyses with lateral flaring and radiopaque metaphyseal lines at the junction of the metaphyses and physes. Physeal slippage was noted commonly. Following institution of vitamin C therapy, calcification of subperiosteal hemorrhage occurred in the metaphyseal regions. Metaphyses and physes returned to normal radiographic appearance within 15 to 30 days. Initially, the subperiosteal hemorrhage progressed and a longer time was required for solution of the calcified hematomas. The macaques improved clinically and were released from the hospital when fractures were stable at 4-5 weeks after admission. Of the 13 macaques studied, all but one returned as normal members of the colony

  16. Osteosíntesis mini-invasiva con placas bloqueadas en fracturas metafisarias distales de tibia. Resultados clínico-funcionales. [Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in distal metaphyseal fractures of tibia. Comparison of results between fractures AO 43A and AO 43C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Yañez Arauz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción Las fracturas distales de tibia son un desafío para el tratamiento debido a la escasa cobertura y particular vascularización. Los objetivos del presente estudio son analizar los resultados clínicos y funcionales de los pacientes con fractura de tibia distal; tratados con técnica MIPO (minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis con placas bloqueadas; comparar los resultados del grupo de fracturas tipo AO 43A con las tipo AO 43C1-C2; y comparar los resultados MIPO con el tratamiento abierto convencional.   Material y métodos Entre 2004 y 2012, se evaluaron 32 fracturas de tibia distal tratadas con técnica MIPO. 20 varones y 12 mujeres. Edad promedio: 40,1 años. El 59,4% presentó fracturas tipo AO 43A; y el 40,6% AO 43C. Tiempo trauma/cirugía: 6,8 días promedio. 24 casos presentaron fractura de peroné. Estadía hospitalaria: 1,5 días promedio. Seguimiento promedio: 39,6 meses, mediante score AOFAS y radiología. Se consignaron complicaciones. Se compararon resultados de grupos  tipo AO A y los tipo AO C.   Resultados Incremento del score AOFAS entre pre y post-operatorio: 73,3 puntos promedio. El grupo AO tipo A: media de 95,89 puntos AOFAS PO. El grupo AO tipo C1-2: media de 92,15 puntos PO. Carga del peso corporal: a las 8,7 semanas promedio. Comparando A= 43A y AO 43C: p: 0,46 (no significativa. Retorno a actividad previa a la lesión:9.3 meses promedio. Comparando tipo A y tipo C: p=0,16 (no significativa. Hubo 18,75% de complicaciones y retiro de osteosíntesis en 14 casos.  Conclusiones  La osteosíntesis mínimamente invasiva con placa y tornillos, es una buena opción para las fracturas de tibia distal; con buena evolución clínico-funcional, y escasas complicaciones comparadas a la cirugía abierta. Las fracturas 43A presentan menos complicaciones mayores que las 43C, tratadas con técnica MIPO.

  17. Osteosíntesis mini-invasiva con placas bloqueadas en fracturas metafisarias distales de tibia. Resultados clínico-funcionales. [Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in distal metaphyseal fractures of tibia. Comparison of results between fractures AO 43A and AO 43C.

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Yañez Arauz; Ignacio Arzac Ulla; Javier Del Vecchio; Andres Eksarho; Leandro Civetta; Rodrigo Perez Davila

    2015-01-01

    Introducción Las fracturas distales de tibia son un desafío para el tratamiento debido a la escasa cobertura y particular vascularización. Los objetivos del presente estudio son analizar los resultados clínicos y funcionales de los pacientes con fractura de tibia distal; tratados con técnica MIPO (minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis) con placas bloqueadas; comparar los resultados del grupo de fracturas tipo AO 43A con las tipo AO 43C1-C2; y comparar los resultados MIPO con el tratamie...

  18. Osteosíntesis percutánea con placas volares bloqueadas en fracturas metafisarias distales de radio Descripción de la técnica y resultados preliminares. [Percutaneous volar locked plate fixation in metaphyseal fractures of distal radius: technical description and preliminary results].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia del Milagro Gutierrez Olivera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Evaluar resultados objetivos y subjetivos obtenidos luego de realizar osteosíntesis con placas en T bloqueadas volares, colocadas con técnica mínimamente invasiva, en fracturas del radio distal con extensión metafisaria. Material y Métodos Evaluación retrospectiva de seis pacientes adultos que presentaron fracturas inestables de radio distal, extra-articulares o articulares parciales, con extensión  metafisaria, tratadas quirúrgicamente con placas en T largas de compresión bloqueadas volares, mediante  técnica mínimamente invasiva, entre 2007 y  2012. Edad promedio 40,6 años. Todas las fracturas fueron cerradas, clasificadas como tipo 23A3 (n: 5 y 23B1 (n: 1 según el Sistema AO/ASIF. Se realizó reducción indirecta de la fractura, bajo visión radioscópica, a través de dos pequeñas incisiones se deslizó en forma percutánea una placa bloqueada volar en T. Se analizaron  parámetros radiológicos (angulación volar, inclinación radial y altura radial, el rango de movimiento y la fuerza. Los resultados subjetivos fueron evaluados usando la Escala de DASH y la Escala Visual Análoga. Resultados Tiempo de consolidaron promedio de 2,3 meses. Los resultados radiográficos no mostraron diferencias significativas entre el primer y el último control radiográfico al año de seguimiento. Flexión y extensión promedio 70° y 60°, pronación y supinación 79° y 80° respectivamente. Fuerza de prensión promedio 78,4%. El score de DASH 19,84 puntos y el EVA 1,5 puntos. Conclusión Las técnicas mínimamente invasivas reducen el daño quirúrgico y complicaciones. Son una opción en pacientes con daño severo de partes blandas, conminución metafisaria y trauma de alta energía. Pequeñas incisiones alejadas del sitio de fractura respetan los tejidos blandos y la biología ósea, contribuyendo a lograr la consolidación. La colocación de placas volares bloqueadas percutáneas es un procedimiento técnicamente demandante; permite obtener fijaciones estables y restaurar la anatomía radial en fracturas de radio distal con extensión metafisaria. El problema más común es la mala alineación ósea.

  19. Candidate worldviews for design theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2008-01-01

    Our growing body of design theory risks being infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design theorists. Taking my cue from C. S. Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basic metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically aware of......, I demonstrate how ‘insidious inconsistency’ may infect design theory if we ignore his admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound metaphysical foundations (‘worldviews’) for design theory – and generate philosophical insights into design...... to the metaphysical (pre-empirical) and  conceptual foundations of design theory....

  20. Los indivisibles para Aristóteles en De Anima III, 8 y Metaphysica IX, 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Morán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available What are the so called "indivisible" in Aristotle's thought? The indivisibles are the categories of being, enumerated on the books of: Topics I, 9; Categories II, 1; Metaphysics V, 7 and Physics III, 1. On one hand, the philosophy of nature's perspective (On the Soul III, 11, demonstrates an assertion, namely: the indivisible things are known in three aspects of knowledge: the continuum, form or eidos and privations. On the other hand, the metaphysics' perspective (Metaphysics XI, 9, proves that the indivisibles are the ultimate and unchanging objects of nature, that is, the unmovable motor, and the separate substances.

  1. Die filosofie van Immanuel Kant en Protestants-teologiese denkstrukture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Dreyer

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The philosophy of Immanuel Kant and Protestant theological structures Kant’s critical epistemology destroyed the idea of scientific metaphysics (valid up to Wolff as the foundation of theology. Kant, however, reconstructed his own metaphysics on the basis of practical reason. In this scheme metaphysics and ethics are interwoven and culminate in a religion exclusively based on and conditioned by pure reason, usually known as Kant’s moral theology or rational religion. The purpose of this paper is, firstly, to give a very short exposition of the basic concepts of Kant’s moral theology, and secondly, to show its decisive influence on post Kantian protestant view of religion.

  2. Verby die geweld van die metaflsika: Die Christelike erfenis en sekularisasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus Schoeman

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the violence of metaphysics: The Christian tradition and secularisation. This essay reinterprets Christian faith in terms of the contemporary philosophical discourse on nihilism and the "end" of metaphysics, especially Heidegger's ontology of "decline." If Christianity is to regain its relevance in the contemporary world, it should purge itself from remnants of the natural religions as well as metaphysical beliefs, because they are instrumental in concealing (and thereby perpetuating the arbitrary violence on which communities and their moral systems are founded. Christianity can play a meaningful role in unmasking these beliefs, thus paving the way for a "healthy" secularism and an ethics of love and non-violence.

  3. The (even) bolder model. The clinical psychologist as metaphysician-scientist-practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W

    1989-12-01

    Is the clinical psychologist best characterized as a scientist-practitioner? Or does the practice of science and psychotherapy involve metaphysics to such an extent that the clinical psychologist ought to be considered a metaphysician-scientist-practitioner? To answer these questions, the roles, if any, of metaphysics in science and psychotherapy are examined. This article investigates this question by examining the views of the logical positivists, Karl Popper and Imre Lakatos, and concludes that the practice of science and psychotherapy involves metaphysics in (a) problem choice, (b) research and therapy design, (c) observation statements, (d) resolving the Duhemian problem, and (e) modifying hypotheses to encompass anomalous results.

  4. Science, conscience, consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Descartes' metaphysics lays the foundation for the special sciences, and the notion of consciousness ("conscientia") belongs to metaphysics rather than to psychology. I argue that as a metaphysical notion, "consciousness" refers to an epistemic version of moral conscience. As a consequence, the activity on which science is based turns out to be conscientious thought. The consciousness that makes science possible is a double awareness: the awareness of what one is thinking, of what one should be doing, and of the possibility of a gap between the two.

  5. Nosology, ontology and promiscuous realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Medics may consider worrying about their metaphysics and ontology to be a waste of time. I will argue here that this is not the case. Promiscuous realism is a metaphysical position which holds that multiple, equally valid, classification schemes should be applied to objects (such as patients) to capture different aspects of their complex and heterogeneous nature. As medics at the bedside may need to capture different aspects of their patients' problems, they may need to use multiple classification schemes (multiple nosologies), and thus consider adopting a different metaphysics to the one commonly in use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Aneignung und Interpretation der monadologischen Metaphysik von Leibniz durch die Metaphysik des Daseins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Neumann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of H.-G. Gadamer and F. Volpi have showed the intimate connection between Sein und Zeit and the philosophy of Aristotle, specially the Nicomachean Ethics. The influence of other thinkers on the hermeneutical phenomenology has received less attention. Amongst the thinkers, whose contributions have not been sufficiently highlighted figures Leibniz. In this context, some relations between Leibniz’s monadological thinking and the metaphysics of Heidegger’s Dasein are considered and interpreted in this paper. It is argued that, to certain extent, an appropriation of Monadology’s metaphysics takes place in Dasein’s metaphysics.

  7. 4 -C EMEDOLU-FT-4-2-2015-

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. P age. 6 .... Chimakonam that, “A science which does not include the metaphysical in its map of .... In African magic, which Popper might classify as a pseudo-science,.

  8. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH) Bahir Dar- Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    issues about God, man and the universe. Etymologically, the ... Metaphysics is believed to have originated from Andronicus, the editor of Aristotle's works who ... episteme, which means knowledge and logos meaning theory or study. Hence,.

  9. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with hypercalcemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagga, A.; Srivastava, R.N.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.

    1989-01-01

    Kozlowski's spondylometaphyseal dysplasia is characterised by short-trunk dwarfism, platyspondyly, metaphyseal dysplasia and retarded bone age. We report an association of this syndrome with asymptomatic, hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, a previously undocumented finding. (orig.)

  10. Contemporary Hegelian Scholarship: Robert Stern’s Holistic Reading of Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniel Reyes Cardenas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a monographic presentation in which the author depicts the guidelines of Professor Robert Stern’s interpretation of Hegelian Metaphysics by emphasizing in its characteristic holistic reading. The proposal is that some key fundamental topics of Hegelian scholarship will emerge with a clarified understanding after this reading: the concept of Truth and absolute knowledge are reassessed by showing the necessary connection of Epistemology and Metaphysics in Hegel. Hegelian Metaphysics, accordingly, appears ultimately as the principle for a reading of Hegel’s entire philosophy and illuminates its nature of general metaphysical inquiry. Finally, this reading allows drawing on the connection of Hegel’s Idealism with the Pragmatist tradition initiated by Peirce.

  11. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ong, J C Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

  12. Disease: H00444 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sclerosis (OSCS) is a bone dysplasia characterized by longitudinal striations in the metaphyseal region of the long bones... and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones. The condition is X-linked dominant. Germline mutatio

  13. Filosofia da diferença e identidades culturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Queiróz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Différance, philosophical category created by Derrida, allows to surpass the western metaphysics and its negative consequences on culture. It also indicates new ways to establish the foundations of cultural identity.

  14. Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia misdiagnosed as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia misdiagnosed as seronegative juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ozgur Taspinar, Fatih Kelesoglu, Yasar Keskin, Murat Uludag. Abstract. Background: Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) is a rare spondylo- epi-metaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD). It can be confused with juvenile ...

  15. Trafficking of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells in Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mastro, Andrea M

    2004-01-01

    ... metaphyses. Human breast cancer cells that express green fluorescent protein (GFP-MDA-MB 231) will be inoculated into athymic mice by intracardiac injection and femurs harvested at various times from 1 hour to 6 weeks later...

  16. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with hypercalcemia. [Radiological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagga, A.; Srivastava, R.N.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.

    1989-08-01

    Kozlowski's spondylometaphyseal dysplasia is characterised by short-trunk dwarfism, platyspondyly, metaphyseal dysplasia and retarded bone age. We report an association of this syndrome with asymptomatic, hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, a previously undocumented finding. (orig.).

  17. S. Alberto Magno y la Epistola Alexandri de Principio Universi Esse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Alarcón

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The "universal reduction to being", as a method of metaphysics, was discovered by St. Albert the Great in a pantheistic treatise, which he erroneously considered of Aristotelian origin.

  18. Le cinema policier en France (Detective Films in France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerif, Francois

    1984-01-01

    A survey of French detective films since 1908 looks at how French and other detective novels have inspired a film genre, from the original serial through classic suspense, thriller, the crime novel, and comedy to the political and metaphysical. (MSE)

  19. Salvage of tibial pilon fractures using fusion of the ankle with a 90 degrees cannulated blade-plate: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S J; Thordarson, D B; Shepherd, L E

    1999-06-01

    Six patients with ankle joint destruction and delayed metaphyseal union after tibial plafond fracture were surgically treated with tibiotalar arthrodesis and metaphyseal reconstruction, using a fixed-angle cannulated blade-plate. The procedure was performed through a posterior approach in five cases and a lateral approach in one case. The subtalar joint was preserved in all cases. Metaphyseal union and a stable arthrodesis were obtained in all cases without loss of fixation and with no mechanical failure of the blade-plate. Union was obtained in an average of 26 weeks. No secondary procedures were required to obtain union. All six patients were ambulatory at last follow-up. Stable internal fixation for simultaneous tibiotalar fusion and metaphyseal reconstruction can be achieved with a cannulated blade-plate while preserving the subtalar joint in complex plafond fractures.

  20. Book review: COLIVA, Annalisa. The Varieties of Self-Knowledge . London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 288p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Borba

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this review, I argue that Coliva's strong transparency admits three possible interpretations: (a a Wittgensteinian interpretation, (b a metaphysical interpretation, and (c an epistemic interpretation. I favor (c over (a and (b.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of metatropic dysplasia: beware of the pseudo-bowing sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garel, Catherine; Dhouib, Amira; Sileo, Chiara; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Cormier-Daire, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Metatropic dysplasia is a very rare form of osteochondrodysplasia with only one case of prenatal diagnosis described in the literature. It is characterized by marked shortening of the long bones with severe platyspondyly and dumbbell-shape metaphyses. We report a case of metatropic dysplasia that was diagnosed prenatally and describe the findings on US and CT. The pregnancy was terminated and the post-mortem radiographs are shown. The woman had been referred for short and bowed long bones. Severe metaphyseal enlargement was a misleading finding because it had been misinterpreted as limb bowing. Thus when abnormal curvature of the long bones is observed at prenatal US, attention should be drawn not only to the diaphyses but also to the metaphyses because severe metaphyseal enlargement might be responsible for pseudo-bowing. (orig.)

  2. Case report: Radiologic changes of the skeleton in a dog with lead poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, J.; Šehić, M.; Žubčić, D.; Jesovsek, S.

    1994-01-01

    The skeleton of a young dog displayed radiological signs of chronic lead intoxication. Osteoclastic changes were demonstrable at the metaphyse of the long bones as well as in all areas with growth activity [de

  3. The Role of Freedom in Kant\\'s Philosophy of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Sayf

    2010-05-01

    This article is an attempt to study the role of freedom in Kant's philosophy of ethics with special reference to his two main books on practical reason, namely, The Foundations of the Metaphysics of Ethics and Critique of Practical Reason.

  4. Les cosmologistes s'aventurent de l'autre côté du Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Hir, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    What existed before the Universe? Physics, as the common sense, comes up against this metaphysical question. The one of before the creation, of a pre-origin, from an anteriority at the beginning. (1,5 page)

  5. Borgesian Libraries and Librarians in Television Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Konstantinova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the works of Jorge Luis Borges, the library appears frequently as a metaphor representative of life and its secrets. It becomes a metaphysical location, posing questions about the nature of time, life, and the universe itself. The librarian becomes a metaphysical figure, leading the search for answers to life’s questions. This article examines the way in which the Borgesian library metaphor has crossed over from the realm of literature into the realm of popular television. By examining two episodes of the BBC series Doctor Who , the TNT franchise The Librarian , and several episodes of Joss Whedon’s cult television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer , it demonstrates that the metaphysical questions posed by the library and its librarian in Borges’s short stories are quite similar to the metaphysical questions posed by the library and its librarians in popular television, demonstrating that the Borgesian library has crossed over into the realms of popular culture.

  6. Konkrétná logika - ideové vlivy a proměny v souvislosti s vývojem Masarykovy filosofie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2015), s. 17-29 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Masaryk's realism * clasification and system of science * scientific metaphysics * sense and value Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. 3. RO Badru and TR Eegunlusi Colonial Legal Reasoning pp.11-39

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REGINALDS

    Glossary. Epistemology: a branch of philosophy which focuses on a critical and systematic ..... very slender accomplishments, like a parrot, who speaks a few words .... Colonial Legal Reasoning and African Metaphysical Epistemology 25.

  8. Book Review: Book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Barry

    2012-05-01

    In Laws and Lawmakers Marc Lange climbs off the fence regarding the metaphysics of laws, landing squarely on the non-Humean side. However, his position is interestingly distinct from the standard options: facts about the laws are not metaphysically prior to facts about subjunctives, nor are they analyzed in terms of causal powers or dispositions. Instead, the law facts are analyzed in terms of subjunctive facts. In The Law-Governed Universe John Roberts reconciles the governing intuition with Humean supervenience, a feat so remarkable it suggests we are dealing not with metaphysics, but metaphysical poetry, characterized by Dr. Johnson as that in which "the most heterogeneous ideas are yoked by violence together." These are two highly original works that stake out sophisticated and genuinely novel positions in the debate. They provide essential reading for anyone interested in laws.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of metatropic dysplasia: beware of the pseudo-bowing sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, Catherine [Trousseau Hospital, University Hospitals of the East of Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Dhouib, Amira; Sileo, Chiara; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert [Trousseau Hospital, University Hospitals of the East of Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Cormier-Daire, Valerie [Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Necker-Enfants-Malades Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris (France)

    2014-03-15

    Metatropic dysplasia is a very rare form of osteochondrodysplasia with only one case of prenatal diagnosis described in the literature. It is characterized by marked shortening of the long bones with severe platyspondyly and dumbbell-shape metaphyses. We report a case of metatropic dysplasia that was diagnosed prenatally and describe the findings on US and CT. The pregnancy was terminated and the post-mortem radiographs are shown. The woman had been referred for short and bowed long bones. Severe metaphyseal enlargement was a misleading finding because it had been misinterpreted as limb bowing. Thus when abnormal curvature of the long bones is observed at prenatal US, attention should be drawn not only to the diaphyses but also to the metaphyses because severe metaphyseal enlargement might be responsible for pseudo-bowing. (orig.)

  10. La defensa pragmática del principio de no contradicción: comentarios a Metafísica IV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Zagal Arreguin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the rhetorical character of one of the arguments developed by Aristotle in Met. IV supporting the principle of non-contradiction. Rhetoric has a place in metaphysical discussions.

  11. Effect of latrogenic trauma on the bone scintigram: an animal study. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.; Moitoza, J.; Heaphy, J.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An animal study was performed to assess the effect on the Tc-99m phosphate bone scintigram of injury by needle aspiration or drill hole to metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas in immature and mature bones. Results showed that in 12 immature rabbits such trauma to metaphyseal regions had no effect on the bone image. Similar metaphyseal trauma in two mature dogs showed definite abnormalities on the bone image, but in one mature rabbit, no abnormality could be identified by scintigram. Diaphyseal trauma always gave a definitely abnormal bone image. Extrapolation of these results to humans should be cautious, but it suggests that needling or drilling in metaphyseal regions in neonates or young children probably does not affect later bone images

  12. The Kantian Foundation of Schopenhauer's Pessimism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanden Auweele, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses extensively the epistemology, metaphysics, aesthetics, ethics, philosophy of religion and ascetics of Schopenhauer's philosophy. Its main argument is that Schopenhauer's views in all of these domains follow organically from certain Kantian premises.

  13. Per tenebras iter intutum est.' K pojetí světla v díle Jana Amose Komenského

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schifferová, Věra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, mimořádné číslo 1 (2014), s. 127-139 ISSN 1214-8725 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Comenius * the light * metaphysics * pampaedia * panorthosia Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Et overflødighedshorn af overraskende kortslutninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Stein

    2015-01-01

    Den engelsk-amerikanske digter T. S. Eliot skrev i et af sine berømte essays " The Metaphysical Poets" (1923) om, hvad der er det særlige ved den store digter sammenlignet med andre mennesker.......Den engelsk-amerikanske digter T. S. Eliot skrev i et af sine berømte essays " The Metaphysical Poets" (1923) om, hvad der er det særlige ved den store digter sammenlignet med andre mennesker....

  15. Czy logiczna możliwość implikuje metafizyczną możliwość?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł J. Zięba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Chalmers, the argument from the conceivability of philosophical zombies disproves materialism in the philosophy of mind. This claim depends on the assumption that conceivability (logical possibility entails metaphysical possibility. Such entailment is incorrect, however, because a materialist might formulate an analogous argument from the conceivability of anti-zombies. A clash between two mutually excluding logical possibilities prevents one from inferring a metaphysical possibility from any of them.

  16. Guilt-Free War: Post-Traumatic Stress and an Ethical Framework for Battlefield Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Susan Wolf, “ Moral Obligations and Social Command,” in Metaphysics and the Good: Themes from the Philosophy of Robert Merrihew Adams, edited by...1–18. Wolf, Susan. “ Moral Obligations and Social Command.” In Metaphysics and the Good: Themes from the Philosophy of Robert Merrihew Ad- ams, edited...Analysis of Recent Studies 5 Discussion of Various Approaches to Addressing Moral Injuries 7 Recommendations 17 Conclusion 19 Abbreviations 25

  17. Some Trends in the Philosophy of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Zinkernagel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A short review of some recent developments in the philosophy of physics is presented. I focus on themes which illustrate relations and points of common interest between philosophy of physics and three of its `neighboring' elds: Physics, metaphysics and general philosophy of science. The main examples discussed in these three `border areas' are (i decoherence and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; (ii time in physics and metaphysics; and (iiimethodological issues surrounding the multiverse idea in modern cosmology.

  18. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: clinical, radiological and sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, T. [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Simon, M.J. [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Al-Assir, I. [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Prieto, C. [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I. [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Pablo, L. de [Servicio de Radiologia Pediatrica, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain); Lama, R. [Servicio de Gastroenterologia, Hospital Infantil `La Paz`, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    Six children with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome have been diagnosed and treated in our hospital since 1986. We describe the radiological and sonographic findings of this rare disease, which is characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, neutropenia and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. It presents with varying extremity shortening, ``cup`` deformation of the ribs, metaphyseal widening and hypoplasia of the iliac bones, as well as increased echogenicity of the normal-sized pancreas. We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the literature. (orig.)

  19. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: clinical, radiological and sonographic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, T. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Simon, M.J. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Al-Assir, I. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Prieto, C. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Pablo, L. de [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Lama, R. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, `La Paz` Children`s Hospital, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    Six children with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome have been diagnosed and treated in our hospital since 1986. We describe the radiological and sonographic findings of this rare disease which is characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, neutropenia and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. It presents with variable extremity shortening, ``cup`` deformation of the ribs, metaphyseal widening and hypoplasia of the iliac bones, and increased echogenicity of the pancreas without change in size. We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the literature. (orig.)

  20. MR imaging of deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia in an 8-year-old female with thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.T.; Caldwell, G.; Kaye, J.J.; Arkin, S.; Burke, S.; Brill, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    Bone changes in thalassemic patients receiving deferoxamine therapy for iron chelation include metaphyseal and growth plate irregularities. We present a case of an 8-year-old female with thalassemia major, who had magnetic resonance imaging after plain radiographs had shown metaphyseal changes in the distal femur. The signal characteristics of these abnormalities were consistent with hyaline cartilage; the surrounding marrow showed no evidence of iron overrload. (orig.)

  1. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: clinical, radiological and sonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Simon, M.J.; Al-Assir, I.; Prieto, C.; Pastor, I.; Pablo, L. de; Lama, R.

    1995-01-01

    Six children with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome have been diagnosed and treated in our hospital since 1986. We describe the radiological and sonographic findings of this rare disease, which is characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, neutropenia and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. It presents with varying extremity shortening, ''cup'' deformation of the ribs, metaphyseal widening and hypoplasia of the iliac bones, as well as increased echogenicity of the normal-sized pancreas. We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the literature. (orig.)

  2. Case report 632: Parosteal osteochondromatous hamartoma associated with Trevor's disease (dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, T.G.; Whitten, C.G.; Jones, M.; Dorfman, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The current case represents a patient with classic plain film findings of Trevor's disease (DEH) seen in the foot and ankle, who presented with a large, eccentric metaphyseal lesion in the ipsilateral distal femur. The radiographic and pathologic characteristics of this large metaphyseal lesion were considered atypical for a simple osteochondroma; therefore, we propose the term 'parosteal osteochondromatous hamartoma' as a descriptive term that best fits its unique characteristic. (orig.)

  3. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: clinical, radiological and sonographic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Simon, M.J.; Al-Assir, I.; Prieto, C.; Pastor, I.; Pablo, L. de; Lama, R.

    1995-01-01

    Six children with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome have been diagnosed and treated in our hospital since 1986. We describe the radiological and sonographic findings of this rare disease which is characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, neutropenia and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. It presents with variable extremity shortening, ''cup'' deformation of the ribs, metaphyseal widening and hypoplasia of the iliac bones, and increased echogenicity of the pancreas without change in size. We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the literature. (orig.)

  4. Democracy and identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milović Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It might be that the crisis of democracy is crisis of thinking. Modern metaphysics affirms the monologue of the subject with respect to the problem of rationality, as well as in the social realm. It thus affirms liberal egoism. Such metaphysics structures modernity as a monologue. Thus the question arises: how to think the democracy within this monologue? Democracy appears to be a modern project impossible to achieve.

  5. Anicio Manlio Severino Boecio: notas sobre una traducción inédita a la Metafísica de Aristóteles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Morán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based upon Saint Thomas' commentary to the books Peri Hermeneias and Metaphysics of Aristotle, we raise two hypothesis: a There was a translation and a commentary of Severinus Boethius on Aristotle's Metaphysics, b Boethius is not only an authority on logic but also en prôtèphilosophía. We try to prove our thesis with specific texts of Aquinas's philosophical commentaries.

  6. MR imaging of deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia in an 8-year-old female with thalassemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T.T. (Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States)); Caldwell, G. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States)); Kaye, J.J. (Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States)); Arkin, S. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)); Burke, S. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States)); Brill, P.W. (Dept. of Radiolgy, New York Hospital, Cornell Univ. Medical Center, New York, NY (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Bone changes in thalassemic patients receiving deferoxamine therapy for iron chelation include metaphyseal and growth plate irregularities. We present a case of an 8-year-old female with thalassemia major, who had magnetic resonance imaging after plain radiographs had shown metaphyseal changes in the distal femur. The signal characteristics of these abnormalities were consistent with hyaline cartilage; the surrounding marrow showed no evidence of iron overrload. (orig.)

  7. Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Okamoto, Reiko; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Gen; Kumagai, Masaaki; Shioda, Yoko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Kitoh, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  8. Monistic dualism and the body electric: An ontology of disease, patient and clinician for person-centred healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2016-08-01

    Ontology is involved in medical care, because what both doctors and patients think the disease, the patient and the doctor are affects the giving and receiving of care, and hence the definition of medical care as profession. Going back to ancient philosophical views of disease as 'bounded entity' or as 'relation' (still echoed in contemporary theories and mindsets), I propose a way to think ontologically about disease that places it in necessary connection with the patient as person. Drawing on Augustine's views on disease, bodily integrity, and the human person as mind-body unit, I speak of 'monistic dualism' as the view where the unit and health of the person is continuously and personally generated by the mind's attention to and action on the body, whether the body is impaired or not. Monistic dualism is identified as the ontological position of both patients who are (or can become) healthy within illness and clinicians who are 'healthy' in their profession. It is what guides both to create what their body is in a personal state of integrity or health. This 'metaphysical body' is termed 'the body electric' in patients, and I argue that clinicians can attend properly to the diseased body by attending to patients' metaphysical body. As clinicians offer metaphysical care to themselves, employing monistic dualism to create their metaphysical body, they should not deny it to patients. Ontology cannot be part of medical care without making metaphysical care a requirement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Regularities, Natural Patterns and Laws of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathis Psillos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  The goal of this paper is to sketch an empiricist metaphysics of laws of nature. The key idea is that there are regularities without regularity-enforcers. Differently put, there are natural laws without law-makers of a distinct metaphysical kind. This sketch will rely on the concept of a natural pattern and more significantly on the existence of a network of natural patterns in nature. The relation between a regularity and a pattern will be analysed in terms of mereology.  Here is the road map. In section 2, I will briefly discuss the relation between empiricism and metaphysics, aiming to show that an empiricist metaphysics is possible. In section 3, I will offer arguments against stronger metaphysical views of laws. Then, in section 4 I will motivate nomic objectivism. In section 5, I will address the question ‘what is a regularity?’ and will develop a novel answer to it, based on the notion of a natural pattern. In section 6, I will raise the question: ‘what is a law of nature?’, the answer to which will be: a law of nature is a regularity that is characterised by the unity of a natural pattern.

  10. A scientific defence of religion and the religious accommodation of science? Contextual challenges and paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Few human phenomena in our time are as controversial or confusing as religion. People seem to live in two worlds: a mythical and a scientific one. They talk about either of these worlds in isolation but cannot reconcile the underlying presuppositions. Believers are less naïve than the ‘new atheists’ suppose, and atheists do not come without their quota of superstition and belief. Midway between the two opposites is a burgeoning, secular new spirituality that has assumed many forms in recent years. The groups are often marked by some form of naturalism, which try to accommodate science. The premise in this article is that religion, being a product of normal evolutionary processes, is ‘natural’. This implies that cultural evolution is ongoing and supports the thesis that religion (in this case Western Christianity is making a major transition. As for science, I briefly outline the role of metaphysics. That is because science often has to invoke metaphysical constructs to make sense of the bigger picture. Following Aristotle, the metaphysical dimension of science is a blank page which every era fills with its own interpretation. In that sense, it is ‘more than’ just empiricism, verifiability, and it is accompanied by some metaphysical baggage. At this metaphysical level, the traditional dominance of causality makes way for emergence.

  11. Baruch Spinoza and the naturalisation of the Bible: An epistemological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas J. Gronum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the naturalisation of the Bible. Three voices are of special importance in the narrative presented in this article; they are Aristotle (384–322 BC, Rene Descartes (1596–1650 and Baruc Spinoza (1632–1677. This article will investigate the scientific method and metaphysics espoused by each of the three scholars, thereby highlighting changes in scientific method and metaphysics that lead to the naturalisation of the Bible. Firstly, Aristotle pioneered a scientific method (his logic that would dominate for centuries, as well as a highly influential metaphysics. Secondly, Descartes, witnessing the horrors of the Thirty Years War and seeing first-hand the new discoveries that brought about the scientific revolution, reacted against Aristotle’s metaphysics. Ironically he then used Aristotle’s scientific method to provide a foundation for the new science resulting in Descartes’s famous dualism. Thirdly, Spinoza, equally horrified by the amount of religious violence of his time, reacts against Descartes’s dualism, providing scholars with a monist metaphysics that would contribute greatly to the naturalisation of the Bible. This article will be relevant to theologians who wish to engage more fully with contemporary Western culture.

  12. Quantum Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Barrett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p45 Because of the conceptual difficulties it faces, quantum mechanics provides a salient example of how alternative metaphysical commitments may clarify our understanding of a physical theory and the explanations it provides. Here we will consider how postulating alternative quantum worlds in the context of Hugh Everett III’s pure wave mechanics may serve to explain determinate measurement records and the standard quantum statistics. We will focus on the properties of such worlds, then briefly consider other metaphysical options available for interpreting pure wave mechanics. These reflections will serve to illustrate both the nature and the limits of naturalized metaphysics.

  13. The Essential Connection between Modern Science and Utopian Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Redpath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The chief aim of this paper is to demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt how, through an essential misunderstanding of the nature of philosophy, and science, over the past several centuries, the prevailing Western tendency to reduce the whole of science to mathematical physics unwittingly generated utopian socialism as a political substitute for metaphysics. In short, being unable speculatively, philosophically, and metaphysically to justify this reduction, some Western intellectuals re-conceived the natures of philosophy, science, and metaphysics as increasingly enlightened, historical and political forms of the evolution of human consciousness toward creation of systematic science, a science of clear and distinct ideas. In the process they unwittingly wound up reducing contemporary philosophy and Western higher education largely into tools of utopian socialist political propaganda.

  14. Achondroplasia and enchondromatosis: report of three boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numakura, Chikahiko [Yamagata University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Yamagata (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Hironori [Shimane University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Shimane (Japan); Hasegawa, Yukihiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Masanori [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Clinical Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We report on three boys suffering from achondroplasia concurrent with enchondromatosis-like metaphyseal changes. Two boys who were examined by molecular analysis harbored a mutation of FGFR3, which occurs in most achondroplastic individuals. Given the prevalence of achondroplasia and enchondromatosis, the metaphyseal changes in these patients are less likely to represent the coincidence of both disorders, but rather to result from a rare consequence of the FGFR3 mutation. Impaired FGFs/FGFR3 signaling pathway in achondroplasia inhibits chondrocytic proliferation, which accounts for most characteristics of achondroplasia. On the other hand, it causes conflicting biological consequences that can suppress or stimulate chondrocytic maturation. In a small subset of achondroplastic individuals, the suppression of chondrocytic maturation may outweigh the stimulation, which leads to cartilaginous overgrowth into the metaphysis, eventually causing the metaphyseal dysplasia found in the present patients. (orig.)

  15. kaˆ kaqÒlou oÛtwj Óti prèth P. Aubenque / A. de Muralt: una polémica conceptual sobre la metafísica aristotélica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco León Florido

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a conceptual controversy concerning the metaphysics of Aristotle. Pierre Aubenque defends an aporetical interpretation that refuses the presence of the doctrine of the nalogy in the Aristotelic texts. According to Aubenque, Aristotle is trying to unify the physics and the metaphysics, but fails in his attempt, causing le problème de l’être. The swiss professor André de Muralt organizes the Aristotelic metaphysics around the analogy of being, conceived as a methodological procedure. According to Muralt, Aristotle is the maker of the invention du discours metaphysique, a systematic structure that provides the themes, concepts and great lines of the western thought.

  16. Ankle fusion for definitive management of non-reconstructable pilon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Vladimir; Thordarson, David B; Hertz, Jennifer

    2008-09-01

    Highly comminuted pilon fractures, especially with a compromised soft tissue envelope, present a challenging treatment scenario. This study presents our results for patients managed with ankle fusion rather than ORIF. Fourteen patients with ankle joint incongruence after non-reconstructable tibia pilon fractures were treated with primary tibiotalar arthrodesis using a fixed-angle cannulated blade plate. Delayed metaphyseal unions due to bone defects were treated concurrently. The subtalar joint was preserved in all cases. Metaphyseal healing and stable arthrodesis was obtained in each case. There was one case of blade plate breakage in a patient who still achieved successful arthrodesis without reoperation. Union was achieved at an average of 15 weeks. No secondary procedures were required to obtain union. All 14 patients were ambulatory at last followup. Average followup was 39 weeks. Primary ankle arthrodesis can be achieved using a cannulated blade plate to address a non-reconstructable articular surface and metaphyseal bone defects in complex tibia pilon fractures.

  17. Must Metaethical Realism Make a Semantic Claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2013-02-01

    Mackie drew attention to the distinct semantic and metaphysical claims made by meta ethical realists, arguing that although our evaluative discourse is cognitive and objective, there are no objective evaluative facts. This distinction, however, also opens up a reverse possibility: that our evaluative discourse is antirealist, yet objective values do exist. I suggest that this seemingly far-fetched possibility merits serious attention; realism seems com mitted to its intelligibility, and, despite appearances, it isn't incoherent, ineffable, inherently implausible or impossible to defend. I argue that reflection on this possibility should lead us to revise our understanding of the debate between realists and antirealists. It is not only that the realist's semantic claim is insufficient for realism to be true, as Mackie argued; it's not even necessary. Robust metaethical realism is best understood as making a purely metaphysical claim. It is thus not enough for antirealists to show that our discourse is antirealist. They must directly attack the realist's metaphysical claim.

  18. Achondroplasia and enchondromatosis: report of three boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numakura, Chikahiko; Kobayashi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Adachi, Masanori; Kim, Ok Hwa; Nishimura, Gen

    2007-01-01

    We report on three boys suffering from achondroplasia concurrent with enchondromatosis-like metaphyseal changes. Two boys who were examined by molecular analysis harbored a mutation of FGFR3, which occurs in most achondroplastic individuals. Given the prevalence of achondroplasia and enchondromatosis, the metaphyseal changes in these patients are less likely to represent the coincidence of both disorders, but rather to result from a rare consequence of the FGFR3 mutation. Impaired FGFs/FGFR3 signaling pathway in achondroplasia inhibits chondrocytic proliferation, which accounts for most characteristics of achondroplasia. On the other hand, it causes conflicting biological consequences that can suppress or stimulate chondrocytic maturation. In a small subset of achondroplastic individuals, the suppression of chondrocytic maturation may outweigh the stimulation, which leads to cartilaginous overgrowth into the metaphysis, eventually causing the metaphyseal dysplasia found in the present patients. (orig.)

  19. B. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of disturbed growth in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, P.F.; Borden, S. IV.

    1987-01-01

    The second part of the course concentrates on the growing metaphysis in children as an indicator of bone growth and physiology. The authors concentrate on growth disturbances that cause abnormalities of metaphyseal contour, growth velocity, and width of the metaphysis. Densities within the metaphysis, including growth arrest lines, healing metaphyseal fractures, catch-up bone growth, and metabolic poisons, are addressed in detail. Radiographs with accompanying histopathologic sections are presented to illustrate the dynamic changes in the metaphyseal region in children. Lucencies in the metaphysis, including leukemic lines, metastatic disease, and acute disuse osteoporosis, receive special attention. Prognostic factors affecting the metasphysis such as intrinsic chondrodysplasia, previous fracture, or closure of the epiphyseal plate are described in detail

  20. Respect in Kant’s Tugendlehre and its place in contemporary ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlei Dall'Agnol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Kant’s conception of respect, especially in his work Metaphysical first principles of the doctrine of virtue (briefly Tugendlehre or Doctrine of Virtue, the second part of his The Metaphysics of Morals, and its place in contemporary ethics. The main question it asks is this: is respect just a feeling, a particular virtue or a moral duty/right? The initial hypothesis is that, in the relevant sense, respect is so to speak a “dutright,” that is, a duty that is at the same time a right. It leads to a fundamental principle, namely respect for persons, defining ‘person’ as a bearer of rights/obligations. Leaving Kant’s metaphysical commitments aside, it shows that this is one of the most important Kantian contributions to contemporary ethics